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Sample records for policy oil natural

  1. Why the Nature of Oil Shocks Matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaia, Elizaveta; Hubert, Paul; Creel, Jerome

    2009-03-01

    This article studies the impact of oil shocks on the macro-economy in two ways insofar unexploited in the literature. The analysis is conducted at the global level, and it explicitly accounts for the potentially changing nature of oil shocks. Based on an original world GDP series and a grouping of oil shocks according to their nature, we find that oil supply shocks negatively impact world growth, contrary to oil demand shocks, pro-cyclical in their nature. This result is robust at the national level for the US. Furthermore, endogenous monetary policy is shown to have no counter-cyclical effects in the context of an oil demand shock. (authors)

  2. Oil Trade and Climate Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Curuk; Suphi Sen

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that a depletable resource owner might optimally increase near-term supply in response to environmental policies promoting the development of alternative resources, which might render climate policy ineffective or even counterproductive. This paper empirically confirms this prediction using data on crude oil exports from OPEC to OECD countries between 2001-2010 in a gravity framework. It documents that oil exporters decrease prices and increase quantity of oil exports in re...

  3. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The two major political events of 1991 produced a much less dramatic reaction in the global oil industry than might have been expected. The economic dislocation in the former USSR caused oil production to fall sharply but this was largely offset by a concurrent fall in demand. Within twelve months of the invasion of Kuwait, crude oil prices had returned to their pre-invasion level; there was no shortage of supply due to the ability of some producers to boost their output rapidly. Details are given of world oil production and developments in oil demand. Demand stagnated in 1991 due to mainly to the economic chaos in the former USSR and a slowdown in sales in the USA; this has produced problems for the future of the refining industry. By contrast, the outlook for the natural gas industry is much more buoyant. Most clean air or carbon emissions legislation is designed to promote the use of gas rather than other hydrocarbons. World gas production rose by 1.5% in 1991; details by production on a country by country basis are given. (UK)

  4. Norwegian oil and gas policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjerde, B

    1978-04-01

    The Norwegian Minister of Oil and Energy explains the importance of integrating petroleum policy into the broad political picture because of Norway's economic situation. Since oil was found on the continental shelf 13 years ago, changes have been made in projected production levels to reflect the international recession and concerns over unemployment in Norway. Policies are aimed at keeping a constant activity in the petroleum sector through allocation of particular block development that will improve continental shelf mapping and encourage new deepwater exploration and development. He outlines licensing criteria and future exploratory activities. The report covers aspects of safety, transportation, and landing and the impacts of petroleum activities on Norwegian communities.

  5. Natural cold pressed oils as cosmetic products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ligęza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.

  6. Oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riddell, C.H.

    1993-01-01

    The natural gas industry and market prospects in Canada are reviewed from a producer's point of view. In the first eight months of 1993, $2.3 billion in new equity was raised for natural gas exploration and production, compared to $900 million in 1991 and $1.2 billion in 1992. The number of wells drilled in the western Canada basin is expected to reach 8,000-9,000 in 1993, up from 5,600 in 1992, and Canadian producers' share of the North American natural gas market will probably reach 20% in 1993, up from 13% in 1986. Potential and proved gas supply in North America is ca 750 trillion ft 3 , of which ca 30% is in Canada. Factors affecting gas producers in Canada are the deregulated nature of the market, low costs for finding gas (finding costs in the western Canada basin are the lowest of any basin in North America), and the coming into balance of gas supply and demand. The former gas surplus has been reduced by expanding markets and by low prices which reduced the incentive to find new reserves. This surplus is largely gone, and prices have started rising although they are still lower than the pre-deregulation prices. Progress is continuing toward an integrated North American gas market in which a number of market hubs allow easy gas trading between producers and consumers. Commodity exchanges for hedging gas prices are beginning operation and electronic trading of gas contracts and pipeline capacity will also become a reality. 4 figs

  7. US oil policy and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2002-05-01

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  8. Do oil shocks predict economic policy uncertainty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Mobeen Ur

    2018-05-01

    Oil price fluctuations have influential role in global economic policies for developed as well as emerging countries. I investigate the role of international oil prices disintegrated into structural (i) oil supply shock, (ii) aggregate demand shock and (iii) oil market specific demand shocks, based on the work of Kilian (2009) using structural VAR framework on economic policies uncertainty of sampled markets. Economic policy uncertainty, due to its non-linear behavior is modeled in a regime switching framework with disintegrated structural oil shocks. Our results highlight that Indian, Spain and Japanese economic policy uncertainty responds to the global oil price shocks, however aggregate demand shocks fail to induce any change. Oil specific demand shocks are significant only for China and India in high volatility state.

  9. Advocating for responsible oil and natural gas extraction policies; FracTracker as a mechanism for overcoming the barriers to scientific advocacy for academics and communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrar, K. J.; Malone, S.; Kelso, M.; Lenker, B.

    2013-12-01

    The inability to translate data to scientific information that can readily be incorporated by citizens into the public arena is an obstacle for science-based advocacy. This issue is particularly poignant for shale oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing, as the issue has become highly politicized. Barriers to engaging in policy debate are different but highly related for community members and scientists. For citizens and interest groups, barriers including accessibility, public awareness and data presentation limit the motivation for community involvement in political interactions. To overcome such barriers, social researchers call for public engagement to move upstream and many call for a broad engagement of scientists in science-based advocacy. Furthermore surveys have shown that citizens, interest groups, and decision-makers share a broad desire for scientists to engage in environmental policy development. Regardless, scientists face a number of perceived barriers, with academics expressing the most resistance to overcoming the tension created by adherence to the scientific method and the need to engage with the broader society, described by Schneider (1990) as the 'double ethical bind'. For the scientific community the appeal of public dissemination of information beyond the scope of academic journals is limited for a number of reasons. Barriers include preservation of credibility, peer attitudes, training, and career trajectory. The result is a lack of translated information available to the public. This systematic analysis of the FracTracker platform provides an evaluation of where the features of the public engagement, GIS platform has been successful at overcoming these barriers to public dissemination, where the platform needs further development or is ill-suited to address these issues, and the development of FracTracker as an outlet for scientific researchers to engage with citizens. The analysis will also provide insight into what

  10. Natural gas and crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valais, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Two main development could gradually modify these traditional features of natural gas markets and prices. First, environmental pressures and the tightening of emission standards and of the quality specifications for fuels should work in favor of natural gas. Second the increasing distance of resources in relation to the major consuming zones should bring about a considerable development of international natural gas trade. International expansion should mark the development of the gas industry in the coming decades. This evolution will give natural gas an importance and a role appreciably closer to those of oil on the world energy scene. But it is obvious that such a development can come about only at the cost of considerable investments for which the economic viability is and will remain dependent on the level of the prices of natural gas as the inlet to its consuming markets. This paper attempts to answer the questions: Will these markets accept a new scale of value for gas in relation to other fossil fuels, including oil, which will take into account new environmental constraints and which will be able to fulfill the formidable financial needs of the gas industry in the coming decades?

  11. Oil and the U.S. foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegburg, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Oil and natural gas play a major role in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign oil policy. It was emphasized that the U.S. oil policy will adjust in response to market developments, both political and commercial. It will also adjust to structural changes and constituency pressures. U.S. foreign oil policy has been drastically different in each of the last 3 decades. The 1970s were a period of oil crisis and shortage when OPEC producers were in control of domestic pricing and production. The defining moment was the Arab oil embargo of the United States and the Netherlands in response to the U.S. military resupply of Israel. After that moment, production and depletion policy shifted to sovereign rule. This embargo prompted many responses, one of which was the short-lived notion that the world would have to rely mostly on synthetics and alternatives to oil. The embargo prompted a multilateral consumer country cooperation, and a staged deregulation of U.S. oil prices. It also prompted a strong U.S. denunciation of Arab producers' use of the oil weapon for foreign policy reasons. The author described the many lessons learned from the 1970s and discussed the use of sanctions against Libya, Cuba and Iran and how these have become a tool to pursue U.S. national security interests or accommodate a domestic constituency. It was predicted that forthcoming changes in U.S. energy policy will reflect unilateral, bilateral and multilateral cooperation. It was noted that beyond the extensive trade and investment links between Canada and the United States, the additional Canadian component is the Alaskan gas line which is currently being considered. It was also noted that early administrative attention should be given to improving the intergovernmental relationship within the International Energy Agency

  12. Three essays on monetary policy responses to oil price shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Michael

    This dissertation contains three chapters which explore the question of how monetary policy should respond to changes in the price of oil. Each chapter explores the question from the perspective of a different economic environment. The first chapter examines welfare maximizing optimal monetary policy in a closed economy New Keynesian model that is extended to include household and firm demand for oil products, sticky wages, and capital accumulation. When households and firms demand oil products a natural difference arises between the Consumer Price Index (CPI), the core CPI, and the GDP deflator. I show that when nominal wages are flexible then the optimal policy places a heavy emphasis on stabilizing the inflation rate of the core CPI. If aggregate nominal wages are sticky then the central bank should focus on stabilizing some combination of core inflation and nominal wage inflation. Under no case examined is it optimal to stabilize either GDP deflator or CPI inflation. The second chapter examines monetary policy responses to oil price shocks in a small open economy with traded and non-traded goods. Oil and labor are used to produce the traded and non-traded goods and prices are sticky in the non-traded sector. I show analytically that the ratio of the oil and labor cost shares in the traded and non-traded sectors is crucial for determining the dynamic behavior of many macroeconomic variables after a rise in the price of oil. A policy of fixed exchange rates can produce higher or lower inflation in the non-traded sector depending upon the ratio. Likewise, a policy that stabilizes the inflation rate of prices in the non-traded sector can cause the nominal exchange rate to appreciate or depreciate. For the proper calibration, a policy that stabilizes core inflation produces results very close to the one that stabilizes non-traded inflation. Analytical results show that the fixed exchange rate always produces a unique solution. The policy of stabilizing non

  13. Statement on energy policy 1988. Statement by the Ministry of Energy on laws concerning energy policy measures and Danish Oil and Natural Gas A/S. [Denmark]. Energipolitisk redegoerelse 1988. Energiministeriets redegoerelse til lov om energipolitiske foranstaltninger samt lov om Dansk Olie og Naturgas A/S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-02-01

    A brief statement by the Danish Ministry of Energy on the present situation in Denmark and its effect on future policy in the field of energy. The importance of environmental protection, and the lowering of prices, is emphasized in relation to the European Communities' single market. With regard to electric power, it is stated that production must increase in the 1990's, but it will be necessary to reduce costs. There are present economical problems where the natural gas heating project is concerned, and, also because of concern for pollution abatement, it will become more important to use collective heating systems. The statement describes principles and policy in relation to energy consumption, renewable energy, research activities, and oil and natural gas. Lastly, the statement describes the present situation situation and (briefly) future policy with regard to Danish oil and/or natural gas companies, ie. DANGAS, DOPAS, DOFAS, and DORAS. (AB).

  14. Implications of Canadian oil tax policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copplestone, G H

    1983-01-01

    This thesis examines some of the implications of the policy initiatives taken by both levels of government during the 1974-80 period (i.e., from the OPEC oil embargo and subsequent quadrupling of posted world oil prices to the introduction of the National Energy Program, or NEP). A survey of the fiscal instruments employed by both the federal and the oil-producing provincial levels of government to distribute the oil revenues generated in Canada is presented. The focus of this survey is primarily on the pre-NEP regime and the immediate post-NEP regime. The remainder of the thesis then deals with some of the distributional and efficiency aspects of these tax regimes. The thesis also examines the economic efficiency aspects of the pre- and post-NEP tax regimes. In particular, it addresses the issue of an inefficient allocation of resources within the oil industry itself.

  15. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1991, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1991. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1991 is also presented

  16. Rise of oil prices and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This document reprints the talk of the press conference given by D. de Villepin, French prime minister, on August 16, 2005 about the alarming rise of oil prices. In his talk, the prime minister explains the reasons of the crisis (increase of worldwide consumption, political tensions in the Middle East..) and presents the strategy and main trends of the French energy policy: re-launching of energy investments in petroleum refining capacities and in the nuclear domain (new generation of power plants), development of renewable energy sources and in particular biofuels, re-launching of the energy saving policy thanks to financial incentives and to the development of clean vehicles and mass transportation systems. In a second part, the prime minister presents his policy of retro-cession of petroleum tax profits to low income workers, and of charge abatement to professionals having an occupation strongly penalized by the rise of oil prices (truckers, farmers, fishermen, taxi drivers). (J.S.)

  17. Caspian oil and Azerbaijan foreign policy: analyse of Azerbaijanese arguments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurbanov, T.

    2005-03-01

    Since Azerbaijan's independence, He decided to use its natural resources for strengthening the bases of a new state and signed 21 massive oil contracts with 35 companies of 21 different countries. Our research aims to analyse the Azerbaijanis' arguments related to Caspian oil through its foreign policy, by economic, legal and geopolitical axes. Oil has a fundamental place in the country's economy, as it is Azerbaijan's Gross Product. The treaties of 1921 and 1940 do not regulate the question concerning the common use of the resources of the Caspian Sea. Therefore, it became urgent to define new status related to divide the sea by median line into national sectors according to the equidistance principles. As the oil is a 'political game' between foreign powers, Azerbaijan tries to take the benefice from this 'New great game' by transforming the country into a zone of cooperation. (author)

  18. Natural gas pricing policies in Southeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacudan, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    The very dynamic economies of Southeast Asia have recently been experiencing a rapid increase in energy demand. Parallel to this development, there has been an increase in the utilization of indigenous natural gas resources. This article reviews gas-pricing policies in the region, which partly explain the rise in gas utilization. Although diverse, energy pricing policies in Southeast Asia address the common objective of enhancing domestic gas production and utilization. The article concludes that a more rational gas-pricing policy framework is emerging in the region. In global terms, gas pricing in the region tends to converge in a market-related framework, despite the many different pricing objectives of individual countries, and the predominance of non-economic pricing objectives in certain countries (especially gas-rich nations). Specifically, governments have been flexible enough to follow global trends and initiate changes in contractual agreements (pricing and profit-sharing), giving oil companies more favourable terms, and encouraging continued private investment in gas development. At the same time, promotional pricing has also been used to increase utilization of gas, through set prices and adjusted taxes achieving a lower price level compared to substitute fuels. For an efficient gas-pricing mechanism, refinements in the pricing framework should be undertaken, as demand for gas approaches existing and/or forecast production capacities. (author)

  19. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  1. How will climate change policy affect upstream oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation outlined the status of climate change policies in Canada and Alberta for large industry with particular reference to the effect that the policies may have on upstream oil and gas. Global climate change and energy use was outlined along with what actions that should be taken to secure energy supplies and stabilize greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. An economic model projection of global carbon dioxide emissions without the Kyoto agreement was presented. Global action on climate change will likely include greater efforts in energy efficiency to slow the growth in demand for energy. However, demand for oil and gas is still likely to increase in the next few decades due to a growing population worldwide. The author emphasized that developing countries should not forgo economic growth to avoid higher energy use. It was argued that Canadian climate change policies are out of line with the global climate change effort because they focus on short-term reductions rather than developing technologies. The policies also divert investment to competing suppliers that do not impose GHG costs, with no global GHG benefit. The author described why Alberta climate change policy rejects the Kyoto target. Natural Resource Canada's approach to large industrial emitters was also discussed along with a proposed policy framework by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) for long term certainty. 2 tabs., 12 figs

  2. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Sweden 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Oil and natural gas represented respectively 27% and 3% of Sweden’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2010. With coal representing 5% of TPES, Sweden has the lowest share of fossil fuels in the energy supply mix among IEA member countries. This is a significant difference from the mid-1970s, when fossil fuels made up three-quarters of Sweden’s energy supply, and is the result of a concerted effort to move away from the use of oil through the development of nuclear and renewable energy sources. Sweden’s energy policy seeks to further increase the share of renewable energy sources, including having them provide half of all energy, and 10% of all transport needs, by 2020. The share of fossil fuel is also to be further reduced, through plans to fully eliminate their use for heating purposes by 2020 and having a vehicle stock in Sweden that is ''independent'' of fossil fuels by 2030. Under this policy, demand for both oil and natural gas is anticipated to decline from current levels. Oil demand in Sweden was nearly 330 thousand barrels per day (kb/d) in 2011. While fully dependent on imports to meet domestic oil demand, Sweden is a net exporter of refined oil products. Overall oil demand will likely decline in the coming decade, however demand for oil in the transport sector is expected to grow. At the same time, oil demand will be ever more concentrated on transport diesel, with demand for the fuel reaching over 110 kb/d by 2020 compared to just under 80 kb/d in 2011. Concerning natural gas, consumption in Sweden totalled 1.3 billion cubic metres (bcm) in 2011, all of which was supplied via a single interconnector with Denmark. While natural gas plays only a minor role in Sweden’s TPES, its role in the energy supply of southern and western Sweden is much more substantial, accounting for around 20% of the area’s total energy use. Around 30 large consumers, including CHP plants, account for roughly 80% of total gas demand in the country

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: China 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Although coal is the dominant energy source in China, accounting for some 70% of the country's Total Energy Consumption (TEC) in 2009, oil and gas are also essential energy sources. Despite strong growth in consumption of oil, its share of TEC fell from 22% in 2000 to 18% in 2009, as coal use rose even faster to meet burgeoning demand for electricity. A strong policy push boosted natural gas supplies, particularly to residential customers, so that the share of natural gas doubled from 2% in 2000 to 4% in 2009. China is one of the important oil and natural gas producing counties in the world. In 2010, China's crude oil production exceeded 4 million barrels per day (mb/d). However, with strong and sustained economic growth, its demand for oil has also increased, from 4.6 mb/d in 2000 to over 8 mb/d in 2009. In the New Policy Scenario (NPS) of the IEA World Energy Outlook (WEO) 2011, China's primary oil demand rises to 12.2 mb/d in 2020. Although China is now the world's fifth largest oil producer, the country has been a net oil importer since 1993. In 2011, China imported over 5 mb/d of crude oil, accounting for about 54% of its total demand. More than 50% of the total crude oil imports came from counties of the Middle East. To prevent a potential shock to the economy caused by an oil supply disruption, the Chinese government has been steadily pushing building an oil stock reserve system. China has completed four stockpiling facilities with a capacity of around 103 mb in the first phase of its Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) plan, and has begun construction of its second phase, which comprises eight storage sites that will reportedly have a combined capacity of around 207 mb. Among them, two sites were completed in the second half of 2011 and the Tianjin site is reportedly set to be completed in 2012. According to unofficial reports, the remaining four SPR-II sites are expected to become operational by 2013. The third phase is expected to boost

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Japan 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil remains the most significant energy source in Japan, accounting for some 45% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Japan’s oil demand steadily decreased from 5.71 mb/d in 1997 to 4.47 mb/d in 2010. However, its oil demand increased to 4.48 mb/d in 2011 and 4.73 mb/d in 2012 due to the Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 and its subsequent impacts. The transport sector represented around 38% of total consumption in 2010, while the industry sector accounted for 30%. A significant proportion of the industry sector’s oil demand comes from the chemical industry. Of the 4.8 mb/d of oil imported by Japan in 2012, 3.5 mb/d consisted of crude oil, 209 kb/d of NGLs and feedstocks, and some 1.2 mb/d of refined products. About 83% of Japan’s crude oil imports in 2012 came from the Middle East. The country has 27 operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 4.5 mb/d. Japan meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by holding government emergency stocks and by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. JOGMEC’s primary role is to manage public stocks under the Oil Stockpiling Act, while industry (refineries, specified distributors and importers) is obliged to hold the equivalent of 70 days of their daily imports, sales or refinery production, based on the average of the previous 12 months. The public stocks mostly consist of crude oil, but the Administration has expanded its emergency inventory to include four categories of refined products - gasoline, kerosene, fuel oil and diesel oil. Japan held some 591 million barrels (mb) of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 166 days of 2011 net-imports (92 days of government stocks and 74 days of industry stocks). Around 72% of total stocks were held in the form of crude oil. Japan has consistently met its minimum IEA stockholding obligation. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES increased significantly from 17% in 2010

  5. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves: 1990 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The primary focus of this report is to provide an accurate estimate of US proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These estimates were considered essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of natural energy policy and legislation. In the past, the government and the public relied upon industry estimates of proved reserves. These estimates were prepared jointly by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in their annual report, Reserves of Crude Oil, Natural Gas Liquids, and Natural Gas in the United States and Canada. However, API and AGA ceased publication of reserves estimates after their 1979 report. By the mid-1970's, various federal agencies had separately established programs to collect data on, verify, or independently estimate domestic proved reserves of crude oil or natural gas. Each program was narrowly defined to meet the particular needs of the sponsoring agency. In response to recognized need for unified, comprehensive proved reserves estimates, Congress in 1977 required the Department of Energy to prepare such estimates. To meet this requirement, the EIA's reserves program was undertaken to establish a unified, verifiable, comprehensive, and continuing statistical series for proved reserves of crude oil and natural gas. The program was expanded to include proved reserves of natural gas liquids in the 1979 report. 36 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs

  6. Government policy and access to natural gas service in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table

  7. Saudi Arabia's oil policy after 1. oil crisis explained with the help of a cartel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    Saudi Arabian oil policy is analyzed by using a cartel model where Saudi Arabia's oil production is a function of oil price and oil production in other OPEC countries. Elasticities for oil production and oil price are estimated covering oil crises and 3 intercrises periods. During all intercrises periods, production elasticity is not significantly different from 1 which, to a considerable extent, shows that the oil production in Saudi Arabia followed that of the other OPEC countries. During oil crisis periods, production elasticities were either significantly negative or not significantly different from zero. In most cases, the price elasticity was not significantly different from zero. (au)

  8. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  9. New trends in Saudi Oil policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akins, J E

    1985-01-01

    It is deplorable that the United States and other importing countries persist in viewing OPEC as the enemy. The OPEC plan, at least insofar as Yamani has outlined it (and it seems to be acceptable to other OPEC countries), is reasonable and should be supported by consumers as well as exporters. There should be some understanding, at least in governmental circles, of the ultimate consequences of the collapse of the price of oil, not only the effects it would have on major friendly oil exporters such as Mexico, Nigeria and Venezuela, but the consequences it would have on the banking system, and most important what would happen to long-term supply and demand. Unfortunately there is no indication of any understanding or any appreciation of OPEC's positive role or of the benign nature of the Yamani plan.

  10. Separated influence of crude oil prices on regional natural gas import prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Qiang; Geng, Jiang-Bo; Fan, Ying

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of global economic activity and international crude oil prices on natural gas import prices in three major natural gas markets using the panel cointegration model. It also investigates the shock impacts of the volatility and the increase and decrease of oil prices on regional natural gas import prices. The results show that both global economic activity and international crude oil prices have significant long-term positive effects on regional natural gas import prices. The volatility of international crude oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas import prices. The shock impact is weak in North America, lags in Europe and is most significant in Asia, which is mainly determined by different regional policies for price formation. In addition, the response of natural gas import prices to increases and decreases in international crude oil prices shows an asymmetrical mechanism, of which the decrease impact is relatively stronger. - Highlights: • Impacts of world economy and oil prices on regional natural gas prices are analysed • North American natural gas prices are mainly affected by world economy • Asian and European natural gas prices are mainly affected by oil prices • The volatility of oil prices has a negative impact on regional natural gas prices • The response of natural gas import prices to oil prices up and down shows asymmetry

  11. An oil demand and supply model incorporating monetary policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askari, Hossein; Krichene, Noureddine

    2010-01-01

    Oil price inflation may have had a significant role in pushing the world economy into its worst post-war recession during 2008-2009. Reserve currency central banks pursued an overly expansionary monetary policy during 2001-2009, in the form of low or negative real interest rates and accompanied by a rapidly falling US dollar, while paying inadequate attention to the destabilizing effects on oil markets. In this paper, we show that monetary policy variables, namely key interest rates and the US dollar exchange rate, had a powerful effect on oil markets. World oil demand was significantly influenced by interest and dollar exchange rates, while oil supply was rigid. Oil demand and supply have very low price elasticity and this characteristic makes oil prices highly volatile and subject to wider fluctuations than the prices of other commodities. Aggressive monetary policy would stimulate oil demand, however, it would be met with rigid oil supply and would turn inflationary and disruptive to economic growth if there was little excess capacity in oil output. We argue that a measure of stability in oil markets cannot be achieved unless monetary policy is restrained and real interest rates become significantly positive. Monetary tightening during 1979-1982 might imply that monetary policy has to be restrained for a long period and with high interest rates in order to bring stability back to oil markets. (author)

  12. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  13. Controlling Air Pollution from the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulations for the oil and natural gas industry help combat climate change and reduce air pollution that harms public health. EPA’s regulations apply to oil production, and the production, process, transmission and storage of natural gas.

  14. Oil and Natural Gas Pipelines, North America, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Pipeline geospatial data layer contains gathering, interstate, and intrastate natural gas pipelines, crude and product oil pipelines, and...

  15. Tariff Policy Applied in the Adriatic Oil Pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skodlar, Z.; Poljak, J.

    1995-01-01

    The policy of energy costs of crude oil transportation by pipeline strongly encourages an operational regime which results in poor pump efficiency. Oil is being unnecessarily and for too long time retained in oil storage tanks, thus increasing evaporation losses. (author). 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Operational Aspects of Fiscal Policy in Oil-Producing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Steven A Barnett; Rolando Ossowski

    2002-01-01

    Oil-producing countries face challenges arising from the fact that oil revenue is exhaustible, volatile, and uncertain, and largely originates from abroad. Reflecting these challenges, the paper proposes some important general principles for the formulation and assessment of fiscal policy in these countries. The main findings can be summarized in some key guidelines: the non-oil balance should feature prominently in the formulation of fiscal policy; it should generally be adjusted gradually; ...

  17. Climate policies between carbon prices, oil rents and urban dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, H.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effects of constraints imposed on economic interactions by limitations due to natural resources, among which oil and urban land play a crucial role in the context of climate change. These dimensions, often neglected in existing analyses, have an ambiguous effect since they suggest both the risk of enhanced costs if carbon limitations reinforce the sub-optimalities caused by pre-existing constraints, but also, conversely, the possibility of co-benefits if the climate policy helps to correct some pre-existing imperfections of socio-economic trajectories. To investigate this issue, an innovative modeling framework of the energy-economy interactions is elaborated that embarks the specificities of the deployment of oil production capacities and the issues related to the spatial organization in urban areas. We demonstrate that, beyond the carbon price, the costs of climate policy essentially depend on the sequencing of complementary measures, with a crucial role of spatial policy designed to control transport-related emissions through mobility. (author)

  18. Views on peak oil and its relation to climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Al Marchohi, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Definitions of fossil fuel reserves and resources and assessed stock data are reviewed and clarified. Semantics explain a large stake of conflict between advocate and critical voices on peak oil. From a holistic sources-sinks perspective, limited carrying capacity of atmospheric sinks, not absolute scarcity in oil resources, will impose tight constraints on oil use. Eventually observed peaks in oil production in nearby years will result from politically imposed limits on carbon emissions, and not be caused by physical lack of oil resources. Peak-oil belief induces passive climate policy attitudes when suggesting carbon dioxide emissions will peak naturally linked to dwindling oil supplies. Active policies for reducing emissions and use of fossil fuels will also encompass higher energy end-use prices. Revenues obtained from higher levies on oil use can support financing energy efficiency and renewable energy options. But when oil producers charge the higher prices they can pump new oil for many decades, postponing peak oil to occur while extending carbon lock-in.

  19. Policy Considerations for Commercializing Natural Gas and Biomass CCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, L.; Clavin, C.

    2017-12-01

    Captured CO2 from power generation has been discussed as an opportunity to improve the environmental sustainability of fossil fuel-based electricity generation and likely necessary technological solution necessary for meeting long-term climate change mitigation goals. In our presentation, we review the findings of a study of natural gas CCUS technology research and development and discuss their applications to biomass CCUS technology potential. Based on interviews conducted with key stakeholders in CCUS technology development and operations, this presentation will discuss these technical and economic challenges and potential policy opportunities to support commercial scale CCUS deployment. In current domestic and electricity and oil markets, CCUS faces economic challenges for commercial deployment. In particular, the economic viability of CCUS has been impacted by the sustained low oil prices that have limited the potential for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) to serve as a near-term utilization opportunity for the captured CO2. In addition, large scale commercial adoption of CCUS is constrained by regulatory inconsistencies and uncertainties across the United States, high initial capital costs, achieving familiarity with new technology applications to existing markets, developing a successful performance track record to acquire financing agreements, and competing against well-established incumbent technologies. CCUS also has additional technical hurdles for measurement, verification, and reporting within states that have existing policy and regulatory frameworks for climate change mitigation. In addition to fossil-fuel based CCUS, we will discuss emerging opportunities to utilize CCUS fueled by gasified biomass resulting in carbon negative power generation with expanded economic opportunities associated with the enhanced carbon sequestration. Successful technology development of CCUS technology requires a portfolio of research leading to technical advances, advances in

  20. Naturally occurring radioactive material in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steingraber, W.A.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been found in the Earth's crust and soil, the water we drink, the food we eat, the air we breathe, and the tissues of every living organism. It is relatively easy to determine open-quotes concentrationsclose quotes, or specific activity levels, in the range of 1 part per trillion for radioactive materials. With radioactive elements so abundant and detection possible at such low levels, the presence of NORM in oil and gas operations shouldn't be surprising. In fact, this presence has been recognized since at least the 1930's, but the phenomenon received only minimal attention in the United States until the mid-1980's. At that time regulatory agencies in several oil- and gas-producing states began to focus on NORM in the exploration and production segment of the industry, expressing concern over potential health and safety implications. The most significant aspects of NORM in oil production operations include original source, transport media, composition/radionuclides present, measurement methods, health/safety issues, waste classification, and waste disposal. In addition, I will summarize industry-sponsored NORM data collection and analysis efforts being conducted to aid in development of sound policies and procedures to address environmental, health, and safety issues. Current activities by state and federal regulatory agencies relevant to NORM in the oil and gas industry will also be reviewed

  1. Non-OPEC Oil Supply: Economics and Energy Policy Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourik, Maarten van [Paris (France); Shepherd, Richard K. [Perpignan (France)

    2003-07-01

    and convenient for those who now control the fuel business. It is after all, the duty of integrated oil companies to deliver best value for their shareholders, not to find secure, competitive, long-term energy solutions to the needs of consumers and their governments. In short, there is no need for a massive metamorphosis in fuels, or engines, or cars or delivery systems which fuel cells and other alternatives necessitate. Instead, it is entirely feasible that any growth in transportation fuel demand in the critical period a decade from now can be met by simple changes in the specification of current fuels through blending of biodiesels, methanol from natural gas, ethanol and other products. This process will deliver a transportation fuel continuum that does not form a significant part of any national energy policy outside Brazil, a country which has plainly demonstrated what is possible for many years. [abstract truncated

  2. The oil policies of the Gulf Arab Nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ripple, R.D.; Hagen, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    At its heart, Arab oil policy is inseparable from Arab economic and social policy. This holds whether we are talking about the Arab nations as a group or each separately. The seven Arab nations covered in this report-Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates--participate in several organizations focusing on regional cooperation regarding economic development, social programs, and Islamic unity, as well as organizations concerned with oil policies. This report focuses on the oil-related activities of the countries that may reveal the de facto oil policies of the seven Persian Gulf nations. Nevertheless it should be kept in mind that the decision makers participating in the oil policy organizations are also involved with the collaborative efforts of these other organizations. Oil policies of five of the seven Arab nations are expressed within the forums of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC). Only Oman, among the seven, is not a member of either OAPEC or OPEC; Bahrain is a member of OAPEC but not of OPEC. OPEC and OAPEC provide forums for compromise and cooperation among their members. Nevertheless, each member state maintains its own sovereignty and follows its own policies. Each country deviates from the group prescription from time to time, depending upon individual circumstances.

  3. Assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazim, A.

    2007-01-01

    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is an international organization, composed of eleven developing countries that rely on oil revenues as their main source of income. The member countries include: Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. These member countries collectively supply approximately 40 per cent of the world's oil output, and possess more than three-quarters of the world's total proven crude oil reserves. Currently, OPEC's approximate rate of oil production and export is 25 million barrels per day with Saudi Arabia alone contributing about one third of this rate. However, in the recent years the economy of major OPEC countries mainly Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Algeria, Indonesia and Iran has been significantly hindered by the instability of oil price as a result of fluctuations in the American dollar. This paper presented a simple economical assessment of OPEC's oil pricing policy from 1970 to 2000. Fluctuations of the oil price in American dollars were analysed against other major currencies. Their influences on the generated revenues were determined. In order to explore the most advantageous scenario, the oil pricing policy during that period was compared with two baskets of currencies. It was concluded that results indicated that OPEC members could have achieved a total current savings of at least 170 billion dollars if the price of oil was linked to a basket of currencies from 1970 to 2000. These savings were approximately equivalent to the revenues generated in at least 1 year of OPEC's average rate of oil production and export. It was recommended that OPEC members should consider restructuring their oil pricing policy by taking effective measures such as linking the price of oil to a basket of currencies in order to stabilize the price of oil and secure stable revenue generated from their oil production and export. 17 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  4. Efficient way of importing crude oil from oil producing countries - A review on diversification policy of crude oil import

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dal Sok [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    Since the second oil crisis, the government has operated the import diversification support program to reduce the risk of crude oil import from Middle-East region and to raise the ability of dealing with the risk. This study tried to seek policy trends in future through reviewing the market environment related to the crude oil import diversification policy and the goal, instrument and effect of the policy. The supply and demand of crude oil and the price are influenced by market system in the world oil market and there are various types of crude oil trading available to both sellers and buyers. There is a probability that the suspension of supply in a certain area could be led to the price issue rather than the physical use of crude oil. In addition, the advantage of price with long-term contract of crude oil was abolished since the price of crude oil imported by term contract has been linked to spot prices. As a result, it is shown that the potential benefit from crude oil import diversification policy is reduced although political and social insecurity still exists in Middle-East region. Therefore, it is desirable to maintain the existing support program until the amount of stored oil reaches the optimum level and to help private enterprises determine the import considering economical efficiency and risk. (author). 36 refs., 5 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Asymmetric and nonlinear pass-through of crude oil prices to gasoline and natural gas prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atil, Ahmed; Lahiani, Amine; Nguyen, Duc Khuong

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we use the recently developed nonlinear autoregressive distributed lags (NARDL) model to examine the pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices. Our approach allows us to simultaneously test the short- and long-run nonlinearities through positive and negative partial sum decompositions of the predetermined explanatory variables. It also offers the possibility to quantify the respective responses of gasoline and natural gas prices to positive and negative oil price shocks from the asymmetric dynamic multipliers. The obtained results indicate that oil prices affect gasoline prices and natural gas prices in an asymmetric and nonlinear manner, but the price transmission mechanism is not the same. Important policy implications can be learned from the empirical findings. - Highlights: • The pass-through of crude oil prices into gasoline and natural gas prices is examined. • We use a NARDL model to test for the long-run and short-run asymmetric reactions. • Both gasoline and natural gas prices significantly adjust to changes in the price of oil. • Negative oil shocks have greater effects than positive oil shocks. • Policy implications are discussed

  6. Drilling through Conservation Policy: Oil Exploration in Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina A MacKenzie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 2.5 billion barrels of commercially-viable oil, worth $2 billion in annual revenue for 20 years, were discovered under the Ugandan portion of the Albertine Rift in 2006. The region also contains seven of Uganda's protected areas and a growing ecotourism industry. We conducted interviews and focus groups in and around Murchison Falls Protected Area, Uganda's largest, oldest, and most visited protected area, to assess the interaction of oil exploration with the three primary conservation policies employed by Uganda Wildlife Authority: protectionism, neoliberal capital accumulation, and community-based conservation. We find that oil extraction is legally permitted inside protected areas in Uganda, like many other African countries, and that the wildlife authority and oil companies are adapting to co-exist inside a protected area. Our primary argument is that neoliberal capital accumulation as a conservation policy actually makes protected areas more vulnerable to industrial exploitation because nature is commodified, allowing economic value and profitability of land uses to determine how nature is exploited. Our secondary argument is that the conditional nature of protected area access inherent within the protectionist policy permits oil extraction within Murchison Falls Protected Area. Finally, we argue that community-based conservation, as operationalized in Uganda, has no role in defending protected areas against oil industrialisation.

  7. Planning Oil Prices In The World Market And Preventive Policies In Energy Sector Of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raees Dana, Fariborz

    1999-01-01

    The planning of oil prices in the world can not be analyzed by means of the market-competition theory or the game theory. The current prices seem to be influenced greatly by large energy consuming industries of developed countries, oil producing corporations and cartels, and oil productions outside of OPEC. There is a lack of necessary long term policies and planning so that drastic changes in market prices can be avoided. The goal of this paper is to suggest new policies by means of discussing in following issues: 1.Initiating some form of a financial support for OPEC with the necessary follow up. 2. Utilization of oil income in sectors organized to have the least susceptibility against income loss and the lowest impact on other sectors. 3. Reducing of oil production level in the local and global framework and starting in industrialization process. 4. Replacement of oil with natural gas at a faster rate. 5. improving the oil industry infrastructure for lowering production costs and increasing variety in products in light of country economic policies and occupational strategies. 6. Imposing self-reliance on development of oil-production technology

  8. Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The Policy-Based Management Natural Language Parser (PBEM) is a rules-based approach to enterprise management that can be used to automate certain management tasks. This parser simplifies the management of a given endeavor by establishing policies to deal with situations that are likely to occur. Policies are operating rules that can be referred to as a means of maintaining order, security, consistency, or other ways of successfully furthering a goal or mission. PBEM provides a way of managing configuration of network elements, applications, and processes via a set of high-level rules or business policies rather than managing individual elements, thus switching the control to a higher level. This software allows unique management rules (or commands) to be specified and applied to a cross-section of the Global Information Grid (GIG). This software embodies a parser that is capable of recognizing and understanding conversational English. Because all possible dialect variants cannot be anticipated, a unique capability was developed that parses passed on conversation intent rather than the exact way the words are used. This software can increase productivity by enabling a user to converse with the system in conversational English to define network policies. PBEM can be used in both manned and unmanned science-gathering programs. Because policy statements can be domain-independent, this software can be applied equally to a wide variety of applications.

  9. Combustion of crude oil sludge containing naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Puad Abu; Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Shamsuddin, A.H.; Sopian, K.

    2000-01-01

    The characteristics of crude oil sludge fi-om the crude oil terminal are very unique because it contains both heavy metals and also Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM). As a result, the Department of Environmental (DOE) and the Atomic Energy Licensing Board (AELB) considered it as Scheduled Wastes and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW) respectively. As a Scheduled Wastes, there is no problem in dealing with the disposal of it since there already exist a National Center in Bukit Nanas to deal with this type of waste. However, the Center could not manage this waste due to the presence of NORM by which the policy regarding the disposal of this kind of waste has not been well established. This situation is unclear to certain parties, especially with respect to the relevant authorities having final jurisdiction over the issue as well as the best practical method of disposal of this kind of waste. Existing methods of treatment viewed both from literature and current practice include that of land farming, storing in plastic drum, re-injection into abandoned oil well, recovery, etc., found some problems. Due to its organic nature, very low level in radioactivity and the existence of a Scheduled Waste incineration facility in Bukit Nanas, there is a potential to treat this sludge by using thermal treatment technology. However, prior to having this suggestion to be put into practice, there are issues that need to be addressed. This paper attempts to discuss the potentials and the related issues of combusting crude oil sludge based on existing experimental data as well as mathematical modeling

  10. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  11. British Columbia natural gas: Core market policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    The core market for natural gas in British Columbia is defined as all natural gas consumers in the residential, institutional, commercial, and industrial sectors not currently purchasing natural gas directly and not exempted from the core market by the British Columbia Utilities Commission (BCUC). The intent of the definition is to include all customers who must be protected by contracts which ensure long-term security of supply and stable prices. Core market customers are excluded from direct natural gas purchase and will be served by distribution utilities. A customer may apply to BCUC to leave the core market; such an application may be approved if it is demonstrated that the customer has adequate long-term natural gas supplies or alternative fuel supplies to protect him from supply interruptions. The non-core market is defined as all large industrial customers who elect to make their own natural gas supply arrangements and who can demonstrate to the BCUC sufficient long-term natural gas supply protection or alternative fuel capability to ensure security of the industry. Non-core market customers have full and open access to the competitive natural gas market. The British Columbia government will not apply its core market policy to other jurisdictions through Energy Removal Certificates

  12. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiaud, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  13. Deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity in oil and gas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Strand, T.

    1997-01-01

    This booklet contains general information about naturally occurring radioactive materials, NORM, in production of oil and natural gas, occupational doses, radiation protection procedures and measures, and classification methods of contaminated equipment. 6 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. Oil prices, fiscal policy, and economic growth in oil-exporting countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Anshasy, Amany A.

    This dissertation argues that in oil-exporting countries fiscal policy could play an important role in transmitting the oil shocks to the economy and that the indirect effects of the changes in oil prices via the fiscal channel could be quite significant. The study comprises three distinct, yet related, essays. In the first essay, I try to study the fiscal policy response to the changes in oil prices and to their growing volatility. In a dynamic general equilibrium framework, a fiscal policy reaction function is derived and is empirically tested for a panel of 15 oil-exporters covering the period 1970--2000. After the link between oil price shocks and fiscal policy is established, the second essay tries to investigate the impact of the highly volatile oil prices on economic growth for the same sample, controlling for the fiscal channel. In both essays the study employs recent dynamic panel-data estimation techniques: System GMM. This approach has the potential advantages of minimizing the bias resulting from estimating dynamic panel models, exploiting the time series properties of the data, controlling for the unobserved country-specific effects, and correcting for any simultaneity bias. In the third essay, I focus on the case of Venezuela for the period 1950--2001. The recent developments in the cointegrating vector autoregression, CVAR technique is applied to provide a suitable framework for analyzing the short-run dynamics and the long-run relationships among oil prices, government revenues, government consumption, investment, and output.

  15. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastko, P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  16. Policy Analysis of the Canadian Oil Sands Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2013-09-01

    For those who support U.S. oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands industry is often identified as a model the U.S. might emulate, yielding financial and energy security benefits. For opponents of domestic oil sands development, the Canadian oil sands experience illustrates the risks that opponents of development believe should deter domestic policymakers from incenting U.S. oil sands development. This report does not seek to evaluate the particular underpinnings of either side of this policy argument, but rather attempts to delve into the question of whether the Canadian experience has relevance as a foundational model for U.S. oil sands development. More specifically, this report seeks to assess whether and how the Canadian oil sands experience might be predictive or instructive in the context of fashioning a framework for a U.S. oil sands industry. In evaluating the implications of these underpinnings for a prospective U.S. oil sands industry, this report concentrates on prospective development of the oil sands deposits found in Utah.

  17. The impact of high oil prices on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koevoet, H.

    2003-01-01

    The principle of gas-to-oil (oil prices determine the price of natural gas) in the Netherlands and several other developments elsewhere (war in Iraq and a cold winter in the USA) has caused high natural gas prices. The question is whether the liberalization of the energy market can change this principle [nl

  18. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  19. Oil price shocks and policy implications the emergence of U.S. tight oil production: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Voth, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-01-01

    How have shocks to supply and demand affected global oil prices; and what are key policy implications following the resurgence of oil production in the United States? Highlights: − The recent collapse in global oil prices was dominated by oversupply. − The future of tight oil in the United States is vulnerable to obstacles beyond oil prices. − Opinions on tight oil from the Top 25 think tank organizations are considered. Global oil prices have fallen more than fifty percent since ...

  20. Revisiting the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurtac Yildirim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to test the impacts of oil price increases on monetary policy implementation in the largest oil importers. For that purpose, we estimate structural vector error correction (SVEC models to show the impacts of oil price increases on industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which are the elements of Taylor rule for the four largest oil importers (the USA, the EU, China and Japan. Our results indicate that oil price increases transmit to output and inflation and lead to fluctuations in industrial production, consumer prices and immediate interest rates which in turn influence the monetary policy stance in the following periods. The basic conclusion of research is that the channels through which oil prices affect output, inflation and interest rates should be identified by the monetary policy authorities of the USA, the EU, China and Japan. We also emphasize the importance of the determination of the optimal monetary policy framework to eliminate the negative consequences of oil price increases.

  1. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physiological, psychological and spiritual. Our body uses the aromatic molecules (essential oils) in two ways: (1) through our olfactory system which is connected to the brain where our most primal feelings, urges and emotions reside, and (2) by absorp- tion of the low molecular weight compounds of essential oils through ...

  2. Smoke and mirrors: used oil management policy in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiante, U.

    1997-01-01

    The burning of used oil for space heating is a practice that has been increasing since 1992 when the waste fuel regulation was amended to give northern generators without access to used oil collection an option for managing their used oil. In 1996, about 10 million litres of used oil was burned in Ontario at over 600 locations, in garages, automotive repair facilities, industrial locations and greenhouses. The modified space heaters that burn used motor oils operate without pollution controls. In addition to emissions associated with pollution from uncontrolled combustion, used oil fired space heaters burn what should be a reusable commodity that is high in value added chemical and energy content. A comparison of emissions in grams per 1000 hours of use of a used oil heater and a natural gas heater was presented. It was suggested that as the preferred environmental strategy, the Ontario government should encourage used oil collectors and re-refiners to make used oil management convenient, accessible, and cost-effective in order to protect the health of communities in which used oil is generated

  3. How Fiscal Policy Affects Non-Oil Economic Performance in Azerbaijan?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatai Aliyev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The role of fiscal policy in promoting economic growth has been subject to many studies since its suggestion by Keynes who stated expansionary/contractionary impact of public expenditures/taxes. In this context, effectiveness of fiscal policy use to develop non-oil sector in resource rich economies should be studied. This paper investigates short- and long-run effects of budget expenditures and tax related budget revenues (direct transfers from oil fund excluded over non-oil GDP while controlling for oil price volatility and oil production in case of Azerbaijan. Autoregressive Distributed Lag Bounds Testing (ARDLBT Approach to cointegration is employed for data covering 2000Q1-2015Q2. Estimation results theoretically consistent and statistically significant long-run effects of both budget expenditures and tax-related budget revenues. However, in the short-run, the effects are contrary to the theoretical expectations. Findings are useful for Azerbaijan fiscal policy makers especially in the current complicated nature of economic processes in the economy due to oil related challenges.

  4. Oil and natural gas in Russia's eastern energy strategy: Dream or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mareš, Miroslav; Laryš, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The article analyses Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas, presenting its main aspects and examining it from the security perspective against the backdrop of official Russian documents. The goals set by the strategy are compared with the steps presently taken and planned by the Russian administration, as well as with short- and medium-term Russian energy policies in the sectors of oil and natural gas. The authors conclude that implementation of the Energy Strategy to 2030 in the sectors of oil and natural gas will be highly complicated in the Eastern vector of Russian politics and achievable only if new deposits are found. - Highlights: ► We compare goals of the Russia's Eastern energy strategy in the sectors of oil and natural gas with real policy.► In the Eastern vector are included China, both Korean states and Japan. ► For Russia's energy strategy to 2030 the Eastern market in the sector of oil and natural gas is advantageous and desirable. ► The present conditions can bring economic as well as political risks.

  5. The ties between natural gas and oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnier, G.

    2006-01-01

    On the European continent, the price of natural gas is still tied directly and to a great extent to the price of competing energies, especially heavy fuel oil and home heating oil. In other words, the gas market is linked to the oil market. Under the effect of deregulation, this model is likely to change in the future, making a shift like that which took place on the American market in the past. (author)

  6. Essential Oils and Fragrances from Natural Sources

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Essential oils should be subjected to both qualitative and quan- ... Several methods are employed in modern perfumery. A perfume is a ... Three types of hydro- ..... Applied Research, Proceedings of the 27th International Symposium on.

  7. The voice of Canada's oil and natural gas industry : oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) represents 150 members of the oil and gas industry, which together are responsible for approximately 95 per cent of the oil and natural gas produced in Canada. The upstream sector comprises companies that explore for, develop and produce petroleum resources, while the downstream sector involves companies that refine and market the resources. CAPP works closely with governments of 11 of Canada's 13 provinces and territories and with public groups to represent upstream producers active across the country. The enhancement of the economic well-being and sustainability of the upstream petroleum industry is the mission of the CAPP. The main priorities of the CAPP are: Environment, Health and Safety Stewardship, reasonable and timely access to resources, competitiveness of the Canadian industry on a global basis, the secure and efficient access to markets, and open and constructive public, government and media affairs. Some of the issues dealt with by the CAPP are sour gas, flaring, venting and industry-landowner relations, improved safety performance, federal issues such as corporate taxes and environmental issues, Aboriginal and First Nations issues, transportation costs for natural gas on major pipelines, and oil and sands bitumen issues, to name a few. The board of the CAPP is made up of 32 members. The work is carried out by hundreds of volunteers from member companies who provide their time and expertise for various committees and working groups, as well as a staff of approximately 40 people to assist them. The members provide the entire funding for CAPP, which is located in Calgary, Alberta. The document concluded with a few facts concerning the petroleum industry in general. 12 figs

  8. Performance of Different Natural Antioxidant Compounds in Frying Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Aydenız

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the natural green tea extract, purified lycopene, purified resveratrol and purified γ-oryzanol were added into peanut oil and their antioxidant performances were evaluated during frying. Moreover, the sensory properties of fried dough were evaluated to determine the consumption feasibility. All natural antioxidants led to significant increase in the stability of the oil samples. The ranges of measurements in the treatment groups were as follows: free acidity 0.1–2.9 g of oleic acid per 100 g of oil, conjugated dienes 0.01–0.40 g per 100 g of oil, total polar material 8.8–73.8 g per 100 g of oil, total phenolics 0.1–4.2 mg of gallic acid equivalents per 100 g of oil, and antioxidant capacity 0.5–11.0 mM of Trolox equivalents per 100 g of oil. The fatty acid and sterol compositions indicated that antioxidant supplementation could slow the oxidative degradation of unsaturated fatty acids and reduce trans-acid formation. Frying oil enriched with purified γ-oryzanol had higher sterol levels than the other enriched oil samples. The obtained quality of oil protection was in descending order: purified γ-oryzanol, green tea extract and purified lycopene.

  9. Asset Policies during an Oil Windfall: Some Simple Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunning, J.W.; Collier, P.

    2005-01-01

    Many developing countries are currently experiencing oil windfalls, whether due to discoveries or to price effects. Such windfalls pose a series of policy dilemmas. The literature has focused on one of these: the choice between using windfall savings for public capital formation and investment in

  10. Skin Penetration Enhancement by Natural Oils for Dihydroquercetin Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čižinauskas, Vytis; Elie, Nicolas; Brunelle, Alain; Briedis, Vitalis

    2017-09-12

    Natural oils are commonly used in topical pharmaceutical formulations as emulsifiers, stabilizers or solubility enhancers. They are presented as safe and inert components, mainly used for formulation purposes. It is confirmed that natural oils can affect the skin penetration of various substances. Fatty acids are mainly responsible for this effect. Current understanding lacks reliable scientific data on penetration of natural oils into the skin and their skin penetration enhancement potential. In the current study, fatty acid content analysis was used to determine the principal fatty acids in soybean, olive, avocado, sea-buckthorn pulp, raspberry seed and coconut oils. Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry bioimaging was used to determine the distribution of these fatty acids in human skin ex vivo after application of the oils. Skin penetration enhancement ratios were determined for a perspective antioxidant compound dihydroquercetin. The results demonstrated skin penetration of fatty acids from all oils tested. Only soybean and olive oils significantly increased the skin distribution of dihydroquercetin and can be used as skin penetration enhancers. However, no correlation can be determined between the fatty acids' composition and skin penetration enhancement using currently available methodological approaches. This indicates that potential chemical penetration enhancement should be evaluated during formulation of topically applied products containing natural oils.

  11. Essays on carbon policy and enhanced oil recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin R.

    The growing concerns about climate change have led policy makers to consider various regulatory schemes designed to reduce the stock and growth of atmospheric CO2 concentrations while at the same time improving energy security. The most prominent proposals are the so called "cap-and-trade" frameworks which set aggregate emission levels for a jurisdiction and then issue or sell a corresponding number of allowances to emitters. Typically, these policy measures will also encourage the deployment of carbon capture and storage (CCS) in geological formations and mature oil fields through subsidies or other incentives. The ability to store CO 2 in mature oil fields through the deployment of CO2 enhanced oil recovery (CO2--EOR) is particularly attractive as it can simultaneously improve oil recovery at those fields, and serve as a possible financial bridge to the development of CO2 transportation infrastructure. The purpose of this research is to explore the impact that a tandem subsidy-tax policy regime may have on bargaining between emitters and sequestration providers, and also to identify oil units in Wyoming that can profitably undertake CO 2--EOR as a starting point for the build-out of CO2 pipelines. In the first essay an economics lab experiment is designed to simulate private bargaining between carbon emitters (such as power plants) and carbon sequestration sites when the emitter faces carbon taxes, sequestration subsidies or both. In a tax-subsidy policy regime the carbon tax (or purchased allowances) can be avoided by sequestering the carbon, and in some cases the emitter can also earn a subsidy to help pay for the sequestration. The main policy implications of the experiment results are that the sequestration market might be inefficient, and sequestration providers seem to have bargaining power sufficient to command high prices. This may lead to the integration of CO2 sources and sequestration sites, and reduced prices for the injectable CO2 purchased by oil

  12. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Italy 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Italy for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  13. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Czech Republic 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Czech Republic for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  14. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Canada 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Canada for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: United Kingdom 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the United Kingdom for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Korea 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in the Republic of Korea for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: New Zealand 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in New Zealand for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Hungary 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Hungary for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Greece 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Greece for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Luxembourg 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This publication provides a detailed look at the specific systems in Luxembourg for responding to an oil supply crisis. In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this full publication, the IEA will provide updates to the country chapters as these become available following the specific country's review. The aim of series of publications is to provide an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. The 2007 publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Germany 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Germany has very little domestic oil and natural gas production and relies heavily on imports. It has well diversified and flexible oil and natural gas supply infrastructure, which consists of crude, product and gas pipelines and crude and oil product import terminals. Natural gas is imported into Germany exclusively by cross-border pipeline. The country has no LNG infrastructure, although some German companies have booked capacities in overseas LNG terminals. Oil continues to be the main source of energy in Germany although it has declined markedly since the early 1970s. It now represents approximately 32% of Germany’s total primary energy supply (TPES). Natural gas consumption in Germany has declined 10% since 2006. Demand was 90 bcm in 2010, down from 100 bcm in 2005. According to government commissioned analysis, the total consumption of natural gas in Germany is expected to continue to decline over the long term. The share of natural gas in Germany’s TPES is currently around 22%. German oil stock levels are generally well above the required 90-days. Total oil stock levels in Germany were equivalent to 140 days net imports in April 2012. Since 1998, the German oil stockholding agency (EBV) has been solely responsible for meeting Germany's 90-day stockholding obligation. The Oil Stockholding Act stipulates that the EBV shall constantly maintain stocks of oil and petroleum products at a level equivalent to or above 90 days of net imports. There is no minimum stockholding obligation on industry, so industry held commercial stocks are held in addition to the EBV stocks. There are several legal tools available to German authorities for natural gas emergency response. These include Ordinances that can be used to restrict the sale, purchase or use of goods, both in terms of quantity and time, or permit them only for certain priority purposes, to ensure that vital energy needs are met. There are no compulsory natural gas storage requirements in Germany, and no

  2. Oil and gas operational and policy issues in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, D.

    1992-01-01

    The method of arriving at monthly values under Schedule 3 OTA 1975 applies to all oil which can include LPG and condensate as well as crude oil and gas. The majority of crude oil is now sold spot and in 1987 the method of arriving at monthly values was amended better to reflect this aspect of the crude oil market. The UK gas market was such that the proceeds of sale of large amounts of natural gas were exempt from PRT under Section 10 OTA 1975 and very little gas was disposed of other than at arms length to British Gas. British Gas no longer buys virtually all gas produced from the UK Continental Shelf and neither does it sell all the gas used by UK customers. The use of natural gas to generate electricity has opened up a new market for UK landed gas. How do these changes affect gas valuation.?. (Author)

  3. Oil and Natural Gas Wells, US, 2010, Platts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Oil and Natural Gas Well geospatial dataset contains point features representing permitted locations, most of which have been drilled and completed, or drilled...

  4. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leifer, Ira; Luyendyk, Bruce; Broderick, Kris

    2006-01-01

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  5. Tracking an oil slick from multiple natural sources, Coal Oil Point, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leifer, Ira [Marine Sciences Institute, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Luyendyk, Bruce [Department of Geological Sciences, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Broderick, Kris [Exxon/Mobil Exploration Company, 13401 N. Freeway, Houston, TX 77060 (United States)

    2006-06-15

    Oil slicks on the ocean surface emitted from natural marine hydrocarbon seeps offshore from Coal Oil Point in the Santa Barbara Channel, California were tracked and sampled over a 2-h period. The objectives were to characterize the seep oil and to track its composition over time using a new sampling device, a catamaran drum sampler (CATDRUMS). The sampler was designed and developed at UCSB. Chromatograms showed that oil originating from an informally named, very active seep area, Shane Seep, primarily evolved during the first hour due to mixing with oil originating from a convergence zone slick surrounding Shane Seep. (author)

  6. Risk, Place and Oil and Gas Policy Preferences among Coloradoans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Adam

    Unconventional oil and gas extraction, primarily via hydraulic fracturing ("fracking"), has changed the energy landscape in the United States. The policy regime currently governing fracking is a complex patchwork in which state regulators have the primary authority. Social scientists have thoroughly documented general beliefs and risk perceptions related to fracking there is a lack of policy-related research. This dissertation examined public policy preferences for fracking regulation using a survey data from a statewide sample of Coloradoans. Theoretically, it was hypothesized that policy support hinged upon factors like risk perceptions, benefit perceptions, place attachment, community economic identity and political ideology. Overall, risk perceptions and political ideology emerged as relatively consistent and powerful predictors of support for unconventional oil and gas regulatory policy. On the other hand, several possible predictors had little to no role. Benefit perceptions had little effect on any policy dependent variable. Further, community economic identity and place attachment played very little role. I discuss policy implications and directions for future research.

  7. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  8. Natural oils and waxes: studies on stick bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budai, Lívia; Antal, István; Klebovich, Imre; Budai, Marianna

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present article was to examine the role of origin and quantity of selected natural oils and waxes in the determination of the thermal properties and hardness of stick bases. The natural oils and waxes selected for the study were sunflower, castor, jojoba, and coconut oils. The selected waxes were yellow beeswax, candelilla wax, and carnauba wax. The hardness of the formulations is a critical parameter from the aspect of their application. Hardness was characterized by the measurement of compression strength along with the softening point, the drop point, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It can be concluded that coconut oil, jojoba oil, and carnauba wax have the greatest influence on the thermal parameters of stick bases.

  9. Oil price volatility, financial regulation and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In October of 2009, the French Ministry of Economy asked the author to chair a work group on oil price volatility. The report resulting from that work was submitted to the minister on February 9, 2010. Based on the report, this article focuses on three major elements: (i) the operation of the oil market, with interacting physical basics and financial basics (ii) financial market regulation, more specifically commodities-derived product markets and current work in that area and (iii) the lessons one can draw from that exercise in terms of energy policy. Significant projects have been initiated on global, European and national levels. (author)

  10. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  11. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided

  12. The dynamic linkages between crude oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batten, Jonathan A.; Ciner, Cetin; Lucey, Brian M.

    2017-01-01

    The time varying price spillovers between natural gas and crude oil markets for the period 1994 to 2014 are investigated. Contrary to earlier research, we show that in a large part of our sample the natural gas price leads the price of crude oil with price spillover effects lasting up to two weeks. This result is robust to a battery of tests including out-of-sample forecasting exercises. However, after 2006, we detect little price dependencies between these two energy commodities. These findings arise due to a conjunction of both demand and supply-side shocks arising from both natural and economic events, including Hurricane Katrina, the Tohoku earthquake and the Global Financial Crisis, as well as infrastructure and technological improvements. The increased use of new technologies such as hydraulic fracking for the extraction of gas and oil in particular affected supply in the latter part of the study. We conclude that the long term relation present in the early part of the sample has decoupled, such that price determination of these two energy sources is now independent. - Highlights: • Contrary to earlier research we find natural gas may lead crude oil prices over a long sample. • This finding holds in forecasting out of sample. • There may be a break in the relationship between oil and gas in 2006. • We suggest that new technologies and financial conditions have led to a decoupling of these markets. • Oil and natural gas prices may now be determined independently.

  13. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-02-10

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  14. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  15. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Poland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  16. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Ireland 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  17. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Slovak Republic 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Spain 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Finland 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  20. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  1. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Norway 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  2. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Belgium 2010 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  3. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Portugal 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  4. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Denmark 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Australia 2011 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  6. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: France 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    In 2007, the IEA published ''Oil Supply Security: Emergency Response of IEA Countries''. This publication provides an overview of the IEA oil emergency response system and a detailed look at the specific systems in each IEA country for responding to an oil supply crisis. This publication represented the findings of a five year review cycle of the emergency response mechanisms in IEA member countries. Since the 2007 publication, the IEA has started a new cycle of reviews which now includes reviewing gas emergency policies. Rather than waiting for the completion of the current review cycle to renew this publication, the IEA will make available updates to the country chapters as these become available following the country's review.

  7. World oil: the growing case for international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.; Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    Can the economic theory of depletion be reconciled with low petroleum prices? This article uses a revision of the theory, which reflects demand functions that rise in response to increasing world population and income. The magnitude of producers' and consumers' surplus is estimated under both competitive and monopolistic assumptions; the result indicates a present value comparable to or in excess of today's gross world economic product. Game theory suggests a framework that explains the interaction between oil pricing and military policy, and the economic incentives that result in a general pattern of recent market equilibrium crude oil prices often fluctuating with a 15-20 US dollars per barrel range. The analysis concludes that the economic incentives for political instability in the Persian Gulf will increase, and more formal methods of setting the international framework for Persian Gulf oil may be expected. (author)

  8. World resources of crude oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masters, C.D.; Root, D.H.; Attanasi, E.D. (Geological Survey, Reston, VA (United States))

    1991-01-01

    An abstract is given of a paper presented at the World Petroleum Congress 1991 on the world estimates of identified reserves and undiscovered resources for crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. Data are presented for Canada, Mexico, USA, South America, Western Europe, Eastern Europe, USSR, Africa, Middle East, Asia/Oceania and Antartica. (UK).

  9. Remote methods of indicating oil products in natural waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlyakhova, L A

    1981-01-01

    A survey is made of domestic and foreign publications covering remote methods of monitoring film petroleum products and oil in natural waters. The given methods are realized in practice with the use of different sections of the electromagnetic spectrum. Remote quality control of the natural waters at the modern level may be an indicator of water pollution with film petroleum products.

  10. Natural resource injury at oil spills: A new approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    1993 is a critical time to review the actions taken at past spills and to formulate a new approach to natural resource injury at oil spills. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 has replaced the oil spill provisions of the Clean Water Act, and new regulations to govern natural resource damage assessments are due to be published by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) this year. The new law and regulations provide impetus for new directions. The new approach advocates cooperative damage assessments utilizing the new NOAA procedures. Litigation must be regarded as a last resort because it does not foster the goals of either the trustees or the oil industry. There are significant advantages to both trustees and industry from this approach

  11. Natural and unnatural oil slicks in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia‐Pineda, O.; Beet, A.; Daneshgar Asl, S.; Feng, L.; Graettinger, G.; French‐McCay, D.; Holmes, J.; Hu, C.; Huffer, F.; Leifer, I.; Muller‐Karger, F.; Solow, A.; Silva, M.; Swayze, G.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract When wind speeds are 2–10 m s−1, reflective contrasts in the ocean surface make oil slicks visible to synthetic aperture radar (SAR) under all sky conditions. Neural network analysis of satellite SAR images quantified the magnitude and distribution of surface oil in the Gulf of Mexico from persistent, natural seeps and from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) discharge. This analysis identified 914 natural oil seep zones across the entire Gulf of Mexico in pre‐2010 data. Their ∼0.1 µm slicks covered an aggregated average of 775 km2. Assuming an average volume of 77.5 m3 over an 8–24 h lifespan per oil slick, the floating oil indicates a surface flux of 2.5–9.4 × 104 m3 yr−1. Oil from natural slicks was regionally concentrated: 68%, 25%, 7%, and Gulf, respectively. This reflects differences in basin history and hydrocarbon generation. SAR images from 2010 showed that the 87 day DWH discharge produced a surface‐oil footprint fundamentally different from background seepage, with an average ocean area of 11,200 km2 (SD 5028) and a volume of 22,600 m3 (SD 5411). Peak magnitudes of oil were detected during equivalent, ∼14 day intervals around 23 May and 18 June, when wind speeds remained <5 m s−1. Over this interval, aggregated volume of floating oil decreased by 21%; area covered increased by 49% (p < 0.1), potentially altering its ecological impact. The most likely causes were increased applications of dispersant and surface burning operations. PMID:27774370

  12. Unconventional Oil and Natural Gas Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA works with states and other key stakeholders, through sound scientific research and regulation; to help ensure that natural gas extraction from shale formations, also called fracking or hydrofracking, does not harm public health and the environment.

  13. The united states and the world oil security. US oil policy and production of a global collective good

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to define and discusses the part of the Unites States in the world oil system operating and more particularly the US oil security policy in the world policy. It refutes some established ideas as the necessity of the US military supremacy to provide the oil security, the necessity of ''agreements'' with oil exporting countries facing the US energy consumption increase or the limitation of the resources access to other countries. At the opposite the United States seem to invest in the production of a global public good in matter of energy security. In order to illustrate this opinion the author defines the problem of the US oil security in a world context. He analyzes then the US policies to show the impacts in the world oil security and studies the specific part of the military factor in the security policy. (A.L.B.)

  14. Neo-liberal transitions in nature policies in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphorst, D.A.; Coninx, I.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the national government made drastic changes in nature policy in the Netherlands. The choices they made appeared to reflect a neo-liberal ideology, given the strong emphasis on private responsibility and limited governmental interference in nature policy. One of the changes was further

  15. Trade policies, institutions and the natural resource curse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arezki, R.; van der Ploeg, F.

    2010-01-01

    We offer new cross-country evidence on the natural resource curse. We investigate the impact of the interaction of natural resource abundance and policies on growth. We find that the resource curse is less severe in countries with less restrictive trade policies and good institutions. However, we

  16. Methane emissions due to oil and natural gas operations in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oonk, J.; Vosbeek, M.E.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The Netherlands is the 4th largest natural gas producer, with about 4% of the total world natural gas production. Also, significant amounts of oil are extracted. For this reason it can be expected that methane emissions from oil and natural gas operations contribute significantly to total methane emissions. Estimates so far, made by both the Dutch government and the industry vary widely. A renewed estimate is made of methane emissions from oil and natural gas production, based on a detailed engineering study of sources of methane in the system and quantification of source strengths. The estimate is validated by interpretation of atmospheric measurements. 1990 methane emissions from natural gas production were estimated to be 62 to 108 kton. The main cause of methane emissions is the venting of off-gases from processes and passing-valve emissions in the off-shore. Emissions from oil production were estimated to be 14 kton, mainly caused by venting of off-gases from processes. Best feasible options for emission reduction are: identification and replacement of leaking valves, and reuse or re-compression of off-gases from processes. Both options are existing policy in the Netherlands. 23 figs., 38 tabs., 2 appendices, 53 refs

  17. Natural Oils for Skin-Barrier Repair: Ancient Compounds Now Backed by Modern Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Alexandra R; Clark, Ashley K; Sivamani, Raja K; Shi, Vivian Y

    2018-02-01

    Natural plant oils are commonly used as topical therapy worldwide. They are usually easily accessible and are relatively inexpensive options for skin care. Many natural oils possess specific compounds with antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-itch properties, making them attractive alternative and complementary treatments for xerotic and inflammatory dermatoses associated with skin-barrier disruption. Unique characteristics of various oils are important when considering their use for topical skin care. Differing ratios of essential fatty acids are major determinants of the barrier repair benefits of natural oils. Oils with a higher linoleic acid to oleic acid ratio have better barrier repair potential, whereas oils with higher amounts of irritating oleic acid may be detrimental to skin-barrier function. Various extraction methods for oils exist, including cold pressing to make unrefined oils, heat and chemical distillation to make essential oils, and the addition of various chemicals to simulate a specific scent to make fragranced oils. The method of oil processing and refinement is an important component of selecting oil for skin care, and cold pressing is the preferred method of oil extraction as the heat- and chemical-free process preserves beneficial lipids and limits irritating byproducts. This review summarizes evidence on utility of natural plant-based oils in dermatology, particularly in repairing the natural skin-barrier function, with the focus on natural oils, including Olea europaea (olive oil), Helianthus annus (sunflower seed oil), Cocos nucifera (coconut oil), Simmondsia chinesis (jojoba oil), Avena sativa (oat oil), and Argania spinosa (argan oil).

  18. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands for Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for Denmark. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  19. Enhancing blood donor skin disinfection using natural oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdullatif, Meshari; Boujezza, Imen; Mekni, Mohamed; Taha, Mariam; Kumaran, Dilini; Yi, Qi-Long; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    Effective donor skin disinfection is essential in preventing bacterial contamination of blood components with skin flora bacteria like Staphylococcus epidermidis. Cell aggregates of S. epidermidis (biofilms) are found on the skin and are resistant to the commonly used donor skin disinfectants chlorhexidine-gluconate and isopropyl alcohol. It has been demonstrated that essential oils synergistically enhance the antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate. The objective of this study was to test plant-extracted essential oils in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol for their ability to eliminate S. epidermidis biofilms. The composition of oils extracted from Artemisia herba-alba, Lavandula multifida, Origanum marjoram, Rosmarinus officinalis, and Thymus capitatus was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A rabbit model was used to assess skin irritation caused by the oils. In addition, the anti-biofilm activity of the oils used alone or in combination with chlorhexidine-gluconate or chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol was tested against S. epidermidis biofilms. Essential oil concentrations 10%, 20%, and 30% were chosen for anti-biofilm assays, because skin irritation was observed at concentrations greater than 30%. All oils except for O. marjoram had anti-biofilm activity at these three concentrations. L. multifida synergistically enhanced the anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate and resulted in the highest anti-biofilm activity observed when combined with chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main component contributing to the activity of L. multifida oil was a natural terpene alcohol called linalool. The anti-biofilm activity of chlorhexidine-gluconate plus isopropyl alcohol can be greatly enhanced by L. multifida oil or linalool. Therefore, these components could potentially be used to improve blood

  20. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noland, Robert B.; Cowart, William A.; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2006-01-01

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement

  1. Travel demand policies for saving oil during a supply emergency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noland, Robert B. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Centre for Transport Studies, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: r.noland@imperial.ac.uk; Cowart, William A. [ICF Consulting, Ltd., Egmont House, 25-31 Tavistock Place, Bloomsbury, London, WC1H 9SU (United Kingdom); Fulton, Lewis M. [International Energy Agency, 9 Rue de la Federation, Paris 75015 (France)

    2006-11-15

    An area of growing concern is the future stability of oil producing regions and the ability to maintain stability in international petroleum markets. The transport sector, in particular, is extremely vulnerable to short-term supply disruptions with consequent implications on economic activities in most countries. This paper analyses potential transport demand restraint strategies that could potentially mitigate the impact of short-term supply disruptions. Our analysis includes estimates of the potential fuel savings from several policies. Specifically, we examine various work-based policies (telecommuting, flexible work schedules), the potential of carpooling, speed limit reductions, driving bans and restrictions, increased public transport usage, and providing information on the effect of maintaining optimal tire pressures. The analysis uses various assumptions based on existing knowledge about how travelers may respond under emergency conditions to develop estimates of potential fuel savings. Results suggest that the most restrictive policies, such as driving bans and mandatory carpooling are the most effective. Other policies provide small reductions with some, such as telecommuting and flexible work schedules, having the potential to be easily implemented. Those policies, focussed on encouraging public transport use, are less effective and potentially more costly to implement.

  2. Oil and natural gas market: a transitional year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appert, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Year 2006 represented a transitional year for the oil market: a moderate demand growth and a slowdown of price rise, that will possibly be more significant in 2007. As to the long term, the feeling is anyway pointing at important model tensions and high prices prevailing. As a consequence, governments have to develop a more active energy policy, also when deciding on the actions to be undertaken to manage worldwide climatic change [it

  3. Venezuelan policies and responses on climate change and natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Claudio; Rosales, Anibal

    1992-06-01

    Venezuela is an intertropical country which has the fortune not to suffer the severities of natural hazards which are usual in other countries of this region. It is a developing country, whose economy is heavily dependent on oil production and exports. Its greenhouse gas emissions are relatively low, but it is expected that the planned industrialization development will bring an associated increase in emissions. As a nation, Venezuela has a highly developed environmental consciousness. The Ministry of environment, the first in Latin America, was created in 1977, and has been the main contributor to the national policy of Disaster Prevention and Reduction. As in many developing countries actions and responses in this regard have been rather limited in scope, and even though legislation has been developed, many problems arise for its enforcement. Several local warning systems, civil defense procedures, and infrastructural protection measures are operational, however they have not been designed, revised, or planned taking into consideration the potential impacts of climate change. Presently Venezuela is an active participant state in the negotiation for a framework convention on climate change. That is a very difficult negotiation for our country. Here we have to conciliate enviromental principles with national economic interests. The elements of our position in this contex are presented in this statement.

  4. The effect of fiscal policy on oil revenue fund: The case of Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Azhgaliyeva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Setting an optimal fiscal policy in oil-producing countries is challenging, due to the exhaustibility of oil resources and unpredictability of oil prices. Recently it has become popular among oil-producing countries to establish oil revenue funds, which are believed to stabilize the economy and provide inter-generational redistribution of oil wealth. The effectiveness of oil revenue funds and their design have received considerable attention from researchers and policymakers recently. Using empirical model, it is found that an oil revenue fund in Kazakhstan stabilized the government expenditure, but did not stabilize real effective exchange rates.

  5. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: India 2007 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    With almost 1.1 billion inhabitants, India is the second most populous country in the world and the seventh-largest country by geographical area. In 2005, India’s GDP was about USD 644 billion. In terms of purchasing power parity (PPP)21, GDP stood at USD 3 362 which makes it the fourth-largest economy in the world (after the United States, China and Japan). Per capita income in PPP terms is around USD 3 582, about one-tenth of the OECD average. GDP growth in 2005 was 9.2%. India has about 5.6 billion barrels of proven oil reserves (January 2007). The combination of rising oil consumption and fairly stable production levels leaves India increasingly dependent on imports to meet consumption needs; most of these imports are coming from the Middle East. In 2006, the country produced an average of 792 kb/d of total oil liquids, of which 87% (687 kb/d) was crude oil. During 2006, India’s demand for oil reached 2.64 mb/d. In 2004, India decided to build a strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) in a phased manner. The work on the first phase started in 2007, with invitations for tender for the construction of rock caverns with a capacity of some 37 mb (5 Mt), which equates to 20 days of net imports or 15 days of consumption in 2005. The work is planned to be fi nished in 2010, after which the rock caverns will begin to be filled. A second phase is projected (but not yet scheduled), which would expand the storage capacity to 45 days of consumption (roughly 110 mb or 15 Mt). The Integrated Energy Policy of 2006 states that the effectiveness of the reserves can be increased through co-operative operation with the reserves of other countries, such as IEA member countries.

  6. Essential oils as natural food antimicrobial agents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergis, Jess; Gokulakrishnan, P; Agarwal, R K; Kumar, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Food-borne illnesses pose a real scourge in the present scenario as the consumerism of packaged food has increased to a great extend. Pathogens entering the packaged foods may survive longer, which needs a check. Antimicrobial agents either alone or in combination are added to the food or packaging materials for this purpose. Exploiting the antimicrobial property, essential oils are considered as a "natural" remedy to this problem other than its flavoring property instead of using synthetic agents. The essential oils are well known for its antibacterial, antiviral, antimycotic, antiparasitic, and antioxidant properties due to the presence of phenolic functional group. Gram-positive organisms are found more susceptible to the action of the essential oils. Essential oils improve the shelf-life of packaged products, control the microbial growth, and unriddle the consumer concerns regarding the use of chemical preservatives. This review is intended to provide an overview of the essential oils and their role as natural antimicrobial agents in the food industry.

  7. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources: Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-10-31

    Oct 31, 2007 ... Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources is a unique collection of case studies from Nepal. ... and students of social and political sciences and natural resource management. ... Nepal and founding Editor of the Journal of Forest and Livelihood. ... Ideas from the global climate change hotspot research.

  8. Oil and natural gas strategies for North American energy markets: a submission by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This proposal by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) focuses on improving North American energy markets and addressing the challenges involved in meeting continental energy requirements by urging a renewed policy effort to enhance the current market-based policies of free trade and competition that have already proven to respond to market changes better than command-control government policies. The proposal urges new strategies to support development of the oil and natural gas resources of North America, and the development of additional infrastructure to bring oil and natural gas supplies to market. The new strategy should be based on the success of free trade to increase non-discriminatory treatment of energy investment and trade in energy commodities, recognize resource development in North America as a policy priority, and reform regulatory practices to facilitate responsible, market-driven resource activity. The new strategy should also ensure competitive tax and royalty regimes as well as consistent and compatible environmental policies that eliminate layering and duplication and are competitive among the various jurisdictions. It should also recognize the continental and global nature of energy supply and the increasing interdependence of the partner nations' economies, encourage research and development, and ensure co-ordinated action on frontier natural gas development within a framework of inter-jurisdictional cooperation. Overall, the document is a thorough, credible presentation of the first principles of the oil and gas markets and an important first step towards influencing energy policy on a continental scale. 2 maps, 5 figs

  9. Oil and natural gas technology review-lubrication and lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moos, J

    1966-01-01

    A summary is presented of the advances made during 1967 in the following areas: production and transmission of natural gas; geosciences; drilling and production technology; secondary recovery; transportation by tanker, pipelines, and tank cars; storage; planning of refineries; control and automation; cracking and gasification of crude oil; separation and hydrogenation processes; petrochemicals; combustion technology; fuels and additives; air and water pollution control; production of lubricants; lubrication with mist, gas, and vapors; hydraulic fluids; lubricant additives; oxidation and aging of oils; greases; solid lubricants; bearings; machining; friction and wear; and changes in materials of construction. (220 refs.)

  10. US oil policy and energy security; Politique petroliere americaine et securite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    2002-05-15

    Although the energy dependence reached its historical maximum and will continue to increase for the next 20 years, the USA keep their oil policy. For the economist this policy is reasonable because of the poor room for the US imports reduction costs. To explain these conclusions the author discusses on the following topics: the links between the oil dependence and the energy security, the oil policy after Reagan, the oil policy evolution - or no evolution - facing the increasing dependency and the Cheney report. (A.L.B.)

  11. Practicing natural resource management with a policy orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Tim W.

    1992-07-01

    All natural resource managers want to contribute to successful conservation programs. Having and applying an explicit policy orientation is indispensable. The policy sciences are described and a case is made that, if natural resource managers utilize this set of conceptual and applied tools in their natural resource work, their effectiveness could be enhanced. The policy sciences offer a contextual, problem-oriented, and multimethod approach to meeting complex problems. Two kinds of knowledge are needed to solve problems—substantive knowledge about the resource and process knowledge about the decision and policy processes used to derive courses of management action. The interplay of science, analysis, and politics are examined. The wildlife management community is used to illustrate many points, including the important role implementation plays in the overall policy process.

  12. Temporary oil production, current account deterioration and the role of monetary and fiscal policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper extends earlier work on the macroeconomic adjustment processes arising for an economy experiencing a temporary period of oil production. Emphasis is placed on developments in the current account, as reflected in foreign asset stock movements, after oil production ceases, as well as on the role that monetary, fiscal or fiscal/monetary policy can play in influencing current-account developments during this same period. The results presented suggest that, to improve the performance of the current account, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism operative, after oil production ceases, the major thrust of macroeconomic policy should operate through fiscal rather than monetary policy. However developments in non-oil output would be influenced by the wage adjustment mechanism. With wage indexation, a tight fiscal policy after oil production ceases leads to a higher level of non-oil output than in the no policy response case, or one where monetary policy alone is used. With no wage indexation, the use of monetary and/or fiscal policy leads to lower levels of non-oil output. The use of fiscal policy also has the added benefit of contributing to a lower consumer price level, again irrespective of the operative wage adjustment mechanism. If the emphasis of policy operates through monetary policy, irrespective of the wage adjustment mechanism, the current-account problem will be exacerbated since foreign assets stocks will be lower. In addition, non-oil output and consumer prices will be lower. (Author)

  13. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    processes and capacity for developing, implementing and enforcing local policies and byelaws to improve the adoption ... and integrated agricultural research for development ..... agriculture and natural resource management (soil and water.

  14. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) in oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algalhoud, K. A.; AL-Fawaris, B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Oil and gas industry in the Great Jamahiriya is one of those industries that were accompanied with generation of some solid and liquid waste, which associated with risks that might lead to harmful effects to the man and the environment. Among those risks the continuous increase of radioactivity levels above natural radioactive background around operating oil fields, due to accumulation of solid and liquid radioactive scales and sludge as well as contaminated produced water that contain some naturally occurring radioactive materials ( NORM/TE-NORM). Emergence of NORM/TE-NORM in studied area noticed when the natural background radioactivity levels increased around some oil fields during end of 1998, For this study, six field trips and a radiation surveys were conducted within selected oil fields that managed and owned by six operating companies under NOC, in order to determine the effective radiation dose in contrast with dose limits set by International Counsel of Radiation Protection(ICRP),and International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) Additionally solid samples in a form of scales and liquid samples were also taken for further investigation and laboratory analysis. Results were tabulated and discussed within the text .However to be more specific results pointed out to the fact that existence of NORM/TE-NORM as 226 Ra, 228 Ra, within some scale samples from surface equipment in some oil and gas fields in Jamahiriya were significant. As a result of that, the workers might receive moderate radiation dose less than the limits set by ICRP,IAEA, and other parts of the world producing oil and gas. Results predicted that within the investigated oil fields if workers receive proper training about handling of NORM/TE-NORM and follow the operating procedure of clean ups, work over and maintenance plane carefully, their committed exposure from NORM/TE-NORM will be less than the set limits by ICRP and IAEA. In a trend to estimate internal radiation dose as a result of possible

  15. North or East. Germany's crude oil and natural gas supply from Norway and Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, M.

    2004-01-01

    This work examines the crude oil and natural gas trade from Norway and Russia to Germany. There is a considerable need for energy import in Germany because only a small part of the national consumption can be met with domestic productions. This applies especially to crude oil and natural gas. Norway and Russia are among the leading crude oil and natural gas producers and exporters in the world. The geographical vicinity of these significant demand and supply potentials leads to extensive energy based relations between Germany and Norway respectively Russia. The focus of this work is on the perception of and attitudes towards Norway and Russia as crude oil and natural gas suppliers for the domestic markets in Germany. Reporting from two leading German newspapers, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Sueddeutsche Zeitung, are regarded to be a valid source for detecting these attitudes and perceptions. Relevant articles are analysed with content analysis and further multi- methodological approaches. For this reasons the work provides at the beginning full description of the Norwegian and Russian crude oil and natural gas sector as well as detailed information on the German energy markets and policy. It can be shown that differences in dealing with Norway and Russia in the articles exit. Accordingly, different perceptions and attitudes are detectable as well. This work shows where these differences can be found and examines their quality. It is argued that the reporting and the attitudes are not only based on economical facts but also on 'imagined space'. The need for impartial relations with both supplying countries is stressed. (orig.)

  16. Oil-structuring characterization of natural waxes in canola oil oleogels: Rheological, thermal, and oxidative properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax, and beeswax) were utilized as canola oil structurants to produce oleogels and their physicochemical properties were evaluated from rheological, thermal, and oxidative points of view. The oleogels with candelilla wax exhibited the highest hardness, followe...

  17. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources : Management, Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    31 oct. 2007 ... Depuis quelques années, les chercheurs, les responsables des politiques et les militants du développement s'intéressent fortement aux systèmes de connaissances. Knowledge Systems and Natural Resources est un recueil unique d'études de cas réalisées au Népal. Cet ouvrage apporte un éclairage ...

  18. Sostenibilidad, plan de desarrollo y política petrolera Sustainability, Development Plan and oil policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvarez H. Carlos G.

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina la politica petrolera y de recursos naturales del Plan de Desarrollo. Muestra, en particular, que las declaraciones de 'sostenibilidad' son inconsistentes con las politicas que se adelantan y que se trata de una propuesta de incrementos desaforados de la produccion petrolera bajo la mirada de la economia estandar. El 'desarrollo sostenible' resulta siendo tarea de las generaciones futuras, desconociendo el mandato constitucional. Tambien discute la propuesta de reforma a la ley de regalias implicita en el articulo 60 del proyecto de ley de plan de desarrollo y muestra que se emplean indicadores de competitividad manipulados para subestimar la competitividad colombiana. De acuerdo con el analisis efectuado por el Ministerio de Minas no parece razonable aprobar esa reforma si se trata de mejorar la competitividad financiera. En suma, la actual politica petrolera no introduce elementos de democracia y sostenibilidad.This essay examines the oil and natural resource policies of the Development Plan. In particular, it shows that its declarations of 'sustainability' are inconsistent with the policies it puts forward and that it is really a proposal for boundless increases in oil production under the gaze of the standard economy. 'Sustainable development' turns out to be the task of future generations, ignoring the constitutional mandate.
    It also discusses the proposal for reform of the law on payments for oil and mineral exploitation implicit in Article 60 of the Plan's law proposal and shows that the competitiveness indicators it uses are manipulated to underestimate Colombian competi tiveness. In accordance with the analysis carried out by the Ministry of Mines, it does not appear reasonable to approve this reform if the purpose is to improve financial competitiveness. In sum, the current oil policy does not introduce elements of democracy or of sustainability.

  19. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediger, Volkan S., E-mail: volkanediger@gmail.co [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey); Berk, Istemi [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: {yields}We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. {yields} We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. {yields} We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. {yields} We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. {yields} Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  20. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediger, Volkan S.; Berk, Istemi

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  1. Natural Occurrence of Aldol Condensation Products in Valencia Orange Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Ingo; Da Costa, Neil C; van Es, Alfred; Kim, Jung-A; Parasar, Uma; Poulsen, Mauricio L

    2017-12-01

    Cold pressed orange oils contain predominantly d-limonene (approximately 95%) and various other lower concentration monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sinensals plus 3 key aliphatic aldehydes: hexanal, octanal. and decanal. The aldol self-condensation products or "dimers" for each aldehyde have been postulated as being present at low concentrations in the oil. However, to date only the hexanal dimer has been previously reported. In this paper, cold pressed Valencia orange oil was fractionally distilled/folded and analyzed by GC and high resolution GC-MS to detect these compounds on 2 different capillary column phases. Subsequently the hexanal, octanal, and decanal self-aldol condensation products, 2-butyl-2-octenal, 2-hexyl-2-decenal, and 2-octyl-2-dodecenal, respectively, were detected in the folded oil. These predominantly trans configuration isomeric compounds were synthesized, to confirm them as being present in nature and evaluated organoleptically by a panel of evaluators. To further confirm the mechanism of their formation, the enriched oil was made into a simple beverage to show the effect on the formation of these aldol compounds under acidic conditions. Finally aliphatic aldehydes from hexanal to undecanal were reacted together in various combinatorial pairs to give an additional 33 self and mixed aldol condensation products, some of which were also detected in the folded oil. This paper discloses the structural elucidation and synthesis of 8 novel aldol condensation products found at trace concentrations in citrus and leading to a further 31 mass spectrally determined aldol products. Sensory evaluations and application of some of these components were demonstrated in a model citrus beverage. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. The influence of South Korean energy policy on OPEC oil exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almansoori, Ali

    2014-01-01

    South Korea is the fifth top oil importer worldwide with 64% of its oil coming from OPEC member countries. Over the last 30 years, South Korea accounted for a rapid increase in energy use. This in turn led South Korea to be totally dependent on oil imports. Due to this increase, South Korea has been experiencing drastic changes in its energy system which could potentially impact its dependence on OPEC oil import. External and internal factors have forced South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. These targets would be achieved by reducing its energy intensity and utilizing electricity and renewable energies in order to reduce its dependence on oil consumption. “Low Carbon, Green Growth” is one policy along with many other energy policies developed by South Korea for reducing greenhouse gases, thus this policy is receiving a remarkable attention today. These national policies along with other international ones are needed to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and promote other green initiatives. This study puts emphasis on these policies as well as uses them to predict the future energy profile of South Korea and how these policies will impact on oil imports from OPEC member countries. - Highlights: • Analyze energy policy of South Korea and its energy profiles. • Study the factors that affect South Korea to change its energy strategy and targets. • Analyze the implications of South Korean energy policy on oil imports from OPEC. • South Korea will continue importing oil from OPEC countries for the next decade

  3. 'Cold reality in the land of fire': The interrelations of Azerbaijan's natural gas export and foreign policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marosvari, Csaba

    Azerbaijan, a landlocked post-Soviet country since its independence has been trying to utilize its energy resources in its foreign policy. With production-sharing agreements with Western oil companies beginning with the 1994 signing of the "Contract of the Century" and the construction of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline Azerbaijan successfully opened up its energy sector for foreign investment and used pipelines to stabilize its economy and underpin its foreign policy. The discovery of the Shah Deniz gas field opened up new opportunities for Baku to buttress its foreign policy goals with the export of natural gas. In this Master's thesis I will evaluate and show the importance and significance of natural gas export in Azerbaijani foreign policy.

  4. Radon gas in oil and natural gas production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.P.

    1994-01-01

    Radon gas is a naturally occurring radionuclide that can be found in some oil and natural gas production facilities, either as a contaminant in a natural gas stream or derived from Radium dissolved in formation waters. The gas itself is not normally a health hazard, but it's decay products, which can be concentrated by plate-out or deposition as a scale in process equipment, can be a health hazard for maintenance personnel. To evaluate possible health hazards, it is necessary to monitor for naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the gas stream and in the formation water. If Radon and/or Radium is found, a monitoring programme should be initiated to comply with National or State requirements. In some instances, it has been found necessary to dispose of silt and scale materials as low level radioactive waste. 8 refs

  5. Natural (Mineral, Vegetable, Coconut, Essential) Oils and Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M; Katalbas, Stephanie S; Pangasinan, Julia P

    2016-07-01

    Natural oils include mineral oil with emollient, occlusive, and humectant properties and the plant-derived essential, coconut, and other vegetable oils, composed of triglycerides that microbiota lipases hydrolyze into glycerin, a potent humectant, and fatty acids (FAs) with varying physico-chemical properties. Unsaturated FAs have high linoleic acid used for synthesis of ceramide-I linoleate, a barrier lipid, but more pro-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratios above 10:1, and their double bonds form less occlusive palisades. VCO FAs have a low linoleic acid content but shorter and saturated FAs that form a more compact palisade, more anti-inflammatory omega-6:-3 ratio of 2:1, close to 7:1 of olive oil, which disrupts the skin barrier, otherwise useful as a penetration enhancer. Updates on the stratum corneum illustrate how this review on the contrasting actions of NOs provide information on which to avoid and which to select for barrier repair and to lower inflammation in contact dermatitis genesis.

  6. Lessons Learned from Oily Pelicans? A Comparative Policy Paper on Maritime Oil Spill Disasters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Ariel

    2010-01-01

    Turn on the news or open the paper and sure enough there will be mention of the disastrous oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. Although it has retreated from the big headlines, the disaster still looms large as people deal with the aftermath of the BP catastrophe. The Deepwater Horizon disaster has put offshore drilling and emergency oil spill response on the forefront of everyone's minds in the International community. Maritime oil disasters, no matter how you look at them, affect everyone. Their oily consequences create a ripple effect in which not only does the industry suffer and those who must daily deal with the pollution, but governments and policy makers must attempt to draw policy conclusions and find ways in which to limit such events in the future. Blame gets passed around like a virus and in the meantime cleanup efforts experience varying degrees of success. People lose hope and trust as the oil companies and government officials scramble to cover all their bases and seek to assure that this disaster won't happen again. But what makes a disaster like Deepwater Horizon an exception and what makes it a more fundamental problem that needs to be addressed globally? This event that has drawn so much attention internationally is not the first maritime oil disaster nor, unfortunately, will it be the last. The ultimate goal is that the international community learns from these events and does all in its power to ensure that future oil disasters will not reach this level of severity. Many people wonder how such a disaster could occur and why it was 'allowed' to happen. The purpose of this brief note is to shed light on maritime oil disasters by examining five such cases starting in the late 1970's until today. Since there is absolutely no way to paint disasters in black and white terms, the intent of this research is to put oil disasters into a historical context, to compare them, and to see if we are learning lessons from past oil disasters. The paper will look at

  7. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, T.; Lysebo, I.; Kristensen, D.; Birovljev, A.

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs

  8. Policies for healthy and sustainable edible oil consumption: a stakeholder analysis for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Shankar, Bhavani; Thaiprasert, N.; Gheewala, S.; Smith, R.

    2016-01-01

    : Palm oil is a cheap and versatile edible oil in widespread use as a food ingredient that has been linked to negative health and environmental outcomes. The current study aimed to understand the prospects for future health-focused policy development to limit food use of palm oil and promote a greater diversity of oils in Thailand's food system. : Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders. The interviews probed views on the economic, health and environmen...

  9. [The new policies of natural birth control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J H; Reich, J

    1986-01-01

    International agency donors have in recent years become increasingly interested in natural family planning (NFP). The US Agency for International Development (USAID) has made an increasing amount of funds available annually for NFP, and at 1 point, in the case of NFP, relaxed the requirement that donor agencies offer more than 1 contraceptive method, despite the argument that developing country populations do not benefit from enough information for informed consent to be guaranteeable by 1-method agency. NFP has evolved from simple counting of days to observation of changes in cervical mucus and body temperature. The self-observation and learning generally required contribute to difficulties experienced in recruitment and retention of acceptors. At a 1986 meeting in Ottawa, Canada, sponsored by the International Federation for Family Life Promotion, it was revealed that calendar (but not the more effective sympto-thermal) method of NFP is fairly common in some developing countries (it is used by 41% of Peruvian and 24% of Filipino and Sri Lankan women), and even in developed countries. The hypothesized connection between the phenomenon of "old gametes" and birth defects, feared to be a side effect of NFP, was touched on, as was the possibility of using NFP to control the sex of the fetus. It was stressed that the effect of breastfeeding on fecundability constituted NFP in many countries. Other speakers cited religious and moral reasons for promotion of NFP, adding that NFP aids marital communication. It is possible increased popularity of NFP could depend in the near future on medical and legal problems associated with artificial methods as well as the US political situation.

  10. Estimating household fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and LPG prices by census region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this research is to estimate individual fuel prices within the residential sector. The data from four US Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, residential energy consumption surveys were used to estimate the models. For a number of important fuel types - fuel oil, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas - the estimation presents a problem because these fuels are not used by all households. Estimates obtained by using only data in which observed fuel prices are present would be biased. A correction for this self-selection bias is needed for estimating prices of these fuels. A literature search identified no past studies on application of the selectivity model for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas. This report describes selectivity models that utilize the Dubin/McFadden correction method for estimating prices of residential fuel oil/kerosine, natural gas, and liquefied petroleum gas in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West census regions. Statistically significant explanatory variables are identified and discussed in each of the models. This new application of the selectivity model should be of interest to energy policy makers, researchers, and academicians

  11. Reliable in the long run? Petroleum policy and long-term oil supplier reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toft, Peter; Duero, Arash

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating oil import dependence in energy consuming nations highlights the importance of having energy supplies at sufficient levels and at stable and reasonable prices. Consequently, it is crucial that oil exporters realize their full production potential. Current debates on energy security are often focused on short-term risks e.g. sudden disruptions due to wars, domestic instability, etc. However, when it comes to assessing oil supplier reliability it is equally important to assess their longer term ability and willingness to deliver oil to the global market. This study analyzes the effects of petroleum investment policies on crude oil production trends in 14 major oil producing countries (2000-2010) by focusing on the political-institutional frameworks that shape the investment conditions for the upstream oil sector. Our findings indicate that countries with less favorable oil sector frameworks systematically performed worse than countries with investor friendly and privatized sectors. The findings indicate that assessments based on remaining reserves and planned production capacities alone could inflate expectations about future oil supplies in a world where remaining crude reserves are located in countries with unfavorable investment frameworks. - Highlights: → We explore if policies favoring state-ownership in upstream oil undermine output expectations. → We compare petroleum policies of 14 major oil producers vis-a-vis production trends 2000-2010. → We find major differences between countries favorable to state-owned or private investors. → Substantial private investment seems needed for oil production to meet long-term demand growth.

  12. Sensory attribute preservation in extra virgin olive oil with addition of oregano essential oil as natural antioxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R

    2012-09-01

    Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes

  13. Essential oils as natural medicinal substances: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Aali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbal essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds formed by medicinal plants as secondary metabolites. As reported by international organization for standardization (ISO, the term "essential oils" (EOs is defined for a product obtained from vegetable raw materials or fruit using distillation with water or steam. The EOs are generally complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds include hydrocarbons (terpenes and sesquiterpenes and oxygenated compounds (alcohols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, phenols, and phenol ethers compounds. In medicinal plants, the EOs chemical profile usually very varies because of both intrinsic (sexual, seasonal, ontogenetic, and genetic variations and extrinsic (ecological and environmental aspects factors, also the EOs composition differs not only in the number and type of molecules but also in their stereochemical structures, and can be very different according to the extraction method. EOs represents a “green” alternative in the nutritional and pharmaceutical fields due to reported antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties thus, in recent times; EOs has gained great popularity as consumers have developed a particular ever-growing awareness toward the use of natural ingredients, especially in food and household. Therefore, the present review provides a comprehensive summary on the method of preparation of EOs from medicinal plants, chemical composition analysis, their biological and pharmacological effects and their potential benefits on health level. Present information was compiled using keywords “Essential oil, Medicinal Plants and Natural additive in scientific database as Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, Google scholar and SID, until 2005 to 2015. EOs have great antimicrobial activity and mostly destroy bacteria, fungi and viruses without harmful effects on consumer’s health. Finding of this study showed that the Thymol, α-Pinene,

  14. 21 CFR 182.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 182.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  15. 21 CFR 582.50 - Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils... GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 582.50 Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural extracts. Certain other spices, seasonings, essential oils, oleoresins, and natural...

  16. Science, Technology and Natural Resources Policy: Overcoming Congressional Gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    The current status of Science, Technology and Natural Resources (STNR) policy in the United States provides an ideal context to examine the influence of committee seniority within the public policy process. Exemplars of the Policy Entrepreneur have been individuals in leadership positions, whether executive or legislative. The role of junior committee members in shaping policy innovation is less well understood, and is frequently masked either in cross-sectional research designs or in case studies. The House Natural Resources committee seniority patterns are compared to the House of Representatives Chamber data from 1975 to 2015. This expanse of congressional time captures both the policy innovation of the Class of 1974 who helped transform the public lands by pursuing a preservation agenda, along with the contemporaneous gridlock caused by disagreements about reducing the size of the federal government, a policy agenda championed and sustained by the Class of 1994. Several types of political actors have served as policy entrepreneurs, President Kennedy and Secretary of Interior Udall shepherding the Wilderness Act of 1964 from the Executive branch, or in the 111th Congress Committee chairmen Senator Christopher Dodd and Representative Barney Frank, having announced their retirements, spent their final Congress shaping the consensus that produced the Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. A less studied policy phenomenon relies on "packing the committee" to outvote the leadership. This tactic can be used by the party leadership to overcome recalcitrant senior committee members, as was the case for Democrats in the House Interior and Insular Affairs Committee shift to preservation in the 1970s, or the tactic can be employed from the grassroots, as may be happening in the case of the House Natural Resources Committee in the 114th Congress. A policy making process analog to rivers is more appropriate than a mechanistic model. As there are multiple

  17. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhet, Hussain A; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  18. Evaluating the Mechanism of Oil Price Shocks and Fiscal Policy Responses in the Malaysian Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Hussain A.; Yusoff, Nora Yusma Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    The paper aims to explore the symmetric impact of oil price shock on economy, to understand its mechanism channel and how fiscal policy response towards it. The Generalized Impulse Response Function and Variance Decomposition under the VAR methodology were employed. The empirical findings suggest that symmetric oil price shock has a positive and direct impact on oil revenue and government expenditure. However, the real GDP is vulnerable in a short-term but not in the long term period. These results would confirm that fiscal policy is the main mechanism channel that mitigates the adverse effects oil price shocks to the economy.

  19. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Wiertz, J.; Van Bree, L.

    2004-01-01

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health [nl

  20. Design of governmental policies for oil production rates and oil income spending. A long-term perspective. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moxnes, E

    1982-09-01

    In 1980, oil production in Norway amounted to 1 million barrels per day. Taxes and royalties to the government from this production provides 9 per cent of the GNP. With current estimates of recoverable reserves, the 1980 production rate would last for 100 years. Decisions about oil production rates and oil income spending have tremendous impact on society. Attemps to design an appropriate oil policy are complicated by uncertainty about total reserves, future oil prices and complex economic responses to production and income. This report provides and integrating framework to aid government officials in their evaluation of policy options. A system dynamics model of the Norwegian national economy is developed for the analysis. The model determines endogenously the spending of oil income, GNP, consumption and investments, imports and exports, unemployment and labor migration from exporting industries to service industries; all variables result from exogenous decisions about oil production. Though the model is based on behavioral theory of economic decision making at the microeconomic level, it reproduces well major behavior modes of macroeconomic indicators from the 1970s. The most attractive oil policy has been found to be a dynamic and firm ceiling on spending. Dynamic means that growth in spending should be limited, spending should not increase unless the economy is appropriately buffered against oil price drops by foreign savings and spending should never exceed a maximum ceiling set to ensure a desirabel distribution of benefits and problems over time. Firm means that the ceiling cannot be changed by Parliament within an election period. If a firm ceiling on spending is politically infeasible, oil production should be kept lower than otherwise.

  1. Natural resource damage assessments for oil spills: Status of rules and application to recent oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilliard, G.A.; Winfield, T.P.; Lebednik, P.A.; Markarian, R.K.

    1992-01-01

    The natural resource damage assessment (NRDA) process is based on the concept that all natural resources managed by government agencies or Indian tribes (trustees) are available to the public for its use and enjoyment. These resources have an economic value that can be affected by a spill of oil or other chemicals. The spiller or potentially responsible party (PRP) is responsible to the public, through the trustees, for paying damages and for restoration of the resource. The NRDA process should also determine the appropriate means of restoration, provide a cost for doing so and for conducting the NRDA, and should implement the appropriate restoration activities. The legal and regulatory authority behind NRDA in the USA is explained and reasons why PRPs should be concerned about NRDAs in the context of oil spills are presented. US Department of the Interior regulations describe two procedures for implementing a NRDA. A simplified procedure intended for small spills uses a computer model to generate a damage value. A more thorough and complicated procedure involves a number of phases and steps within the phases, and may include field sampling, data collection and analysis, and detailed evaluation of restoration alternatives. The NRDA experience in oil spills to date is reviewed and the future of NRDA is assessed. Examples cited include the 1988 Shell Oil spill from the Martinez Refinery, the Exxon Bayway pipeline leak of 1990, the Mega Borg spill in the Texas offshore, and the Exxon Valdez spill. It is speculated that trustees will focus on the NRDA process as a cooperative one that includes the trustees and PRPs, with the ultimate goal being restoration of the foregone services provided by natural resources. 5 refs., 1 fig

  2. Evaluating the effects of parking policy measures in nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Jaarsma, C.F.; Regnerus, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Parking policy measures are widely used to manage cars in nature areas. Only with data from long-term monitoring projects is it possible to separate ¿normal¿ fluctuation in the number of cars from fluctuation caused by trends or caused by the effects of these measures. An evaluation of measures

  3. Impact of State and Federal regulatory policy on natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malloy, K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents information which demonstrates the decline in the use and subsequent demand of natural gas as the result of regulatory constraints. These regulations have allowed for a 10 percent decline in the use of natural gas in the last 20 years. The author believes that the major reason for this decline is the existence of State and Federal regulatory requirements which prevent the natural gas industry from effectively responding to new market opportunities. The paper goes on to discuss historical regulations such as the Fuel Use Act and the Natural Gas Policy Act which caused severe impacts to development in the gas industry by placing incremental price controls on natural gas. The author then discusses the effect of deregulation and how it has boosted the gas industry. He specifically discusses the US Canada Free-Trade Agreement and the new negotiations which would greatly enhance the gas sales to Mexico. Finally the author goes on to discuss deregulatory stances proposed as part of the National Energy Strategy regarding natural gas. These include the removal of obstacles to building new pipeline capacities; reformation of rates policies; assurances of nondiscriminatory access to natural gas pipeline services and facilities; and removal of impediments to free and open international trade in natural gas

  4. China's optimal stockpiling policies in the context of new oil price trend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Nan; Yan, Zhijun; Zhou, Yi; Huang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Optimizing the size of oil stockpiling plays a fundamental role in the process of making national strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) policies. There have been extensive studies on the operating strategies of SPR. However, previous literatures have paid more attention to a booming or stable international oil market, while few studies analyzed the impact of a long-term low oil price on SPR policy. As a supplement, this paper extends a static model to study China's optimal stockpiling policy under different oil price trends, and in response to different current oil prices. A new variable “FC”, which demonstrates the appreciation and depreciation of the reserved oil economic value, has been taken into account to assess the optimal size of SPR. In this paper, a more multi-perspective of view is provided to consider the policies of China's SPR, especially under the different trend of international oil price fluctuations. - Highlights: • We extended a static model to study optimal stockpiling size of China's SPR. • A new variable “FC” was applied to illustrate the shifting financial value of SPR. • We analyzed how current oil price and varied prediction influence optimal size. • Operational measures could be adjusted at the end of each decision-making period. • A more multifaceted of view might be provided for China's SPR policy-making.

  5. The effect of OPEC policy decisions on oil and stock prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidi, Marco G.D.; Russell, Alexander; Tarbert, Heather

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents evidence of the effects of OPEC policy decisions on the US and UK stock markets, as well as on oil prices, during periods of conflict and non-conflict from 1986 to 2004. The outcomes of this study are potentially valuable in assessing future strategies for OPEC policy decisions on oil production targets for its Members. This paper also adds to the strong body of evidence supporting the hypothesis that market returns are influenced by factors that affect business conditions, such as oil price shocks. The key findings are that there are asymmetric reactions to OPEC policy decisions during conflict periods for the US and UK stock markets. During conflict periods, oil markets require time to incorporate OPEC decisions. Conversely, in non-conflict periods the evidence suggests that the oil markets incorporate OPEC decisions efficiently. (Author)

  6. The role of the US in the geopolitics of climate policy and stranded oil reserves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Amy Myers

    2016-10-01

    Computer-assisted technological innovation and breakthroughs in drilling are revolutionizing the energy landscape, creating greater uncertainty about the future trends for oil use. These new dynamics are prompting major oil producers to reconsider the commercial value of their assets, potentially changing the long-term outlook for oil prices. A shift in investment and production strategy by major oil-producing countries and large multinational companies to pre-empt the risk of stranded assets would have significant implications on energy markets. This Perspective surveys the competitive forces at play that are able to shift the dynamics of the global oil market and discusses their implications for US climate and energy policy. A declining long-term oil price might imply that energy and climate scientists and policymakers should revisit the road map of the optimum policies to promote the transition to lower carbon energy and to defend technology gains already achieved.

  7. Impact of changing conditions in the oil market on energy policies in the ESCWA region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The present study has been prepared in the implementation of the ESCWA work programme and priorities for 1988/1989. It is aimed at examining energy issues of major concern to the region particularly the changes in the oil market, fluctuations of oil prices and their impact on energy plans and policies. The study is also intended to serve as a background document to the Meeting organized to discuss salient energy issues arising from recent developments in the oil market. It has therefore been designed to deal with downstream and upstream activities, adjustments to contractual terms, and market and national energy policies following the violent fluctuations of oil prices. Some futuristic views on the oil market are also presented and the study includes an examination of national and regional entities involved in energy issues and development of oil resources in the ESCWA region. (Author)

  8. Strategic policy and the logistics of crude oil transit in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasukeviciute, Irma; Roe, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the crude oil transit market in Lithuania and the significant economic and political role played by Russia. Beginning with an analysis of the strategic and political role played by crude oil in Lithuania there follows a discussion of the policies followed by the Lithuanian authorities following independence in 1992 from the Former Soviet Union. A content analysis approach is taken to establishing the main policy issues that dominate the sector. This technique combines both quantitative and qualitative approaches to a review of published material on oil transit in Lithuania and acts as a means of assessing expert opinion on the issues involved. The results from this analysis will be used in developing policy initiatives for the sector. The paper ends with some suggestions for further applications of the techniques used to oil transit policy issues in the region

  9. Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic

  10. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORM) in Ecuadorian oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez, R.; Enriquez, F.; Reinoso, T.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Many natural elements contain radioactive isotopes, and most of them are present in the soil. In the gas and oil industries the most important radio nuclides are Ra-226 from the decay series of U-238, and in lower grade Ra-228 from the decay series of Th-232. Water exit from the perforation and perforation mud in the Oil towers drowns the NORM materials. Changes in temperature and pressure, allows the presence of sulphates and carbonates in pipes and internal areas of equipment. A Ra and Ba similarity leads to the selective co-precipitation in mud and incrustations of radioisotopes. A measure made in the pipe lines show that these industries generate important doses overcoming the levels of exemption and even the limits of established doses. The research was done by finding a pipe at Shushufindi 52 B well of production near by Coca city in the Ecuadorian jungle. The 'Comision Ecuatoriana de Energia Atomica' (CEEA), supervises the pipe line and accessories that are used in PETROPRODUCION fields accomplishing the radiological characterization, identifying the useless pipes and separate them in order of take care the good ones. Meanwhile the identification of the radioactive isotopes the CEEA proceed with the isolation of the radioactive disposals. From 57.830 pipes and accessories there were 1.607 useless ones, 56.223 didn't show radioactivity. Those pipes were monitored from the PETRODUCCION'S warehouses in Coca, Lago Agrio and Guarumo from September 12 th 2005 to September 12 th 2006. The CEEA is interested in NORMS because inadvertent workers may get high levels of radioactivity exposition. The Oil industries should have a manual about the complete handling of these materials. (author)

  11. Clay-oil flocculation and its role in natural cleansing in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Yang, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    Natural interactions of fine mineral particles with residue oil and seawater, in a process called clay-oil flocculation, were found to create solids-stabilized oil-in-water emulsions on shoreline sediments at numerous locations in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez spill. In laboratory tests using oiled sediment samples from Prince William Sound, these emulsions were shown to facilitate natural cleansing and dispersion of oil from sediments by moving water. To investigate the effect of flocculation on natural cleansing, studies were conducted to determine the hydrodynamic energy needed for seawater to remove flocculated oil residues from sediments sampled from shorelines. Water was pumped at different velocities through a column packed with oiled sediment, and the amount and composition of oil removed from the sediment were measured as functions of water velocity and sediment movement. In separate tests, oil removal was observed in a wave tank that generated wave heights less than and greater than needed to move sediments. 28 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  12. Sustitución de fuel oil por gas natural en ANDERCOL Medellín

    OpenAIRE

    Peña Puerto, José Miguel; Ayala Mendoza, Miguel Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    Introduction. This article shows the evaluation of the demand and the tendencies of fuel in the plant of ANDERCOL-Medellín, the current and future trends of the prices for the fuels available (fuel oil and natural gas) and also the operation costs, the investments required for their substitution and the limitations and benefits of substituting fuel oil with natural gas. Objective. To evaluate the impact of substituting fuel oil with natural gas in the ANDERCOL´s plant in Medell...

  13. Gulf War tested U.S. oil policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuntz, L.G.; Smith, H.H.

    1992-01-01

    Success of the major oil-consuming nations dealing with the Gulf War oil shock should not breed complacency warn the authors. They note that the ability of the US and other major oil importers to eliminate the possibility of significant oil-supply disruptions is limited. Rapid replacement of disrupted supplies through use of excess production capacity was the most important event during the War, they say. However, such excess capacity cannot be counted on in future supply disruptions, they emphasize. Therefore, they conclude the US should: build its Strategic Petroleum Reserve, continue close coordination with its International Energy Agency partners, encourage diversification of world oil supply, develop portions of the Outer Continental Shelf and the Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge, push advanced oil recovery research and development, lower consumption, and increase flexibility in its use of other fuels

  14. Technological change, depletion and environmental policy in the offshore oil and gas industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managi, Shunsuke

    Technological change is central to maintaining standards of living in modern economies with finite resources and increasingly stringent environmental goals. Successful environmental policies can contribute to efficiency by encouraging, rather than inhibiting, technological innovation. However, little research to date has focused on the design and implementation of environmental regulations that encourage technological progress, or in insuring productivity improvements in the face of depletion of natural resources and increasing stringency of environmental regulations. This study models and measures productivity change, with an application to offshore oil and gas production in the Gulf of Mexico using Data Envelopment Analysis. This is an important application because energy resources are central to sustaining our economy. The net effects of technological progress and depletion on productivity of offshore oil and gas production are measured using a unique field-level set of data of production from all wells in the Gulf of Mexico over the time period from 1946--1998. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that technological progress has mitigated depletion effects over the study period, but the pattern differs from the conventional wisdom for nonrenewable resource industries. The Porter Hypothesis was recast, and revised version was tested. The Porter Hypothesis states that well designed environmental regulations can potentially contribute to productive efficiency in the long run by encouraging innovation. The Porter Hypothesis was recast to include market and nonmarket outputs. Our results support the recast version of Porter hypothesis, which examine productivity of joint production of market and environmental outputs. But we find no evidence for the standard formulation of the Porter hypothesis, that increased stringency of environmental regulation lead to increased productivity of market outputs and therefore increased industry profits. The model is used to

  15. Policies for healthy and sustainable edible oil consumption: a stakeholder analysis for Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Bhavani; Thaiprasert, Nalitra; Gheewala, Shabbir; Smith, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Palm oil is a cheap and versatile edible oil in widespread use as a food ingredient that has been linked to negative health and environmental outcomes. The current study aimed to understand the prospects for future health-focused policy development to limit food use of palm oil and promote a greater diversity of oils in Thailand's food system. Eighteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with a range of stakeholders. The interviews probed views on the economic, health and environmental dimensions of the issue, the prospects for health-focused policy development and the policy development process. Transcripts were analysed using a health policy analytical framework. Thailand. Stakeholders from a range of ministries, regulatory agencies, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and academia. There are several impediments to the emergence of strong regulation, including the primacy of economic considerations in setting policy, doubt and misperception about health implications and a complex regulatory environment with little space for health-related considerations. At the same time, some sections of the food industry producing food for domestic consumption are substituting palm with other oils on the basis of consumer health perceptions. Strong regulation to curb the growth of palm oil is unlikely to emerge soon. However, a long-term strategy can be envisaged that relies on greater policy support for other indigenous oils, strategic rebalancing towards the use of palm oil for biofuels and oleochemicals, and harnessing Thailand's food technology capabilities to promote substitution in food production in favour of oils with healthier fatty acid composition.

  16. Evaluation of Cooking Oil as Processing Addtive for Natural Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. SYAMIN

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available It was reported recently that high amount of aromatic ring  or number of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds found in aromatic oil are carcinogenic. This paper discusses the work to evaluate the Malaysian cooking oil as an alternative option to be used as process oil since cooking oil is safe to use and non-toxic. The performance of cooking oil is compared againstaromatic and paraffinioils. The results showed that rubber compounds containing cooking oil produced almostsimilar cure characteristicsas those produced by aromatic and paraffinioils indicating that it did not interfere with the vulcanization reaction. The physical properties of the vulcanizates containing cooking oil were almostsimilar to those of vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils, except the rebound resilience. The vulcanizates containing cooking oil gave higher resilience than vulcanizates containing aromatic and paraffinioils. High resilience is one of the desired features for a low rolling resistance tyre. Cooking oil provided this extra advantage.

  17. Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnave, Hélène; Pycroft, Jonathan; Saveyn, Bert; Ciscar, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.

  18. Natural gas hydrate formation and inhibition in gas/crude oil/aqueous systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraboina, Nagu; Pachitsas, Stylianos; von Solms, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Gas hydrate formation in multi phase mixtures containing an aqueous phase (with dissolved salts), reservoir fluid (crude oil) and natural gas phase was investigated by using a standard rocking cell (RC-5) apparatus. The hydrate formation temperature was reduced in the presence of crude oils...... can contribute to the safe operation of sub sea pipelines in the oil and gas industry....

  19. Pricing the (European) option to switch between two energy sources: An application to crude oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatfaoui, Hayette

    2015-01-01

    We consider a firm, which can choose between crude oil and natural gas to run its business. The firm selects the energy source, which minimizes its energy or production costs at a given time horizon. Assuming the energy strategy to be established over a fixed time window, the energy choice decision will be made at a given future date T. In this light, the firm's energy cost can be considered as a long position in a risk-free bond by an amount of the terminal oil price, and a short position in a European put option to switch from oil to gas by an amount of the terminal oil price too. As a result, the option to switch from crude oil to natural gas allows for establishing a hedging strategy with respect to energy costs. Modeling stochastically the underlying asset of the European put, we propose a valuation formula of the option to switch and calibrate the pricing formula to empirical data on a daily basis. Hence, our innovative framework handles widely the hedge against the price increase of any given energy source versus the price of another competing energy source (i.e. minimizing energy costs). Moreover, we provide a price for the cost-reducing effect of the capability to switch from one energy source to another one (i.e. hedging energy price risk). - Highlights: • We consider a firm, which chooses either crude oil or natural gas as an energy source. • The capability to switch offers the firm a hedge against energy commodity price risk. • A European put option prices the ability to switch from crude oil to natural gas. • The capability to switch between two energy sources reduces the firm's energy costs. • The discount illustrates the efficiency of the energy management policy (e.g. timing).

  20. The asymmetric effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks. A nonlinear VAR approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Sajjadur; Serletis, Apostolos

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks and monetary policy on macroeconomic activity, using monthly data for the United States, over the period from 1983:1 to 2008:12. In doing so, we use a logistic smooth transition vector autoregression (VAR), as detailed in Terasvirta and Anderson (1992) and Weise (1999), and make a distinction between two oil price volatility regimes (high and low), using the realized oil price volatility as a switching variable. We isolate the effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks and their asymmetry on output growth and, following Koop et al. (1996) and Weise (1999), we employ simulation methods to calculate Generalized Impulse Response Functions (GIRFs) to trace the effects of independent shocks on the conditional means of the variables. Our results suggest that in addition to the price of oil, oil price volatility has an impact on macroeconomic activity and that monetary policy is not only reinforcing the effects of oil price shocks on output, it is also contributing to the asymmetric response of output to oil price shocks. (author)

  1. The asymmetric effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks. A nonlinear VAR approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Sajjadur [Department of Economics, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Serletis, Apostolos [Department of Economics, University of Calgary, Calgary (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the asymmetric effects of oil price shocks and monetary policy on macroeconomic activity, using monthly data for the United States, over the period from 1983:1 to 2008:12. In doing so, we use a logistic smooth transition vector autoregression (VAR), as detailed in Terasvirta and Anderson (1992) and Weise (1999), and make a distinction between two oil price volatility regimes (high and low), using the realized oil price volatility as a switching variable. We isolate the effects of oil price and monetary policy shocks and their asymmetry on output growth and, following Koop et al. (1996) and Weise (1999), we employ simulation methods to calculate Generalized Impulse Response Functions (GIRFs) to trace the effects of independent shocks on the conditional means of the variables. Our results suggest that in addition to the price of oil, oil price volatility has an impact on macroeconomic activity and that monetary policy is not only reinforcing the effects of oil price shocks on output, it is also contributing to the asymmetric response of output to oil price shocks. (author)

  2. Corporate social policy - problems of institutionalization and experience of Russian oil and gas companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhoda, E.; Kolbysheva, Yu; Makoveeva, V.

    2015-11-01

    The article examines a range of problems related to the process of institutionalization in the corporate social policy, characterizing the social responsibility of business and representing a part of the general strategy of corporate social responsibility. The experience of the social policy implementation in oil and gas companies is analyzed.

  3. Solar architecture and energy policies in France: from the oil crisis to the solar crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin-Michel, Marion

    2013-01-01

    In 1973, the oil crisis creates a focus on energy efficiency policy. Public institutions implement studies on solar architecture and launch experiments and training campaigns to promote the solar equipment. But the presidential election of 1981 leads to a change in energy policy, plunging the solar sector in crisis, causing the disappearance of solar architecture

  4. Biomarker chemistry and flux quantification methods for natural petroleum seeps and produced oils, offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenson, T.D.; Leifer, Ira; Wong, Florence L.; Rosenbauer, Robert J.; Campbell, Pamela L.; Lam, Angela; Hostettler, Frances D.; Greinert, Jens; Finlayson, David P.; Bradley, Eliza S.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.

    2011-01-01

    Sustained, natural oil seepage from the seafloor is common off southern California, and is of great interest to resource managers, who are tasked with distinguishing natural from anthropogenic oil sources. The major purpose of this study was to build upon the work previously funded by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) that has refined the oil-fingerprinting process to enable differentiation of the highly similar Monterey Formation oils from Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) production and adjacent natural seeps. In these initial studies, biomarker and stable carbon isotope ratios were used to infer the age, lithology, organic-matter input, and depositional environment of the source rocks for 388 samples of produced crude oil, seep oil, and tarballs mainly from coastal California. The analysis resulted in a predictive model of oil source families that could be applied to samples of unknown origin.

  5. Enhancement of spilled oil biodegradation by nutrients of natural origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basseres, A.; Eyraud, P.; Ladousse, A.; Tramier, B.

    1993-01-01

    Ten years ago, Elf Aquitaine began developing the technologies for the acceleration of hydrocarbon biodegradation. The continuation of this work has involved the study of new additives to complement the oleophilic nutrient, INIPOL EAP 22. In particular, it has been shown in both laboratory and in situ tests that hydrocarbon degradation can be accelerated by animal meals, which are natural products. Preliminary laboratory studies carried out under batch conditions have shown that the use of these products has resulted in considerable growth of the bacteria, coupled with a notable increase in the biological degradation kinetics of the hydrocarbons. These results are comparable with the performance of the nutrient INIPOL EAP 22. In situ experiments undertaken on soils polluted by hydrocarbons have shown that by using animal meals, 50 percent biodegradation was obtained after six weeks and this increased to 80 percent when mechanical aeration was also employed. Under nutrient-free control conditions, 25 percent biodegradation was obtained with no aeration and 35 percent with mechanical aeration. In trials using coastal sandy sediments, the use of these nutrients has resulted in an increase of both the number of hydrocarbon specific bacteria and the hydrocarbon degradation. It can be concluded from these pilot experiments that in the development of bioremediation as an operational tool in the response to accidental oil spills, these nutrients of natural origin represent an interesting advance

  6. A system dynamic model for production and consumption policy in Iran oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiani, Behdad; Ali Pourfakhraei, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A system dynamic model is presented, which considers the feedback between supply and demand and oil revenue of the existing system in Iran considering different sectors of the economy. Also the export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into the oil reservoirs are seen in the model by establishing a balance between supply and demand. In this model the counter-effects and existing system feedbacks between supply and demand and oil revenue can be seen considering different sectors of the economy. As a result, the effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios for different sectors of Iran's economy together with the counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. Three scenarios, which show the worst, base and ideal cases, are considered to find future trends of major variables such as seasonal gas consumption in power plants, seasonal injected gas in oil reservoirs, economic growth in the industrial sector, oil consumption in the transportation sector, industrial gas consumption and exported gas. For example, it is shown that the exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios and export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025. - Research Highlights: →A system dynamic model analyzing the feedback between supply, demand and oil revenue is built. →The export of the oil surplus and the injection of the gas surplus into oil reservoirs are modeled. →Effects of oil and gas policies in different scenarios are examined for Iran's economy. →Counter-effects of energy consumption and oil revenue are examined. →Exported gas will reach between 500 and 620 million cubic-meter per day in different scenarios. →Export revenues can reach up to $500 billion by 2025.

  7. Impacts of China’s Edible Oil Pricing Policy on Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shu Wen; Popkin, Barry M.

    2008-01-01

    China’s health profile has shifted to one dominated by obesity and nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs) necessitating an examination of how economic policies can improve this situation. Edible oil consumption is responsible for much of the increase in energy density of the Chinese diet and particularly linked with the shifting burden of NR-NCDs toward the poor. Longitudinal analysis among adults in the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) covering the period 1991 to 2000 revealed that price policy effects on edible oil can influence dietary composition (particularly of the poor) and the results identify a key preventive policy need. PMID:17996345

  8. Optimising Russian natural gas - reform and climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-18

    The world's largest gas producer and exporter, Russia has an enormous energy saving potential. At least 30 billion cubic meters, a fifth of Russian exports to European OECD countries, could be saved every year by enhanced technology or energy efficiency. As the era of cheap gas in Russia comes to an end, this potential saving is increasingly important for Russians and importing countries. And, as domestic gas prices increase, efficiency investments will become increasingly economic - not to mention the incentive for Gazprom to enhance its efficiency against a backdrop of high European gas prices. The book analyzes and estimates the potential savings and the associated reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the oil extraction (flaring), gas transmission, and distribution sectors. Achieving these savings will require linking long-standing energy efficiency goals with energy sector reforms, as well as climate policy objectives. The book also describes Russia's emerging climate policy and institutional framework, including work still ahead before the country is eligible for the Kyoto Protocol's flexibility mechanisms and can attract financing for greenhouse gas reductions. Stressed is the need for Russia to tap the full potential of energy savings and greenhouse gas emission reductions through a more competitive environment in the gas sector to attract timely investments.

  9. Using stockpile delegation to improve China's strategic oil policy: A multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Mu, Hailin; Li, Huanan; Gui, Shusen

    2014-01-01

    There has been much attention paid to oil security in China in recent years. Although China has begun to establish its own strategic petroleum reserve (SPR) to prevent potential losses caused by oil supply interruptions, the system aiming to ensure China's oil security is still incomplete. This paper describes and provides evidence for the benefits of an auxiliary strategic oil policy choice, which aims to strengthen China's oil supply security and offer a solution for strategic oil operations with different holding costs. In this paper, we develop a multi-dimension stochastic dynamic programming model to analyze the oil stockpile delegation policy, which is an intermediate policy between public and private oil stockpiles and is appropriate for the Chinese immature private oil stockpile sector. The model examines the effects of the oil stockpile delegation policy in the context of several distinct situations, including normal world oil market conditions, slight oil supply interruption, and serious oil supply interruption. Operating strategies that respond to different oil supply situations for both the SPR and the delegated oil stockpile were obtained. Different time horizons, interruption times and holding costs of delegated oil stockpiles were examined. The construction process of China's SPR was also taken into account. - Highlights: • We provided an auxiliary strategic oil policy rooted in Chinese local conditions. • The policy strengthen China's capability for preventing oil supply interruption. • We model to obtain the managing strategies for China's strategic petroleum reserve. • Both of the public and delegated oil stockpile were taken into consideration. • The three phase's construction process of China's SPR was taken into account

  10. Development of UK policy towards oil and gas and their effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The evolution of policy towards the development of North Sea oil is without precedent in the government of the United Kingdom. In a remarkably short period a complex framework was devised which include arrangements to promote offshore exploration, development and operation; a novel system of taxation and special measures to encourage domestic industry to supply the needs of the oil industry. This chapter is made up of three sections. In the first there is a brief introduction to the evolution of the main policies towards oil and gas. There follows a section in which there is an assessment of these policies with particular attention given to the licensing arrangements, royalty and taxation payments, state participation, and depletion policy. Finally, there is a brief section in which some general conclusions are drawn. (author)

  11. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N. V.; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y.; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25–30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11–18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop. PMID:25870604

  12. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  13. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  14. Oil fired boiler/solar tank- and natural gas burner/solar tank-units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Vejen, Niels Kristian; Frederiksen, Karsten Vinkler

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new units consisting of a solar tank and either an oil fired boiler or a natural gas burner have been introduced on the Danish market. Three different marketed units - two based on a natural gas burner and one based on an oil fired boiler - have been tested in a heat...

  15. Density and viscosity behavior of a North Sea crude oil, natural gas liquid, and their mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, KAG; Cisneros, Sergio; Kvamme, B

    2005-01-01

    to accurately model the saturation pressures, densities, and viscosities of petroleum systems ranging from natural gases to heavy crude oils. The applicability of this overall modeling technique to reproduce measured bubble points, densities, and viscosities of a North Sea crude oil, a natural gas liquid...

  16. A new approach to measure speculation in the oil futures market and some policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Leo H.; Nguyen, Chi M.; Chan, Kam C.

    2015-01-01

    We propose using a new relative measure, the speculative ratio, defined as trading volume divided by open interest, to gauge speculative activity in the oil futures market. We apply the speculative ratio to examine the relation between basis and speculative activity in the oil futures market before and after the financialization of the oil market in 2003. Our finding suggests that the oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in the post-financialization period. Our finding carries several practical policy implications, as follows: (1) both the commodity exchange and the regulator should design regulations and trading policies that improve basis risk; (2) on the commodity exchange side, new policies on margin requirements and position limits for speculators should be implemented; (3) margin requirements should be based on the level of basis risk; (4) regulators should speed up implementation of the position limit rule in the Dodd–Frank Act; and (5) stronger and more meaningful enforcement actions by regulators are required to punish and deter market manipulators. - Highlights: • Use a new speculative ratio to gauge speculative activities in oil futures market. • Examine the relation between basis and speculative activities. • The new speculative ratio also works well in the post-2008 oil bubble period. • Oil futures market is dominated by uninformed speculators in post-financialization in 2003.

  17. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J.

    2005-07-01

    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. The nature of oil shocks and the global economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archanskaïa, Elizaveta; Creel, Jérôme; Hubert, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies the main driving force behind oil price shocks in 1970–2006 by applying a simple identification strategy of supply-driven and demand-driven price shocks. The identification hypothesis states that supply-driven oil price shocks have a negative impact on the macroeconomic activity of countries, which are net consumers of oil while demand-driven oil price shocks do not have negative effects. In order to identify global demand-driven shocks, a weighted aggregate GDP series of countries, which are net consumers of oil, is constructed over 1970–2006. The key result is that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed from supply-driven shocks in 1970–1992 to demand-driven shocks in 1992–2006. - Highlights: ► We characterize the oil–macroeconomy relationship at the global level. ► We identify oil supply and oil demand shocks drawing on a AS/AS model. ► We construct an indicator of global activity for countries net consumers of oil. ► We use Qu-Perron break tests, TVP, Cyclical correlations and VARs. ► We show that the main driving force behind oil price shocks has changed around 1992.

  19. Serbian oil sector: A new energy policy regulatory framework and development strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karovic Maricic, Vesna; Danilovic, Dusan; Lekovic, Branko

    2012-01-01

    Serbia has established a great part of new legislative and institutional framework as a basis for all energy sub-sectors' development in compliance with EU energy acquis. Main objectives of Serbian energy policy outlined in the new Energy Law are focused to increasing the energy supply security, energy efficiency, competitiveness of the energy market, use of renewable energy sources and environmental protection. Further steps of Serbia toward full EU membership concerning the new energy policy regulatory framework involve implementing and enforcing legislation. Besides considering the issue of Serbian energy policy and degree of its framework's alignment with the EU acquis, this paper provides an overview of new development strategies in the oil sector. The aim of Gazprom neft, a majority owner of the Petroleum industry of Serbia, is to increase crude oil production to 3 million tonnes, refining and sales volume of petroleum products to 5 million tonnes by 2020. Strategic development projects in crude oil and petroleum products transportation are: petroleum product pipeline construction in Serbia and Pan-European oil pipeline. The basic prerequisites for oil supply security, regarding the future high dependency of Serbian economy on imported oil, are establishment of the emergency oil stocks and diversification of supply sources. - Highlight: ► New energy policy regulatory framework significantly complied with EU acquis. ► Full EU membership requires implementing and enforcing new energy legislation. ► NIS-Gazpromneft has defined ambitious oil sector's development programmes to 2020. ► Supply security requires mandatory oil stocks and supply source diversification.

  20. Plant essential oils potency as natural antibiotic in Indonesian medicinal herb of “jamu”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soetjipto, H.; Martono, Y.

    2017-02-01

    The main purposes of this study are to compile antibacterial activity data of essential oils from Indonesian’s plants in order which can be used as a natural antibiotic in “jamu” to increase potential Indonesian medicinal herb. By using Agar Diffusing method, Bioautography and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrum, respectively, antibacterial activity and chemical compounds of 12 plants essential oils were studied in the Natural Product Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Satya Wacana Christian University, Salatiga since 2007 until 2015. The results of this studies showed that all of the essential oils have a medium to a strong antibacterial activity which are in the range of 30 - 2,500 μg and 80-5,000 μg. Further on, the essential oils analyzed by GCMS showed that each essential oils have different dominant compounds. These data can be used as basic doses in the usage of essential oils as natural antibiotics.

  1. Global market trade policy analysis for petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals, crude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagheri, F.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on surveying the custom tariffs imposed on the world export market of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. We obtained the data according to the most updated available data provided online by UNCTAD and World Bank. The results indicate that none of the 142 countries in the world market of this product have imposed non-tariff trade barriers on the import of Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude. The developed countries and the countries with transition economies are the main world import partners. European Union, United States, China, Japan, South Korea, Canada, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, South Africa, Australia, Turkey, Brazil, Sweden and Belarus are the examples and have imposed low custom tariffs on Petroleum Oils and Oils Obtained from Bituminous Minerals, Crude.

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Oil Price Elasticity of the GDP for Policy Analysis: Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiby, Paul Newsome [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bowman, David Charles [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oladosu, Gbadebo A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Uria Martinez, Rocio [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Megan M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Given the important role of oil in economic activities, policy makers are interested in estimates of the potential damage to the economy from oil price shocks, particularly during periods of rapid and large increases that accompany severe shocks. Such estimates are needed to quantify the economic costs of oil price shocks, and to evaluate the potential benefits of alternative policy responses. Although research on the economic impacts of oil price shocks is extensive and has generally found that large increases in oil prices exert negative economic impacts, the range of estimates, summarized by the oil price elasticity of the GDP or other aggregate measure of economic activity, is very wide. There are also conditions under which the relationship between the oil price and the economy could be positive. The range of estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States is typified by averages from the studies of Hamilton (2005, 2012) and Kilian and Vigfusson (2014), in which the implied elasticities were -0.014 to - 0.069 and +0.004 to -0.052, respectively. We employ a meta-regression approach to systematically summarize available estimates of the oil price elasticity of the GDP for oil importing economies, and examine the role of key factors. The resulting regression model was used to estimate the oil price elasticity of the GDP for the United States. Based on this we estimate the mean elasticity for the United States at -0.0238, with a 68% confidence interval of -0.0075 to -0.0402, four quarters after a shock.

  3. Iraq: Oil and Gas Legislation, Revenue Sharing, and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchard, Christopher M

    2007-01-01

    Iraqis continue to debate a package of hydrocarbon sector and revenue sharing legislation that will define the terms for the future management and development of the country's significant oil and natural gas resources...

  4. Biotransformation of natural gas and oil compounds associated with marine oil discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakstad, Odd Gunnar; Almås, Inger K; Krause, Daniel Franklin

    2017-09-01

    Field data from the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) suggested that oxidation of gas compounds stimulated biodegradation of oil compounds in the deep sea plume. We performed experiments with local seawater from a Norwegian fjord to examine if the presence of dissolved gas compounds (methane, ethane and propane) affected biodegradation of volatile oil compounds, and if oil compounds likewise affected gas compound oxidation. The results from the experiment showed comparable oil compound biotransformation rates in seawater at 5 °C between seawater with and without soluble gases. Gas oxidation was not affected by the presence of volatile oil compounds. Contrary to DWH deep sea plume data, propane oxidation was not faster than methane oxidation. These data may reflect variations between biodegradation of oil and gas in seawater environments with different history of oil and gas exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. On the Impact of Policy Uncertainty on Oil Prices: An Asymmetry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Bahmani-Oskooee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has assessed the impact of policy uncertainty on a few macro variables. In this paper, we consider its impact on oil prices. Oil prices are usually determined in global markets by the law of demand and supply. Our concern in this paper is to determine which country’s policy uncertainty measure has an impact on oil prices. Using both the linear and the nonlinear Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL methods, we find that while policy uncertainty measures of Canada, China, Europe, Japan, Russia, South Korea, and the U.S. have short-run effects, short-run effects last into the long-run asymmetric effects only in the case of China. This may reflect the importance and recent surge in China’s engagement in world trade.

  6. Evaluation of restoration alternatives for natural resources injured by oil spills, first edition, October 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This book builds upon previous work in the field of oil spill impact assessment and habitat restoration to assess the technical feasibility and practicability of proactive restoration following oil spills and presents an approach for evaluating tradeoffs between natural recovery and active restoration. The scenarios developed to represent a broad spectrum of possible oil spills were based on selected case studies. The report concludes that in general, available restoration techniques are not very effective for enhancing natural recovery and may in certain cases cause more severe impacts than the oil spill alone

  7. The states/BC oil spill task force - an international model for formulating and influencing public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.; Bones, J.; Dimmick, E.; Kent, L.J.T.; Dunstan, R.; Sutherland, B.

    1993-01-01

    The States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force was established in 1989 to enhance spill coordination among the West Coast states and British Columbia, and to address a number of issues that became apparent during the Nestucca barge and Exxon Valdez oil spills. Task Force members are the directors of the oil spill prevention and response agencies in Alaska, British Columbia, California, Oregon, and Washington. The Task Force has become a national model for facilitating cooperation and building consensus between coastal states and provinces and their federal governments. In October of 1990, the task force issued a report containing a comprehensive set of recommendations addressing oil spill prevention, preparedness, and response. The group had achieved remarkable consensus, and many of the report's recommendations have been included in recent legislation enacted by the member states. The success of the task force's approach to regional coordination has also reduced the need for a proposed Pacific Oceans Resources Interstate Compact, which has been proposed to expand the states' role in areas of regulation that are otherwise federally preempted. The task force has become an effective mechanism for developing vigorous, productive relationships between government agencies, industry, and the public in both the United States and Canada. It has created important linkages between state provincial antifederal regulatory activities; for example, by providing input to Coast Guard and EPA rulemaking that implemented the Oil Pollution Act of 1990. The task force is continuing to advance its goals of promoting public policy on oil spill prevention; cooperative management of major spills by government and industry; protection of the states provincial rights and their natural and economic resources; and inter-governmental consistency in regulations adopted for oil spill prevention, contingency planning, and resource damage assessment

  8. Restructuring the oil segment in South America: public policy, private capital and energy integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorotti, A.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Tiomno Tolmasquim, M.; Alveal, C.

    2006-01-01

    The World Oil Industry (WOI) developed through two types of economic organization, built up around vertically integrated and internationalized enterprises: the US model, based on private international firms, and the model centered on setting up State-run enterprises, initially in the United Kingdom, Argentina and Mexico. However, from the first oil crisis (1973) onwards, the World Oil Industry has gradually been un-bundled through nationalization and the loss of control over the reserves by the oil majors. With this new configuration of the industry, from the 1980's onwards, the strategies of the major international oil companies focused on developing the spot market, while lowering investment and operating costs, introducing correlated diversification strategies, and enhancing industrial concentration through mergers and acquisitions and/or cooperation agreements between companies. The core purpose of these strategic shifts is to obtain control over new oil field areas. The restructuring processes of national oil industries all over the world - particularly in South America - constituted an important drive aligned with these new guidelines, headed up by the global oil operators. This paper analyzes the changes in the South American oil sector during the 1990's, analyzing aspects involved in awarding mineral rights in the upstream segment. Despite similar policies, market deregulation processes follow different patterns. However, the most significant aspect is an increase in the presence of international private capital in the dynamics of this sector, mainly in regional energy integration processes. (authors)

  9. Regulatory policies for using oil dispersants in the Barents Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Belkina

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of dispersants requires assessment of which environmental values are at stake. In the Barents Sea this issue is of high concern as large oil spills can cause transboundary pollution, affecting the interests of two neighbouring countries. The Joint Contingency Plan in the Barents Sea does not set any specific requirements for use of dispersants and lets Norway and Russia follow their national procedures. The Plan emphasizes that in case of transboundary pollution the decision to use dispersants shall only be undertaken upon common agreement. The paper presents a comparison of the national regulatory approaches of Norway and Russia to using dispersants. The research is based on the analysis of legislative documents and interviews with oil companies, oil spill responders and relevant national authorities. The research reveals that in both countries use of dispersants requires preliminary authorization of the national agencies. In Norway the pre-approval procedure and the algorithm of dispersants involvement in response to a real accident are clearly documented and are regularly tested. This has made the process of approval for using dispersants more efficient. In Russia the lack of practical experience in using dispersants and well-established approval procedures can result in a long and unclear permitting process for each oil spill case. This could seriously hinder the use of dispersants to combat transboundary pollution in the Barents Sea, even if it is considered to be beneficial. We conclude that the development of a harmonized approach for dispersants use in the Barents Sea should be thoroughly assessed.

  10. STRUCTURING DEFENSE POLICIES FOR THE DEFENSE AND CONTROL OF STRATEGIC NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIEL DE PAULA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a reconfiguration of a new geopolitical scenario. This new scenario focus on the assessment about strategic natural resources (oil, gas and water, and less important, biodiversity, food and fertile land and its spatial condition (the resources are in a territory which is politically defined by boundaries or zone of influence. The scenario in South America is not far from that international dynamic, which affects in different levels the strategic lines of national defense policies in Brazil, Venezuela and (in less degree Argentina. In that way, competence and confluence scenarios are defined, which may have variability in the conflict level, such as a military confrontation or cooperation mechanisms (as the South America Defense Council. These scenarios are geographically located in: oil and gas basins, Amazonas, water resources, Antarctica, Atlantic Ocean and fertile land. The defense strategies set parameters for the design of the armed forces, as far as the hypothesis of conflicts above-mentioned applied. Thus, the defense administration reconfigured the capabilities of the Armed Forces (logistic, personnel, doctrine, resources, surveillance, in order to achieve the mission of control the regions where availability of natural resources exists.

  11. Natural Resources, Oil and Economic Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Janda, Karel; Quarshie, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the natural resource curse in countries in sub-Saharan Africa and it highlights the role of institutionalised authority. The paper first provides a comprehensive literature review of natural resource curse, Dutch disease and the role of oil resources in resource curse. This is follow by the description of the relevant economic factors in sub-Saharan Africa, which is taken as prime example of the region with both important oil and other natural resources and...

  12. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, R. Y.H.; Siswanto, J.; Simatupang, T.; Bahagia, S.N.

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO) and refined palm oil (RPO), each has different added value. The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach. (Author)

  13. The ACEGES laboratory for energy policy: Exploring the production of crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voudouris, Vlasios; Stasinopoulos, Dimitrios; Rigby, Robert; Di Maio, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    An agent-based computational laboratory for exploratory energy policy by means of controlled computational experiments is proposed. It is termed the ACEGES (agent-based computational economics of the global energy system). In particular, it is shown how agent-based modelling and simulation can be applied to understand better the challenging outlook for oil production by accounting for uncertainties in resource estimates, demand growth, production growth and peak/decline point. The approach emphasises the idea that the oil system is better modelled not as black-box abode of 'the invisible hand' but as a complex system whose macroscopic explananda emerges from the interactions of its constituent components. Given the estimated volumes of oil originally present before any extraction, simulations show that on average the world peak of crude oil production may happen in the broad vicinity of the time region between 2008 and 2027. Using the proposed petroleum market diversity, the market diversity weakness rapidly towards the peak year. - Highlights: → Development of oil scenarios using computational experiments. → Support of energy policy using agent-based modelling and simulation. → Demonstration of the agent-based computational economics of the global energy system (ACEGES) policy-support tool. → Energy policy by means of evidence-based forward-looking probabilistic forecasts.

  14. Modeling policy mix to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian palm oil industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Y H Silitonga

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this research is to develop a model that will explain the impact of government policies to the competitiveness of palm oil industry. The model involves two commodities in this industry, namely crude palm oil (CPO and refined palm oil (RPO, each has different added value. Design/methodology/approach: The model built will define the behavior of government in controlling palm oil industry, and their interactions with macro-environment, in order to improve the competitiveness of the industry. Therefore the first step was to map the main activities in this industry using value chain analysis. After that a conceptual model was built, where the output of the model is competitiveness of the industry based on market share. The third step was model formulation. The model is then utilized to simulate the policy mix given by government in improving the competitiveness of Palm Oil Industry. Research limitations/implications: The model was developed using only some policies which give direct impact to the competitiveness of the industry. For macro environment input, only price is considered in this model. Practical implications: The model can simulate the output of the industry for various government policies mix given to the industry. Originality/value: This research develops a model that can represent the structure and relationship between industry, government and macro environment, using value chain analysis and hierarchical multilevel system approach.

  15. Natural phenolics greatly increase flax (Linum usitatissimum) oil stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasiewicz-Derkacz, Karolina; Kulma, Anna; Czuj, Tadeusz; Prescha, Anna; Żuk, Magdalena; Grajzer, Magdalena; Łukaszewicz, Marcin; Szopa, Jan

    2015-06-30

    Flaxseed oil is characterized by high content of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) promoted as a human dietary supplement protecting against atherosclerosis. The disadvantage of the high PUFA content in flax oil is high susceptibility to oxidation, which can result in carcinogenic compound formation. Linola flax cultivar is characterized by high linoleic acid content in comparison to traditional flax cultivars rich in linolenic acid. The changes in fatty acid proportions increase oxidative stability of Linola oil and broaden its use as an edible oil for cooking. However one of investigated transgenic lines has high ALA content making it suitable as omega-3 source. Protection of PUFA oxidation is a critical factor in oil quality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of phenylpropanoid contents on the oil properties important during the whole technological process from seed storage to grinding and oil pressing, which may influence health benefits as well as shelf-life, and to establish guidelines for the selection of new cultivars. The composition of oils was determined by chromatographic (GS-FID and LC-PDA-MS) methods. Antioxidant properties of secondary metabolites were analyzed by DPPH method. The stability of oils was investigated: a) during regular storage by measuring acid value peroxide value p-anisidine value malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes and trienes; b) by using accelerated rancidity tests by TBARS reaction; c) by thermoanalytical - differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In one approach, in order to increase oil stability, exogenous substances added are mainly lipid soluble antioxidants from the isoprenoid pathway, such as tocopherol and carotene. The other approach is based on transgenic plant generation that accumulates water soluble compounds. Increased accumulation of phenolic compounds in flax seeds was achieved by three different strategies that modify genes coding for enzymes from the phenylpropanoid pathway. The three

  16. Status of Oil and Natural Gas in the World and Turkey, and Studies conducted at ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onur, Mustafa

    2006-01-01

    Energy and its appropriate deployment are the most critical of all wealth generating activities, and they are the most important modern indicators of the wealth and poverty of nations. Humankind and energy will merge in an unbreakable bond for the entire future of humankind. Without dispute, the petroleum and natural gas industry is the world's largest energy sector and the second largest of the world's industries. Today, oil and gas account for 61 percent (39% oil and 24% natural gas) of the world's energy consumption. Including coal's 30 percent share, the hydrocarbon mix comprises more than 90 percent of the world's needs. Since the 19th century, the petroleum industry, including exploration, production, transportation (marine+pipeline), refinery, and marketing, have caused world changes, determined destiny of humankind, and generated immense wealth for both producers and users. It is also an accepted fact that the oil and natural gas will continue to be dominating energy sources, particularly as transportation fuels, for the world's energy needs, and will continue to cause world changes during the 21st century, at least for the next 25 years. Regarding Turkey's role in petroleum and natural gas, the figures are as follows: At the end of 2005, the proved oil and natural gas reserves of Turkey are reported as 1.2 million barrels (∼165.4 million tonnes) and 14.3 billion m 3 , respectively. When these figures are compared with the corresponding world's proved oil and natural gas reserves, which are 1.2 trillion barrels and 179.5 trillion m 3 , respectively, it is clear that Turkey's oil and natural gas reserves comprises only a very small portion of the world's corresponding reserves. Approximately only 8% and 3% of Turkey's oil and natural gas consumption are produced from domestic sources. At the end of 2005, Turkey's oil and natural gas productions from its domestic sources are 17 million barrels When considering the current high oil and natural gas prices (

  17. The U.S. natural gas and oil resource base is abundant; but can we produce what the country needs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies agree that the United States has abundant resources of gas and oil left to find and produce over the next 50--75 years -- if its exploration and production companies are given the resources to do the job. The NPC's estimate of 1,295 TCF of natural gas (advanced technology case) represents a resource/present production ration of 68 years. A similar estimate for oil gives 62 years. Furthermore, these resource estimates have been increasing through the 1980s, as the effects of new geological, geophysical, and engineering technologies has become more apparent. However, only 30% of this tremendous resource will be available under today's business-as-usual economic regime. The rest of the resource will be accessed if: (1) tax policies (and financial and trade policies) are adopted to stabilize prices and stimulate exploration and production (estimated 27% of the resource base); (2) technology is developed, transferred, and used (17%); (3) environmental regulation is held to a balanced level, considers economic costs as well as environmental benefits, and is applied consistently (13%); (4) access to Federal lands is eased for environmentally responsible drilling and development (13%). To convert America's gas and oil resources into delivered products in a timely manner, assuring the nation's gas users of a reliable supply -- and contribute up to $8.7 trillion to the nation's economy -- a doubling of industry effort is required, even at today's high levels of finding and producing efficiency. Coordinated action by industry, government, and the investment community is required to secure the future development of energy supplies. Government in particular must develop policies that encourage the needed investment in America's natural gas and oil

  18. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters

    OpenAIRE

    Bacosa, Hernando P.; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L.

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH ...

  19. Extraction and characterization of oil bodies from soy beans: a natural source of pre-emulsified soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Daigo; Gray, David A; Fisk, Ian D; Decker, Eric Andrew; Weiss, Jochen; McClements, David Julian

    2007-10-17

    Soybeans contain oil bodies that are coated by a layer of oleosin proteins. In nature, this protein coating protects the oil bodies from environmental stresses and may be utilized by food manufacturers for the same purpose. In this study, oil bodies were extracted from soybean using an aqueous extraction method that involved blending, dispersion (pH 8.6), filtration, and centrifugation steps. The influence of NaCl (0-250 mM), thermal processing (30-90 degrees C, 20 min) and pH (2-8) on the properties and stability of the oil bodies was analyzed using zeta-potential, particle size, and creaming stability measurements. The extracted oil bodies were relatively small ( d 32 approximately 250 nm), and their zeta-potential went from around +12 mV to -20 mV as the pH was increased from 2 to 8, with an isoelectric point around pH 4. The oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at low (pH = 2) and high (pH >/= 6) pH values but were unstable at intermediate values (3 oil bodies were stable to aggregation and creaming at relatively low salt concentrations (NaCl oil bodies were stable to thermal processing from 30 to 90 degrees C (0 mM NaCl, pH 7), but there appeared to be a change in their interfacial properties (decrease in zeta-potential) at temperatures exceeding 60 degrees C. These results suggest that oil bodies extracted from soybeans have similar or improved stability compared to soybean oil emulsions produced from bulk ingredients and may provide a new way of creating functional soy products for the food industry.

  20. Stealth and Natural Disasters: Science, Policy and Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffer, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    Geophysicists, earth scientists, and other natural scientists play a key role in studying disasters, and are challenged to convey the science to the public and policy makers (including government and business). I have found it useful to introduce the concept of two general types of disasters to these audiences: natural and stealth. Natural disasters are geological phenomena over which we humans have some, but relatively little, control. Earthquakes, tsunamis, floods and volcanic eruptions are the most familiar examples, but exogenous events such as meteorite impacts, solar flares, and supernovae are also possibly disruptive. Natural disasters typically have an abrupt onset, cause immediate major change, are familiar from the historic record, and get much media and public attention. They cannot be prevented, but preplanning can ameliorate their effects. Natural disasters are increasingly amplified by us (humans), and we are increasingly affected by them due to our expanding presence on the planet. Less familiar disasters are unfolding in the near-term, but they are not happening in the minds of most people. They are approaching us stealthily, and for this reason I propose that we call them stealth disasters. They differ from natural disasters in several important ways: stealth disasters are primarily caused by, or driven by, the interaction of humans with complex cycles of processes on the planet. Examples are: fresh water shortages and contamination, soil degradation and loss, climate changes, ocean degradation. The onset of stealth disasters is incremental rather than abrupt. They may not unfold significantly during the course of one term of political office, but they are unfolding in our lifetime. We as individuals may or may not escape their consequences, but they will affect our children and grandchildren. If humans are familiar with stealth disasters at all, it is from a relatively local experience, e.g., flooding of the Mississippi or the Dust Bowl in the U

  1. Lipid oxidation in base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion: Impact of natural antioxidants and emulsifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bingcan; Rao, Jiajia; Ding, Yangping; McClements, David Julian; Decker, Eric Andrew

    2016-07-01

    The impact of natural hydrophilic antioxidants, metal chelators, and hydrophilic antioxidant/metal chelator mixture on the oxidative stability of base algae oil and water-in-algae oil emulsion was investigated. The results showed that green tea extract and ascorbic acid had greatest protective effect against algae oil oxidation and generated four day lag phase, whereas rosmarinic acid, grape seed extract, grape seed extract polymer, deferoxamine (DFO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) had no significant protective effect. Besides, there was no synergistic effect observed between natural antioxidants and ascorbic acid. The emulsifiers are critical to the physicochemical stability of water-in-algae oil emulsions. Polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PGPR) promoted the oxidation of emulsion. Conversely, the protective effect on algae oil oxidation was appreciated when defatted soybean lecithin (PC 75) or defatted lyso-lecithin (Lyso-PC) was added. The role of hydrophilic antioxidants in emulsion was similar to that in algae oil except EDTA which demonstrated strong antioxidative effect in emulsion. The results could provide information to build up stable food products containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Natural gas utilization in the electricity sector in a framework of supporting an energy diversification policy: the case of Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudiyanto Wahyuputro, B.

    1992-01-01

    Although the Government of Indonesia (GOI) has been trying to balance its economy, oil and gas (MIGAS) sector still has an important role. The revenue from exporting oil has been needed to sustain national economic development. For that reason, the GOI has determined to diversify and to develop alternative energy resources for domestic consumption. The alternative energy resources available are classified into non-renewable energy resources such as natural gas and coal; and renewable energy resources such as geothermal, biomass, solar energy, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), etc. Natural gas is one of the potential non-renewable energy resources available in Indonesia abundantly. The total potential reserves in Indonesia is estimated about 109.1 TSCF, which is including proven reserve of 80.2 TSCF. By the estimated production level of 2.0 TSCF per year for the fiscal year 1993/1994, these proven reserves can be still produced for 30 years more. Besides the reserves is available abundantly, the other advantage in developing natural gas for domestic consumption is a 'clean energy' rather than other fossil fuels. So that, it should be promoted to support the energy diversification and the clean environment policies. In the other side, electricity sector has a bigger opportunity than other sectors in supporting the energy diversification policy. There are several kinds of power generating plant which utilize various types of primary energy such as oil, gas, coal, geothermal, and hydro. Nevertheless, until this moment the utilization of natural gas in the electricity sector is still low of 15 percent. Recently, the growth of electricity demand in Indonesia is very high, especially in the Java-Bali grid system. There is a wide chance for natural gas to improve its role in electricity sector, and there is an economic variable which will determine the development of natural gas reserve, that is natural gas price itself. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Assessment of Uinta Basin Oil and Natural Gas Well Pad Pneumatic Controller Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the fall of 2016, a field study was conducted in the Uinta Basin Utah to improve information on oil and natural gas well pad pneumatic controllers (PCs) and emission measurement methods. A total of 80 PC systems at five oil sites (supporting six wells) and three gas sites (sup...

  4. Macro policy responses to oil booms and busts in the United Arab Emirates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutawa, A.K.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of oil shocks and macro policy changes in the United Arab Emirates are analyzed. A theoretical model is developed within the framework of the Dutch Disease literature. It contains four unique features that are applicable to the United Arab Emirates' economy. There are: (1) the presence of a large foreign labor force; (2) OPEC's oil export quotas; (3) the division of oil profits; and (4) the important role of government expenditures. The model is then used to examine the welfare effects of the above-mentioned shocks. An econometric model is then specified that conforms to the analytical model. In the econometric model the method of 'principal components' is applied owing to the undersized sample data. The principal components methodology is used in both the identification testing and the estimation of the structural equations. The oil and macro policy shocks are then simulated. The simulation results show that an oil-quantity boom leads to a higher welfare gain than an oil-price boom. Under certain circumstances, this finding is also confirmed by the comparative statistics that follow from the analytical model

  5. Tax policy can change the production path: A model of optimal oil extraction in Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    We model the economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for seven production units (fields) on Alaska's North Slope. We use adjustment cost and discount rate to calibrate the model against historical production data, and use the calibrated model to simulate the impact of tax policy on production rate. We construct field-specific cost functions from average cost data and an estimated inverse production function, which incorporates engineering aspects of oil production into our economic modeling. Producers appear to have approximated dynamic optimality. Consistent with prior research, we find that changing the tax rate alone does not change the economically optimal oil production path, except for marginal fields that may cease production. Contrary to prior research, we find that the structure of tax policy can be designed to affect the economically optimal production path, but at a cost in net social benefit. - Highlights: ► We model economically optimal dynamic oil production decisions for 7 Alaska fields. ► Changing tax rate alone does not alter the economically optimal oil production path. ► But change in tax structure can affect the economically optimal oil production path. ► Tax structures that modify the optimal production path reduce net social benefit. ► Field-specific cost functions and inverse production functions are estimated

  6. The Impact of United States Monetary Policy in the Crude Oil futures market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Padilla, Fernando M.

    This research examines the empirical impact the United States monetary policy, through the federal fund interest rate, has on the volatility in the crude oil price in the futures market. Prior research has shown how macroeconomic events and variables have impacted different financial markets within short and long--term movements. After testing and decomposing the variables, the two stationary time series were analyzed using a Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR). The empirical evidence shows, with statistical significance, a direct relationship when explaining crude oil prices as function of fed fund rates (t-1) and an indirect relationship when explained as a function of fed fund rates (t-2). These results partially address the literature review lacunas within the topic of the existing implication monetary policy has within the crude oil futures market.

  7. Naturally occurring asbestos-A recurring public policy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, R.J.; Strohmeier, B.R. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States); Bunker, K.L. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States)], E-mail: klbunker@rjlg.com; Van Orden, D.R. [RJ Lee Group, Inc., 350 Hochberg Road, Monroeville, PA 15146 (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  8. Naturally occurring asbestos-A recurring public policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.J.; Strohmeier, B.R.; Bunker, K.L.; Van Orden, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  9. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  10. Methane’s Role in Promoting Sustainable Development in the Oil and Natural Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document summarizes a number of established methods to identify, measure and reduce methane emissions from a variety of equipment and processes in oil and gas production and natural gas processing and transmission facilities.

  11. A Survey of the Literature on Local Content Policies in the Oil and Gas Industry in East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilenye Nwapi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although oil and gas exploration has been going on in East Africa for decades, until recently exploration activities grew more slowly compared to other regions in Africa. Today, there has been a series of oil and gas discoveries in several East African countries, including Kenya, Madagascar, Mozambique, Tanzania and Uganda. Debate is however mounting over what effect the new oil and gas discoveries would have on East Africa, given the trajectory of older oil-producing countries in Africa, particularly Angola, Nigeria and Sudan. The challenge for East Africa is, therefore, how to maximize the potential benefits from the resources to avoid the under-developmental path that these other countries followed. There is general consensus that lack of specialized skills is a major obstacle to Africa’s realization of its resource potentials. One instrument currently being adopted by most oil and gas resource-rich countries (both in and outside Africa to deal with the skills problem and to enhance linkages between the oil and gas sector and other sectors of the economy is the formulation of local content policies (LCPs. Typically, LCPs require companies to give preferential treatment to nationals of the country in which they operate in matters of employment and in the procurement of goods and services. It is believed that this would result in technology transfer and facilitate the ability of the country to take charge of its own development. But LCPs come with certain tradeoffs: Their potential incompatibility with international trade agreements threatens their sustenance; they can create unrealistic expectations capable of discouraging investment; and they are easily prone to corruption. However, there is a strong case for emerging oil and gas-producing East African countries to consider adopting the LCP. The nascent nature of the oil and gas industry in the region means that these countries would not have the technical and even managerial expertise to

  12. Advancing Understanding of Emissions from Oil and Natural ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Executive Summary Environmentally responsible development of oil and gas assets requires well-developed emissions inventories and measurement techniques to verify emissions and the effectiveness of control strategies. To accurately model the oil and gas sector impacts on air quality, it is critical to have accurate activity data, emission factors and chemical speciation profiles for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). This report describes a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Research and Development (ORD) Region 8 Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) effort executed in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 to FY 2016 that aimed to improve information on upstream oil and production emissions and identify areas where future work is needed. The project involved both field activities and data analysis and synthesis work with emphasis on product-related VOC emissions from well pads. In oil and gas basins with significant condensate and oil production, VOC emissions from well pads primarily arise from the separation of gas and liquid products and the storage process, with the control of emissions usually accomplished by enclosed combustion devices (ECDs), such as flares. Fugitive emissions of VOCs can originate from leaks and from potentially ineffective control systems. In the case of ECDs, byproducts of incomplete combustion may produce more highly reactive ozone precursor species. For both compliance and scientific purposes, the abili

  13. 14 CFR 399.4 - Nature and effect of policy statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature and effect of policy statements. 399.4 Section 399.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Statements § 399.4 Nature and effect of policy statements. Policy statements published in this part will be...

  14. Rethink potential risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2018-09-01

    Studies have showed the increasing environmental and public health risks of toxic emissions from natural gas and oil mining, which have become even worse as fracking is becoming a dominant approach in current natural gas extraction. However, governments and communities often overlook the serious air pollutants from oil and gas mining, which are often quantified lower than the significant levels of adverse health effects. Therefore, we are facing a challenging dilemma: how could we clearly understand the potential risks of air toxics from natural gas and oil mining. This short study aims at the design and application of simple and robust methods to enhance and improve current understanding of the becoming worse toxic air emissions from natural gas and oil mining as fracking is becoming the major approach. Two simple ratios, the min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average, are designed and applied to each type of air pollutants in a natural gas and oil mining region. The two ratios directly indicate how significantly high a type of air pollutant could be due to natural gas and oil mining by comparing it to the national average records, although it may not reach the significant risks of adverse health effects according to current risk screening methods. The min-to-national-average and the max-to-national-average ratios can be used as a direct and powerful method to describe the significance of air pollution by comparing it to the national average. The two ratios are easy to use for governments, stakeholders, and the public to pay enough attention on the air pollutants from natural gas and oil mining. The two ratios can also be thematically mapped at sampled sites for spatial monitoring, but spatial mitigation and analysis of environmental and health risks need other measurements of environmental and demographic characteristics across a natural gas and oil mining area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nature preservation acceptance model applied to tanker oil spill simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Hansen, Peter; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2003-01-01

    is exemplified by a study of oil spills due to simulated tanker collisions in the Danish straits. It is found that the distribution of the oil spill volume per spill is well represented by an exponential distribution both in Oeresund and in Great Belt. When applied in the Poisson model, a risk profile reasonably...... acceptance criterion for the pollution of the environment. This NPWI acceptance criterion is applied to the oil spill example....... be defined in a similar way as the so-called Life Quality Index defined by Nathwani et al [Nathwani JS, Lind NC, Padey MD. Affordable safety by choice: the life quality method. Institute for Risk Research, University of Waterloo; Waterloo (Ontario, Canada):1997], and can be used to quantify the risk...

  16. Grape pomace extracts derived from Midwestern grapes as natural antioxidants in edible oil and oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural antioxidants to extend the shelf life and fry life of edible oils are in high demand. Wine grapes are widely cultivated around the world, and the grape pomace generated during the winemaking process is an abundant, inexpensive, and often discarded source of polyphenolic antioxidants. We exam...

  17. Oil and natural gas prospects: Middle East and North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    The MENA region is endowed with enormous resources of oil and gas, rendering it the world′s richest region in this regard. Endowment differs from one country to another with few countries are almost dry; however the economic benefits proliferated to almost every country in the region. In spite of some doubts being cast about the amount of proven oil reserves, these with improved technology and new discoveries are increasing year after another. With no long term feasible alternatives to oil for transport and the increasing trade in LNG, the region′s importance as a world′s leading supplier of fossil fuels will continue for decades to come. However, these favourable prospects hide many challenges facing the MENA region, among them is the difficulty in mobilizing investment funds for sustaining and increasing output to feed growing global demand. Growing local demand, due to the proliferation of subsides, is another worrying aspect that already caused few countries with modest resources to become oil importers instead of exporters, with larger exporters decreasing their surplus output. The region is also still mainly dependant on foreign technologies and skilled manpower. Regional cooperation in oil and gas networks and electricity interconnections is still modest. The region has a long history of conflict; correspondingly it is a major importer of armaments which is increasingly eating a lot of its surplus income. With the political and social changes presently taking place in many MENA countries, due to the Arab spring and continuation of local conflicts, the sustainability of supplies from the region are increasingly a source of worry to MENA exporters and its many importers. It is also causing increasing involvement of the super powers in regional affairs. - Highlights: • Global oil and gas reserves and prices. • Energy sustainability and the Middle East. • Energy economics and investments in the Middle East

  18. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes using natural carbon precursor: Castor oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raziah, A. Z.; Junizah, A. R.; Saifuddin, N.

    2012-09-01

    Castor oil has long been an article of commerce due to its versatility as it is widely used as a starting material for many industrial chemical products because of its unique structure. In this study, carbon nanotubes has been synthesized by thermal decomposition of castor oil in nitrogen atmosphere at 300-400δC using custom-made microwave processing unit. The precursor material was catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene. The morphology and characterization of the CNTs were studied and discussed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM).

  19. Profiling and quantification of phenolic compounds in Camellia seed oils: Natural tea polyphenols in vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoqin; Zeng, Qiumei; Del Mar Contreras, María; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-12-01

    In Asia, tea seed oils (seed oils from Camellia oleifera, C. chekiangoleosa, and C. sinensis) are used in edible, medicinal, and cosmetic applications. However, these oils differ in their fatty acid contents, and there is little known about their phenolic compounds. Here we analyzed the phenolic compounds of seed oils from three species gathered from 15 regions of China. Twenty-four phenolic compounds were characterized by HPLC-Q-TOF-MS, including benzoic acids (6), cinnamic acids (6), a hydroxyphenylacetic acid, flavanols (4), flavonols (3), flavones (2), and dihydroflavonoids (2). Some of these phenolic compounds had not previously been reported from C. sinensis (20), C. oleifera (15), and C. chekiangoleosa (24) seed oils. Quantification was done by HPLC-QqQ-MS using 24 chemical standards. The total concentrations in the studied samples ranged from 20.56 to 88.56μg/g. Phenolic acids were the most abundant class, accounting for 76.2-90.4%, with benzoic acid, found at up to 18.87μg/g. The concentration of catechins, typical of tea polyphenols, ranged between 2.1% and 9.7%, while the other flavonoids varied from 4.2% to 17.8%. Although the cultivation region affected the phenolic composition of the Camellia seed oils, in our hierarchical clustering analysis, the samples clustered according to species. The phenolic composition of the seed oils from C. oleifera and C. chekiangoelosa were similar. We found that the phenolic categories in Camellia seed oils were similar to tea polyphenols, thereby identifying a source of liposoluble tea polyphenols and potentially accounting for some of the reported activities of these oils. In addition, this work provides basic data that allows distinction of various Camellia seed oils, as well as improvements to be made in their quality standards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Oil policies and privatization strategies in Mexico: implications for the petrochemical sector and its production spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, N.M.

    2004-01-01

    Through a retrospective analysis of Mexico's oil history, this work examines the privatization processes that occurred in the petrochemical sector, from the abolishment of the government's monopoly, Petroleos Mexicanos (PEMEX) during the 1980s, until the restructuring and open liberalization in the early 1990s, focusing on the areas incorporated to production processes, particularly along the Gulf coast. As a result of the industrial policies and regional development strategies promoted by the government from the sixties, oriented towards strengthening production in areas with the highest potential, attractive business investment areas were developed. These included southern Tamaulipas, a strategic region where a number of industrial factors facilitated access to raw materials at competitive prices, as well as their processing and distribution to local and international markets, all of these within a single location. The strategic nature of the petrochemical location and production have made southern Tamaulipas a key factor for the territorial shaping and industrial development linked to the behavior of transnational companies that, seeking comparative advantages, have relocated parts of their production capacity in this region

  1. Economic growth to raise U.S. oil products, natural gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    An accelerating economy will raise consumption of oil products and natural gas in the US this year. Contributing to demand growth will be the slump that began late last year in prices for crude oil and petroleum products. Some price recovery is likely in 1994, but there's little reason to expect a major increase. With oil production falling and demand rising, imports will have to climb again this year. OGJ projects a 2.6% increase this year following a 6.6% increase last year. Imports are expected to fill a record high 49.3% of US oil demand this year. The paper discusses energy and the economy, overall energy use, energy by source, the electrification trend, energy supplies, imports, refining operations, the growth of margins, and the energy demand of motor gasoline, jet fuel, distillate fuels, residual fuel oils, other petroleum products, and natural gas

  2. Design and evaluation of novel topical formulation with olive oil as natural functional active.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto

    2017-07-03

    Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.

  3. Effect of Temperature Shock and Inventory Surprises on Natural Gas and Heating Oil Futures Returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, John Wei-Shan; Lin, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the impact of temperature shock on both near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns by extending the weather and storage models of the previous study. Several notable findings from the empirical studies are presented. First, the expected temperature shock significantly and positively affects both the near-month and far-month natural gas and heating oil futures returns. Next, significant temperature shock has effect on both the conditional mean and volatility of natural gas and heating oil prices. The results indicate that expected inventory surprises significantly and negatively affects the far-month natural gas futures returns. Moreover, volatility of natural gas futures returns is higher on Thursdays and that of near-month heating oil futures returns is higher on Wednesdays than other days. Finally, it is found that storage announcement for natural gas significantly affects near-month and far-month natural gas futures returns. Furthermore, both natural gas and heating oil futures returns are affected more by the weighted average temperature reported by multiple weather reporting stations than that reported by a single weather reporting station. PMID:25133233

  4. Oil price, government policies fuel industry's shift from U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silas, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The world exploration outlook starts with the outlook for the price of oil. This paper reports that oil prices and government policies for fuel industries shift from the U.S. If we've learned anything in the past decade it's that we're not very good at predicting oil prices. We can build economic models of supply and demand but we can't build models for political events in the Middle East or the actions of someone like Saddam Hussein. As we look to 2000 our best estimate is that oil will remain at about $20 for the near term and move upward very gradually during the rest of the decade. Of course, rising demand eventually should cause oil prices to break out and show some strength. But not soon. We don't see oil prices overcoming inflation until the latter part of the decade. And we aren't expecting oil prices much above $25 in inflation adjusted terms until the next century

  5. Overseas oil-development policy of resource-poor countries: A case study from Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masanari; Mogi, Gento; Albedaiwi, Waleed H.

    2008-01-01

    Japan, currently the world's third largest oil consumer, depends on imports for almost all of its oil needs. Owing to this high level of dependence, Japanese citizens as well as the economy have historically been vulnerable. In the past, certain incidents caused by the interruption of oil imports have resulted in fatal damages to the country. In order to reduce these risks, the Japanese government has supported overseas exploration and development activities of the domestic upstream oil industry, which has not proven as successful as expected. This paper presents the experiences, policies, and the structure of Japan's attempts to increase the share of domestic oil needs met by development activities. While conducting this study, both internal and external constraints were encountered. In addition to the lack of domestic oil reserves, factors including the institutional design of cooperation between government and private industries, the early history of the upstream industry, the target area of overseas development, and the changing environment have created impediments toward achieving the targets. In 2006, Japan again set a new target for doubling the ratio of self-developed oil in its total imports by 2030, and will face challenges in clearing the above-mentioned hurdles

  6. Natural oils affect the human skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid dose-dependently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2006-01-01

    three natural oils (eucalyptus oil, tea tree oil, peppermint oil) would affect the skin integrity and the percutaneous penetration of benzoic acid when applied topically in relevant concentrations. An experimental in vitro model using static diffusion cells mounted with human breast or abdominal skin...

  7. The State Policy for Natural Gas Sector / Sektor Gazu Ziemnego W Polityce Państwa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szurlej, Adam

    2013-09-01

    This article reviews the state policy for natural gas sector. A particular attention has been given to how the assumptions of gas demand, import volumes and gas production from domestic reserves have developed in strategic documents. The restructuring of natural gas sector has been brought closer on the example of PGNiG S.A. (Polish Oil and Gas Company), and changes in the domestic gas market resulting from the implementation of EU law have been discussed as well. Major changes in the domestic gas market in the period of 1990-2011 have been presented along with the cooperation between Poland and Russia regarding the natural gas supply for the Polish market. W artykule dokonano przeglądu polityki państwa wobec sektora gazu ziemnego. W sposób szczególny przeanalizowano jak kształtowały się w dokumentach strategicznych prognozy w zakresie zapotrzebowania na gaz, wielkości importu i wydobycia gazu ze złóż krajowych. Przybliżono także restrukturyzację sektora gazu ziemnego na przykładzie PGNiG oraz zmiany na krajowym rynku gazu wynikające z implementacji prawa UE. Wskazano najważniejsze zmiany na krajowym rynku gazu ziemnego w latach 1990-2011 oraz scharakteryzowano współpracę polsko - rosyjską w zakresie dostaw gazu do Polski.

  8. Utilizing natural gas huff and puff to enhance production in heavy oil reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenlong, G.; Shuhong, W.; Jian, Z.; Xialin, Z. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China); Jinzhong, L.; Xiao, M. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China)

    2008-10-15

    The L Block in the north structural belt of China's Tuha Basin is a super deep heavy oil reservoir. The gas to oil ratio (GOR) is 12 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3} and the initial bubble point pressure is only 4 MPa. The low production can be attributed to high oil viscosity and low flowability. Although steam injection is the most widely method for heavy oil production in China, it is not suitable for the L Block because of its depth. This paper reviewed pilot tests in which the natural gas huff and puff process was used to enhance production in the L Block. Laboratory experiments that included both conventional and unconventional PVT were conducted to determine the physical property of heavy oil saturated by natural gas. The experiments revealed that the heavy oil can entrap the gas for more than several hours because of its high viscosity. A pseudo bubble point pressure exists much lower than the bubble point pressure in manmade foamy oils, which is relative to the depressurization rate. Elastic energy could be maintained in a wider pressure scope than natural depletion without gas injection. A special experimental apparatus that can stimulate the process of gas huff and puff in the reservoir was also introduced. The foamy oil could be seen during the huff and puff experiment. Most of the oil flowed to the producer in a pseudo single phase, which is among the most important mechanisms for enhancing production. A pilot test of a single well demonstrated that the oil production increased from 1 to 2 cubic metres per day to 5 to 6 cubic metres per day via the natural gas huff and puff process. The stable production period which was 5 to 10 days prior to huff and puff, was prolonged to 91 days in the first cycle and 245 days in the second cycle. 10 refs., 1 tab., 12 figs.

  9. Understanding the oil palm change in Nong Khai Province: the farmers perspectives and the policy processes of the oil palm plantations

    OpenAIRE

    Sethaputra, Kampree

    2014-01-01

    Since 2005, the Thai government has, as a matter of policy, been seeking to increase production of biodiesel from oil palms. As a result, the number of oil palm plantations in the Northeast region has been growing, particularly in Nong Khai province. Nong Khai is a relatively remote, predominantly agricultural area and is the field site for this research. However, oil palm production is a complex and hotly contested issue both globally and in Thailand and it has ardent critics and supporters....

  10. Technology transfer to US oil producers: A policy tool to sustain or increase oil production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, W. T.

    1990-03-01

    The Department of Energy provided the Interstate Oil Compact Commission with a grant to identify and evaluate existing technology transfer channels to operators, to devise and test improvements or new technology transfer channels and to make recommendations as to how the Department of Energy's oil and gas technology transfer methods could be improved. The IOCC conducted this effort in a series of four tasks: a structural analysis to characterize the oil producing industry according to operator production size class, geographic location, awareness and use of reservoir management technologies, and strategies for adding reserves and replacing produced reserves; targeted interviews conducted with some 300 oil and gas industry participants to identify current technology transfer channels and their relative usefulness for various classes of industry participants; a design and testing phase, in which the IOCC critiqued the current technology transfer structure, based on results of the structural analysis and targeted interviews, and identified several strategies for improvement; and an evaluation of existing state outreach programs to determine whether they might provide a model for development of additional outreach programs in other producing states.

  11. A Causal Mechanism of Policy Innovation: The Reform of Colombia’s Oil-Rents Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayron Paz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes policy innovation in Colombia, through the adoption of a new centralized oil-rent management system in 2011, after 20 years of decentralized policies. Using a policy-design framework, we identify a causal mechanism linking the opening of a policy window to policy change as a combination of the emergence of a new policy network, the adoption of a new policy paradigm and the selection of a new instruments mix. Drawing on Bayesian statistics, the 11 tests conducted on the causal mechanism show the importance of State resources of information, authority, treasury and organization to assess the outcome of policy change.

  12. Detection and Identification of Natural Antioxidants in Edible Oils Using LC Fractionation with Off-Line Effect-Based Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, R.; van Steenbergen, H.; Janssen, H.-G.

    2013-01-01

    Many edible oils contain natural antioxidants that protect the oil from lipid oxidation. Knowledge on the identity of these oxidation inhibitors is crucial for finding natural ways to protect healthy unsaturated fats and oils from turning rancid. In this article a new assay that allows rapid

  13. Detection and Identification of Natural Antioxidants in Edible Oil using LC Fractionation with Off-line Effect-Based Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poort, R.; van Steenbergen, H.; Janssen, J.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Many edible oils contain natural antiaidants that protect the oil from lipid oxidation. Knowledge on the identity of these oxidation inhibitors is crucial for finding natural ways to protect healthy unsaturated fats and oils from turning rancid. In this article a new assay that allows rapid

  14. The changing Arctic and its effects on the development of Norway and Russia's offshore oil-spill prevention policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Two very different nations are joined with a northern border and have worked together for decades to manage shared Arctic affairs, yet have very disparate approaches to policy development. Increased access to the Arctic and the push to develop its resources has also created a requirement for developing national policies to address the possibilities of oil spill response and remediation. Norway and Russia are the significant regional powers, with a shared arctic boundary, yet substantially differing approaches to policy development and implementation. We are exploring the variations in their approaches to Arctic offshore oil-spill policy development, in the context of policy informed by economic, social, and physical sciences.

  15. In search of religious elements in the Dutch nature policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Peter; Stoep, Van Der Jan; Keulartz, Jozef; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    The way people or organizations describe or depict nature conveys their view of nature. In the Dutch discourse, views of nature are mostly conceived as socio-cultural constructs regarding the character, value, and appreciation of nature. Views of nature tell us how we perceive nature and how we want

  16. In search of religious elements in the dutch nature policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter Jansen; Jan van der Stoep; Jan Keulartz; Henk Jochemsen

    2017-01-01

    The way people or organizations describe or depict nature conveys their view of nature. In the Dutch discourse, views of nature are mostly conceived as socio-cultural constructs regarding the character, value, and appreciation of nature. Views of nature tell us how we perceive nature and how we want

  17. Plastic waste to liquid oil through catalytic pyrolysis using natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miandad, R; Barakat, M A; Rehan, M; Aburiazaiza, A S; Ismail, I M I; Nizami, A S

    2017-11-01

    This study aims to examine the catalytic pyrolysis of various plastic wastes in the presence of natural and synthetic zeolite catalysts. A small pilot scale reactor was commissioned to carry out the catalytic pyrolysis of polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and their mixtures in different ratios at 450°C and 75min. PS plastic waste resulted in the highest liquid oil yield of 54% using natural zeolite and 50% using synthetic zeolite catalysts. Mixing of PS with other plastic wastes lowered the liquid oil yield whereas all mixtures of PP and PE resulted in higher liquid oil yield than the individual plastic feedstocks using both catalysts. The GC-MS analysis revealed that the pyrolysis liquid oils from all samples mainly consisted of aromatic hydrocarbons with a few aliphatic hydrocarbon compounds. The types and amounts of different compounds present in liquid oils vary with some common compounds such as styrene, ethylbenzene, benzene, azulene, naphthalene, and toluene. The FT-IR data also confirmed that liquid oil contained mostly aromatic compounds with some alkanes, alkenes and small amounts of phenol group. The produced liquid oils have high heating values (HHV) of 40.2-45MJ/kg, which are similar to conventional diesel. The liquid oil has potential to be used as an alternative source of energy or fuel production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  19. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Chile 2012 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-06

    Chile has experienced several serious energy supply incidents over the last decade, including major droughts, a sustained gas supply cut from Argentina (since 2004), and a major earthquake in early 2010 which affected electricity networks and refineries, and caused several black-outs. Due to Chile's unique and sinuous geography - it runs 4 300 kilometres from North to South and only 175 kms from East to West- the country's energy markets are regionally disjointed, particularly as the regional gas and electricity grids are not connected. In the arid North, energy demand is dominated by the mining industry, and operates based on a separate thermal-based Sistema Interconectado Norte Grande (SING) electricity grid. The more densely-populated central region (including Santiago) operates on the more hydro-dependent Sistema Interconectado Central (SIC) electricity grid. The southernmost, hydro-rich regions of the country are not connected to the rest of Chile in terms of electricity and gas. The following report is based on an IEA Emergency Response Assessment carried out in 2010 and 2011 which looked specifically at Chile's capacity to respond to short-term emergencies in oil, gas and electricity.

  20. Natural sunlight shapes crude oil-degradingbacterial communities in northern Gulf of Mexico surface waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando P Bacosa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 d under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  1. Natural Sunlight Shapes Crude Oil-Degrading Bacterial Communities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Surface Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, Hernando P; Liu, Zhanfei; Erdner, Deana L

    2015-01-01

    Following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill in 2010, an enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Surface waters are characterized by intense sunlight and high temperature during summer. While the oil-degrading bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of natural sunlight on those in oil polluted surface waters remains unexplored to date. In this study, we incubated surface water from the DWH site with amendments of crude oil, Corexit dispersant, or both for 36 days under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The bacterial community was analyzed over time for total abundance, density of alkane and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degraders, and community composition via pyrosequencing. Our results showed that, for treatments with oil and/or Corexit, sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and evenness and was a key driver of shifts in bacterial community structure. In samples containing oil or dispersant, sunlight greatly reduced abundance of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus but increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Bartonella, and Halomonas. Dark samples with oil were represented by members of Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Pseudomonas, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Coxiella. Both oil and Corexit inhibited the Candidatus Pelagibacter with or without sunlight exposure. For the first time, we demonstrated the effects of light in structuring microbial communities in water with oil and/or Corexit. Overall, our findings improve understanding of oil pollution in surface water, and provide unequivocal evidence that sunlight is a key factor in determining bacterial community composition and dynamics in oil polluted marine waters.

  2. An Analysis of Policy Issues in Natural Gas Industry Restructuring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, J.K. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    2001-12-01

    This report explores controversial issues and problems that could emerge in the process of implementing the government's restructuring plan for natural gas industry and aims to suggest policy directions regarding the restructuring. To begin with, it examines current conditions surrounding natural gas industry including domestic demand and supply conditions, world LNG market trend, structural changes of the industry in OECD countries, possibilities of introducing effective competition and assignment of existing import contracts. In doing so, we probe whether the direction of the natural gas industry restructuring is proper and suggest that the results be reflected when a more detailed restructuring implementation plan is formulated. Also, this report suggests possible schemes related to major institutional changes expected by the basic restructuring plan and the detailed restructuring implementation plan announced by the government. First, it presents several alternative ways to properly divide up the import/wholesales section of Korea Gas Corporation. Second, it examines critical issues such as the method of using gas supply facilities and gas balancing mechanism, and presents adoptable alternatives for each issue. These issues constitute the core of network and market operation rules which need to be in place when adopting an open access system, which in turn is a prerequisite for sales competition. Third, the report examines price systems, including gas commodity pricing and rate-making design for transportation service, by first anticipating the direction of changes in gas rate regulation. Specifically, it presents possible ways to design the service rate for each function of pipeline network and import terminals, and discusses controversial issues in determining total cost-of-service and allocating the cost-of-service to each functional service offered such as distance-related rates, interruptible service rate. Lastly, in relation to the opening of retail

  3. A Natural Wonder Drug Helps to Prevent Cancer: Garlic Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaran MIRUNALINI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Garlic is one of the oldest and popular spices in the World that also contain very good nutritional value. Garlic has a wide spectrum of actions not only is it antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and antiprotozoan but it also has beneficial effects on the cardiovascular and immune systems. They contain unique oil which is very easily digested and is stable to oxidative stress and for this reasons they are useful and healthy for consumption. Several epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that garlic oil has been thought to bring about its anticarcinogenic effect and other pharmacological properties through a number of mechanisms, such as the scavenging of radicals, increasing glutathione levels, increasing the activities of enzymes such as glutathione S transferase, catalase, incubation of cytochrome p450 2E1, DNA repair mechanisms, prevention of chromosomal damage etc. Future research should standardize the dosage of garlic and type. Several hypotheses suggest that the anticancer mechanism may be due to DNA repair mechanism, prevention of chromosomal damage, antiproliferative effect and alteration of the cell cycle. Garlic and garlic oil should be considered as one of the most valuable food for good quality of life in general.

  4. Deposits of naturally occurring radioactivity in production of oil and natural gas; Radioaktive avleiringer i olje- og gassproduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strand, T; Lysebo, I; Kristensen, D; Birovljev, A

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in Norwegian oil and gas production. Activity concentration in solid-state samples and production water, and doses to workers involved in different operations off-shore, have been measured. The report also includes a discussion of different methods of monitoring and alternatives for final disposal of wastes. 154 refs.

  5. Chronic oiling of marine birds in California by natural petroleum seeps, shipwrecks, and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Laird A; Nevins, Hannahrose; Martin, Marida; Sugarman, Susan; Harvey, James T; Ziccardi, Michael H

    2014-02-15

    We assessed temporal and spatial patterns of chronic oiling of seabirds in California during 2005-2010, using data on: (1) live oiled birds reported to the Oiled Wildlife Care Network (OWCN) from throughout the state, and (2) dead oiled birds found during systematic monthly beached-bird surveys in central California. A mean of 245 (± 141 SD) live miscellaneous oiled birds (not associated with known oil spills) were reported to the OWCN per year, and 0.1 oiled dead birds km(-1) per month were found on beach surveys in central California. Chemical fingerprinting of oiled feathers from a subset of these birds (n=101) indicated that 89% of samples tested were likely from natural petroleum seeps off southern and central California. There was a pronounced peak during late winter in the number of oiled birds reported in southern California, which we theorize may be related to large storm waves disturbing underwater seeps. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural Organochlorines as Precursors of 3-Monochloropropanediol Esters in Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiong, Soon Huat; Saparin, Norliza; Teh, Huey Fang; Ng, Theresa Lee Mei; Md Zain, Mohd Zairey Bin; Neoh, Bee Keat; Md Noor, Ahmadilfitri; Tan, Chin Ping; Lai, Oi Ming; Appleton, David Ross

    2018-01-31

    During high-temperature refining of vegetable oils, 3-monochloropropanediol (3-MCPD) esters, possible carcinogens, are formed from acylglycerol in the presence of a chlorine source. To investigate organochlorine compounds in vegetable oils as possible precursors for 3-MCPD esters, we tested crude palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower, corn, coconut, and olive oils for the presence of organochlorine compounds. Having found them in all vegetable oils tested, we focused subsequent study on oil palm products. Analysis of the chlorine isotope mass pattern exhibited in high-resolution mass spectrometry enabled organochlorine compound identification in crude palm oils as constituents of wax esters, fatty acid, diacylglycerols, and sphingolipids, which are produced endogenously in oil palm mesocarp throughout ripening. Analysis of thermal decomposition and changes during refining suggested that these naturally present organochlorine compounds in palm oils and perhaps in other vegetable oils are precursors of 3-MCPD esters. Enrichment and dose-response showed a linear relationship to 3-MCPD ester formation and indicated that the sphingolipid-based organochlorine compounds are the most active precursors of 3-MCPD esters.

  7. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-04-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market.

  8. Golden age: marketers extract the most from oil and natural gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, A.

    2000-01-01

    The complexity of the oil and natural gas markets, the complex factors which interact to produce the price of oil or natural gas on any given day, and the role of marketers in this high stakes game are discussed. While oil and natural gas prices are very good today compared to the low prices through much of the 1990s, marketers are now concerned about the ability of Canadian fields to produce enough to fill the expanded pipelines and meet the rising demand. As the oil and natural gas industry in Canada is moving from a pipeline-constrained environment to a resource-constrained environment, the question of declining reserves in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin and the resulting surplus in pipeline capacity is one of the most serious issues facing industry in the immediate future. This is especially true of natural gas where the cost of transportation, which can be as high as 30 per cent, is one of major importance to gas marketers. Locking in prices or allowing prices to float can make the difference between huge losses or gains depending on the interplay of the various factor that influence price fluctuations. Examples of how decisions about oil and gas prices are made, and the various outcomes that may result from marketer decisions are described to illustrate the vagaries of the natural gas market

  9. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  10. Bioremediation of Contaminated Soil with Oils Residuals through Bioaugmentation and Natural Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitê Carla Deon

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The potential for soil contamination by oil spills is growing, due to heavy industrialization and economic development of countries. Due to this fact, the bioremediation has become an alternative to remediate areas through the use of biological agents. Two microorganisms, isolated from a lipid-rich effluent, were used in the bioaugmentation of soils contaminated with diesel oil, lubricating oil and soybean oil. Natural attenuation tests were conducted as controls. The removal of diesel fuel at the time of 21 d were of 18.5%, 7.30% and 11.38%, respectively, for the bioaugmentation with isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation. The removal of lubricating oil were 41.6%, 14.16% and 6.91% respectively for the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 and I2 and natural attenuation, while for soybean oil removals were of 87 8%, 73.9% and 49.4%. Considering the processes of bioaugmentatiom and natural attenuation, the bioaugmentation with the isolated I1 showed better results, possibly due to the production of compounds capable of reducing the surface tension during the preparation of bioaugmentation.

  11. Press freedom, oil exports, and risk for natural disasters: a challenge for climato-economic theory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arantes, Joana; Grace, Randolph C; Kemp, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Does the interaction between climactic demands, monetary resources, and freedom suggest a more general relationship between the environmental challenges that human societies face and their resources to meet those challenges? Using data on press freedom (Van de Vliert 2011a), we found no evidence of a similar interaction with natural resources (as measured by oil exports) or risk for natural disasters.

  12. The future world oil market: state of nature or social contract?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, P.

    1999-10-01

    Mary Ann Tetreault develops a very interesting interpretation of the emerging new relationship between international oil companies and Middle East producing countries. The original intellectual tools she handles-concepts drawn from the European political philosophy tradition-allow her to argue as follows: (1) the oil market left to itself- whether participants are states or firms-behaves like a Hobbesian ''state of nature'' often resulting in a situation damaging to each participant; (2) to deal with it, the international oil community has historically relied on different types of organisations, but these social contracts or ''republics'' were inherently unstable since they rested on too narrowly defined interests; (3) the rationale behind the possible return of oil companies to the richest Middle East countries is the search for new ''international oil republics'' able to ''offer greater security and higher profits for all the good republicans among them''. (author)

  13. Making offshore industries greener: negotiating environmental policy in the Dutch oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the negotiations between the Dutch Government and the oil and gas sector regarding environmental measures for the offshore industry are analysed. Dutch environmental policy is presently being developed via 'Target Group Management'. The instrument used in this approach is policy negotiations, resulting in covenants. By signing a covenant, both government and industry take responsibility for the development and implementation of a realistic environmental policy. Negotiating environmental policies, however, can be problematic. This relates to the delay in obtaining an integrated approach to environmental problems. It is not unlikely that, in the four years required for the negotiation process, a legally binding environmental law might also have been developed. It is concluded that the value of the covenant mainly depends on the goodwill of the parties involved. (Author)

  14. A Study of the Properties of Electrical Insulation Oils and of the Components of Natural Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Spohner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the electrical and non-electrical properties of insulating oils. For the correct choice of an electrical insulation oil, it is necessary to know its density, dynamic viscosity, dielectric constant, loss number and conductivity, and the effects of various exposure factors. This paper deals with mathematical and physical principles needed for studying and making correct measurements of the dynamic viscosity, density and electrical properties of insulation oils. Rheological properties were measured using an A&D SV-10 vibratory viscometer, and analytical balance with density determination kit, which operates on the principle of Archimedes’ law. Dielectric properties were measured using a LCR meter Agilent 4980A with connected with the Agilent 16452A test fixture for dielectric liquids.

  15. Bridging IMO e-Navigation Policy and Offshore Oil and Gas Operations through Geospatial Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Modesto Da Rocha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In offshore industry activities, the suitable onboard provision of assets location and geospatial marine information during operations is essential. Currently, most companies use its own data structures, resulting in incompatibility between processes. In order to promote the data exchange, oil and gas industry associations have pursued initiatives to standardize spatial information. In turn, the IMO - International Maritime Organization - started the implementation of e-Navigation policy, which is the standardization of technologies and protocols applied to maritime information and navigation. This paper shows relationship and integration points between maritime activities of oil and gas industry and e-Navigation technologies and processes, highlighting geospatial information. This paper also preludes out an initiative for a suitable product specification for the offshore oil and gas industry, compliant with e-Navigation and IHO S-100 international standards.

  16. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  17. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  18. Energy policy, social exclusion and sustainable development: The biofuels and oil and gas cases in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Jeremy; Matos, Stelvia; Silvestre, Bruno

    2010-09-15

    Recent Brazilian policies have encouraged impoverished communities to participate in the country's growing energy industry. This paper explores the country's attempts to encourage such participation within the oil and gas and biofuels sectors. Our research is based on interviews with industry executives, policymakers, non-governmental organizations and farmers conducted between 2005-2009 in Brazil, an emerging energy leader, yet a country grappling with social exclusion. We propose that some sectors have a propensity to be exclusive due to technological complexity, whereas other sectors, although less complex, tend to economize at the expense of social programs. We conclude with managerial and policy implications.

  19. Dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds essential oil as a potential natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojević, Lj.P.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic antioxidants and antimicrobial agents can induce many undesired side effects, which attracts interest of food producers and consumers in finding ingredients of natural origin. The antioxidative and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L. seeds was investigated in terms of its possible application as natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent. DPPH test and FRAP method have been used for the investigation of antioxidative activity of essential oil. Disc-diffusion method has been used for investigation of oil antimicrobial activity on following microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis and Candida albicans. Essential oil, in concentration of 29 mg/mL, incubated for 60 minutes has shown the highest degree of DPPH radicals’ neutralization (79.62%. FRAP activity of oil was 40.63 μmol Fe2+/g of essential oil. Essential oil showed the best antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, there was a significant antimicrobial activity on all investigated microorganisms.

  20. Validation of the natural resource damage assessment model using historical observations on oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Rines, H.

    1995-01-01

    The Natural Resource Damage Assessment Model for Coastal and Marine Environments (NRDAM/CME) was developed by Applied Science Associates to simulate the fate and effects of oil and chemical spills into estuarine and marine environments. The US Department of the Interior has proposed the NRDAM/CME for use in Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations under CERCLA. As part of the evaluation of model performance, the NRDAM/CME has been validated with observational data from case histories of oil spills, including the Exxon Valdez, World Prodigy, Mega Borg, Apex Houston and a number of others. Primarily, the data available for validation were of oil slick trajectory and coverage (e.g., overflight maps), length of shoreline oiled, area of marshes oiled, and a number of oiled birds recovered. Model performance was dependent on the accuracy of available wind and current data (the primary forces affecting fate) and bird abundances. Where these data sources were good (relatively well quantified), model performance was excellent. Results of the model simulations also provide an interesting sensitivity analysis and indications of relative effects of oil under various spill scenarios and conditions

  1. Opportunities and benefits of local content requirement policy: case of Eastern Siberian oil and gas industry

    OpenAIRE

    Semykina, Irina

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the regional economic impact of mineral resource endowment and offers specific inputs to the debate on the local content requirement (LCR) policy, gaining urgency in modern economic and political environment. Focusing on the experience of the Eastern Siberia the paper examines the way national companies operate in the newly developing oil and gas provinces of Russia. The analysis of key economic indices shows that the existing approach based on rent-seeking strategy doesn?...

  2. Decline in oil prices and the negative interest rate policy in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshino, Naoyuki; Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    In April 2013, the Bank of Japan (BOJ) introduced an inflation target of 2% with the aim of overcoming deflation and achieving sustainable economic growth. But due to lower international oil prices it was unable to achieve this target and was forced to take further measures. Hence, in February 2016, the BOJ adopted a negative interest rate policy by massively increasing the money supply through purchasing long-term Japanese government bonds (JGBs). The BOJ had previously only purchased short-...

  3. Assessment of radiation exposures from naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlat, M.S.; Djeffal, S.; Kadi, H.

    2001-01-01

    Radioactive deposits, often referred to as naturally occurring radioactive material scale, can, because of incompatibility of formation and injection waters, be formed inside production equipment of the oil and gas industry. These scales contain mainly 226 Ra and its daughter products, which can cause an exposure risk. The gamma ray dose rates, with the associated occupational doses in the oil and gas industry, and 226 Ra concentration in production water, crude oil and hard/soft scale samples were determined. Results obtained are discussed and compared to those from other studies

  4. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  5. Enhanced crude oil biodegradative potential of natural phytoplankton-associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Haydn; Angelova, Angelina; Bowler, Bernard; Jones, Martin; Gutierrez, Tony

    2017-07-01

    Phytoplankton have been shown to harbour a diversity of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (HCB), yet it is not understood how these phytoplankton-associated HCB would respond in the event of an oil spill at sea. Here, we assess the diversity and dynamics of the bacterial community associated with a natural population of marine phytoplankton under oil spill-simulated conditions, and compare it to that of the free-living (non phytoplankton-associated) bacterial community. While the crude oil severely impacted the phytoplankton population and was likely conducive to marine oil snow formation, analysis of the MiSeq-derived 16S rRNA data revealed dramatic and differential shifts in the oil-amended communities that included blooms of recognized HCB (e.g., Thalassospira, Cycloclasticus), including putative novel phyla, as well as other groups with previously unqualified oil-degrading potential (Olleya, Winogradskyella, and members of the inconspicuous BD7-3 phylum). Notably, the oil biodegradation potential of the phytoplankton-associated community exceeded that of the free-living community, and it showed a preference to degrade substituted and non-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our study provides evidence of compartmentalization of hydrocarbon-degrading capacity in the marine water column, wherein HCB associated with phytoplankton are better tuned to degrading crude oil hydrocarbons than that by the community of planktonic free-living bacteria. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Journal of East African Natural History: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of East African Natural History is published jointly by the East Africa Natural History Society and the National Museums of Kenya. The Journal publishes papers and notes in the field of natural history, broadly defined as the study of organisms in their natural state, relevant to the eastern African ...

  7. Current status and policies on biodiesel industry in Malaysia as the world's leading producer of palm oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A.Z.; Salamatinia, B.; Mootabadi, H.; Bhatia, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current status of palm oil-based biodiesel industry in Malaysia, the policies introduced and strategies for its implementation. Due to renewability, high production rate, technical feasibility and role in reducing greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, palm oil is in the right position to supply the energy needs by the incorporation into the diesel supply. As a leading producer of palm oil, Malaysia has embarked on a comprehensive palm biofuel program since 1982. It has successfully established the use of palm biodiesel blend (B5) as a suitable fuel for the transport and industrial sectors through the introduction of the National Biofuel Policy. The current scenario of biodiesel program in Malaysia, as well as biofuel policies with respect to its use, technology, export, environmental issues and implementation aspects are thoroughly discussed. The roles of the policy towards the prosperity of the stakeholders, oil price and the reduction of greenhouse gasses are also highlighted. (author)

  8. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  9. [Cod liver oil. A natural Vitamin D for preserving health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Corrado, Balacco-Gabrieli

    2011-02-27

    Vitamin D deficiency is pandemic in industrialized countries due to life-style changes. Recent studies suggest that besides bone-metabolism, vitamin D plays a central role in basic cell function like multiplication, differentiation and metabolism. This may explain that low vitamin D levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases such as infective, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis and cancer. Accumulating evidences suggest that an adequate intake of vitamin D may significantly decrease prevalence and clinical outcome of these diseases. Estimated reduction of the economic burden might reach about 10 percent through normalizing vitamin D levels for these diseases. However, high doses of vitamin D monotherapy needs precaution for potential adverse effects and it should be substituted with the recommended doses of vitamin D in combination with synergistic vitamin A and omega 3 fatty acids, such as cod liver oil.

  10. Natural gas: Governments and oil companies in the Third World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Hurst, C.; Mabro, R.

    1988-01-01

    It is asserted that oil companies claim to be generally receptive to gas development proposals; however, the lack of potential markets for gas, problems of foreign exchange convertibility, and lack of a legal framework often hinders their engagement. Governments, on the other hand, need to secure domestic energy supply and, if possible, gain some export earnings or royalties. An extensive discussion on the principles of pricing and fiscal regimes, potential points of disagreement is provided. A course of action is outlined from the managerial point of view to circumvent the most common pitfalls in planning and financing a gas project. Eight very detailed case studies are presented for Argentina, Egypt, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Thailand

  11. Evaluation of the toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil to surrogate wildlife species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Hancock, G.A.; Ford, W.H.; Prince, H.H.; Ringer, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    The toxic properties of naturally weathered Exxon Valdez crude oil (WEVC) to avian and mammalian wildlife species were evaluated using the surrogate species, mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos, and European ferret, Mustela putorius. This study was conducted to evaluate the potential for toxic (rather than physical) injury to wildlife species that may have been exposed to WEVC, either through external contact or through dietary uptake. Previous studies have assessed the toxicity of unweathered crude oils, including Alaska North Slope Crude, but little information exists regarding the toxicity of a naturally weathered crude oil, typical of that encountered following a spill. A battery of laboratory toxicity tests was conducted, in compliance with standard and published test procedures, to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity of WEVC. These included tests of food avoidance, reproductive effects, and direct eggshell application toxicity. Naturally weathered EVC, recovered postspill from Prince William Sound, was used as the test material. 36 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  12. EFFECTS OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRICES ON INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION IN THE EUROZONE MEMBER COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yılmaz BAYAR

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production is one of the leading indicators of gross domestic product which reflects the overall economic performance of a country. In other words decreases or increases in industrial production point out a contracting or expanding economy. Therefore, changes in prices of oil and natural gas which are the crucial inputs to the industrial production are also important for the overall economy. This study examines the effects of changes in oil and natural gas prices on the industrial production in the 18 Eurozone member countries during the period January 2001-September 2013 by using panel regression. We found that oil prices and natural gas prices had negative effect on industrial production in the Eurozone member countries.

  13. A decade of changes in nitrogen oxides over regions of oil and natural gas activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aman Majid

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO2 + NO are a highly regulated species that play a major role in the formation of photochemical smog. While NOx emissions are generally decreasing over the U.S. as a result of more stringent environmental policies and improved emissions control technologies, the shale oil and natural gas industry is reversing this rate of changes in certain regions. We present here a quantitative analysis of NOx levels over the seven main U.S. shale plays (Bakken, Eagle Ford, Permian, Niobrara-Codell, Marcellus-Utica, Haynesville, and Barnett between 2005 and 2015 using measurements of tropospheric NO2 from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI aboard the NASA EOS-Aura aircraft. We develop and apply a methodology that seeks to maximise pollutant signals from oil and gas activities. For reference, we also examine the national trend averaged over the lower 48 states. Consistent with previous studies, we find NOx across the U.S. is generally declining. During the low-production phase of oil and natural gas production (2005–2009, we find declining trends in tropospheric NOx that are similar to the national trend (–4.6% yr–1 in 6 of the 7 study regions (–8 to –2% yr–1. In the high-production phase (2010–15, we find an increasing NOx trend in 5 of the 7 study basins (0.4 to 4.5% yr–1 while the national trend continued to decline (–0.3% yr–1. Over the most intensive oil-producing shale plays (Bakken, Eagle Ford, Permian and Niobrara-Codell, we observe a rapid growth (1–4.5% yr–1, which correlates well (r2 = 0.6–0.9 with their annual oil production rates and/or drilling rigs. In contrast, trends across the mainly gas-producing regions (Haynesville, Barnett, and Marcellus-Utica show decreases (–0.4 to –1.7% yr–1 similar to the national trend, with the exception of the Marcellus-Utica where a slight increase (0.4 ± 0.2% yr–1 may be an indication of a small regional increase. Our study shows the important decadal

  14. Natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) peel waste with additive essential oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti Agustina, E. S.; Elfi Susanti, V. H.

    2018-05-01

    The research aimed to produce natural wrapping paper from banana (Musa Paradisiaca Linn.) peel waste with additive essentials oils. The method used in this research was alkalization. The delignification process is done with the use of NaOH 4% at the temperature of 100°C for 1.5 hours. Additive materials in the form of essential oils are added as a preservative and aroma agent, namely cinnamon oil, lemon oil, clove oil and lime oil respectively 2% and 3%. Chemical and physical properties of the produced papers are tested included water content (dry-oven method SNI ISO 287:2010), pH (SNI ISO 6588-1.2010), grammage (SNI ISO 536:2010) and brightness (SNI ISO 2470:2010). Testing results of each paper were compared with commercial wrapping paper. The result shows that the natural paper from banana peel waste with additive essential oil meets the standard of ISO 6519:2016 about Basic Paper for Laminated Plastic Wrapping Paper within the parameter of pH and water content. The paper produced also meet the standard of ISO 8218:2015 about Food Paper and Cardboard within the grammage parameter (high-grade grammage), except the paper with 2% lemon oil. The paper which is closest to the characteristic of commercial wrapping paper is the paper with the additive of 2% cinnamon oil, with pH of 6.95, the water content of 7.14%, grammage of 347.6 gram/m2 and the brightness level of 24.68%.

  15. Oil recovery from naturally fractured reservoirs by steam injection methods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, J.C.; Miller, M.A.

    1995-05-01

    Oil recovery by steam injection is a proven, successful technology for nonfractured reservoirs, but has received only limited study for fractured reservoirs. Preliminary studies suggest recovery efficiencies in fractured reservoirs may be increased by as much as 50% with the application of steam relative to that of low temperature processes. The key mechanisms enhancing oil production at high temperature are the differential thermal expansion between oil and the pore volume, and the generation of gases within matrix blocks. Other mechanisms may also contribute to increased production. These mechanisms are relatively independent of oil gravity, making steam injection into naturally fractured reservoirs equally attractive to light and heavy oil deposits. The objectives of this research program are to quantify the amount of oil expelled by these recovery mechanisms and to develop a numerical model for predicting oil recovery in naturally fractured reservoirs during steam injection. The experimental study consists of constructing and operating several apparatuses to isolate each of these mechanisms. The first measures thermal expansion and capillary imbibition rates at relatively low temperature, but for various lithologies and matrix block shapes. The second apparatus measures the same parameters, but at high temperatures and for only one shape. A third experimental apparatus measures the maximum gas saturations that could build up within a matrix block. A fourth apparatus measures thermal conductivity and diffusivity of porous media. The numerical study consists of developing transfer functions for oil expulsion from matrix blocks to fractures at high temperatures and incorporating them, along with the energy equation, into a dual porosity thermal reservoir simulator. This simulator can be utilized to make predictions for steam injection processes in naturally-fractured reservoirs. Analytical models for capillary imbibition have also been developed.

  16. Fuel Conversion from Natural Gas to Distillate Fuel Oil - Chemplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. The encounter and analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides in gas and oil production and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartog, F.A.; Jonkers, G.; Knaepen, W.A.I.

    1996-01-01

    As a result of oil and gas production, radioactive daughter elements from the uranium and thorium decay series can be mobilized and transported away from the reservoir. Due to changes in flow regime, temperature, pressure or chemical environment NORs (Naturally Occurring Radionuclides) may build up in products, by-products or waste streams from gas and oil production and processing facilities. Products containing NORs are commonly denoted by the acronym NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials). Main topics of this paper are: E and P (Exploration and Production) NORM characteristics; incentives for NORM analysis; NORM analysis; interlaboratory test programme; analysis techniques; results and conclusions of the test programme. 4 figs., 2 tabs

  18. On the evaluation of steam assisted gravity drainage in naturally fractured oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tohidi Hosseini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD as a successful enhanced oil recovery (EOR process has been applied to extract heavy and extra heavy oils. Huge amount of global heavy oil resources exists in carbonate reservoirs which are mostly naturally fractured reservoirs. Unlike clastic reservoirs, few studies were carried out to determine the performance of SAGD in carbonate reservoirs. Even though SAGD is a highly promising technique, several uncertainties and unanswered questions still exist and they should be clarified for expansion of SAGD methods to world wide applications especially in naturally fractured reservoirs. In this communication, the effects of some operational and reservoir parameters on SAGD processes were investigated in a naturally fractured reservoir with oil wet rock using CMG-STARS thermal simulator. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of fracture properties including fracture orientation, fracture spacing and fracture permeability on the SAGD performance in naturally fractured reservoirs. Moreover, one operational parameter was also studied; one new well configuration, staggered well pair was evaluated. Results indicated that fracture orientation influences steam expansion and oil production from the horizontal well pairs. It was also found that horizontal fractures have unfavorable effects on oil production, while vertical fractures increase the production rate for the horizontal well. Moreover, an increase in fracture spacing results in more oil production, because in higher fracture spacing model, steam will have more time to diffuse into matrices and heat up the entire reservoir. Furthermore, an increase in fracture permeability results in process enhancement and ultimate recovery improvement. Besides, diagonal change in the location of injection wells (staggered model increases the recovery efficiency in long-term production plan.

  19. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachance, S; Grange, G

    2014-06-01

    Plant essential oils (basil, geranium, balsam fir, lavender, lemongrass, peppermint, pine and tea tree), mixed with either sunflower oil or ethyl alcohol, were applied at 5% concentrations to the sides of Holstein cattle. Pastured cattle treated with essential oils diluted in sunflower oil had less flies than the untreated control for a 24-h period. However, the essential oil treatments were not significantly different than the carrier oil alone. Barn-held heifers treated with essential oils and sunflower oil alone had significantly less flies than the untreated control for up to 8 h after treatment. Basil, geranium, lavender, lemongrass and peppermint repelled more flies than sunflower oil alone for a period ranging from 1.5 to 4 h after treatments applied to heifers. All essential oils repelled > 75% of the flies on the treated area for 6 and 8 h on pastured cows and indoor heifers, respectively. Geranium, lemongrass and peppermint stayed effective for a longer duration. Essential oils mixed with ethyl alcohol demonstrated less repellence than when mixed with the carrier oil. Safer's soap, natural pyrethrins without piperonyl butoxide and ethyl alcohol alone were not efficient at repelling flies. Essential oils could be formulated for use as fly repellents in livestock production. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. The effect of dietary corn oil and fish oil supplementation in dogs with naturally occurring gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana L; Booij-Vrieling, Henriette E; Vossebeld, Carmen B; Neves, António; Viegas, Carlos; Corbee, Ronald J

    2018-06-16

    The aim of this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study was to evaluate if downregulation of the inflammatory response due to ingestion of high levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can slow down gingivitis development, and thus delay the progression of periodontal disease (PD) in dogs. To this aim, 44 client-owned adult dogs (>1 and  0.63) and C reactive protein (p = 0.28) then the ones consuming corn oil. There were no differences between fish oil and corn oil diet supplementation on plaque (18.2 vs. 17.8, p = 0.78), calculus (10.1 vs. 11.5, p = 0.18) or gingivitis (19.3 vs. 19.0, p = 0.77) indexes. The authors conclude that supplementation with EPA + DHA does not slow down progression of PD in dogs. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Evaluating the oil sands reclamation process: Assessing policy capacity and stakeholder access for government and non-governmental organizations operating in Alberta's oil sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Tyler

    By employing interpretive policy analysis this thesis aims to assess, measure, and explain policy capacity for government and non-government organizations involved in reclaiming Alberta's oil sands. Using this type of analysis to assess policy capacity is a novel approach for understanding reclamation policy; and therefore, this research will provide a unique contribution to the literature surrounding reclamation policy. The oil sands region in northeast Alberta, Canada is an area of interest for a few reasons; primarily because of the vast reserves of bitumen and the environmental cost associated with developing this resource. An increase in global oil demand has established incentive for industry to seek out and develop new reserves. Alberta's oil sands are one of the largest remaining reserves in the world, and there is significant interest in increasing production in this region. Furthermore, tensions in several oil exporting nations in the Middle East remain unresolved, and this has garnered additional support for a supply side solution to North American oil demands. This solution relies upon the development of reserves in both the United States and Canada. These compounding factors have contributed to the increased development in the oil sands of northeastern Alberta. Essentially, a rapid expansion of oil sands operations is ongoing, and is the source of significant disturbance across the region. This disturbance, and the promises of reclamation, is a source of contentious debates amongst stakeholders and continues to be highly visible in the media. If oil sands operations are to retain their social license to operate, it is critical that reclamation efforts be effective. One concern non-governmental organizations (NGOs) expressed criticizes the current monitoring and enforcement of regulatory programs in the oil sands. Alberta's NGOs have suggested the data made available to them originates from industrial sources, and is generally unchecked by government

  2. The outlook for crude oil supply and demand in Australia and its energy policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    Australia's oil reserves and production have contributed significantly to national economic prosperity and growth since the first large scale discoveries in Bass Strait in the 1960s. As a finite, non-renewable resource, the reserves ultimately must decline. In 1988 the forecast was that Australia's oil production would begin to decline in the mid 1990s and then rapidly tail off by the late 1990s. With this in mind, AMEC Ministers agreed in 1988 that a Working Group should review the energy policy implications of the forecast decline in the production of petroleum. The Working Group's findings are presented in this booklet. Chapter 2 examines the outlook for demand for petroleum products in Australia until 2005. This Chapter is based on current Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics (ABARE) forecasts as well as savings in fuel demand that are potentially available from fuel efficiency and fuel switching measures. Chapter 3, which includes BMR's recently revised petroleum production forecasts, looks at the outlook for crude oil and condensate production, also to 2005. Chapter 4 discusses the range of government initiatives already in place to foster the efficient exploration and production of petroleum in Australia. This Chapter also examines the outlook for Australian alternative liquid fuels. Chapter 5, which is based on analysis by ABARE, broadly examines the possible macroeconomic implications of declining oil production for Australia while Chapter 6 examines the issue of energy security and in particular its relationship with oil self sufficiency. Finally, Chapter 7 identifies some energy policy considerations and recommendations arising out of the Working Group's analysis. 7 tabs, 3 figs

  3. Reflections on a boom: Perceptions of energy development impacts in the Bakken oil patch inform environmental science & policy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGranahan, Devan Allen; Fernando, Felix N; Kirkwood, Meghan L E

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystems worldwide have been subject to new or intensified energy development facilitated by technologies such as horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, activity that has generated concern for air, water, biotic, and social resources. Application of these technologies in the development of the Bakken oil patch has made it one of the most productive petroleum plays in North America, causing unprecedented landscape industrialization of otherwise rural, agricultural counties in western North Dakota. The region is isolated, and development impacts have not been well-studied. To identify concerns of citizens of the Bakken and determine how research and policy might support them, we conducted a two-part study: First, we held focus groups with resource management and community leaders in three major oil-producing counties. Second, we used an outline of the major concerns expressed by focus group members as a survey for landowners and farm/ranch operators. We found little relationship between survey respondents' reported categorization of energy impacts and actual land area impacted, suggesting factors such as attitude towards development, degree of compensation, and level of disturbance are relevant. Landowners agreed with focus groups on the nature of relationships between energy companies and locals and development impacts on infrastructure and communities; those reporting greater impacts tended to agree more strongly. But many specific problems described in focus groups were not widely reported in the survey, suggesting energy-community relationships can be improved through state-level public policy and respect from energy companies for locals and their way of life. Consideration of these concerns in future energy policy-both in the Bakken and worldwide-could reduce social tension, lessen environmental impact, and increase overall social, economic, and environmental efficiency in energy development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomarkers in natural fish populations indicate adverse biological effects of offshore oil production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Balk

    Full Text Available Despite the growing awareness of the necessity of a sustainable development, the global economy continues to depend largely on the consumption of non-renewable energy resources. One such energy resource is fossil oil extracted from the seabed at offshore oil platforms. This type of oil production causes continuous environmental pollution from drilling waste, discharge of large amounts of produced water, and accidental spills.Samples from natural populations of haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua in two North Sea areas with extensive oil production were investigated. Exposure to and uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs were demonstrated, and biomarker analyses revealed adverse biological effects, including induction of biotransformation enzymes, oxidative stress, altered fatty acid composition, and genotoxicity. Genotoxicity was reflected by a hepatic DNA adduct pattern typical for exposure to a mixture of PAHs. Control material was collected from a North Sea area without oil production and from remote Icelandic waters. The difference between the two control areas indicates significant background pollution in the North Sea.It is most remarkable to obtain biomarker responses in natural fish populations in the open sea that are similar to the biomarker responses in fish from highly polluted areas close to a point source. Risk assessment of various threats to the marine fish populations in the North Sea, such as overfishing, global warming, and eutrophication, should also take into account the ecologically relevant impact of offshore oil production.

  5. Enhancing the biodegradation of oil in sandy sediments with choline: A naturally methylated nitrogen compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, Behzad; Horel, Agota; Anders, Jennifer S.; Mirjafari, Arsalan; Beazley, Melanie J.; Sobecky, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated how additions of choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments contaminated with moderately weathered crude oil (4000 mg kg −1 sediment). Addition of lauroylcholine chloride (LCC) and tricholine citrate (TCC) to oil contaminated sediments resulted in 1.6 times higher hydrocarbon degradation rates compared to treatments without added choline derivatives. However, the degradation rate constant for the oil contaminated sediments amended with LCC was similar to that in contaminated sediments amended with inorganic nitrogen, phosphorus, and glucose. Additions of LLC and TCC to sediments containing extensively weathered oil also resulted in enhanced mineralization rates. Cultivation-free 16S rRNA analysis revealed the presence of an extant microbial community with clones closely related to known hydrocarbon degraders from the Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. The results demonstrate that the addition of minimal amounts of organic compounds to oil contaminated sediments enhances the degradation of hydrocarbons. -- Highlights: •Aerobic degradation of weathered crude oil in sandy sediments was determined. •The effect of input of choline on degradation rates was determined. •16S rRNA clone library analyses were used to examine the microbial phylogeny. •The bacterial community was consisted of clones related to hydrocarbon degraders. •Hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments was accelerated by addition of choline. -- Choline, a naturally occurring methylated nitrogen-containing compound, accelerated hydrocarbon degradation in sandy sediments by an extant microbial community

  6. Thermoplastic shape-memory polyurethanes based on natural oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saralegi, Ainara; Eceiza, Arantxa; Corcuera, Maria Angeles; Johan Foster, E; Weder, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    A new family of segmented thermoplastic polyurethanes with thermally activated shape-memory properties was synthesized and characterized. Polyols derived from castor oil with different molecular weights but similar chemical structures and a corn-sugar-based chain extender (propanediol) were used as starting materials in order to maximize the content of carbon from renewable resources in the new materials. The composition was systematically varied to establish a structure–property map and identify compositions with desirable shape-memory properties. The thermal characterization of the new polyurethanes revealed a microphase separated structure, where both the soft (by convention the high molecular weight diol) and the hard phases were highly crystalline. Cyclic thermo-mechanical tensile tests showed that these polymers are excellent candidates for use as thermally activated shape-memory polymers, in which the crystalline soft segments promote high shape fixity values (close to 100%) and the hard segment crystallites ensure high shape recovery values (80–100%, depending on the hard segment content). The high proportion of components from renewable resources used in the polyurethane formulation leads to the synthesis of bio-based polyurethanes with shape-memory properties. (paper)

  7. Compositional changes of aromatic steroid hydrocarbons in naturally weathered oil residues in the Egyptian western desert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barakat, A.O.; Qian, Y.; Kim, M.; Kennicutt, M.C. II

    2002-01-01

    Aromatic steranes are geochemical markers that can be used to study the maturation of organic matter of sediments and to correlate crude oils and source rocks. In this study, naturally weathered oil residues from an arid waste disposal site in Al-Alamein, Egypt, were analyzed for monoaromatic and triaromatic steranes to show the usefulness of biomarker compounds in assessing changes in chemical composition during the degradation of oil residues that have been released onto terrestrial environments. Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to characterize the individual aromatic compounds. Results indicate that triaromatic sterane distributions are similar in oil residues with varying extents of weathering. The distribution correlated with a fresh crude oil sample from Western Desert-sourced oil. Molecular ratios of triaromatic sterane compounds were found to be suitable for source identification. The major changes in chemical compositions resulting from the weathering of the oil included the depletion of short chain mono- and tri-aromatic steranes in extremely weathered samples. The results of the triaromatic sterane distribution correspond with weathering classifications based on the analyses of saturated and aromatic hydrocarbons and the ratios of n-alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturate biomarker compounds. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  8. Monetary compensations in climate policy through the lens of a general equilibrium assessment: The case of oil-exporting countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waisman, Henri; Rozenberg, Julie; Hourcade, Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the compensations that major oil producers have claimed for since the Kyoto Protocol in order to alleviate the adverse impacts of climate policy on their economies. The amount of these adverse impacts is assessed through a general equilibrium model which endogenizes both the reduction of oil exportation revenues under international climate policy and the macroeconomic effect of carbon pricing on Middle-East's economy. We show that compensating the drop of exportation revenues does not offset GDP and welfare losses because of the time profile of the general equilibrium effects. When considering instead compensation based on GDP losses, the effectiveness of monetary transfers proves to be drastically limited by general equilibrium effects in opened economies. The main channels of this efficiency gap are investigated and its magnitude proves to be conditional upon strategic and policy choices of the Middle-East. This leads us to suggest that other means than direct monetary compensating transfers should be discussed to engage the Middle-East in climate policies. - Highlights: • We endogenize the interplay between climate policy, oil markets and the macroeconomy. • We quantify the transfers to compensate climate policy losses in oil-exporting countries. • We assess the general equilibrium effect of monetary transfers in opened economies. • The macroeconomic efficiency of transfers is altered by general equilibrium effects. • Monetary compensation schemes are not efficient for oil exporters in climate policy

  9. World crude oil and natural gas. A demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, Noureddine

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies

  10. IR and Raman studies of oil and seedcake extracts from natural and genetically modified flax seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żuk, M.; Dymińska, L.; Kulma, A.; Boba, A.; Prescha, A.; Szopa, J.; Mączka, M.; Zając, A.; Szołtysek, K.; Hanuza, J.

    2011-03-01

    Flax plant of the third generation (F3) overexpressing key genes of flavonoid pathway cultivated in field in 2008 season was used as the plant material throughout this study. The biochemical properties of seed, oil and seedcake extracts from natural and transgenic flax plants were compared. Overproduction of flavonoids (kaempferol), phenolic acids (coumaric, ferulic/synapic) and lignan-secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) in oil and extracts from transgenic seeds has been revealed providing a valuable source of these compounds for biotechnological application. The changes in fatty acids composition and increase in their stability against oxidation along three plant generations were also detected. The analysis of oil and seedcake extracts was performed using Raman and IR spectroscopy. The wavenumbers and integral intensities of Raman and IR bands were used to identify the components of phenylpropanoid pathway in oil and seedcake extracts from control and transgenic flax seeds. The spectroscopic data were compared to those obtained from biochemical analysis.

  11. World crude oil and natural gas: a demand and supply model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichene, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines world markets for crude oil and natural gas over the period 1918-1999; it analyzes the time-series properties of output and prices and estimates demand and supply elasticities during 1918-1973 and 1973-1999. Oil and gas prices were stable during the first period; they became volatile afterwards, reflecting deep changes in the market structure following the oil shock in 1973. Demand price elasticities were too low; however, demand income elasticities were high. Supply price elasticities were also too low. The elasticity estimates help to explain the market power of the oil producers and price volatility in response to shocks, and corroborate elasticity estimates in energy studies. (author)

  12. Brazilian competition advantages in the petroleum and natural gas area. Suitability of a national policy for the sector; Vantagens competitivas brasileiras no setor de petroleo e gas natural. Conveniencia de uma politica industrial para o setor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamith, Regina; Santos, Edmilson Moutinho dos; Faga, Murilo Werneck [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia

    1998-07-01

    Albeit it is recognized the economic benefits that nay follow the opening process of the Brazilian oil and natural gas industry, which should experience a fast expansion with the arrival of national and international private capitals, this work tries to discuss about the capacity of Brazil to sustain this growth and obtain the maximum economic development out of the exploration of its oil and gas reserves. Starting from the concept of National Competitive Advantage, according to Michael Porter's model, from the University of Harvard, it is analyzed some necessary aspects for Brazil to develop a healthier and more competitive oil nad natural gas industry. The work discussed on the convenience of developing a new industrial policy, allowing to the country to protect its national interests without creating old forms of obsolete protectionism. (author)

  13. Natural resource injury assessment of a crude oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischel, M.; Mancini, E.R.

    1995-01-01

    In January 1994, a 6.7 magnitude earthquake in southern California ruptured a pipeline releasing approximately 4,200 barrels of blended San Joaquin Valley crude oil. A smaller volume entered the Santa Clara River and flowed 25 km downstream to an emergency containment dam. Ruptured water mains and chlorinated discharges from a damaged sewage treatment plant also affected water quality in the river. Quantitative injury assessment studies were initiated within days of the spill and included water/sediment chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrate community analyses and aquatic toxicity tests. Water quality values for TPH, BTEX, and chlorine ranged from nondetectable to 78 mg/l (TPH), nondetectable to 5.4 microg/l (total BTEX constituents) and nondetectable to 600 microg/l (residual chlorine) within 72 hours of the spill. Ammonia concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 12.1 mg/l within 10 days of the spill. Hydrocarbon concentrations in sediments ranged from nondetectable to 3,900 mg/kg within 8 to 12 weeks post-spill. Both the density and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates were reduced immediately after the spill but were not significantly different from reference areas four months later. River water collected from numerous locations within 72 hrs of the earthquake was transferred to the laboratory for static renewal acute toxicity tests using rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). TPH concentrations in test containers ranged from nondetectable to 23 mg/l, BTEX constituents were nondetectable, and chlorine, measured at 600 microg/l in one sample, was titrated with sodium thiosulfate prior to testing. No acute toxicity was observed in either species

  14. Lessons from Oil Pollution Research: Consensus, Controversy, and Education of Policy Makers and the Public.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    Controversies concerning scientific research findings, consensus of a majority of expert scientists, and attempts by vested interest groups to offer alternative interpretations from the consensus with the goal of influencing policy makers" and the public's understanding is not a new phenomenon with respect to complex environmental issues. For example, controversies about new scientific research findings from studies of oil spills and other aspects of petroleum and petroleum refined product inputs, fates and effects in the marine environment intensified in the late 1960s to early 1970s and continues today as evidenced by ongoing debates surrounding the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill. This paper provides an overview of the interactions between authentic new scientific findings with respect to oil pollution in the marine environment in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the consensus gained in the ensuing years by continued research, and through various science - policy processes, and a spectrum of concomitant public education efforts. Lessons learned from this ongoing process may be instructive to current debates in other arenas of environmental science.

  15. Natural hazards and urban policies in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available L’agglomération de Mexico, à plus de 2 000 mètres d’altitude, adossée à la Sierra Madre et la Cordillère Volcanique est assise sur un site accueillant mais redoutable. Il s’agit d’un des endroits les plus exposés du globe, soumis à une combinaison de risques naturels, de risques technologiques souvent mal maîtrisés dus à des industries lourdes, de nuisances, de cumul des polluants et d’un épuisement des ressources locales utilisables, tout particulièrement les ressources en eau. Après le séisme dévastateur de 1985, les acteurs de l’aménagement de Mexico tentent d’intégrer risques et durabilité dans la définition de nouvelles politiques urbaines. Mais, si les risques sont bien identifiés et des réponses sont données, leur applicabilité est quasi-nulle. Une approche normative et n’incluant pas l’ensemble de l’agglomération, mais utilisant les périphéries pour améliorer la durabilité des centres (sorte de durabilité importée à l’échelle de la métropole explique cette situation. Comme dans le mythe de Sisyphe, acteurs locaux et nationaux tentent de faire remonter la pente au rocher du risque mais ce dernier finit toujours par redescendre ? C’est qu’en réalité le problème n’est pas le rocher. Le problème, c’est la pente, c’est-à-dire le substrat fait de représentations territoriales et d’usages de l’espace qui fondent la société mexicaine, sur laquelle roule le rocher.Mexico City is located at an altitude of over 2 000 metres where it occupies an attractive but hazardous site hemmed in by the Sierra Madre and volcanic mountain ranges.The site is one of the most disaster-prone locations in the world, threatened by a combination of natural hazards, poorly controlled technological hazards created by the city’s heavy industry, pollution – particularly air pollution and diminishing local resources, the most seriously threatened being water. Since the devastating earthquake

  16. Crude oil and natural gas supplies and demands up to the year AD 2010 for France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackay, R.M.; Probert, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    A novel technique for forecasting the supply and extraction life-cycle of a depleting fossil fuel resource has been developed. The supply side utilises a 'skewed-normal production-profile' model that yields a better representation than earlier approaches. A simple model for extrapolating crude oil and natural gas demands has also been devised, based on the so called 'modified logit function'. The predicted crude oil and natural gas balances for the period up to AD 2010 indicate the disparity between indigenous production and future consumption for France. These forecasts depend on current estimates of remaining oil and gas reserves. It will consequently be necessary to revise periodically the present projections as more reliable reserve estimates become available. (author)

  17. Oil uptake by plant-based sorbents and its biodegradation by their naturally associated microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dashti, Narjes; Ali, Nedaa; Khanafer, Majida; Radwan, Samir S.

    2017-01-01

    The plant waste-products, wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse took up respectively, 190, 110 and 250% of their own weights crude oil. The same materials harbored respectively, 3.6 × 10 5 , 8.5 × 10 3 and 2.3 × 10 6  g −1  cells of hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms, as determined by a culture-dependent method. The molecular, culture-independent analysis revealed that the three materials were associated with microbial communities comprising genera known for their hydrocarbonoclastic activity. In bench-scale experiments, inoculating oily media with samples of the individual waste products led to the biodegradation of 34.0–44.9% of the available oil after 8 months. Also plant-product samples, which had been used as oil sorbents lost 24.3–47.7% of their oil via their associated microorganisms, when kept moist for 8 months. In this way, it is easy to see that those waste products are capable of remediating spilled oil physically, and that their associated microbial communities can degrade it biologically. - Highlights: • Wheat straw, corn-cobs and sugarcane bagasse take up large amounts of oil. • The three materials harbor hydrocarbonoclastic microorganisms. • Inoculating oily liquid media with the three materials separately led to biodegradation of oil. - Plant-based oil sorbents harbor microorganisms with hydrocarbon-utilization potential which makes such natural materials valuable tools for bioremediation of oil spilled in the environment.

  18. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil-in-water emulsions are highly stable: the role of natural antioxidants in the fruit oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Aline G A; Silva, Kelly A; Silva, Laís O; Costa, André M M; Akil, Emília; Coelho, Maria A Z; Torres, Alexandre G

    2018-05-23

    Antioxidants help prevent lipid oxidation, and therefore are critical to maintain sensory quality and chemical characteristics of edible oils. Jussara berry (Euterpe edulis M.) oil is a source of minor compounds with potential antioxidant activity. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of such compounds on the effectiveness to prevent or delay oxidation of oil present in oil-in-water emulsions, and how the emulsions physical stability would be affected. Jussara berry oil extracted by ethanol extraction, its stripped variations (partially stripped, highly stripped and highly stripped with added BHT), and expeller pressed oil were used to prepare oil-in-water emulsions. Jussara berry oils were analyzed before emulsions preparation to ensure its initial quality and composition, and oil-in-water emulsions were analyzed regarding their oxidative and physical stability. Ethanol extracted oil emulsion presented higher oxidative stability when compared to highly stripped oil emulsion with added synthetic antioxidant BHT (oxidative stability index 45% lower, after 60 days, and reached undetectable levels after 90 days). All emulsions maintained physically stable for up to 120 days of storage. Our results indicate that natural antioxidants in jussara berry oil protect emulsions from oxidation while keeping physical stability unchanged. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. 75 FR 29996 - Review of MMS NEPA Policies, Practices, and Procedures for OCS Oil and Gas Exploration and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) policies, practices, and procedures for the Minerals Management Service (MMS... applies NEPA in its management of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas exploration and development and make recommendations for revisions. The scope of the review is intended to be holistic, i.e. from leasing decisions to...

  20. Transatlantic natural gas price and oil price relationships - an empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez Josse, C.I.; Neumann, A.

    2006-09-01

    Markets for natural gas in industrialized countries have witnessed profound changes in the past two decades. Trade of natural gas at spot markets in North America and Europe expanded and intensified significantly as a direct result of liberalization efforts. We test the relationships of weekly prices for crude oil and natural gas on either side of the Atlantic Basin between 1999 and 2005. Applying co-integration methodology we identify a move toward integration of historically and geographically separated markets for the homogeneous commodity natural gas. (authors)

  1. Natural gas prices force businesses to strategic energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisse, C.J.

    2006-01-01

    There are many factors which force businesses to think about a strategic energy policy: energy prices, supply security, regulations in the Netherlands and the European Union, technological developments with regard to fuels, etc. By using a decision making model several criteria can be assessed for different scenarios [nl

  2. Teachers' participation in school policy: Nature, extent and orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongmans, C.T.; Sleegers, P.J.C.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Jong, F.P.C.M. de

    2004-01-01

    Against the background of several large-scale innovations in secondary agricultural education, this study explores the relation between teachers' professionality and their participation in school policy. For the research into this, 1,030 teachers of 98 schools for preparatory and secondary

  3. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  4. Comparative assessment of severe accident risks in the coal, oil and natural gas chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgherr, Peter; Eckle, Petrissa; Hirschberg, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    This study compared severe accident risks of fossil energy chains (coal, oil and natural gas), based on the historical experience contained in the comprehensive database ENSAD. Considered risk indicators focused on human health impacts, i.e., fatality rates and maximum consequences were calculated for a broad range of country groups. Generally, expected fatality rates were lowest for natural gas, intermediate for oil and highest for coal. Concerning maximum consequences of a single accident, natural gas also performed best, followed by coal, whereas accidents in the oil chain can claim significantly more fatalities. In general, OECD and EU 27 ranked top, while non-OECD countries and China in the case of coal were worst. The consideration of numerous additional country groups enabled a more detailed differentiation within the main bounding groups. Furthermore, differences among country groups are distinctly decreasing from coal to oil and natural gas, both for fatality rates and maximum consequences. The use of import adjusted-fatality rates indicates that fatality risks in supply countries are an essential aspect to understand how specific risk reduction strategies may affect other components of energy security, and thus tradeoffs and compromises are necessary. Finally, the proposed fatality risk score for fossil chains (FRS F ) allows a comparison of the combined accident risk for the considered fossil energy chains across individual countries, which can be visualized using risk mapping.

  5. Policies for technical innovations to promote natural gas market development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leblanc, M.B.

    1997-01-01

    Short-term and long-term perspectives of the natural gas market worldwide are discussed, covering demand and supply trends. Technologies determining the future of the natural gas market, and R and D needs for implementing future technological challenges are considered. (R.P.)

  6. Energy policies in a macroeconomic model: an analysis of energy taxes when oil prices decline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capros, P.; Karadeloglou, P.; Mentzas, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper attempts an analysis of energy and macroeconomic policy issues in oil-importing countries within the context of decreasing oil prices and macroeconomic modelling. A medium-term perspective is retained and the assumption is made that the economy experiences unemployment and excess capacity when the price declines. The analysis excludes any response elements that refer to long-term equilibria, optimum allocation of resources or welfare characterization of results which should be dealt with within the context of price adjusted equilibrium models. This paper adopts the approach of quantity adjusted neo-Keynesian macroeconomic models. The paper also inquires into the macroeconomic models currently used by the Commission of the European Communities. The analysis is carried out using the HGRV model which is a large-scale neo-Keynesian multisectoral macroeconomic model of the Greek economy. (UK)

  7. Environmental policy in Norway: emission quotas to the processing industries, taxation of the oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjernshaugen, Andreas

    2002-01-01

    In a white paper on the climate policy, the Norwegian Government proposes a variety of political instruments. In the years 2005 to 2007, the Government will give priority to a quota system for the industrial sectors that are currently exempt from the CO 2 tax. At the same time, the tax on oil- and gas extraction and on traffic will be continued. In addition, a series of measures are evaluated against specific emission sources such as waste management and oil heating. For the years 2008 to 2012, which is the period of commitment under the Kyoto protocol, the CO 2 will be replaced by a broad quota system that will apply to all sources that can be technically included

  8. Mexico: 'oil mentality' at last accepts a role for gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgs, R.

    1992-01-01

    The history of Mexico's policy of concentrating on oil and treating natural gas as a nuisance is traced. The current redefinition of natural gas policies by PEMEX, Mexico's giant oil and gas state monopoly, and the expanding petrochemical industry are discussed. Proven reserves of natural gas, imports of gas from the US, and the growing demand for gas products are considered. (UK)

  9. Characterization of Oily and Non-Oily Natural Sediments in Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reem A. Alrawi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the many vegetable oils widely consumed around the world. The production of palm oil requires voluminous amount of water with the concurrent generation of large amount of wastewater known as palm oil mill effluent (POME. POME is a mixture of water, oil, and natural sediments (solid particles and fibres.There is a dearth of information on the physical properties of these POME sediments. This study intends to distinguish the physical properties of oily and non-oily POME sediments which include sediment size, particle size distribution (PSD, sediment shape, sediment surface morphology, and sediment density. These characterizations are important for future researches because these properties have significant effects on the settling process that occurs either under natural gravity or by coagulations. It was found that the oily and non-oily POME sediments have different sizes with nonspherical irregular shapes, and because of that, the aspect ratio (AR and circularity shape factors were adopted to describe the shapes of these sediments. The results also indicate that the density of oily POME sediment decreases as the sediment size increases.

  10. Microemulsion of babassu oil as a natural product to improve human immune system function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Rafael Souza; França, Eduardo Luzia; Ribeiro, Elton Brito; Lanes, Patrícia Kelly Dias; Chaud, Natalina Galdeano Abud; Moraes, Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a babassu oil microemulsion system and determine the effect of this microemulsion on the functional activity of phagocytes. The microemulsion was formulated using distilled water, babassu as the oil phase component, Sorbitan monooleate-Span 80(®) (SP), Polysorbate 80-Tween 80(®) (TW), and 1-butanol (BT). Pseudoternary diagrams were prepared, and microemulsion diagram regions were preselected. Rheological characterization and preliminary and accelerated stability tests were performed. The effect of the microemulsion on the interactions between leukocytes and bacteria was determined by superoxide release, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity. The developed formulation SP/TW/BT (4.2/4.8/1.0) was classified as oil/water, showed a Newtonian profile, and had linear viscosity. When we assessed the interaction of the microemulsion or babassu oil with phagocytes, we observed an increase in superoxide, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity. The babassu oil microemulsion system is an option for future applications, including for vaccine delivery systems. Babassu oil is a natural product, so is an alternative for future immunotherapy strategies, in particular for infectious diseases.

  11. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumalan, Renata-Maria; Alexa, Ersilia; Poiana, Mariana-Atena

    2013-02-14

    In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days.

  12. Assessment of inhibitory potential of essential oils on natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years essential oils from different plants were used in the prevention of fungi and mycotoxins accumulation in cereals. The most attractive aspect derived from using of essential oils as seed grains protectants is due to their non-toxicity. This study was focused on assessment the inhibitory effect of some essential oils: Melissa officinalis (O1), Salvia officinalis (O2), Coriandrum sativum (O3), Thymus vulgaris (O4) Mentha piperita (O5) and Cinnamomum zeylanicum (O6) against natural mycoflora and Fusarium mycotoxins production correlated with their antioxidants properties. Results All essential oils showed inhibitory effect on fungal contamination of wheat seeds. This ability was dose-dependent. The highest inhibitory effect on Fusarium and Aspergillus fungi was recorded after 5 days of treatment. Fungi such as yeast (Pichia, Saccharomyces and Hyphopichia) were predominantly on seeds mycoflora after 22 days. Each treatment had a selective inhibitory effect on frequency of fungus genera. After 5 days of treatment the most fungicidal effect was recorder for O4, followed by O1. In terms of essential oils effect on mycotoxins development, the best control on fumonisins (FUMO) production was recorded for O6. The antioxidant properties of essential oils decreased in order: O4 > O1 > O6 > O5 > O2 > O3. Also, our data suggested that there is a significant negative correlation between antioxidant properties and seed contamination index (SCI), but there was not recorded a good correlation between antioxidant properties and FUMO content. Conclusions Based on proven antifungal and antimycotoxin effects as well as their antioxidant properties, the essential oils could be recommended as natural preservatives for stored cereals. The highest inhibition of fungal growth was noted after 5 days of treatment and decreased after 22 days. PMID:23409841

  13. Comparative Study of Breakdown Voltage of Mineral, Synthetic and Natural Oils and Based Mineral Oil Mixtures under AC and DC Voltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahmane Beroual

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a comparative study of AC and DC breakdown voltages of based mineral oil mixtures with natural and synthetic esters mainly used in high voltage power transformers. The goal was to analyze the performances of oil mixtures from the dielectric withstand point of view and to predict the behavior of transformers originally filled with mineral oil and re-filled with synthetic or natural ester oils when emptied for maintenance. The study concerns mixtures based on 20%, 50%, and 80% of natural and synthetic ester oils. AC breakdown voltages were measured using a sphere-sphere electrode system according to IEC 60156 specifications; the same specification was adopted for DC measurements since there is no standard specifications for this voltage waveform. A statistical analysis of the mean values, standard deviations, and histograms of breakdown voltage data was carried out. The Normal and Weibull distribution functions were used to analyze the experimental data and the best function that the data followed was used to estimate the breakdown voltage with risk of 1%, 10%, and 50% probability. It was shown that whatever the applied voltage waveforms, ester oils always have a significantly higher breakdown voltage than mineral oil. The addition of only 20% of natural or synthetic ester oil was sufficient to considerably increase the breakdown voltage of mineral oil. The dielectric strength of such a mixture is much higher than that of mineral oil alone and can reach that of ester oils. From the point of view of dielectric strength, the mixtures constitute an option for improving the performance of mineral oil. Thus, re-filling of transformers containing up to 20% mineral oil residues with ester oils, does not present any problem; it is even advantageous when considering only the breakdown voltage. Under AC, the mixtures with natural ester always follow the behavior of vegetable oil alone. With the exception of the 20% mixture of natural

  14. Optimal contant time injection policy for enhanced oil recovery and characterization of optimal viscous profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-11-01

    We numerically investigate the optimal viscous profile in constant time injection policy of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, we investigate the effect of a combination of interfacial and layer instabilities in three-layer porous media flow on the overall growth of instabilities and thereby characterize the optimal viscous profile. Results based on monotonic and non-monotonic viscous profiles will be presented. Time permitting. we will also present results on multi-layer porous media flows for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and compare the results. The support of Qatar National Fund under a QNRF Grant is acknowledged.

  15. Impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, E.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation discussed the impacts of imports, government policy and technology on future natural gas supply. Specifically, it discussed projections of natural gas supply and demand; the potential impact of imports on United States natural gas supply; the potential impacts of government policy on natural gas supply and demand; and the impact of technological innovations on natural gas supply such as coalbed methane and methane hydrate. Specific government policies that were examined included the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009; the American Clean Energy and Security Act of 2009; and the Clean Energy Jobs and American Power Act of 2009. It was concluded that the United States demand for natural gas will expand and that the impact of pending clean energy legislation is unclear. In addition, each potential future resource will face constraints and new resources may come on line in the next 20 years. figs.

  16. Environmental components of OCS policy committee recommendations regarding national oil spill prevention and response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groat, C.G.; Thorman, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Exxon Valdez oil spill of March 24, 1989 resulted in thousands of pages of analytical reports assessing the environmental, organizational, legal, procedural, social, economic, and political aspects of the event. Even though the accident was a transportation incident, it had a major impact on the public and political perception of offshore oil operations. This caused the OCS Policy Committee, which advises the Secretary of the Interior and the Minerals Management Service on Outer Continental Shelf resource development and environmental matters, to undertake a review of the reports for the purpose of developing recommendations to the secretary for improvements in OCS operations that would insure maximum efforts to prevent spills and optimal ability to deal with any that occur. The Committee felt strongly that 'a credible national spill prevention and response program from both OCS and non-OCS oil spills in the marine environment is needed to create the political climate for a viable OCS program.' The report of the Committee described eight essential elements of this program; four of these focused on the environmental aspects of oil spills, calling for (1) adequate characterization of the marine and coastal environment, including both information and analysis, accessible to decision makers, (2) the capacity to restore economic and environmental resources as quickly as possible if damage occurs, (3) a mechanism for research on oil spill impacts, and (4) a meaningful role for all interested and responsible parties, including the public, in as many of these activities as possible, from spill prevention and contingency planning to environmental oversight of ongoing operations and participation in clean-up and restoration activities

  17. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the oil and gas processing and production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najera F, J.

    1994-01-01

    NORM contamination is produced by concentration in petroleum facilities of naturally occurring radioactive materials. The presence of NORM in petroleum reservoirs and in the oil and gas industry has been widely recognized. It's not a critical technical problem if you proceed timely to solve it. NORM is a great but controllable hazard to the human health and the environment, and represents a severe waste management problem. We suggest to the latino american oil companies to conduct studies to detect NORM contamination in their facilities an use to them to plan the appropriate actions to control the situation. (author). 15 refs

  18. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    2000-01-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors-a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand-appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service-to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  19. The role of interruptible natural gas customers in New England heating oil markets: A preliminary examination of events in January-February 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-11-01

    This report provides an analysis of data collected from gas service providers and end-use customers in the six New England States and offers a preliminary assessment of the impact of interruptible gas customers on the distillate fuel oil market this past winter. Based on information collected and analyzed as of October 2000, the main findings areas follows: (1) For interruptible gas customers with distillate fuel oil as a backup fuel, their volume of interruptions was equivalent to about 1 to 2 percent of the total sales of distillate fuel oil in New England during January-February 2000. For the two peak weeks of gas supply interruptions, however, the equivalent volume of distillate fuel oil amounted to an estimated 3 to 6 percent of total sales in New England. There were no interruptions of the natural gas service during the 2-month period. (2) Purchases of distillate fuel oil by interruptible gas customers may have contributed somewhat to the spike in the price of distillate fuel oil in January-February 2000, especially during the peak weeks of gas interruptions. Nevertheless, other factors--a sudden drop in temperatures, low regional stocks of distillate fuels, and weather-related supply problems during a period of high customer demand--appear to have played a significant role in this price spike, as they have in previous spikes. (3) While this preliminary analysis suggests that interruptible natural gas service does not threaten the stability of the home heating oil market, several steps might be taken-without undermining the benefits of interruptible service--to reduce the potential adverse impacts of gas supply interruptions in times of market stress. Regardless of the magnitude of the impact of distillate fuel oil purchases by interruptible gas customers on Northeast heating oil markets, the threat of future heating oil price spikes and supply problems still remains. To help counter the threat, President Clinton in July 2000 directed Secretary Richardson to

  20. NORM emissions from heavy oil and natural gas fired power plants in Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Haddad, Kh.

    2012-01-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from four major Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. 210 Pb activity concentrations have reached 3393 ± 10 Bq kg −1 and 4023 ± 7 Bq kg −1 in fly ash and bottom ash, respectively; lower values of 210 Po were observed due to its high volatility. In addition, 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions in bottom ash from mixed (heavy oil and natural gas) fired power plants varied between 2.7 × 10 9 –7.95 × 10 9 Bq and 3.5 × 10 9 –10 10 Bq, respectively; higher emissions of 210 Po and 210 Pb from gas power plants being observed. However, the present study showed that 210 Po and 210 Pb emissions from thermal power plants fired by natural gas are much higher than the coal power plants operated in the World. - Highlights: ► NORM have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas. ► 210 Pb and 210 Po were the main NORM radionuclides detected in the fly and bottom ash. ► 210 Po and 210 Pb annual emissions from these power plants were estimated.

  1. Impact of oil prices, economic diversification policies and energy conservation programs on the electricity and water demands in Kuwait

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Michael; Alsayegh, Osamah A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the influences of oil revenue and government's policies toward economic developments and energy efficiency on the electricity and water demands. A Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model was developed based on historic data of oil income, gross domestic product (GDP), population and electric load and water demand over the past twelve years (1998–2010). Moreover, the model took into account the future mega projects, annual new connected loads and expected application of energy conservation programs. It was run under six circumstances representing the combinations of three oil income scenarios and two government action policies toward economic diversification and energy conservation. The first government policy is the status quo with respect to economic diversification and applying energy conservation programs. The second policy scenario is the proactive strategy of raising the production of the non-oil sector revenue and enforcing legislations toward energy demand side management and conservation. In the upcoming 20 years, the average rates of change of the electric load and water demand increase are 0.13 GW and 3.0 MIGD, respectively, per US dollar oil price increase. Moreover, through proactive policy, the rates of average load and water demand decrease are 0.13 GW and 2.9 MIGD per year, respectively. - Highlights: • Kuwait-specific electricity and water demand model is presented. • Strong association between oil income and electricity and water demands. • Rate of change of electric load per US dollar oil price change is 0.13 GW. • Rate of change of water demand per US dollar oil price change is 3.0 MIGD. • By 2030, efficiency lowers electric load and water demand by 10 and 6%, respectively

  2. Making peace with nature. Practical natural philosophy for a better environmental policy. Wege zum Frieden mit der Natur. Praktische Naturphilosophie fuer die Umweltpolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer-Abich, K M

    1986-01-01

    The publication abstracted points out a way of making peace with nature by reasonable policies. The discussion is based on the author's criticism of the anthropocentric conception of the world typical of the industrial society. He urges upon a correction of a conception making man the center of the world and leading to inadequate environmental policies. The still valid anthropocentric conception of the world should be replaced by a physiocentric view with the environment as an integral part of the world. The author juxtaposes philosophical analyses based on a practical natural philosophy and political concepts. He gives an outline of a policy which based on the present social, political and moral conditions in the Federal Republic of Germany concedes an autonomous status to nature and theenvironment. The conditions of peace developed imply the omnipresence of the changed view in all spheres of life, i.e. from fundamental research through environmental policy.

  3. Integrating science and policy in natural resource management: lessons and opportunities from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger N. Clark; Errol E. Meidinger

    1998-01-01

    Relations between science and policy concerning many issues (e.g., health, energy, natural resources) have been changing worldwide. Public pressure to resolve such complex and often controversial issues has resulted in policymakers and policy implementers seeking better knowledge on which to base their decisions. As a result, scientists have become more actively...

  4. Environmental policy, fuel prices and the switching to natural gas in Santiago, Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coria, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this study I analyzed the role of environmental policies and energy cost savings on the pattern of switching to natural gas by stationary sources in Chile. According to the data most of the switching was induced by the lower cost of natural gas, although environmental policies played a small role and showed that sources were more sensitive to the cost of energy than to the environmental regulation. (author)

  5. Harvesting and replenishment policies for renewable natural resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Aaron J.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    The current paper links the optimal intertemporal use of renewable natural resources to the harvesting activities of various economic agents. Previous contributions cite market forces as a causative factor inducing the extirpation of renewable natural resources. The analysis given here discusses investment in the stock of renewable resources and cites important examples of this activity. By introducing joint harvesting and replenishment strategies into a model of renewable resource use, the analysis adds descriptive reality and relevance to positive and normative discussions of renewable natural resource use. A high price for the yield or a high discount rate tend to diminish the size of the optimum stationary stock of the resource with a non-replenishment harvesting strategy. Optimal non-replenishment harvesting strategies for renewable natural resources will exhaustion or extirpation of the resource if the price of the yield or the discount rate are sufficiently large. However, the availability of a replenishment technology and the use of replenishment activities tends to buffer the resource against exhaustion or extirpation.

  6. Macroeconomics of natural disasters : Meta-analysis and policy options

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A.G. van Bergeijk (Peter); S. Lazzaroni (Sara)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe use the case of the impact of natural disasters to analyse strengths and weaknesses of meta-analysis in an emerging research field. Macroeconomists have published on this issue since 2002 (we identified 22 studies to date). The results of the studies are contradictory and

  7. Characteristic of natural rubber latex-methyl metha-crylate copolymer in mineral lubricant base oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meri Suhartini; Rahmawati

    2010-01-01

    Natural rubber latex-methyl methacrylate copolymer was diluted in xylene, then diluted in four types of lubricant base oil with concentrations of 0.25%, 1%, 5%, and 10%. The mixed solutions were analyzed to obtain kinematics viscosity, viscosity index, density, ash content, metal content, flash point, shear stability and total alkali number. The viscosity index of sample, increased by adding the copolymer solution. The results showed that lubricant base oil of High Viscosity index (HVI) 60 and mixed HVI 60: HVI 650 gave optimum viscosity index. The higher concentration of polymer added into base lubricant oil, the higher viscosity index obtained. The shear stability test showed that the kinematics viscosity of sample decreased 6.5% after 60 minutes of treatment test. (author)

  8. Exploration and production of crude oil and natural gas in Germany in 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an overview of oil and gas exploration and production in Germany in 2012. The report is based on data gathered on a regular basis by the State Authority for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) from the oil and gas companies and the other state mining offices. Due to the granting of new licences in the last years, a significant increase of geophysical prospecting of the subsurface for oil and gas deposits was observed. Six 3D seismic surveys were conducted. Five surveys were located in the Upper Rhine Valley and one in the lowlands of Northwest Germany. 2D seismic data were acquired in Lusatia (Brandenburg) and at the coast of the Baltic Sea. The number of exploration wells decreased once again. In 2012 nine exploration wells were drilled, compared to ten in the previous year. In addition to that number, another seven exploration wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. None of the ten new field wildcats were completed by result. Three exploration wells (appraisal wells) were completed successfully. Two of these wells confirmed the presence of gas and one the presence of oil. The number of development wells decreased significantly. In 2012 31 wells were drilled, compared to 46 in the prominent year 2011. Another 13 wells were drilled to total depth already before 2012, but not completed by final well results in 2012. 31 wells were completed successfully. 30 of these wells encountered oil or gas pay zones. In 2011 drilling meterage has reached its highest value since 1998. In contrast the total drilling meterage decreased slightly by less than 2000 m to 71,424 min 2012. The natural gas production continued its downward trend. Due to the depletion of gas fields, the annual natural gas production dropped by 9.1% compared to the previous year and amounted to 11.7 billion m 3 (field quality). After the increase in 2011, the annual crude oil production decreased by 2.1% to 2.6 million t

  9. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  10. The relevance of asymmetry issues for residential oil and natural gas demand: evidence from selected OECD countries, 1970-95

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, R.; Zoechling, J.

    1998-01-01

    In times of low oil prices, oil demand in OECD countries has not rebounded as textbook economic theory would suggest. On the other hand, natural gas demand has increased, despite prices being at almost the same level as in 1985. In this paper, the impact of volatile prices on oil demand is investigated. Different econometric approaches are applied. The major conclusions of these investigations are: (i) with respect to the the choice of fuels, strong patterns of asymmetry exist; (ii) the maximum historical oil price is the dominating parameter on residual oil demand; and (iii) volatile prices have a greater influence on energy demand than high but rather constant prices

  11. Subsidy modes, waste cooking oil and biofuel: Policy effectiveness and sustainable supply chains in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huiming; Li, Lianshui; Zhou, Peng; Hou, Jianmin; Qiu, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Many countries are concerned with the waste-to-energy for economic development and societal welfare. This paper constructs a dynamic game model that, for the first time compares the incentive effects of four common subsidy modes on waste cooking oil supply for biofuel refining and sales of waste cooking oil refined products. The model considers the impact of preferential tax treatment, a raw material subsidy, a sales subsidy and an investment subsidy on the profits of biofuel enterprises and waste cooking oil recyclers. Results indicate that common approaches adopted in developed economies such as raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies increase the profits of both biofuel enterprises and recyclers. On the contrary, investment subsidies, which are relatively common in some regions of China, increase the profits of recyclers, while reducing revenues achieved by biofuel enterprises. To promote the supply chain, policy should give priority to raw material price subsidies and finished products sales subsidies, and for investment subsidies, however, the government should be cautious

  12. A first: U.S. natural gas wellhead value tops oil's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    The value of natural gas production in the US in 1993 exceeded that of crude oil output for the first time in history. The reversal owes as much to trends in price as in production and, most recently, record frigid weather in much of the US. Another key factor is a newly revitalized, restructured gas industry operating in the most unfettered regulatory environment in recent memory. The industry's sterling performance in accommodating the surge in demand caused by the arctic cold that steamrolled across North America early in the 1993--94 winter strengthens the natural gas case for reliability. And that can only enhance the industry's prospects for adding more long term supply contracts. Looming on the immediate horizon is the prospect of an extended slump in oil prices, which could mean that natural gas dominance in US petroleum industry revenues will be short lived if low cost oil recaptures market share from gas. While that may temporarily dethrone natural gas from its new top slot, the reversal in 1993 represents what is likely to be a long term trend for the US petroleum industry

  13. Production of natural antioxidants from vegetable oil deodorizer distillates: effect of catalytic hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, María Ayelén; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-02-01

    Natural tocopherols are one of the main types of antioxidants found in living creatures, but they also have other critical biological functions. The biopotency of natural (+)-alpha-tocopherol (RRR) is 36% higher than that of the synthetic racemic mixture and 300% higher than the SRR stereoisomer. Vegetable oil deodorizer distillates (DD) are an excellent source of natural tocopherols. Catalytic hydrogenation of DD preconcentrates has been suggested as a feasible route for recovery of tocopherols in high yield. However, it is important to know whether the hydrogenation operation, as applied to these tocopherol-rich mixtures, is capable of preserving the chiral (RRR) character, which is critical to its biopotency. Fortified (i.e., (+)-alpha-tocopherol enriched) sunflower oil and methyl stearate, as well as sunflower oil DD, were fully hydrogenated using commercial Ni and Pd catalysts (120-180 degrees C; 20-60 psig). Products were analyzed by chiral HPLC. Results show that the desired chiral configuration (RRR) is fully retained. Thus, the hydrogenation route can be safely considered as a valid alternative for increasing the efficiency of tocopherol recovery processes from DDs while preserving their natural characteristics.

  14. Microemulsion of babassu oil as a natural product to improve human immune system function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessoa RS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Souza Pessoa,1 Eduardo Luzia França,1,2­ Elton Brito Ribeiro,1 Patrícia Kelly Dias Lanes,1 Natalina Galdeano Abud Chaud,1 Lucélia Campelo Albuquerque Moraes,2 Adenilda Cristina Honorio-França1,2 1Post Graduate Program in Material Science, 2Institute of Biological and Health Science, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Barra do Garças, MT, Brazil Background: The aim of this study was to develop and characterize a babassu oil microemulsion system and determine the effect of this microemulsion on the functional activity of phagocytes.Methods: The microemulsion was formulated using distilled water, babassu as the oil phase component, Sorbitan monooleate-Span 80® (SP, Polysorbate 80-Tween 80® (TW, and 1-butanol (BT. Pseudoternary diagrams were prepared, and microemulsion diagram regions were preselected. Rheological characterization and preliminary and accelerated stability tests were performed. The effect of the microemulsion on the interactions between leukocytes and bacteria was determined by superoxide release, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity.Results: The developed formulation SP/TW/BT (4.2/4.8/1.0 was classified as oil/water, showed a Newtonian profile, and had linear viscosity. When we assessed the interaction of the microemulsion or babassu oil with phagocytes, we observed an increase in superoxide, phagocytosis, and microbicidal activity.Conclusion: The babassu oil microemulsion system is an option for future applications, including for vaccine delivery systems. Babassu oil is a natural product, so is an alternative for future immunotherapy strategies, in particular for infectious diseases. Keywords: vegetable oil, babassu, microemulsion, phagocytes, delivery systems

  15. Robust superhydrophobic surface by nature-inspired polyphenol chemistry for effective oil-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yiming; Huang, Jingjing; Zhang, Shiyu; Wang, Yinghua; Gu, Shaojin; Cao, Genyang; Yang, Hongjun; Ye, Dezhan; Zhou, Yingshan; Xu, Weilin

    2018-05-01

    With the ever-increasing oil spillages, oil-water separation has attracted widespread concern in recent years. In this work, a nature-inspired polyphenol method has been developed to fabricate the durable superhydrophobic surfaces for the oil-water separation. Inspiring from the adhesion of polyphenol and reducing capacity of free catechol/pyrogallol groups in polyphenol, firstly, the simple immersion of commercial materials (melamine sponge, PET, and nonwoven cotton fabrics) in tannic acid (TA) solution allows to form a multifunctional coating on the surface of sponge or fabrics, which was used as reducing reagent to generate Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Then, decoration of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecanethiol (PFDT) molecules produced superhydrophobic surfaces. The surface topological structure, chemical composition, and superhydrophobic property of the as-prepared surface are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and water contact angle (WCA) measurements. The WCAs of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were higher than 150°. The stability, absorption capacity, and recyclability of as-prepared sponge and fabrics were investigated. The as-prepared sponge demonstrates high oil/water selectivity and high absorption capacity (66-150 g/g) for a broad variety of oils and organic solvents, and was chemically resistant, robust against abrasion, and long-term durability in harsh environments. Most important of all, it can continuously separate various kinds of oils or organic pollutants from the surface of water. This study presents a facile strategy to fabricate superhydrophobic materials for continuous oil-water separation, displaying great potential in large-scale practical application.

  16. Dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in salt water environment by Corexit 9500A in the presence of natural coastal materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Lee, Mengshan; Berbakov, Jillian; Tansel, Derya Z.; Koklonis, Urpiana

    2014-04-01

    Effectiveness of Corexit 9500A for dispersing Louisiana crude oil was evaluated in salt water solutions containing natural materials in relation to salinity and dispersant-to-oil ratio (DOR). Experimental results showed that both salinity and DOR had significant effects on dispersion of Louisiana crude oil in the presence of different natural materials. The natural materials added to the salt water solutions included sea sand (South Beach, Miami, Florida), red mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle), seaweed (Sargassum natans), and sea grass (Halodule wrightii). Dispersant effectiveness (amount of oil dispersed into the water) was reduced significantly with increasing salinity with the minimum effectiveness observed in the salinity range between 30 and 50 ppt in all aqueous samples containing natural materials. When significant amounts of floating oil were present, the partially submerged natural materials enhanced the transfer of oil into the water column, which improved the dispersion effectiveness. However, dispersant effectiveness was significantly reduced when the amount of floating oil was relatively small and could not be released back to the water column. Surface tension may not be an adequate parameter for monitoring the effectiveness of dispersants in salt water environment. When distilled water was used (i.e., zero salinity), surface tension was significantly reduced with increasing dispersant concentration. However, there was no clear trend in the surface tension of the salt water solutions (17-51 ppt) containing crude oil and natural materials with increasing dispersant concentration.

  17. The enrichment behavior of natural radionuclides in pulverized oil shale-fired power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaasma, Taavi; Kiisk, Madis; Meriste, Tõnis; Tkaczyk, Alan Henry

    2014-01-01

    The oil shale industry is the largest producer of NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material) waste in Estonia. Approximately 11–12 million tons of oil shale containing various amounts of natural radionuclides is burned annually in the Narva oil shale-fired power plants, which accounts for approximately 90% of Estonian electricity production. The radionuclide behavior characteristics change during the fuel combustion process, which redistributes the radionuclides between different ash fractions. Out of 24 operational boilers in the power plants, four use circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology and twenty use pulverized fuel (PF) technology. Over the past decade, the PF boilers have been renovated, with the main objective to increase the efficiency of the filter systems. Between 2009 and 2012, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in four PF energy blocks were replaced with novel integrated desulphurization technology (NID) for the efficient removal of fly ash and SO 2 from flue gases. Using gamma spectrometry, activity concentrations and enrichment factors for the 238 U ( 238 U, 226 Ra, 210 Pb) and 232 Th ( 232 Th, 228 Ra) family radionuclides as well as 40 K were measured and analyzed in different PF boiler ash fractions. The radionuclide activity concentrations in the ash samples increased from the furnace toward the back end of the flue gas duct. The highest values in different PF boiler ash fractions were in the last field of the ESP and in the NID ash, where radionuclide enrichment factors were up to 4.2 and 3.3, respectively. The acquired and analyzed data on radionuclide activity concentrations in different PF boiler ashes (operating with an ESP and a NID system) compared to CFB boiler ashes provides an indication that changes in the fuel (oil shale) composition and boiler working parameters, as well as technological enhancements in Estonian oil shale fired power plants, have had a combined effect on the distribution patterns of natural radionuclides in

  18. Biofuels, tax policies and oil prices in France: Insights from a dynamic CGE model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumax, Virginie; Philip, Jean-Marc; Sarasa, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    The 2009 Renewable Energies Directive (RED) has set up ambitious targets concerning biofuel consumption in the European Union by 2020. Nevertheless, budgetary constraints and growing concerns about the environmental integrity of first-generation biofuels have imposed a phasing out of the fiscal instruments to promote them. Focusing on France, this paper combines an exogenous increase in oil prices and tax policies on fossil fuels. The objective is to determine the efficiency of an alternative incentive scheme for biodiesel consumption based on a higher price of the fossil fuel substitute. Policy simulations are implemented through a dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model calibrated on 2009 French data. The results show that the 10% biodiesel mandate set by the RED would not be achieved even if the fixed taxes on diesel reach the same level as those on gasoline. Although integrating the rise in oil prices into the fiscal framework improves the biodiesel penetration rate, it remains below the target. Moreover, we find that the effects of biofuel consumption are limited to the biofuel chain sectors. In other agricultural sectors, the substitution effect of biodiesel with diesel is partially offset by the pricing effect induced by higher energy production costs. - Highlights: • We represent the French biodiesel production chain through a dynamic CGE model. • We examine the efficiency of alternative support schemes to biodiesel in France. • Ambitious targets require substantial additional taxes on diesel and rising oil prices. • Spillover effects are limited to the biodiesel chain sectors. • Energy-intensive sectors suffer from higher production costs

  19. The future world oil market: state of nature or social contract?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, P

    1999-10-01

    Mary Ann Tetreault develops a very interesting interpretation of the emerging new relationship between international oil companies and Middle East producing countries. The original intellectual tools she handles-concepts drawn from the European political philosophy tradition-allow her to argue as follows: (1) the oil market left to itself- whether participants are states or firms-behaves like a Hobbesian ''state of nature'' often resulting in a situation damaging to each participant; (2) to deal with it, the international oil community has historically relied on different types of organisations, but these social contracts or ''republics'' were inherently unstable since they rested on too narrowly defined interests; (3) the rationale behind the possible return of oil companies to the richest Middle East countries is the search for new ''international oil republics'' able to ''offer greater security and higher profits for all the good republicans among them''. (author)

  20. Castor oil as a natural alternative to labor induction: A retrospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Sundstrom, Beth; Moxley, Grace E; Banks, Kendall; Bishop, Ashlan; Rathbun, Lesley

    2018-04-01

    To describe birthing outcomes among women who consumed castor oil cocktail as part of a freestanding birth center labor induction protocol. De-identified data from birth logs and electronic medical records were entered into SPSS Statistics 22.0 for analysis for all women who received the castor oil cocktail (n=323) to induce labor between January 2008 and May 2015 at a birth center in the United States. Descriptive statistics were analyzed for trends in safety and birthing outcomes. Of the women who utilized the castor oil cocktail to stimulate labor, 293 (90.7%) birthed vaginally at the birth center or hospital. The incidence of maternal adverse effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, extreme diarrhea) was less than 7%, and adverse effects of any kind were reported in less than 15% of births. An independent sample t-test revealed that parous women were more likely to birth vaginally at the birth center after using the castor oil cocktail than their nulliparous counterparts (poil cocktail to induce labor were able to give birth vaginally with little to no maternal or fetal complications. Findings indicate further research is needed to compare the safety and effectiveness of natural labor induction methodologies, including castor oil, to commonly used labor induction techniques in a prospective study or clinical trial. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Natural (13) C distribution in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) and consequences for allocation pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamade, Emmanuelle; Tcherkez, Guillaume; Darlan, Nuzul Hijri; Rodrigues, Rosario Lobato; Fresneau, Chantal; Mauve, Caroline; Lamothe-Sibold, Marlène; Sketriené, Diana; Ghashghaie, Jaleh

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm has now become one of the most important crops, palm oil representing nearly 25% of global plant oil consumption. Many studies have thus addressed oil palm ecophysiology and photosynthesis-based models of carbon allocation have been used. However, there is a lack of experimental data on carbon fixation and redistribution within palm trees, and important C-sinks have not been fully characterized yet. Here, we carried out extensive measurement of natural (13) C-abundance (δ(13) C) in oil palm tissues, including fruits at different maturation stages. We find a (13) C-enrichment in heterotrophic organs compared to mature leaves, with roots being the most (13) C-enriched. The δ(13) C in fruits decreased during maturation, reflecting the accumulation in (13) C-depleted lipids. We further used observed δ(13) C values to compute plausible carbon fluxes using a steady-state model of (13) C-distribution including metabolic isotope effects ((12) v/(13) v). The results suggest that fruits represent a major respiratory loss (≈39% of total tree respiration) and that sink organs such as fruits are fed by sucrose from leaves. That is, glucose appears to be a quantitatively important compound in palm tissues, but computations indicate that it is involved in dynamic starch metabolism rather that C-exchange between organs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Antioxidant effect of mono- and dihydroxyphenols in sunflower oil with different levels of naturally present tocopherols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrádková, Iveta; Merkl, Roman; Šmidrkal, Jan; Kyselka, Jan; Filip, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mono- and dihydroxyphenolic acids and their alkyl esters were examined, with emphasis on the relationship between their molecular structure and antioxidant activity. Test media with different tocopherol level were used for determining the oxidative stability: original refined sunflower oil (total tocopherols 149.0 mg/kg), partially tocopherol-stripped sunflower oil (total tocopherols 8.7 mg/kg) and distilled fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a tocopherol-free medium. The chemical reaction of tocopherols with diazomethane tested for the purpose to eliminate their antioxidant activity failed due to the negligible degree of methylation of hydroxyl group in the tocopherol molecule. Caffeic acid and protocatechuic acid (3,4-dihydroxyphenolic acids) and their alkyl esters were found to be more active antioxidants than monohydroxyphenolic acid (p-hydroxybenzoic acid), 2,5-dihydroxyphenolic acid (gentisic acid), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenolic acids (vanillic and ferulic acids) and their corresponding alkyl esters. Naturally present tocopherols in refined sunflower oil proved to have a synergistic effect on gentisic acid but not on its alkyl esters. In contrast, tocopherols showed an antagonistic effect on alkyl esters of caffeic acid, because their protection factors decreased with increasing level of tocopherols in the test medium. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of these alkyl esters decreased with increasing length of their alkyl chain in conformity with the polar paradox hypothesis. Practical applications: Tocopherols as naturally present antioxidants influence considerably the antioxidant activity of other antioxidants added to plant oils used as a test medium. Distilled fatty acid methyl esters prepared from refined sunflower oil may serve as an optimal tocopherol-free test medium. Some alkyl esters of phenolic acids were evaluated to be applicable as natural more lipophilic antioxidants in comparison with phenolic acids. PMID:23997655

  3. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jung-Hua, E-mail: hwaa@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China); Huang, Yi-Lung [Exploration and Development Research Institute, Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan, No. 1, Dayuan, Wenfa Road, Miaoli City, Miaoli County 36042, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chang-Chen [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-15

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: > System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. > Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. > Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. > Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. > FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  4. Effect of floating pricing policy: An application of system dynamics on oil market after liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jung-Hua; Huang, Yi-Lung; Liu, Chang-Chen

    2011-01-01

    Upon the implementation of the floating price mechanism, Taiwan's gasoline and diesel prices returned to market mechanism, which terminated the phenomenon of the public paying for the losses of the state-owned oil company-Chinese Petroleum Corporation, Taiwan (CPC). Furthermore, the relatively low production costs of the privately owned Formosa Petrochemical Corporation (FPCC) disclosed the pricing mechanism of CPC, which inspired FPCC to adopt pricing strategy in order to increase the market share. This study aims to establish a system dynamics model to analyze the effects of the floating price mechanism on Taiwan's gasoline and diesel markets. This Model is divided into four sub-systems. The model of this study passed several validation tests, and hence, is able to provide a 'virtual laboratory' for policy-makers to conduct simulation and scenario analysis. The simulation results indicate (a) feedback mechanism of expected revenues and pricing strategy could efficiently simulate the FPCC pricing mechanism, (b) price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues, although the effect on market share is not remarkable, and (c) FPCC has a higher gas-station growth rate. Scenario analyses found (a) lowering oil security stockpile would not change FPCC's pricing strategy and (b) FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations. - Highlights: → System dynamics model analyzes the effects of oil markets' floating price mechanism. → Feedback mechanism of expected revenues could efficiently simulate pricing mechanism. → Price competition strategy could increase FPCC revenues. → Lowering oil security stockpile, FPCC's pricing strategy would not change. → FPCC prefers to follow CPC pricing when it has more gas stations.

  5. Digital representation of oil and natural gas well pad scars in southwest Wyoming: 2012 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garman, Steven L.; McBeth, Jamie L.

    2015-01-01

    The recent proliferation of oil and natural gas energy development in the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming has accentuated the need to understand wildlife responses to this development. The location and extent of surface disturbance that is created by oil and natural gas well pad scars are key pieces of information used to assess the effects of energy infrastructure on wildlife populations and habitat. A digital database of oil and natural gas pad scars had previously been generated from 1-meter (m) National Agriculture Imagery Program imagery (NAIP) acquired in 2009 for a 7.7-million hectare (ha) (19,026,700 acres) region of southwest Wyoming. Scars included the pad area where wellheads, pumps, and storage facilities reside and the surrounding area that was scraped and denuded of vegetation during the establishment of the pad. Scars containing tanks, compressors, the storage of oil and gas related equipment, and produced-water ponds were also collected on occasion. This report updates the digital database for the five counties of southwest Wyoming (Carbon, Lincoln, Sublette, Sweetwater, Uinta) within the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) study area and for a limited portion of Fremont, Natrona, and Albany Counties using 2012 1-m NAIP imagery and 2012 oil and natural gas well permit information. This report adds pad scars created since 2009, and updates attributes of all pad scars using the 2012 well permit information. These attributes include the origination year of the pad scar, the number of active and inactive wells on or near each pad scar in 2012, and the overall status of the pad scar (active or inactive). The new 2012 database contains 17,404 pad scars of which 15,532 are attributed as oil and natural gas well pads. Digital data are stored as shapefiles projected to the Universal Transverse Mercator (zones 12 and 13) coordinate system. These data are available from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at http://dx.doi.org/10

  6. How Do Oil Prices, Macroeconomic Factors and Policies Affect the Market for Renewable Energy?:Oil Price, Macroeconomic Factors and Renewable Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Imran; Hiles, Carlie; Morley, Bruce

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the nature of any relationship between renewable energy investment, oil prices, GDP and the interest rate, using a time series approach. We concentrate on three countries with different relationships to the renewable energy industry, with Norway and the UK being oil-exporters for most of the sample and the USA an importer. Following estimation using a VAR model, the results provide evidence of considerable heterogeneity across the countries, with the USA ...

  7. How geographic distance and political ideology interact to influence public perception of unconventional oil/natural gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Christopher E.; Bugden, Dylan; Hart, P. Sol; Stedman, Richard C.; Jacquet, Jeffrey B.; Evensen, Darrick T.N.; Boudet, Hilary S.

    2016-01-01

    A growing area of research has addressed public perception of unconventional oil and natural gas development via hydraulic fracturing (“fracking”). We extend this research by examining how geographic proximity to such extraction interacts with political ideology to influence issue support. Regression analysis of data from a fall 2013 national telephone survey of United States residents reveals that as respondents’ geographic distance from areas experiencing significant development increases, political ideology becomes more strongly associated with issue support, with the liberal-partisan divide widening. Our findings support construal level theory's central premise: that people use more abstract considerations (like political ideology) the more geographically removed they are from an issue. We discuss implications for studying public opinion of energy development as well as for risk communication. - Highlights: • Conservatives support unconventional oil and gas development (UOGD) more than liberals. • This divide widened as geographic distance from UOGD areas increased • Construal Level Theory may help explain this finding • We discuss implications for energy policy and risk communication

  8. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2003-04-30

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency.

  9. Measuring energy security: Trends in the diversification of oil and natural gas supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, Gail; Joutz, Frederick; Loungani, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence on one facet of energy security in OECD economies-the extent of diversification in sources of oil and natural gas supplies. Viewed from the perspective of the energy-importing countries as a whole, there has not been much change in diversification in oil supplies over the last decade, but diversification in sources of natural gas supplies has increased steadily. We document the considerable cross-country heterogeneity in the extent of diversification. We also show how the extent of diversification changes if account is taken of the political risk attached to suppliers; the size of the importing country; and transportation risk. - Highlights: → Global diversification is constant but large differences exist among countries. → Political risk and distance have large impacts on diversity measures. → Size has little impact on diversity measures. → France, US, and UK show low vulnerability for both fuels. → Smaller European countries show high vulnerability for both fuels.

  10. Methods of refining natural oils, and methods of producing fuel compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Bruce E.; Kirk, Sharon E.

    2015-10-27

    A method of refining a natural oil includes: (a) providing a feedstock that includes a natural oil; (b) reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst to form a metathesized product that includes olefins and esters; (c) passivating residual metathesis catalyst with an agent that comprises nitric acid; (d) separating the olefins in the metathesized product from the esters in the metathesized product; and (e) transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product and/or hydrogenating the olefins to form a fully or partially saturated hydrogenated product. Methods for suppressing isomerization of olefin metathesis products produced in a metathesis reaction, and methods of producing fuel compositions are described.

  11. Impact of California air quality control policies on the use and demand for natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of California's air quality control policies on the use of natural gas. In this paper the author would like to briefly review the regulatory structure for air pollution control in California, summarize the requirement of the California Clean Air Act of 1988, and discuss the impacts of our regulatory programs on the use and demand for natural gas

  12. The Nature of Temporally Variable Methane Emissions at Oil and Natural Gas Operations in the Eagle Ford Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, T. N.; Shepson, P. B.; Cambaliza, M. O. L.; Stirm, B. H.; Conley, S. A.; Mehrotra, S.; Faloona, I. C.; Mayfield, M.; Lyon, D. R.; Alvarez, R.

    2015-12-01

    To understand the current state of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from oil and gas operations, policy makers refer to national inventories and reporting programs, and therefore, it is imperative that these reports are accurate and representative. Many studies exist that investigate the reliability of current monitoring methods, however, to our knowledge the temporal variability of the magnitude and source of methane (CH4) emissions from oil and gas facilities has not been reported in the literature. We present results from a field campaign conducted in June 2014 in the Eagle Ford basin, Texas to assess the temporal variability of emissions from a variety of facilities using data obtained through four different methods. The variability of total CH4 emission rate from individual facilities was investigated by repeated measurement of emissions from five gathering facilities using two aircraft-based mass balance approaches. Basin-wide emissions variation was examined by conducting a series of eight four hour afternoon aerial surveys of two 35 x 35 km areas, with transects oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction. The emission source-type and magnitude were further investigated using helicopter-based FLIR camera observations conducted repeatedly at eight oil wells, one gas well, and four gathering facilities. Results indicate a high degree of variability in day-to-day and sometimes hour-to-hour CH4 emissions magnitude. FLIR camera observations suggest that the component-level source of facility emissions is also highly variable over time, with both storage tank vent stacks and tank hatches representing important components of the observed day-to-day variability. While some emissions were due to scheduled maintenance, others appeared to occur due to faulty and/or aging equipment. Here we discuss what was learned in terms of factors that explain the observed emission rate variability.

  13. Panorama 2011: Iraq: making its return to the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saniere, A.; Sabathier, J.

    2011-01-01

    Controlling some of the world's largest reserves of oil and natural gas, Iraq boasts major assets in attracting foreign investment. While there is limited risk involved in exploration, the political environment and security needs for personnel and facilities pose omnipresent risks for investors. As a result, the country is facing immense human, political, financial and technological hurdles in its hopes of capturing a leading role in the international hydrocarbons market. (author)

  14. Russian Oil and Natural Gas: Strategic Culture and Security Implications of European Dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Phillips, William M

    2007-01-01

    .... The third section investigates the importance of revenues that Russia receives from consumption of oil and natural gas exports to Europe on their Gross National Product and economic growth for the future. By understanding Russia's strategic culture and the interdependence of European demand and Russian supply, conclusions are made that determine the threat, risk, and circumstances that Russia will deny energy resources to European countries.

  15. Conditions of prospecting, development, production, and supply of oil and natural gas in Cameroun, Congo, and Ivory Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakami, Yoshimasa; Norisugi, Yoichi; Miyake, Keiji

    1988-08-01

    This paper reports the conditions of national affairs, oil industry, and prospecting, development, production of oil and natural gas in Ivory Coast in western Africa. All of oil and natural gas are produced in Cretaceous and Tertiary sedimentary basins on the continental margin off the coast of Ivory Coast and Ghana. In 1970 the first oil field (Belier) was discovered by the test boring drilled under the sea, and in 1980 Espoir Oil Field was discovered. No further new oil field, however, has been discovered since then. The total production until 1987, amounts to 45.55 million bbl and the minable reserve is estimated about 84 million bbl. The production reached the maximum 1984, and thereafter has gone down. Few plans of prospecting are carried out recently. (10 figs, 2 tabs)

  16. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geman, Helyette; Ohana, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  17. Downstream natural gas in Europe - high hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, P.O.

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors. [Author

  18. Downstream natural gas in Europe-High hopes dashed for upstream oil and gas companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2007-01-01

    Access for independents to retail gas markets was a central concern in European policy reform efforts in the 1990s. Upstream oil and gas companies reacted with strategic intentions of forward integration. By late 2004, forward integration was still weak, however. An important explanation of the gap between announced strategic re-orientation and actual strategy implementation lies in the political failure of EU member states to dismantle market barriers to entry for independents. Variations between companies in downstream strategy implementation are explained by variations in business opportunities and internal company factors

  19. Increased oil recovery: secondary and tertiary. Application and future prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whiting, R L

    1978-01-01

    Oil is initially produced using the nature reservoir pressure present, in a process called primary oil recovery. Secondary recovery uses artificial means to increase the natural reservoir pressure; tertiary, or enhanced oil recovery, uses a number of methods to enhance the flow characteristics of the oil. The scope for such techniques to increase the yield from oil fields in the US is estimated; the practicality of their application is shown to be particularly dependent upon pricing, taxation, and other existing policies. 16 references.

  20. Modeling of response, socioeconomic, and natural resource damage costs for hypothetical oil spill scenarios in San Francisco Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etkin, D.S.; French McCay, D.; Whittier, N.; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Jennings, J.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the influence of oil type, spill size, response strategy and location factors on oil spill response costs, with particular reference to the cost benefits of the use of dispersants. Modeling has been conducted for a hypothetical oil spill in San Francisco Bay to determine biological impacts, damages to natural resources and response costs. The SIMAP modeling software by the Applied Science Associates was used to model 3 spill sizes (20, 50 and 95 percentile by volume) and 4 types of oil (gasoline, diesel, heavy fuel oil, and crude oil). Response costs, natural resource damages and socioeconomic impact were determined based on spill trajectory and fate. Mechanical recovery-based operations carry higher response costs than dispersant-based operations. Response costs for diesel and gasoline spills make up 20 per cent of the total costs, compared to 43 per cent for crude and heavy fuel oil spills. Damages to natural resources are higher for spills of toxic lighter fuels such as gasoline and diesel because gasoline has a greater impact on the water column with less shoreline oiling, resulting in more damages to natural resources. Heavier oils have a greater impact on shorelines and higher response and socioeconomic costs. Although socioeconomic costs varied by location, they tend to be greater than response costs and natural resource damage costs. Proportions of the different costs were described with reference to various spill factors. Socioeconomic costs are 61, 76, 45 and 53 per cent respectively for gasoline, diesel, crude oil, and heavy fuel oil spills. 27 refs., 23 tabs., 5 figs

  1. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machin Alvarez, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach.

  2. Rentierism in the Algerian economy based on oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machin Alvarez, Alejandra [Grupo de Investigacion sobre Economia Politica de la Mundializacion, Departamento de Economia Aplicada I, Facultad de Ciencias Economicas y Empresariales, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Campus de Somosaguas, 28223 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This essay analyzes Algeria's degree of adaptation toward possessing the constituent features of an oil and gas rentier economy, and whether its current status could be threatened by changes to its energy policy. With this aim, the article first uses empirical evidence to analyze different rentier features of the Algerian economy (the importance of the hydrocarbon sector, Algerian NOC Sonatrach's role in energy policy and revenue distribution). Second, the circuit that perpetuates rentier logic is described, the main conclusion being that the Algerian economy does indeed offer the very conditions that guarantee the self-perpetuation of rentierism. However, this conclusion is jeopardized by uncertainties stemming from two potential changes in the national status of the hydrocarbons sector: a greater presence of foreign hydrocarbon companies in Algeria, and growing internationalization by Sonatrach. (author)

  3. Natural Plant Essential Oils for Controlling the Grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis and their Pathological Effects on the Alimentary Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the toxic effect of three different natural essential oils of medicinal plants, namely Garlic (Allium sativum, Mint (Mintha pipereta and Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus were tested on 1st nymphal instar of the grasshopper (Heteracris littoralis. The LC50 values of the tested oils were estimated after 14 days from feeding on treated diet mixed with different concentrations of the oil. The LC50 of the tested oils were arranged as follows: 0.067, 0.075 and 0.084ml. /100ml. diet for Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint respectively. The effect of LC50 concentration of the oils on the biological aspects and histological changes that observed on the alimentary canal and fat bodies were recorded. The normal development of the grasshopper was exhibited. Results cleared that there was statistical variable numbers of increased the nymphal periods, life cycle, adults longevity and life span comparing with the control test. Garlic oil inhibited egg lying by the resulting females offspring of the treated1st instar nymphs. High reduction in the deposited eggs and egg fertility caused by Eucalyptus or Mint oil and marked malformation were observed. Histological changes on the alimentary canal and fat bodies of the remaining nymphs after treatment with Garlic oil (the most effective oil were detected by the light microscope have been recorded. The results suggest that the natural plant essential oils of Garlic, Eucalyptus and Mint may be used in IPM control program against H. littoralis grasshopper.

  4. Cyber-Spatial Academic Networking for Energy (Oil, Natural Gas, Electricity Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard INGWE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Philosophers of society/sociology recently espoused the concept of a new society and its new paradigm distinguished from the old that was based on industry and the energy forms that drove them since the industrial revolution. The new society which is driven by information and communications technologies (ICTs has created the network society whereby cyber-spatial (internet-based platforms operate in leveraging previous and conventional interaction among researchers concerned with single subjects and/or multi-disciplinary research projects, exchanges of ideas, opinions, concerns/worries, viewpoints, project management, among other issues in the nexus of developing and applying academic knowledge. While most of those that are popularly used are of the universal (non-specific nationality or global character, fairly country-specific (i.e. restricted membership or nation-focused cyber-spatial platforms present opportunities for enhancing or optimizing the profit of academic interaction and exchanges that concentrate on challenges that are limited to one country but promote greater understanding among those academics involved compared to the rather universal cyber-spatial platforms. Here, we conceive and hypothetically theorize a cyber-spatial platform for enhancing interaction among Nigerian scholars and academics concerned with energy which has been driving industry. Examined in this article are: contexts of scholarship in Nigeria (tertiary educational institutions, research and knowledge needs for sustainable development; the network society as a suitable framework for theoretically framing the cyber-spatial platform; an exemplary multi-disciplinary approach for multi-disciplinary petroleum oil, natural gas and energy concentrating on (or drawing from the social sciences; management of the program; discussion and conclusion. The implications of this article for policy is that while the National Universities’ Commission and the Federal Ministry of

  5. Natural gas, uncertainty, and climate policy in the US electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistline, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how uncertainties related to natural gas prices and potential climate policies may influence capacity investments, utilization, and emissions in US electricity markets. Using a two-stage stochastic programming approach, model results suggest that climate policies are stronger drivers of greenhouse gas emission trajectories than new natural gas supplies. The dynamics of learning and irreversibility may give rise to an investment climate where strategic delay is optimal. Hedging strategies are shown to be sensitive to the specification of probability distributions for climate policy and natural gas prices, highlighting the important role of uncertainty quantification in future research. The paper also illustrates how this stochastic modeling framework could be used to quantify the value of limiting methane emissions from natural gas production. - Highlights: • This paper examines how uncertainty may impact natural gas in the power sector. • Uncertainties like gas prices, upstream emissions, and climate policy are modeled. • Climate policies are stronger drivers of emissions than gas supply conditions. • Lower gas prices are likely to spark greater utilization of existing capacity. • Irreversibility and uncertainty may make strategic delay optimal

  6. The importance of Norway in the oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noreng, Oeystein

    2006-01-01

    The article presents an analysis of the global energy markets with emphasis on the Northern areas and the importance of Norway. The energy supplies and prices, the OPEC role, the role of Norway and Russia in the natural gas markets and energy policies are discussed. Various risk aspects particularly for Norway are mentioned. (tk)

  7. Costly energy : why oil and gas prices are rising and what we can do about it : a collection of progressive analysis and policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.

    2001-02-01

    A collection of essays were presented to address the issue of rising oil and gas prices. This issue has significant social and environmental implications and the public wants to know what is driving prices up and who is profiting. The myth that gas taxes are driving price increases was dispelled. It was argued that price hikes are mainly due to crude oil price increases and to refining and marketing price increases. The link between rising prices and free trade was also emphasized. The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) tied Canada into a North American energy market in which U.S. demand sets prices in Canada. It was suggested that trade rules regarding energy should be changed. Other short and longer-term progressive policy alternatives were also presented in the second part of this report. One possible short-term policy response would be to tax windfall oil and gas profits and direct the resulting revenues to rebates for low-income households and for energy conservation initiatives. It was noted that the environmental benefit of rising prices is that it encourages conservation and improved fuel efficiency. The final part of this report discussed the issue of protecting electricity from deregulation and sited lessons learned from the deregulation of natural gas. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  8. 75 FR 75995 - Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... manufacture neutron detectors used by the well logging industry or wireline or Logging-While-Drilling tools... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Request for Comments on Helium-3 Use in the Oil and Natural Gas Well Logging... of Helium-3 by the oil and gas well logging industry. DATES: Written comments and information are...

  9. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  10. Biodegradation and photooxidation of crude oil under natural sunlight in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacosa, H. P.; Erdner, D.; Liu, Z.

    2016-02-01

    An enormous amount of oil was observed in the deep and surface waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico (nGoM) following the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) spill. While the oil degradation and bacterial communities in the deep-sea plume have been widely investigated, the effect of sunlight on oil and bacterial assemblages in surface waters have received less attention. In this study, we amended surface water collected near the DWH site with crude oil and/or Corexit dispersant and incubated under natural sunlight in the nGoM for 36 d in summer of 2013. The residual alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and alkalyted PAHs were analyzed by GC-MS, and bacterial community was determined via pyrosequencing. The results show that n-alkane biodegradation rate constants (first order) were ca. ten-fold higher than the photooxidation rate constants. While biodegradation was characterized by a lag phase, photooxidation rate constants for the 2-3 ring and 4-5 ring PAHs, were 0.08-0.98 day-1 and 0.01-0.07 day-1, respectively. Compared to biodegradation, photooxidation increased the transformation of 4-5 ring PAHs by 70% and 3-4 ring alkylated PAHs by 36%. Sunlight significantly reduced bacterial diversity and a driver of shifts in bacterial community structure in oil and Corexit treatments. In amended treatments, sunlight increased the relative abundances of Alteromonas, Marinobacter, Labrenzia, Sandarakinotalea, Halomonas and Bartonella, while the dark treatments enriched Thalassobius, Winogradskyella, Alcanivorax, Formosa, Eubacterium, Erythrobacter, Natronocella, and Pseudomonas. This suggests that different bacteria are degrading the hydrocarbons in the dark and under light exposure. In a follow up study using DNA-Stable isotope probing (SIP), we identified the alkane and PAH degraders using 13C-labeled hexadecane and phenanthrene, respectively. The results of metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses in the light and dark incubations will be presented. For the first

  11. Environmental cost-effectiveness analysis in intertemporal natural resource policy: evaluation of selective fishing gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Vestergaard, Niels

    2013-12-15

    In most decision-making involving natural resources, the achievements of a given policy (e.g., improved ecosystem or biodiversity) are rather difficult to measure in monetary units. To address this problem, the current paper develops an environmental cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA) to include intangible benefits in intertemporal natural resource problems. This approach can assist managers in prioritizing management actions as least cost solutions to achieve quantitative policy targets. The ECEA framework is applied to a selective gear policy case in Danish mixed trawl fisheries in Kattegat and Skagerrak. The empirical analysis demonstrates how a policy with large negative net benefits might be justified if the intangible benefits are included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative studies of antifugal potentialities for some natural plant oils against different fungi isolated from poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed, F. H.

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of eight natural oils on ten pathogenic fungi isolated from the digestive and respiratory tracts of dead chickens in Kena Governorate showed that crude peppermint oil only has a highest effect against some isolated fungi and a low response against others. While its 10% and 2% oil concentrations failed to give any effect against all the tested fungi. Crude chamomile and pelargonium oils showed moderate effect against all isolated fungi. The effect of different dilutions of chamomile, cumin and celery oils appeared that the 10% concentration showed more effective than the crude oil. Lemongrass and basil oils have almost the same behaviour towards the isolated fungi as the crude oils and the 10% concentration affected them greatly. On the other hand 2% basil oil gave no effect at all. Critical concentrations of the efficient oils against isolated fungi were calculated. The most efficient oils were lemongrass against Aspergillus flavipes, chamomile against A. fumigatus and cumin against A. nidulans, while cumin against A. glaucus, clove against A. flavus were chamomile against A. flavus and clove against A. flavipes were the lowest efficient oils.

    El efecto inhibidor de ocho aceites naturales sobre diez aislados de hongos patógenos de los tractos digestivo y respiratorio de pollos muertos en "Kena Governorate" mostró que el aceite de menta crudo tiene un mayor efecto frente a algunos aislados y una repuesta menor frente a otros. Aunque sus concentraciones en aceite al 10% y 2% consiguieron dar algún efecto frente a todos los hongos ensayados. Aceites de geranio y manzanilla crudo mostraron efecto moderado frente a todos los aislados de hongos. El efecto de disoluciones diferentes de aceites de manzanilla, comino y apio dieron como resultado que la concentración al 10% era más efectiva que el aceite crudo. Aceites de lemongras y albahaca tienen casi el mismo

  13. Structural problems of the heating oil economy pose a challenge to natural gas marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, U.

    1995-01-01

    The Swiss heating market is characterised by hard crowding-out competition. New energy carriers are entering the market while at the same time the demand declines. Natural gas is conquering one field of application after another and since years has steadily been increasing its share of the market. The corresponding loss of territory on the part of heating oil dealers has until now not been so tangible because it was compensated by a phase of growing demand during the past few years. If the current trend continues, then overcapacities in heat distribution and energy supply are to be expected for the future. The market will become especially difficult for heating oil dealers, as their decreasing overall share in the market will no longer be compensated by a growth in market volume, their former crutch for keeping up scales. The fight for market shares is therefore expected to become a great deal harder and have a direct impact on the natural gas economy. Commissioned by the Swiss gas industry, the Research Institute for Trade and Sales of St. Gallen University has made a study of the Swiss heating oil market. (orig.) [de

  14. Deacidification of palm oil using betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrina, Ida; Nasikin, Mohammad; Krisanti, Elsa; Mulia, Kamarza

    2018-02-01

    In the palm oil industry, the deacidification process is performed by steam stripping which causes the loss of most of palm oil's natural antioxidants due to high temperature. The liquid-liquid extraction process which is carried out at low temperature is preferable in order to preserve these compounds. The use of hydrated ethanol can reduce the losses of antioxidants, but the ability of this solvent to extract free fatty acids also decreases. Betaine monohydrate-based natural deep eutectic solvents (NADES) have extensive potential for this process. The selectivity of these NADES was determined to select a preferable solvent. The betaine monohydrate-glycerol NADES in a molar ratio of 1:8 was determined to be the preferred solvent with the highest selectivity. This solvent has an efficiency of palmitic acid extraction of 34.14%, and the amount of antioxidants can be preserved in the refined palm oil up to 99%. The compounds are stable during extraction. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Prediction of refrigerant absorption and onset of natural convection in lubricant oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Jader R.; Marcelino Neto, Moises A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC 88040900 (Brazil); Thoma, Stefan M. [Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-11-15

    Refrigerant absorption and mixing in lubricant oil are important in the design of refrigeration compressors and refrigeration systems. Experimental work is reported on absorption of R-134a vapour through the top interface of an initially stagnant layer of pure lubricant oil. Since the liquid refrigerant is heavier than the oil, mixing is enhanced due to natural mass convection. In the present paper, the behaviour of the liquid temperature during absorption is described based on measurements carried out in a test rig consisting of a transparent 70 mm ID, 150 mm long, vertical glass tube through which absorption can be directly observed. Transient liquid temperatures were measured at three different heights in the test section (two in the vapour, one in the liquid). The experimental work is complemented by a theoretical analysis of the critical time for the onset of mass transfer induced Rayleigh instability. The model is based on a critical mass transfer Rayleigh number criterion widely reported in the literature and takes into account the variation of physical properties in the liquid layer. The critical time for the onset of natural mass convection increases with decreasing system pressure as a result of a lower equilibrium concentration at the vapour-liquid interface. (author)

  16. Sustainable Solution for Crude Oil and Natural Gas Separation using Concentrated Solar Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Piyush; Srivastava, Rakesh K.; Nath Mahendra, Som; Motahhir, Saad

    2017-08-01

    In today’s scenario to combat with climate change effects, there are a lot of reasons why we all should use renewable energy sources instead of fossil fuels. Solar energy is one of the best options based on features like good for the environment, independent of electricity prices, underutilized land, grid security, sustainable growth, etc. This concept paper is oriented primarily focused on the use of Solar Energy for the crude oil heating purpose besides other many prospective industrial applications to reduce cost, carbon footprint and moving towards a sustainable and ecologically friendly Oil & Gas Industry. Concentrated Solar Power technology based prototype system is proposed to substitute the presently used system based on natural gas burning method. The hybrid system which utilizes the solar energy in the oil and gas industry would strengthen the overall field working conditions, safety measures and environmental ecology. 40% reduction on natural gas with this hybrid system is estimated. A positive implication for an environment, working conditions and safety precautions is the additive advantage. There could also decrease air venting of CO2, CH4 and N2O by an average of 30-35%.

  17. Extended application of radon as a natural tracer in oil reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira R.M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the 80's it was a common practice in the study of contamination by NAPL to incorporate a tracer to the medium to be studied. At that time the first applications focused on the use of 222Rn, a naturally occurring radioactive isotope as a natural tracer, appropriate for thermodynamics studies, geology and transport properties in thermal reservoirs. In 1993 the deficit of radon was used to spot and quantify the contamination by DNAPL under the surface. For the first time these studies showed that radon could be used as a partitioning tracer. A methodology that provides alternatives to quantify the oil volume stored in the porous space of oil reservoirs is under development at CDTN. The methodology here applied, widens up and adapts the knowledge acquired from the use of radon as a tracer to the studies aimed at assessing SOR. It is a postulation of this work that once the radon partition coefficient between oil and water is known, SOR will be determined considering the increased amount of radon in the water phase as compared to the amount initially existent as the reservoir is flooded with water. This paper will present a description of the apparatus used and some preliminary results of the experiments.

  18. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in scales produced in oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Masri, M S; Ali, A F; Kitue, M; Kawash, A [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Scales produced by Oil production operations contain relatively high concentrations of natural radionuclides especially radium isotopes (Ra-226, Ra-228, Ra-224) and their daughters. These scales deposit in oil surface equipment such as separator tanks, tubular, and storage tanks. In this work, naturally occurring radionuclides and radiation exposure levels in some Syrian oil lines have been determined. Radiation measurements have shown high radiation exposure in some production sites and reached about 23 {mu}Sv/hr (production wellhead) which is higher than the normal background (0.09 - 012 {mu}Sv/hr). The highest value of the exposure around storage tanks was about o.5 {mu}Sv/hr. Moreover, the highest concentration of radionuclides in scales were found to be 47000 Bq/Kg and 55000 Bq/Kg for Ra-226 and Ra-228 respectively while in sludge samples, the Ra-226 concentration was about 24.2 Bq/Kg, a relatively very low activity. In addition, results have shown that soil contamination can occur by disposal of produced water to the surrounding environment. Furthermore, the present paper shows some of protection procedures, which should be followed by workers for radiation protection. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs.

  19. Profiling oil sands mixtures from industrial developments and natural groundwaters for source identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Richard A; Roy, James W; Bickerton, Greg; Rowland, Steve J; Headley, John V; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Peru, Kerry M; Parrott, Joanne L; Conly, F Malcolm; Hewitt, L Mark

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify chemical components that could distinguish chemical mixtures in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) that had potentially migrated to groundwater in the oil sands development area of northern Alberta, Canada. In the first part of the study, OSPW samples from two different tailings ponds and a broad range of natural groundwater samples were assessed with historically employed techniques as Level-1 analyses, including geochemistry, total concentrations of naphthenic acids (NAs) and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS). While these analyses did not allow for reliable source differentiation, they did identify samples containing significant concentrations of oil sands acid-extractable organics (AEOs). In applying Level-2 profiling analyses using electrospray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-HRMS) and comprehensive multidimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC-TOF/MS) to samples containing appreciable AEO concentrations, differentiation of natural from OSPW sources was apparent through measurements of O2:O4 ion class ratios (ESI-HRMS) and diagnostic ions for two families of suspected monoaromatic acids (GC × GC-TOF/MS). The resemblance between the AEO profiles from OSPW and from 6 groundwater samples adjacent to two tailings ponds implies a common source, supporting the use of these complimentary analyses for source identification. These samples included two of upward flowing groundwater collected <1 m beneath the Athabasca River, suggesting OSPW-affected groundwater is reaching the river system.

  20. Production of biodiesel from palm oil using modified Malaysian natural dolomites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shajaratun Nur, Z.A.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Rabiah Nizah, M.F.; Teo, Siow Hwa; Syazwani, O.N.; Islam, Aminul

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Transesterification was carried out using modified Malaysian natural dolomite catalyst. • Characterizations of the catalyst were performed by using XRD, TPD-CO 2 , BET and SEM. • Maximum biodiesel conversion of 100% was achieved from SnO 2 /dolomite catalyst. • The yield was affected by the surface are as well as the basicity of catalyst. • The transesterification reaction gave significant conversion with relatively lower amount of catalyst. - Abstract: Calcined dolomite (AD), produced by calcination of Malaysian dolomite (UD) promotes a potential natural catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil with the conversion of 99.98%. The catalysts were characterized by using X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Brunauer–Emmet–Teller (BET) surface area, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) of CO 2 . All catalysts were then employed for transesterification reaction under different conditions (time, methanol to oil molar ratio and amount of catalyst). SnO 2 doped on activated dolomite (SD) shows an optimum conversion (99.98%) at conditions, i.e. 15:1 methanol to oil molar ratio in 4 h compared to ZnO doped on activated dolomite (ZD) and AD. The catalytic activities of these catalysts were found to be depending on the basicity as well as the surface area of the catalyst used

  1. Adsorption of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) in Low-Grade Cooking Oil Used Activated Natural Zeolite as Adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larasati Tres Ayu Putranti, Monika; Kompiang Wirawan, Sang; Made Bendiyasa, I.

    2018-01-01

    Adsorption of free fatty acid (FFA) in low-grade cooking oil using active natural zeolite adsorbent was done as an effort to improve the quality of low-grade cooking oil so that it can fulfill the standard of fried oil which has been set on SNI 01-3741-2013. Adsorption was carried out with natural zeolite which activated with HCl and NaOH solution followed by the calcination process. The results showed that the NaOH activated zeolite decreased FFA content in low-grade cooking oil more than the HCl activated natural zeolite, with optimum NaOH concentration was 0.75 M. In the adsorption equilibrium analysis with temperature variation (25 °C, 40 °C, 80 °C ), obtained that adsorption of FFA with NaOH activated natural zeolite follows Adsorption Isotherm Freundlich Model with equilibrium constant value was 20,5873; 0,9629 dan 0,8053.

  2. North American natural gas outlook : does gas remain a fuel option for oil sands?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a North America natural gas outlook from Purvin and Gertz, an international energy consulting firm that has 30 years experience in providing strategic, commercial and technical advice to the petroleum industry. In particular, this presentation focuses on natural gas market fundamentals and how they may impact on oil sands development. It includes charts and graphs depicting NYMEX natural gas outlooks to July, 2009 and examines how supply will react to major changes in Canada's supply portfolio. It was noted that oil sands development is a driver for natural gas demand in Alberta. The existing regional gas pipeline infrastructure was presented and the market impact on upgrader options was discussed. The author suggests that if gas prices are too high, there are other fuel options for steam and power generation. These include bitumen, asphalt, coke, coal and nuclear. However, these options have additional costs, uncertainties and environmental issues. A key factor for success would be to have a clear understanding of the benefits and risks between these fuel options. 1 tab., 9 figs

  3. Determination of radioactive scales in oil industry using naturally occurring radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.

    2006-06-01

    In the present study, naturally occurring radioactive materials (Radium isotopes) present in produced water and radiation measurements have been used to study the formation of scales, evaluate their age, determination of geological formations and between wells interactions. Produced water samples were collected and analyzed monthly for 5 months from 11 oil wells in three Syrian oil fields. Analysis includes radium isotopes and anions and cations concentrations in addition to radiation measurements at the well heads. The highest mean values of radium 226, Radium 228 and Radium 224 concentration in produced were 41 Bq/1, 57.1 Bq/1 and 1.1 Bq/1, respectively. The values obtained for Radium 226, Radium 228 and the activity ratio were statistically evaluated and the results were presented using the box plot method. The mean value of the activity ration of Radium 226 and Radium 228 was used to determine the age of scales accumulated inside tubulars. (author)

  4. A supply model for crude oil and natural gas in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chedid, R.; Kobrosly, M.; Ghajar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Crude oil (CO) and natural gas (NG) play an important role in the world economy. The Arab countries (ACs) share 64% of the total oil reserves and 40% of the NG reserves [OPEC, 2003. The Annual Statistical Bulletin]. On the production side, ACs contribute to 30% and 9% of the world production of CO and NG, respectively. Accurate forecast models are needed to do better planning and create less risky business environment. In this paper, an econometric model is built to capture the behavior of CO and NG production in the ESCWA countries. The model is used to forecast future production trends of CO and NG, and thus provide a powerful tool for researchers, planners and investors working in the energy field

  5. Pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) using Moringa oleifera seeds as natural coagulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Subhash; Othman, Zalina; Ahmad, Abdul Latif

    2007-06-25

    Moringa oleifera seeds, an environmental friendly and natural coagulant are reported for the pretreatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In coagulation-flocculation process, the M. oleifera seeds after oil extraction (MOAE) are an effective coagulant with the removal of 95% suspended solids and 52.2% reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (COD). The combination of MOAE with flocculant (NALCO 7751), the suspended solids removal increased to 99.3% and COD reduction was 52.5%. The coagulation-flocculation process at the temperature of 30 degrees C resulted in better suspended solids removal and COD reduction compared to the temperature of 40, 55 and 70 degrees C. The MOAE combined with flocculant (NALCO 7751) reduced the sludge volume index (SVI) to 210mL/g with higher recovery of dry mass of sludge (87.25%) and water (50.3%).

  6. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F. [Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca, Baleares (Spain); Perez-Navarro, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Kantin, R. [IFREMER, la Tremblade (France); Diez, E. [Transportes Salas Simo S.L., Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs.

  7. Response to a fuel oil spill in the Albufera de Alcudia natural park on Mallorca Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergueiro, J.R.; Moreno, S.; Guijarro, S.; Serra, F.; Perez-Navarro, A.; Kantin, R.; Diez, E.

    2002-01-01

    On June 12, 2001, a tanker spilled 14,500 liters of low sulphur fuel in a canal within an environmentally sensitive and ecologically rich, salt water lagoon of the Albufera de Alcudia Natural park on the island of Mallorca. Part of the contingency plan to minimize the impact of the spill included the use of a sorbent material on each side of the spill, followed by pumping the hydrocarbons out of the reed grasses, water, soil and sediments. The tanker was removed to avoid any further spill. The 428 tons of affected oil was moved by trucks to a temporary storage area in an adjacent lot where it was separated into 3 groups according to the treatment required. Polluted reed grass from a sugar cane plantation was mildly polluted. Another group was highly polluted, and the final group showed low level pollution. The fuel oil containing water, soil and sugar cane plantation material was analyzed to obtain average values of fuel oil per liter of water and fuel oil per kilogram of dry material. Material from the sugar cane plantation was burnt in an incinerator while the rest of the material was left to dry for 3 months before it was moved to an area for treatment in fenced containers designed with a slope for collecting leachates. Two 1.5 m deep wells were dug to accumulate the leachate. Analysis of the polluted reed grass samples one month after the spill indicated a concentration of 0.26 g of fuel oil per gram of dried reed grass which does not present any danger to flora and fauna. Observations made in September following the spill indicated a significant improvement in the state of reed grass and water within the affected area. The remediation effort was considered to be very efficient and total recovery of the affected area has been verified. 4 refs., 1 tab., 17 figs

  8. Oil and Water: Essays on the Economics of Natural Resource Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolper, Samuel

    As the developing world continues its pace of rapid growth and the threat of climate change intensifies, the economics of natural resource usage become increasingly important. From the perspective of both economic efficiency and distributional equity, effective policy design is correspondingly urgent. Market failures such as imperfect competition, externalities, and incomplete information plague resource markets everywhere; and both initial endowments and policy interventions often have regressive incidence. I shed light on some of these issues by studying the economics of natural resource usage in two separate empirical contexts. The first is the market for automotive fuel in Spain; I measure pass-through--the degree to which retail fuel stations "pass through" diesel taxes to final consumer prices--and use it assess the distributional impacts of energy policy. The second is the Ganga River Basin of India; I estimate the impacts of environmental regulation on river water quality and infant mortality. In both contexts, I utilize estimates of policy impacts to examine the underlying mechanisms by which affected consumers and suppliers of natural resources make decisions.

  9. The PSO support scheme for natural gas - subsidy to industry or environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Some aspects of the PSO scheme for natural gas are examined critically. Two central arguments used for justifying the PSO subsidy scheme of natural gas and its distribution are reviewed; these include the 'smallholder argument' and the 'environmental argument'. The 'smallholder argument' claims that since Norway has the natural gas resources, it should also make use of the natural gas in the country, and not simply send the raw material to other countries. The 'environmental argument' states that natural gas compared to other fossil fuels such as coal and fuel oil, is a far cleaner alternative, thus an environmental-friendly alternative entitled to financial support. The arguments are critically examined by the author (ml)

  10. Policy implications with regard to controllable forms of natural background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijningen, R.J.J. van; Bartels, J.H.M.; Ackers, J.G.; Hogeweg, B.; Rijn, H.T.U. de; Walle, F.B. de

    1988-04-01

    The RENA (Regulable forms of Natural Background radiation) has started in order to broaden the technical-scientific insights in the domain of the natural background radiation and to continue the SAWORA-study. With regard to the policy implications it has appeared to be desirable to define more detailed the environment-protectional economical and governmental aspects and to consider their mutual relationships in order to prepare a coherent programme which is directed at policy actions to be undertaken as well as at the supporting study needed. (author). 34 refs.; 3 figs.; 11 tabs

  11. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE PRODUCTION AND PROCESSING OF OIL AND NATURAL GAS IN CROATIA FROM 2000 TO 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josipa Velić

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzes the characteristics of the production and processing of oil, condensates and natural gas in the Republic of Croatia starting from 2000, until the end of 2014. Amounts of balance sheet (exploitable reserves of oil and condensates ranges from 9330,92 × 103 m3 in 2005, to 13 471,08 × 103 m3 in 2013, while extracted amounts are gradually declining from 1332,61 × 103 m3 to 639,96 × 103 m3. The ratio of extracted amounts and reserves is gradually declining, meaning that a slight increase in reserves does not affect the extracted amounts. Exploitable reserves of natural gas during the observed period fluctuate greatly. Being peaked in 2007, at 40,919.70 × 106 m3, they reached a low in 2014, at 17,932.98 × 106 m3. Unlike liquid hydrocarbons, the ratio of extracted and exploitable amounts is growing and peaked in 2014. Overall energy demands for oil in Croatia (shown as total consumption of crude oil amounted to 3032,8 × 103 m3 in 2013, while demands for natural gas amounted to 2809,90 × 106 m3. It is interesting to note that the consumption of oil is rapidly declining, which is a favorable trend from the standpoint of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. While needs are partly covered by domestic exploitation, the dependence on imports of oil and natural gas is still evident and ranges from 75% to 84% for oil and 28% to 46% for natural gas, without major changes to the trend. The amounts of processed hydrocarbons are declining gradually, especially motor gasoline and fuel oil, while diesel fuel amounts remain mostly the same. Further research as well as development of the exploitation of oil and natural gas is of paramount importance, especially by investing in cadre education and new technologies.

  12. Spatial statistical analysis of basal stem root disease under natural field epidemic of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamu, Assis; Phin, Chong Khim; Seman, Idris Abu; Wan, Hoong Hak; Mun, Ho Chong

    2015-02-01

    Oil palm or scientifically known as Elaeis guineensis Jacq. is the most important commodity crop in Malaysia and has greatly contributed to the economy growth of the country. As far as disease is concerned in the industry, Basal Stem Rot (BSR) caused by Ganoderma boninence remains the most important disease. BSR disease is the most widely studied with information available for oil palm disease in Malaysia. However, there is still limited study on the spatial as well as temporal pattern or distribution of the disease especially under natural field epidemic condition in oil palm plantation. The objective of this study is to spatially identify the pattern of BSR disease under natural field epidemic using two geospatial analytical techniques, which are quadrat analysis for the first order properties of partial pattern analysis and nearest-neighbor analysis (NNA) for the second order properties of partial pattern analysis. Two study sites were selected with different age of tree. Both sites are located in Tawau, Sabah and managed by the same company. The results showed that at least one of the point pattern analysis used which is NNA (i.e. the second order properties of partial pattern analysis) has confirmed the disease is complete spatial randomness. This suggests the spread of the disease is not from tree to tree and the age of palm does not play a significance role in determining the spatial pattern of the disease. From the spatial pattern of the disease, it would help in the disease management program and for the industry in the future. The statistical modelling is expected to help in identifying the right model to estimate the yield loss of oil palm due to BSR disease in the future.

  13. Generating renewable energy from oil palm biomass in Malaysia: The Feed-in Tariff policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umar, Mohd Shaharin; Jennings, Philip; Urmee, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The renewable energy (RE) industry in Malaysia began in 2001 in the context of the growing concern about future depletion of conventional fuels and the global environmental concerns about greenhouse gas emissions. The Small Renewable Energy Programme (SREP) is a tool that was first designed to drive the development of the industry based on the abundance of oil palm biomass reserves and other identified renewable energy resources. Due to the slow uptake of this scheme, a new system, the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) was introduced in 2011 to stimulate the industry. By considering the deficiencies of the previous scheme, this paper examines the sustainability of the FiT policy framework in steering the future expansion of small-scale biomass renewable energy businesses in Malaysia. Resulting from the evaluation of the current policy settings and a market based appraisal, this work outlines strategies for enhancing the scheme and suggests future studies aimed at improving the flaws in the present system. - Highlights: • Extend the FiT bandwidth capacity restrictions to all of the eligible renewable technologies under the FiT systems. • Differentiate the tariff level by considering the location and local conditions of the plant site. • Modify the revenue streams from the renewable fund. • Revise the quota system

  14. Application of Satellite SAR for Discovery and Quantification of Natural Marine Oil Seeps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, J.; Lai, R.; Zimmer, B.; Leiva, A.; MacDonald, I.

    2006-12-01

    Natural marine oil seeps discharge gassy drops from the seafloor. Oil drops and gas bubbles reach the surface from water depths as great as 3000m. The oil spreads rapidly, forming an invisible layer that drifts down-wind and down-current in long, linear streaks called slicks. Oil slicks are visible in SAR data because the surfactant dampens capillary waves and reduces backscatter. Application of SAR as an exploration tool in energy prospecting is well-established. We have applied this technique for discovering the chemosynthetic communities that colonize the seafloor in the vicinity of deep-water seeps on the continental margin of the Gulf of Mexico. The management goal for this effort is to prevent harmful impact to these communities resulting from exploration or production activities. The scientific goals are to delineate the zoogeography of the chemosynthetic fauna, which is widespread on continental margins, and to establish study sites where their life history can be investigated. In the course of an ongoing, multidisciplinary study in the spring and summer of 2006, we explored 20 possible sites where SAR and geophysical data indicated seeps might occur. SAR was only partly diagnostic: all sites with SAR-detected slicks were found to have biologic communities, but communities were also found at geophysical anomalies that did not produce slicks. We acquired over 60 RADARSAT SAR images from the northern Gulf of Mexico in cooperation with the Alaska Satellite Facility. The ship RV ATLANTIS was at sea during the acquisition and collected synoptic weather and oceanographic data. To automate interpretation of large image dataset we have employed texture recognition with use of a library of textons applied iteratively to the images. This treatment shows promise in distinguishing floating oil from false targets generated by rain fronts and other phenomena. One goal of the analysis is to delineate bounding boxes to quantify the ocean area covered by the thin oil layer

  15. The construction of legitimacy in European nature policy: expertise and participation in the service of cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnhout, E.; Behagel, J.H.; Ferranti, F.; Beunen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In environmental governance, the European Union draws on norms of effectiveness, decentralisation, and participation to ensure that its policies and regulations are considered legitimate. This article analyses how the construction of legitimacy in European nature policy has changed over time.

  16. Analysis of policies to reduce oil consumption and greenhouse-gas emissions from the US transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross Morrow, W.; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Collantes, Gustavo; Lee, Henry

    2010-01-01

    Even as the US debates an economy-wide CO 2 cap-and-trade policy the transportation sector remains a significant oil security and climate change concern. Transportation alone consumes the majority of the US's imported oil and produces a third of total US Greenhouse-Gas (GHG) emissions. This study examines different sector-specific policy scenarios for reducing GHG emissions and oil consumption in the US transportation sector under economy-wide CO 2 prices. The 2009 version of the Energy Information Administration's (EIA) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), a general equilibrium model of US energy markets, enables quantitative estimates of the impact of economy-wide CO 2 prices and various transportation-specific policy options. We analyze fuel taxes, continued increases in fuel economy standards, and purchase tax credits for new vehicle purchases, as well as the impacts of combining these policies. All policy scenarios modeled fail to meet the Obama administration's goal of reducing GHG emissions 14% below 2005 levels by 2020. Purchase tax credits are expensive and ineffective at reducing emissions, while the largest reductions in GHG emissions result from increasing the cost of driving, thereby damping growth in vehicle miles traveled. (author)

  17. Effects of an oil price rise on inflation, output, and the exchange rate in the case of subsidization policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zandi, F R

    1982-01-01

    Since the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries raised the price of oil by 400% in 1974, the theory of supply inflation has received a great deal of attention. This study analyses the short and long run effects of an oil price rise on output, inflation, and the exchange rate. The study also analyses dynamic adjustments to the oil price rise in cases where oil-price subsidies are provided and where no subsidies are provided. In the no-subsidy case it is shown that the oil price rise can be inflationary or deflationary. The implications of the policy of subsidizing the price of oil is highlighted by taking account of a government budget constraint which in turn leads to the possibility of monetization as a source of financing the deficit, and thereby to higher output relative to the no subsidy case. As to the price level, the possibility is illustrated that subsidization can actually be more inflationary. The important element giving rise to the above possibility is the subsidy induced increase in the money supply. Exchange-rate flexibility is shown not to insulate the domestic price level against an oil price rise. In the long run the rate of inflation and exchange-rate variations are determined by the rate of growth of the money supply. The dynamic adjustment path of price and output is shown to be determined by the rate of adjustment of inflationary expectations.

  18. Comparative bioremediation of soils contaminated with diesel oil by natural attenuation, biostimulation and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Fatima M; Camargo, Flávio A O; Okeke, Benedict C; Frankenberger, William T

    2005-06-01

    Bioremediation of diesel oil in soil can occur by natural attenuation, or treated by biostimulation or bioaugmentation. In this study we evaluated all three technologies on the degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil. In addition, the number of diesel-degrading microorganisms present and microbial activity as indexed by the dehydrogenase assay were monitored. Soils contaminated with diesel oil in the field were collected from Long Beach, California, USA and Hong Kong, China. After 12 weeks of incubation, all three treatments showed differing effects on the degradation of light (C12-C23) and heavy (C23-C40) fractions of TPH in the soil samples. Bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil showed the greatest degradation in the light (72.7%) and heavy (75.2%) fractions of TPH. Natural attenuation was more effective than biostimulation (addition of nutrients), most notably in the Hong Kong soil. The greatest microbial activity (dehydrogenase activity) was observed with bioaugmentation of the Long Beach soil (3.3-fold) and upon natural attenuation of the Hong Kong sample (4.0-fold). The number of diesel-degrading microorganisms and heterotrophic population was not influenced by the bioremediation treatments. Soil properties and the indigenous soil microbial population affect the degree of biodegradation; hence detailed site specific characterization studies are needed prior to deciding on the proper bioremediation method.

  19. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melvin, J.G.

    1980-09-01

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  20. Fort Lewis natural gas and fuel oil energy baseline and efficiency resource assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Parker, G.B.; Richman, E.E.; Secrest, T.J.; Shankle, S.A.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) is to lead the improvement of energy efficiency and fuel flexibility within the federal sector. Through the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), FEMP is developing a fuel-neutral approach for identifying, evaluating, and acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at federal installations; this procedure is entitled the Federal Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) system. Through a cooperative program between FEMP and the Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) for providing technical assistance to FORSCOM installations, PNL has been working with the Fort Lewis Army installation to develop the FEDS procedure. The natural gas and fuel oil assessment contained in this report was preceded with an assessment of electric energy usage that was used to implement a cofunded program between Fort Lewis and Tacoma Public Utilities to improve the efficiency of the Fort's electric-energy-using systems. This report extends the assessment procedure to the systems using natural gas and fuel oil to provide a baseline of consumption and an estimate of the energy-efficiency potential that exists for these two fuel types at Fort Lewis. The baseline is essential to segment the end uses that are targets for broad-based efficiency improvement programs. The estimated fossil-fuel efficiency resources are estimates of the available quantities of conservation for natural gas, fuel oils number-sign 2 and number-sign 6, and fuel-switching opportunities by level of cost-effectiveness. The intent of the baseline and efficiency resource estimates is to identify the major efficiency resource opportunities and not to identify all possible opportunities; however, areas of additional opportunity are noted to encourage further effort

  1. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geman, Helyette [Birkbeck, University of London (United Kingdom); ESCP-EAP (France); Ohana, Steve [ESCP-EAP (France)

    2009-07-15

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  2. Nature as capital: Advancing and incorporating ecosystem services in United States federal policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Mark; Goldman, Erica; Bartuska, Ann M; Sutton-Grier, Ariana; Lubchenco, Jane

    2015-06-16

    The concept of nature as capital is gaining visibility in policies and practices in both the public and private sectors. This change is due to an improved ability to assess and value ecosystem services, as well as to a growing recognition of the potential of an ecosystem services approach to make tradeoffs in decision making more transparent, inform efficient use of resources, enhance resilience and sustainability, and avoid unintended negative consequences of policy actions. Globally, governments, financial institutions, and corporations have begun to incorporate natural capital accounting in their policies and practices. In the United States, universities, nongovernmental organizations, and federal agencies are actively collaborating to develop and apply ecosystem services concepts to further national environmental and economic objectives. Numerous federal agencies have begun incorporating these concepts into land use planning, water resources management, and preparations for, and responses to, climate change. Going forward, well-defined policy direction will be necessary to institutionalize ecosystem services approaches in federal agencies, as well as to guide intersector and interdisciplinary collaborative research and development efforts. In addition, a new generation of decision support tools are needed to further the practical application of ecosystem services principles in policymaking and commercial activities. Improved performance metrics are needed, as are mechanisms to monitor the status of ecosystem services and assess the environmental and economic impacts of policies and programs. A greater national and international financial commitment to advancing ecosystem services and natural capital accounting would likely have broad, long-term economic and environmental benefits.

  3. Citizen science and natural resource governance: program design for vernal pool policy innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridie McGreavy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effective natural resource policy depends on knowing what is needed to sustain a resource and building the capacity to identify, develop, and implement flexible policies. This retrospective case study applies resilience concepts to a 16-year citizen science program and vernal pool regulatory development process in Maine, USA. We describe how citizen science improved adaptive capacities for innovative and effective policies to regulate vernal pools. We identified two core program elements that allowed people to act within narrow windows of opportunity for policy transformation, including (1 the simultaneous generation of useful, credible scientific knowledge and construction of networks among diverse institutions, and (2 the formation of diverse leadership that promoted individual and collective abilities to identify problems and propose policy solutions. If citizen science program leaders want to promote social-ecological systems resilience and natural resource policies as outcomes, we recommend they create a system for internal project evaluation, publish scientific studies using citizen science data, pursue resources for program sustainability, and plan for leadership diversity and informal networks to foster adaptive governance.

  4. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian Petroleum Company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shweikani, R.; Al-Masri, M. S.; Awad, I.

    2006-01-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the syrian Petroleum Company Oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  5. Safety protection suggestion of naturally occurring radioactive materials in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Xiaojian; Zhou Qifu; Wang Xiaotao; Xu Zhongyang; Song Peifeng

    2014-01-01

    It's not enough concern about the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) of oil and gas industry in China. NORM with radium and radon mainly exist in the scale, sludge and production water, and they tend to deposit on the pipe wall, wellhead equipment and so on. These materials are a threat to the health of workers, so it is very important to have the safe disposal of them. This paper introduces the radioactive hazards and puts for-ward the safe disposal measures so as to provide the reference for the safe disposal of radioactive materials. Some management and technical advices are presented too. (authors)

  6. Remediation plan for contaminated areas by naturally occurring radioactivity materials in Syrian petroleum company oil fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shwekani, R.; Al-Masri, M.S.; Awad, I.

    2005-08-01

    The present report contains a detailed plan for remediation of areas contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Syrian petroleum company oil fields. This plan includes a description of the contaminated areas and the procedures that will be followed before and during the execution of the project in addition to the final radiation surveys according to the Syrian regulations. In addition, responsibilities of the main personnel who will carry out the work have been defined and the future monitoring program of the remediated areas was determined. (author)

  7. The effect of natural resources on a sustainable development policy: The approach of non-sustainable externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, Markus; Chiang Lichun

    2011-01-01

    The debate about the importance of non-renewable resources for economic development between optimists and pessimists shows that the extensive depletion of non-renewable resources, particularly oil, along with a higher level of consumption could have a significant impact on the economic development of future generations. Based on this debate, this paper proposes criteria under which the depletion of non-renewable resources would create excess costs for future generations. Therefore, this paper aims to answer the question 'What will be the impact of the depletion of non-renewable resources on sustainable economic development?' Accordingly, a sustainable development policy appears feasible by minimizing non-sustainable externalities which derive from future externalities that weigh the benefits from a previous employment of natural resources. The research based on qualitative analysis clarifies the reasons for and the extents of taking sustainability into account as well as points to difficulties of implementing policies to time the transition towards a sustainable economic development. Finally, the research shows the implications of this approach for environmental degradation, the depletion of non-renewable resources and energy production. - Research Highlights: →Economic development will more or less smoothly switch to the use of renewable substitutes. →The transition towards a sustainable use of resources may inherit costs for future generations. →Non-sustainable externalities show the future costs of excessive resource depletion. →The approach aims to take the long-term global effects of resource substitution into account.

  8. 40 CFR 60.4325 - What emission limits must I meet for NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX if my turbine burns both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? 60... both natural gas and distillate oil (or some other combination of fuels)? You must meet the emission... burning that fuel. Similarly, when your total heat input is greater than 50 percent distillate oil and...

  9. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Vaughan, Brent M; Vollmer, David L

    2017-12-01

    Plant essential oils (EOs) are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products-air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray-for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (-) and (+)-limonene; whereas, (+)-menthol showed greater effect than (-)-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners.

  10. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Tisné

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease.

  11. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma, and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. PMID:28592650

  12. Identification of Ganoderma Disease Resistance Loci Using Natural Field Infection of an Oil Palm Multiparental Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisné, Sébastien; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Syahputra, Indra; Cochard, Benoît; Denis, Marie

    2017-06-07

    Multi-parental populations are promising tools for identifying quantitative disease resistance loci. Stem rot caused by Ganoderma boninense is a major threat to palm oil production, with yield losses of up to 80% prompting premature replantation of palms. There is evidence of genetic resistance sources, but the genetic architecture of Ganoderma resistance has not yet been investigated. This study aimed to identify Ganoderma resistance loci using an oil palm multi-parental population derived from nine major founders of ongoing breeding programs. A total of 1200 palm trees of the multi-parental population was planted in plots naturally infected by Ganoderma , and their health status was assessed biannually over 25 yr. The data were treated as survival data, and modeled using the Cox regression model, including a spatial effect to take the spatial component in the spread of Ganoderma into account. Based on the genotypes of 757 palm trees out of the 1200 planted, and on pedigree information, resistance loci were identified using a random effect with identity-by-descent kinship matrices as covariance matrices in the Cox model. Four Ganoderma resistance loci were identified, two controlling the occurrence of the first Ganoderma symptoms, and two the death of palm trees, while favorable haplotypes were identified among a major gene pool for ongoing breeding programs. This study implemented an efficient and flexible QTL mapping approach, and generated unique valuable information for the selection of oil palm varieties resistant to Ganoderma disease. Copyright © 2017 Tisné et al.

  13. Global resources and energy trade. An overview for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remme, U.; Blesl, M.; Fahl, U.

    2007-07-15

    Despite efforts to improve energy effi-ciency and increase the usage of renewable energy carriers, fossil fuels and nuclear energy will continue to be important sources of global energy supply for the coming decades. Present global oil and gas supply is characterized by a concentration of production in a few world areas, mainly the Middle East and the Former Soviet Union, and a transport from these regions to the industrialized countries. Depletion of conventional reserves, especially oil, in combination with a surge for energy in emerging economies, as China and India, how-ever, is expected to change this picture in the future: unconventional resources in other world regions may be exploited to cover the surge energy demand, infrastructure for energy transport along new routes may have to be established. To provide a data base for such ques-tions, this report gives an overview of the current global resource situation for coal, natural gas, oil and uranium. In the first part, an assessment of the con-ventional and unconventional reserves and resources as well as their supply costs is given for the different regions of the world. The second part describes the current energy trade infrastructure between world regions and estimates the costs for existing and new trade links between these regions. (orig.)

  14. 'Debating' nature conservation : policy, law and practice in Indonesia : a discourse analysis of history and present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnscheidt, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This book is about the politics of nature conservation in late New Order and early Reformasi Indonesia. It approaches the subject through discourse analysis. Understanding politics as a struggle for discourse hegemony it analyses both processes of policy- and lawmaking in Jakarta and of

  15. European nature in the plural : finding common ground for a next policy agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijts, van Henk; Prins, Anne Gerdien; Dammers, Ed; Vonk, Marijke; Bouwma, Irene; Farjon, Hans; Pouwels, Rogier; Beusen, Arthur; Hartman, Mirjam; Hendriks, Marjon; Hinsberg, van Arjen; Janse, Jan; Knol, Onno; Kok, Marcel; Ludwig, Kathrin; Petz, Katalin; Puijenbroek, van Peter; Smorenburg, Ineke; Tisma, Alexandra; Tol, van Sandy; Veerkamp, Clara; Wiertz, Jaap; Clement, Jan; Gerritsen, Alwin; Knegt, de Bart; Pedroli, Bas; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Sluis, van der Theo; Schulp, Nynke; Fleming, Bernie

    2017-01-01

    European landscapes contain a rich natural diversity that is cherished by many citizens. Protection of this diversity is laid down in policy strategies on European and national levels. Nevertheless, a recent review of the EU Biodiversity Strategy showed that additional efforts are needed to achieve

  16. Policy Change and Its Effect on Australian Community-Based Natural Resource Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Penelope R.; Hemmings, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article report on a qualitative study of Australian community-based natural resource management groups known as Landcare groups. They discuss how four Landcare groups contributed to sustainability practices and how a policy change implemented in 2003 influenced the efforts of the groups to remain active in their activities.…

  17. Nature Trails, Braille Trails, Foot Paths, Fragrance Gardens, Touch Museums for the Blind; Policy Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Foundation for the Blind, New York, NY.

    The policy statement by the American Foundation for the Blind deals with nature trails, braille trails, foot paths, fragrance gardens, and touch museums for the blind. It is stated that the foundation approves of services such as provision of tape recorded guides and planting of fragrant shrubs which would benefit all users while recognizing…

  18. Ecologically friendly ways to clean up oil spills in harbor water areas: crude oil and diesel sorption behavior of natural sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskiene, Tatjana

    2018-04-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the sorption capacity of natural sorbents (wool, moss, straw, peat) and their composites during the sorption of crude oil and of diesel overspread on the water surface. The work presents the research results of the maximum sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites using crude oil/diesel; the sorption capacity of the sorbents/their composites when crude oil/diesel is spilled on the water surface; and the research results of the unrealized part of the crude oil/diesel in the sorbents. The results of the analysis showed that all the sorbents and their composites have their selectivity to crude oil less than 50%. Also the results showed that the distribution of diesel and water in the sorbents and their composites is very different compared with the distribution of crude oil during the sorption analyses. In total, the diesel in the liquid mass absorbed by the straw and the peat amounted to 17 and 20%, respectively. This shows that these sorbents are much more selective for water but not for diesel. A larger part of the diesel was in the liquid amount absorbed by the composites-up to 33%. Accordingly, the use of these composites in watery environments is much more effective than the use of individual sorbents. The composition of sorbents in the composite enhanced both the hydrophobic and the oleophilic properties; as a result, a more effective removal of the diesel and oil from the water surface was achieved.

  19. Natural Plant Oils and Terpenes as Protector for the Potato Tubers against Phthorimaea operculella Infestation by Different Application Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziza Sharaby

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For protecting potato tubers from the potato tuber moth (PTM infestation during storage, different concentrations of ten natural plant oils and three commercial monoterpnes were tested, some as fumigants or dusts against adults or dusts against neonate larvae, while others as sprays on the gunny sacks in which potato tubers were stored. Tuber damage indices as well as persistence indices for tested materials were assessed. Vapors of Cymbopogon citratus, Myristica fragrans (nutmag, Mentha citrata and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused a highly significant reductions in the life span of exposed moths as well as in new adult offsprings. Other tested oils as Cinnamonium zeylanicum, Myristica. fragrans (Mace and Pelargonium graveolens caused a insignificant effect. There was no significant effect of the tested vapors on egg hatchability, except in case of oils of C. citratus, M. fragrans (nutmag and M. tragrans(Mace oil which caused high reduction in egg hatchability. According to the values of damage indices, the most effective oil vapors were arranged ascendingly as follows: Myristica (nutmag < Cymbopogon < Mentha < a - Ionone. Dusting potato tubers with 1% conc., (mixed with talcum powder of Myristica, Mentha, Cymbopogons oils and a-Ionone (monoterpene caused high reduction in egg deposition, adult emergence as well as percentage of penetrated larvae of PTM. According to their damage indices, Cymbopogon and ά-Ionone were the most protective oils, followed by Myristica and Mentha. Spraying gunnysacks with 1% conc., of the aforementioned natural oils separately elicited high reduction in PTM progeny; while their combinations did not elicit any significant synergistic effect. According to their tuber damage indices, it was found that Cymbopogon oil alone or mixed with Myristica oil showed the best protective effect, followed by Myristica oil alone and Mentha oil mixed with Cymbopogon oil. Assessment of the persistence index of various tested materials

  20. Regulatory policy and structural change in the natural gas industry: A transaction cost perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission has recently promoted policy initiatives designed to substitute market responsive industry practices for the micro-management regulatory practices previously employed. These new policies are expected to generate a flexible gas pricing policy that more accurately reflects market supply and demand conditions. Historically, much of the regulation of this industry was enacted to ensure that pipeline companies would be able to recover the very large up-front investments in immobile equipment that characterize the production, transportation, storage, and distribution of natural gas. The institutional detail available from historical accounts of the development of the industry are used to describe structural change over time. Regulatory policy, the level of asset specificity, and the extent of secondary environmental uncertainty are all shown to exert significant effects on the level of integration into production, storage and marketing

  1. Policies of natural Resources Management and Environmental Economic Advantages - Attractions in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrim Selimaj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem management is a recent alternative policy proposed by the Kosovo government to address a new generation of environmental issues. All Kosovo agency managements are currently exploring the concept of ecosystem management and their implications. Their activities are focused in the management of land and natural resources, by developing policy guidelines regarding the management of the ecosystem and the efforts undertaken that are only one layer of a larger phenomenon nationwide. Similar activities occur at the state and local levels, as well as within the NGO sector. In this sense, this paper addresses two questions: What is the policy of ecosystem management? Would Ecosystem management remain only a land management policy and resource?

  2. Oil spills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsouros, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The world annually transports 1.7 billion tons of oil by sea, and oil spills, often highly concentrated discharges, are increasing from a variety of sources. The author discusses sources of oils spills: natural; marine transportation; offshore oil production; atmospheric sources; municipal industrial wastes and runoff. Other topics include: the fate of the spilled oil; the effects of the oil; the response to oil spills; and prevention of oil spills. 30 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  3. Future role of oil and natural gas in OPEC and non-OPEC regions up to and beyond the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, I.A.H.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and Natural Gas are very much interrelated. They are both discovered in sedimentary basins and exist in nature in equilibrium under reservoir conditions deep inside the earth. In many cases, they are found associated with each other in the same reservoir rocks, and hence the name 'petroleum' is used to indicate both oil and natural gas. Their ultimate resources in nature are always comparable. It is, therefore, not surprising to find a close link between the price of natural gas and that of crude oil. It must be stated, however, that this parallel between oil and natural gas has its limits, since natural gas, unlike crude oil, is far from being an international commodity that could benefit from international trade on a global scale. In order to project the future role of oil and natural gas, it is essential to consider their past and present performances in the primary energy mix. (author)

  4. Protective Effects of Essential Oils as Natural Antioxidants against Hepatotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheweita, Salah A; El-Hosseiny, Lobna S; Nashashibi, Munther A

    2016-01-01

    Clinical application of cyclophosphamide (CP) as an anticancer drug is often limited due to its toxicity. CP is metabolized mainly in the liver by cytochrome P450 system into acrolein which is the proximate toxic metabolite. Many different natural antioxidants were found to alleviate the toxic effects of various toxic agents via different mechanisms. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the role of essential oils extracted from fennel, cumin and clove as natural antioxidants in the alleviation of hepatotoxicity induced by CP through assessment of hepatotoxicity biomarkers (AST, ALT, ALP), histopathology of liver tissues as well as other biochemical parameters involved in the metabolism of CP. The data of the present study showed that treatment of male mice with cyclophosphamide (2.5 mg/Kg BW) as repeated dose for 28 consecutive days was found to induce hepatotoxicity through the elevation in the activities of AST, ALT, and ALP. Combined administration of any of these oils with CP to mice partially normalized the altered hepatic biochemical markers caused by CP, whereas administration of fennel, clove or cumin essential oils alone couldn't change liver function indices. Moreover, CP caused histological changes in livers of mice including swelling and dilation in sinusoidal space, inflammation in portal tract and hepatocytes, as well as, hyperplasia in Kuppfer cells. However, co-administration of any of the essential oils with CP alleviated to some extent the changes caused by CP but not as the normal liver. CP was also found to induce free radical levels (measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and inhibited the activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and catalase as well as activities and protein expressions of both glutathione S-transferase (GSTπ) and glutathione peroxidase. Essential oils restored changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, CAT, GR, GST, and GPx) caused by CP to their normal levels compared

  5. Russia's natural gas policy toward Northeast Asia: Rationales, objectives and institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadrina, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the institutional dimensions of Russia's gas policy toward Northeast Asia (NEA During the liberal economic reforms of the 1990s, development of natural gas deposits in the Russian Far East was made possible under the scheme of production sharing agreements (PSA). However, new PSAs were banned in Russia even before the advent of state capitalism in the early 2000s. This was, to a large extent, the result of strong anti-PSA lobbying led by the domestic energy business elite. Consequently, Russia's gas policy in the east began evolving from being project-specific toward being region-specific. Contemporary Russian gas policy toward NEA relies upon domestic (national and regional) and external institutions. In 2009, following the completion of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant in Sakhalin, Russia entered NEA gas markets. Transformations in the international gas markets facilitated the establishment of a two-pattern gas export policy in Russia in 2013. Under this policy, Russia's EU-oriented pipeline gas export remains monopolised by Gazprom, while Asia-oriented LNG export is partially liberalised. Russia has not been experiencing institutional discrepancy in NEA gas markets. However, as the markets evolve toward greater coordination, a rational option for Russia is to genuinely liberalise its gas policy. - Highlights: • Russia–EU institutional inconsistency has accelerated Russia's gas export diversification. • Institutions for regional development are an important component of Russia's gas policy in Asia. • Transformations in globalising gas markets induced Russia's limited gas export liberalisation. • Genuine gas policy liberalisation can facilitate the attainment of Russia's goals in Asia

  6. Comparison of antimicrobial activities of natural essential oils and synthetic fragrances against selected environmental pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula L. Vieira-Brock

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Plant essential oils (EOs are known to inhibit the growth of bacteria and fungi. Whether these antimicrobial effects are comparable to synthetic household products is less clear. Furthermore, limited research is available on the potential additive effect of blending EOs. In this investigation, a new EO blend containing orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was compared to its individual single oils and to three household products–air freshener, liquid soap, and body spray–for their ability to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudonomas aeruginosa, and Aspergillus brasiliensis in the disc-diffusion assay. The new EO blend significantly inhibited the growth of the four microorganisms. The zones of inhibition of new EO blend were greater than the air freshener and similar to the liquid soap and body spray, with the exception of Str. pneumoniae in which the body spray provided greater inhibitory zone. The new EO blend and the single oils, with the exception of peppermint, equally inhibited the growth of S. aureus and Str. pneumoniae suggesting no additive effect. P. aeruginosa and A. brasiliensis showed variable susceptibility to all EOs except for no susceptibility to orange and limonene. No difference was found between (− and (+-limonene; whereas, (+-menthol showed greater effect than (−-menthol. In conclusion, blending the EO of orange, patchouli, peppermint, and clary sage was beneficial in inhibiting the growth of S. aureus, Str. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, and A. brasiliensis providing a natural antimicrobial fragrance option over synthetics fragrances used in soaps, body sprays, and air fresheners. Keywords: Essential oils, Soap, Body spray, Air freshener

  7. Vital signs: oil supplies improving but natural gas tight enough to keep prices high

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2000-01-01

    Canada's 1999 year-end oil reserves were boosted by 2.1 million barrels by the launch of new oil sands mining projects near Fort McMurray and revisions in two existing operations, offsetting a decline of 3.7 per cent in remaining conventional reserves. Total oil reserves at year end stood at some 11.9 billion barrels, up from 9.8 billion barrels a year earlier. Conventional crude reserves dropped to 4.37 billion barrels. Despite the decline, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) were encouraged by a 70 per cent replacement rate, on production of 441 million barrels of oil, despite low activity resulting from soft prices in early part of 1999. Production from offshore Newfoundland sites amounted to 38.6 million barrels; remaining reserves in the Hibernia and Terra Nova field are estimated at 868 million barrels. Meanwhile, natural gas reserves slipped by about a trillion cubic feet to about 61 trillion cubic feet, reflecting an 83 per cent replacement rate which, however, represented an improvement from 76 per cent in 1998. Reserves replacement in 2000 is expected to improve over 1999 due to improved prices resulting in increased activity in 2000 which is expected to continue into 2001. Despite improvements in replacement, consumers have much to worry about as far as further consumer price increases are concerned. The situation can be traced back to the summer 2000 storage injection period when supplies normally stored for use in the winter were sold instead, to take advantage of high prices. The injection for storage was reduced due largely to continued strong demand from the US electric power generating sector. This situation will continue, barring a dramatic softening of the US economy

  8. Bringing Context to the Oil Sands Debate: understanding the role of nature versus man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennell, J.; Gibson, J. J.; Birks, S. J.; YI, Y.; Jasechko, S.; Moncur, M. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Canadian oil sands represent an important resource to the national economy, and a strategic supply-line to the United States of America. These hydrocarbon deposits reside beneath a vast area in northern Alberta, and have been exposed to the environment for millennia as a result of erosion by the Athabasca River and its tributaries. Further complexity to the geochemical setting occurs due to the existence of faulted pathways extending from deeper, highly saline, Devonian intervals to surface. Situated within this natural setting are large waste management structures used to contain mine tailings and oil sands produced water. Many of these structures are situated in close proximity to aquatic receptors and have the potential to affect local water quality due to seepage losses. As such, these structures are coming under increasing scrutiny as a potential source of environmental impact. Discharge of oil sands contaminants to the rivers, and the accumulation of these materials in the Peace-Athabasca Delta, has been cited as a factor leading to adverse health effects at downstream communities. However, the role that natural discharge of contaminants plays has never been fully acknowledged. To address this critical gap, a reconnaissance of the Athabasca River was conducted. Areas of elevated terrain conductivity (detected by EM31 survey) were identified both in background locations and areas suspected of industrial releases. Water samples were collected from various sites and from multiple depth intervals (up to 3 m) within the hyporheic zone of the river sediments. This was achieved using drive-point wells. Each sample was then analyzed for a comprehensive suite of parameters including: i) major ions; ii) dissolved trace elements; iii) dissolved organics; and iv) selected stable and radiogenic isotopes. Results of the investigation identified large areas (in excess of 10km) of groundwater discharge to the Athabasca River well outside the influence of oil sands

  9. Radiation risk from natural radioactivity in oil and gas production industry. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eid, M A [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    This paper throws light on the natural radioactive materials as well as the radiation background level in Egypt and other global areas. It also describes the deposition of naturally occurring radioactivity as well as the gamma-ray exposure rate primarily due to {sub 226} Ra and daughters which concentrate as scale or sludge in oil field piping and equipment. The potential hazards arising during normal operation, maintenance, and cleaning are considered. Occupational annual personnel doses are estimated and examined relative to work function. The measures to reduce occupational radiation exposure and radioactive contamination were investigated. The data indicated that relatively higher exposure rates are associated with areas around water discharge system, separator and descaling operations where the dose rates varying between 0.02-6 m R/h. The annual collective effective dose equivalent was estimated about 4.58 man-Rem, and the mean annual dose equivalent of about 120 mrem were measured. 3 tabs.

  10. Reburning and burnout simulations of natural gas for heavy oil combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celso A. Bertran; Carla S.T. Marques; Renato V. Filho [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2004-01-01

    Reburning and burnout simulations were carried out through PLUG code of CHEMKIN-III using a reduced mechanism, in order to determine preliminary experimental parameters for achieving maximum NOx reduction to implement the reburning technology for heavy oil combustion in pilot scale equipments in Brazil. Gas compositions at the entrance of the reburning zone were estimated by the AComb program. Simulations were performed for eight conditions in the usual range of operational parameters for natural gas reburning. The maximum NO reduction (ca. 50%) was reached with 10 and 17.5% of power via natural gas and 1.5 and 3.0% O{sub 2} excess, respectively, at 1273 K. The model predicts 250 ppm of NO, 50 ppm of CO and air mass flows in the range of about 50 130 kg/h for burnout. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  11. Natural gas storage in microporous carbon obtained from waste of the olive oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Solar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (AC were prepared from waste of the olive oil production in the Cuyo Region, Argentine by two standard methods: a physical activation by steam and b chemical activation with ZnCl2. The AC samples were characterized by nitrogen adsorption at 77 K and evaluated for natural gas storage purposes through the adsorption of methane at high pressures. The activated carbons showed micropore volumes up to 0.50 cm³.g-1 and total pore volumes as high as 0.9 cm³.g-1. The BET surface areas reached, in some cases, more than 1000 m².g-1. The methane adsorption -measured in the range of 1-35 bar- attained values up to 59 V CH4/V AC and total uptakes of more than 120 cm³.g-1 (STP. These preliminary results suggest that Cuyo's olive oil waste is appropriate for obtaining activated carbons for the storage of natural gas.

  12. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-05-31

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of helping U.S. independent oil and natural gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions. Networking opportunities that occur with a Houston Headquarters (HQ) location are increasing name awareness. Focused efforts by Executive Director Don Duttlinger to interact with large independents, national service companies and some majors are continuing to supplement the support base of the medium to smaller industry participants around the country. PTTC is now involved in many of the technology-related activities that occur in high oil and natural gas activity areas. Access to technology remains the driving force for those who do not have in-house research and development capabilities and look to the PTTC to provide services and options for increased efficiency. Looking forward to the future, the Board, Regional Lead Organization (RLO) Directors and HQ staff developed a 10-year vision outlining what PTTC needs to accomplish in supporting a national energy plan. This vision has been communicated to Department of Energy (DOE) staff and PTTC looks forward to continuing this successful federal-state-industry partnership. As part of this effort, several more examples of industry using information gained through PTTC activities to impact their bottom line were identified. Securing the industry pull on technology acceptance was the cornerstone of this directional plan.

  13. Decoupling the Oil and Gas Prices. Natural Gas Pricing in the Post-Financial Crisis Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Miharu

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks into natural gas pricing in the post-financial crisis market and, in particular, examines the question whether the oil-linked gas pricing system has outlived its utility as global gas markets mature and converge more rapidly than expected and as large new resources of unconventional gas shift the gas terms-of-trade. Two opposing natural gas pricing systems have coexisted for the last two decades. On the one hand, there is traditional oil-linked pricing, used in pipeline gas imports by Continental European countries and in LNG imports by the countries in Far East. The other is the system led by futures exchanges in deregulated, competitive markets largely in the UK and the US. World gas markets are changing and the basis and mechanisms of price formation are changing with them. There is no reason to expect a revolution in gas pricing, but formulas designed to address the challenges of the 1970's will need to adjust to the realities of the present and expectations for the 21. century. Because such changes will imply a redistribution of costs and benefits, vested shareholders will defend the status quo. But hopefully and ultimately, appropriately regulated markets will assert themselves and shareholders along the entire value chain will have their interests served

  14. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-01-01

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution

  15. The politics of 'The Natural Family' in Israel: state policy and kinship ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birenbaum-Carmeli, Daphna

    2009-10-01

    Israel is the only country in the world that provides nearly unlimited, universal state funding for fertility treatments. This exceptional policy has been widely understood as symbolising the state's pronatalism. In this paper I probe the policy and assess medical experts' practice to show how a specific modality of pronatalism--enhancing 'the natural family' concept--is being construed through legislation and practice. Policy analysis discloses how the relatively efficient and safe technology of donor insemination has been devalued as a last resort solution to male infertility, to be applied only after all 'natural' alternatives have failed. At the same time, in vitro fertilisation (IVF), despite its health risks and lower efficacy, is proactively encouraged through various policy measures including unrestricted public funding. Interviews with practitioners reveal that similar preferences are enhanced through the infusion of secrecy and shame into donor insemination, coupled with active support of IVF. To complete the picture, Israel's adoption law is outlined, showing tight restrictions on domestic adoption and complete lack of state support or subsidy for inter-country adoption. I suggest that both the marginalisation of non-genetic forms of kinning and the emphasis on IVF indicate a state interest in upgrading the 'natural family' so as to nurture a geneticised notion of the local Jewish collectivity.

  16. Environmental guidance documents for exploration, development, Production, and transportation of crude oil and natural gas in texas: Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1997-March 31, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, L.

    1997-01-01

    The following technical report provides a detailed status report of the DOE grant project entitled ''Environmental Guidance Documents for Exploration, Development, Production, and Transportation of Crude Oil and Natural Gas in Texas.'' The grant funding allocated is for the purpose of provided the Railroad Commission of Texas (Commission) with resources and capabilities to draft, publish and distribute documents that provide guidance to oil and gas operators on issues concerning oil and gas naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) waste, oil and gas hazardous waste, remediation of crude oil spills, management of non-hazardous oil and gas wastes, and mechanical integrity testing of Class II injection and disposal wells

  17. The Danish Dispersal Policy on Refugee Immigrants 1986-1998: A Natural Experiment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    This paper investigates whether the Danish Dispersal Policy on new refugee immigrants carried out from 1986 to 1998 can be regarded as a natural experiment. Were refugees randomly assigned to a location? The main findings are as follows. First, around 90% of new refugees were assigned to a location....... Second, the dispersal policy successfully distributed new refugees equally across locations relative to the number of inhabitants in a location. Third, the actual settlement may have been influenced by six refugee characteristics. I conclude that the initial location of new refugees 1986-1998 may...

  18. Natural oils as skin permeation enhancers for transdermal delivery of olanzapine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geeta; Dhawan, Sanju; HariKumar, S L

    2012-03-01

    The feasibility of development of transdermal delivery system of olanzapine utilizing natural oils as permeation enhancers was investigated. Penetration enhancing potential of corn (maize) oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil on in vitro permeation of olanzapine across rat skin was studied. The magnitude of flux enhancement factor with corn oil, groundnut oil and jojoba oil was 7.06, 5.31 and 1.9 respectively at 5mg/ml concentration in solvent system. On the basis of in vitro permeation studies, eudragit based matrix type transdermal patches of olanzapine were fabricated using optimized concentrations of natural oils as permeation enhancers. All transdermal patches were found to be uniform with respect to physical characteristics. The interaction studies carried out by comparing the results of ultraviolet, HPLC and FTIR analyses for the pure drug, polymers and mixture of drug and polymers indicated no chemical interaction between the drug and excipients. Corn oil containing unsaturated fatty acids was found to be promising natural permeation enhancer for transdermal delivery of olanzapine with greatest cumulative amount of drug permeated (1010.68 μg/cm²/h) up to 24 h and caused no skin irritation. The fabricated transdermal patches were found to be stable. The pharmacokinetic characteristics of the final optimized matrix patch (T2) were determined after transdermal application to rabbits. The calculated relative bioavailability of TDDS was 113.6 % as compared to oral administration of olanzapine. The therapeutic effectiveness of optimized transdermal system was confirmed by tranquillizing activity in rotarod and grip mice model.

  19. The Utilization Of Resources And Regulation Along With Companys Strategies In Managing Oil And Natural Gas Industry In Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Rahardjo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas production in Indonesia has been declined since 1995 up to now the effort to increase the production has been done but it does not result yet. In contrast day by day the investment is getting increased and huge on the other hands it becomes a problem and a challenge for Indonesia to meet oil needs as raw material for refined fuel oil either for transportation or industries. Day by day the needs of refined fuel oil is getting increased and huge as it is correlated to the increasing of the number of motorcycles either two-wheeled or four-wheeled as well as the increasing of oil and gas or non-oil and gas industries. Oil and natural industry Resource Base has specific characteristics those are internal factor that uses resource such as high technology huge investment cost as well as competent human resources. Besides the external factor those are good regulations either in the central and regional levels as well as the sector which is very important toward the production performance and the of company managements strategies to manage this industry. This paper attempts to figure out the impact of internal factor in the form of resources and external factor in the form of regulation as well as the effect of production performance toward petroleum companies of upstream sectors in Indonesia and managements role especially petroleum industrialists in managing the company. The wane of oil production and the increasing of refined fuel oil need in Indonesia as well as the increasing of oil production cost then it will affect the industrialists strategies in managing the companies. The resources consist of human resource oil reserve as well as petroleum technologies. While regulation consists of law central and regional government regulations and rules in oil and gas sector. Whereas the companys strategies are explained by production volume and selling volume of oil. Companys performance which sets to work in upstream sector is influenced by

  20. Handling of natural occurring radioactive deposits in the oil and gas industry in Norway, United Kingdom and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysebo, I.; Tufto, P.

    1999-03-01

    Deposits containing naturally occurring radioactive materials is an increasing problem in oil and gas production. Laws and regulations in this area is under preparation, and it is a wish for harmonization with the other oil and gas producing countries in the North Sea. The report gives an overview of amounts of waste and activity levels, decontamination methods and waste handling in Norway, Great Britain and the Netherlands

  1. A Policy study on stabilization of heating oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bok Jae [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    As a principal heating fuel for household and commercial sector, and a heat source fuel for industry, the heating oil shows its great demand intensively during a specific period (wintertime) due to its characteristics. It represents that the fluctuation of heating oil demand throughout the year is very extreme. Therefore, the stable supply of heating oil has been rising as an important task. It is desirable to develop and supply a new type of heating oil compounded of kerosene and gasoline with appropriate ratio for short- and mid-term to have a stable supply and demand of heating oil. For long-term prospect, it is desirable to supply petroleum products mixing gasoline and B-C oil as heating oil when it is equipped with combustion technology of boiler and distribution system. In this case, it is required to have investment on infrastructure for the supply of new heating oil (mixture of gasoline and B-C oil) and a proper preparatory period for the conversion of equipment (such as a boiler). The vitalization of storing oil is essential to stabilize the supply and demand of heating oil. In order to vitalize it, the price of heating oil should be determined by a market function reflecting the seasonal supply and demand circumstances. (author). 101 refs., 5 figs., 83 tabs.

  2. Can solar energy substitute for oil? A natural capital accounting approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slesser, M.

    1993-01-01

    Humans have managed to exploit the Earth's natural capital to create a vast human-made physical capital stock, whereby we provide food, fuel, clothing and shelter for the great majority of the planet's inhabitants. In doing so, we have damaged the environment and dissipated much that we inherited. Since the stock of natural capital is finite, for how long can this depletion and erosion continue? With what do we replace it in order to maintain our economic systems? This paper explores in a quantitative manner the potential to substitute solar energy for natural capital. In order to proceed, we need to distinguish between different types of natural capital, understand the nature of human-made capital and see what it is that determines the viability of solar energy systems. A macroeconomic model, GlobEcco, has been used to assess the potential for economic development at the global level in the context of the consequent rate of depletion of the Earth's depletable natural capital and/or its substitution by solar energy. Nine policies for the introduction of solar electricity, as derived from hydro-power, wind energy and photovoltaics, have been tested. (7 figures, 3 tables). (Author)

  3. Volatile organic compound emissions from the oil and natural gas industry in the Uintah Basin, Utah: oil and gas well pad emissions compared to ambient air composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, C.; Geiger, F.; Edwards, P. M.; Dube, W.; Pétron, G.; Kofler, J.; Zahn, A.; Brown, S. S.; Graus, M.; Gilman, J. B.; Lerner, B. M.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; de Gouw, J. A.; Roberts, J. M.

    2014-10-01

    Emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with oil and natural gas production in the Uintah Basin, Utah were measured at a ground site in Horse Pool and from a NOAA mobile laboratory with PTR-MS instruments. The VOC compositions in the vicinity of individual gas and oil wells and other point sources such as evaporation ponds, compressor stations and injection wells are compared to the measurements at Horse Pool. High mixing ratios of aromatics, alkanes, cycloalkanes and methanol were observed for extended periods of time and for short-term spikes caused by local point sources. The mixing ratios during the time the mobile laboratory spent on the well pads were averaged. High mixing ratios were found close to all point sources, but gas well pads with collection and dehydration on the well pad were clearly associated with higher mixing ratios than other wells. The comparison of the VOC composition of the emissions from the oil and natural gas well pads showed that gas well pads without dehydration on the well pad compared well with the majority of the data at Horse Pool, and that oil well pads compared well with the rest of the ground site data. Oil well pads on average emit heavier compounds than gas well pads. The mobile laboratory measurements confirm the results from an emissions inventory: the main VOC source categories from individual point sources are dehydrators, oil and condensate tank flashing and pneumatic devices and pumps. Raw natural gas is emitted from the pneumatic devices and pumps and heavier VOC mixes from the tank flashings.

  4. Effect of natural and artificial drying of leaf biomassof Psidium guajava on the content and chemical composition of essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Aparecida Josefi da Silva

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Psidium guajava L. is native to Central and South America. It is widely distributed and well adapted to Brazil, a producer of essential oils rich in terpenes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of natural and artificial drying on the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves (Psidium guajava L. grown in Rio Verde (GO. The two treatments consisted of drying fresh leaves either naturally in the shade or artificially at 40°C. Chemical composition was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by gas coupled with mass spectrometer chromatography (GC/MS and gas chromatography using a flame ionizer (GC-FID, respectively. The method of drying changed the content and chemical composition of the essential oil of guava leaves. Drying in the shade reduced the content and altered the constituents of the essential oil, whereas drying in an oven at 40°C, despite having reduced the amounts of the constituents, exhibited the highest essential oil content and increased the concentration of certain major constituents as compared to that in the natural shade drying method. The major components found in the essential oil of leaves regardless of the drying processes were trans-caryophyllene, ?-humulene, aromadendrene, ?-selinene, and selin-11-en-4?-ol. According to reports in the literature, these compounds possess fungicidal, insecticidal, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity, among others beneficial actions.

  5. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  6. Studied on Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and Olive Oil (OO) as an Alternative for Stabilizer of Radiation Vulcanized Natural Rubber Latex (RVNRL) Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syuhada Ramli; Sofian Ibrahim; Mohd Noorwadi Mat Lazim

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of virgin coconut oil (VCO) and olive oil (OO) as an alternative stabilizer in the radiation vulcanized natural rubber latex (RVNRL). Potassium laurite (KL) as a stabilizer considered as a control of RVNRL sample were compared to mixed ratio 1:1 KL: VCO and 1:1 KL: OO stabilizer formulation. Total solid content (TSC) and tensile strength (TS) results showed no significant different between the formulations. Mechanical stability time (MST) indicates higher stability of RVNRL with addition of VCO. The fatty acid composition in VCO indicate VCO was acting well as stabilizer for latex stabilizer formulation. (author)

  7. Implementing a corporate-wide policy for dealing with naturally occurring radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, S.E.; Abernathy, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    With the increased environmental awareness about naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), many companies are adopting policies to address the exposure and contamination issues associated with this material. In developing and implementing a NORM policy, every aspect of a business must be thoroughly evaluated to determine at what point the material is encountered and what processes tend to concentrate the material. Once all areas having elevated levels of NORM are identified, the interrelationships between these areas must be evaluated. Corporate policy regarding NORM is discussed, including employee exposure, environmental contamination, facility and equipment contamination, logistics of moving between facilities covered by different regulations, existing and proposed regulations, trends of proposed regulations, disposal of NORM, training and survey equipment. 14 refs., 7 figs

  8. Review of environmental research and policy with regard to oil and gas extraction on the Dutch continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Krieger, M.

    1991-01-01

    During the past 25 years huge investments have enabled the development of a very busy offshore industry in the North Sea area. International environmental policy regulations for this type of activity are given by the Paris Commission and by International Conferences on the Protection of the North Sea. The North Sea Directorate of Rijkswaterstaat in the Netherlands is responsible for the management of the Dutch sector of the North Sea, i.e. responsible for the quality of the watersystem and the management of several human activities which have an impact on the sea. The activities which result directly from this are: detection and removal of oil spills and other marine pollutants; contingency planning; issuing of dumping and discharging licenses; coordination of research, and development of policy; sounding and dredging of water routes; international consultation related with these activities. Further attention is paid to the target group consultations (formal cooperation and consultation between the Dutch authorities and the offshore industry), effects of discharged oil containing cutting, recent and future legislation and policy for oil containing discharges. Finally, the paper takes stock of the use and discharge of chemicals offshore

  9. Analysis of selected energy security issues related to US crude oil and natural gas exploration, development, production, transportation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    In July 1989, President Bush directed the Secretary of Energy to initiate the development of a comprehensive National Energy Strategy (NES) built upon a national consensus. The overall principle for the NES, as defined by the President and articulated by the Economic Policy Council (EPC), is the continuation of the successful policy of market reliance, consistent with the following goals: Balancing of energy, economic, and environmental concerns; and reduced dependence by the US and its friends and allies on potentially unreliable energy suppliers. The analyses presented in this report draw upon a large body of work previously conducted for DOE/Office of Fossil Energy, the US Department of Interior/Minerals Management Service (DOI/MMS), and the Gas Research Institute (GRI), referenced throughout the text of this report. This work includes assessments in the following areas: the potential of advanced oil and gas extraction technologies as improved through R ampersand D, along with the successful transfer of these technologies to the domestic petroleum industry; the economic and energy impacts of environmental regulations on domestic oil and gas exploration, production, and transportation; the potential of tax incentives to stimulate domestic oil and gas development and production; the potential environmental costs associated with various options for leasing for US oil and gas resources in the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS); and the economic impacts of environmental regulations affecting domestic crude oil refining

  10. Molecular processes in the biodegradation of crude oils and crude oil products in the natural reservoir and in laboratory experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalenbach, S.S.

    1993-10-01

    Two ains were pursued in the present study; first, to find positive indicators of the onset of biodegradation of reservoir oil wherever other parameters fail to give a clear picture; second, to establish a basic understanding of the molecular processes underlying the biodegradation of hydrocarbons and thus create a starting point for finding better criteria for valuating biological restoration methods for crude oil contaminated soils. (orig./HS) [de

  11. Natural and bioremediated selective degradation of polycyclic aromatic alkyl isomers in oil-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, T.C.; McCarthy, K.; Uhler, A.; Porta, A.

    1995-01-01

    In studies where 2- to 6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are determined as part of characterizing released oil constituents in environmental samples, the changes in composition of PAHs from weathering (e.g., evaporation, dissolution) and biodegradation are most often represented by PAH alkyl homologue distributions. Concentrations of PAH alkyl groups are the sum of individual PAH isomers of similar carbon number; such as for C2-naphthalenes, the C2 alkyl group consists of dimethyl and ethyl substitutions on the parent naphthalene. In weathering and degradation studies, the changes in relative concentration of the individual isomers within an alkyl group are rarely reported. In a field study of oiled soils, the authors looked at the selective losses, for a period of a year, of individual PAH alkyl isomers that occur both naturally by weathering processes and through the use of bioremediation technology. Results showed that decreases in alkyl group concentrations were not always represented by similar losses of each isomer in the alkyl group, but were often due to the preferential or selective loss of certain isomers in the group

  12. Multiple Beneficial Health Effects of Natural Alkylglycerols from Shark Liver Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain B. Legrand

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.

  13. The Saskatchewan Environmental Assessment Act Guide to Proposal Development : oil and natural gas projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    The manner in which requests for review of oil and natural gas projects are to be provided under the Environmental Assessment Act in Saskatchewan is described. The provisions of the Guide apply to all seismic projects on private or Crown lands, all drilling projects, flowline projects, access routes and production facilities on any land, except where the project is on cultivated land where it does not interfere with water bodies or endangered species. It also applies to any project that has the potential to meet the definition of 'development' under the Environmental Assessment Act. Basically, the following information is required for all proposals: (1) project description, (2) project evaluation, (3) description of proposed waste management practices, and (4) description of the proposed environmental monitoring. 4 refs

  14. Improved Management of Water and Natural Resources Requires Open, Cognizant, Adaptive Science and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P. D.; Voinov, A. A.; Shapiro, C. D.; Jenni, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water issues impact the availability and use of other natural resources as well as environmental conditions. In an increasingly populated hyper-connected world, water issues are increasingly "wicked problems": complex problems with high uncertainties and no independent observers. Water is essential to life, and life affects water quality and availability. Scientists, managers, decision-makers, and the greater public all have a stake in improving the management of water resources. In turn, they are part of the systems that they are studying, deciding on, affecting, or trying to improve. Governance of water issues requires greater accessibility, traceability, and accountability (ATA) in science and policy. Water-related studies and decision-making need transdisciplinary science, inclusive participatory processes, and consideration and acceptance of multiple perspectives. Biases, Beliefs, Heuristics, and Values (BBHV) shape much of our perceptions and knowledge, and inevitably, affect both science and policy. Understanding the role of BBHV is critical to (1) understanding individual and group judgments and choices, (2) recognizing potential differences between societal "wants" and societal "needs", and (3) identifying "winners" and "losers" of policy decisions. Societal acceptance of proposed policies and actions can be fostered by enhancing participatory processes and by providing greater ATA in science, in policy, and in development of the laws, rules, and traditions that constrain decision-making. An adaptive science-infused governance framework is proposed that seeks greater cognizance of the role of BBHV in shaping science and policy choices and decisions, and that also seeks "Open Traceable Accountable Policy" to complement "Open Science". We discuss the limitations of the governance that we suggest, as well as tools and approaches to help implementation.

  15. Soil arthropod fauna from natural ecosites and reclaimed oil sands soils in northern Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battigelli, J.P.; Leskiw, L.A. [Paragon Soil and Environmental Consulting Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    An understanding of soil invertebrates may facilitate current reclamation activities in the oil sands region of Alberta. This paper presented the results of a study investigating the density, diversity, and structure of soil arthropod assemblages in natural habitats and reclaimed sites. The purpose of the study was to establish a baseline inventory of soil arthropod assemblages in order to enable long-term monitoring of soil arthropod recolonization in disturbed sites. Nine natural ecosites were sampled for the study, including peat mix over secondary material over tailing sand; direct placement over tailing sand; peat mix over secondary over overburden; direct placement over overburden; peat mix over tailing sand; and peat mix over overburden. Samples were collected from previously established long-term soil and vegetation treatment plots in both natural ecosites and reclaimed soil sites located near Fort McMurray, Alberta. Results showed that densities of mesofauna were significantly higher in samples collected from natural ecosites. Acari and Collembola represented approximately 97 to 98 per cent of the fauna collected. It was also noted that the overall structure of the soil mesofauna community differed between natural soils and reclaimed soils. A significant reduction in the abundance of oribatid mites was observed in soils that had been reclaimed for over 34 years. Changes in the soil mesofauna community structure suggested that reclaimed soils continue to represent disturbed ecosites, as was indicated by higher proportions of prostigmatid mites and some collembolan families. Differences in community structure may influence soil ecosystem functions, including decomposition rates; nutrient recycling; soil structure; and fungal and bacterial biomass. It was concluded that further research is needed to examine oribatid mites and collembolan species diversity and community structure in reclaimed soils. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  16. The Strategic Petroleum Reserve: United States energy security, oil politics, and petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubouef, Bruce Andre

    The history of U.S. petroleum reserves policies in the twentieth century, including the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program, provides a case study of the economic and political aspects of national security, and shows the ways in which the American political economy influences national security. One key problem plagued federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals throughout the twentieth century. In a political economy which traditionally placed strong emphasis upon the sanctity of private property and free markets, could the government develop an emergency petroleum reserve policy despite opposition from the private sector? Previous literature on the SPR and oil-stockpiling programs has largely disregarded the historical perspective, focusing instead upon econometric models, suggesting future oil-stockpiling policy options. This study will also make conclusions about the future of governmental oil-stockpiling policies, particularly with regard to the SPR program, but it will do so informed by a systematic history of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse in the twentieth century. Through a study of the emergency petroleum reserve impulse, one can see how the American political economy of oil and energy changed over the twentieth century. As petroleum became crucial to the military and then economic security of the United States, the federal government sought to develop emergency petroleum reserves first for the military, then for the civilian economy. But while the American petroleum industry could deliver the energy "goods" to American energy consumers at a reasonable price, the companies reigned supreme in the political equation. While that was true, federal petroleum reserve programs and proposals conflicted with and were overwhelmed by the historic American tradition of individual economic and private property rights. The depletion of American petroleum reserves changed that political equation, and the ensuing energy crises of the 1970s not only

  17. Carbon Nanomaterials for Detection, Assessment and Purification of Oil and Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau

    This thesis studies several carbon nanomaterials. Their synthesis and characterization are studied as well as their potential applications to the oil industry. The carbon nanomaterials studied here include mesoporous carbon (CMK-3), sulfur- or nitrogen-doped porous carbon (SPC or NPC), and commercial carbon black (CB). Through appropriate functionalization, these carbon nanomaterials exhibit unique properties and their performances in detection, assessment as well as purification of oil and natural gas are studied and demonstrated. First, it was shown that amine-modified CMK-3 composites, polyethylenimine-CMK-3 (PEI-CMK-3) and polyvinylamine-CMK-3 (PVA-CMK-3) can be synthesized through in situ polymerization of amine species within the channels of the CMK-3. The synthesis process results in the entrapped amine polymers interpenetrating the composite frameworks of the CMK-3, improving the CO2 capture performance and recycle stability. CO2 uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at 30°C and 1 atm; the 39% PEI-CMK-3 composite had ˜12 wt% (3.1 mmol/g) CO2 uptake capacity and the 37% PVA-CMK-3 composite had ˜13 wt% (3.5 mmol/g) CO 2 uptake capacity. A desorption temperature of 75°C was sufficient for regeneration. The CO2 uptake was the same when using 10% CO 2 in a 90% CH4, C2H6 and C3H 8 mixture, underscoring this composite's efficacy for CO 2 sequestration from natural gas. Secondly, nucleophilic porous carbons (SPC and NPC) were synthesized from simple and inexpensive carbon-sulfur and carbon-nitrogen precursors. A strong sorbate-sorbent interaction between CO2 and nucleophilic centers in the porous carbon was established using spectroscopic and heat of sorption data. Raman spectroscopy supports the assertion that the nucleophilic centers react with the CO2 to produce carbonate anions that further cause polymerization in the porous carbon channels to form poly(CO2) under much lower pressure than previously reported for such

  18. The comparison of naturally weathered oil and artificially photo-degraded oil at the molecular level by a combination of SARA fractionation and FT-ICR MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Ananna; Cho, Yunju; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shim, Won Joon; Kim, Young Hwan; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Weathered oils from the Hebei Spirit oil spill and photo degraded oils are compared. • We investigate changes of polar species at the molecular level by 15T FT-ICR MS. • Significant reduction of sulfur class compounds in saturates fraction is observed. • The relative abundance of protonated compounds (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increase after degradation. • Changes of polar compounds occurred by natural and photo degradation are similar. -- Abstract: Two sets of oil samples, one obtained from different weathering stages of the M/V Hebei Spirit oil spill site and the other prepared by an in vitro photo-degradation experiment, were analyzed and compared at the molecular level by atmospheric pressure photo-ionization coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). For a more detailed comparison at the molecular level, the oil samples were separated into saturate, aromatic, resin, and asphaltene (SARA) fractions before MS analysis. Gravimetric analysis of the SARA fractions revealed a decreased weight percentage of the aromatic fraction and an increased resin fraction in both sets of samples. Molecular-level investigations of the SARA fractions showed a significant reduction in the S 1 class in the saturate fraction and increase of S 1 O 1 class compounds with high DBE values in resin fraction. Levels of N 1 and N 1 O 1 class compounds resulting in protonated ions (presumably basic nitrogen compounds) increased after degradation compared to compounds generating molecular ions (presumably non-basic nitrogen compounds). This study revealed changes occurring in heteroatom polar species of crude oils such as sulfur and nitrogen containing compounds that have not been easily detected with conventional GC based techniques

  19. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER TO U.S. INDEPENDENT OIL AND NATURAL GAS PRODUCERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-11-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) continued pursuing its mission of assisting U.S. independent oil and gas producers make timely, informed technology decisions by providing access to information during Fiscal Year 2002 (FY02). Functioning as a cohesive national organization, PTTC has active grassroots programs through its ten Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) and three satellite offices that efficiently extend the program reach. They bring research and academia to the table via their association with geological surveys and engineering departments. The regional directors interact with independent oil and gas producers through technology workshops, resource centers, websites, newsletters, various technical publications and other outreach efforts. These are guided by regional Producer Advisory Groups (PAGs), who are area operators and service companies working with the regional networks. The role of the national Headquarters (HQ) staff includes planning and managing the PTTC program, conducting nation wide technology transfer activities, and implementing a comprehensive communications effort. The organization effectively combines federal funding through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy with state and industry funding to achieve important goals for all of these sectors. This integrated funding base is combined with industry volunteers guiding PTTC's activities and the dedication of national and regional staff to achieve notable results. PTTC is increasingly recognized as a critical resource for information and access to technologies, especially for smaller companies without direct contact with R&D efforts. The DOE participation is managed through the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), which deploys a national natural gas program via the Strategic Center for Natural Gas (SCNG) and a national oil program through the National Petroleum Technology Office (NTPO). This technical progress report summarizes PTTC

  20. Social and Economic Analysis Branch: integrating policy, social, economic, and natural science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Rudy; Walters, Katie D.

    2015-01-01

    The Fort Collins Science Center's Social and Economic Analysis Branch provides unique capabilities in the U.S. Geological Survey by leading projects that integrate social, behavioral, economic, and natural science in the context of human–natural resource interactions. Our research provides scientific understanding and support for the management and conservation of our natural resources in support of multiple agency missions. We focus on meeting the scientific needs of the Department of the Interior natural resource management bureaus in addition to fostering partnerships with other Federal and State managers to protect, restore, and enhance our environment. The Social and Economic Analysis Branch has an interdisciplinary group of scientists whose primary functions are to conduct both theoretical and applied social science research, provide technical assistance, and offer training to support the development of skills in natural resource management activities. Management and research issues associated with human-resource interactions typically occur in a unique context and require knowledge of both natural and social sciences, along with the skill to integrate multiple science disciplines. In response to these challenging contexts, Social and Economic Analysis Branch researchers apply a wide variety of social science concepts and methods which complement our rangeland/agricultural, wildlife, ecology, and biology capabilities. The goal of the Social and Economic Analysis Branch's research is to enhance natural-resource management, agency functions, policies, and decisionmaking.

  1. The concern for nature, a natural process for public policy? How to promote sustainable development in urban environmental agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Barrionuevo Mora

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is a leader worldwide for its recognition of the Rights of Nature and the Rights of the City in its Constitution. In so far as Quito, its capital, has positioned itself among the first municipalities that have demonstrated their compliance with the international commitments on climate change, it is a relevant case study. From the experience of this city, we aim to identify the main factors that contribute to local government taking on a sustainability agenda. Although the national and international context influence on the positioning of such topics, such factors as leadership, the influence of international networks, the level of specialization of the bureaucratic apparatus and local regulations have permitted to include issues related to sustainable development in the public policy agenda and thus have given visibility to cities as relevant actors in the pursuit of sustainable development.

  2. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  3. Black Gold Revolution: What New Oil Means for American Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    OR THE EGG : INTERNATIONAL ORDER AND OIL………6 2 AMERICA, THE ORDER, AND OIL……………………………………….30 3 HISTORICAL CASE STUDY……………………………………………….44...Chapter 1 The Chicken or the Egg : International Order and Oil To keep a lamp burning we have to keep putting oil in it. –George MacDonald...waters of Alaska’s Cook Inlet; (2) Alaskan North Slope crude oil; (3) certain domestically produced crude oil destined for Canada; (4) shipments to

  4. Offer restrictions on bidding of oil and natural gas exploration areas; Limitacoes de ofertas nas licitacoes de blocos exploratorios de petroleo e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Marcelo Lauar [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos em Direito do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (PRH-36-ANP)

    2008-07-01

    Created by Law 9.478/97 (Law of Oil), the Agencia Nacional do Petroleo, Gas Natural e Biocombustiveis (ANP) has, among others, the purpose of laborating edicts and promoting public tenders to give concession to exploration, development and production of oil and natural gas, celebrating the future contracts and monitoring its execution. This procedure, however, has strong differences in comparison to the classical law 8.666/93 - the general law of public tenders of Brazil -, given the specificities of petroleum and gas natural industry. Based on the mitigation of the concept of free competition, ANP made, recently, use of clauses that restrict the offers to the winning bidders that participate in ANP's public tenders. The restrictive measure taken by the Regulatory Agency is constitutional, in order that it, indeed, develops the market and prevents the concentration of a single agent in a particular economic exploratory block, accomplishing the real free competition. (author)

  5. How international oil and gas companies respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries: A narrative enquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses narrative analysis to critically examine the business practices used by five international oil and gas companies (IOCs) (Chevron, ExxonMobil, Shell, BP and Total) to respond to local content policies in petroleum-producing developing countries (Nigeria, Angola, Venezuela, Kazakhstan, Brazil, Indonesia, Yemen and Indonesia) during the period 2000–2012. The business practices include the formulation of local content strategies that are implemented through programmes and initiatives aimed at developing and using host country suppliers and workforce. Such practices and the narratives used to communicate them implicitly reflect the context in which the effectiveness of local content policies on economic development can be assessed. By comparing and contrasting the narratives across the five IOCs in relation to the wider literature, four emergent narrative strategies justifying the business practices of IOCs are identified and discussed. They include: (1) direct engagement to renegotiate local content requirements with governments, (2) legal compliance framework, (3) the business case for local content strategies, and (4) corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. The conclusion considers the policy implications of these findings for local content development in petroleum-producing developing countries. - Highlights: • Local content policies define the local context that shape IOCs’ business practices. • Provides a narrative analysis of the business practices of IOCs in developing countries. • IOCs use four narrative strategies to relate their business practices to local content policies. • The business practices of IOCs can determine the effectiveness of local content policies

  6. Manitoba oil activity review, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1992, 28 wells were drilled, compared to 54 in 1991. Oil production was down ca 8% from 1991 levels, to 656,415 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 4% to ca $86.3 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 24%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $58 million, down 16% from 1991. As of 4 January 1993, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year. In 1992, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $20.89/bbl, compared with 1991's average of $20.14/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  7. Manitoba oil activity review, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In an annual survey of Manitoba's petroleum industry, data are presented on oil and natural gas leases and sales, geophysical activity, exploration and drilling activity, production, oil prices and sales value, royalties and taxes, direct revenues from oil exploration and development, reserves, industry expenditures, and oil fields. Throughout the report, explanations are given of the items covered. Descriptions are made of new developments, the oil market, oil policies, incentive programs, and industrial activities. During 1993, 87 wells were drilled, compared to 28 in 1992. Oil production was down ca 3% from 1992 levels, to 634,561 m 3 ; the value of the oil produced decreased 10% to ca $77.5 million; and provincial revenues from the oil industry decreased by 4%. Oil industry expenditures in the province were estimated at $73 million, up 26% from 1992. As of 4 January 1994, there were 11 oil fields and 120 non-confidential oil pools designated in Manitoba. Crude oil prices fluctuated throughout the year, between $15.12 and $21.50/bbl. In 1993, Manitoba's average crude oil price was $19.40/bbl, compared with 1992's average of $20.89/bbl. Manitoba Energy and Mines amended the Drilling Incentive Program to provide a 10,000 m 3 holiday volume for horizontal wells. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  8. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  9. An economic evaluation of Peru's liquefied natural gas export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Leonard; Jenkins, Glenn P.

    2014-01-01

    Peru's Camisea gas fields hold nearly 90% of the country's natural gas reserves. In the 1990s, the government had a policy to prioritize Camisea gas for domestic consumption. The revocation of this policy in the 2000s allowed private developers to export 40% of Camisea's proven reserves, equivalent to one third of Peru's total. This USD 3.9 billion liquefied natural gas (LNG) export project boasts the largest single foreign direct investment in Peru's history. A major component of the financing was granted by international financial institutions on economic grounds. While the project was expected to yield a substantial return to private investors, the export of one third of Peru's total proven natural gas reserves is not in line with its long-term interests. We undertake cost–benefit analyses for a series of scenarios, starting with the project's formative stage in the mid-2000s, and then in 2012, two years after it began its commercial operation. In all cases, Peru does not have sufficient reserves to warrant export, and the economic costs far exceed the benefits. This policy of LNG exports should not have been approved by the government, nor should the loans have been granted by international financial institutions to make it possible. - Highlights: • Peru's Liquefied Natural Gas project is creating an economic loss to the country. • Results of our analyses are robust for all scenarios considered. • The present value of the cost of replacing exported energy far exceeds tax revenue. • Projects cannot be approved based only on immediate benefits. • The potential opportunity costs of projects must be considered

  10. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook befor