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Sample records for policy making process

  1. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  2. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    enjoyed having a voice in school matters and to deal with real life during health education. Teachers were very positive towards the integration of school health policy work into teaching the curriculum in Danish, Maths and Biology. However, the transferring from the classroom to the organizational levels....... Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education...... was weakhindering sustainable health changes. Conclusion Findings indicate that integrating school policy processes into the teaching of curriculum might pave the way for schools to engage in health promotion. But further knowledge on how to likewise engage the staff on an organisational level is needed....

  3. People, Processes, and Policy-Making in Canadian Post-secondary Education, 1990-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa; Wellen, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making in Canadian post-secondary education is rarely the subject of intensive, systematic study. This paper seeks to identify the distinctive ways in which Canadian post-secondary education policy decisions were constructed and implemented, and to posit an analytical framework for interpreting policy-making process in post-secondary…

  4. U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, EPA’s trade and environment policy organization is designed to create a flexible and collaborative mechanism so that EPA can participate fully and effectively in the development and implementation of U.S. trade and environment policy.

  5. The Policy-Making Process of the State University System of Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sandra M.

    The policy-making process of the State University System of Florida is described using David Easton's model of a political system as the conceptual framwork. Two models describing the policy-making process were developed from personal interviews with the primary participants in the governance structure and from three case studies of policy…

  6. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  7. A formal communication process: Pathway to improved policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, A.; Robison, A.C.; Seidler, P.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will examine the efforts made and the steps taken by the US DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (DOE/OCRWM) to establish and keep open lines of communication with officials in Nye County, Nevada, the location of Yucca Mountain, the site of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository. These efforts include creating policies and procedures for conducting oversight of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP), as well as developing programs for engaging in technical studies, requests for impact assistance and financial assistance, and ensuring there's a continuous flow of information to the residents of Nevada

  8. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  9. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  10. The Relevance of Theories of the Policy Process to Educational Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    Two case studies of educational decision making are used to test the utility of some current theories of the policy-formation process; a framework for the application of these theories is proposed; and the merits of applying existing theories before seeking new paradigms are stressed. (MSE)

  11. Renewable energy support policy in Spain : An analysis of the decision-making process (1994-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leston, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-making process behind the RE support policy will be explored in order to answer the following research questions: “why has the policy-making process been revised so many times?” and “how can such a drastic change on the RE support policy be explained?” The answer is found

  12. Policy processes and decision making of environmental policy in Great Britain and France. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, H.

    1991-01-01

    Research of central aspects of British environmental policy. This report concentrates on the role of the constitutional system of environmental policy, on the evaluation of a growing of 'Green Policy' in Great Britain, on the central problems of environmental policy and finally on the role of international environmental policy for Great Britain and Great Britain's role in international environmental activities. Beyond that this report contains a presentation of the state of the British environment (Pollution: Air, Water, Waste, Soil; Radioactivity and Noise). (orig.) With 205 refs., 18 tabs., 14 figs [de

  13. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  14. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries....... VPAs constitute a cornerstone in EU's Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) programme, the most important tool for the EU to address illegal logging problems. The EU requires that national VPA negotiations include participation by the relevant stakeholders. Based on primary data, we...... compare the VPA negotiations in Cameroon (2006–2009) with three different ‘ideal’ models of participatory policy-making: the rationalist, the communicative incremental and the mixed model, which we expect have different implications for legitimacy. We conclude that the Cameroonian process is closest...

  15. Participatory approaches to environmental policy-making. The European Commission Climate Policy Process as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Hove, S.

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates the relevance of participatory approaches to environmental policy-making when sustainable development is taken as the encompassing normative basis for environmental governance. In the first section, we illustrate the frequent references to participatory approaches in environmental decision-making. We then look at environmental issue attributes as determinants of the problem-solving requirements for environmental decision-making. We conclude the section by investigating whether and how participatory approaches could answer some of these requirements. In the second section, an illustration is proposed with the presentation of a participatory process that took place in 1997, during the last phase of the international negotiations that led to the Kyoto Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, and in 1998 in the preparation of the post-Kyoto phase. The process, organised by the European Commission, consisted of a series of workshops whose objective was to furnish timely inputs responding to the European Commission's information needs for climate policy formation in the pre- and post-Kyoto periods. This was to be achieved through the establishment of interfaces between: (1) the research community; (2) the EC Climate negotiation team and through it the EU Member States representatives; (3) other Commission interests (the 'inside stakeholders'); (4) a range of 'outside' stakeholders including industry, finance and commerce, employment, environment, consumer and citizen interests. We reflect on the participatory nature of the process and show how the process met some of the decision-making requirements identified in the first section. 27 refs

  16. Policy Making as Bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    The making of environmental policies is a multi-stakeholders process where actors often hold antagonistic interests. The paper explores how institutional compromises are reached by the mechanism of collective bricolage. Recent studies are developing a view on institutional innovation as bricolage......, but the conditions under which bricolage occurs and succeeds in relation to institutional innovation are still unknown. Drawing on the notion of platform developed in the context of economics performativity, we study their role in bricolage mechanisms. We hold an empirical case study of the GETS platform...... that was instrumental in developing the European carbon market as a corner-stone of European climate policy. Based on the GETS case study, we find three modalities in which platforms stimulate institutional bricolage: catalyzing combinations, managing learning, fostering compromise. These findings draw on, and extend...

  17. Science and environmental policy-making : bias-proofing the assessment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKitrick, R.

    2005-01-01

    Politicians and policy-makers appeal to the concept of peer-reviewed research as a foundation for decision-making. However, peer review does not typically guarantee that data and methods are open to scrutiny or that results are reproducible. This paper argued that additional checks and balances are needed for scientific assessment reports when they are being used to justify major policy investments. The need for such mechanisms was examined with reference to the debate in climate change, which allowed the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to downplay fundamental scientific uncertainties in research in order to claim that the 1990s were the warmest decade of the millennium. Two mechanisms were proposed to address biases in expert assessment panels. The creation of a scientific audit or permanent agency was recommended that would act independently of assessment panels to identify key studies influencing panel decisions to ensure that data are publicly available and that statistical methods are fully described and correctly implemented. The creation of a counterweight panel was also advised, which would then be convened to prepare the strongest possible counter argument to the conclusions of an assessment panel. It was concluded that, given the far-reaching implications of policy decisions that are based on expert assessments, audits and counterweight panels should be integrated into the process by which science is used to guide decision-making. 17 refs., 4 figs

  18. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  19. An Adaptable System to Support Provenance Management for the Public Policy-Making Process in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkha Javed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Government policies aim to address public issues and problems and therefore play a pivotal role in people’s lives. The creation of public policies, however, is complex given the perspective of large and diverse stakeholders’ involvement, considerable human participation, lengthy processes, complex task specification and the non-deterministic nature of the process. The inherent complexities of the policy process impart challenges for designing a computing system that assists in supporting and automating the business process pertaining to policy setup, which also raises concerns for setting up a tracking service in the policy-making environment. A tracking service informs how decisions have been taken during policy creation and can provide useful and intrinsic information regarding the policy process. At present, there exists no computing system that assists in tracking the complete process that has been employed for policy creation. To design such a system, it is important to consider the policy environment challenges; for this a novel network and goal based approach has been framed and is covered in detail in this paper. Furthermore, smart governance objectives that include stakeholders’ participation and citizens’ involvement have been considered. Thus, the proposed approach has been devised by considering smart governance principles and the knowledge environment of policy making where tasks are largely dependent on policy makers’ decisions and on individual policy objectives. Our approach reckons the human dimension for deciding and defining autonomous process activities at run time. Furthermore, with the network-based approach, so-called provenance data tracking is employed which enables the capture of policy process.

  20. The Invisible Hand or What Makes the Bureaucracy Indispensable? A Short Theoretical Inquiry Into the Bureaucracy's Role in the Policy Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina HARUŢA

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the study of public bureaucracy, an intrinsic preoccupation arises concerning the balance of policy making authority between politicians and bureaucrats. In this paper we attempt to show from a theoretical point of view that bureaucracies enjoy some degree of discretion over policy making via implementation, rulemaking and enforcement activities. According to many authors it appears that the bureaucrats are entitled as well to play the role of both partners and contributors in the public policy formulation process, even if sometimes their policy preferences do not overlap all the times with the preferences of their elected overseers.

  1. The Public Health Service guidelines. Governing research involving human subjects: An analysis of the policy-making process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The policy making process which led to development of the Public Health Service Guidelines governing research involving human subjects is outlined. Part 1 examines the evolution of PHS Guidelines, tracing (1) evolution of thought and legal interpretation regarding research using human subjects; (2) initial involvement of the Federal government; (3) development of the government's research program; (4) the social-political environment in which formal government policy was developed; and (5) various policy statements issued by the government. Part 2 analyzes the process by which PHS Guidelines were developed and examines the values and other underlying factors which contributed to their development. It was concluded that the evolution of the Guidelines is best understood within the context of a mixed-scanning strategy. In such a strategy, policy makers make fundamental decisions regarding the basic direction of policy and subsequent decisions are made incrementally and within the contexts set by the original fundamental decisions.

  2. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  3. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  4. THE STRUCTURAL SPECIFICITIES OF THE US CONGRESS’ WHICH INFLUENCE THE POLICY DECISION-MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O A. Frolova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The U.S. Congress plays an important role in the decision-making process at the system of American political management. First of all, it applies to formulation and coordination of different interests through the law passing process. The article examines the Congress’ structure and the different aspects of its functioning. Those aspects often play a key role in lawmaking process and later affect the forming of the US political vector. The author comes to conclusion that the existing system of subcommittees doesn’t allow the U.S. Legislature to consider many bills completely and that fact negatively impacts on political decision-making process.Purchase on Elibrary.ru > Buy now

  5. The Impact of Institutional Culture, Policy and Process on Student Engagement in University Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Philip

    2018-01-01

    There is a strong focus on the importance of student engagement in higher education, with increasing attention on how students can participate in their university's decision-making processes. Yet, although the concept appears to be almost universally accepted, it is rarely problematised. This has led some commentators to conclude that student…

  6. Democratic energy policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronconi, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    The author stresses the need for greater public participation, in particular, by organized labour in the role of organizer-coordinator, in the creation and implementation of local and regional clean energy-environmental protection programs. These would conform to innovative national strategies which would adapt the traditional short-sighted economic growth-energy use models still used by many industrialized countries, to current global requirements - that of harmonized global development and environmental protection to satisfy present needs without compromising the capacity of future generations, of developing, as well as, developed countries, to satisfy their own needs. With reference energy policies of Italy, heavily dependent on oil and gas imports, the author points out the strategic importance and technical-economic feasibility of energy conservation. He then makes suggestions on how to overcome past failures, due primarily to excessive bureaucracy and scarce investment, in the realization of effective energy conservation programs

  7. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  8. People, Process, and Policy: Case Studies in National Security Advising, the National Security Council, and Presidential Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    confirmation of Lake’s concerns with the administration’s public relations failures, David Gergen, the president’s communications advisor, increased... Public Affairs: 389-395. 75 these positions, he did not openly object too them during the campaign. Additionally, as this case study shows, he...PEOPLE, PROCESS, AND POLICY: CASE STUDIES IN NATIONAL SECURITY ADVISING, THE NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL, AND PRESIDENTIAL DECISION MAKING

  9. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  10. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...... Behavior. The framework was operationalized in semi-structured interviews with 17 European biotech scientists to collect data about their motivation to involve in GMO policy making. The results of this qualitative study suggest that the attitude of the scientists towards active participation in policy...... making is dependent on their view of the way science and decision making relate to each other. The respondents who are currently active in policy making seem to be driven by commitment to the public good. However, many respondents feel social pressure from environmental NGOs to withdraw from engagement...

  11. Making Policy in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    The concept of street-level bureaucracy (Lipsky, 1980, 2010) examines the form and extent discretion takes in teachers' and other public policy enactors' work and how they negotiate their way through sometimes contradictory policy imperatives. It provides a framework for straddling top-down and bottom-up perspectives on policy making. In this…

  12. National Advisory Groups and their role in immunization policy-making processes in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F

    2013-12-01

    During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  13. Gender in the New Education Policy 2016 in the Making: Process and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Karuna

    2017-01-01

    There is no doubt that until now significant progress has been made to include gender in the Indian education policy. Further, it is also recognized that investment in the education of both boys and girls with focus on equity is consistently the most powerful and important indicator of national development, as well as being a vehicle for the…

  14. Embedding health policy and systems research into decision-making processes in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Rao, Krishna D; Tran, Nhan T; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2013-08-08

    Attention is increasingly directed to bridging the gap between the production of knowledge and its use for health decision-making in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). An important and underdeveloped area of health policy and systems research (HPSR) is the organization of this process. Drawing from an interdisciplinary conception of embeddedness, a literature review was conducted to identify examples of embedded HPSR used to inform decision-making in LMICs. The results of the literature review were organized according to the World Health Organization's Building Blocks Framework. Next, a conceptual model was created to illustrate the arrangement of organizations that produce embedded HPSR and the characteristics that facilitate its uptake into the arena of decision-making. We found that multiple forces converge to create context-specific pathways through which evidence enters into decision-making. Depending on the decision under consideration, the literature indicates that decision-makers may call upon an intricate combination of actors for sourcing HPSR. While proximity to decision-making does have advantages, it is not the position of the organization within the network, but rather the qualities the organization possesses, that enable it to be embedded. Our findings suggest that four qualities influence embeddedness: reputation, capacity, quality of connections to decision-makers, and quantity of connections to decision-makers and others. In addition to this, the policy environment (e.g. the presence of legislation governing the use of HPSR, presence of strong civil society, etc.) strongly influences uptake. Through this conceptual model, we can understand which conditions are likely to enhance uptake of HPSR in LMIC health systems. This raises several important considerations for decision-makers and researchers about the arrangement and interaction of evidence-generating organizations in health systems.

  15. How much participation makes a participatory process legitimate? Observations from participants in forestry policy-making and nuclear weapons complex management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuler, S.

    1997-01-01

    Public participation has received increasing attention as a means for improving research, policy-making, and decision-making in a variety of contexts. Regulators have experimented with a variety of participatory approaches to improve the legitimacy of outcomes in the eyes of diverse publics. In this paper the authors will explore how participants (as opposed to planners) perceived legitimacy of both processes and outcomes in planning processes. Data from two case studies will be presented: (1) a forestry planning process in the northeastern US and (2) environmental health, waste management, and clean-up activities in the US nuclear weapons complex. The data reveal that judgments about the appropriateness of particular forms of participation and about the quality of participation can be a critical factor in perceived legitimacy of processes and outcomes, and that judgments of appropriateness and quality are grounded in the experiences of individual participants. In addition, linkages between judgments about the adequacy of participation and legitimacy can be mediated by historical interactions and judgments of trust. Implications for the design of participatory processes will be discussed

  16. Rapid review programs to support health care and policy decision making: a descriptive analysis of processes and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; Garritty, Chantelle; Kamel, Chris; Stevens, Adrienne; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M

    2015-03-14

    Health care decision makers often need to make decisions in limited timeframes and cannot await the completion of a full evidence review. Rapid reviews (RRs), utilizing streamlined systematic review methods, are increasingly being used to synthesize the evidence with a shorter turnaround time. Our primary objective was to describe the processes and methods used internationally to produce RRs. In addition, we sought to understand the underlying themes associated with these programs. We contacted representatives of international RR programs from a broad realm in health care to gather information about the methods and processes used to produce RRs. The responses were summarized narratively to understand the characteristics associated with their processes and methods. The summaries were compared and contrasted to highlight potential themes and trends related to the different RR programs. Twenty-nine international RR programs were included in our sample with a broad organizational representation from academia, government, research institutions, and non-for-profit organizations. Responses revealed that the main objectives for RRs were to inform decision making with regards to funding health care technologies, services and policy, and program development. Central themes that influenced the methods used by RR programs, and report type and dissemination were the imposed turnaround time to complete a report, resources available, the complexity and sensitivity of the research topics, and permission from the requestor. Our study confirmed that there is no standard approach to conduct RRs. Differences in processes and methods across programs may be the result of the novelty of RR methods versus other types of evidence syntheses, customization of RRs for various decision makers, and definition of 'rapid' by organizations, since it impacts both the timelines and the evidence synthesis methods. Future research should investigate the impact of current RR methods and reporting to

  17. The European Union renewable directive: The policy-making process and the stakeholders positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2011-07-01

    This working paper focuses on the proposal for a renewable energy directive in the European Union (EU), which main aim is to increase the share of renewable energy sources in EU energy consumption from 8.5 to 20 per cent by 2020. It accounts for the legislative process, from the drafting and consultation stage to the final directive was formally adopted in April 2009, and in particular the proposal of binding interim targets and financial penalty. The formal proposals as well as the stakeholders positions on this issue are examined.(auth)

  18. Education Policies and Policy Making in Arizona: Report on a Survey of Education Policy Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an objective look at the education policies adopted by the State of Arizona since 2000, describes participants in the policy-making process, and identifies policy options for the future. The framework of the study uses a typology of educational policies with seven categories: school building and facilities, curriculum…

  19. Towards Agents for Policy Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The process of introducing new public policies is a complex one in the sense that the behavior of society at the macro-level depends directly on the individual behavior of the people in that society and ongoing dynamics of the environment. It is at the micro-level that change is initiated, that

  20. The influence of bureaucrats on the policy-making process in the former Soviet Union: The case of Chernobyl

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Lucy Alexandra

    The events that started to unfurl in the former Soviet Union in the beginning of the 1990s and that ended with the disintegration of the USSR caught many sovietologists, and specialists on former communist and socialist regimes by surprise. Major theories and analyses developed and successfully used in such areas as Comparative Politics, International Relations, and Comparative Socialism turned out to be impotent to foresee the approach of the dramatic changes. Noticing the growing significance of and influence on the policy making process of numerous bureaucracies, this study has applied alternative approaches that were developed in such fields as Organizational Theory, Bureaucratic Behavior, and Public Policy. The issue of bureaucratic performance in the former USSR became the central focal point of the study. Methods suggested by specialists in these fields permitted measurement of the performance of different bureaucratic medical institutions during and after the Chernobyl crisis. Utilization of performance measurements helped uncover several important phenomena. One, that performance of the Soviet medical institutions/organizations and bureaucracies that they housed reached an ultimate dysfunctional stage. It became counterproductive to the point that we can brand it pathological. The characteristic feature of pathological performance is that its outcomes (final results) have a totally counterproductive effect on the external environment and on the community which uses its services and/or products. In the case of Chernobyl it was medical services that were either very poorly provided to the victims of the accident or totally withheld from them The result was a manifold increase in different illnesses and deaths among the population affected by the accident. Second, behavior and performance of the medical bureaucracies in comparison with the behavior and performance of other Soviet bureaucracies has shown that it was not unique. This counterproductive behavior

  1. Evidence-based policy-making in the NHS: exploring the interface between research and the commissioning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, U; Elliott, H; Higgins, A

    1999-03-01

    The UK National Health Service (NHS) R&D strategy acknowledges the importance of developing an NHS where practice and policy is more evidence-based. This paper is based on a qualitative study which aimed to identify factors which facilitate or impede evidence-based policy-making at a local level in the NHS. The study involved a literature review and case studies of social research projects which were initiated by NHS health authority managers or general practitioner (GP) fundholders in one region of the NHS. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with lead policy-makers, GPs and researchers working on each of the case studies and analysis of project documentation. An over-arching theme from the analysis was that of the complexity of R&D in purchasing. The two worlds of research and health services management often sit uncomfortably together. For this reason it was not possible to describe a 'blueprint' for successful R&D, although several important issues emerged. These include sharing an appropriate model for research utilization, the importance of relationships in shaping R&D, the importance of influence and commitment in facilitating evidence-based change, and the resourcing of R&D in purchasing. These issues have important implications for the strategic development of R&D as well as for individual project application. Moving beyond the rhetoric of evidence-based policy-making is more likely if both policy-makers and researchers openly acknowledge this complexity and give due concern to the issues outlined.

  2. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behar, L.

    2012-01-01

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  3. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [de

  4. The impact of stakeholder involvement in hospital policy decision-making: a study of the hospital's business processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malfait, Simon; Van Hecke, Ann; Hellings, Johan; De Bodt, Griet; Eeckloo, Kristof

    2017-02-01

    In many health care systems, strategies are currently deployed to engage patients and other stakeholders in decisions affecting hospital services. In this paper, a model for stakeholder involvement is presented and evaluated in three Flemish hospitals. In the model, a stakeholder committee advises the hospital's board of directors on themes of strategic importance. To study the internal hospital's decision processes in order to identify the impact of a stakeholder involvement committee on strategic themes in the hospital decision processes. A retrospective analysis of the decision processes was conducted in three hospitals that implemented a stakeholder committee. The analysis consisted of process and outcome evaluation. Fifteen themes were discussed in the stakeholder committees, whereof 11 resulted in a considerable change. None of these were on a strategic level. The theoretical model was not applied as initially developed, but was altered by each hospital. Consequentially, the decision processes differed between the hospitals. Despite alternation of the model, the stakeholder committee showed a meaningful impact in all hospitals on the operational level. As a result of the differences in decision processes, three factors could be identified as facilitators for success: (1) a close interaction with the board of executives, (2) the inclusion of themes with a more practical and patient-oriented nature, and (3) the elaboration of decisions on lower echelons of the organization. To effectively influence the organization's public accountability, hospitals should involve stakeholders in the decision-making process of the organization. The model of a stakeholder committee was not applied as initially developed and did not affect the strategic decision-making processes in the involved hospitals. Results show only impact at the operational level in the participating hospitals. More research is needed connecting stakeholder involvement with hospital governance.

  5. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    contested interests, power and ideas, shaped by the interaction of coalitions. Although policy-making is often seen as a process that should be guided by evidence rather than interest-based politics, this study concludes that a participatory process of debate among different actor-coalitions is vital to progress and can lend greater legitimacy, accountability and transparency to the policy process. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  7. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-01

    advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of contested interests, power and ideas, shaped by the interaction of coalitions. Although policy-making is often seen as a process that should be guided by evidence rather than interest-based politics, this study concludes that a participatory process of debate among different actor-coalitions is vital to progress and can lend greater legitimacy, accountability and transparency to the policy process. PMID:27239880

  8. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori McDougall

    2016-05-01

    of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of contested interests, power and ideas, shaped by the interaction of coalitions. Although policy-making is often seen as a process that should be guided by evidence rather than interest-based politics, this study concludes that a participatory process of debate among different actorcoalitions is vital to progress and can lend greater legitimacy, accountability and transparency to the policy process.

  9. Governance and Youth Participation in local policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Haaber Pettersen, Charlotte Louise; Aro, Arja R.

    2016-01-01

    research strategy was applied to examine these two case studies. Data was collected under the REPOPA Project (Research into Policy to enhance Physical Activity) though semi-structures interviews (N=11), analysed through content analysis and supported by analysis of 123 background documents. Results: Youth...... was involved in policy making only through adult representation. These adult stakeholders became part of participatory governance in developing the healthy public policies in both Odense and Esbjerg municipalities. Conclusion: Youth participation in local HEPA policy making in Esbjerg and Odense did not meet...... the Danish principle of participatory policy process and good health system governance. Main messages: Mechanisms to facilitate youth participation in policy making in the study communities were lacking. The Danish goal of improved participatory policy making at the local level was not met....

  10. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  11. The Role of "Pathos" in the Decision-Making Process: A Study in the Rhetoric of Science Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Craig

    1990-01-01

    Explores the ways in which nonscientists inform themselves and make decisions about complex and technological controversies. Explores the prejudice against emotion in a 1976-77 case before the Cambridge Experimentation Review Board. Suggests that, in spite of some cultural bias against pathos, emotional appeals play a vital role in the shaping of…

  12. Information used in the decision-making process regarding influenza vaccination policy: perceptions of stakeholders in France and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, M.L.; Perrier, L.; Paget, J.; Mosnier, A.; Buthion, V.; Cohen, J.M.; Späth, H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To minimize the medical and societal impact of influenza, most WHO countries recommend seasonal vaccination in targeted populations; however, little is known about the decision-making procedures at a country-level. In Europe, the Netherlands has the highest rate of influenza vaccination

  13. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  14. Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: The case of a novel Swedish policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigson, Peter; Dotzauer, Erik; Yan Jinyue

    2009-01-01

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel to both governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, identifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies

  15. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP), established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC) and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP's role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws. PMID:22359523

  16. An overview of the national immunization policy making process: the role of the Korea expert committee on immunization practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Yeon Cho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for evidence-based decision making in immunization programs has increased due to the presence of multiple health priorities, limited human resources, expensive vaccines, and limited funds. Countries should establish a group of national experts to advise their Ministries of Health. So far, many nations have formed their own National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs. In the Republic of Korea, the Korea Expert Committee on Immunization Practices (KECIP, established by law in the early 1990s, has made many important technical recommendations to contribute to the decline in vaccine preventable diseases and currently functions as a NITAG. It includes 13 core members and 2 non-core members, including a chairperson. Core members usually come from affiliated organizations in internal medicine, pediatrics, obstetrics, microbiology, preventive medicine, nursing and a representative from a consumer group, all of whom serve two year terms. Non-core members comprise two government officials belonging to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (KCDC and the Korea Food and Drug Administration. Meetings are held as needed, but at least twice a year, and sub-committees are formed as a resource for gathering, analyzing, and preparing information for the KECIP meetings. Once the sub-committees or the KCDC review the available data, the KECIP members discuss each issue in depth and develop recommendations, usually by a consensus in the meeting. The KECIP publishes national guidelines and immunization schedules that are updated regularly. KECIP’s role is essentially consultative and the implementation of their recommendations may depend on the budget or current laws.

  17. Making process improvement 'stick'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Quint

    2014-06-01

    To sustain gains from a process improvement initiative, healthcare organizations should: Explain to staff why a process improvement initiative is needed. Encourage leaders within the organization to champion the process improvement, and tie their evaluations to its outcomes. Ensure that both leaders and employees have the skills to help sustain the sought-after process improvements.

  18. Energy agreements in Italian foreign policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri Purini, A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing complexity of international relations, involving nations with vastly diverse political and socio-economic frameworks, levels of technology, geography, and environmental policies, are necessitating new Italian government policies which favour multilateral as opposed to conventional bilateral cooperation, especially in that which regards energy agreements. This paper makes this point in examining Italy's vulnerable energy supply and demand situation, the current directions being taken in this nation's foreign policies, and in assessing the key political and socio-economic factors now influencing this nation's world competitiveness in light of pending European unification and the opening up, on a wide scale, of Russian markets to Western nations and Japan

  19. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  20. Strengthening the Assessment Trajectory: Engaging Educators in the Policy Process. Making a Measurable Difference: Case Studies from the High-Quality Assessment Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Catherine; Snyder, Rebecca; Woods-Murphy, Maryann; Basset, Katherine

    2018-01-01

    Great teachers recognize great assessments. As policy and education leaders work to make sure state tests are measuring the problem-solving, writing, and critical-thinking skills students need for success, they should convene and rely on teachers to review test quality and help answer the question: Do the questions on our state test reflect…

  1. The tension between research of policy and research for policy in an era of transnational education policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    of implications for education policy-making processes and not least it has had an impact on who conducts policy studies and how. This book brings together a variety of contributions which explore recent political economic changes affecting education policy-making processes including the ascension of neo-liberalism......As national governments reform their educational systems to meet the challenges of living in a globalised world, the agenda setting power of transnational organizations like the OECD and the EU have become more transparent in the last decade. The phenomenon of globalization has a number...... and the transnationalization of education policy-making, as well as the tension between research of policy and research for policy. Working from different perspectives, the authors help to provide a better understanding of these two important sets of issues which the field of education must contend with today....

  2. Cultural Requirements of Policy Making System for Hijab and Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Bagheri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making and policy measures is important in the social system. occurs. Policy maker aimed to achieve cultural requirements of policy making system by interaction stale and society. After the Islamic Revolution of Iran. the strengths and weaknesses of the different levels of the system politically has been accompanied in the field of moral and sexual dignity and chastity, aside from the basic necessity of building systems - Iranian, coordination and harmony of the system was not relevant. That is in the realm of theoretical ideas and goals are expressed in practice, the relationship between logical and measurable programs are executed with the goals and policies have been developed. measures to improve processes, motivate and educate individuals and groups, and to monitor the development of information systems.

  3. Health Policy Making System in Islamic Republic of Iran: Review an Experience

    OpenAIRE

    B Larijani; A Delavari; B Damari; A Vosoogh Moghadam; R Majdzadeh

    2009-01-01

    "nIn Iran, the policy making process still has room for improvement. These include the opportunities for better co-ordina­tion of policies on medical education, health research and service provision; improvement of decision making mecha­nisms; a more evidence-based policy making process, and more involvement of stakeholders; reducing fragmentation of policy making foci; and establishing a qualified institution for system analyses and progress monitoring. The Health Pol&am...

  4. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  5. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  6. Policies and place-making for competitive cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.; Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Policy-makers are making efforts to strengthen the competitiveness of their cities and urban regions. This book is about these policies and their implications for place-making and competitive cities. Policies driven by ‘classic’ location theory, cluster policies, ‘creative class’ policies aimed at

  7. Social Cost Benefit Analysis for Environmental Policy-Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Zeeuw, A.; In t Veld, R.; Van Soest, D.; Meuleman, L.; Hoogewoning, P.

    2008-01-01

    Review of the theoretical literature and the current debate on the valuation of environmental goods and services, on the discounting of future benefits and costs, and on how social cost benefit analysis (SCBAs) can be integrated in the policy and decision making process. It is concluded that SCBA can be a good decision support method in environmental policy-making if it is transparent and if all impacts are taken into account. Furthermore, the SCBA process should be participative, and politicians must be prepared to take responsibility for the assumptions behind the SCBA, including the assumptions on valuation and on the discount rate. Such a political role makes each SCBA a unique product of a politically responsible actor, and makes it possible for other stakeholders to have calculated an alternative SCBA based on their own assumptions. This Background Study also contains the proceedings of the international SCBA conference organised by RMNO on 16-17 January 2008

  8. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  9. [Public policy-making on breast cancer in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robledo, M C; González-Robledo, L M; Nigenda, G

    2013-03-01

    To understand the public policy-making process as it relates to breast cancer care in five Latin American countries. An exploratory-evaluative study was conducted in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, and Venezuela in 2010, with the selection of countries based on convenience sampling. Sixty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with government officials, academics, and representatives of trade associations and civil society organizations. A content analysis of secondary sources was performed. Information sources, data, and informants were mixed using the triangulation method for purposes of analysis. The countries that have made the most progress in public policy-making related to breast cancer are Brazil and Mexico. Although Argentina, Colombia, and Venezuela do not have policies, they do have breast cancer care programs and activities. Two perspectives on the development of public policies became evident: the first includes the broad participation of both governmental and nongovernmental sectors, whereas the second, more narrow approach involves government authorities alone. The results point to significant differences in public policy-making related to breast cancer in the Region. They also show that greater progress has been made in countries where policies have been developed through inclusive participation processes.

  10. Civil Society Participation in EU Gender Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2008-01-01

    The participation of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) in the policy processes of the European Union (EU) is a potential site of substantial representation of women (SRW). In the article, it is argued that the institutional context can both enable and constrain civil society actors’ claims......-making. TANs employ framing strategies to make their claims resonate with or challenge the dominant discourse of the EU policies. The institutions use contested frames to constitute legitimate claims-makers, by recognising certain claims as more valid than others. The possibilities of SRW are delimited, since...

  11. Public Participation in the Energy-Related Public Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozicevic Vrhovcak, M.; Rodik, D.; Zmijarevic, Z.; Jaksic, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of possibilities for public participation in proposing legal acts and other energy related documents in the Republic of Croatia and gives author assessment of the Croatian public participation level in the processes carried out. The ways how public has participated in the making of a few officially accepted documents have been analysed and potential benefits of inclusion of a wider circle of interested public have been stated. A comparison of the degree of public involvement in the decision making processes in Croatia and the European Union has been made, with specific emphasis on the adoption of the Third package of energy laws. Several national and EU funded projects aiming at enhancing the Croatian public participation in public decision making processes have been presented and their results given. Finally, possibilities for the improvement of the public participation in the Croatian energy policy making processes are proposed. (author)

  12. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  13. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients. Detailed insight into the serotonergic mechanisms underlying decision making is needed to strengthen the first and weaken the latter. Although much remains to be done to achieve this, accumulating studies begin to deliver a coherent view. Thus, high central 5-HT levels are generally associated with improved reversal learning, improved attentional set shifting, decreased delay discounting, and increased response inhibition, but a failure to use outcome representations. Based on 5-HT's evolutionary role, I hypothesize that 5-HT integrates expected, or changes in, relevant sensory and emotional internal/external information, leading to vigilance behaviour affecting various decision making processes. 5-HT receptor subtypes play distinctive roles in decision making. 5-HT(2A) agonists and 5-HT2c antagonists decrease compulsivity, whereas 5-HT(2A) antagonists and 5-HT(2C) agonists decrease impulsivity. 5-HT(6) antagonists univocally affect decision making processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Parliament and the making of Indian foreign policy: a study of nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paranjpe, Shrikant

    1997-01-01

    This book is a study that attempts to look at the emerging role design that the Indian Parliament has come to acquire in the exercise of its functions of participating in the formulation of foreign policy. The choice of the case study of nuclear policy is deliberate in that it evokes responses in all the three important dimensions of the role of the parliament: policy-making, representational activity, and system maintenance activity. The executive and the legislature are closely associated in the process of policy-making in the Indian parliamentary set-up. The representational activities focuses on the role perception of a parliamentarian and his interest in the area of foreign policy. The system maintenance activity includes support for the regime and political system essentially ensuring continuation of policy. This book also brings out the policies as they developed and the role played by the Parliament in terms of participation in the formulation of the policies. The issue areas covered includes the scientific and technological aspects of atomic energy policy; the debate on the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty; peaceful nuclear explosions; and the question of the nuclear weapons option. The essential sources of the study have been parliamentary debates, published reports and other statements dealing with the topic and interviews with legislators and officials involved in the issue. Most of the recommendations and concluding observations have been based on the interviews conducted

  15. Application of HTA research on policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngkong, Sitaporn

    2014-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the potential uses of health technology assessment (HTA) in health technology or health intervention-related policy decision-making. It summarises the role of HTA in policy planning, health system investment, price negotiation, development of clinical practice guidelines, and communication with health professionals. While the multifaceted nature of HTA means that some aspects of the data can result in conflicting conclusions, the comprehensive approach of HTA is still recommended. To help minimise the potential conflicts within HTA data, a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) approach is recommended as a way to assess a number of decision criteria simultaneously. A combination of HTA with MCDA allows policy decision-making to be undertaken in an empirically rigorous and rational way. This combination can be used to support policy decision-makers in Thailand and help them prioritise topics for assessment and make informed health benefit package coverage decisions. This approach enhances the legitimacy of policy decisions by increasing the transparency, systematic nature, and inclusiveness of the process.

  16. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  17. The Practices and Politics of Making Policy: Irrigation Management Transfer in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.; Wester, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that policy making is an interactive and ongoing process that transcends the spatio-temporal boundaries drawn by a linear, rational or instrumental model of policy. We construct this argument by analysing the making of the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy in Mexico in

  18. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  19. Decision making in energy policies with conflicting interests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, O.

    1988-01-01

    After the accident in Chernobyl policy making and implementation of energy decisions have become more difficult than ever. On the one hand the public reacts with fear and opposition to a possible extention of nuclear power, on the other hand the economic prosperity of a country depends on an inexpensive and non-exhaustive energy source like nuclear energy. The paper describes a concept of energy planning developed by a study group of the Nuclear Research Centre in Julich (FRG). The concept is based on the idea that in a pluralistic society different social groups should participate in the policy formulation process and that the values of the public should be incorporated in the weighting process to make choices between given options. As reference theory the basic framework of decision analysis is used. (orig./DG)

  20. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz, Mustafa; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  1. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-01

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  2. National oil companies and state actors : an assessment of the role of Petronas and ONGC in the foreign policy decision-making process of Malaysia and India using the example of overseas investments in Sudan and South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Steinecke, Tim

    2015-01-01

    The thesis addresses the role of national oil companies and their overseas engagement in the foreign policy decision-making process of states. Over the past 40 years, national oil companies have gained importance in the international oil industry and currently control around 90 per cent of the global oil reserves. A number of political and economic factors – depleting domestic reserves, economic growth – have resulted in an increasing expansion of Asian national oil companies to Africa. Throu...

  3. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-10-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  4. Making sense of policy choices: understanding the roles of value predispositions, mass media, and cognitive processing in public attitudes toward nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley S.; Scheufele, Dietram A.; Corley, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nationally representative telephone survey of 1,015 adults in the United States, this study examines how value predispositions, communication variables, and perceptions of risks and benefits are associated with public support for federal funding of nanotechnology. Our findings show that highly religious individuals were less supportive of funding of nanotech than less religious individuals, whereas individuals who held a high deference for scientific authority were more supportive of funding of the emerging technology than those low in deference. Mass media use and elaborative processing of scientific news were positively associated with public support for funding, whereas factual scientific knowledge had no significant association with policy choices. The findings suggest that thinking about and reflecting upon scientific news promote better understanding of the scientific world and may provide a more sophisticated cognitive structure for the public to form opinions about nanotech than factual scientific knowledge. Finally, heuristic cues including trust in scientists and perceived risks and benefits of nanotech were found to be associated with public support for nanotech funding. We conclude with policy implications that will be useful for policymakers and science communication practitioners.

  5. Integrated assessment and environmental policy making. In pursuit of usefulness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parson, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    Current integrated assessment projects primarily seek end to end integration through formal models at a national to global scale, and show three significant representational weaknesses: determinants of decadal-scale emissions trends; valuing impacts and adaptive response; and the formation and effects of policies. Meeting the needs of policy audiences may require other forms of integration; may require integration by formal modeling or by other means; and may require representing decisions of other actors through political and negotiating processes. While rational global environmental policy making requires integrated assessment, current practice admits no single vision of how to do it, so understanding will be best advanced by a diverse collection of projects pursuing distinct methods and approaches. Further practice may yield some consensus on best practice, possibly including generic assessment skills generalizable across issues. (Author)

  6. Making Sense of Music Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forari, Antonia

    2007-01-01

    This article looks at the way music education policy is realised in three curriculum contexts: the formation of the official music curriculum, its implementation by music teachers and its reception by students. Working from within the field of education policy studies, I have collected data on music education in Cyprus in order to explore what…

  7. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  8. Public values for energy futures: Framing, indeterminacy and policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, C.; Demski, C.; Parkhill, K.; Pidgeon, N.; Spence, A.

    2015-01-01

    In the UK there are strong policy imperatives to transition toward low carbon energy systems but how and in what ways such transitional processes might be realised remains highly uncertain. One key area of uncertainty pertains to public attitudes and acceptability. Though there is wide-ranging research relevant to public acceptability, very little work has unpacked the multiple questions concerning how policy-makers can grapple with and mitigate related uncertainties in efforts to enact energy systems change. In this paper, public acceptability is identified as an indeterminate form of uncertainty that presents particular challenges for policy making. We build on our existing research into public values for energy system change to explore how the outcomes of the project can be applied in thinking through the uncertainties associated with public acceptability. Notably, we illustrate how the public values identified through our research bring into view alternative and quite different problem and solution framings to those currently evident within UK policy. We argue that engagement with a wide range of different framings can offer a basis for better understanding and anticipating public responses to energy system change, ultimately aiding in managing the complex set of uncertainties associated with public acceptability. - Highlights: • We argue that public acceptability represents an indeterminate form of uncertainty. • This means alternative approaches to decision-making are required. • We introduce a public value set for energy system change. • We use this as a basis for interrogating current UK policy approaches to transitions. • Incorporating public values in policy can help tackle uncertainty about acceptability.

  9. Making health policy: networks in research and policy after 1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berridge, Virginia

    2005-01-01

    Science and policy in health and medicine have interacted in new ways in Britain since 1945. The relationship between research and policy has a history. The changing role of social medicine, the rise of health services research and "customer contractor" policies in government have been important. The relationship between research and policy has been analysed by different schools of thought. This chapter categorises them as several groups: "evidence-based", "journalism", "sociology of scientific knowledge" and "science policy studies". The chapters in the book illuminate aspects of these changing relationships. The role of chronic disease epidemiology, of new networks in public health, of media-focussed activism, and of health technology and its advocates have been more important than political interest.

  10. Between Policy-Making and Planning SEA and Strategic Decision-Making in the Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the challenge of approaching decision-making processes through strategic environmental assessment (SEA). It is argued that the interaction between policy-making and planning in strategic decision-making processes is a neglected reason for problems with applying SEA......, as legislation and guidance on SEA primarily approach either the policy or plan level. To substantiate the argument, the extent of interaction is empirically investigated. Four contemporary decision-making processes in the Danish energy sector are mapped as a series of choices. Fundamental changes...... with considerable environmental impacts are decided these years, often without preceding SEA processes. The mapping shows a profound interaction between policy-making and planning. In this interaction, public consultation, systematic environmental analyses, and transparency on alternatives are primarily related...

  11. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The ...

  12. Serotonin and decision making processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is an important player in decision making. Serotonergic antidepressant, anxiolytic and antipsychotic drugs are extensively used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by impaired decision making, and exert both beneficial and harmful effects in patients.

  13. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  14. The evolution of FDA policy on silicone breast implants: a case study of politics, bureaucracy, and business in the process of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A

    1995-01-01

    The central issue facing federal regulation of breast implants is that while such devices are not functionally necessary or needed for survival, the side effects may be harmful and have not been proven unharmful. The Medical Device Amendments of 1976 appear to require such evidence prior to the FDA permitting the unrestricted marketing of these devices. However, only recently have such requirements been imposed by the FDA. The author examines the FDA's decision-making process, particularly as applied to silicone breast implants, and the factors that appears to have affected such decisions. In pursuing this study, the activities of a number of interest-group actors, as well as congressional responses and the role of federal bureaucratic actors, were examined. In 1992, the FDA established a regulatory protocol that effectively withdrew most silicone breast implants from the market for the purpose of breast augmentation and allows for the monitoring of the impact of new implants on women's health. This increase concern for determining the safety of breast implants is due to a number of factors, which are examined in this article.

  15. On the influence of institutional design on monetary policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes, L.B.D.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis consists of a collection of essays on monetary policy making. These essays focus on institutional aspects which impact monetary policy making. Two chapters focus on analyzing voting records of central banks. A method is proposed to use the observed votes to infer the preferences of

  16. Windscale inquiry and policy-making procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Von Moltke, K

    1978-07-01

    Policy decisions on the development and installation of nuclear facilities often strain both the time and human resources of a country, some countries having taken steps to involve the national government in specific siting decisions and shifting the constitutional balance in response to popular dissent. Challenges to nuclear facilities could be met by limiting the scope of intervenors and the use of judicial review. The 100-day Windscale Inquiry in the United Kingdom represents the most costly review any country has had of a specific nuclear policy and has international implications. A chronology of the inquiry illustrates how the debate evolved into a vote on whether nuclear energy should be developed at all and effectively cut off other avenues of recourse. The traditional procedures for planning are shown to be inadequate for setting nuclear energy policy without the intervention of Parliament. 18 references.

  17. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has be...... are categorised as having problems besides unemployment (Caswell et al., 2011)....

  18. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of facilitating the uptake of evidence, for example, scientific research findings, into the policymaking process is multifaceted and thus complex. It is therefore important for scientists to understand this process in order to influence...

  20. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  1. Modeling decision making as a support tool for policy making on renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannemi, Marco; García-Melón, Mónica; Aragonés-Beltrán, Pablo; Gómez-Navarro, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a study on decision making models for the analysis of capital-risk investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. The aim of the work is to improve the support tools for policy makers in the field of renewable energy development. Analytic Network Process (ANP) helps to better understand capital-risk investors preferences towards different kinds of biomass fueled power plants. The results of the research allow public administration to better foresee the investors’ reaction to the incentive system, or to modify the incentive system to better drive investors’ decisions. Changing the incentive system is seen as major risk by investors. Therefore, public administration must design better and longer-term incentive systems, forecasting market reactions. For that, two scenarios have been designed, one showing a typical decision making process and another proposing an improved decision making scenario. A case study conducted in Italy has revealed that ANP allows understanding how capital-risk investors interpret the situation and make decisions when investing on biomass power plants; the differences between the interests of public administrations’s and promoters’, how decision making could be influenced by adding new decision criteria, and which case would be ranked best according to the decision models. - Highlights: • We applied ANP to the investors’ preferences on biomass power plants projects. • The aim is to improve the advising tools for renewable energy policy making. • A case study has been carried out with the help of two experts. • We designed two scenarios: decision making as it is and how could it be improved. • Results prove ANP is a fruitful tool enhancing participation and transparency

  2. Making the Climate Count: Climate Policy Integration and Coherence in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Kivimaa, Paula; Mickwitz, Per

    2009-01-01

    Tackling climate change in Finland and other industrialised countries requires major changes in production processes and consumption patterns. These changes will not take place unless climate change becomes a crucial factor in general and sector-specific policy-making. In this report climate policy integration in Finland is studied at different levels of policy-making: at the national level, regionally in Kymenlakso and the Metropolitan Area, as well as in the city of Helsinki and the town of...

  3. Models of policy-making and their relevance for drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Alison; Bammer, Gabriele

    2010-07-01

    Researchers are often frustrated by their inability to influence policy. We describe models of policy-making to provide new insights and a more realistic assessment of research impacts on policy. We describe five prominent models of policy-making and illustrate them with examples from the alcohol and drugs field, before drawing lessons for researchers. Policy-making is a complex and messy process, with different models describing different elements. We start with the incrementalist model, which highlights small amendments to policy, as occurs in school-based drug education. A technical/rational approach then outlines the key steps in a policy process from identification of problems and their causes, through to examination and choice of response options, and subsequent implementation and evaluation. There is a clear role for research, as we illustrate with the introduction of new medications, but this model largely ignores the dominant political aspects of policy-making. Such political aspects include the influence of interest groups, and we describe models about power and pressure groups, as well as advocacy coalitions, and the challenges they pose for researchers. These are illustrated with reference to the alcohol industry, and interest group conflicts in establishing a Medically Supervised Injecting Centre. Finally, we describe the multiple streams framework, which alerts researchers to 'windows of opportunity', and we show how these were effectively exploited in policy for cannabis law reform in Western Australia. Understanding models of policy-making can help researchers maximise the uptake of their work and advance evidence-informed policy.

  4. How Different Forms of Policy Learning Influence Each Other: Case Studies from Austrian Innovation Policy-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Biegelbauer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the question whether different forms of policy learning influence each other. The focus is on relationships between different forms of policy learning, which are explored on the basis of case study research in the field of research, technology and innovation policy-making in Austria. Methods utilised are expert interviews and document analysis besides literature and media recherché. With the goal to better understand the mechanisms behind learning processes, different ...

  5. Video Making, Production Pedagogies, and Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smythe, Suzanne; Toohey, Kelleen; Dagenais, Diane

    2016-01-01

    The promise of "21st century learning" is that digital technologies will transform traditional learning and mobilize skills deemed necessary in an emerging digital culture. In two case studies of video making, one in a Grade 4 classroom, and one in an adult literacy setting, the authors develop the concept of "production…

  6. Environmental policy and environment-saving technologies. Economic aspects of policy making under uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossokina, I.

    2003-07-01

    It is generally known that natural environment is profoundly influenced by technological change. The direction and the size of this influence are, however, surrounded by uncertainties, which substantially complicate environmental policy making. This dissertation uses game-theoretical models to study policy making under uncertainty about (a) the costs of technological advances in pollution control, (b) the preferences of the policy maker and the voters, and (c) the consequences of policy measures. From a positive point of view the analysis provides explanations for environmental policies in modern democracies. From a normative point of view it gives a number of recommendations to improve environmental policies.

  7. What makes process models understandable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendling, J.; Reijers, H.A.; Cardoso, J.; Alonso, G.; Dadam, P.; Rosemann, M.

    2007-01-01

    Despite that formal and informal quality aspects are of significant importance to business process modeling, there is only little empirical work reported on process model quality and its impact factors. In this paper we investigate understandability as a proxy for quality of process models and focus

  8. Energy policy decision making and public opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstein, L.

    1989-09-01

    By the example of nuclear the author demonstrates the interactions of short-term fluctuations on the world energy market, energy forecasts, specific events and discussions on energy policy both within political parties and in the general public, and draws conclusions which are valid beyond the Federal Republic of Germany: An analysis of the general public's attitude towards nuclear energy shows two initial phases, i.e. euphoria and scepticism/ideology/agitation. The early eighties, then, led to a third phase - realism. Up to 1983 a consensus prevailed between the leading political parties in Germany regarding the basic energy-policy objective of minimizing the supply risk by providing for a well-balanced use of all available energy sources. The resulting attitude had a positive bearing on the public opinion: more than two thirds of the population were in favour of nuclear. In the mid-eighties, the development of nuclear was by and large completed in the Federal Republic of Germany as well as in the United States and other western industrialized countries and the capacity of nuclear power plants is considered sufficient for the years to come. In addition, abundant long-term reserves of domestic lignite and hardcoal are available: this also should have furnished a good reason to envisage calmly the issues of power supply. Instead, we are again facing emotional discussions on the acceptance of nuclear. Public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany has changed since the Social Democrats followed the example of the Ecologists and advocated a rapid withdrawal from nuclear. In a recent poll four-fifths of the persons asked did not rule out the possibility of a major accident in a German power station. The wish to ignore today's energy supply problems by escaping into a supposedly safe but yet distant and vague future is part of every public debate. Technical and scientific issues are examined no longer in this global context. Predictions of experts and counter

  9. Is jurisdiction ousting policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, W.

    1981-01-01

    This report was given by the President of the Federal Administrative Court at a meeting of the Rechts- und Staatswissenschaftliche Vereinigung (Jurisprudence and Political Science Association) held at Duesseldorf in April 1979. It points out problems arising with the administration of justice in the field of administrative law as well as the limits set to it. If parliaments avoid to take political responsibility, the solving of political conflicts will be shifted to the other two powers. In case of controversy, jurisdiction in the field of administrative law would then have to make the final decision. It is for the legislator to preserve the function of judicial power, i.e., to exact from judges to make political, especially socio-political decisions. (HSCH) [de

  10. Process mining: making knowledge discovery process centric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aalst, van der W.M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the Task Force on Process Mining released the Process Mining Manifesto. The manifesto is supported by 53 organizations and 77 process mining experts contributed to it. The active contributions from end-users, tool vendors, consultants, analysts, and researchers illustrate the growing

  11. Do Strategic Foresight and Policy Making Go Hand in Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Zdechovský, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Policy making is a complex issue, as numerous factors should be taken aboard before a political decision is made. To ensure a more holistic approach to policy making, the authors propose to use the tool of foresight to capture the multitude of variables. Using the framework of rational choice...... the use of the foresight tool. Such a vision for Europe could further improve future policy making to the benefit of all EU citizens. The success of foresight and stake- holders’ groups for making sound decisions where best to invest tax-payers’ money, was already piloted in European Commission...... and coordinated joint policy decisions. This would aid in establishing the optimal amount of public goods for which tax-payers’ money is to be invested. Currently, Europe stands at an important cross-road as to what its future will be. Some political decisions have been made, and some are still to be made...

  12. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; Bruning, Nealia S

    2010-05-26

    Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the EBDM/EBPM process can be

  13. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruning Nealia S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM and evidence-based policy making (EBPM because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial

  14. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  15. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project 'European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast' - http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). A model was built to assess policy scenarios' impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate, and distribution. Reducing, even slightly, the prices of

  16. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm). Methods A model was built to assess policy scenarios’ impact on the pharmaceutical budgets of seven member states of the EU, namely France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Portugal, and the United Kingdom. The following scenarios were tested: expanding the UK policies to EU, changing time to market access, modifying generic price and penetration, shifting the distribution chain of biosimilars (retail/hospital). Results Applying the UK policy resulted in dramatic savings for Germany (10 times the base case forecast) and substantial additional savings for France and Portugal (2 and 4 times the base case forecast, respectively). Delaying time to market was found be to a very powerful tool to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Applying the EU transparency directive (6-month process for pricing and reimbursement) increased pharmaceutical expenditure for all countries (from 1.1 to 4 times the base case forecast), except in Germany (additional savings). Decreasing the price of generics and boosting the penetration rate, as well as shifting distribution of biosimilars through hospital chain were also key methods to reduce pharmaceutical expenditure. Change in the level of reimbursement rate to 100% in all countries led to an important increase in the pharmaceutical budget. Conclusions Forecasting pharmaceutical expenditure is a critical exercise to inform policy decision makers. The most important leverages identified by the model on pharmaceutical budget were driven by generic and biosimilar prices, penetration rate

  17. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  18. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  19. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  20. Administration and Policy-Making in Education: The Contemporary Predicament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Housego, Ian E.

    This paper is based on the assumption that the educational administrator is the mediator in policy development. The author sees the administrator as caught between two conflicting approaches to policy-making--one characterized as "rational" and the other as "political." In attempting to deal with this dilemma and with the dilemma of shrinking…

  1. Policy dialogues - the "bolts and joints" of policy-making: experiences from Cabo Verde, Chad and Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovlo, Delanyo; Nabyonga-Orem, Juliet; Estrelli, Yolanda; Mwisongo, Aziza

    2016-07-18

    Policy processes that yield good outcomes are inherently complex, requiring interactions of stakeholders in problem identification, generation of political will and selection of practical solutions. To make policy processes rational, policy dialogues are increasingly being used as a policy-making tool. Despite their increasing use for policy-making in Africa, evidence is limited on how they have evolved and are being used on the continent or in low and middle income countries elsewhere. This was an exploratory study using qualitative methods. It utilised data related to policy dialogues for three specific policies and strategies to understand the interplay between policy dialogue and policy-making in Cabo Verde, Chad and Mali. The specific methods used to gather data were key informant interviews and document review. Data were analysed inductively and deductively using thematic content analysis. Participation in the policy dialogues was inclusive, and in some instances bottom-up participatory approaches were used. The respondents felt that the execution of the policy dialogues had been seamless, and the few divergent views expressed often were resolved in a unanimous manner. The policies and strategies developed were seen by all stakeholders as relating to priority issues. Other specific process factors that contributed to the success of the dialogues included the use of innovative approaches, good facilitation, availability of resources for the dialogues, good communication, and consideration of the different opinions. Among the barriers were contextual issues, delays in decision-making and conflicting coordination roles and mandates. Policy dialogues have proved to be an effective tool in health sector management and could be a crucial component of the governance dynamics of the sector. The policy dialogue process needs to be institutionalised for continuity and maintenance of institutional intelligence. Other essential influencing factors include building

  2. Making multiple 'online counsellings' through policy and practice: an evidence-making intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella; Carter, Adrian; Kokanovic, Renata; Manning, Victoria; Rodda, Simone N; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-03-01

    Online counselling services for a range of health conditions have proliferated in recent years. However, there is ambiguity and tension around their role and function. It is often unclear whether online counselling services are intended to provide only a brief intervention, the provision of information or referral, or constitute an alternative to face-to-face treatment. In line with recent analyses of alcohol and other drug (AOD) policy and interventions that draw on a critical social science perspective, we take an evidence-making intervention approach to examine how online counselling in the AOD field is made in policy and through processes of local implementation. In this article, we analyse how online AOD counselling interventions and knowledges are enacted in Australia's AOD policy, and compare these enactments with an analysis of information about Australia's national online AOD counselling service, Counselling Online, and transcripts of counselling sessions with clients of Counselling Online. We suggest that while the policy enacts online counselling as a brief intervention targeting AOD use, and as an avenue to facilitate referral to face-to-face treatment services, in its implementation in practice online counselling is enacted in more varied ways. These include online counselling as attempting to attend to AOD use and interconnected psychosocial concerns, as a potential form of treatment in its own right, and as supplementing face-to-face AOD treatment services. Rather than viewing online counselling as a singular and stable intervention object, we suggest that multiple 'online counsellings' emerge in practice through local implementation practices and knowledges. We argue that the frictions that arise between policy and practice enactments need to be considered by policy makers, funders, clinicians and researchers as they affect how the concerns of those targeted by the intervention are attended to. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  4. European Union Climate Change Policy: in the nexus of internal policy-making and itnernational negotiations

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Hui

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the dissertation is to examine the European Union s climate policy in the nexus of domestic policy-making and international negotiations. I firstly test the EU s internal climate policy-making by applying the rational choice institutionalism on the model of institution and preference affect EU s policy outcomes and conclude that: as the EU has a convergent preference, the EU s unique decision-making procedure, the entrepreneurship and EU s membership had been driving EU s climate...

  5. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  6. Persistent misunderstandings about evidence-based (sorry: informed!) policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bédard, Pierre-Olivier; Ouimet, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    The field of research on knowledge mobilization and evidence-informed policy-making has seen enduring debates related to various fundamental assumptions such as the definition of 'evidence', the relative validity of various research methods, the actual role of evidence to inform policy-making, etc. In many cases, these discussions serve a useful purpose, but they also stem from serious disagreement on methodological and epistemological issues. This essay reviews the rationale for evidence-informed policy-making by examining some of the common claims made about the aims and practices of this perspective on public policy. Supplementing the existing justifications for evidence-based policy making, we argue in favor of a greater inclusion of research evidence in the policy process but in a structured fashion, based on methodological considerations. In this respect, we present an overview of the intricate relation between policy questions and appropriate research designs. By closely examining the relation between research questions and research designs, we claim that the usual points of disagreement are mitigated. For instance, when focusing on the variety of research designs that can answer a range of policy questions, the common critical claim about 'RCT-based policy-making' seems to lose some, if not all of its grip.

  7. Shaping Education Policy: Power and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Douglas E., Ed.; Crowson, Robert L., Ed.; Shipps, Dorothy, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    "Shaping Education Policy" is a comprehensive overview of education politics and policy during the most turbulent and rapidly changing period in American history. Respected scholars review the history of education policy to explain the political powers and processes that shape education today. Chapters cover major themes that have…

  8. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  9. Nonrational processes in ethical decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mark D; Gottlieb, Michael C; Handelsman, Mitchell M; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-10-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasilegal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior, including context, perceptions, relationships, emotions, and heuristics. For example, a large body of behavioral research has demonstrated the importance of automatic intuitive and affective processes in decision making and judgment. These processes profoundly affect human behavior and lead to systematic biases and departures from normative theories of rationality. Their influence represents an important but largely unrecognized component of ethical decision making. We selectively review this work; provide various illustrations; and make recommendations for scientists, trainers, and practitioners to aid them in integrating the understanding of nonrational processes with ethical decision making.

  10. Negotiated complexity in ecostystem services science and policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Keune, Hans; Dendoncker, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Its a long way from scientific knowledge to concrete policy action. Along the way many decisions have to be made. A lot of these decisions relate to setting priorities. With regard to policy uptake of scientific knowledge on ecosystem services, the need for an integrated decision-making framework is crucial. Framing complexity is a crucial aspect of any ecosystem services approach: How do we deal with ecological and social complexity? The complexity to be taken into account and the ...

  11. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nicholson

    Full Text Available In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  12. Educational Policy Making in the State Legislature: Legislator as Policy Expert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Sue Wells; Geske, Terry G.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the legislator's role as education policy expert in the legislative policymaking process. In a study of Louisiana state legislators, analysis of variance was used to determine expert legislators' degree of influence in formulating educational policy, given differences in policy types, information sources, and legislators' work roles.…

  13. Behavioural Decision Making and Suggestional Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Molz, Günter

    2001-01-01

    Common features between the domains of behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are discussed. These features are allocated in two aspects. First, behavioural decision making and suggestional processes are traditionally considered to provoke inadequate human behaviour. In this article arguments are put forward against this interpretation: Actions induced by non-rational decisions and / or by suggestional processes often have adaptive functions. Second, two common themat...

  14. Artificial intelligence and foreign policy decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Berkoff, Russ H.

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited With the advent of a global information society, the US will seek to tap the potential of advanced computing capability to enhance its ability to conduct foreign policy decision making. This thesis explores the potential for improving individual and organizational decision making capabilities by means of artificial intelligence (AI). The use of AI will allow us to take advantage of the plethora of information available to obtain an edg...

  15. Creating Adaptive Policies: A Guide for Policy-making in an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... This is an essential toolkit for those in the business of making, recommending, ... Policies that cannot perform effectively under today's complex, dynamic, and ... Suruchi Bhadwal is an Area Convener of the Centre for Global ...

  16. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    for underlying sets of values and norms to enter the policy process more freely and explicitly. However, do we then have the cultures and moral force to build effective sustainable transport policies and plans? The article therefore also looks into a range of overlapping approaches that may potentially aid...... in rethinking and rebuilding transport policy-making and planning processes in terms of cultural learning processes. Finally, the role of the planner as a ‘cultural entrepreneur’ and ‘cultural story-teller’ is presented as potential tool to push through new agendas or ideas, such as more sustainable transport...

  17. Making drug policy together: reflections on evidence, engagement and participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Marcus

    2014-09-01

    This commentary considers the relationship between evidence, engagement and participation in drug policy governance. It argues that the use of various forms of evidence (for example, statistical data and service user narratives) is critical for meaningful stakeholder engagement and public participation in drug policy, as well as effective policy design and implementation. The respective roles of these different kinds of evidence in consultation processes need to be better understood. It discusses the limits of evidence, which it suggests is rarely conclusive or decisive for drug policy. This is partly because of the incompleteness of most research agendas and the lack of consensus among researchers, but also because issues in drug policy are inherently contestable, involving considerations that lie outside the competency of drug policy specialist as such. In particular, this is because they involve normative and evaluative issues that are properly political (for example, about the relative weight to be accorded to different kinds of harm and benefit). It concludes by supporting calls for a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between evidence, engagement and politics than is implicit in the term 'evidence based policy'. It also argues that we should view the inherent contestability of drug policy not as something that can or should be resolved by 'objective' evidence, but as a source of vitality and creativity in policy development and evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Citizen participation in local policy making: design and democracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/11124501X

    2012-01-01

    Embedding democratic innovations that increase and deepen citizen participation in decision making has become a common policy of local governments in many countries. This article focuses on the role of the design of these innovations and seeks to establish the effects of their design on democracy.

  19. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  20. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framewo...

  1. Accessing the digital environment: making policy in academic libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Accessing the digital environment: making policy in academic libraries. Dorette Snyman. Abstract. No Abstract Available Innovation No.23 2001: 13-18. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers ...

  2. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka

    2009-01-01

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations

  3. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  4. Nonrational Processes in Ethical Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogerson, Mark D.; Gottlieb, Michael C.; Handelsman, Mitchell M.; Knapp, Samuel; Younggren, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Most current ethical decision-making models provide a logical and reasoned process for making ethical judgments, but these models are empirically unproven and rely upon assumptions of rational, conscious, and quasi-legal reasoning. Such models predominate despite the fact that many nonrational factors influence ethical thought and behavior,…

  5. Framing and the health policy process: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Adam D; Hawkins, Benjamin; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2016-07-01

    Framing research seeks to understand the forces that shape human behaviour in the policy process. It assumes that policy is a social construct and can be cast in a variety of ways to imply multiple legitimate value considerations. Frames provide the cognitive means of making sense of the social world, but discordance among them forms the basis of policy contestation. Framing, as both theory and method, has proven to generate considerable insight into the nature of policy debates in a variety of disciplines. Despite its salience for understanding health policy debates; however, little is known about the ways frames influence the health policy process. A scoping review using the Arksey and O'Malley framework was conducted. The literature on framing in the health sector was reviewed using nine health and social science databases. Articles were included that explicitly reported theory and methods used, data source(s), at least one frame, frame sponsor and evidence of a given frame's effect on the health policy process. A total of 52 articles, from 1996 to 2014, and representing 12 countries, were identified. Much of the research came from the policy studies/political science literature (n = 17) and used a constructivist epistemology. The term 'frame' was used as a label to describe a variety of ideas, packaged as values, social problems, metaphors or arguments. Frames were characterized at various levels of abstraction ranging from general ideological orientations to specific policy positions. Most articles presented multiple frames and showed how actors advocated for them in a highly contested political process. Framing is increasingly an important, yet overlooked aspect of the policy process. Further analysis on frames, framing processes and frame conflict can help researchers and policymakers to understand opaque and highly charged policy issues, which may facilitate the resolution of protracted policy controversies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  6. Applying policy network theory to policy-making in China: the case of urban health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Haitao; de Jong, Martin; Koppenjan, Joop

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we explore whether policy network theory can be applied in the People's Republic of China (PRC). We carried out a literature review of how this approach has already been dealt with in the Chinese policy sciences thus far. We then present the key concepts and research approach in policy networks theory in the Western literature and try these on a Chinese case to see the fit. We follow this with a description and analysis of the policy-making process regarding the health insurance reform in China from 1998 until the present. Based on this case study, we argue that this body of theory is useful to describe and explain policy-making processes in the Chinese context. However, limitations in the generic model appear in capturing the fundamentally different political and administrative systems, crucially different cultural values in the applicability of some research methods common in Western countries. Finally, we address which political and cultural aspects turn out to be different in the PRC and how they affect methodological and practical problems that PRC researchers will encounter when studying decision-making processes.

  7. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  8. Inclusive research: making a difference to policy and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelley; Minogue, Gerard; Hopklins, Rob

    2014-01-01

    While inclusive research has become an important stream in research with people with intellectual disabilities, there is a tension between the possibly empowering research process and the strength of the research itself to make social change happen. In this paper, we explore the contribution of two inclusive qualitative research studies in Australia and the Republic of Ireland to change in policy and legislation. Both studies used qualitative methods including life stories and focus groups to explore the issue of sexuality and relationships. In both studies, people with intellectual disabilities were actively involved in undertaking the research. Both studies revealed that it was difficult for people with intellectual disabilities to express their sexuality openly or to form adult relationships. Both studies were used by people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters to promote change in which they had a heard voice. This paper is about how people with intellectual disabilities and their supporters can use research which they have done to change policies and laws that affect them. When people with intellectual disabilities are doing research it is called inclusive research.We write about two research studies which were about the sexual lives and relationships of people with intellectual disabilities. One research study was in Australia and one was in the Republic of Ireland.In the Australian study, Living Safer Sexual Lives, 25 people with intellectual disabilities told their life stories and talked about sexuality and relationships.In the Irish study people with intellectual disabilities told life stories and talked with other people with intellectual disabilities about their sexuality and relationships in groups. These are called focus groups.In this paper we explore 4 questions that arose from these studies. Question 1. What impact does doing research have on the people who are involved in it? People with intellectual disabilities in Australia were

  9. Vygotsky's Analysis of Children's Meaning Making Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahn, Holbrook

    2012-01-01

    Vygotsky's work is extensive and covers many aspects of the development of children's meaning-making processes in social and cultural contexts. However, his main focus is on the examination of the unification of speaking and thinking processes. His investigation centers on the analysis of the entity created by this unification--an internal…

  10. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  11. Simulating Policy Processes through Electronic Mail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Focuses on the use of electronic mail for teaching and learning about social welfare policy processes and compares electronic mail as a simulation medium to more structured computer applications. (Author)

  12. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  13. Understanding Public Policy Making through the Work of Committees: Utilizing a Student-Led Congressional Hearing Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinfret, Sara R.; Pautz, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to help students better understand the complexity of making environmental policy and the role of policy actors in this process, we developed a mock congressional hearing simulation. In this congressional hearing, students in two environmental policy courses take on the roles of members of Congress and various interest groups to…

  14. Implementation research evidence uptake and use for policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panisset Ulysses

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A major obstacle to the progress of the Millennium Development Goals has been the inability of health systems in many low- and middle-income countries to effectively implement evidence-informed interventions. This article discusses the relationships between implementation research and knowledge translation and identifies the role of implementation research in the design and execution of evidence-informed policy. After a discussion of the benefits and synergies needed to translate implementation research into action, the article discusses how implementation research can be used along the entire continuum of the use of evidence to inform policy. It provides specific examples of the use of implementation research in national level programmes by looking at the scale up of zinc for the treatment of childhood diarrhoea in Bangladesh and the scaling up of malaria treatment in Burkina Faso. A number of tested strategies to support the transfer of implementation research results into policy-making are provided to help meet the standards that are increasingly expected from evidence-informed policy-making practices.

  15. Technocracy in Economic Policy-Making in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Khadijah Md Khalid; Mahani Zainal Abidin

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at the role of the technocracy in economic policy-making in Malaysia. The analysis was conducted across two phases, namely the period before and after the 1997-98 economic and financial crises, and during the premiership of four prime ministers namely Tun Razak, Dr Mahathir, Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, and Najib Razak. It is claimed that the technocrats played an important role in helping the political leadership achieve their objectives. The article traces the changing fortunes...

  16. Big Data: transforming drug development and health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Demissie; Berger, Marc L

    The explosion of data sources, accompanied by the evolution of technology and analytical techniques, has created considerable challenges and opportunities for drug development and healthcare resource utilization. We present a systematic overview these phenomena, and suggest measures to be taken for effective integration of the new developments in the traditional medical research paradigm and health policy decision making. Special attention is paid to pertinent issues in emerging areas, including rare disease drug development, personalized medicine, Comparative Effectiveness Research, and privacy and confidentiality concerns.

  17. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  18. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries; Information strategique pour le policy-making industriel dans les pays en developpement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonod, P F

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes.

  19. Efficiency of Administrative and Policy-Making Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, M.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A research program at Trinity College in Ireland is reported that focused on the decision-making process, particularly the committee structure. Described are the role of individuals within committees, centralized versus decentralized decision-making, costs, sources of rigidity, and problems of the concentration of power. (Author/LBH)

  20. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Cognitive processes in anesthesiology decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiegler, Marjorie Podraza; Tung, Avery

    2014-01-01

    The quality and safety of health care are under increasing scrutiny. Recent studies suggest that medical errors, practice variability, and guideline noncompliance are common, and that cognitive error contributes significantly to delayed or incorrect diagnoses. These observations have increased interest in understanding decision-making psychology.Many nonrational (i.e., not purely based in statistics) cognitive factors influence medical decisions and may lead to error. The most well-studied include heuristics, preferences for certainty, overconfidence, affective (emotional) influences, memory distortions, bias, and social forces such as fairness or blame.Although the extent to which such cognitive processes play a role in anesthesia practice is unknown, anesthesia care frequently requires rapid, complex decisions that are most susceptible to decision errors. This review will examine current theories of human decision behavior, identify effects of nonrational cognitive processes on decision making, describe characteristic anesthesia decisions in this context, and suggest strategies to improve decision making.

  2. Modeling as a Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiler-Baxter, Sarah K.; Stephens, D. Christopher; Baxter, Wesley A.; Barlow, Angela T.

    2017-01-01

    The goal in this article is to support teachers in better understanding what it means to model with mathematics by focusing on three key decision-making processes: Simplification, Relationship Mapping, and Situation Analysis. The authors use the Theme Park task to help teachers develop a vision of how students engage in these three decision-making…

  3. Process for making lyophilized radiographic imaging kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, T.W.; Bates, P.E.; Bugaj, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A process for making a lyophilized composition useful for skeletal imaging whereby an aqueous solution containing an ascorbate, gentisate, or reductate stabilizer is contacted with tin metal or an alloy containing tin and, thereafter, lyophilized. Preferably, such compositions also comprise a tissue-specific carrier and a stannous compound. It is particularly preferred to incorporate stannous oxide as a coating on the tin metal

  4. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  5. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making

  6. Pricing Policy and the College Choice Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Randall G.

    1979-01-01

    A marketing management paradigm for academe is discussed along with aspects of the pricing policy process. The two most important factors affecting the college choice process are shown to be college quality and price-related considerations. Implications for marketing are discussed. (Author/LBH)

  7. Threat Prioritization Process for the Czech Security Strategy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milos Balaban

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers systematic view of a process of identification of security threats and, subsequently, their use in the making of strategic documents, notably the Security Strategy of the Czech Republic. It is not the aim of the authors to name or define such threats, but to present the process itself. It is paramount to any credible security strategy that it deals with the threat identification in the most precise fashion. The authors take reservations against the “catalogue” approach and claim the processes of prioritization and categorization to be essential for any policies derived from the security strategy, especially in times of economic need. It is also the 2011 final paper of the project “Trends, Risks, and Scenarios of the Security Developments in the World, Europe, and the Czech Republic – Impacts on the Policy and Security System of the Czech Republic” (TRS / VG20102013009.

  8. Who makes European Cohesion Policy: a practitioners’ learning perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Sbaraglia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the European Social Fund (ESF, the European Union subsidizes social inclusion and occupational trainee projects. This policy instrument is formulated by European Union institutions and implemented by regions through a call for projects which requires innovative actions and a result-oriented strategy. It is a key vantage point to observe sub-national implementation of an European Union policy instrument in a sub-national practitioner’s perspective, a topic under-investigated in the literature. For a project to receive funding, sub-national practitioners must take the European Union requirements (accounting standards, evidence of innovation etc. and their social needs into account. Against this backdrop, this research tackles an original question: how can local practitioners adapt their policy actions to fit with European Union requirements? Taking the region of Wallonia in Belgium as a case study, the ESF implementation is considered as a specific policy process in sub-national policy sectors. Adopting an in-depth qualitative perspective, this research contends that it depends on practitioners’ learning, practices and experience of past applications, their specific socio-economic context and income maximization.

  9. What Policy Actors Seek for: Reciprocal Misunderstanding of Objectives of Participatory Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ; Birutė MIKULSKIENĖ

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to explore different policy actors’ attitudes towards participation in public decision making. The paper examines objectives of external participants’ involvement and compares various participants’ judgements on the process and results of participation. We screened operation of formal networks of participatory decision making at the Lithuanian Ministries of Health and Education & Science. The research revealed the willingness of decision makers to allow different ...

  10. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  11. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  12. The nuclear controversy: unequal competition in public policy-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderson, I.

    1980-05-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction; some epistemological problems; energy policy-making and the energy crisis; the nuclear controversy - substantive issues (the need for nuclear power; the desirability of nuclear power (safety of nuclear power; cost of nuclear power; nuclear power and weapons proliferation; nuclear power and civil liberties; some other aspects of nuclear power development); conclusion); the dominance of pro-nuclear thinking; conclusion and prospects. Appendix A describes the structure of the UK nuclear industry and its European connections. (U.K.)

  13. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  14. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2018-02-01

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  15. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  16. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  17. The Politics of Local Tax Policy-Making in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-06-01

    To what extent is tax policy an important item of the local political agenda in Polish municipalities ? Is it a subject of intense debates at city hall and local councils or is it accepted as a routine exercise ? The results suggest that the issues related to local taxes play a relatively marginal role compared to issues such as the location of major investments. However, the importance of taxes in local debates increases in those local communities in which the tax yields collected are larger and in the case of those taxes which are paid by a wider group of tax payers.Who governs in local tax-policy-making ? According to local provisions the proposal of tax resolution is submitted by the mayor, and the local council makes the final decision. But empirical findings suggest that the practice follows the “strong mayor” model, in which the local political leader, supporter by his staff of the financial department, is more influential than the councilors.

  18. Introduction of new vaccines: decision-making process in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Jasim; Sarma, Haribondhu; Bari, Tajul I; Koehlmoos, Tracey P

    2013-06-01

    The understanding of the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines helps establish why vaccines are adopted or not. It also contributes to building a sustainable demand for vaccines in a country. The purpose of the study was to map and analyze the formal decision-making process in relation to the introduction of new vaccines within the context of health policy and health systems and identify the ways of making decisions to introduce new vaccines in Bangladesh. During February-April 2011, a qualitative assessment was made at the national level to evaluate the decision-making process around the adoption of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The study population included: policy-level people, programme heads or associates, and key decision-makers of the Government, private sector, non-governmental organizations, and international agencies at the national level. In total, 13 key informants were purposively selected. Data were collected by interviewing key informants and reviewing documents. Data were analyzed thematically. The findings revealed that the actors from different sectors at the policy level were involved in the decision-making process in the introduction of new vaccines. They included policy-makers from the ministries of health and family welfare, finance, and local government and rural development; academicians; researchers; representatives from professional associations; development partners; and members of different committees on EPI. They contributed to the introduction of new vaccines in their own capacity. The burden of disease, research findings on vaccine-preventable diseases, political issues relating to outbreaks of certain diseases, initiatives of international and local stakeholders, pressure of development partners, the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI) support, and financial matters were the key factors in the introduction of new vaccines in Bangladesh. The slow introduction and uptake of new vaccines is a concern

  19. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  20. Assessing Patient Participation in Health Policy Decision-Making in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of patient participation in the design and evaluation of health programs and services is well-documented, there is scarcity of research with regard to patient association (PA participation in health policy decision-making processes. To this end, the present study aimed to validate further a previously developed instrument as well as to investigate the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making in Cyprus. A convenient sample of 114 patients-members of patients associations took part in the study. Participants were recruited from an umbrella organization, the Pancyprian Federation of Patient Associations and Friends (PFPA. PA participation in health policy decision-making was assessed with the Health Democracy Index (HDI, an original 8-item tool. To explore its psychometric properties, Cronbach α was computed as regards to its internal consistency, while its convergent validity was tested against a self-rated question enquiring about the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making. The findings revealed that the HDI has good internal consistency and convergent validity. Furthermore, PAs were found to participate more in consultations in health-related organizations and the Ministry of Health (MoH as well as in reforms or crucial decisions in health policy. Lower levels were documented with regard to participation in hospital boards, ethics committees in clinical trials and health technology assessment (HTA procedures. Overall, PA participation levels were found to be lower than the mid-point of the scale. Targeted interventions aiming to facilitate patients’ involvement in health policy decision-making processes and to increase its impact are greatly needed in Cyprus.

  1. Assessing Patient Participation in Health Policy Decision-Making in Cyprus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souliotis, Kyriakos; Agapidaki, Eirini; Peppou, Lily Evangelia; Tzavara, Chara; Samoutis, George; Theodorou, Mamas

    2016-06-20

    Although the importance of patient participation in the design and evaluation of health programs and services is well-documented, there is scarcity of research with regard to patient association (PA) participation in health policy decision-making processes. To this end, the present study aimed to validate further a previously developed instrument as well as to investigate the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making in Cyprus. A convenient sample of 114 patients-members of patients associations took part in the study. Participants were recruited from an umbrella organization, the Pancyprian Federation of Patient Associations and Friends (PFPA). PA participation in health policy decision-making was assessed with the Health Democracy Index (HDI), an original 8-item tool. To explore its psychometric properties, Cronbach α was computed as regards to its internal consistency, while its convergent validity was tested against a self-rated question enquiring about the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making. The findings revealed that the HDI has good internal consistency and convergent validity. Furthermore, PAs were found to participate more in consultations in health-related organizations and the Ministry of Health (MoH) as well as in reforms or crucial decisions in health policy. Lower levels were documented with regard to participation in hospital boards, ethics committees in clinical trials and health technology assessment (HTA) procedures. Overall, PA participation levels were found to be lower than the mid-point of the scale. Targeted interventions aiming to facilitate patients' involvement in health policy decision-making processes and to increase its impact are greatly needed in Cyprus. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  2. Three essays on decision-making in energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendling, Zachary Ann

    This dissertation examines three issues surrounding decision-making in energy policy. Over the past decade, technological advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have allowed the economical extraction of natural gas and petroleum from shale basins. Thus far, natural gas has been produced from shale at a commercial scale only in certain American States and Canadian Provinces, though potential shale plays exist elsewhere in North America and the world. Whether, how, and to what extent SGD diffuses to new shale basins and jurisdictions will depend on several questions about energy policy. The first chapter examines the potential for SGD in the European Union. Among EU institutions, the European Parliament has been the strongest proponent for regulation of SGD, preferring a balance between environmental protection and opportunities for economic development, energy security, and climate mitigation. Analysis of roll call voting on SGD in the Seventh European Parliament shows that ideological preferences are the primary explanation of voting behavior, followed by national interests in decarbonization. Prospects for further regulatory action are discussed. ? The second chapter takes a closer look at the potential of shale gas to facilitate decarbonization in the electricity sector. Proponents of SGD have claimed that high carbon fossil fuels can be immediately phased out and replaced in the short term by power plants that burn cheap, abundant natural gas, which emits half the greenhouse gasses over a well-to-wire life cycle. A value of information analysis examines the conditions under which this may be so and quantifies how valuable it would be to have perfect information about uncertain parameters in a cost function characterizing the global electricity sector. The third chapter is describes a new tool of policy analysis, the Indiana Scalable Energy-Economy Model (IN-SEEM). State and local governments have played an increasing role in energy and climate

  3. Decision making for wildfires: A guide for applying a risk management process at the incident level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary A. Taber; Lisa M. Elenz; Paul G. Langowski

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on the thought processes and considerations surrounding a risk management process for decision making on wildfires. The publication introduces a six element risk management cycle designed to encourage sound risk-informed decision making in accordance with Federal wildland fire policy, although the process is equally applicable to non-Federal...

  4. Impact of policy game on insight and attitude to inter sectoral policy processes - EU country cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, C.; Glümer, Charlotte; Spitters, Hilde

    of the collaboration process in NL (100%). The fraction of participants who enhanced their insight to leadership aspects of their network varied across aspects of leadership and across countries, from 14% in NL to 86% in RO. The fraction of participants being more positive towards use of knowledge varied across...... collaboration and use of knowledge. Differences between countries may be a result of diversity in potential for change in game participant groups and game processes. Key message: The policy game encountered changes at the domains ‘organization network’, ‘collaboration’, ‘leadership’ and ‘use of knowledge...... change insight and attitude towards inter sectoral policy processes, such as the organization network, collaboration, and use of knowledge in HEPA policy making in three European countries. Methods The Netherlands (NL), Denmark (DK) and Romania (RO), partners in the REPOPA program, have carried out...

  5. Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Supporting Biotechnology Regulatory Policy Processes in Southeast Asia. Biotechnology innovations or bio-innovations can provide solutions to problems associated with food security, poverty and environmental degradation. Innovations such as genetically engineered (GE) crops can increase food production and ...

  6. Tools to Help Society in Decision Making: Legal and Policy Trends. Proceedings of a Topical Session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, Anna; Caddy, Joanne; ); Kotra, Janet P.; Pancher, Bertrand; Tromans, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    As part of its programme of work the OECD/NEA Forum on Stakeholder Confidence continues to investigate the theme of 'Tools and Processes to Help Society in Decision Making'. Following a presentation in June 2007 of environmental law and its implications for stakeholder involvement in decision making, the FSC decided to take a look at a variety of legal and policy issues. In particular, interest was expressed in seeing how law and policy may define which stakeholders must be consulted or engaged, and to consider when and whether that is helpful. A topical session was held on June 5, 2008 during the FSC's ninth regular meeting. Case studies were presented from the US, the UK, and France. An international survey of means for open and inclusive policy making was presented by the OECD Government directorate. The results of a questionnaire filled by FSC members served as the basis of the introductory presentation. Two sub-groups retired to discuss the material and a Rapporteur from each delivered feedback in plenary. These proceedings include a summary of the findings and discussions (Anna Vari), and the slides (some with accompanying text) provided for each case study: 1 - Open and Inclusive Policy Making: Emerging Practice in OECD Countries (Joanne Caddy); 2 - Deciding Whether to Authorized Construction at Yucca Mountain Explaining NRC's Process (Janet P. Kotra); 3 - Rights and Obligations under International Conventions (Stephan Tromans); 4 - Setting Criteria for the Representativeness of NGO/CSOs: Report on Hearings at the Request of France's Prime Minister (Bertrand Pancher)

  7. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  8. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas Monavarian; Mojtaba Amiri; Narges Sadat Razavimehr

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from...

  9. Twenty-First Century Energy Policy Making in New Hampshire: Lessons for Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Henry Phillip

    In this thesis I investigate the organizational field that is New Hampshire's energy policy-making community as it engages with the state regulatory institution, the Public Utilities Commission, to grapple the challenges of designing a 21st century electricity marketplace. The Public Utilities Commission structure and function are evolving. Historically, the Commission has used adjudicative proceedings to carry out a ratemaking function for monopoly utilities. The Commission's adjudicative process is evolving to become increasingly collaborative as it begins to carry out its new function of 21st century electricity market design. I analyze both the new structure (collaboration) and the new function (21 st century electricity market design) of the Commission through three in-depth case studies of dockets (policy-making processes): Energy Efficiency Resource Standard, Electric Grid Modernization, and Net Metering. My findings identify ways in which the Public Utilities Commission structure for making energy policy decisions is flexible and may be shaped by stakeholders engaging in policy processes. Stakeholders have the power to collectively design regulatory proceedings to incorporate greater opportunities for collaboration to better suit the challenges posed by a 21st century electricity sector. I provide recommendations on how that redesign should occur.

  10. Fiscal policy lags and income adjustment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cesare, Luigi; Sportelli, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► There are delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system. ► Both delays affect fiscal policy outcomes. ► The system of differential equations with two delays may be chaotic. ► Fiscal policy outcomes might be inconsistent with their stabilization purposes. - Abstract: The interest in the impact of fiscal policy lags on economic stability increased in the last decade. Several studies have been made on delays either in the government expenditure or in the tax system, where lags exist between the accrual and the payment of taxes. Nevertheless there is in the literature no model where time delays in government expenditures and in tax revenues are considered together as it happens in the real world. In this paper we remedied this defect and proposed a macro-dynamic model where two delays appear: the first pertains to the public expenditure, the second, to the tax revenue. The resulting system of delayed differential equations is studied qualitatively and numerically. The analysis suggests that only particular combinations of the two delays make the system stable. Prevalently the system is unstable and chaotic motions may arise. This implies that the economy may need appropriate structural changes in the public sector to improve fiscal policy outcomes in such a way they may really be consistent with their stabilization purposes.

  11. Risk perception as a factor in policy and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoberg, L.

    2004-01-01

    Risk perception is often believed to be an important factor in policy decision making, when it comes to the management of hazardous technology. Research on risk perception by the public since the 1970's has purportedly shown that such perception is emotional and based on ignorance. Experts, on the other hand, have been claimed to be objective and correct in their risk assessments. The present paper reviews a large body of research which has led to a quite different conclusions, viz. that emotions play only a marginal role in risk perception, which is mainly driven by ideological concerns and attitudes. The methodological shortcomings of the prevailing view of risk perception as emotional and simply misinformed are described. (author)

  12. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  13. Tobacco Industry interference in TAPS policy making in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P Antonov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry (TI has a powerful grasp of politics and the media in Bulgaria, but there is limited knowledge of its methods and communication messages. To explore and analyse them, we are using a recent case from the policy advocacy practice of the Smoke-free Life Coalition, ENSP member in Bulgaria. A mixed social research methodology was employed, involving: a case study; qualitative content analysis of documented communication; ethnographic participant observation; and semi-structured interviews with TAPS advocacy campaigners, policy makers and TI representatives, in the action research tradition. The case study analyses TI reaction to a surprising proposal for a complete ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, submitted to Bulgaria’s Parliament in November 2016 – and consecutively withdrawn. Being involved in all stages of the case and present at meetings between TI and MPs enables the researchers to gather rich information and analyse it, to cast light on: the methods for successful interference with democratic decision making, applied by industry representatives; the specific communication messages and arguments they employ to suppress smoke-free legislation. The paper observes how TI speculates with the interests of different groups, affected by and involved in its operations, to successfully contradict health concerns voiced by MPs. Democratically elected representatives appear unable to uphold the social and health interests of their voters and succumb to TI priorities. The paper concludes that a pro-industry discourse, which favours corporate incomes over concerns for people’s health and life, dominates democratic decision making mechanisms in Bulgaria’s post-socialist political landscape. Funding The Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases

  14. Analysis of the decision-support function of policy assessment in real-world policy making in the field of poverty and social inequalities. Case study on migrant integration policies in the Brussels-Capital Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feyaerts, Gille; Deguerry, Murielle; Deboosere, Patrick; De Spiegelaere, Myriam

    2017-01-01

    Despite its high potential to support decision-making, the role of policy assessment in real-world policy making in the field of poverty and social inequalities remains largely questioned. In this study, we analyse policy assessment's role in a context of real-world policymaking, by means of a case study on a legislative proposal on integration policy for immigrant newcomers in the Brussels-Capital Region, for which we evaluate the potential effects on poverty and social inequalities. We first analyse the policy process surrounding the policy proposal – a process that is often treated as a black box within policy assessment research. Understanding the factors that influence and determine the decision-making process, enables us to gain insight into the potential decision-support function(s). Second, we develop an approach to policy assessment that aims to fully exploit its potential to contribute to the functions of both instrumental and conceptual learning. For this purpose, we propose to introduce the approach of realist evaluation and to focus on evaluating the underlying policy intervention theory from the perspective of poverty and social inequalities. Finally, we illustrate this new approach and its added value by applying it to the legislative proposal on integration policy and analyse its contribution to policy-oriented learning. - Highlights: •The field of policy assessment should draw on insights from policy studies. •We unpacked the policymaking black-box to identify the mechanisms of policy change. •The policy process is driven by an interaction of ideas, interests and institutions. •Policy assessment's potential lies in both instrumental and conceptual learning. •We propose to integrate realist evaluation's logic of inquiry within policy assessment.

  15. Gaming gentrification. An explorative device for urban policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Annunziata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification is an urban phenomenon that can be seen as a game in which a multiplicity of agencies have uneven power to participate. An alternative narrative to the process can only be shaped by intercepting and informing the decision making process that concerns the development of the future gentrifying areas. This can be done with a participatory and educative game that invites participants to re-image the future of the city. This assumption stimulated the creation of a board game called Gentrification: What’s in it for Hackney Wick?

  16. Policy and process of innovation in techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Su; Lee, Jin Ju

    1982-09-01

    This book mentions policy and process of innovation in techniques, which deals with introduction, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology including analysis of existing research about system of development on science and technology and new development system of science and technology, macroscopic analysis of development of science and technology of Korea. It also indicates innovation of technology in Korean industry with various access.

  17. Information processing in decision-making systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Matthijs; Kurth-Nelson, Zeb; Redish, A David

    2012-08-01

    Decisions result from an interaction between multiple functional systems acting in parallel to process information in very different ways, each with strengths and weaknesses. In this review, the authors address three action-selection components of decision-making: The Pavlovian system releases an action from a limited repertoire of potential actions, such as approaching learned stimuli. Like the Pavlovian system, the habit system is computationally fast but, unlike the Pavlovian system permits arbitrary stimulus-action pairings. These associations are a "forward'' mechanism; when a situation is recognized, the action is released. In contrast, the deliberative system is flexible but takes time to process. The deliberative system uses knowledge of the causal structure of the world to search into the future, planning actions to maximize expected rewards. Deliberation depends on the ability to imagine future possibilities, including novel situations, and it allows decisions to be taken without having previously experienced the options. Various anatomical structures have been identified that carry out the information processing of each of these systems: hippocampus constitutes a map of the world that can be used for searching/imagining the future; dorsal striatal neurons represent situation-action associations; and ventral striatum maintains value representations for all three systems. Each system presents vulnerabilities to pathologies that can manifest as psychiatric disorders. Understanding these systems and their relation to neuroanatomy opens up a deeper way to treat the structural problems underlying various disorders.

  18. Fuzziness and fuzzy modelling in Bulgaria's energy policy decision-making dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingquan

    2006-01-01

    The decision complexity resulting from imprecision in decision variables and parameters, a major difficulty for conventional decision analysis methods, can be relevantly analysed and modelled by fuzzy logic. Bulgaria's nuclear policy decision-making process implicates such complexity of imprecise nature: stakeholders, criteria, measurement, etc. Given the suitable applicability of fuzzy logic in this case, this article tries to offer a concrete fuzzy paradigm including delimitation of decision space, quantification of imprecise variables, and, of course, parameterisation. (author)

  19. Policy-Making Theory as an Analytical Framework in Policy Analysis: Implications for Research Design and Professional Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    Policy studies are a recent addition to the American Physical Therapy Association's Research Agenda and are critical to our understanding of various federal, state, local, and organizational policies on the provision of physical therapist services across the continuum of care. Policy analyses that help to advance the profession's various policy agendas will require relevant theoretical frameworks to be credible. The purpose of this perspective article is to: (1) demonstrate the use of a policy-making theory as an analytical framework in a policy analysis and (2) discuss how sound policy analysis can assist physical therapists in becoming more effective change agents, policy advocates, and partners with other relevant stakeholder groups. An exploratory study of state agency policy responses to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders is provided as a contemporary example to illustrate key points and to demonstrate the importance of selecting a relevant analytical framework based on the context of the policy issue under investigation. © 2016 American Physical Therapy Association.

  20. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-08-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic law activity data based on plausible networks of interactions. Through extensive parametric studies, we demonstrate the ability of these methods to reconstruct networks, varying in size, link density, and degree heterogeneity. Our results suggest that union transfer entropy should be preferred for slowly varying processes, which may be associated with policies attending to specific local problems that occur only rarely or with policies facing high levels of opposition. In contrast, event synchronization is effective for faster enactment rates, which may be related to policies involving Federal mandates or incentives. This study puts forward a data-driven toolbox to explain the determinants of legal activity applicable to political science, across dynamical systems, information theory, and complex networks.

  1. Evacuation decision-making: process and uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileti, D.; Sorensen, J.; Bogard, W.

    1985-09-01

    The purpose was to describe the processes of evacuation decision-making, identify and document uncertainties in that process and discuss implications for federal assumption of liability for precautionary evacuations at nuclear facilities under the Price-Anderson Act. Four major categories of uncertainty are identified concerning the interpretation of hazard, communication problems, perceived impacts of evacuation decisions and exogenous influences. Over 40 historical accounts are reviewed and cases of these uncertainties are documented. The major findings are that all levels of government, including federal agencies experience uncertainties in some evacuation situations. Second, private sector organizations are subject to uncertainties at a variety of decision points. Third, uncertainties documented in the historical record have provided the grounds for liability although few legal actions have ensued. Finally it is concluded that if liability for evacuations is assumed by the federal government, the concept of a ''precautionary'' evacuation is not useful in establishing criteria for that assumption. 55 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  2. CBA and Precaution: Policy-Making about Emerging Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaebnick, Gregory E; Gusmano, Michael K

    2018-01-01

    In the technology assessment literature, the leading alternative to CBA-like methods is usually held to be precaution, which is understood in various ways but is always about making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Under such conditions, proponents of precaution commonly hold, a straightforward tallying of potential outcomes does not seem possible. Since CBA aims to tally up outcomes to determine which outcome would produce the greatest public benefit, precaution begins to look like, not just an alternative to CBA, but an incompatible alternative. Nonetheless, some of the better-known formulations of a precautionary principle expressly call for combining precaution with assessment of costs and benefits. This essay examines the possible intersection of precaution and CBA. It argues that a moderate kind of CBA is a necessary part of a moderate kind of precaution. The existing proposals for integrating CBA and precaution start with an assumption that the integrative task consists in combining decision tools that generate (contrasting) substantive guidance. An alternative approach, explored here, starts with the idea that precaution is not a decision-generating tool. Rather, it is a way of organizing the thinking that leads eventually to substantive conclusions. The appropriate policy response is reached not by applying a principle but by studying the situation-the proposed action and the problem it is meant to address-and developing recommendations tailored to it. What makes the thinking precautionary is that it emphasizes certain questions-about risk, uncertainty, and values-that CBA tends to suppress. So understood, precaution may well slow the science but is not intrinsically opposed to science or innovation. It can be understood, in fact, as continuous with the science because the contextual understanding of the science and the problems it is meant to address would emerge-in part-from a close engagement with the science. © 2018 The Hastings Center.

  3. Identifying Clusters of Complex Urban–Rural Issues as Part of Policy Making Process Using a Network Analysis Approach: A Case Study in Bahía de Los Ángeles, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sandoval

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Improving human settlements diagnosis is a key factor in effective urban planning and the design of efficient policy making. In this paper, we illustrate how network theory concepts can be applied to reveal the topological structure of functional relationships in a network of heterogeneous urban–rural issues. This mapping is done using clustering algorithms and centrality value techniques. By analyzing emergent groups of urban–rural related issues, our methodology was applied to a rural community, considering in this exercise environmental matters and real estate interests as a way to better understand the structure of salient issues in the context of its urban development program design. Results show clusters that arrange themselves not by an obvious similarity in their constituent components, but by relations observed in urban–rural settings that hint on the issues that the urban development program must focus. Due to its complex nature, the classification of these emerging clusters and how they must be treated in traditional planning instruments is a new challenge that this novel methodology reveals.

  4. Environmental policy-making in a difficult context: motorized two-wheeled vehicle emissions in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badami, Madhav G.

    2004-01-01

    Motor vehicle activity is growing rapidly in India and other less-industrialized countries in Asia. This growth is contributing to serious health and welfare effects due to vehicle emissions, and energy insecurity, acidification and climate change. This paper applies the problem-structuring tools of 'value-focused thinking' to inform policy-making and implementation related to this complex problem in a difficult context, with specific reference to motorized two-wheeled vehicles, which play an important role in transport air pollution but also provide affordable mobility to millions with few other attractive options. The paper describes the process used to elicit and structure objectives and measures, based on interviews conducted by the author, and demonstrates how the objectives and measures can be used to more effectively characterize policy impacts, and create policy packages that have a better chance of long-term success

  5. Policy Making While Paradigms Shift: Understanding the Development of Policy Drought in the U.S. Congress 1981-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ronald Reagan famously announced in his 1981 inaugural address that 'government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.' For the scientific community and Members of Congress of that time, who were partners in working within the scientific management policy paradigm and the meritocracy on which its technical expertise depended, these words were outside their paradigm of good public service. Despite this announcement of a new paradigm by the incoming President, their policy world continued undisturbed, finding points of agreement to make incremental improvements in policy. Executive branch actions in Reagan's two terms as president were dismissed as peculiar, although they were the beginnings of realizing a policy goal of reducing the size and influence of the federal government. The important parameters influencing policy making in the U.S. Congress, which party holds the majority that sets the agenda and schedules votes, seniority that determines leadership positions in the conference and caucus, specialization on policy by committee jurisdictions, vary little annually and thereby were treated as constants by participants and observers alike. But member replacement has policy consequences that are infrequently noted. Members die in office, retire, and lose re-election bids, while the new members replacing them do not replicate any of their institutional characteristics. The policy process continues seemingly unchanged, but there are changes that become apparent with time. By 2013, scientists are no longer unquestioning partners in shaping federal public policy. They have been ridiculed in congressional hearings and in media attacks. Meanwhile new legislative strategies are being tried, e.g. shutting down government, increasing the use of earmarks instead of peer review, filibuster threats, and repeated attempts to repeal laws are now common tactics in Congress. Science and Congress no longer seem to act as partners in policy making, but as

  6. Public participation and environmental impact assessment: Purposes, implications, and lessons for public policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Faircheallaigh, Ciaran

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the need to enhance public participation in Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA), and the efficacy of alternative mechanisms in achieving this goal, have been central themes in the EIA literature. The benefits of public participation are often taken for granted, and partly for this reason the underlying rationale for greater public participation is sometimes poorly articulated, making it more difficult to determine how to pursue it effectively. The reasons for seeking public participation are also highly diverse and not always mutually consistent. There has been limited analysis of the implications of different forms and degrees of public participation for public decision making based on EIA, and little discussion of how experience with public participation in EIA relates to debates about participation in policy making generally. This paper distinguishes various purposes for public participation in EIA, and discusses their implications for decision making. It then draws on some general models of public participation in policy making to consider how approaches to participation in EIA can be interpreted and valued, and asks what EIA experience reveals about the utility of these models. It argues that the models pay insufficient attention to the interaction that can occur between different forms of public participation; and to the fact that public participation raises issues regarding control over decision making that are not subject to resolution, but must be managed through ongoing processes of negotiation.

  7. Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Since 1998, the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency has been organizing a series of workshops to address the various aspects of stakeholder involvement in radiological protection decision making. These workshops have been instrumental in forging consensus and improving understanding of key issues in this area. Building on the experience of the first two 'Villigen workshops', the third in the series extensively analysed three case studies, which covered the licensing of a new facility, the clean-up and release of an old facility, and the rehabilitation of a large, contaminated area. Consideration was given to the stakeholder involvement processes that had been used, and the implications that these did or could have on radiological protection policy, regulation and application. The workshop papers analysing these processes and implications are presented in these proceedings, which should provide valuable examples and lessons for governments, regulators and practitioners. (author)

  8. The process of changing national malaria treatment policy: lessons from country-level studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Holly Ann; Durrheim, David; Shretta, Rima

    2004-11-01

    Widespread resistance of Plasmodium falciparum parasites to commonly used antimalarials, such as chloroquine, has resulted in many endemic countries considering changing their malaria treatment policy. Identifying and understanding the key influences that affect decision-making, and factors that facilitate or undermine policy implementation, is critical for improving the policy process and guiding resource allocation during this process. A historical review of archival documents from Malaŵi and data obtained from in-depth policy studies in four countries (Tanzania, South Africa, Kenya and Peru) that have changed malaria treatment policy provides important lessons about decision-making, the policy cycle and complex policy environment, while specifically identifying strategies successfully employed to facilitate policy-making and implementation. Findings from these country-level studies indicate that the process of malaria drug policy review should be institutionalized in endemic countries and based on systematically collected data. Key stakeholders need to be identified early and engaged in the process, while improved communication is needed on all levels. Although malaria drug policy change is often perceived to be a daunting task, using these and other proven strategies should assist endemic countries to tackle this challenge in a systematic fashion that ensures the development and implementation of the rational malaria drug policy.

  9. Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy-making in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Annamária Inzelt

    2008-01-01

    The overall thrust of this paper is that policy learning is enhanced by the participation of private business. It is assumed that business involvement would suggest abundant opportunities for policy learning and transfer. The empirical part of this paper investigates private sector involvement in science, technology and innovation (STI) policy-making in a transition economy (Hungary). Private sector involvement in Hungarian STI policy-making is investigated in terms of the stages and types of...

  10. Risk in Public Policy Making: A Neglected Issue in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.; Lien, Gudbrand D.

    2008-01-01

    We argue for greater recognition of the risky nature of most policy decisions. In this context we discuss the gulf between public risk perceptions and attitudes and those of 'experts'. Public views of risk are often inconsistent and seemingly irrational. They nevertheless influence policy choices in a democracy. On the other hand, experts often claim unjustifiable levels of confidence in their predictions of policy choice outcomes, creating a lack of public faith in their recommendations. Whi...

  11. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making

    OpenAIRE

    R?muzat, C?cile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, ?sa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aball?a, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: With constant incentives for healthcare payers to contain their pharmaceutical budgets, modelling policy decision impact became critical. The objective of this project was to test the impact of various policy decisions on pharmaceutical budget (developed for the European Commission for the project ‘European Union (EU) Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast’ – http://ec.europa.eu/health/healthcare/key_documents/index_en.htm).Methods: A model was built to assess policy sc...

  12. A study on the role of influence group in public policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Monavarian

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, learning more about influence groups on public policy making is one of most important subjects of management science. Governments are the primary sources for public policy making but influenced groups participate indirectly and while they remain out of power, they put pressure on many decisions. Some of participants in public policy making are not influenced groups but mostly, due to their participation in policy public making matter are called influenced groups. This research, from practical research purpose and method view, is a descriptive research and survey branch. The study investigates the effect of university based Iranian Sociological Association on public policy making. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among some experts. The results of our survey indicate that that Iranian Sociological Association could influence on public policy making through elite and prominent leaders, self-knowledge and information, elective campaigns, stimulation and connecting with people and other groups.

  13. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renn, Ortwin

    2006-01-01

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement

  14. The methodology of energy policy-making in economical models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poursina, B.

    1998-08-01

    Scrutiny and careful study in energy is a subject that in human science has been investigated from different point of view. The expansion of this research, because of its importance and effect in different dimensions of human life, has also arrived in the field of political and economic sciences. Economics evaluates the energy phenomenon at the side of elements such as labor, capital and technology in the production functions of firms. The nature of these discussions is mainly from the viewpoint of micro analyses. Nevertheless, the variation and challenges concerning energy and environment during the recent decades and the economists` detailed investigations in its analysis and evaluation have led to the arrival of energy discussions in a special shape in macro planning and large economic models. The paper compares various energy models - EFDM, MEDEE, MIDAS and HERMES. This extent of planning and consequently modelling which lacks a background in the processes of economic researches, deals with analysis of energy and economics reacting effects. Modelling of energy-economy interaction and energy policy in modeling macroeconomics large models are new ideas in energy studies and economics. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy--becoming a part of the policy and consultative process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2006-01-01

    In this last article in the series the authors focus on the issue of researching and evaluating pharmaceutical policy. The past five articles made an argument for why pharmaceutical policy is important and why it is different from health policy. The evidence base needed for pharmaceutical policym...... culture around pharmaceutical policy. They emphasize the importance of pharmaceutical specialists' (i.e., pharmacists') involvement in pharmaceutical policy analysis and the policy consultative process....

  16. Policy-Making for Australian Schooling: The New Corporate Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingard, Bob

    1991-01-01

    The corporate federalism concept illustrates the way a national approach to policy development for Australian schooling has been utilized by the Hawke Labor government. Negotiated consensus at the Australian Education Council has been used to arrive at these policies and to circumvent politically the constitutional and financial realities of…

  17. Make in India and Challenges before Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Economic development, inclusive growth and high employability are significantly linked to education policy of a country. Beginning with Kothari Commission (1966) with its emphasis on science & technology and research to National Policy on Education (1986), several committees during the last decade have advocated for greater foreign…

  18. IronMaking Process Alternatives Screening Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2000-10-01

    This study by Lockwood Greene evaluates a number ironmaking processes. The appendices provide greater detail and further exploration of the ironmaking processes, including components, relative costs, and comparisons.

  19. The Process Architecture of EU Territorial Cohesion Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Faludi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available When preparing the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP, Member States were supported by the European Commission but denied the EU a competence in the matter. Currently, the Treaty of Lisbon identifies territorial cohesion as a competence shared between the Union and the Member States. This paper is about the process architecture of territorial cohesion policy. In the past, this architecture resembled the Open Method of Coordination (OMC which the White Paper on European Governance praised, but only in areas where there was no EU competence. This reflected zero-sum thinking which may continue even under the Lisbon Treaty. After all, for as long as territorial cohesion was not a competence, voluntary cooperation as practiced in the ESDP process was pursued in this way. However, the practice of EU policies, even in areas where there is an EU competence, often exhibits features of the OMC. Surprisingly effective innovations hold the promise of rendering institutions of decision making comprehensible and democratically accountable. In the EU as a functioning polity decision making is thus at least part deliberative so that actors’ preferences are transformed by the force of the better argument. This brings into focus the socialisation of the deliberators into epistemic communities. Largely an informal process, this is reminiscent of European spatial planning having been characterised as a learning process.

  20. 24 CFR 55.20 - Decision making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Decision making process. 55.20 Section 55.20 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT Procedures for Making Determinations on Floodplain Management § 55.20 Decision making process. The decision making...

  1. Design of coordinated energy and environmental policies: use of multi-criteria decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greening, L.A.; Bernow, Steve

    2004-01-01

    Conventional economic modeling tools that depend upon one criterion to select among possible alternatives for inclusion in an energy or environmental policy have limitations. Formulation of both sets of policies involves large numbers of stakeholders with differing views and preferences. Those views and preferences cannot always be determined in advance or with certainty since many of the attributes of these policy alternatives are non-market valued. The use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in an integrated assessment (IA) framework offers a far better alternative to cost/benefit and similar methods. To facilitate understanding of MCDM methods, we offer a typology for this broad class of models, suggest some of the types of problems that may be analyzed with these methods, and recommend the implementation of several MCDM methods in currently evolving IA frameworks. Depending upon the choice of method from this family of methods, a wide range of attributes associated with multi-pollutant reduction and energy system development strategies, and a diversity of stakeholder preferences may be incorporated into the analysis. The resulting policy space can then provide a basis for comparison and selection of policy alternatives in a political or negotiated process

  2. Energy Saving by Firms. Decision-Making, Barriers and Policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-04-01

    Promoting investments in energy saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Unfortunately, the empirical evidence on success conditions of policies is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors. 15 refs.

  3. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P. [Department of Spatial Economics and Tinbergen Institute, Vrije Universiteit, De Boelelaan 1105, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2001-11-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors.

  4. Energy saving by firms. Decision-making, barriers and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the investment behaviour of firms, their attitude towards various types of energy policy, and their responsiveness to changes in environmental policy in the Netherlands. On the basis of discrete choice models, this paper aims to investigate empirically, whether (and how) these strategic features vary over firm characteristics and over sectors

  5. A qualitative study on community pharmacists' decision-making process when making a diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoulou, Vassiliki; Summerfield, Paul; Rutter, Paul

    2017-12-01

    Self-care policies are increasingly directing patients to seek advice from community pharmacists. This means pharmacists need to have sound diagnostic decision-making skills to enable them to recognise a variety of conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the process by which pharmacists manage patient signs and symptoms and to explore their use of decision-making for diagnostic purposes. Data were collected through semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with community pharmacists working in England, between August 2013 and November 2014. Pharmacists were asked to share their experiences on how they performed patient consultations, and more specifically how they would approach a hypothetical headache scenario. As part of the interview, their sources of knowledge and experience were also explored. Framework analysis was used to identify themes and subthemes. Eight interviews were conducted with pharmacists who had a wide range of working practice, from 1 year through to 40 years of experience. The pharmacists' main motivations during consultations were product selection and risk minimisation. Their questioning approach and decision-making relied heavily on mnemonic methods. This led to poor quality information gathering-although pharmacists acknowledged they needed to "delve deeper" but were often unable to articulate how or why. Some pharmacists exhibited elements of clinical reasoning in their consultations, but this seemed, mostly, to be unconscious and subsequently applied inappropriately. Overall, pharmacists exhibited poor decision-making ability, and often decisions were based on personal belief and experiences rather than evidence. Community pharmacists relied heavily on mnemonic methods to manage patients' signs and symptoms with diagnosis-based decision-making being seldom employed. These findings suggest practicing pharmacists should receive more diagnostic training. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  7. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Ortwin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement.

  8. What Policy Actors Seek for: Reciprocal Misunderstanding of Objectives of Participatory Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birutė PITRĖNAITĖ-ŽILĖNIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is to explore different policy actors’ attitudes towards participation in public decision making. The paper examines objectives of external participants’ involvement and compares various participants’ judgements on the process and results of participation. We screened operation of formal networks of participatory decision making at the Lithuanian Ministries of Health and Education & Science. The research revealed the willingness of decision makers to allow different stakeholders to contribute to the solution of problems of diverse character. The results of interviews manifested reciprocal miscommunication towards objectives and results of participatory decision making. Public administrators demonstrated their high willingness to acquire expertise, while external participants sought to present specific interests and got them implemented as well. However, it has to be admitted that decision makers are not committed to the results generated by stakeholders.

  9. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, B.; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  10. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ) policymaking, e-strategies, or indeed e-government implementations have a recent history in Africa, not many countries have fully developed working policies ... Birth registration is the basis for advancing gender equality and children's rights.

  11. 44 CFR 9.6 - Decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decision-making process. 9.6... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL FLOODPLAIN MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION OF WETLANDS § 9.6 Decision-making process... protection decision-making process to be followed by the Agency in applying the Orders to its actions. While...

  12. Data processing framework for decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    The aim of the talk is * to provide insight into some of the issues in data processing and detection systems * to hint at possible solutions using statistical signal processing and machine learning methodologies...

  13. Identifying knowledge in decision-making processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Rose Vagn; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2010-01-01

    Managing knowledge reflects the innovation capability of a company. Mapping decision processes and links to knowledge is a way to learn more in structuring knowledge in innovation processes. Through an empirical study the paper aims to identify knowledge...

  14. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance; Die Europaeisierung der deutschen Energie- und Klimapolitik. Neue Formen der Politikgestaltung und Steuerung im EU-Mehrebenensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-23

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  15. The Australian government's review of positron emission tomography: evidence-based policy-making in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert E; Francis, Hilton W; Read, Kenneth E

    2004-06-21

    The Commonwealth Government constituted the Medicare Services Advisory Committee (MSAC) to implement its commitment to entrench the principles of evidence-based medicine in Australian clinical practice. With its recent review of positron emission tomography (PETReview), the Commonwealth intervened in an established MSAC process, and sanctioned the stated objective to restrict expenditure on the technology. In our opinion: The evaluation of evidence by PETReview was fundamentally compromised by a failure to meet the terms of reference, poor science, poor process and unique decision-making benchmarks. By accepting the recommendations of PETReview, the Commonwealth is propagating information which is not of the highest quality. The use of inferior-quality information for decision-making by doctors, patients and policy-makers is likely to harm rather than enhance healthcare outcomes.

  16. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  17. Insights into the government's role in food system policy making: improving access to healthy, local food alongside other priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-11-12

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for "what works" with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region's public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: "strategic positioning", "partnerships" and "knowledge transfer" and related sub-themes ("aligned agendas", "issue framing", "visioning" and "legitimacy"). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.

  18. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  19. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  20. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Becchis, F.; Steg, L.; Russolillo, D.

    2009-01-01

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies.

  1. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  2. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  3. Environmental policy-making networks and the future of the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Maria Carmen; Roberts, J. Timmons

    2008-01-01

    This article examines four periods of environmental policy-making in the Amazonian region of Brazil. It specifically analyses the role of pro-environment and pro-development policy networks in affecting policy design and implementation. It argues that the efforts of environmentalist networks trying to advocate or block relative developmentalist policies in the Amazon depend on three critical factors - whether they are able to attract the support of elites (or at least block their developmenta...

  4. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majcen, Spela [Euro-Mediterranean Univ. (EMUNI), Portoroz (Slovenia)

    2017-03-15

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  5. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  6. Evidence based policy making in the European Union. The role of the scientific community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majcen, Spela

    2017-01-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  7. Making methodology a matter of process ontology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbæk, Line

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a practice of doing qualitative interview analysis from the insights of the process ontology in G. H. Mead’s Philosophy of the Present (1932). The paper presents two cases of analyzing in the present while listening to recorded interview material eliciting researcher’s case...... study and otherwise related experiences creating case narratives inclusive of researcher’s reflexive voice. The paper presents an auto-ethnographic approach to data analysis based on process theory ontology....

  8. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  9. Trade policy-making in a model of legislative bargaining

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Celik, Levent; Karabay, Bilgehan; McLaren, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 2 (2013), s. 179-190 ISSN 0022-1996 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/12/0666 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204005/2012 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : trade policy * multilateral legislative bargaining * political economy Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.443, year: 2013

  10. Funding Us Higher Education: Policy Making Theories Reviewed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Asya

    2015-01-01

    Higher education policy and politics in the United States (US) has been an issue of studies for several decades. Since the 1960s, researchers have been attempting to understand, explain and extrapolate on the relationships between higher education funding and political institutions. This review attempts to assess recent studies concerned with US…

  11. At the Crossroads: ICT Policy Making in East Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Integrating ICT in Teacher Training: Reflections on Practice and Policy ...... It was this framework, complete with principles, guidelines and a powerful .... new term for constructive comparison, juxtaposes the Kenyan experience with Malaysian, ...... Why should the government agree to remove taxes or offer incentives in the ...

  12. Energy saving by firms: decision making, barriers and policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.; Verhoef, E.T.; Nijkamp, P.

    2001-01-01

    Promoting investments in energy-saving technologies is an important means for achieving environmental goals. Empirical evidence on success conditions of associated policies, however, is scarce. Based on a survey among Dutch firms, this paper sets out to identify the factors that determine the

  13. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  14. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for

  15. Public Policies – Embodiments of Democratization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ţicu

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are the most practical part of the triad polity-politics-policy. Public policies are related to the practical areas of planning, implementation and evaluation of the governmental activities. From this perspective, to talk about a perfect public policy (or which aspires to perfection means to speak about an efficient institutional system of a state as a sign of its degree of democratization. This article aims to explore “the cuisine” of democratic systems taking into account the applied perspective of public policy functionality, a type of functionality which is determined by a particular decision, by a kind of rationality or motivation of the actors involved or by a type of an organizational culture. Thus, the study of democracies involves an analytical approach developed at a micro level (the types of parties, institutional designs, election systems, public policies becoming indices of democratization for every state system.

  16. Policy Process Editor for P3BM Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Mark; Chang, Hsin-Ping; Chow, Edward T.; Crichton, Gerald A.

    2010-01-01

    A computer program enables generation, in the form of graphical representations of process flows with embedded natural-language policy statements, input to a suite of policy-, process-, and performance-based management (P3BM) software. This program (1) serves as an interface between users and the Hunter software, which translates the input into machine-readable form; and (2) enables users to initialize and monitor the policy-implementation process. This program provides an intuitive graphical interface for incorporating natural-language policy statements into business-process flow diagrams. Thus, the program enables users who dictate policies to intuitively embed their intended process flows as they state the policies, reducing the likelihood of errors and reducing the time between declaration and execution of policy.

  17. Making Policy with "Good Ideas": Policy Networks and the "Intellectuals" of New Labour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Exley, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    The proliferation of policy think tanks and more broadly the rise of "policy networks" can be viewed as indicative of important global transformations in the nature of the state. That is, the emergence of new state modalities, with a shift away from government towards forms of polycentric governance, where policy is produced through…

  18. Strengthening capacity to apply health research evidence in policy making: experience from four countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Sarah; K Aulakh, Bhupinder; Jadeja, Nidhee; Jimenez, Michelle; Buse, Kent; Anwar, Iqbal; Barge, Sandhya; Odubanjo, M Oladoyin; Shukla, Abhay; Ghaffar, Abdul; Whitworth, Jimmy

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the use of evidence in policy making means strengthening capacity on both the supply and demand sides of evidence production. However, little experience of strengthening the capacity of policy makers in low- and middle- income countries has been published to date. We describe the experiences of five projects (in Bangladesh, Gambia, India and Nigeria), where collaborative teams of researchers and policy makers/policy influencers worked to strengthen policy maker capacity to increase the use of evidence in policy. Activities were focused on three (interlinked) levels of capacity building: individual, organizational and, occasionally, institutional. Interventions included increasing access to research/data, promoting frequent interactions between researchers and members of the policy communities, and increasing the receptivity towards research/data in policy making or policy-implementing organizations. Teams were successful in building the capacity of individuals to access, understand and use evidence/data. Strengthening organizational capacity generally involved support to infrastructure (e.g. through information technology resources) and was also deemed to be successful. There was less appetite to address the need to strengthen institutional capacity—although this was acknowledged to be fundamental to promoting sustainable use of evidence, it was also recognized as requiring resources, legitimacy and regulatory support from policy makers. Evaluation across the three spheres of capacity building was made more challenging by the lack of agreed upon evaluation frameworks. In this article, we propose a new framework for assessing the impact of capacity strengthening activities to promote the use of evidence/data in policy making. Our evaluation concluded that strengthening the capacity of individuals and organizations is an important but likely insufficient step in ensuring the use of evidence/data in policy-cycles. Sustainability of evidence

  19. Impact of stakeholders' interests on financial accounting policy-making : the case of Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    Rudžionienė, Kristina

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the expectations of particular stakeholder groups’ impact on corporate financial accounting policy-making in Lithuanian enterprises from Stakeholder theory perspective. Companies should seek to present a true and fair view of their financial performance and results while making financial accounting policy because stakeholders need informative and truthful accounting data for making right decisions. On the basis of empirical results it could be stated that the impact of dif...

  20. Engaged: Educators and the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Richard Lee; Bassett, Katherine; Hansen, Jessica; Boffy, Holly Franks; DelColle, Jeanne; Fennell, Maddie; Izzo, Marguerite; Lechleiter-Luke, Leah; Mieliwocki, Rebecca; Minkel, Justin; Pearson, Michelle; Poulos, Christopher; Woods-Murphy, Maryann

    2015-01-01

    The premise of the white paper is that education policy results are better for students when policies are informed and shaped by highly effective educators who know firsthand what it takes to deliver excellent teaching and learning. Policymakers and educators should share a sense of urgency to work together to provide every child in our country…

  1. implications of decision making process on agricultural employees

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the implications of decision making process on employees' turnover in the Institute of ... Involvement in Decision Making and Agricultural Employees' Turnover in Ibadan, Nigeria 37 ..... Lack of motivation.

  2. Impact of the decision-making environment on policy responses to road worker fatality in Manitoba and Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratz, Curt J

    2018-01-22

    Fatal accidents often lead to policy changes. However, the existing decision-making environment is critical to policy responses. This study compares the policy responses to similar events in Manitoba and Saskatchewan. The key question explores the extent to which the policy decisions in each province differ despite the similarity of the events. Key documents were examined. Provincial court rulings, workplace health & safety incident investigation reports, court transcripts and police reports were used to compare resulting policy changes as well as the socio-political and economic decision-making context. Relevant clauses in resulting legislation were also compared to assess the specific changes that were made in each province. In each province, a young, female highway construction worker was killed. However, the provinces responded in very different ways. In Saskatchewan, the Premier called for recommendations to improve worker safety, initiating an in-depth governmental study and the development of a broad safety strategy. In Manitoba, political and social pressures shifted the decision-making environment and contributed to the rushed passing of a bill focused on traffic fine increases that resulted in record-breaking traffic fine revenue while failing to include broader safety measures. Different decision-making contexts can lead to vastly different policy outcomes even when responding to very similar events. Key differences included time constraints, access to information and the nature of the political process invoked.

  3. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  4. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  5. The Role of Interstate Policy Organizations in State Higher Education Policy Processes: Perceptions of Policymakers and Policy Shapers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelau, Demaree K.

    2010-01-01

    Political science offers rich explanations for how different types of organizations that are focused on public policy decisions (e.g., boundary organizations, interest groups, policy networks (or communities), and think tanks) influence public policy processes (Cash, Clark, Alcock, Dickson, Eckley, Guston, Jager, and Mitchell 2003; Guston 2001;…

  6. Images of China in U.S. Foreign Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    leads to a deeply imbedded negative U.S image, and the Chinese America watchers are “ blinded ” by these very images.5 Various events and factors are...Chinese intervention, China had been described as a helpless nation deceived by the Soviets and ignorant of its actions. After months of war, Acheson...Jia Qingguo, “ Learning to Live with the Hegemon: Evolution of China’s Policy toward the U.S. Since the End of the Cold War,” Journal of Contemporary

  7. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities...... evidence, evidence on costs, and a lack of joint understanding were specific hindrances. Also users' characteristics and the role media play were identified as factors of influence. Attention for individual and social factors within the policy context might provide the key to enhance more sustainable...

  8. Process for making rare earth metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruesi, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    An uncombined metal or a metal compound such as a sulfide, oxide, carbonate or sulfate is converted in a liquid salt bath to the corresponding metal chloride by reacting it with chlorine gas or a chlorine donor. The process applies to metals of groups 1b, 2a, 2b, 3a, 3b, 4a, 5a and 8 of the periodic table and to the rare earth metals. The chlorine donor may be ferric or sulfur chloride. The liquid fused salt bath is made up of chlorides of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, ammonia, zinc and ferric iron. Because the formed metal chlorides are soluble in the liquid fused salt bath, they can be recovered by various conventional means

  9. The Montreal Protocol treaty and its illuminating history of science-policy decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C.

    2017-12-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, hailed as one of the most effective environmental treaties of all time, has a thirty year history of science-policy decision-making. The partnership between Parties to the Montreal Protocol and its technical assessment panels serve as a basis for understanding successes and evaluating stumbles of global environmental decision-making. Real-world environmental treaty negotiations can be highly time-sensitive, politically motivated, and resource constrained thus scientists and policymakers alike are often unable to confront the uncertainties associated with the multitude of choices. The science-policy relationship built within the framework of the Montreal Protocol has helped constrain uncertainty and inform policy decisions but has also highlighted the limitations of the use of scientific understanding in political decision-making. This talk will describe the evolution of the scientist-policymaker relationship over the history of the Montreal Protocol. Examples will illustrate how the Montreal Protocol's technical panels inform decisions of the country governments and will characterize different approaches pursued by different countries with a particular focus on the recently adopted Kigali Amendment. In addition, this talk will take a deeper dive with an analysis of the historic technical panel assessments on estimating financial resources necessary to enable compliance to the Montreal Protocol compared to the political financial decisions made through the Protocol's Multilateral Fund replenishment negotiation process. Finally, this talk will describe the useful lessons and challenges from these interactions and how they may be applicable in other environmental management frameworks across multiple scales under changing climatic conditions.

  10. Communicating climate information: travelling through the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoverinck, F.; Dubois, G.; Amelung, B.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change forces society to adapt. Adaptation strategies are preferably based on the best available climate information. Climate projections, however, often inform adaptation strategies after being interpreted once or several times. This process affects the original message put forward by climate scientists when presenting the basic climate projections, in particular regarding uncertainties. The nature of this effect and its implications for decision-making are as yet poorly understood. This paper explores the nature and consequences of a) the communication tools used by scientists and experts, and b)changes in the communicated information as it travels through the decision-making process. It does so by analysing the interpretative steps taken in a sample of 25 documents, pertaining to the field of public policies for climate change impact assessment and adaptation strategies. Five phases in the provisioning of climate information are distinguished: pre-existing knowledge (i.e. climate models and data), climate- change projection, impact assessment, adaptation strategy, and adaptation plan. Between the phases, climate information is summarized and synthesised in order to be passed on. The results show that in the sample information on uncertainty is under-represented: e.g. studies focus on only one scenario, and/or disregard probability distributions. In addition, visualization tools are often used ineffectively, leading to confusion and unintended interpretations. Several recommendations are presented. A better training of climatologists to communication issues, but also a training to climatology for decision makers are required, as well as more cautious and robust adaptation strategies, accounting for the uncertainty inherent to climate projections. (authors)

  11. Internationalization of Higher Education: Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Rashim; Jha, Shashiranjan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade education worldwide has experienced massive changes ranging from domestic market inauguration to the internationalization. In due course of time, there has been a great urge for restructuring the education system to make it internationally comparable ensuring economic benefit. The developed countries have dominated through…

  12. Comparing Different European Income Tax Policies Making Work Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); J.M. Julsing

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRaising the participation at the lower end of the labour market abstract is hindered by the high burden of taxation. Therefore, recently, in some European countries serious efforts have been made to make work pay. In this paper an overview of these current efforts is given. With the

  13. Public Demand and Climate Change Policy Making in OECD Countries – From Dynamics of the Demand to Policy Responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Bianca Oehl

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is one of today’s major political challenges. The Kyoto Protocol assigned national emission reduction goals for the developed countries however national governments in these countries have implemented policies varying widely in range and ambition over time and across countries to meet their goals. Can this variation in policy making be explained by dierences in the typically taken for granted – but empirically often neglected – influence of public demand for climate protection?...

  14. Economics of climate policy and collective decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buergenmeier, B.; Ferrier, C.; Ingold, K.; Perret, S.; Baranzini, A.; Germond-Duret, C.; Kypreos, S.; Wokaun, A.; Rafaj, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the reasons why economic instruments of climate change are reluctantly applied and stresses the need for interdisciplinary research linking economic theory and empirical testing to deliberative political procedures. It is divided in three parts. The first one recalls the main issues in implementing Cost-Benefit Analysis such as information problems, uncertainties, discounting the future and irreversibilities. The second part shows how these issues can be treated in integrated assessment and techno-economic models and presents a case study, which shows that (1) The chosen scenario tends to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentration at around 550 ppm in the long run; (2) Exclusion of possibility to trade CO2 emission permits under a cap regime would increase the cost of emission abatement for OECD countries; and (3) Combining different flexibility instruments might lead to significant gains in the overall cost of climate policy. The third part presents results of a survey conducted among the main economic and environmental associations in Switzerland. The survey reveals conflicting views on economic instruments. It shows how the social acceptability of these instruments can be improved in taking explicitly into account these opposing views of special interest groups. Therefore, policy scenarios should be selected in combining techno-economic models with empirical studies about their political and normative context

  15. A Proposal for a UK Ethics Council for Animal Policy: The Case for Putting Ethics Back into Policy Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Steven P; Reiss, Michael J

    2018-06-07

    Substantial controversy is a consistent feature of UK animal health and welfare policy. BSE, foot and mouth disease, bovine TB and badger culling, large indoor dairies, and wild animals in circuses are examples. Such policy issues are inherently normative; they include a substantial moral dimension. This paper reviews UK animal welfare advisory bodies such as the Animal Health and Welfare Board of England, the Farm Animal Welfare Council and the Animals in Science Committee. These bodies play a key advisory role, but do not have adequate expertise in ethics to inform the moral dimension of policy. We propose an "Ethics Council for Animal Policy" to inform the UK government on policy that significantly impacts sentient species. We review existing Councils (e.g., the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and The Netherlands Council on Animal Affairs) and examine some widely used ethical frameworks (e.g., Banner's principles and the ethical matrix). The Ethics Council for Animal Policy should be independent from government and members should have substantial expertise in ethics and related disciplines. A pluralistic six-stage ethical framework is proposed: (i) Problematisation of the policy issue, (ii) utilitarian analysis, (iii) animal rights analysis, (iv) virtue-based analysis, (v) animal welfare ethic analysis, and (vi) integrated ethical analysis. The paper concludes that an Ethics Council for Animal Policy is necessary for just and democratic policy making in all societies that use sentient nonhuman species.

  16. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    an open and participatory policy and decision -making at the lower .... people who are open minded and who believe in the success of change ..... Figure 3: Policy Task Force Critical Triangle. Source: Adapted form Catacutan et al. (2001). Farmers and local organisations. R&D Facilitators. Decentralized local government.

  17. Scientists as lobbyists? How science can make its voice heard in the South African policy-making arena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...

  18. The didn't pilot the Welfare State: on evidence and temporality in policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    for a discussion a key civil servants lament that “they did not pilot the welfare state” the paper moves on to argue that the real potential of a pilot lies not in its capacity to predict and prepare for policy outcome but in its capacity to prototype political alliances which might eventually do other work.......This paper examines the early stages of planning for a possible pilot on Universal Basic Income in Fife, Scotland. It builds on interviews with key stakeholders in the process and a number of internal and public documents related to the case. It focuses the analysis on a particular moment...... in the development of the pilot and discusses the idea of ‘piloting’, which in today’s policy-making seems to be an indispensable stage preceding radically new policy. Yet it seems there is a fundamental mismatch between ‘a pilot’ and the innovative work such are often called upon to do. Taking as is starting point...

  19. Making the link: climate policy and the reform of the UK construction industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrell, Steve

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the barriers to energy efficiency in the construction of non-domestic buildings in the UK. The source of the barriers is argued to lie in the organisation of the construction industry, including the linear design process, the reliance on cost-based competitive tendering and the incentives placed upon different actors. The consequences include oversizing of equipment, reduced quality, neglect of whole life costs and lack of integrated design. Each of these problems can usefully be interpreted using concepts from the new institutional economics. While the barriers are well known to construction industry specialists, they are relatively neglected in the academic literature on energy policy. Furthermore, conventional policy measures such as building regulations leave these barriers largely untouched. The UK construction industry is currently undergoing a series of reforms which aim to change the relationship between different actors and to achieve improvements in product quality and productivity. While these reforms have the potential to address many of the barriers, the reform agenda makes practically no reference to sustainability. This paper argues that climate policy objectives must be integrated into the reform agenda if the UK is to begin the transition to a low carbon built environment

  20. Developing a DSR-HNS policy making framework for electric energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Development (SD) has played a major role as a foundation of several policy making frameworks developed mainly by international organizations. In this paper, some critical points regarding the origination and formulation of the SD concept are discussed. It is argued that the SD concerns with selected sectors and regions rather than the whole society and all regions of the world. To tackle these shortcomings, the conventional definition of SD is extended in this paper according to a broad philosophy of harmonizing key aspects of human, nature and systems performances over generations. Based on this extended definition, an improved Driving Force–State–Response (DSR-HNS) policy making framework is introduced. The main contribution is the modeling of the state block by human, nature and systems components to design overall and coherent policies. A procedure using the framework is also elaborated to monitor the current policies and design new ones, which provides a dynamic, nonlinear, feedback controlled policy making practice, not accommodated by existing policy making frameworks. Finally, a case study is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified framework and the proposed model. The study assesses Iran's electric power generation system from sustainability point of view and develops new policies. - Highlights: ► Some critical points regarding the Sustainable Development (SD) concept are discussed. ► Based on this extended definition, a policy making framework is introduced. ► A policy making procedure based on the framework is elaborated. ► A case study is presented to evaluate the effectiveness of the modified framework. ► New policies are developed for Iran's power generation system.

  1. Make way for the climate. National adaptation strategy. The policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-11-01

    The policy paper is a background document of the interdepartmental memorandum 'Make way for climate', in which the outline is described for a national strategy for adaptation to the consequences of climate change. [mk] [nl

  2. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Proposal for a UK Ethics Council for Animal Policy: The Case for Putting Ethics Back into Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven P. McCulloch

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial controversy is a consistent feature of UK animal health and welfare policy. BSE,~foot and mouth disease, bovine TB and badger culling, large indoor dairies, and wild animals in circuses are examples. Such policy issues are inherently normative; they include a substantial moral dimension. This paper reviews UK animal welfare advisory bodies such as the Animal Health and Welfare Board of England, the Farm Animal Welfare Committee and the Animals in Science Committee. These bodies play a key advisory role, but do not have adequate expertise in ethics to inform the moral dimension of policy. We propose an “Ethics Council for Animal Policy” to inform the UK government on policy that significantly impacts sentient species. We review existing Councils (e.g., the Nuffield Council on Bioethics and The Netherlands Council on Animal Affairs and examine some widely used ethical frameworks (e.g., Banner’s principles and the ethical matrix. The Ethics Council for Animal Policy should be independent from government and members should have substantial expertise in ethics and related disciplines. A pluralistic six-stage ethical framework is proposed: (i Problematisation of the policy issue, (ii utilitarian analysis, (iii animal rights analysis, (iv virtue-based analysis, (v animal welfare ethic analysis, and (vi integrated ethical analysis. The~paper concludes that an Ethics Council for Animal Policy is necessary for just and democratic policy making in all societies that use sentient nonhuman species.

  5. Climate-agriculture interactions and needs for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Research exploring climate change interactions with agriculture has evolved from simplistic “delta T” simulation experiments with crop models to work highlighting the importance of climate variability and extreme events, which characterized the negative impacts possible if no adaptation occurred. There soon followed consideration of socioeconomic factors allowing for adaptive strategies that are likely to mitigate the worst case outcomes originally projected. At the same time, improved understanding of biophysical feedbacks has led to a greater recognition of the role that agriculture plays in modifying climate, with a great deal of attention recently paid to strategies to enhance carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. Advances in models of biogeochemical cycling applied to agronomic systems have allowed for new insights into greenhouse gas emissions and sinks associated with current, conventional farming systems. Yet this work is still relatively simplistic in that it seldom addresses interactions between climate dynamics, adoption of mitigation strategies, and feedbacks to the climate system and the surrounding environment. In order for agricultural policy to be developed that provides incentives for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies over the next 50 years, a systems approach needs to be utilized that addresses feedbacks and interactions at field, farm and regional scales in a broader environmental context. Interactions between carbon and climate constraints on the one hand, and environmental impacts related to water, nutrient runoff, and pest control all imply a transformation of farming practices that is as of yet not well defined. Little attention has been paid to studying the implications of “alternative” farming strategies such as organic systems, intensive rotational grazing of livestock, or increases in the perennial component of farmscapes, all of which may be necessary responses to energy and other environmental constraints

  6. Decision-Making Processes in Texas School Districts That Arm Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domain, Melinda Willoughby

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study employed narrative inquiry to describe the decision-making processes that Texas school districts followed in enacting firearms policies that allow school employees to carry concealed weapons on district property. Exploration of the lived experiences of eight Texas superintendents in such schools contributed…

  7. Is Educational Policy Making Rational--and What Would that Mean, Anyway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredo, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In "Moderating the Debate: Rationality and the Promise of American Education," Michael Feuer raises concerns about the consequences of basing educational policy on the model of rational choice drawn from economics. Policy making would be better and more realistic, he suggests, if it were based on a newer procedural model drawn from cognitive…

  8. Teacher Unions' Participation in Policy Making: A South African Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, Logan

    2015-01-01

    This article contends that teacher unions' participation in policy making during South Africa's political transition was characterised by assertion of ideological identity (unionism and professionalism) and the cultivation of policy networks and alliances. It is argued that, historically, while teacher unions were divided along political and…

  9. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  10. Data-Based Decision Making at the Policy, Research, and Practice Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ebbeler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Data-based decision making (DBDM) can lead to school improvement. However, schools struggle with the implementation of DBDM. In this symposium, we will discuss research and the implementation of DBDM at the national and regional policy level and the classroom level. We will discuss policy issues

  11. Political economy of renewable energy policy in Germany. A consideration of the policy making process in the electricity market under the influence of interest groups; Politische Oekonomie der Erneuerbare-Energien-Politik in Deutschland. Eine Betrachtung des Politikbildungsprozesses auf dem Strommarkt unter dem Einfluss von Interessengruppen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Tom

    2015-07-01

    In the research, it is argued that the targeted promotion of renewables leads to a change in the technological path dependency on the electricity market or led. The historically market depending portfolio of products in the conventional power industry will be replaced by an increasingly strong dependence on the product portfolio of Renewable Energy Sector according to this argumentation. The present work is devoted to the political explanation of the change and transition process in the electricity market. The process of policy formation in this market (especially support policies for renewable energies) will be discussed. It is examined from a public choice perspective, which political actors and instances in the past were responsible for the development and maintenance of individual policy elements. In particular, in this analysis the different private sector stakeholders in the electricity market move to center of attention. [German] In der Forschung wird argumentiert, dass die gezielte Foerderung der Erneuerbaren zu einer Veraenderung der technologischen Pfadabhaengigkeit am Strommarkt fuehrt bzw. gefuehrt hat. Die historisch bedingte Marktabhaengigkeit vom Angebotsportfolio der konventionellen Stromindustrie wird im Rahmen dieser Argumentation durch eine zunehmend starke Abhaengigkeit vom Angebotsportfolio des Erneuerbare-Eenergie-Bereichs ersetzt. Die vorliegende Arbeit widmet sich der politischen Erklaerung des Veraenderungs- bzw. Uebergangsprozesses am Strommarkt. Der Prozess der Politikbildung auf diesem Markt (v.a. der Foerderpolitik fuer erneuerbare Energien) wird diskutiert. Es wird aus einer Public-Choice-Perspektive untersucht, welche politischen Akteure und Instanzen in der Vergangenheit fuer die Entstehung und Aufrechterhaltung einzelner Politikelemente verantwortlich waren. Insbesondere ruecken bei dieser Betrachtung die unterschiedlichen privatwirtschaftlichen Interessengruppen am Strommarkt ins Zentrum der Aufmerksamkeit.

  12. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups

  13. Emotions and Feelings in a Collaborative Dance-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhiainen, Leena; Hamalainen, Soili

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks into the significance emotions and feelings can have in a collaborative dance-making process. This is done by introducing a narrative based on a dance pedagogy student's writings. They contain observations of her experiences on being the facilitating choreographer in a dance-making process involving a cross-artistic group of…

  14. Economic instruments for environmental policy making in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barg, S.; Duraiappah, A.; Van Exan, S.

    2000-01-01

    The conditions and approaches required for a successful implementation of economic instruments in Ontario are reviewed. The advantages and disadvantages of economic instruments are discussed, as are some design issues. Some best practices and practical experiences from Canada, the United States, and Europe are examined through the use of nine specific case studies. Each one highlights a different environmental challenge, such as energy efficiency, air pollution, water pollution, waste management along with the solutions that were implemented. The situations described were not all successful, but there is much to be learned from unsuccessful episodes. Lessons learned from the review of the case studies were presented. The points to ponder when using economic instruments in Ontario were highlighted. The command and control policy instrument must be kept in context when considering economic instruments. The reasons that underline the preference of the economic theory for economic instruments are discussed. The different types of economic instruments are described, and the considerations related to the design and comparison of economic instruments is briefly discussed. The authors concluded with several points to ponder: there are a number of options available, details must not be neglected, consultation with the interested parties is important, there is a need for frequent reassessment, and using a number of instruments is helpful. 55 refs., tabs., figs

  15. Building policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health: the Kazakhstan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturidze, Tata; Adams, Orvill; Tokezhanov, Bolat; Naylor, Mike; Richardson, Erica

    2015-01-20

    Recent economic growth in Kazakhstan has been accompanied by slower improvements in population health and this has renewed impetus for health system reform. Strengthening strategic planning and policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health has been identified as an important priority, particularly as the Ministry of Health is leading the health system reform process. The intervention was informed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) framework for capacity building which views capacity building as an ongoing process embedded in local institutions and practices. In response to local needs extra elements were included in the framework to tailor the capacity building programme according to the existing policy and budget cycles and respective competence requirements, and link it with transparent career development structures of the Ministry of Health. This aspect of the programme was informed by the institutional capability assessment model used by the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) which was adapted to examine the specific organizational and individual competences of the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan. There were clear successes in building capacity for policy making and strategic planning within the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan, including better planned, more timely and in-depth responses to policy assignments. Embedding career development as a part of this process was more challenging. This case study highlights the importance of strong political will and high level support for capacity building in ensuring the sustainability of programmes. It also shows that capacity-building programmes need to ensure full engagement with all local stakeholders, or where this is not possible, programmes need to be targeted narrowly to those stakeholders who will benefit most, for the greatest impact to be achieved. In sum, high quality tailor-made capacity development programmes should be based on thorough needs assessment of individual and

  16. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  17. The making of nursing practice law in Lebanon: a policy analysis case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jardali, Fadi; Hammoud, Rawan; Younan, Lina; Nuwayhid, Helen Samaha; Abdallah, Nadine; Alameddine, Mohammad; Bou-Karroum, Lama; Salman, Lana

    2014-09-05

    Evidence-informed decisions can strengthen health systems, improve health, and reduce health inequities. Despite the Beijing, Montreux, and Bamako calls for action, literature shows that research evidence is underemployed in policymaking, especially in the East Mediterranean region (EMR). Selecting the draft nursing practice law as a case study, this policy analysis exercise aims at generating in-depth insights on the public policymaking process, identifying the factors that influence policymaking and assessing to what extent evidence is used in this process. This study utilized a qualitative research design using a case study approach and was conducted in two phases: data collection and analysis, and validation. In the first phase, data was collected through key informant interviews that covered 17 stakeholders. In the second phase, a panel discussion was organized to validate the findings, identify any gaps, and gain insights and feedback of the panelists. Thematic analysis was conducted and guided by the Walt & Gilson's "Policy Triangle Framework" as themes were categorized into content, actors, process, and context. Findings shed light on the complex nature of health policymaking and the unstructured approach of decision making. This study uncovered the barriers that hindered the progress of the draft nursing law and the main barriers against the use of evidence in policymaking. Findings also uncovered the risk involved in the use of international recommendations without the involvement of stakeholders and without accounting for contextual factors and implementation barriers. Findings were interpreted within the context of the Lebanese political environment and the power play between stakeholders, taking into account equity considerations. This policy analysis exercise presents findings that are helpful for policymakers and all other stakeholders and can feed into revising the draft nursing law to reach an effective alternative that is feasible in Lebanon. Our

  18. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  19. HOSPITAL SITE SELECTION USING TWO-STAGE FUZZY MULTI-CRITERIA DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Site selection for sitting of urban activities/facilities is one of the crucial policy-related decisions taken by urban planners and policy makers. The process of site selection is inherently complicated. A careless site imposes exorbitant costs on city budget and damages the environment inevitably. Nowadays, multi-attributes decision making approaches are suggested to use to improve precision of decision making and reduce surplus side effects. Two well-known techniques, analytical hierarchal process and analytical network process are among multi-criteria decision making systems which can easily be consistent with both quantitative and qualitative criteria. These are also developed to be fuzzy analytical hierarchal process and fuzzy analytical network process systems which are capable of accommodating inherent uncertainty and vagueness in multi-criteria decision-making. This paper reports the process and results of a hospital site selection within the Region 5 of Shiraz metropolitan area, Iran using integrated fuzzy analytical network process systems with Geographic Information System (GIS. The weights of the alternatives were calculated using fuzzy analytical network process. Then a sensitivity analysis was conducted to measure the elasticity of a decision in regards to different criteria. This study contributes to planning practice by suggesting a more comprehensive decision making tool for site selection.

  20. Process for making unsaturated hydrocarbons using microchannel process technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee [Dublin, OH; Yuschak, Thomas [Lewis Center, OH; LaPlante, Timothy J [Columbus, OH; Rankin, Scott [Columbus, OH; Perry, Steven T [Galloway, OH; Fitzgerald, Sean Patrick [Columbus, OH; Simmons, Wayne W [Dublin, OH; Mazanec, Terry Daymo, Eric

    2011-04-12

    The disclosed invention relates to a process for converting a feed composition comprising one or more hydrocarbons to a product comprising one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons, the process comprising: flowing the feed composition and steam in contact with each other in a microchannel reactor at a temperature in the range from about 200.degree. C. to about 1200.degree. C. to convert the feed composition to the product, the process being characterized by the absence of catalyst for converting the one or more hydrocarbons to one or more unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrogen and/or oxygen may be combined with the feed composition and steam.

  1. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  2. Engaging Actors for Integrating Health Policy and Systems Research into Policy Making: Case Study from Haryana State in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Prinja

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Good examples of evidence generation using Health Policy and Systems Research (HPSR in low and middle income countries (LMIC; and its application in policy making are scarce. In this paper, we describe the experience of establishing a system of HPSR from the Haryana state in India, outline how the HPSR is being utilized for policy making and programmatic decision making, and analyse the key factors which have been critical to the implementation and uptake of HPSR. Methods: Multiple methods are employed in this case study, ranging from unstructured in-depth interviews, review of the program and policy documents, and participatory notes from the meetings. The steps towards creation of a knowledge partnership between stakeholders are outlined. Four case studies i.e. development of a plan for universal health care (UHC, nutrition policy, centralized drug procurement system and use of RAPID appraisal method highlight the use of research evidence in agenda setting, policy formulation and policy implementation respectively. Results: Our analysis shows that the most important factor which contributed to Haryana model of HPSR was the presence of a dedicated and motivated team in National Rural Health Mission (NRHM at state level, many of whom were researchers by previous training. Overall, we conclude by highlighting the need for establishing an institutional mechanism at Central and State level where health service administrators and managers, academicians and researchers working in the field of health system from medical colleges, public health schools, management and technology institutions and social science universities can identify health system research priorities. Increased budgetary allocation for HPSR is required.

  3. Optimal policy for value-based decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Satohiro; Drugowitsch, Jan; Pouget, Alexandre

    2016-08-18

    For decades now, normative theories of perceptual decisions, and their implementation as drift diffusion models, have driven and significantly improved our understanding of human and animal behaviour and the underlying neural processes. While similar processes seem to govern value-based decisions, we still lack the theoretical understanding of why this ought to be the case. Here, we show that, similar to perceptual decisions, drift diffusion models implement the optimal strategy for value-based decisions. Such optimal decisions require the models' decision boundaries to collapse over time, and to depend on the a priori knowledge about reward contingencies. Diffusion models only implement the optimal strategy under specific task assumptions, and cease to be optimal once we start relaxing these assumptions, by, for example, using non-linear utility functions. Our findings thus provide the much-needed theory for value-based decisions, explain the apparent similarity to perceptual decisions, and predict conditions under which this similarity should break down.

  4. In-situ burning policy development for California: A consensus approach to policy and decision-making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addassi, Y. N.

    1997-01-01

    Current efforts by the California State Dept. of Fish and Game to develop an in-situ burning policy for oil spills in the open-water marine environments of the State were described. The differing perspectives and mandates of the various agency representatives on working groups and the frequent necessity of consensus solutions was highlighted. It was stated that the consensus approach requires more time and energy, however, it is off-set by the benefits of developing good working relationships that will ultimately facilitate decision-making. Current projected timelines for the completed in-situ burning policy, pertinent sections of the draft policy, plans for dealing with negative public reactions to the policy and outreach and public education programs were outlined. 12 refs

  5. Collaborative Policy Making: Vertical Integration in The Homeland Security Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    national security and the interagency process ( Marcella , 2010). All these documents reviewed focused mainly on national security and overseas...administration, they were considered “the heart and soul of the process” ( Marcella , 2010). While subtle differences exist across administrations, the IPC...and build consensus across the government for action ( Marcella , 2010). During the second term of the Bush administration and during the first years

  6. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administe...

  7. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  8. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  10. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  11. Decision-Making for Systemic Water Risks: Insights From a Participatory Risk Assessment Process in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwoll, Paul R.; Grafton, R. Quentin; Daniell, Katherine A.; Chu, Hoang Long; Ringler, Claudia; Lien, Le Thi Ha; Khoi, Dang Kim; Do, Thang Nam; Tuan, Nguyen Do Anh

    2018-03-01

    Systemic threats to food-energy-environment-water systems require national policy responses. Yet complete control of these complex systems is impossible and attempts to mitigate systemic risks can generate unexpected feedback effects. Perverse outcomes from national policy can emerge from the diverse responses of decision-makers across different levels and scales of resource governance. Participatory risk assessment processes can help planners to understand subnational dynamics and ensure that policies do not undermine the resilience of social-ecological systems and infrastructure networks. Researchers can play an important role in participatory processes as both technical specialists and brokers of stakeholder knowledge on the feedbacks generated by systemic risks and policy decisions. Here, we evaluate the use of causal modeling and participatory risk assessment to develop national policy on systemic water risks. We present an application of the Risks and Options Assessment for Decision-Making (ROAD) process to a district of Vietnam where national agricultural water reforms are being piloted. The methods and results of this project provide general insights about how to support resilient decision-making, including the transfer of knowledge across administrative levels, identification of feedback effects, and the effective implementation of risk assessment processes.

  12. Simulation Models of Human Decision-Making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina RIZUN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is presentation of the new concept of human decision-making process modeling via using the analogy with Automatic Control Theory. From the author's point of view this concept allows to develop and improve the theory of decision-making in terms of the study and classification of specificity of the human intellectual processes in different conditions. It was proved that the main distinguishing feature between the Heuristic / Intuitive and Rational Decision-Making Models is the presence of so-called phenomenon of "enrichment" of the input information with human propensity, hobbies, tendencies, expectations, axioms and judgments, presumptions or bias and their justification. In order to obtain additional knowledge about the basic intellectual processes as well as the possibility of modeling the decision results in various parameters characterizing the decision-maker, the complex of the simulation models was developed. These models are based on the assumptions that:  basic intellectual processes of the Rational Decision-Making Model can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the proportional-integral-derivative controller; basic intellectual processes of the Bounded Rationality and Intuitive Models can be adequately simulated and identified by the transient processes of the nonlinear elements.The taxonomy of the most typical automatic control theory elements and their compliance with certain decision-making models with a point of view of decision-making process specificity and decision-maker behavior during a certain time of professional activity was obtained.

  13. The EVOTION Decision Support System: Utilizing It for Public Health Policy-Making in Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrakazas, Panagiotis; Trenkova, Lyubov; Milas, Josip; Brdaric, Dario; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    As Decision Support Systems start to play a significant role in decision making, especially in the field of public-health policy making, we present an initial attempt to formulate such a system in the concept of public health policy making for hearing loss related problems. Justification for the system's conceptual architecture and its key functionalities are presented. The introduction of the EVOTION DSS sets a key innovation and a basis for paradigm shift in policymaking, by incorporating relevant models, big data analytics and generic demographic data. Expected outcomes for this joint effort are discussed from a public-health point of view.

  14. Policy making and energy infrastructure change: A Nigerian case study of energy governance in the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edomah, Norbert; Foulds, Chris; Jones, Aled

    2017-01-01

    This paper focusses on investigating the underlying mechanisms and influences of the policy decision making process and how it affects and impacts the governance of the Nigerian energy industry, and energy infrastructure provisions. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used; all interviewees had been involved, directly or indirectly, in energy infrastructure policy decisions in Nigeria. Five key themes subsequently emerged as salient intra-country induced influences that were affecting the governance and performance of the Nigerian energy sector: (1) competencies – i.e. practical knowledge of energy policy making; (2) expectations – i.e. past, present, and forecasted future expectations from the energy industry; (3) legislation – i.e. institutionalized (and unwritten) rules/procedures; (4) future visions – i.e. future vision of the energy industry/energy market; (5) recruiting experts – i.e. recruiting new energy and public policy makers. In addition, three major inter-country induced influences were also identified: (1) the changing dynamics of international and foreign aid; (2) the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals; and (3) the Paris Agreements on Climate Change. The paper concludes by highlighting the policy implications of these influences, and the consequences for policy makers in the governance of the energy industry in ensuring a secured energy future. - Highlights: • Unclear energy policies pose a business risk to current and future investors. • Our energy future is threatened by unsystematic recruitment into the policy space. • Some energy governance challenges reflect incompetence in energy legislation. • Nigerian energy transition was shaped by historical policy dynamics and structures.

  15. How do environmental policies fit within larger strategic planning processes

    OpenAIRE

    Crowe, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explores how environmental policies fit within larger strategic processes relevant to sport management and development. It identifies key policy areas such as environmental impact assessment, sustainable land use planning, environmental protection and visitor impact management. Good practice and guidelines which will enable sport managers to integrate their work with these environmental policies are explored. Detailed guidance on design and longer term management and maintenance ...

  16. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  17. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  18. How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-17

    emotional rebuttal. Conversely, people cannot make good rational decisions without at least a twinge of emotion attached to the decision . 2) Our minds... decision they make . If emotions overwhelm reason, then decisions should be postponed.27 Service biases are one of the strongest emotional bias. Any...FINAL 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE How Critical Thinking Shapes the Military Decision Making Process 5a. CONTRACT

  19. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenan M. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  20. The Negative Impact of Legislation Pitfalls on Meaningful Public Participation, Efficient Policy-Making and Effective Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ALMĂȘAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on emphasizing howa variety of apparently irrelevant legislationimperfections may induce significant misunderstandingsregarding the real spirit of democraticgovernance, corrupting the practice of activecitizenship in the policy-making processes anddepriving the Romanian public administration ofan important and valuable instrument for efficientgovernance and implementation of sustainabledecisions. The authors chose to analyze aspectsof the related legislation, as it represents afundamental element needed for the developmentof active citizenship. This article is the result of alarger on-going research on the phenomena ofpublic participation and policy dialogue that aimsto provide a more accurate understanding ofactive citizenship mechanisms and to investigatethe existence of a deliberative conscience at thelevel of the Romanian society.

  1. Mothers' process of decision making for gastrostomy placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherton, Ailsa; Abbott, Janice

    2012-05-01

    In this article we present the findings of an exploration of mothers' discourses on decision making for gastrostomy placement for their child. Exploring in-depth interviews of a purposive sample, we analyzed the mothers' discourses of the decision-making process to understand how their experiences of the process influenced their subsequent constructions of decision making. Mothers negotiated decision making by reflecting on their personal experiences of feeding their child, either orally or via a tube, and interwove their background experiences with the communications from members of the health care team until a decision was reached. Decision making was often fraught with difficulty, resulting in anxiety and guilt. Experiences of decision making ranged from perceived coercion to true choice, which encompasses a truly child-centered decision. The resulting impact of the decision-making process on the mothers was profound. We conclude with an exploration of the implications for clinical practice and describe how health care professionals can support mothers to ensure that decision-making processes for gastrostomy placement in children are significantly improved.

  2. On the Decision-Making Process in Music Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    1985-01-01

    Sketches a conceptual framework for the systematic description of decision-making processes in music education. Refers to existing formulations in education, management, marketing, and economics. Lists decision-making phases in music education, each exhibiting the characteristics of a social system. Offers a historical example of each phase. (AYC)

  3. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Jafar Milani; Seyed Saman Seyed Nazari; Elmira Bamyar; Gisou Maleki

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs) contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough...

  4. The decision-making process between rationality and emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Alvino, Letizia; Franco, Massimo

    2017-01-01

    The decision-making process has been analyzed in several disciplines (economics, social sciences, humanities, etc.) with the aim of creating models to help decision-makers in strategy formulation. The Organizational theory takes into account both the decision-making process of individuals and groups of a company. Numerous models have been built, which include a wide range of psychological, environmental, hierarchical factors, all of which only account the notion of rationality. In time, such ...

  5. Making sense of the global health crisis: policy narratives, conflict, and global health governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Steven

    2012-04-01

    Health has become a policy issue of global concern. Worried that the unstructured, polycentric, and pluralist nature of global health governance is undermining the ability to serve emergent global public health interests, some commentators are calling for a more systematic institutional response to the "global health crisis." Yet global health is a complex and uncertain policy issue. This article uses narrative analysis to explore how actors deal with these complexities and how uncertainties affect global health governance. By comparing three narratives in terms of their basic assumptions, the way they define problems as well as the solutions they propose, the analysis shows how the unstructured pluralism of global health policy making creates a wide scope of policy conflict over the global health crisis. This wide scope of conflict enables effective policy-oriented learning about global health issues. The article also shows how exclusionary patterns of cooperation and competition are emerging in health policy making at the global level. These patterns threaten effective learning by risking both polarization of the policy debate and unanticipated consequences of health policy. Avoiding these pitfalls, the analysis suggests, means creating global health governance regimes that promote openness and responsiveness in deliberation about the global health crisis.

  6. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The decision-making process in public healthcare entities – identification of the decision-making process type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymaniec-Mlicka Karolina

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The decisions made in the organization determine its success, therefore, conducting studies in the scope of decision-making seems important both for theory and practice. The aim of the studies was to identify the type of decision-making process in public medical entities with the use of typology developed by P. Nutt. For this purpose we used qualitative methods. Interviews with 8 directors of hospitals were conducted and the reconstruction was made on the basis of the decision-making process, which enabled the assignment of the model of decision-making process to the organization. The research indicated that four organizations use the historical decision-making model, three organizations represent the model of generating solutions, and one organization uses the model of available solutions.

  8. Heuristic and optimal policy computations in the human brain during sequential decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, Christoph W; Bach, Dominik R

    2018-01-23

    Optimal decisions across extended time horizons require value calculations over multiple probabilistic future states. Humans may circumvent such complex computations by resorting to easy-to-compute heuristics that approximate optimal solutions. To probe the potential interplay between heuristic and optimal computations, we develop a novel sequential decision-making task, framed as virtual foraging in which participants have to avoid virtual starvation. Rewards depend only on final outcomes over five-trial blocks, necessitating planning over five sequential decisions and probabilistic outcomes. Here, we report model comparisons demonstrating that participants primarily rely on the best available heuristic but also use the normatively optimal policy. FMRI signals in medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) relate to heuristic and optimal policies and associated choice uncertainties. Crucially, reaction times and dorsal MPFC activity scale with discrepancies between heuristic and optimal policies. Thus, sequential decision-making in humans may emerge from integration between heuristic and optimal policies, implemented by controllers in MPFC.

  9. Revitalizing REDD+ Policy Processes in Vietnam: The Roles of State and Non-State Actors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thu Ba Huynh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vietnam was one of the first countries to introduce the National REDD+ (Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation Action Program in 2012. The country has recently revised the Program to aim for a more inclusive 2016–2020 strategy and a vision to 2030. This study explores how Vietnam policy actors view REDD+ policy development and their influence in these processes. The results can contribute to the discussion on how policy actors can effectively influence policy processes in the evolving context of REDD+ and in the types of political arrangements represented in Vietnam. We examined the influence of state and non-state actors on the 2012 National REDD+ Action Program (NRAP processes, and explored factors that may have shaped this influence, using a combination of document analysis and semi-structured interviews with 81 policy actors. It was found that non-state actors in REDD+ are still on the periphery of decision making, occupying “safe” positions, and have not taken either full advantage of their capacities, or of recent significant changes in the contemporary policy environment, to exert stronger influence on policy. We suggest that REDD+ policy processes in Vietnam need to be revitalized with key actors engaging collectively to promote the possibilities of REDD+ within a broader view of social change that reaches beyond the forestry sector.

  10. Facilitating participatory processes for policy change in natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    processes and capacity for developing, implementing and enforcing local policies and byelaws to improve the adoption ... and integrated agricultural research for development ..... agriculture and natural resource management (soil and water.

  11. Marginalization and challenge: the production of knowledge and landscape in Canadian nuclear waste management policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanley, A.E.

    2006-01-01

    Aboriginal peoples have recently become politically significant in Canadian nuclear fuel waste (NFW) management policy making. Their newfound significance comes on the heels of an important challenge to the knowledge and authority of the nuclear industry with respect to its plans for NFW lead by a number of public groups and Aboriginal peoples from across Canada, including the Serpent River First Nation. This dissertation examines the relationships between the discourses of the Serpent River First Nation (SRFN) about their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain and the discourses of the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO) about the management of NFW. Two trends are found to characterize these relationships: marginalization and challenge. The discourses of the NWMO marginalize the SRFN, excluding their experiences of the nuclear fuel chain, radioactivity, and the effects of nuclear industries from the policy making process. The discourses of the SRFN challenge the claims of the NWMO about the effects of nuclear wastes and radioactivity, as well as about the safe and beneficial development of the nuclear fuel chain. I identify discourses of 'modern risk' and 'citizenship' found in the work of the NWMO as instrumental for maintaining the nuclear industry's control over the production of knowledge about NFW and its effects and subjugating the knowledge of the SRFN. I also identify discourses of identity, oppression, and 'situated knowledge' as important challenges to the content, method and premises of the claims of the nuclear industry about the management of NFW. While I conclude that the NWMO's discourses of risk and citizenship constitute a colonial politics of exclusion, I note that their discourses are contingent on the exclusion of the experiences of the SRFN with the fuel chain. For their accounts to be coherent, the NWMO need to maintain a strategic silence on the overwhelming implication Aboriginal peoples, as a category, in the nuclear fuel chain

  12. Aging in comparative perspective: processes and policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cook, Ian G; Halsall, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    .... This timely volume analyzes the aging process in various countries, with special focus on the stresses placed on their economies as the numbers of elders increase with fewer young people available...

  13. Process Coordination and Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... Liaises with the Resources Planning and Development Officer of the Office of ...

  14. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Such liaison aims to ensure that the operational aspects and requirements are taken into account. ... Business Process Coordination and Change Management ... plan and coordinating the update of the Division's work plan by all managers; ...

  15. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  16. Re-thinking the relevance of philosophy of education for educational policy making

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2014-01-01

    The overall question addressed in this article is,‘What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?’ The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy makers; the difference place and time makes to these meanings; how these different meanings affect the possibility of philosophy (of education) influencing po...

  17. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Policy issues arising from the judgmental nature of risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcquaid, J.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of risks is pervaded by the need to exercise judgement. The scientific basis for characterising risk problems and judging the effectiveness of possible controls is often uncertain, lacking information and understanding of the processes involved. However, the risk management measures adopted will not be determined by science alone, but must reflect sociological, economic, ethical and political considerations. These in turn are in themselves judgmental, informed to a greater or lesser extent by empirical evidence and influenced by the prevailing climate of public opinion. The overall process provides a rich source of confusion for the public as to the status of the eventual policy decision, with important implications for the manner in which the process of communication is managed. The important role of judgement, as distinct from formal analysis, at every stage needs to be reflected in risk communication. The engagement of those who bear the risks, and of other interested parties in the exercise of judgement must be tailored to nature of the judgement and to the decision to be made. Appropriate procedures need to be adopted to enable that engagement. Although the issue has come into particular prominence in recent years, it is not a new phenomenon. The presentation will describe the arrangements that have been developed in the UK over the past 25 years, and will be illustrated by some specific examples of risk decision making on issues of high public concern. (author)

  19. [Influenza A from the rational choice theory: proposals for decision making in prevention policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Francisco Garrido; Fernández, Luís Andrés López; García, Eugenia Gil

    2009-01-01

    This article is a reflection on the social uncertainty caused by Influenza A and on the consequences that it can have on decision making in health promotion policies. We use concepts and metaphors of the Rational Choice Theory, among them, the "in gratitude effect" or the "distrust effect", as we analyse how these can become obstacles for the efficiency of prevention policies. Then, we focus on the information asymmetry of the principal-agent relationship, and we propose measures to diminish the "moral risk" that they cause. We finish by advancing some proposals for designing lines and strategies of action in health promotion policies.

  20. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    National governments around the globe are actively seeking new ways to engage in social innovation and are investing in innovation labs and innovation centers where methods and principles of design are now being explored and applied to problems of transforming and innovating the public sector (cf...... governments but they also pose new challenges for policy-makers and public administrators who are not yet familiar with design concepts, principles and methods beyond problem-solving. Despite the many linkages between and among design, designing, policy-making and policy implementation, we have yet to clarify...

  1. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  2. Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, H.D.; Bonn, B.; Krauss, U.

    1981-01-01

    In the chapter 'Gasification of coal making use of nuclear processing heat', the steam gasification of brown coal and bituminous coal, the hydrogenating gasification of brown coal including nuclear process heat either by steam cracking methane in the steam reformer or by preheating the gasifying agent, as well as the hydrogenating gasification of bituminous coal are described. (HS) [de

  3. The application of system dynamics modelling to environmental health decision-making and policy - a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Danielle J; Smith, Carl; Jagals, Paul

    2018-03-27

    Policy and decision-making processes are routinely challenged by the complex and dynamic nature of environmental health problems. System dynamics modelling has demonstrated considerable value across a number of different fields to help decision-makers understand and predict the dynamic behaviour of complex systems in support the development of effective policy actions. In this scoping review we investigate if, and in what contexts, system dynamics modelling is being used to inform policy or decision-making processes related to environmental health. Four electronic databases and the grey literature were systematically searched to identify studies that intersect the areas environmental health, system dynamics modelling, and decision-making. Studies identified in the initial screening were further screened for their contextual, methodological and application-related relevancy. Studies deemed 'relevant' or 'highly relevant' according to all three criteria were included in this review. Key themes related to the rationale, impact and limitation of using system dynamics in the context of environmental health decision-making and policy were analysed. We identified a limited number of relevant studies (n = 15), two-thirds of which were conducted between 2011 and 2016. The majority of applications occurred in non-health related sectors (n = 9) including transportation, public utilities, water, housing, food, agriculture, and urban and regional planning. Applications were primarily targeted at micro-level (local, community or grassroots) decision-making processes (n = 9), with macro-level (national or international) decision-making to a lesser degree. There was significant heterogeneity in the stated rationales for using system dynamics and the intended impact of the system dynamics model on decision-making processes. A series of user-related, technical and application-related limitations and challenges were identified. None of the reported limitations or challenges

  4. Making parks make a difference: poor alignment of policy, planning and management with protected-area impact, and ways forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressey, Robert L; Visconti, Piero; Ferraro, Paul J

    2015-11-05

    Policy and practice around protected areas are poorly aligned with the basic purpose of protection, which is to make a difference. The difference made by protected areas is their impact, defined in program evaluation as the outcomes arising from protection relative to the counterfactual of no protection or a different form of protection. Although impact evaluation of programs is well established in fields such as medicine, education and development aid, it is rare in nature conservation. We show that the present weak alignment with impact of policy targets and operational objectives for protected areas involves a great risk: targets and objectives can be achieved while making little difference to the conservation of biodiversity. We also review potential ways of increasing the difference made by protected areas, finding a poor evidence base for the use of planning and management 'levers' to better achieve impact. We propose a dual strategy for making protected areas more effective in their basic role of saving nature, outlining ways of developing targets and objectives focused on impact while also improving the evidence for effective planning and management. © 2015 The Authors.

  5. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  6. Detecting causality in policy diffusion processes

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, Carsten; Macinko, James; Silver, Diana; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    A universal question in network science entails learning about the topology of interaction from collective dynamics. Here, we address this question by examining diffusion of laws across US states. We propose two complementary techniques to unravel determinants of this diffusion process: information-theoretic union transfer entropy and event synchronization. In order to systematically investigate their performance on law activity data, we establish a new stochastic model to generate synthetic ...

  7. Role of the national energy system modelling in the process of the policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Merse Stane; Urbancic Andreja; Sucic Boris; Pusnik Matevz

    2012-01-01

    Strategic planning and decision making, nonetheless making energy policies and strategies, is very extensive process and has to follow multiple and often contradictory objectives. During the preparation of the new Slovenian Energy Programme proposal, complete update of the technology and sector oriented bottom up model of Reference Energy and Environmental System of Slovenia (REES-SLO) has been done. During the redevelopment of the REES-SLO model trade-off between the simulation and opt...

  8. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  9. Visual histories of decision processes for collaborative decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlova, Karine

    2016-01-01

    Remembering, understanding and reconstructing past activities is a necessary part of any learning, sense-making or decision making process. It is also essential for any collaborative activity. This dissertation investigates the design and evaluation of systems to support decision remembering, understanding and reconstruction by groups and individuals. By conducting three qualitative case studies of small professional groups, we identify the critical activities where history functionality is n...

  10. The household decision making process in replacement of durable goods

    OpenAIRE

    Marell Molander, Agneta

    1998-01-01

    As durables are essential in many households, the level of ownership is high and, due to the high degree of penetration, a vast proportion of the current sales are replacement purchases. Even though a lot of research attention has been paid to decision making and decision processes many models are oriented towards non-durable goods and although a majority of purchases of many durable goods are replacements, few studies seem to make a distinction between a replacement purchase decision and a d...

  11. Why UFI nudges will get stuck in the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Joshua; Howard, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    User financial incentives (UFI), in the context of behavioural public policy, have the potential to shape Canadian health policy by replacing or augmenting traditional information-based mechanisms and by imparting a viewpoint that has traditionally been foreign to the public sphere. Whether or not UFI and more traditional "nudges" should be used, they will likely be limited by traditional moral, efficacy and cost/ benefit challenges, as well as the political and bureaucratic impediments that emerge throughout the policy implementation process. These challenges will likely preclude UFI and nudges from having a transformative effect on public policy, but this new school of thought will likely gain prominence through more amorphous means as more individuals learn and adopt its central theory. We should be excited about the potential of UFI and the use of behavioural public policy, but should temper our excitement with realistic expectations about how extensively such an approach should and will be used.

  12. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-12-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  13. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrennikova, Polina [School of Management, University of Leicester, University Road Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-18

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schroedinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schroedinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  14. Evolution of quantum-like modeling in decision making processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrennikova, Polina

    2012-01-01

    The application of the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics to model behavioral patterns in social science and economics is a novel and constantly emerging field. The aim of the so called 'quantum like' models is to model the decision making processes in a macroscopic setting, capturing the particular 'context' in which the decisions are taken. Several subsequent empirical findings proved that when making a decision people tend to violate the axioms of expected utility theory and Savage's Sure Thing principle, thus violating the law of total probability. A quantum probability formula was devised to describe more accurately the decision making processes. A next step in the development of QL-modeling in decision making was the application of Schrödinger equation to describe the evolution of people's mental states. A shortcoming of Schrödinger equation is its inability to capture dynamics of an open system; the brain of the decision maker can be regarded as such, actively interacting with the external environment. Recently the master equation, by which quantum physics describes the process of decoherence as the result of interaction of the mental state with the environmental 'bath', was introduced for modeling the human decision making. The external environment and memory can be referred to as a complex 'context' influencing the final decision outcomes. The master equation can be considered as a pioneering and promising apparatus for modeling the dynamics of decision making in different contexts.

  15. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  16. Changing policy and practice: making sense of national guidelines for osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Bie Nio; Morden, Andrew; Brooks, Lauren; Porcheret, Mark; Edwards, John J; Sanders, Tom; Jinks, Clare; Dziedzic, Krysia

    2014-04-01

    Understanding uptake of complex interventions is an increasingly prominent area of research. The interplay of macro (such as changing health policy), meso (re-organisation of professional work) and micro (rationalisation of clinical care) factors upon uptake of complex interventions has rarely been explored. This study focuses on how English General Practitioners and practice nurses make sense of a complex intervention for the management of osteoarthritis, using the macro-meso-micro contextual approach and Normalisation Process Theory (NPT), specifically the construct of coherence. It is embedded in a cluster RCT comprising four control practices and four intervention practices. In order to study sense-making by professionals introduction and planning meetings (N = 14) between researchers and the practices were observed. Three group interviews were carried out with 10 GPs and 5 practice nurses after they had received training in the intervention. Transcripts were thematically analysed before comparison with NPT constructs. We found that: first, most GPs and all nurses distinguished the intervention from current ways of working. Second, from the introduction meeting to the completion of the training the purpose of the intervention increased in clarity. Third, GPs varied in their understanding of their remit, while the practice nurses felt that the intervention builds on their holistic care approach. Fourth, the intervention was valued by practice nurses as it strengthened their expert status. GPs saw its value as work substitution, but felt that a positive conceptualisation of OA enhanced the consultation. When introducing new interventions in healthcare settings the interaction between macro, meso and micro factors, as well as the means of engaging new clinical practices and their sense-making by clinicians needs to be considered. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  18. State health agencies and the legislative policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Crowe, S M; Aultman, T V

    1994-01-01

    A new era of health care reform places increasing pressure on public health leaders and agencies to participate in the public policy arena. Public health professionals have long been comfortable in providing the scientific knowledge base required in policy development. What has been more recent in its evolution, however, is recognition that they must also play an active role in leading and shaping the debate over policy. A profile of effective State legislative policy "entrepreneurs" and their strategies has been developed to assist health agencies in developing such a leadership position. Based on the experiences of State legislative liaison officers, specific strategies for dealing with State legislatures have been identified and are organized into five key areas--agency organization, staff skills, communications, negotiation, and active ongoing involvement. A public health agency must be organized effectively to participate in the legislative policy process. Typically, effective agencies centralize responsibility for policy activities and promote broad and coordinated participation throughout the organization. Playing a key role in the agency's political interventions, the legislative liaison office should be staffed with persons possessing excellent interpersonal skills and a high degree of technical competence. Of central importance to effective legislative policy entrepreneurship is the ability to communicate the agency's position clearly. This includes setting forward a focused policy agenda, documenting policy issues in a meaningful manner, and reaching legislators with the proper information. Once a matter is on the legislative agenda, the agency must be prepared to negotiate and build broad support for the measure. Finally, public health agencies must be active policy players. To take advantage of new opportunities for action, the public health (policy) leader must monitor the political environment continually.By working to anticipate and formulate

  19. As CMS makes another policy change, policy makers distinguish between different forms of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    As observation care continues to draw fire from critics who charge that the designation ends up costing hospitals money while also sticking patients with exorbitant fees, the medical directors of dedicated observation units counter that the kind of care delivered by their specialized units actually saves money and gets patients out of the hospital sooner. They note that the problem is that only about one-third of hospitals actually have dedicated observation units, so patients placed on observation typically wind up in inpatient beds, where they may only be evaluated once a day. CMS has just released a new policy rule on observation that should help patients avoid excessive charges, but many experts would like to see the agency take steps to incentivize the kind of quality care that is delivered in dedicated units. The new CMS rule for 2014 caps observation stays at 48 hours. Patients who remain in the hospital beyond this point become inpatients, as long as they meet inpatient criteria. Proponents of observation care contend that the average length-of-stay in a dedicated observation unit is just 15 hours--typically much shorter than the LOS of patients who are placed on observation in inpatient beds. Care in a dedicated observation unit is generally driven by protocol in an emergency medicine environment where there is continuous rounding. Discharges can occur at any time of the day or night. Experts note that observation patients account for the largest portion of both misdiagnoses and malpractice lawsuits stemming from emergency settings.

  20. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  1. A qualitative study of nulliparous women's decision making on mode of delivery under China's two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chunyi; Zhu, Xinli; Ding, Yan; Setterberg Simone; Wang, Xiaojiao; Tao, Hua; Zhang, Yu

    2018-07-01

    To explore nulliparous women's perceptions of decision making regarding mode of delivery under China's two-child policy. Qualitative descriptive design with in-depth semi-structured interviews. Postnatal wards at a tertiary specialized women's hospital in Shanghai, China. 21 nulliparous women 2-3 days postpartum were purposively sampled until data saturation. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted between October 8th, 2015 and January 31st, 2016. Two overarching descriptive categories were identified: (1) women's decision-making process: stability versus variability, and (2) factors affecting decision making: variety versus interactivity. Four key themes emerged from each category: (1) initial decision making with certainty: anticipated trial of labour, failed trial of labour, 'shy away' and compromise, anticipated caesarean delivery; (2) initial decision making with uncertainty: anticipated trial of labour, failed trial of labour, 'shy away' and compromise; (3) internal factors affecting decision making: knowledge and attitude, and childbirth self-efficacy; and (4) external factors affecting decision making: social support, and the situational environment. At the initial period of China's two-child policy, nulliparous women have perceived their decision-making process regarding mode of delivery as one with complexity and uncertainty, influenced by both internal and external factors. This may have implications for the obstetric setting to develop a well-designed decision support system for pregnant women during the entire pregnancy periods. And it is recommended that care providers should assess women's preferences for mode of delivery from early pregnancy and provide adequate perinatal support and continuity of care for them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  3. Characteristics of Teachers; A Survey Tool for Policy Making. A Descriptive Study in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Rodney J.

    This study examines the usefulness of survey instruments in educational policy making in Liberia, a developing country. The chapter, "Liberia, an Overview," summarizes available background information about Liberian education and introduces the complex issues facing educational planners. "Procedures," discusses the general…

  4. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  5. At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa. Couverture du livre At the Crossroads : ICT Policymaking in East Africa. Directeur(s) : Florence Etta et Laurent Elder. Maison(s) d'édition : East African Educational Publishers, CRDI. 1 janvier 2005. ISBN : 9966254390. 336 pages. e-ISBN : 1552502198. Téléchargez le ...

  6. Mapping ecosystem services for policy support and decision making in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.; Egoh, B.; Willemen, L.; Liquete, C.; Vihervaara, P.; Schägner, J.P.; Grizzetti, B.; Drakou, E.G.; Notte, La A.; Zulian, G.; Bouraoui, F.; Parcchini, M.L.; Braat, L.C.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstreaming ecosystem services into policy and decision making is dependent on the availability of spatially explicit information on the state and trends of ecosystems and their services. In particular, the EU Biodiversity Strategy to 2020 addresses the need to account for ecosystem services

  7. The Embargo of 1807: A Study in Policy-Making. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, Ralph K.

    Focusing on the controversy which surrounded Thomas Jefferson and the Embargo of 1807, this social studies unit examines the numerous factors which affect presidential policy-making and leadership. The unit presents newspaper accounts of the boarding of the American frigate "Chesapeake" by the English in 1807 and enumerates the factors…

  8. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  9. Soft regulations in pharmaceutical policy making : an overview of current approaches and their consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wettermark, B.; Godman, B.; Jacobsson, B.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.

    2009-01-01

    It is a challenge to improve public health within limited resources. Pharmaceutical policy making is a greater challenge due to conflicting interests between key stakeholder groups. This paper reviews current and future strategies to help improve the quality and efficiency of care, with special

  10. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  11. The Making of a Policy Regime: Canada's Post-Secondary Student Finance System since 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellen, Richard; Axelrod, Paul; Desai-Trilokekar, Roopa; Shanahan, Theresa

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the pattern of decision-making, lobbying, and influence that led to the landmark series of federal student assistance policies introduced by Jean Chretien's Liberal government in the late 1990s. The package of new initiatives--dubbed the Canada Opportunities Strategy--not only partially reversed an earlier period of fiscal…

  12. Financing Postsecondary Education: Policy Development and Decision Making. A Series of Conferences. Conference Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This handbook attempts to improve policy development and decision making relative to financing postsecondary education. Sections cover: (1) descriptions and comparisons of selected reports relative to recommendations for postsecondary financing; (2) position statements and/or comments on postsecondary financing from certain cooperative sponsoring…

  13. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making-REPOPA project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aro, A.R.; Bertram, M.; Hamalainen, R.-M.; van de Goor, L.A.M.; Skovgaard, T.; Valente, A.; Castellani, T.; Chereches, R.; Edwards, N.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures and the initial

  14. Forces for Failure and Genocide: The Plantation Model of Urban Educational Policy Making in St. Louis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce Anthony

    2005-01-01

    This article is about policy decision making and racial politics in the St. Louis, Missouri, school district. From a research standpoint, traditional policymaking models are inadequate for explaining the evolution of school reform events in St. Louis over the past year. Teachers, principals, school staff, and parents perceive themselves to be…

  15. Challenges to fair decision-making processes in the context of health care services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shayo, Elizabeth H.; Norheim, Ole F.; Mboera, Leonard E. G.

    2012-01-01

    challenges to fair decision-making processes in health care services with a special focus on the potential influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education. We draw on the principle of fairness as outlined in the deliberative democratic theory. METHODS: The study was carried out in the Mbarali District......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Fair processes in decision making need the involvement of stakeholders who can discuss issues and reach an agreement based on reasons that are justifiable and appropriate in meeting people's needs. In Tanzania, the policy of decentralization and the health sector reform place......: The study findings indicate a substantial influence of gender, wealth, ethnicity and education on health care decision-making processes. Men, wealthy individuals, members of strong ethnic groups and highly educated individuals had greater influence. Opinions varied among the study informants as to whether...

  16. Improvements of the Penalty Avoiding Rational Policy Making Algorithm and an Application to the Othello Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Kazuteru; Tsuboi, Sougo; Kobayashi, Shigenobu

    The purpose of reinforcement learning is to learn an optimal policy in general. However, in 2-players games such as the othello game, it is important to acquire a penalty avoiding policy. In this paper, we focus on formation of a penalty avoiding policy based on the Penalty Avoiding Rational Policy Making algorithm [Miyazaki 01]. In applying it to large-scale problems, we are confronted with the curse of dimensionality. We introduce several ideas and heuristics to overcome the combinational explosion in large-scale problems. First, we propose an algorithm to save the memory by calculation of state transition. Second, we describe how to restrict exploration by two type knowledge; KIFU database and evaluation funcion. We show that our learning player can always defeat against the well-known othello game program KITTY.

  17. Youth, Privacy and Online Media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Jørgensen, Rikke Frank

    2015-01-01

    debate. It presents the results of a qualitative study amongst 68 Danish high school students concerning how they perceive, negotiate and control their private sphere when using social media and builds a case for utilizing the results of studies as this to inform the ongoing policy discourses concerning...... policy making that the right to privacy is challenged in new ways in a structurally transformed online public sphere, the way in which it has been framed does not seem to acknowledge this transformation. This paper therefore argues for a reformulation of “online privacy” in the current global policy......The right to privacy is a fundamental human right defined in international and regional human rights instruments. As such it has been included as a core component of key legislature and policy proceedings throughout the brief history of the World Wide Web. While it is generally recognized in public...

  18. Promoting evidence informed policy making for maternal and child health in Nigeria: lessons from a knowledge translation workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Knowledge translation (KT is a process that ensures that research evidence gets translated into policy and practice. In Nigeria, reports indicate that research evidence rarely gets into policy making process. A major factor responsible for this is lack of KT capacity enhancement mechanisms. The objective of this study was to improve KT competence of an implementation research team (IRT, policymakers and stakeholders in maternal and child health to enhance evidence-informed policy making. Methods: This study employed a "before and after" design, modified as an intervention study. The study was conducted in Bauchi, north-eastern Nigeria. A three-day KT training workshop was organized and 15 modules were covered including integrated and end-of-grant KT; KT models,measures, tools and strategies; priority setting; managing political interference; advocacy and consensus building/negotiations; inter-sectoral collaboration; policy analysis, contextualization and legislation. A 4-point Likert scale pre-/post-workshop questionnaires were administered to evaluate the impact of the training, it was designed in terms of extent of adequacy; with "grossly inadequate" representing 1 point, and "very adequate" representing 4 points.Results: A total of 45 participants attended the workshop. There was a noteworthy improvement in the participants’ understanding of KT processes and strategies. The range of the praiseworthiness of participants knowledge of modules taught was from 2.04-2.94, the range for the post workshop mean was from 3.10–3.70 on the 4-point Likert scale. The range of percentage increase in mean for participants’ knowledge at the end of the workshop was from 13.3%–55.2%.Conclusion: The outcome of this study suggests that using a KT capacity building programme e.g., workshop, health researchers, policymakers and other stakeholders can acquire capacity and skill that will facilitate evidence-to-policy link.

  19. Does climate policy make the EU economy more resilient to oil price rises? A CGE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonnave, Hélène; Pycroft, Jonathan; Saveyn, Bert; Ciscar, Juan-Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The European Union has committed itself to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 20% in 2020 compared with 1990 levels. This paper investigates whether this policy has an additional benefit in terms of economic resilience by protecting the EU from the macroeconomic consequences due to an oil price rise. We use the GEM-E3 computable general equilibrium model to analyse the results of three scenarios. The first one refers to the impact of an increase in the oil price. The second scenario analyses the European climate policy and the third scenario analyses the oil price rise when the European climate policy is implemented. Unilateral EU climate policy implies a cost on the EU of around 1.0% of GDP. An oil price rise in the presence of EU climate policy does imply an additional cost on the EU of 1.5% of GDP (making a total loss of 2.5% of GDP), but this is less than the 2.2% of GDP that the EU would lose from the oil price rise in the absence of climate policy. This is evidence that even unilateral climate policy does offer some economic protection for the EU.

  20. Is climate change-centrism an optimal policy making strategy to set national electricity mixes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Reyna, Janet L.; García-Torres, Samy; Kahhat, Ramzy

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of climate-centric policies on other environmental impacts is uncertain. • Analysis of changing electricity grids of Peru and Spain in the period 1989–2013. • Life Cycle Assessment was the selected sustainability method to conduct the study. • Policies targeting GHG reductions also reduce air pollution and toxicity. • Resource usage, especially water, does not show the same trends as GHG emissions. - Abstract: In order to combat the threat of climate change, countries have begun to implement policies which restrict GHG emissions in the electricity sector. However, the development of national electricity mixes should also be sensitive to resource availability, geo-political forces, human health impacts, and social equity concerns. Policy focused on GHG goals could potentially lead to adverse consequences in other areas. To explore the impact of “climate-centric” policy making on long-term electricity mix changes, we develop two cases for Peru and Spain analyzing their changing electricity grids in the period 1989–2013. We perform a Life Cycle Assessment of annual electricity production to catalogue the improvements in GHG emissions relative to other environmental impacts. We conclude that policies targeting GHG reductions might have the co-benefit of also reducing air pollution and toxicity at the expense of other important environmental performance indicators such as water depletion. Moreover, as of 2013, both countries generate approximately equal GHG emissions per kWh, and relatively low emission rates of other pollutants compared to nations of similar development levels. Although climate-centric policy can lead to some positive environmental outcomes in certain areas, energy policy-making should be holistic and include other aspects of sustainability and vulnerability.

  1. Learning craft skills. Exploring preschoolers' craft making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virpi Yliverronen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore a preschooler craft-making process in which 18 preschool novices cut pieces for fabric bags and designed and printed patterns to decorate the bags. Through the task, children were familiarised with a small-scale holistic craft process. The intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how children used bodily expressions when explaining a learned craft skill. The present study relies on the videographic method: two preschool groups’ stamp printing activities were recorded, and each child was interviewed individually. Children’s embodied expressions were particularly in focus in video analysis. The results reveal that all the children were able to sufficiently explain the making phase, however, some children compensated for missing words using bodily and facial expressions and gestures when talking about making. The results showed that children worked logically, and the skill learning phases of perceiving, making, and interpretation were revealed from their learning.

  2. Sexual picture processing interferes with decision-making under ambiguity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laier, Christian; Pawlikowski, Mirko; Brand, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    Many people watch sexually arousing material on the Internet in order to receive sexual arousal and gratification. When browsing for sexual stimuli, individuals have to make several decisions, all possibly leading to positive or negative consequences. Decision-making research has shown that decisions under ambiguity are influenced by consequences received following earlier decisions. Sexual arousal might interfere with the decision-making process and should therefore lead to disadvantageous decision-making in the long run. In the current study, 82 heterosexual, male participants watched sexual pictures, rated them with respect to sexual arousal, and were asked to indicate their current level of sexual arousal before and following the sexual picture presentation. Afterwards, subjects performed one of two modified versions of the Iowa Gambling Task in which sexual pictures were displayed on the advantageous and neutral pictures on the disadvantageous card decks or vice versa (n = 41/n = 41). Results demonstrated an increase of sexual arousal following the sexual picture presentation. Decision-making performance was worse when sexual pictures were associated with disadvantageous card decks compared to performance when the sexual pictures were linked to the advantageous decks. Subjective sexual arousal moderated the relationship between task condition and decision-making performance. This study emphasized that sexual arousal interfered with decision-making, which may explain why some individuals experience negative consequences in the context of cybersex use.

  3. Risk-Based Decision Making for Deterioration Processes Using POMDP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie Sønderkær; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for risk-based decision making for maintenance of deteriorating components, based on the partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP). Unlike most methods, the decision polices do not need to be stationary and can vary according to seasons and near the end...

  4. Preferences for political decision-making processes and issue publics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2014-01-01

    Research on public attitudes toward political decision-making has typically focused on politics in general. This study attends to issue-level as well as individual-level factors that can explain political process preferences. First, drawing on the classic distinction between easy and hard political

  5. Curator's process of meaning-making in National museums

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cole, Anne Jodon

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to understand the meaning-making process curators engage in designing/developing exhibitions of the nations indigenous peoples. How indigenous people are represented can with perpetuate stereotypes or mediate change while strengthening their personal and group identity. Analysis...

  6. Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Participation in decision-making process, incentives and training as predictors of organizational commitment among industrial workers. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Results indicated that the three motivational factors jointly and significantly predicted organizational commitment. Also, each ...

  7. Investigating the Decision-Making Process of Standard Setting Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing interest of the language testing community in standard setting, primarily due to the use of the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR-Council of Europe, 2001), the participants' decision-making process in the CEFR standard setting context remains unexplored. This study attempts to fill in this gap by analyzing these…

  8. Developing Holocaust Curricula: The Content Decision-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2008-01-01

    The content decision-making process involved in developing Holocaust curricula is unusually complex and problematic. Educators must consider factors such as historical accuracy, selection of topics covered, potential teaching materials (such as textbooks and literary texts), and graphic materials (such as films and photographs) as they plan their…

  9. Noncontaminating technique for making holes in existing process systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, T. P.; Czapor, H. P.; Giordano, S. M.

    1972-01-01

    Technique is developed for making cleanly-contoured holes in assembled process systems without introducing chips or other contaminants into system. Technique uses portable equipment and does not require dismantling of system. Method was tested on Inconel, stainless steel, ASTMA-53, and Hastelloy X in all positions.

  10. Moving towards tangible decision-making tools for policy makers: Measuring and monitoring energy access provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, Jaya; Jha, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Access to energy services has been recognised as central to achieving economic growth and sustainable development. However, almost 1.3 billion people in the world still lack access to electricity and 2.7 billion lack access to clean cooking facilities. In this backdrop, the issue of energy access is receiving more interest than ever before and this has brought to the fore, the need for a robust decision support tool for policy makers to measure the progress of energy access provision and also to provide direction for future policy making. The paper studies existing definitions of energy access and identifies the key requirements for an appropriate decision-making tool to measure and monitor energy access provision. In this context the paper assesses the strengths and weaknesses of the metrics currently being used to measure energy access in policy, as well as of contemporary monitoring and evaluation frameworks being used in other sectors. Based on these insights, a dashboard of indicators is proposed as an alternate decision support tool for policy makers to measure energy access. The paper concludes with a discussion on what is needed to operationalise this proposed framework. - Highlights: ► No one indicator or metric can successfully capture progress on energy access. ► A service oriented approach is necessary to measure energy access. ► Socio-economic and political contexts influence success of energy access policies.

  11. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  12. 'Race', disadvantage, and policy processes in British planning

    OpenAIRE

    H Thomas; V Krishnarayan

    1994-01-01

    In this paper some of the mechanisms by which black and ethnic minorities can be put at a particular disadvantage within the planning system in Britain (and how these processes can be challenged) are examined. A number of types of policy processes operating in British planning are identified, and, drawing on a range of secondary and primary data, the influence of black and ethnic minorities within these processes are analysed. The paper is concluded with a review of the possibilities for the ...

  13. Housing decision making methods for initiation development phase process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Rozlin; Kasim, Narimah; Sarpin, Norliana; Wee, Seow Ta; Shamsudin, Zarina

    2017-10-01

    Late delivery and sick housing project problems were attributed to poor decision making. These problems are the string of housing developer that prefers to create their own approach based on their experiences and expertise with the simplest approach by just applying the obtainable standards and rules in decision making. This paper seeks to identify the decision making methods for housing development at the initiation phase in Malaysia. The research involved Delphi method by using questionnaire survey which involved 50 numbers of developers as samples for the primary stage of collect data. However, only 34 developers contributed to the second stage of the information gathering process. At the last stage, only 12 developers were left for the final data collection process. Finding affirms that Malaysian developers prefer to make their investment decisions based on simple interpolation of historical data and using simple statistical or mathematical techniques in producing the required reports. It was suggested that they seemed to skip several important decision-making functions at the primary development stage. These shortcomings were mainly due to time and financial constraints and the lack of statistical or mathematical expertise among the professional and management groups in the developer organisations.

  14. Contingency Management and deliberative decision-making processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul S. Regier

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Contingency Management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of Contingency Management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that Contingency Management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by Contingency Management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  15. Contingency Management and Deliberative Decision-Making Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Paul S; Redish, A David

    2015-01-01

    Contingency management is an effective treatment for drug addiction. The current explanation for its success is rooted in alternative reinforcement theory. We suggest that alternative reinforcement theory is inadequate to explain the success of contingency management and produce a model based on demand curves that show how little the monetary rewards offered in this treatment would affect drug use. Instead, we offer an explanation of its success based on the concept that it accesses deliberative decision-making processes. We suggest that contingency management is effective because it offers a concrete and immediate alternative to using drugs, which engages deliberative processes, improves the ability of those deliberative processes to attend to non-drug options, and offsets more automatic action-selection systems. This theory makes explicit predictions that can be tested, suggests which users will be most helped by contingency management, and suggests improvements in its implementation.

  16. New opportunities for biocatalysis: making pharmaceutical processes greener

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woodley, John

    2008-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses, and in this ......The pharmaceutical industry requires synthetic routes to be environmentally compatible as well as to fulfill the demands of process economics and product specification and to continually reduce development times. Biocatalysis has the potential to deliver 'greener' chemical syntheses...... of biocatalysis for making pharmaceutical processes greener....

  17. Surgical Consultation as Social Process: Implications for Shared Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Justin T; Arriaga, Alexander F; Murthy, Sushila; Raper, Steven E; Schwartz, J Sanford; Barg, Frances K; Fleisher, Lee A

    2017-12-12

    This qualitative study examines surgical consultation as a social process and assesses its alignment with assumptions of the shared decision-making (SDM) model. SDM stresses the importance of patient preferences and rigorous discussion of therapeutic risks/benefits based on these preferences. However, empirical studies have highlighted discrepancies between SDM and realities of surgical decision making. Qualitative research can inform understanding of the decision-making process and allow for granular assessment of the nature and causes of these discrepancies. We observed consultations between 3 general surgeons and 45 patients considering undergoing 1 of 2 preference-sensitive elective operations: (1) hernia repair, or (2) cholecystectomy. These patients and surgeons also participated in semi-structured interviews. By the time of the consultation, patients and surgeons were predisposed toward certain decisions by preceding events occurring elsewhere. During the visit, surgeons had differential ability to arbitrate surgical intervention and construct the severity of patients' conditions. These upstream dynamics frequently displaced the centrality of the risk/benefit-based consent discussion. The influence of events preceding consultation suggests that decision-making models should account for broader spatiotemporal spans. Given surgeons' authority to define patients' conditions and control service provision, SDM may be premised on an overestimation of patients' power to alter the course of decision making once in a specialist's office. Considering the subordinate role of the risk/benefit discussion in many surgical decisions, it will be important to study if and how the social process of decision making is altered by SDM-oriented decision aids that foreground this discussion.

  18. Policy making opportunities in the United States Senate and House of Representatives: an examination of seniority and gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    and lampooned throughout the world. Yet gridlock and its antecedents are important to furthering our understanding of the policy process and perhaps allowing us to establish causality in legislative decision making models.

  19. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical

  20. Dual processing model of medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Hozo, Iztok; Beckstead, Jason; Tsalatsanis, Athanasios; Pauker, Stephen G

    2012-09-03

    Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I) and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II) processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. We show that physician's beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower) probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker's threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to enrich the current medical decision-making field, which is still to the

  1. Dual processing model of medical decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djulbegovic Benjamin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual processing theory of human cognition postulates that reasoning and decision-making can be described as a function of both an intuitive, experiential, affective system (system I and/or an analytical, deliberative (system II processing system. To date no formal descriptive model of medical decision-making based on dual processing theory has been developed. Here we postulate such a model and apply it to a common clinical situation: whether treatment should be administered to the patient who may or may not have a disease. Methods We developed a mathematical model in which we linked a recently proposed descriptive psychological model of cognition with the threshold model of medical decision-making and show how this approach can be used to better understand decision-making at the bedside and explain the widespread variation in treatments observed in clinical practice. Results We show that physician’s beliefs about whether to treat at higher (lower probability levels compared to the prescriptive therapeutic thresholds obtained via system II processing is moderated by system I and the ratio of benefit and harms as evaluated by both system I and II. Under some conditions, the system I decision maker’s threshold may dramatically drop below the expected utility threshold derived by system II. This can explain the overtreatment often seen in the contemporary practice. The opposite can also occur as in the situations where empirical evidence is considered unreliable, or when cognitive processes of decision-makers are biased through recent experience: the threshold will increase relative to the normative threshold value derived via system II using expected utility threshold. This inclination for the higher diagnostic certainty may, in turn, explain undertreatment that is also documented in the current medical practice. Conclusions We have developed the first dual processing model of medical decision-making that has potential to

  2. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  3. Exploring maintenance policy selection using the Analytic Hierarchy Process; An application for naval ships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goossens, Adriaan J.M.; Basten, Rob J.I.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigate maintenance policy selection (MPS) through the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). A maintenance policy is a policy that dictates which parameter triggers a maintenance action. In practice, selecting the right maintenance policy appears to be a difficult decision. We investigate MPS for naval ships, but our results have wider applicability. For our study we cooperate with the owner and operator of the ships, as well as with a shipbuilder and an original equipment manufacturer of naval ships. We apply a structured five step approach to obtain the relevant criteria that may make one policy preferable over another. The criteria are drawn from both literature and a series of interviews at several navy related companies and are structured into a hierarchy of criteria usable with the AHP. Additionally, we organize three workshops at the three different companies to test the AHP-based MPS approach in practice. We conclude that the AHP is well suited for maintenance policy selection in this broad setting, and that it provides a structured and detailed approach for MPS. Adding to that, it facilitates discussions during and after the sessions, creating a better understanding of the policy selection process. - Highlights: • We use the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for maintenance policy selection (MPS). • Using both interviews and case studies from the literature, we construct a hierarchy. • In sessions at 3 companies, we find that 1 hierarchy can be used for multiple assets. • The AHP creates a better understanding of the maintenance policy selection process. • Our work is on naval ships, but our approach and findings have wider applicability

  4. Decision making, procedural compliance, and outcomes definition in U.S. forest service planning processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, Marc J.; Predmore, S. Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) dictates a process of analyzing and disclosing the likely impacts of proposed agency actions on the human environment. This study addresses two key questions related to NEPA implementation in the U.S. Forest Service: 1) how do Interdisciplinary (ID) team leaders and decision makers conceptualize the outcomes of NEPA processes? And 2), how does NEPA relate to agency decision making? We address these questions through two separate online surveys that posed questions about recently completed NEPA processes - the first with the ID team leaders tasked with carrying out the processes, and the second with the line officers responsible for making the processes' final decisions. Outcomes of NEPA processes include impacts on public relations, on employee morale and team functioning, on the achievement of agency goals, and on the achievement of NEPA's procedural requirements (disclosure) and substantive intent (minimizing negative environmental impacts). Although both tended to view public relations outcomes as important, decision makers' perceptions of favorable outcomes were more closely linked to the achievement of agency goals and process efficiency than was the case for ID team leaders. While ID team leaders' responses suggest that they see decision making closely integrated with the NEPA process, decision makers more commonly decoupled decision making from the NEPA process. These findings suggest a philosophical difference between ID team leaders and decision makers that may pose challenges for both the implementation and the evaluation of agency NEPA. We discuss the pros and cons of integrating NEPA with decision making or separating the two. We conclude that detaching NEPA from decision making poses greater risks than integrating them.

  5. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  6. Appropriating Public Private Partnership in Senior High School Program: A Socio-Cultural Approach to Policy Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter G. Romerosa

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The implementation of the Senior High School program in the Philippines illuminates the State’s response to the changing landscape of the global market economy. Its salient features focus on the additional two year-senior high school program which highlights the development of middle level skills for national development and global competitiveness. In order to concretize the implementation of the program, the State entered into collaboration with the private schools which is commonly known as Public Private Partnership (PPP. In this collaboration, the government provides the guidelines and financing while the private educational institutions provide the academic service. Framed from a socio-cultural approach to policy making in education, this study aimed to unpack a particular implementation of PPP of a private institution in an urban area, examine the institutional policies that were created in response to PPP, and interrogate the impacts of these policies on micro social processes. Using interviews and focus group discussions for methodology, the researcher drew narratives and insights from on-the-ground actors. Further, the investigation looked into how authorized policy actors (school administrators and nonauthorized policy actors (teachers, parents, and students are appropriating policies within the operational framework of the PPP in the implementation of the senior high school program. The results demonstrated that multi- layered appropriation and exercise of the agency were explicitly and implicitly deployed in diverse social spaces by actors as a pragmatic and creative response to the new educational arrangement. The paper provides a lens to further develop under-standing on how policy appropriation and production from the local context can inform institutional approaches in facilitating relevant student experience within the realm of PPP in education.

  7. Beyond the lab: observations on the process by which science successfully informs management and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, S.

    2012-12-01

    Scientific findings inform management decisions and policy products through various ways, these include: synthesis reports, white papers, in-person and web-based seminars (webinars), communication from specialized staff, and seminal peer-reviewed journal articles. Scientists are often told that if they want their science to inform management decisions and policy products that they must: clearly and simply articulate discreet pieces of scientific information and avoid attaching advocacy messages to the science; however, solely relying on these tenants does not ensure that scientific products will infuse the realms of management and policy. The process by which science successfully informs management decisions and policy products rarely begins at the time the results come out of the lab, but rather, before the research is carried out. Having an understanding of the political climate, management needs, agency research agendas, and funding limitations, as well as developing a working relationship with the intended managers and policy makers are key elements to developing the kind of science results and products that often make an impact in the management and policy world. In my presentation I will provide case-studies from California (USA) to highlight the type of coastal, ocean and climate science that has been successful in informing management decisions and policy documents, as well as provide a state-level agency perspective on the process by which this occurs.

  8. Consumer recycling: An ethical decision-making process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Culiberg, Barbara; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    Although recycling is often experienced as a moral dilemma, studies that systematically approach this issue from an ethical perspective are scarce. Moreover, previous studies have explored recycling by mainly using single ethical constructs, such as moral norms, values or obligations, rarely...... approaching it as an ethical decision-making process. Our study takes a more holistic approach and integrates the recycling literature with business ethics theory in order to develop a conceptual model of ethical decision making involved in recycling. The model is based on Jones' issue-contingent model...... using structural equation modelling. The results of our study confirmed the relationships between three key facets of ethical decision making: moral recognition, moral judgment and moral intention. Higher levels of moral recognition were found to lead to more positive moral judgments, which in turn...

  9. Ethical implications and decision making in care education process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layse Kelle Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine ethical implications for nursing practice at the point of decision making by nursing professors in practice area. Methodology. A qualitative method was adopted, with use of semistructured interviews with sixteen nursing professors who delivered care at a teaching hospital in Salvador, Bahia, from May to June 2011. The methodological reference used was the discourse of the collective subject (DCS by Lefévre and Lefévre. Results. In response to DCSs, the following subjects appeared: "Ethics is fundamental and of vital importance in the decision making process," "searching for knowledge and research to identify problems and solutions, including alternatives and support for decisions," and "to act in the best way." Conclusion. Professors who provide education about patient care also delivered care. They have the responsibility to consider the ethical implications of decision making because they stimulate fundamental reflection and could positively influence future nursing professionals.

  10. A dynamic dual process model of risky decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederich, Adele; Trueblood, Jennifer S

    2018-03-01

    Many phenomena in judgment and decision making are often attributed to the interaction of 2 systems of reasoning. Although these so-called dual process theories can explain many types of behavior, they are rarely formalized as mathematical or computational models. Rather, dual process models are typically verbal theories, which are difficult to conclusively evaluate or test. In the cases in which formal (i.e., mathematical) dual process models have been proposed, they have not been quantitatively fit to experimental data and are often silent when it comes to the timing of the 2 systems. In the current article, we present a dynamic dual process model framework of risky decision making that provides an account of the timing and interaction of the 2 systems and can explain both choice and response-time data. We outline several predictions of the model, including how changes in the timing of the 2 systems as well as time pressure can influence behavior. The framework also allows us to explore different assumptions about how preferences are constructed by the 2 systems as well as the dynamic interaction of the 2 systems. In particular, we examine 3 different possible functional forms of the 2 systems and 2 possible ways the systems can interact (simultaneously or serially). We compare these dual process models with 2 single process models using risky decision making data from Guo, Trueblood, and Diederich (2017). Using this data, we find that 1 of the dual process models significantly outperforms the other models in accounting for both choices and response times. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  12. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  13. Making offshore industries greener: negotiating environmental policy in the Dutch oil and gas sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinssen, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the negotiations between the Dutch Government and the oil and gas sector regarding environmental measures for the offshore industry are analysed. Dutch environmental policy is presently being developed via 'Target Group Management'. The instrument used in this approach is policy negotiations, resulting in covenants. By signing a covenant, both government and industry take responsibility for the development and implementation of a realistic environmental policy. Negotiating environmental policies, however, can be problematic. This relates to the delay in obtaining an integrated approach to environmental problems. It is not unlikely that, in the four years required for the negotiation process, a legally binding environmental law might also have been developed. It is concluded that the value of the covenant mainly depends on the goodwill of the parties involved. (Author)

  14. Stakeholder participation in radiological decision making: processes and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Within the radiological protection community, stakeholder issues have moved steadily to the fore-front of policy discussions, and clearly form a key element in decisions regarding the development and implementation of radiological protection policy. It was in this light that the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) undertook three case studies on stakeholder involvement processes and experiences. Experience and lessons were analysed and extracted that may have application to numerous situations in other national contexts. They are intended to aid decision makers and regulators who are involved in radiological protection, and may have particular value for post-accident contamination situations, the siting of new nuclear installations, the management of emissions from routine operations at nuclear facilities, and the decommissioning of existing nuclear installations. The three case studies presented in this report were specifically developed as input to the Third Villigen Workshop (Villigen, Switzerland, 21-23 October 2003) and address the following situations: - the Canadian review process for uranium production projects in Northern Saskatchewan; - the Rocky Flats controversy on radionuclide action levels; - the ETHOS project for post-accident rehabilitation in the area of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl disaster. (author)

  15. Exploring the Reshoring and Insourcing Decision Making Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Kirchoff, Jon F.; Foerstl, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The topics of reshoring and insourcing have recently become more widely discussed among operations management and international business scholars and managers, as some firms are revoking their offshoring and outsourcing decisions. This research focuses on and clarifies the decision making process...... organizational readiness in addition to decision drivers, improve coverage of the implementation stage and explore further contingency factors such as technological advancement as well as to focus on decision makers as the unit of analysis.......The topics of reshoring and insourcing have recently become more widely discussed among operations management and international business scholars and managers, as some firms are revoking their offshoring and outsourcing decisions. This research focuses on and clarifies the decision making processes...

  16. Use of PRA in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri L.

    2010-01-01

    How do you use PRA to support an operating program? This presentation will explore how the Shuttle Program Management has used the Shuttle PRA in its decision making process. It will reveal how the PRA has evolved from a tool used to evaluate Shuttle upgrades like Electric Auxiliary Power Unit (EAPU) to a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and real-time flight decisions. Specific examples of Shuttle Program decisions that have used the Shuttle PRA as input will be provided including how it was used in the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) manifest decision. It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.

  17. The role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschminder - de Guerre, Katie; Koser, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making factors for onwards migration or stay in Greece and Turkey. In this paper we distinguish migration-specific policies from migration-relevant policies in transit and destination countries,

  18. An integrated DEA-COLS-SFA algorithm for optimization and policy making of electricity distribution units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Omrani, H.; Eivazy, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated data envelopment analysis (DEA)-corrected ordinary least squares (COLS)-stochastic frontier analysis (SFA)-principal component analysis (PCA)-numerical taxonomy (NT) algorithm for performance assessment, optimization and policy making of electricity distribution units. Previous studies have generally used input-output DEA models for benchmarking and evaluation of electricity distribution units. However, this study proposes an integrated flexible approach to measure the rank and choose the best version of the DEA method for optimization and policy making purposes. It covers both static and dynamic aspects of information environment due to involvement of SFA which is finally compared with the best DEA model through the Spearman correlation technique. The integrated approach would yield in improved ranking and optimization of electricity distribution systems. To illustrate the usability and reliability of the proposed algorithm, 38 electricity distribution units in Iran have been considered, ranked and optimized by the proposed algorithm of this study.

  19. Enhancing the contribution of research to health care policy-making: a case study of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Marks, Lisanne K; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health care policy-making. Our aim was to identify ways to achieve that. We used contribution mapping as a theoretical framework that recognizes alignment of research as crucial to managing contributions to policy-making. To investigate which areas need alignment efforts by researchers and/or policy-makers, we interviewed National Institute researchers and policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and assessed the process for developing the 2010 Report. We identified six areas where alignment is specifically relevant for enhancing the contributions of future versions of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report: well-balanced information for different ministerial directorates; backstage work; double role actors; reports of other knowledge institutes; data collection/generation and presentation forms. The contribution of health care performance reporting to policy-making is complex and requires continuous alignment efforts between researchers and policy-makers. These efforts should form an inseparable part of health care performance reporting and although this demands considerable resources, it is worth considering since it may pay back in better contributions to policy-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Optimizing a Laser Process for Making Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, Pavel; Holmes, William

    2010-01-01

    A systematic experimental study has been performed to determine the effects of each of the operating conditions in a double-pulse laser ablation process that is used to produce single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The comprehensive data compiled in this study have been analyzed to recommend conditions for optimizing the process and scaling up the process for mass production. The double-pulse laser ablation process for making SWCNTs was developed by Rice University researchers. Of all currently known nanotube-synthesizing processes (arc and chemical vapor deposition), this process yields the greatest proportion of SWCNTs in the product material. The aforementioned process conditions are important for optimizing the production of SWCNTs and scaling up production. Reports of previous research (mostly at Rice University) toward optimization of process conditions mention effects of oven temperature and briefly mention effects of flow conditions, but no systematic, comprehensive study of the effects of process conditions was done prior to the study described here. This was a parametric study, in which several production runs were carried out, changing one operating condition for each run. The study involved variation of a total of nine parameters: the sequence of the laser pulses, pulse-separation time, laser pulse energy density, buffer gas (helium or nitrogen instead of argon), oven temperature, pressure, flow speed, inner diameter of the flow tube, and flow-tube material.

  1. A Make-or-buy Decision Process for Outsourcing

    OpenAIRE

    Bajec, Patricija; Jakomin, Igor

    2010-01-01

    Should firms perform logistics services on their own or should they buy them from a logistics provider? Today’s global competition forces companies to re-evaluate their existing processes, technologies and services in order to focuse on strategic activities. Outsourcing is now increasingly used as a competitive weapon in today’s economy. External parties can often do job quicker, cheaper and better. This has resulted in an increasing awareness of the importance of the make-or-buy decision, th...

  2. Mechanisms of public participation in the decision-making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corner, J.

    1993-01-01

    Public inquiries, hearings, referenda and government reviews are among a number of commonly mechanisms through which the public in the relevant OECD countries participate in the decision-making process in respect of nuclear power and its development. The scope, application and effectiveness of these procedures appear to vary from country to country; differences which may result from styles of government, history, national interest and other factors. We listen to each OECD member in turn, explaining how is the situation in his country

  3. A decision-making process model of young online shoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin-Feng; Wang, Hui-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Based on the concepts of brand equity, means-end chain, and Web site trust, this study proposes a novel model called the consumption decision-making process of adolescents (CDMPA) to understand adolescents' Internet consumption habits and behavioral intention toward particular sporting goods. The findings of the CDMPA model can help marketers understand adolescents' consumption preferences and habits for developing effective Internet marketing strategies.

  4. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Insights into the Government’s Role in Food System Policy Making: Improving Access to Healthy, Local Food Alongside Other Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Raine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b barriers to food system planning; and (c the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”. A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.

  6. Insights into the Government’s Role in Food System Policy Making: Improving Access to Healthy, Local Food Alongside Other Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.

    2012-01-01

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food. PMID:23202834

  7. Using social network analysis to examine the decision-making process on new vaccine introduction in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonodi, C B; Privor-Dumm, L; Aina, M; Pate, A M; Reis, R; Gadhoke, P; Levine, O S

    2012-05-01

    The decision-making process to introduce new vaccines into national immunization programmes is often complex, involving many stakeholders who provide technical information, mobilize finance, implement programmes and garner political support. Stakeholders may have different levels of interest, knowledge and motivations to introduce new vaccines. Lack of consensus on the priority, public health value or feasibility of adding a new vaccine can delay policy decisions. Efforts to support country-level decision-making have largely focused on establishing global policies and equipping policy makers with the information to support decision-making on new vaccine introduction (NVI). Less attention has been given to understanding the interactions of policy actors and how the distribution of influence affects the policy process and decision-making. Social network analysis (SNA) is a social science technique concerned with explaining social phenomena using the structural and relational features of the network of actors involved. This approach can be used to identify how information is exchanged and who is included or excluded from the process. For this SNA of vaccine decision-making in Nigeria, we interviewed federal and state-level government officials, officers of bilateral and multilateral partner organizations, and other stakeholders such as health providers and the media. Using data culled from those interviews, we performed an SNA in order to map formal and informal relationships and the distribution of influence among vaccine decision-makers, as well as to explore linkages and pathways to stakeholders who can influence critical decisions in the policy process. Our findings indicate a relatively robust engagement of key stakeholders in Nigeria. We hypothesized that economic stakeholders and implementers would be important to ensure sustainable financing and strengthen programme implementation, but some economic and implementation stakeholders did not appear centrally on

  8. Reimbursement decisions in health policy--extending our understanding of the elements of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika; Cribb, Alan; Barber, Nick

    2005-09-08

    Previous theoretical and empirical work on health policy decisions about reimbursement focuses on specific rationales such as effectiveness, economic considerations and equal access for equal needs. As reimbursement decisions take place in a social and political context we propose that the analysis of decision-making should incorporate factors, which go beyond those commonly discussed. As an example we chose three health technologies (sildenafil, rivastigmine and statins) to investigate how decisions about reimbursement of medicines are made in the United Kingdom National Health Service and what factors influence these decisions. From face-to-face, in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of 20 regional and national policy makers and stakeholders we identified two dimensions of decision-making, which extend beyond the rationales conventionally cited. The first dimension relates to the role of 'subjectivity' or 'the personal' in the decisions, including personal experiences of the condition and excitement about the novelty or potential benefit of the technology-these factors affect what counts as evidence, or how evidence is interpreted, in practice. The second dimension relates to the social and political function of decision-making and broadens what counts as the relevant ends of decision-making to include such things as maintaining relationships, avoiding organisational burden, generating politically and legally defensible decisions and demonstrating the willingness to care. More importantly, we will argue that these factors should not be treated as contaminants of an otherwise rational decision-making. On the contrary we suggest that they seem relevant, reasonable and also of substantial importance in considering in decision-making. Complementing the analysis of decision-making about reimbursement by incorporating these factors could increase our understanding and potentially improve decision-making.

  9. Process for making propenyl ethers and photopolymerizable compositions containing them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivello, James V.

    1996-01-01

    Propenyl ether monomers of formula V A(OCH.dbd.CHCH.sub.3).sub.n wherein n is an integer from one to six and A is selected from cyclic ethers, polyether and alkanes are disclosed. The monomers are readily polymerized in the presence of cationic photoinitiators, when exposed to actinic radiation, to form poly(propenyl ethers) that are useful for coatings, sealants, varnishes and adhesives. Compositions for preparing polymeric coatings comprising the compounds of formula V together with particular cationic photoinitiators are also disclosed, as are processes for making the monomers from allyl halides and readily available alcohols. The process involves rearranging the resulting allyl ethers to propenyl ethers.

  10. The analytic hierarchy process as a support for decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Milanka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this text deals with a convention site selection as one of the most lucrative areas in the tourism industry. The second part gives a further description of a method for decision making - the analytic hierarchy process. The basic characteristics: hierarchy constructions and pair wise comparison on the given level of the hierarchy are allured. The third part offers an example of application. This example is solved using the Super - Decision software, which is developed as a computer support for the analytic hierarchy process. This indicates that the AHP approach is a useful tool to help support a decision of convention site selection. .

  11. Interactive policy processes: a challenge for street-level bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Damgaard, Bodil

    2018-01-01

    public managers are expected to work closely and directly with affected stakeholders in order to solve cross-cutting ‘wicked problems’. More interactive and participative collaborative policy processes increasingly require public managers to move from back-office work to front-office work, in effect...... in order to secure transparent processes that keep the rule of law and that support well-functioning local communities – or in more broad terms: skills needed to secure democracy and economic efficiency....

  12. Research-Based Knowledge: Researchers' Contribution to Evidence-Based Practice and Policy Making in Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Erik Hagaseth; Plant, Peter

    2016-01-01

    To present evidence for the outcomes of career guidance is increasingly seen as pivotal for a further professionalization of policy making and service provision. This paper puts an emphasis on researchers' contribution to evidence-based practice and policy making in career guidance. We argue for a broader and more pluralistic research strategy to…

  13. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  14. Foxes, hedgehogs, and greenhouse governance: Knowledge, uncertainty, and international policy-making in a warming World

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, David

    2009-01-01

    Global environmental challenges like greenhouse warming are characterized by profound uncertainties about the workings of complex systems, high stakes as to the costs and benefits of various possible actions, and important differences concerning the values that should shape public choices, confounding ready resolution by conventional decision-making procedures. So-called adaptive or reflexive governance strategies provide policy-makers an alternative framework for tackling the greenhouse problem. Adaptive governance employs deliberate experimentation and continuous learning-by-doing to test and adjust ongoing policy responses. Yet pursuing such approaches poses particular challenges to global climate cooperation. In an increasingly interdependent world, coordinating multiple parties experimentally adopting different climate measures could prove contentious. Unequivocal policy lessons may be difficult to draw and apply. Timely collective revisions to ongoing policies may prove more difficult still to define and agree. Advocates must engage these issues directly and develop means of addressing them if adaptive governance approaches are to allow policy-makers to formulate better strategies for combating climate change. (author)

  15. Safety assessment as basis for the decision making process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilie, P.; Didita, L.; Danchiv, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the safety assessment for a new near surface repository, particularly for the early stage of repository development using ISAM (Improvement of Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near Surface Disposal Facilities) safety assessment methodology. In this stage of the repository life cycle the main purpose of the safety assessment is to demonstrate that the plant is capable to be constructed and operated safely. The paper is based on development of the ASAM (Application of the Safety Assessment Methodologies for Near-Surface Disposal Facilities) Decision Support Subgroup of the Common Aspects Working Group. The implications of decision making for the application of the ISAM methodology on post-closure safety assessment are analysed. Some important elements of the decision-making process with impact on key components of the ISAM process are described. Following the development of Decision Support Subgroup of the ASAM Common Aspects Working Group the proposed change of ISAM methodology is analysed. This approach puts all activities in a decision context where the first iteration of the safety assessment is based on the existing state of knowledge and the initial engineering design. Confidence in the process is accomplished through the direct inclusion of all decision makers and stakeholders in the formulation of decisions, the definition of the state of knowledge, and decision making activities. The decision process is developed in context of undertaking assessments with little site-specific information, this situation is specifically for new planned repository. Limited site-specific information can result in a high degree of uncertainty, therefore it is important first of all to identify the sources of uncertainty arising from the limited nature of the site-specific information and then to apply appropriate approaches to manage the uncertainties and to determine whether the uncertainties are important to the overall safety of the disposal facility

  16. Designing Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways using Many-Objective Robust Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2017-04-01

    Dealing with climate risks in water management requires confronting a wide variety of deeply uncertain factors, while navigating a many dimensional space of trade-offs amongst objectives. There is an emerging body of literature on supporting this type of decision problem, under the label of decision making under deep uncertainty. Two approaches within this literature are Many-Objective Robust Decision Making, and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. In recent work, these approaches have been compared. One of the main conclusions of this comparison was that they are highly complementary. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making is a model based decision support approach, while Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is primarily a conceptual framework for the design of flexible strategies that can be adapted over time in response to how the future is actually unfolding. In this research we explore this complementarity in more detail. Specifically, we demonstrate how Many-Objective Robust Decision Making can be used to design adaptation pathways. We demonstrate this combined approach using a water management problem, in the Netherlands. The water level of Lake IJselmeer, the main fresh water resource of the Netherlands, is currently managed through discharge by gravity. Due to climate change, this won't be possible in the future, unless water levels are changed. Changing the water level has undesirable flood risk and spatial planning consequences. The challenge is to find promising adaptation pathways that balance objectives related to fresh water supply, flood risk, and spatial issues, while accounting for uncertain climatic and land use change. We conclude that the combination of Many-Objective Robust Decision Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is particularly suited for dealing with deeply uncertain climate risks.

  17. Governing irrationality, or a more than rational government? Reflections on the rescientisation of decision making in British public policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Whitehead; Rhys Jones; Jessica Pykett

    2011-01-01

    It appears that recent debates within human geography, and the broader social sciences, concerning the more-than-rational constitution of human decision making are now being paralleled by changes in the ways in which public policy makers are conceiving of and addressing human behaviour. This paper focuses on the rise of so-called Behaviour Change policies in public policy in the UK. Behaviour Change policies draw on the behavioural insights being developed within the neurosciences, behavioura...

  18. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P

    2015-12-15

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions.

  19. Dissociating sensory from decision processes in human perceptual decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Pim; Kok, Peter; de Lange, Floris P.

    2015-01-01

    A key question within systems neuroscience is how the brain translates physical stimulation into a behavioral response: perceptual decision making. To answer this question, it is important to dissociate the neural activity underlying the encoding of sensory information from the activity underlying the subsequent temporal integration into a decision variable. Here, we adopted a decoding approach to empirically assess this dissociation in human magnetoencephalography recordings. We used a functional localizer to identify the neural signature that reflects sensory-specific processes, and subsequently traced this signature while subjects were engaged in a perceptual decision making task. Our results revealed a temporal dissociation in which sensory processing was limited to an early time window and consistent with occipital areas, whereas decision-related processing became increasingly pronounced over time, and involved parietal and frontal areas. We found that the sensory processing accurately reflected the physical stimulus, irrespective of the eventual decision. Moreover, the sensory representation was stable and maintained over time when it was required for a subsequent decision, but unstable and variable over time when it was task-irrelevant. In contrast, decision-related activity displayed long-lasting sustained components. Together, our approach dissects neuro-anatomically and functionally distinct contributions to perceptual decisions. PMID:26666393

  20. A multicriteria decision making approach applied to improving maintenance policies in healthcare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnero, María Carmen; Gómez, Andrés

    2016-04-23

    Healthcare organizations have far greater maintenance needs for their medical equipment than other organization, as many are used directly with patients. However, the literature on asset management in healthcare organizations is very limited. The aim of this research is to provide more rational application of maintenance policies, leading to an increase in quality of care. This article describes a multicriteria decision-making approach which integrates Markov chains with the multicriteria Measuring Attractiveness by a Categorical Based Evaluation Technique (MACBETH), to facilitate the best choice of combination of maintenance policies by using the judgements of a multi-disciplinary decision group. The proposed approach takes into account the level of acceptance that a given alternative would have among professionals. It also takes into account criteria related to cost, quality of care and impact of care cover. This multicriteria approach is applied to four dialysis subsystems: patients infected with hepatitis C, infected with hepatitis B, acute and chronic; in all cases, the maintenance strategy obtained consists of applying corrective and preventive maintenance plus two reserve machines. The added value in decision-making practices from this research comes from: (i) integrating the use of Markov chains to obtain the alternatives to be assessed by a multicriteria methodology; (ii) proposing the use of MACBETH to make rational decisions on asset management in healthcare organizations; (iii) applying the multicriteria approach to select a set or combination of maintenance policies in four dialysis subsystems of a health care organization. In the multicriteria decision making approach proposed, economic criteria have been used, related to the quality of care which is desired for patients (availability), and the acceptance that each alternative would have considering the maintenance and healthcare resources which exist in the organization, with the inclusion of a

  1. The Hinkley Point decision: An analysis of the policy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the British government launched a policy to build nuclear power reactors based on a claim that the power produced would be competitive with fossil fuel and would require no public subsidy. A decade later, it is not clear how many, if any, orders will be placed and the claims on costs and subsidies have proved false. Despite this failure to deliver, the policy is still being pursued with undiminished determination. The finance model that is now proposed is seen as a model other European countries can follow so the success or otherwise of the British nuclear programme will have implications outside the UK. This paper contends that the checks and balances that should weed out misguided policies, have failed. It argues that the most serious failure is with the civil service and its inability to provide politicians with high quality advice – truth to power. It concludes that the failure is likely to be due to the unwillingness of politicians to listen to opinions that conflict with their beliefs. Other weaknesses include the lack of energy expertise in the media, the unwillingness of the public to engage in the policy process and the impotence of Parliamentary Committees. - Highlights: •Britain's nuclear power policy is failing due to high costs and problems of finance. •This has implications for European countries who want to use the same financing model. •The continued pursuit of a failing policy is due to poor advice from civil servants. •Lack of expertise in the media and lack of public engagement have contributed. •Parliamentary processes have not provided proper critical scrutiny.

  2. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  3. Crisis, neoliberal health policy, and political processes in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, A C

    1991-01-01

    The Mexican case represents an orthodox neoliberal health policy in the context of the structural adjustment adopted by the Mexican government in 1983. The social costs of this strategy are very high, including an increase in unemployment, wage depression, regressive redistribution of wealth, and profound changes in social policies. These transformations are reflected in the health sector, where the four main axes of neoliberal policy--expenditure restrictions, targeting, decentralization, and privatization--have been implemented. This represents a change in social policy from a model based on citizens' social rights and the state's obligation to guarantee them, to a model characterized by selective public charity. This strategy has been imposed on society as a result of the Mexican corporative political regime based on a state party system. Since 1985, however, there has been a growing process of independent organization of civil society. This led in the presidential elections of 1988 to the defeat of the candidate of the governing party by the candidate of a popular-democratic opposition front. Although the government party imposed its candidate through electoral fraud, social mobilization against neoliberal policies continues in the midst of an important political crisis that can only be resolved by profound democratization of Mexican society.

  4. People adopt optimal policies in simple decision-making, after practice and guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nathan J; Brown, Scott D

    2017-04-01

    Organisms making repeated simple decisions are faced with a tradeoff between urgent and cautious strategies. While animals can adopt a statistically optimal policy for this tradeoff, findings about human decision-makers have been mixed. Some studies have shown that people can optimize this "speed-accuracy tradeoff", while others have identified a systematic bias towards excessive caution. These issues have driven theoretical development and spurred debate about the nature of human decision-making. We investigated a potential resolution to the debate, based on two factors that routinely differ between human and animal studies of decision-making: the effects of practice, and of longer-term feedback. Our study replicated the finding that most people, by default, are overly cautious. When given both practice and detailed feedback, people moved rapidly towards the optimal policy, with many participants reaching optimality with less than 1 h of practice. Our findings have theoretical implications for cognitive and neural models of simple decision-making, as well as methodological implications.

  5. Process to make core-shell structured nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhrs, Claudia; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N

    2014-01-07

    Disclosed is a process for making a composite material that contains core-shell structured nanoparticles. The process includes providing a precursor in the form of a powder a liquid and/or a vapor of a liquid that contains a core material and a shell material, and suspending the precursor in an aerosol gas to produce an aerosol containing the precursor. In addition, the process includes providing a plasma that has a hot zone and passing the aerosol through the hot zone of the plasma. As the aerosol passes through the hot zone of the plasma, at least part of the core material and at least part of the shell material in the aerosol is vaporized. Vapor that contains the core material and the shell material that has been vaporized is removed from the hot zone of the plasma and allowed to condense into core-shell structured nanoparticles.

  6. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  7. Shared decision making and medication management in the recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, Patricia E; Drake, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    Mental health professionals commonly conceptualize medication management for people with severe mental illness in terms of strategies to increase compliance or adherence. The authors argue that compliance is an inadequate construct because it fails to capture the dynamic complexity of autonomous clients who must navigate decisional conflicts in learning to manage disorders over the course of years or decades. Compliance is rooted in medical paternalism and is at odds with principles of person-centered care and evidence-based medicine. Using medication is an active process that involves complex decision making and a chance to work through decisional conflicts. It requires a partnership between two experts: the client and the practitioner. Shared decision making provides a model for them to assess a treatment's advantages and disadvantages within the context of recovering a life after a diagnosis of a major mental disorder.

  8. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear

  9. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  10. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafinski, Tania; Menon, Devidas; Davis, Caroline; McCabe, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process. A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases) and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents) was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers. Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations remains unclear. Increasingly, reimbursement systems are expressing interest in and/or implementing reimbursement policy options that extend beyond the traditional "yes," "no," or "yes with restrictions" options. Such options typically require greater involvement of manufacturers which, to date, has been limited. Centralized reimbursement systems have become an

  11. Streamlining the process: A strategy for making NEPA work better and cost less

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, R.P.; Hansen, J.D. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States); Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-05-01

    When the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was enacted in 1969, neither Congress nor the Federal Agencies affected anticipated that implementation of the NEPA process would result in the intolerable delays, inefficiencies, duplication of effort, commitments of excessive financial and personnel resources, and bureaucratic gridlock that have become institutionalized. The 1975 Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, which were intended to make the NEPA process more efficient and more useful to decision makers and the public, have either been largely ignored or unintentionally subverted. Agency policy mandates, like those of former Secretary of Energy Hazel R. O`Leary, to ``make NEPA work better and cost less`` have, so far, been disappointingly ineffectual. Federal Agencies have reached the point where almost every constituent of the NEPA process must be subjected to crisis management. This paper focuses on a ten-point strategy for streamlining the NEPA process in order to achieve the Act`s objectives while easing the considerable burden on agencies, the public, and the judicial system. How the ten points are timed and implemented is critical to any successful streamlining.

  12. The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ruso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15

  13. Motivators That Intervene in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Being part of the tourism industries involves many researches and analyses in different periods of time, regarding different segments of consumers. Therefore, it is important to be aware of all the factors and motivators that influence a tourist to purchase a particular tourism services. These complex variables are crucial for the final purchase decision of an offer with emotional value for customers. This paper presents the principals motivators which intervene in the decision making process that should be acknowledged by marketers in order to provide the ideal tourism package.

  14. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  15. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  16. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies. PMID:12887735

  17. Psychosocial risks: is risk management strategic enough in business and policy making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-06-01

    In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace-psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  18. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-07-29

    The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws - the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  19. The role of international development strategies in making regional development policies: Hokkaido as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Saunavaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, national governments and international institutions have both searched for ways to equalise disparities and revitalise lagging regions. Although ideas and examples of the most effective ways to achieve these goals originate in various places, their influence is inclined to permeate elsewhere. Therefore, the processes involved in policy transfers are highly relevant from the perspective of regional development. This study approaches these processes through the case study of post-war Hokkaido and pays special attention to the role of three international development strategies: the Tennessee Valley Authority model, the Growth Pole Theory and the Industrial Cluster Theory. As a result, this research shows the wide variety of agents involved in policy transfer, analyses the processes of incorporating exogenous ideas into regional development polices and demonstrates the variety of sources from which different agents can draw lessons.

  20. Identification of Optimal Policies in Markov Decision Processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sladký, Karel

    46 2010, č. 3 (2010), s. 558-570 ISSN 0023-5954. [International Conference on Mathematical Methods in Economy and Industry. České Budějovice, 15.06.2009-18.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/08/0107; GA ČR GA402/07/1113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : finite state Markov decision processes * discounted and average costs * elimination of suboptimal policies Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.461, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/E/sladky-identification of optimal policies in markov decision processes.pdf

  1. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, John; Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-10-25

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession.

  2. Defending the scientific integrity of conservation-policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; Hartl, Brett; Goldman, Gretchen T; Rohlf, Daniel J; Treves, Adrian; Kerr, Jeremy T; Ritchie, Euan G; Kingsford, Richard T; Gibbs, Katherine E; Maron, Martine; Watson, James E M

    2017-10-01

    Government agencies faced with politically controversial decisions often discount or ignore scientific information, whether from agency staff or nongovernmental scientists. Recent developments in scientific integrity (the ability to perform, use, communicate, and publish science free from censorship or political interference) in Canada, Australia, and the United States demonstrate a similar trajectory. A perceived increase in scientific-integrity abuses provokes concerted pressure by the scientific community, leading to efforts to improve scientific-integrity protections under a new administration. However, protections are often inconsistently applied and are at risk of reversal under administrations publicly hostile to evidence-based policy. We compared recent challenges to scientific integrity to determine what aspects of scientific input into conservation policy are most at risk of political distortion and what can be done to strengthen safeguards against such abuses. To ensure the integrity of outbound communications from government scientists to the public, we suggest governments strengthen scientific integrity policies, include scientists' right to speak freely in collective-bargaining agreements, guarantee public access to scientific information, and strengthen agency culture supporting scientific integrity. To ensure the transparency and integrity with which information from nongovernmental scientists (e.g., submitted comments or formal policy reviews) informs the policy process, we suggest governments broaden the scope of independent reviews, ensure greater diversity of expert input and transparency regarding conflicts of interest, require a substantive response to input from agencies, and engage proactively with scientific societies. For their part, scientists and scientific societies have a responsibility to engage with the public to affirm that science is a crucial resource for developing evidence-based policy and regulations in the public interest.

  3. International Patients' Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad Jamal; Chelliah, Shankar; Haron, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-02-01

    Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce.

  4. International Patients’ Travel Decision Making Process- A Conceptual Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    KHAN, Mohammad Jamal; CHELLIAH, Shankar; HARON, Mahmod Sabri

    2016-01-01

    Background: Role of information source, perceived benefits and risks, and destination image has significantly been examined in travel and tourism literature; however, in medical tourism it is yet to be examined thoroughly. The concept discussed in this article is drawn form well established models in tourism literature. Methods: The purpose of this research was to identify the source of information, travel benefits and perceived risks related to movement of international patients and develop a conceptual model based on well-established theory. Thorough database search (Science Direct, utmj.org, nih.gov, nchu.edu.tw, palgrave-journals, medretreat, Biomedcentral) was performed to fulfill the objectives of the study. Results: International patients always concern about benefits and risks related to travel. These benefits and risks form images of destination in the minds of international patients. Different sources of information make international patients acquaint about the associated benefits and risks, which later leads to development of intention to visit. This conceptual paper helps in establishing model for decision-making process of international patients in developing visit intention. Conclusion: Ample amount of literature is available detailing different factors involved in travel decision making of international patients; however literature explaining relationship between these factors is scarce. PMID:27114978

  5. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  6. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  7. Information processing as a paradigm for decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Daniel M; Kelso, Evan

    2015-01-03

    For decades, the dominant paradigm for studying decision making--the expected utility framework--has been burdened by an increasing number of empirical findings that question its validity as a model of human cognition and behavior. However, as Kuhn (1962) argued in his seminal discussion of paradigm shifts, an old paradigm cannot be abandoned until a new paradigm emerges to replace it. In this article, we argue that the recent shift in researcher attention toward basic cognitive processes that give rise to decision phenomena constitutes the beginning of that replacement paradigm. Models grounded in basic perceptual, attentional, memory, and aggregation processes have begun to proliferate. The development of this new approach closely aligns with Kuhn's notion of paradigm shift, suggesting that this is a particularly generative and revolutionary time to be studying decision science.

  8. Factors influencing smallholder cocoa production : a management analysis of behavioural decision-making processes of technology adoption and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taher, S.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to expand present knowledge on the technology adoption and application rates for production inputs and fermentation processing related to farmers' decision- making, and to formulate an optimal technology application policy, particularly for smallholder cocoa

  9. [Social participation in mental health: space of construction of citizenship, policy formulation and decision making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, José Maria Ximenes; Jorge, Maria Salete Bessa; Maia, Regina Claudia Furtado; de Oliveira, Lucia Conde; Morais, Ana Patrícia Pereira; Lima, Marcos Paulo de Oliveira; Assis, Marluce Maria Araújo; dos Santos, Adriano Maia

    2010-07-01

    The article approaches the comprehension of professionals that act in the mental health area about the movement of construction of social participation in the health system of Fortaleza, Ceará State. The methodology adopted is based upon qualitative approach. The study was developed with semi-structured interviews with 17 mental health professionals of the city above mentioned. The empirical data was analyzed through the technique of thematic content analysis, where it was identified three cores of analysis: social participation as space of citizenship and policy formulation; oriented to attention of collective needs; and decision taking. The study reveals that social participation represents a possibility of amplifying X the relations between the Civil Society and the State, which makes possible the social intervention in proposals of the health policies. It is highlighted the right to health linked to the consolidation of democracy in the attention to the needs and collective edification.

  10. Women's shelters in Turkey: a qualitative study on shortcomings of policy making and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diner, Cagla; Toktaş, Şule

    2013-03-01

    Despite a long history of women's movements and policy-making efforts to ameliorate women's status in Turkey, the number and quality of women's shelters are far from sufficient. This article aims to reveal the shortcomings of shelter policy through the lens of those "at work" on this important social issue using a qualitative research design. Forty semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with municipal administrative officials, state social workers, and employees of civil society organizations that run shelters. The research findings reveal that there is a lack of effective authority that has the willpower to combat violence against women, and that it is difficult to keep shelters secure in a patriarchal society away from the male gaze. Furthermore, results indicate that there has been an erosion of social services provided by the state.

  11. PROCESS APPROACH TO CULTURAL POLICY IN THE REGIONAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Lavryshsheva

    2017-02-01

    Characteristics of cultural policy, as a process, i.e. procedural approach, allows us to see the specific aspects of interaction of subjects over the governmental authorities. However, due to the fact, that in its scale cultural process is the same as political environment of the state, some scientists identify it either with politics in general or with the totality of the shares of behavioral government entities, change their status and influence. Supporters of the institutional approach associates the cultural political process with the functioning and the transformation of the government institutionы, based on a set of the political system reactions on the environmental challenges. As we speak in the current economic conditions in Ukraine is actual the development of anti-crisis measures for the rehabilitation and development of the conceptual approach of cultural policies in the region. As such, the obvious is the development of a measures set by all courses of the plan, that will mutualize the key goals, objectives and tools into a uniform system of measures. This plan should provide the combined model in the region and provide a transition to the zonal management principle of the transition period. In the plan it is also should be provided institutional support for the proposed measures, namely the mechanisms of technological and socio-cultural issues implementation in range of the cultural policy of the society [1, p.18].

  12. Constructing knowledge through perceptual processes in making craft-art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Ojala

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The focus of the study is on the knowledge that is constructed through perceptual processes during craft making in the context of the Finnish Basic Education in the Arts (BEA system. Craft studies in the BEA are defined as craft-art. The research method used is the grounded theory. The data consists of seven interviews and participant observations. Participants in the study are adolescents who study craft-art in the BEA system in Visual Art School, Aimo in Hämeenlinna. The aim of the article is to present, define and reflect on the concepts, properties and dimensions concerning perceptual processes that are discovered in this stage of the study following grounded theory procedures. The perceptual processes are an essential means of constructing knowledge in craft-art. Consequently, one aim of the study is to discuss how these processes are connected to various types of knowledge. The perceptual processes are described by seven concepts: imitative, anticipative, evaluative, experimental, emotional, temporal and bodily perceptions. They indicate on a conceptual level the characteristic of knowledge constructed through perceptual processes in craft-art. Further, theconcepts have several properties that can vary dimensionally between two qualities. The properties are activity, function and position. The dimensions of the properties vary from active to passive, formal to informal and internal to external. In conclusion, the concepts can describe a large range of incidents in different situations. They also seem to describe well the practice of  craft-art and there are several connections with pre-existing concepts of knowledge.Keywords: Craft, Knowledge, Perceptual process, Basic Education in the Arts, Grounded Theory 

  13. Motivated information processing and group decision-making : Effects of process accountability on information processing and decision quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Lotte; van Knippenberg, Daan; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Integrating dual-process models [Chaiken, S., & Trope, Y. (Eds.). (1999). Dual-process theories in social psychology. NewYork: Guilford Press] with work on information sharing and group decision-making [Stasser, G., & Titus, W. (1985). Pooling of unshared information in group decision making: biased

  14. UTILIZATION OF EVALUATION RESULTS IN LEGAL POLICY-MAKING AND ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmut Wollmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of evaluation method and its impact on legal policy development in governance, including in the area of law enforcement.The author outlines the importance of question whether, when and how the evaluation results of public policies, programs and measures has been utilized (or not utilized in policy making and policy implementation.In the pursuit of this guiding question the article will come in five steps.First, major variants of evaluation will be briefly presented particularly with an eye on their respective “utilization potential”.Second, different concepts will be sketched that have been forwarded to capture the utilization of social science generated knowledge by political, administrative and social actors. The author outlines a detailed description of types of evaluations: a retrospective, prelimi-nary, ongoing, interactive, – as well as existing concepts of application of its results.Third, looking at Germany, Switzerland and the European Union as “cases in point” perti-ent research findings will be discussed. The article also subjected to a detailed analysis of the experience of Germany, Switzerland and the European Union in the field of utilization of evaluation results.Fourth, a summary and conclusion will be given.Fifth, some remarks on pertinent research needs will be made.The author comes to the conclusion that that the rate of the utilization of evaluation-generated knowledge has so far turned out be, by and large, scarce. The author says that re-garding the politically crucial decisions the political rationality and its underlying political will of the decision-makers prevail while concerning less important decisions evaluation-generated evidence does show some effect and, hence, a dose of scientific rationality comes to the fore.There is also a need for further research on the subject of how should (and should not use assessment results when making legal and political decisions.

  15. Unionism, the Decision-Making Process and Social Security Reform in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney Jard da Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the vast literature on social security reform there are relatively few studies that analyze the participation of representatives coming from the union movement in the decision-making process. This article aims to fill part of that gap in Brazilian academic production on unionism and public policy. In situations in which unionist representatives support the ruling party, does the union bloc tend to defend the specific interests of their base of social representation or to follow the guidance of the party coalition of which they are part? The study addresses this research problemby analyzing the participation of the union bloc in the decision-making process of a social security reform, Proposal of Amendment to the Constitution, Article 40 (PEC 40, during the first term of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's government. The main findings of the study confirm the thesis of party predominance. In an institutional political scenario in which party discipline prevails, unionist representatives and senators tend to follow the guidance of the party coalition even under contrary pressures from their electoral base. The research sheds light on the relations involved between the Executive and Legislative branches, in the process of changing public policy, in which a government considered to be allied imposes losses for specific sectors of the union base, notably the active and inactive public servants of the federal government, states and municipalities.

  16. Structuring injustice: partisan politics in the making and unmaking of James Madison University's equal opportunity policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Christine M; Spivey, Sue E

    2011-01-01

    This analysis contributes to LGBT campus climate research on the quality of campus life in higher education in the United States. We argue that public education institutions in different states face divergent impediments to improving campus climate, and that more research is needed identifying structural factors affecting campus climate. Using a social systems analysis of policymaking at one university as a case study, we illustrate how partisan politics and state regulation make Virginia colleges and universities more vulnerable to political scrutiny and control. Finally, we propose a social justice-oriented policy agenda to address structural inequalities.

  17. Holding Government Accountable: Tobacco Policy Making in California, 1995-1997

    OpenAIRE

    Balbach, Edith D. Ph.D.; Monardi, Fred M. Ph.D.; Fox, Brion J. J.D.; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    1997-01-01

    January 1, 1996 through May 31, 1997 was an active period for tobacco policy making in California. The fight in Spring, 1996, over the allocation of Proposition 99 revenues was more public and aggressive than it had been in the past, an increased level of public scrutiny was brought to bear on the implementation of the media campaign, the state of California’s failure to sue the tobacco industry for recovery of medical costs became a political issue, and the tobacco industry continued to give...

  18. Role of centralized review processes for making reimbursement decisions on new health technologies in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stafinski T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Tania Stafinski1, Devidas Menon2, Caroline Davis1, Christopher McCabe31Health Technology and Policy Unit, 2Health Policy and Management, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 3Academic Unit of Health Economics, Leeds Institute for Health Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UKBackground: The purpose of this study was to compare centralized reimbursement/coverage decision-making processes for health technologies in 23 European countries, according to: mandate, authority, structure, and policy options; mechanisms for identifying, selecting, and evaluating technologies; clinical and economic evidence expectations; committee composition, procedures, and factors considered; available conditional reimbursement options for promising new technologies; and the manufacturers' roles in the process.Methods: A comprehensive review of publicly available information from peer-reviewed literature (using a variety of bibliographic databases and gray literature (eg, working papers, committee reports, presentations, and government documents was conducted. Policy experts in each of the 23 countries were also contacted. All information collected was reviewed by two independent researchers.Results: Most European countries have established centralized reimbursement systems for making decisions on health technologies. However, the scope of technologies considered, as well as processes for identifying, selecting, and reviewing them varies. All systems include an assessment of clinical evidence, compiled in accordance with their own guidelines or internationally recognized published ones. In addition, most systems require an economic evaluation. The quality of such information is typically assessed by content and methodological experts. Committees responsible for formulating recommendations or decisions are multidisciplinary. While criteria used by committees appear transparent, how they are operationalized during deliberations

  19. Exploring health systems research and its influence on policy processes in low income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shamsuzzoha B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interface between research and policymaking in low-income countries is highly complex. The ability of health systems research to influence policy processes in such settings face numerous challenges. Successful analysis of the research-policy interface in these settings requires understanding of contextual factors as well as key influences on the interface. Future Health Systems (FHS: Innovations for Equity is a consortium conducting research in six countries in Asia and Africa. One of the three cross-country research themes of the consortium is analysis of the relationship between research (evidence and policy making, especially their impact on the poor; insights gained in the initial conceptual phase of FHS activities can inform the global knowledge pool on this subject. Discussion This paper provides a review of the research-policy interface in low-income countries and proposes a conceptual framework, followed by directions for empirical approaches. First, four developmental perspectives are considered: social institutional factors; virtual versus grassroots realities; science-society relationships; and construction of social arrangements. Building on these developmental perspectives three research-policy interface entry points are identified: 1. Recognizing policy as complex processes; 2. Engaging key stakeholders: decision-makers, providers, scientists, and communities; and 3. Enhancing accountability. A conceptual framework with three entry points to the research-policy interface – policy processes; stakeholder interests, values, and power; and accountability – within a context provided by four developmental perspectives is proposed. Potential empirical approaches to the research-policy interface are then reviewed. Finally, the value of such innovative empirical analysis is considered. Conclusion The purpose of this paper is to provide the background, conceptual framework, and key research directions for

  20. Lessons learned from applying external input to DOE policy decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imholz, R.M.; Hindman, T.B. Jr.; Brubaker, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    Our nation has entered an era in which the public is demanding clean up and restoration of its environment, understandable information, and participation in decision making. The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) culture, which grew out of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) culture of classification, compartmentalization, and strict-need-to-know dissemination of information, was in direct conflict with this demand for public involvement. The DOE recognized this and committed to changing their culture into one of openness and public involvement in decision making and policy direction. This paper reports that as a result, DOE created a number of external review groups, one of them being the State and Tribal Government Working Group (STGWG). The STGWG was created to review the first Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan. The Five-Year Plan establishes an agenda for compliance and cleanup of DOE installations against which progress can be measured

  1. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  2. Descriptive analysis of immunization policy decision making in the Americas Análisis descriptivo de la toma de decisión sobre políticas de vacunación en las Américas

    OpenAIRE

    Julianne E. Burns; Rachel C. Mitrovich; Barbara Jauregui; Cuauhtémoc Ruiz Matus; Jon K. Andrus

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Reducing and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases requires evidence-based and informed policy decision making. Critical to determining the functionality of the decision-making process for introduction of a new vaccine is understanding the role of the national immunization technical advisory group (ITAG) in each country. The aim of this study is to document the current situation of national level immunization policy decision making for use in the Pan American Health Organizatio...

  3. National Environmental Policy Act guidance: A model process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angle, B.M.; Lockhart, V.A.T.; Sema, B.; Tuott, L.C.; Irving, J.S.

    1995-04-01

    The ''Model National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Process'' includes: References to regulations, guidance documents, and plans; training programs; procedures; and computer databases. Legislative Acts and reference documents from Congress, US Department of Energy, and Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company provide the bases for conducting NEPA at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company (LITCO) NEPA / Permitting Department, the Contractor Environmental Organization (CEO) is responsible for developing and maintaining LITCO NEPA and permitting policies, guidance, and procedures. The CEO develops procedures to conduct environmental evaluations based on NEPA, Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations, and DOE guidance. This procedure includes preparation or support of environmental checklists, categorical exclusion determinations, environmental assessment determinations, environmental assessments, and environmental impact statements. In addition, the CEO uses this information to train personnel conducting environmental evaluations at the INEL. Streamlining these procedures fosters efficient use of resources, quality documents, and better decisions on proposed actions

  4. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  5. Qualitative modeling of the decision-making process using electrooculography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargari Marandi, Ramtin; Sabzpoushan, S H

    2015-12-01

    A novel method based on electrooculography (EOG) has been introduced in this work to study the decision-making process. An experiment was designed and implemented wherein subjects were asked to choose between two items from the same category that were presented within a limited time. The EOG and voice signals of the subjects were recorded during the experiment. A calibration task was performed to map the EOG signals to their corresponding gaze positions on the screen by using an artificial neural network. To analyze the data, 16 parameters were extracted from the response time and EOG signals of the subjects. Evaluation and comparison of the parameters, together with subjects' choices, revealed functional information. On the basis of this information, subjects switched their eye gazes between items about three times on average. We also found, according to statistical hypothesis testing-that is, a t test, t(10) = 71.62, SE = 1.25, p < .0001-that the correspondence rate of a subjects' gaze at the moment of selection with the selected item was significant. Ultimately, on the basis of these results, we propose a qualitative choice model for the decision-making task.

  6. Effect of the bread-making process on zearalenone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Sara; Milani, Jafar; Nazari, Seyed Saman Seyed Jafar

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the bread-making process including fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus fermentum) and baking at 200°C on zearalenone (ZEA) levels were investigated. Standard solutions of ZEA were added to flour and then loaves of bread were prepared. Sourdough and three types of yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for the fermentation of dough. ZEA levels in flour, dough and bread were determined by HPLC with fluorescence detection after extraction and clean-up on an immunoaffinity column. The highest reduction in levels of ZEA was found in the first fermentation (first proof), while the lowest reduction was observed in the baking stage. In addition, the results showed that compressed yeast had the maximum reduction potential on ZEA levels even at the baking stage.

  7. Market Segmentation in the Decision Making Process in Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra VINEREAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I examine the responses of 154 tourists in relation to their predisposition to purchase and the patterns and habits that are usually decisive in the decision making process regarding tourism services or products. For this research, I conducted a selective direct research, whose purpose was to obtain a segmentation of consumers who purchase tourism services based on specific dimensions of behavior. This research also implied studying the behavior of current and potential customers who purchase travel services depending on several variables for establishing different consumption habits. Thus, to establish a more detailed image of the tourists who participated in this direct and selective research, the analysis involved a factor analysis and a cluster analysis.

  8. How to make your development process user centred

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I’ve been designing and managing the development processes of websites and applications for companies since the 90s. In those years I’ve seen a lot of projects fail. The biggest issue: development teams prefer to spend the majority of their time in their cave behind their screens and clients stay in their ivory tower. This means that software is developed based on assumptions and personal taste. I’ve been to way to many meetings where arguments were leverages with ‘I don’t like this’ or ‘I think the user doesn’t want this’. During this presentation I will show the steps that should be taken to avoid all these issues and make a product that does bring the business objectives and the user’s desires together and is optimised for the real end user thus creates a usable product.

  9. Public involvement in the decision making process, Argentine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clein, D.

    1999-01-01

    In the frame of a young participative democracy the Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (C.N.E.A.), technical and legal responsible for radioactive waste management, is developing a plan for the close out of tailings facilities from past mining and milling operations and the environmental restoration of nine different sites in six provinces all over the country. In the first site, Malargue Facility, different activities have been developed promoting public involvement in the decision making process. The lessons learned and the experience acquired have given the background for the systematization of public consultation in the ongoing and future stages of the plan. Malargue's experience in this field will be analyzed stressing on different aspects considered of importance for the design of a communicational strategy adapted to the characteristics of a society without experience in this field. The influence of public concern on conservative bias of technical decisions will be evaluated. (author)

  10. Use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment in Shuttle Decision Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Roger L.; Hamlin, Teri, L.

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assist in the decision making for the shuttle design and operation. Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a comprehensive, structured, and disciplined approach to identifying and analyzing risk in complex systems and/or processes that seeks answers to three basic questions: (i.e., what can go wrong? what is the likelihood of these occurring? and what are the consequences that could result if these occur?) The purpose of the Shuttle PRA (SPRA) is to provide a useful risk management tool for the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) to identify strengths and possible weaknesses in the Shuttle design and operation. SPRA was initially developed to support upgrade decisions, but has evolved into a tool that supports Flight Readiness Reviews (FRR) and near real-time flight decisions. Examples of the use of PRA for the shuttle are reviewed.

  11. Cognitive Biases and Structural Failures in United States Foreign Policy: Explaining Decision-Making Dissonance in Phase IV Policy and Plans for Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hafner, Ferinand

    2007-01-01

    .... This thesis applies four decision-making perspectives the rational actor, organizational process, bureaucratic politics, and individual level approaches to the Phase IV planning process to analyze...

  12. Building a maintenance policy through a multi-criterion decision-making model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihinia, Elahe; Mollaverdi, Naser

    2012-08-01

    A major competitive advantage of production and service systems is establishing a proper maintenance policy. Therefore, maintenance managers should make maintenance decisions that best fit their systems. Multi-criterion decision-making methods can take into account a number of aspects associated with the competitiveness factors of a system. This paper presents a multi-criterion decision-aided maintenance model with three criteria that have more influence on decision making: reliability, maintenance cost, and maintenance downtime. The Bayesian approach has been applied to confront maintenance failure data shortage. Therefore, the model seeks to make the best compromise between these three criteria and establish replacement intervals using Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II), integrating the Bayesian approach with regard to the preference of the decision maker to the problem. Finally, using a numerical application, the model has been illustrated, and for a visual realization and an illustrative sensitivity analysis, PROMETHEE GAIA (the visual interactive module) has been used. Use of PROMETHEE II and PROMETHEE GAIA has been made with Decision Lab software. A sensitivity analysis has been made to verify the robustness of certain parameters of the model.

  13. Considerations of net present value in policy making regarding diagnostic and therapeutic technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Califf, Robert M; Rasiel, Emma B; Schulman, Kevin A

    2008-11-01

    The pharmaceutical and medical device industries function in a business environment in which shareholders expect companies to optimize profit within legal and ethical standards. A fundamental tool used to optimize decision making is the net present value calculation, which estimates the current value of cash flows relating to an investment. We examined 3 prototypical research investment decisions that have been the source of public scrutiny to illustrate how policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by industry are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value. In the case of direct, comparative clinical trials, a simple net present value calculation provides insight into why companies eschew such investments. In the case of pediatric clinical trials, the Pediatric Extension Rule changed the net present value calculation from unattractive to potentially very attractive by allowing patent extensions; thus, the dramatic increase in pediatric clinical trials can be explained by the financial return on investment. In the case of products for small markets, the fixed costs of development make this option financially unattractive. Policy decisions can be better understood when their impact on societally desirable investments by the pharmaceutical and medical device industries are viewed from the standpoint of their impact on net present value.

  14. The Use of the Evidence from the Behavioral Sciences in the Organizational Decision-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MÎNJINĂ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The important managerial decision-making and the development of policies, strategies, internal normative acts and procedures must be solid grounded for efficient achieving of their objectives. To this end, the evidence-based approach uses various types of evidence, a leading role having those scientific, and the critical thinking. The evidence from behavioral sciences is especially important when the decisions objectives involve behavioral elements. They also help to ensure the rationality of any decision-making process. The concern for the use of behavioral sciences research in the decision-making preceded the occurrence of evidence-based approach. The increased knowledge fund of organizations, the access to the best practices and to the relevant scientific research findings represent only the initial stages of the evidence-based approach implementation and functioning. The ensuring of their effective use calls for special skills training among staff, the creation of tools and organizational mechanisms and of a facilitating organizational culture. This paper argues the need to integrate two approaches that promote the decision-making based on scientific evidence, the evidence-based approach and the use of behavioral and social sciences in the decision-making, to potentiate the contribution of the behavioral sciences to the increasing of the decision-making efficiency. The efforts made in this paper had overall objective to prepare and facilitate the use of research evidence provided by behavioral sciences in the organizational decision-making process by presenting the main concepts and knowledge in the field and by proposing an outline procedure specifically developed.

  15. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  16. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  17. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  18. Educational Policy-Making as Power Struggle in a Multi-Cultural Society: The Malaysian Case. Revised Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Philip, Jr.

    This essay demonstrates how politics affected educational policy making at the national level in Malaysia. A historical and social overview describes the country's ethnic diversity and the passage of legislation that was designed to promote universal access to education. The government's higher education policies are evaluated, based on a process…

  19. Statutory Regulation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Practices: The Need for Distinct Policy Making Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.

  20. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external