WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy interventions intended

  1. When School Policies Backfire: How Well-Intended Measures Can Harm Our Most Vulnerable Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Michael A., Ed.; Conchas, Gilberto Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Like medical practitioners, educators share the moral obligation to "first, do no harm." But as this provocative volume shows, education policies do not always live up to this ideal, especially policies intended to help our most vulnerable students. "When School Policies Backfire" draws our attention to education policies…

  2. Can you design for Fidelity? How your intervention framework describes intended actions, participation and behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Signe; Gish, Liv; Ipsen, Christine

    In recent years the term fidelity has been introduced within the field of organizational level interventions. Fidelity describes the extent to which the intervention has been implemented as it was originally intended, and is regarded critical for determining the validity of the research results...... of participants involved at the same time. Steering organizational level interventions in every detail and secure full fidelity or treatment integrity can thus seem difficult. Organizational level intervention frameworks are often built on the designer’s experiences with previous interventions as well as what...... have been reported as best practice. The designer thus has a large role in making the intervention work – he or she can design intended actions, participation and behavior into the framework. The notion script can help explain the designer’s role. A script is the designer’s presumptions, visions...

  3. Clinical trials of health information technology interventions intended for patient use: unique issues and considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVito Dabbs, Annette; Song, Mi-Kyung; Myers, Brad; Hawkins, Robert P; Aubrecht, Jill; Begey, Alex; Connolly, Mary; Li, Ruosha; Pilewski, Joseph M; Bermudez, Christian A; Dew, Mary Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Despite the proliferation of health information technology (IT) interventions, descriptions of the unique considerations for conducting randomized trials of health IT interventions intended for patient use are lacking. Our purpose is to describe the protocol to evaluate Pocket PATH (Personal Assistant for Tracking Health), a novel health IT intervention, as an exemplar of how to address issues that may be unique to a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate health IT intended for patient use. An overview of the study protocol is presented. Unique considerations for health IT intervention trials and strategies are described to maintain equipoise, to monitor data safety and intervention fidelity, and to keep pace with changing technology during such trials. The sovereignty granted to technology, the rapid pace of changes in technology, ubiquitous use in health care, and obligation to maintain the safety of research participants challenge researchers to address these issues in ways that maintain the integrity of intervention trials designed to evaluate the impact of health IT interventions intended for patient use. Our experience evaluating the efficacy of Pocket PATH may provide practical guidance to investigators about how to comply with established procedures for conducting RCTs and include strategies to address the unique issues associated with the evaluation of health IT for patient use.

  4. Brazilian Soybean Policy: The International Effects of Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gary W. Williams; Robert L. Thompson

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the complex set of Brazilian soybean sector policies on the world soybean and products market. Brazilian policy makers have intended to encourage domestic crushing of soybeans and exports of processed rather than raw soybeans. Removal of the Brazilian policy set for the period 1960–78 is simulated with an econometric model of the world soybean market. The results indicate that the intervention objectives were not achieved. Moreover, the U.S. soybean industry...

  5. Rapid Reviews in Health Policy: A Study of Intended Use in the New South Wales' Evidence Check Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gabriel Mary; Redman, Sally; Turner, Tari; Haines, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Rapid reviews of research are a key way in which policy makers use research. This paper examines 74 rapid reviews commissioned by health policy agencies through the Sax Institute's Evidence Check programme. We examine what prompted policy makers to commission rapid reviews, their purpose, how and when they intended to use them, and how this varied…

  6. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M; Tang, J L

    1995-10-09

    In a systematic review of the efficacy of interventions intended to help people stop smoking, data have been analyzed from 188 randomized controlled trials. Following personal advice and encouragement to stop smoking given by physicians during a single routine consultation, an estimated 2% (95% confidence limits, 1%, 3%; P hypnosis is unproved (no trials have used biochemical markers). Nicotine replacement therapy is effective in an estimated 13% of smokers who seek help in cessation; the effect is greater in those who are nicotine-dependent. Other pharmacological treatments are not of proven efficacy, and acupuncture is ineffective. Sudden cessation or gradual reduction in smoking are similar in their efficacy on average. Physicians should take time to advise all their patients who smoke to quit. Smokers who are intent on stopping should be given additional support and encouraged to use nicotine replacement therapy.

  7. Mass social contact interventions and their effect on mental health related stigma and intended discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Lacko, Sara; London, Jillian; Japhet, Sarah; Rüsch, Nicolas; Flach, Clare; Corker, Elizabeth; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-06-28

    Stigma and discrimination associated with mental health problems is an important public health issue, and interventions aimed at reducing exposure to stigma and discrimination can improve the lives of people with mental health problems. Social contact has long been considered to be one of the most effective strategies for improving inter-group relations. For this study, we assess the impact of a population level social contact intervention among people with and without mental health problems. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. This study investigated the impact of social contact and whether presence of specific facilitating factors (equal status, common goals, cooperation and friendship potential): (1) improves intended stigmatising behaviour; (2) increases future willingness to disclose a mental health problem; and (3) promotes behaviours associated with anti-stigma campaign engagement. Two mass participation social contact programmes within England's Time to Change campaign were evaluated via a 2-part questionnaire. 403 participants completed initial questionnaires (70% paper, 30% online) and 83 completed follow-up questionnaires online 4-6 weeks later. Campaign events facilitated meaningful intergroup social contact between individuals with and without mental health problems. Presence of facilitating conditions predicted improved stigma-related behavioural intentions

  8. Ideals and Reality in Foreign Policy: American Intervention in the Caribbean. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Alfred

    Centering around case studies of American military intervention (1898 to 1933) in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua, this unit invites the student to compare the results of such intervention with the foreign policy goals and ideals the interventions were intended to implement. It confronts him with the dilemma of power in international…

  9. Design for Fidelity – Inscription of Intended Actions, Participation and Behavior in Intervention Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Poulsen, Signe; Ipsen, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper we introduce the concept of script analysis first coined by Akrich (1992), to analyze and discuss the “fidelability” of intervention frameworks - meaning a framework’s ability to impose fidelity. Intervention frameworks are often designed by researchers according to their ear......In the present paper we introduce the concept of script analysis first coined by Akrich (1992), to analyze and discuss the “fidelability” of intervention frameworks - meaning a framework’s ability to impose fidelity. Intervention frameworks are often designed by researchers according...

  10. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... were asked to increase the bedroom temperature by at least 3 degrees C compared to the self-assessed temperature of the previous winter. Dust samples were repeatedly collected from mattress and floor, and bedroom temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly throughout one year. Dust...... was analysed for allergen (Der f 1 + Der p 1 + Der m 1 = Der 1) by ELISA and HDMs were counted. Changes in mite and in mite allergen concentration were the same in the control and intervention groups, and measured temperatures did not differ during intervention period in the groups (18 degrees C and 19 degrees...

  11. Agricultural Productivity and Policy Interventions in Nyamagabe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving agricultural productivity has received considerable policy intervention in many African countries and particularly in Rwanda. The question remains to know the extent to which the policy contributes to the variation being upwards or downwards of the crop productivity. There are number of determinant factors some ...

  12. Developmental interventions to address the STEM gender gap: exploring intended and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liben, Lynn S; Coyle, Emily F

    2014-01-01

    Women and girls in the United States continue to be underrepresented in STEM, particularly in engineering and technology fields. This gap has been attracting recent attention from those motivated to ensure that girls and women have access to a full range of personally satisfying careers as well as from those concerned with developing a rich talent pool to meet national workforce needs. This chapter is focused on interventions that have been designed to address this STEM gender gap. We begin by documenting the STEM gender gap and then review change mechanisms emerging from theories of gender development that may be harnessed in intervention efforts. In addition, we pro vide a taxonomy of intervention goals which we then use to organize an illustrative review of sample interventions. After commenting on some of the findings and limitations of past work, we offer suggestions for enhancing the systematic evaluation of intervention programs that include careful selection of comparison groups, a broad array of STEM outcome measures, assessment of potentially unintended consequences, and meta-analyses.

  13. Was the intervention implemented as intended?: a process evaluation of an AIDS prevention intervention in rural zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, S M; Van Den Borne, B; Kok, G; Woelk, G

    1996-01-01

    End-point evaluations are still the most commonly used method of assessing the success or failure of interventions. This article describes how a process evaluation was used to measure "what happened" during an HIV/AIDS prevention program for farm workers in Zimbabwe. The intervention was developed according to the Paulo Freirian theory of Social Change and the Ecological Model for health promotion. The stages of the intervention were cyclical; in the first stage innovative methods were used to encourage appraisal of vulnerability to HIV/AIDS through activities which raised critical thinking and dialogue. In the next phase, emphasis was placed on developing cognitive and attitude change in the target group. Self-protective behavior was encouraged through condom use and an increase in self-efficacy with respect to negotiating safe sex, especially among women. In the last stage of the intervention, efforts were made to create a climate for maintenance of behavior and socially responsible action within the community. The process evaluation provided valuable insight into factors which, when aggregated, provided an overview of a program whose successes and failures may well have been determined by issues outside the scope of the intervention. The effect of seasonal fluctuations of labor, income, and farming activity on program activity, patterns of STD, and condom demand were marked. This leads back to the researchers' initial question: "Was the intervention implemented as planned?" and the answer-only partially.

  14. Intervention Policies on Domestic Violence Against Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Henrique Graciano Suxberger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights multidisciplinary policies on gender based violence, acoording to the Maria da Penha Statute. It considers the context after the legal prohibition of probation during the criminal prosecution. From a literature review and document analysis, specially on researches conducted on the subject, the article sustains the importance of multidisciplinary actions combined or dissociated to formal criminal responses and focus the need of interventions considering the aggressors as well the victims, in order to assure a preventive efficiency regarding future cases of domestic violence against women.

  15. Trade, tropical deforestation and policy interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, E.B.; Rauscher, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper examines several aspects of the links between the trade in tropical timber and deforestation from the perspective of an exporting country. The various versions of the model developed here have highlighted a number of important features of this linkage. First, if the producer country values its tropical forest solely as a source of timber export earnings then it will aim for a smaller forest stock in the long run than if it also considers the other values provided by the forest. Second, if importing nations want the exporting countries to conserve more of their forests, trade interventions appear to be second-best way of achieving this result. Third, increased market power by a large country exporter or group of exporters may actually lead to greater forest conservation. Finally, the existence of a foreign capital market may further ensure that the tropical timber country may conserve its forest stock in the long run. Several recent reviews of global forest sector policies have discussed implications similar to those analyzed theoretically in our model. Generally, the same conclusions have been reached. However, what is of increasing concern is that domestic market and policy failures within tropical forest countries continue to distort the incentives for more sustainable management of timber production and efficient development of processing capacity, while at the same time the international community increasingly contemplates the use of bans, tariffs and other trade measures to discourage 'unsustainable' tropical timber exploitation. As our paper has attempted to show, sometimes the more simple solutions lead neither to a straightforward, nor to the desired, results. 18 refs, 1 fig

  16. HIV and AIDS workplace interventions; Gaps between policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This study set out to identify gaps between policy and practice of HIV and AIDS workplace interventions in the University of Malawi, in particular College of Medicine in line with the UNIMA HIV and AIDS policy. Objectives The main objective was to establish whether the HIV and AIDS workplace interventions at ...

  17. Mobile-based intervention intended to stop obesity in preschool-aged children: the MINISTOP randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Christine Delisle; Sandin, Sven; Henriksson, Pontus; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Silfvernagel, Kristin; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2017-06-01

    Background: Traditional obesity prevention programs are time- and cost-intensive. Mobile phone technology has been successful in changing behaviors and managing weight; however, to our knowledge, its potential in young children has yet to be examined. Objective: We assessed the effectiveness of a mobile health (mHealth) obesity prevention program on body fat, dietary habits, and physical activity in healthy Swedish children aged 4.5 y. Design: From 2014 to 2015, 315 children were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Parents in the intervention group received a 6-mo mHealth program. The primary outcome was fat mass index (FMI), whereas the secondary outcomes were intakes of fruits, vegetables, candy, and sweetened beverages and time spent sedentary and in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Composite scores for the primary and secondary outcomes were computed. Results: No statistically significant intervention effect was observed for FMI between the intervention and control group (mean ± SD: -0.23 ± 0.56 compared with -0.20 ± 0.49 kg/m 2 ). However, the intervention group increased their mean composite score from baseline to follow-up, whereas the control group did not (+0.36 ± 1.47 compared with -0.06 ± 1.33 units; P = 0.021). This improvement was more pronounced among the children with an FMI above the median (4.11 kg/m 2 ) ( P = 0.019). The odds of increasing the composite score for the 6 dietary and physical activity behaviors were 99% higher for the intervention group than the control group ( P = 0.008). Conclusions: This mHealth obesity prevention study in preschool-aged children found no difference between the intervention and control group for FMI. However, the intervention group showed a considerably higher postintervention composite score (a secondary outcome) than the control group, especially in children with a higher FMI. Further studies targeting specific obesity classes within preschool-aged children are warranted. This

  18. Modeling sustainable groundwater management: packaging and sequencing of policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Encarna; Dinar, Ariel

    2013-04-15

    Of the many studies estimating effectiveness of policy reforms most have been considering various types of policy reforms in isolation from each other. Such pattern has also been the case in water resource regulations. In the case of groundwater almost all policy interventions considered in the literature have been implemented individually, without taking into account the possible interactions and impacts among them. In this paper, we focus on two policy instruments: water quota and uniform water tax. The paper demonstrates how packaging and sequencing sets of policy interventions, with possible triggers to initiate their time of implementation, may be more effective in achieving a sustainable groundwater management than single policies when environmental externalities exist. The policy instruments are applied to the Western la Mancha aquifer in Southeast Spain, a major aquifer that is managed by a command and control approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Making multiple 'online counsellings' through policy and practice: an evidence-making intervention approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savic, Michael; Dilkes-Frayne, Ella; Carter, Adrian; Kokanovic, Renata; Manning, Victoria; Rodda, Simone N; Lubman, Dan I

    2018-03-01

    Online counselling services for a range of health conditions have proliferated in recent years. However, there is ambiguity and tension around their role and function. It is often unclear whether online counselling services are intended to provide only a brief intervention, the provision of information or referral, or constitute an alternative to face-to-face treatment. In line with recent analyses of alcohol and other drug (AOD) policy and interventions that draw on a critical social science perspective, we take an evidence-making intervention approach to examine how online counselling in the AOD field is made in policy and through processes of local implementation. In this article, we analyse how online AOD counselling interventions and knowledges are enacted in Australia's AOD policy, and compare these enactments with an analysis of information about Australia's national online AOD counselling service, Counselling Online, and transcripts of counselling sessions with clients of Counselling Online. We suggest that while the policy enacts online counselling as a brief intervention targeting AOD use, and as an avenue to facilitate referral to face-to-face treatment services, in its implementation in practice online counselling is enacted in more varied ways. These include online counselling as attempting to attend to AOD use and interconnected psychosocial concerns, as a potential form of treatment in its own right, and as supplementing face-to-face AOD treatment services. Rather than viewing online counselling as a singular and stable intervention object, we suggest that multiple 'online counsellings' emerge in practice through local implementation practices and knowledges. We argue that the frictions that arise between policy and practice enactments need to be considered by policy makers, funders, clinicians and researchers as they affect how the concerns of those targeted by the intervention are attended to. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Implementing Intervention Research into Public Policy-the "I3-Approach".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiel, Christiane; Schober, Barbara; Strohmeier, Dagmar

    2018-04-01

    Evidence-based intervention programs have become highly important in recent years, especially in educational contexts. However, transferring these programs into practice and into the wider field of public policy often fails. As a consequence, the field of implementation research has emerged, several implementation frameworks have been developed, and implementation studies conducted. However, intervention research and implementation research have not yet been connected systematically and different traditions and research groups are involved. Implementation researchers are mostly given mandates by politicians to take on the implementation of already existing interventions. This might be one of the key reasons why there are still many problems in translating programs into widespread community practice. In this paper, we argue for a systematic integration of intervention and implementation research ("I 3 -Approach") and recommend a six-step procedure (PASCIT). This requires researchers to design and develop intervention programs using a field-oriented and participative approach. In particular, the perspective of policymakers has to be included as well as an analysis of which factors support or hinder evidence-based policy in contrast to opinion-based policy. How this systematic connection between intervention and implementation research can be realized, is illustrated by means of the development and implementation of the ViSC school program, which intends to reduce aggressive behavior and bullying and to foster social and intercultural competencies.

  1. Servicom policy intervention: Improving service quality in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this case study we examine the raison d'être and implementation of a policy intervention, which was promulgated in 2005 for the purpose of eradicating inefficiency and corruption, and inculcating customer orientation in the Nigerian public sector. The policy goes by the acronym 'SERVICOM' -'service compact with all ...

  2. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Kim Yi

    2012-12-01

    - The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries.

  3. Public Policies and Interventions for Diabetes in Latin America: a Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselitz, Elizabeth; Rana, Gurpreet K; Heisler, Michele

    2017-08-01

    Successful interventions are needed to diagnose and manage type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in Latin America, a region that is experiencing a significant rise in rates of T2DM. Complementing an earlier review exploring diabetes prevention efforts in Latin America, this scoping review examines the literature on (1) policies and governmental programs intended to improve diabetes diagnosis and treatment in Latin America and (2) interventions to improve diabetes management in Latin America. It concludes with a brief discussion of promising directions for future research. Governmental policies and programs for the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes in different Latin American countries have been implemented, but their efficacy to date has not been rigorously evaluated. There are some promising intervention approaches in Latin America to manage diabetes that have been evaluated. Some of these utilize multidisciplinary teams, a relatively resource-intensive approach difficult to replicate in low-resource settings. Other evaluated interventions in Latin America have successfully leveraged mobile health tools, trained peer volunteers, and community health workers (CHWs) to improve diabetes management and outcomes. There are some promising approaches and large-scale governmental efforts underway to curb the growing burden of type 2 diabetes in Latin America. While some of these interventions have been rigorously evaluated, further research is warranted to determine their effectiveness, cost, and scalability in this region.

  4. Culture and complex interventions: lessons for evidence, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2010-09-01

    Evidence-based mental healthcare is evolving rapidly. There is a need for well-tested and effective interventions that are suited to culturally diverse populations. This editorial considers the findings from the SITARA study. There are a substantial number of implications for research, policy and practice.

  5. Son Preference in China and India : Policy Interventions to address ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will identify policy interventions that have or have not worked, the reasons for their success or failure, and possibilities for cross-country learning. ... in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  6. Homeless Families in the Netherlands: Intervention Policies and Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catelijne Akkermans

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a combination of decentralisation, housing first, and a taylor-made, individualised approach. However, what is interesting is the question as to what extent these policies are based on a punitive dimension or on a justice dimension. This aspect is little discussed in the Netherlands where policies to combat homelessness are intended to put an end to public nuisance and to get the homeless off the street. Research into evicted families demonstrates that combining elements of (mild coercion with efforts to solve homelessness leads to problems in at least three domains: the motivation of homeless families to accept help and support, the quality of life in the individualised approach, and the matter of registration. These problems need investigating, also from an international perspective.

  7. Internet policy and Australia’s Northern Territory Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellie Rennie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, Australia’s Commonwealth Government took a dramatic new approach to the governance of remote Indigenous communities. The ‘Northern Territory Intervention’ aimed to combat abuse and violence in remote Indigenous communities, and included far-reaching changes to welfare administration, employment programmes and policing. This paper considers a hitherto obscure aspect of the Intervention: the surveillance of publicly funded computers and internet use. Between 2007 and 2012, providers of internet and computer access facilities in the affected communities were required to audit and record computer use. In this paper we examine the legal and policy dimensions of this case of governmental surveillance, using interviews, published materials and documents obtained through freedom of information processes.

  8. The role of national policies intended to regulate adolescent smoking in explaining the prevalence of daily smoking: a study of adolescents from 27 European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnohr, Christina W; Kreiner, Svend; Rasmussen, Mette

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: This study seeks to examine whether contextual factors influence adolescents' daily smoking. A focus was placed on three modifiable policies operating at a national level, non-smoking policy at educational facilities, price and minimum age for buying tobacco. DESIGN: This study is based on ...

  9. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P

    2017-01-01

    of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. METHODS: The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. RESULTS......BACKGROUND: One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process......: In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. CONCLUSIONS: This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described...

  10. Effects of a combined dietary, exercise and behavioral intervention and sympathetic system on body weight maintenance after intended weight loss: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Knut; Brachs, Maria; Leupelt, Verena; Schwartzenberg, Reiner Jumpertz-von; Maurer, Lukas; Grüters-Kieslich, Annette; Ernert, Andrea; Bobbert, Thomas; Krude, Heiko; Spranger, Joachim

    2018-01-19

    Lifestyle based weight loss interventions are hampered by long-term inefficacy. Prediction of individuals successfully reducing body weight would be highly desirable. Although sympathetic activity is known to contribute to energy homeostasis, its predictive role in body weight maintenance has not yet been addressed. We investigated, whether weight regain could be modified by a weight maintenance intervention and analyzed the predictive role of weight loss-induced changes of the sympathetic system on long-term weight regain. 156 subjects (age > 18; BMI ≥ 27 kg/m 2 ) participated in a 12-week weight reduction program. After weight loss (T0), 143 subjects (weight loss >8%) were randomized to a 12-month lifestyle intervention or a control group. After 12 months (T12) no further intervention was performed until month 18 (T18). Weight regain at T18 (regain BMI ) was the primary outcome. Evaluation of systemic and tissue specific estimates of sympathetic system was a pre-defined secondary outcome. BMI was reduced by 4.67 ± 1.47 kg/m 2 during the initial weight loss period. BMI maintained low in subjects of the intervention group until T12 (+0.07 ± 2.98 kg/m 2 ; p = 0.58 compared to T0), while control subjects regained +0.98 ± 1.93 kg/m 2 (p predicted regain BMI (R 2  = 0.138; p Predictive sympathetic activity was not persistently modified by the intervention, which may partially explain the lack of long-term success of such interventions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. servicom policy intervention: improving service quality in nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    SERVICOM policy, in which we examine descriptively the nature and implementation process of the policy, against a theoretical background depicting the nature of public services, quality and quality improvement, problems in the. Nigerian public sector, earlier policy prescriptions for an efficiently functioning service, and an.

  12. Intended Brand Associations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koll, Oliver; von Wallpach, Sylvia

    2014-01-01

    Brand managers exhibit considerable effort to define intended brand associations to anchor in consumers' minds. They follow a credo deeply rooted in branding literature: intended brand associations drive consumer response and brand equity. This article investigates the benefits of a strong overlap...... of actual consumer brand associations and management-intended brand associations (brand association match). The article presents results from two large-scale studies (3353 and 1201 respondents) involving one consumer goods and one service brand with multiple operationalizations of consumer response...... (attitudinal and behavioral). The results show that consumers with high brand association match show more positive brand response. However, after accounting for the valence of associations match does not add explanatory power. This outcome challenges a key foundation of brand management. The discussion...

  13. A review and survey of policies utilized for interventional pain procedures: a need for consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohan, Lynn; Salajegheh, Reza; Hamill-Ruth, Robin J; Yerra, Sandeep; Butz, John

    2017-01-01

    Other than the newly published anticoagulation guidelines, there are currently few recommendations to assist pain medicine physicians in determining the safety parameters to follow when performing interventional pain procedures. Little information exists regarding policies for oral intake, cumulative steroid dose limits, driving restrictions with and without sedation, and routine medication use for interventional procedures. A 16-question survey was developed on common policies currently in use for interventional pain procedures. The questionnaire was distributed through the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine and American Academy of Pain Medicine. We sought to statistically analyze the range of policies being used by pain medicine physicians and to determine if there are any commonly accepted standards. A total of 337 physicians out of 4037 members responded to our survey with a response rate of 8.4%. A total of 82% of these respondents used a sedative agent while performing an interventional pain procedure. The majority of respondents required drivers after procedures, except after trigger points. A total of 47% indicated that they have an nil per os (NPO) policy for procedures without sedation. A total of 98% reported that they had an anticoagulation policy before an interventional procedure. A total of 17% indicated that the interval between steroid doses was policies regarding anticoagulation. There is an obvious need for evidence-based guidelines for these aspects of interventional pain care to improve patient safety and minimize the risk of adverse events.

  14. Developing a policy game intervention to enhance collaboration in public health policymaking in three European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitters, H P E M; van Oers, J A M; Sandu, P; Lau, C J; Quanjel, M; Dulf, D; Chereches, R; van de Goor, L A M

    2017-12-19

    One of the key elements to enhance the uptake of evidence in public health policies is stimulating cross-sector collaboration. An intervention stimulating collaboration is a policy game. The aim of this study was to describe the design and methods of the development process of the policy game ‘In2Action’ within a real-life setting of public health policymaking networks in the Netherlands, Denmark and Romania. The development of the policy game intervention consisted of three phases, pre intervention, designing the game intervention and tailoring the intervention. In2Action was developed as a role-play game of one day, with main focus to develop in collaboration a cross-sector implementation plan based on the approved strategic local public health policy. This study introduced an innovative intervention for public health policymaking. It described the design and development of the generic frame of the In2Action game focusing on enhancing collaboration in local public health policymaking networks. By keeping the game generic, it became suitable for each of the three country cases with only minor changes. The generic frame of the game is expected to be generalizable for other European countries to stimulate interaction and collaboration in the policy process.

  15. Rural Print Media and a Tailored Advocacy Intervention for Smoke-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Kolpek, Jeslyn K; Lee, Erin; Record, Rachael; Wiggins, Amanda T; Butler, Karen M; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2017-01-01

    To examine frequency, prominence, and content of local print media after a 4-year policy advocacy intervention. This was a controlled community-based trial. The study took place in 39 rural counties (22 intervention, 17 comparison). Subjects consisted of 2525 newspaper articles monitored over 18 quarters (July 2007 to December 2011). One key element of the tailored policy advocacy intervention delivered by community advisors was building demand for smoke-free policy via media advocacy strategies. Media clips were coded to assess number of articles; percent of tobacco-related articles on the front page or bold heading section; percent of pro-health articles; and percent of articles with secondhand smoke (SHS)-relevant topics or themes. Coded data were entered into Atlas.ti software. Article frequencies and attributes were compared between groups and over time using negative binomial regression for longitudinal data, with county-level demographics as covariates. In the last 3 years, there were approximately twice as many articles in intervention than in comparison counties. Media clips from newspapers in intervention counties were between 1.4 and 2 times more likely to have front page placement and percent of relevant topic or theme than were those in comparison counties. There was no difference in rate of pro-health articles by group. The policy advocacy intervention to promote smoke-free policy increased media attention to SHS and may have increased public awareness of issues related to smoke-free policy.

  16. A Democratic Call to Arms: Public Opinion and Intervention Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    between the few events just described and a fear of global escala - tion resulting from U.S. intervention in Nicaragua. But it is relevant to point out...opposition. First, the American people feared that the spark of a Nicaraguan intervention could set off an escala - tion that might get out of control and...Francisco, California 96601-4305 8. Mr. M.K. Graham P.O. Box 769 Glasgow , Montana 59230 146

  17. A social relational approach to community-based ecotourism development: Policy intervention strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rith, Sam Ol

    2010-01-01

    This study examines how policy intervention strategies facilitate or constrain the construction of positive social capital in a community-based ecotourism (CBET) context. It investigates CBET development policies in a specific Cambodian case study, explores implementation processes, assesses the level of social capital created, identifies the connections between social capital construction and development outcomes, and suggests how the policies contribute to social capital construction. The ...

  18. Implementing multiple intervention strategies in Dutch public health-related policy networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harting, Janneke; Peters, Dorothee; Grêaux, Kimberly; van Assema, Patricia; Verweij, Stefan; Stronks, Karien; Klijn, Erik-Hans

    2017-10-13

    Improving public health requires multiple intervention strategies. Implementing such an intervention mix is supposed to require a multisectoral policy network. As evidence to support this assumption is scarce, we examined under which conditions public health-related policy networks were able to implement an intervention mix. Data were collected (2009-14) from 29 Dutch public health policy networks. Surveys were used to identify the number of policy sectors, participation of actors, level of trust, networking by the project leader, and intervention strategies implemented. Conditions sufficient for an intervention mix (≥3 of 4 non-educational strategies present) were determined in a fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. A multisectoral policy network (≥7 of 14 sectors present) was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition. In multisectoral networks, additionally required was either the active participation of network actors (≥50% actively involved) or active networking by the project leader (≥monthly contacts with network actors). In policy networks that included few sectors, a high level of trust (positive perceptions of each other's intentions) was needed-in the absence though of any of the other conditions. If the network actors were also actively involved, an extra requirement was active networking by the project leader. We conclude that the multisectoral composition of policy networks can contribute to the implementation of a variety of intervention strategies, but not without additional efforts. However, policy networks that include only few sectors are also able to implement an intervention mix. Here, trust seems to be the most important condition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Interventions for Resilience in Educational Settings: Challenging Policy Discourses of Risk and Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecclestone, Kathryn; Lewis, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    "Resilience" has become a popular goal in research, social policy, intervention design and implementation. Reinforced by its conceptual and political slipperiness, resilience has become a key construct in school-based, universal interventions that aim to develop it as part of social and emotional competence or emotional well-being.…

  20. Policy-level interventions and work-related psychosocial risk management in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leka, S.; Jain, A.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Cox, T.

    2010-01-01

    There exists a substantial degree of diversity across strategies to prevent and manage work- related psychosocial risks and their associated health effects. Whereas it is common to distinguish between organizational and individual interventions, the important level of policy- level interventions has

  1. Impact of two policy interventions on dietary diversity in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Juan; Ramos-Martin, Jesus

    2017-06-01

    To differentiate the effects of food vouchers and training in health and nutrition on consumption and dietary diversity in Ecuador by using an experimental design. Interventions involved enrolling three groups of approximately 200 randomly selected households per group in three provinces in Ecuador. Power estimates and sample size were computed using the Optimal Design software, with a power of 80 %, at 5 % of significance and with a minimum detectable effect of 0·25 (sd). The first group was assigned to receive a monthly food voucher of $US 40. The second group was assigned to receive the same $US 40 voucher, plus training on health and nutrition issues. The third group served as the control. Weekly household values of food consumption were converted into energy intake per person per day. A simple proxy indicator was constructed for dietary diversity, based on the Food Consumption Score. Finally, an econometric model with three specifications was used for analysing the differential effect of the interventions. Three provinces in Ecuador, two from the Sierra region (Carchi and Chimborazo) and one from the Coastal region (Santa Elena). Members of 773 households randomly selected (n 4343). No significant impact on consumption for any of the interventions was found. However, there was evidence that voucher systems had a positive impact on dietary diversity. No differentiated effects were found for the training intervention. The most cost-effective intervention to improve dietary diversity in Ecuador is the use of vouchers to support family choice in food options.

  2. Policy Interventions in Teacher Education: Sharing the English Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, teacher education in England has been the focus of a stream of "reforms" with the ultimate aim of placing provision into schools, the justification for such a radical policy being that higher education is alleged to be failing to provide good quality teachers thereby compromising the social and economic…

  3. The Question of Sustainability of Green Electricity Policy Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the financial viability and economic sustainability implications of government programs for the development of renewable energy sources, explicitly considering that consumers take environmental issues into account. We envisage a broad policy strategy for the future, which we label the “World Sustainable Scenario”, and we quantify the inter-temporal resource requirement in terms of investment necessary to achieve it. We perform an empirical meta-analysis to quantify the willingness to pay for green electricity worldwide. Subsequently, we compare the amount of resources required according to policy programs and the populations’ willingness to sacrifice current resources for future benefits (i.e., willingness to finance future investments to assess the plausibility of current policies. The main empirical findings show that the population’s attitude toward green electricity will support, on average, 50% of the total investment required. We conclude that this is a positive result, which will make possible the success of the renewable energy sources development policy.

  4. Homeless Families in the Netherlands: Intervention Policies and Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catelijne Akkermans; Willibrord de Graaf; dr Lia van Doorn; dr Raymond Kloppenburg

    2011-01-01

    The demographics of the homeless population in many countries are currently shifting, and this cannot be explained by the different welfare systems to be found in these countries. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the homelessness policies of some countries are converging, and we observe a

  5. Childhood Obesity Prevention in Childcare Settings: the Potential of Policy and Environmental Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessard, Laura; Breck, Andrew

    2015-06-01

    Current obesity rates in young children are a serious public health concern; developing and implementing obesity prevention interventions in childcare settings is a promising avenue to address this issue. In recent years, there has been increasing focus on environmental and policy change interventions for this setting. Improving access to and quality of outdoor play spaces and implementing the Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) are two promising environmental change strategies in this setting. Laws at the local, state, and federal level have also been implemented; New York City and Delaware are two jurisdictions that have passed policies and provided preliminary evidence of the potential of policy interventions to change child outcomes. A combination of programmatic, environmental, and policy change strategies will likely be most effective in maximizing the potential of childcare settings to promote healthy weight in children.

  6. Macroeconomic stabilization and intervention policy under an exchange rate band

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beetsma, R.M.W.J.; van der Ploeg, F.

    1998-01-01

    Macroeconomic stabilization and foreign exchange market interventions are investigated for a small open economy with a nominal exchange rate band. In a first-best situation, a band is not advisable from a stabilization perspective, even though with money demand shocks no welfare losses are incurred.

  7. [Health policies (population interventions) in health services. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Andreu

    2008-04-01

    Health interventions addressed to the population as a whole from health care services are scarce and only exceptionally involve coordination among public health services (vaccinations and, in some autonomous communities, secondary breast cancer prevention). Health education programs addressed to schools are one of the most frequent interventions but their outcomes are not systematically evaluated. However, primary health care services carry out many clinical preventive activities. While the aims of these activities are laudable, the interventions themselves have substantial limitations, because they are an important source of dependency, a powerful incentive to consume drugs, and are also inefficient and inequitable ways of spending health resources. These limitations justify the testing of combined approaches between public health services and citizens' collectives to improve and protect community health. Developing community health programs based on cooperation between primary health care services and public health services requires strategies that produce appreciable results in the short term to both health sectors, as well as to the population, so that these programs stimulate the process and encourage further development. The settings in which collaboration is most promising are population health surveillance and monitoring in basic health areas, control of communicable diseases and epidemic outbreaks, health promotion and health protection programs through simultaneous clinical and community-based interventions, and improved management of all health services in local communities through joint evaluation. The resources needed to carry out these activities should be drawn from a reduction of clinical preventive activities that reduce workload and from an increase in the number and quality of the public health workforce.

  8. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  9. Equity impact of interventions and policies to reduce smoking in youth: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-11-01

    A systematic review to assess the equity impact of interventions/policies on youth smoking. Biosis, Cinahl, Cochrane Library, Conference Proceedings Citation Index, Embase, Eric, Medline, Psycinfo, Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index and tobacco control experts. Published January 1995 to October 2013. Primary studies of interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in youth (11-25 years) of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed; characteristics and outcomes were extracted. A narrative synthesis by intervention/policy type. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequity), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequity), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear.Thirty-eight studies of 40 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (12); price/tax (7); mass media campaigns (1); advertising controls (4); access controls (5); school-based programmes (5); multiple policies (3), individual-level cessation support (2), individual-level support for smokefree homes (1). The distribution of equity effects was: 7 positive, 16 neutral, 12 negative, 4 mixed, 1 unclear. All 7 positive equity studies were US-based: price/tax (4), age-of-sales laws (2) and text-messaging cessation support (1). A British school-based intervention (A Stop Smoking in Schools Trial (ASSIST)) showed mixed equity effects (neutral and positive). Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Very few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control interventions/policies on young people. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. There is a need to strengthen the evidence base for the equity impact of youth tobacco control interventions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Tourism Policy and State Intervention. The Case of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Schenkel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The very limited of political science analysis on tourism is explained by the primacy of the economic outlook that conceives tourism phenomenon as a simple consumer activity linked to private sector. However, political science is a cornerstone for understanding tourism, provides concepts and methodological tools that enhance the study of tourism. From this approach, we analyze the evolution of Argentina tourism policy taking as a reference production models economic-tourist. In this sense, we identify the main functions that takes tourism as a public issue in the country determined by the evolution of a social, economic and political context, which is structured according to existing international patterns. We point out the existence of an economic development model based on tourism.

  11. Intervention in Countries with Unsustainable Energy Policies: Is it Ever Justifiable?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2010-08-01

    This paper explores whether it is ever justifiable for the international community to forcibly intervene in countries that have unsustainable energy policies. The literature on obligations to future generations suggests, philosophically, that intervention might be justified under certain circumstances. Additionally, the world community has intervened in the affairs of other countries for humanitarian reasons, such as in Kosovo, Somalia, and Haiti. However, intervention to deal with serious energy problems is a qualitatively different and more difficult problem. A simple risk analysis framework is used to organize the discussion about possible conditions for justifiable intervention. If the probability of deaths resulting from unsustainable energy policies is very large, if the energy problem can be attributed to a relatively small number of countries, and if the risk of intervention is acceptable (i.e., the number of deaths due to intervention is relatively small), then intervention may be justifiable. Without further analysis and successful solution of several vexing theoretical questions, it cannot be stated whether unsustainable energy policies being pursued by countries at the beginning of the 21st century meet the criteria for forcible intervention by the international community.

  12. Grasping the thistle: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Lesley J C; Mackinnon, Donna

    2010-11-01

    Scotland has experienced a substantial rise in alcohol-related harm, which is now one of the biggest public health challenges it faces. Alcohol problems in Scotland are described along with national alcohol policy response in addressing them. The role of a program of Alcohol Brief Interventions is discussed therein. In Scotland, considerable proportions of the population are drinking hazardously or harmfully, common across different age and socioeconomic groups. Rising consumption has been set in wider environmental changes with alcohol becoming more available and affordable. Scotland has had one of the fastest growing chronic liver disease mortality rates in the world at a time when rates in most of Western Europe are falling. Scotland's alcohol policy has an explicit aim to reduce population consumption and includes legislative measures to tackle price and availability. A national program to deliver Alcohol Brief Interventions for hazardous drinkers is a key plank of this wider strategy. A portfolio of studies will monitor and evaluate national policy and, through contribution analysis, describe the role Alcohol Brief Interventions play in reducing alcohol misuse. Effective alcohol policy recognises that determinants of health not only lie at individual level, but include wider social, environmental and economic factors. Scotland's policy is addressing these determinants with both population-based and population-targeted interventions. Scotland has a serious problem with alcohol. A comprehensive, evidence-based, resourced alcohol policy is being implemented, which will need continual review to ensure it remains anchored in evidence while maintaining its ambition.[Graham LJC, MacKinnon D. GRASPING THE THISTLE: The role of alcohol brief interventions in Scottish alcohol policy. © 2010 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Can early intervention policies improve wellbeing? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Daly; Liam Delaney; Orla Doyle; Nick Fitzpatrick; Christine O'Farrelly

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of well-being, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal well-being in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global...

  14. Can Early Intervention Policies Improve Well-being? Evidence from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Doyle, Orla; Fitzpatrick, Nick; O'Farrelly, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Many authors have proposed incorporating measures of well-being into evaluations of public policy. Yet few evaluations use experimental design or examine multiple aspects of wellbeing, thus the causal impact of public policies on well-being is largely unknown. In this paper we examine the effect of an intensive early intervention program on maternal wellbeing in a targeted disadvantaged community. Using a randomized controlled trial design we estimate and compare treatment effects on global w...

  15. Bioenergy systems sustainability assessment & management (BIOSSAM) guidance portal for policy, decision and development support of integrated bioenergy supply interventions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, WHL

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available . There are several new bioenergy interventions (policies, projects, or programmes) that are being considered and these developments must be assessed in terms of their sustainability. Both public and private sector policy makers, decision makers, and technology...

  16. Intervention in gene regulatory networks via a stationary mean-first-passage-time control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Golnaz; Faryabi, Babak; Chamberland, Jean-Francois; Datta, Aniruddha; Dougherty, Edward R

    2008-10-01

    A prime objective of modeling genetic regulatory networks is the identification of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. To date, optimal stochastic intervention has been studied in the context of probabilistic Boolean networks, with the control policy based on the transition probability matrix of the associated Markov chain and dynamic programming used to find optimal control policies. Dynamical programming algorithms are problematic owing to their high computational complexity. Two additional computationally burdensome issues that arise are the potential for controlling the network and identifying the best gene for intervention. This paper proposes an algorithm based on mean first-passage time that assigns a stationary control policy for each gene candidate. It serves as an approximation to an optimal control policy and, owing to its reduced computational complexity, can be used to predict the best control gene. Once the best control gene is identified, one can derive an optimal policy or simply utilize the approximate policy for this gene when the network size precludes a direct application of dynamic programming algorithms. A salient point is that the proposed algorithm can be model-free. It can be directly designed from time-course data without having to infer the transition probability matrix of the network.

  17. Intervention in gene regulatory networks via greedy control policies based on long-run behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaffari Noushin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A salient purpose for studying gene regulatory networks is to derive intervention strategies, the goals being to identify potential drug targets and design gene-based therapeutic intervention. Optimal stochastic control based on the transition probability matrix of the underlying Markov chain has been studied extensively for probabilistic Boolean networks. Optimization is based on minimization of a cost function and a key goal of control is to reduce the steady-state probability mass of undesirable network states. Owing to computational complexity, it is difficult to apply optimal control for large networks. Results In this paper, we propose three new greedy stationary control policies by directly investigating the effects on the network long-run behavior. Similar to the recently proposed mean-first-passage-time (MFPT control policy, these policies do not depend on minimization of a cost function and avoid the computational burden of dynamic programming. They can be used to design stationary control policies that avoid the need for a user-defined cost function because they are based directly on long-run network behavior; they can be used as an alternative to dynamic programming algorithms when the latter are computationally prohibitive; and they can be used to predict the best control gene with reduced computational complexity, even when one is employing dynamic programming to derive the final control policy. We compare the performance of these three greedy control policies and the MFPT policy using randomly generated probabilistic Boolean networks and give a preliminary example for intervening in a mammalian cell cycle network. Conclusion The newly proposed control policies have better performance in general than the MFPT policy and, as indicated by the results on the mammalian cell cycle network, they can potentially serve as future gene therapeutic intervention strategies.

  18. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  19. Moving beyond the Three Tier Intervention Pyramid toward a Comprehensive Framework for Student and Learning Supports. A Center Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Introduction into federal policy of response to intervention (RTI) and positive behavior intervention and supports (PBIS) led to widespread adoption and adaptation of the three tier intervention pyramid. As originally presented, the pyramid highlights three different levels of intervention and suggests the percent of students at each level. While…

  20. Identifying the effects of environmental and policy change interventions on healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Deborah J; Barrington, Wendy E; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2015-03-18

    Obesity has been characterized as a disease. Strategies to change the incidence and prevalence of this disease include a focus on changing physical and social environments, over and above individual-level strategies, using a multilevel or systems approach. We focus our attention on evidence published between 2008 and 2013 on the effectiveness of interventions in nutrition environments, i.e., environmental interventions designed to influence the intake of healthful foods and amount of energy consumed. An overarching socioecological framework that has guided much of this research was used to characterize different types of environmental strategies. Intervention examples in each area of the framework are provided with a discussion of key findings and related conceptual and methodological issues. The emphasis in this review is on adults, but clearly this literature is only one part of the picture. Much research has been focused on child-specific interventions, including environmental interventions. Some evidence suggests effectiveness of policy-based or other types of interventions that aim to regulate or restructure environments to promote healthy dietary choices, and these strategies would apply to both children and adults. Opportunities to evaluate these policy changes in adults' social and physical environments are rare. Much of the existing research has been with children. As conceptual and methodological issues continue to be identified and resolved, we hope that future research in this domain will identify environmental strategies that can be included in intervention toolboxes to build healthy nutrition environments for both adults and children.

  1. Unraveling the Hidden Curriculum. Values in Youth Care Interventions and Youth Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M.

    2012-01-01

    Themes such as “effectiveness” and “evidence-based practice” dominate current debates about and within the professional field of youth care. The field seems to focus almost solely on the effectiveness of interventions and policy measures and there appears to be a general consensus on the objectivity

  2. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laharnar, Naima; Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Kent Anger, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Effective policy implementation is essential for a healthy workplace. The Ryan-Kossek 2008 model for work-life policy adoption suggests that supervisors as gatekeepers between employer and employee need to know how to support and communicate benefit regulations. This article describes a workplace intervention on a national employee benefit, Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), and evaluates the effectiveness of the intervention on supervisor knowledge, awareness, and experience with FMLA. Methods The intervention consisted of computer-based training (CBT) and a survey measuring awareness and experience with FMLA. The training was administered to 793 county government supervisors in the state of Oregon, USA. Results More than 35% of supervisors reported no previous training on FMLA and the training pre-test revealed a lack of knowledge regarding benefit coverage and employer responsibilities. The CBT achieved: (1) a significant learning effect and large effect size of d = 2.0, (2) a positive reaction to the training and its design, and (3) evidence of increased knowledge and awareness regarding FMLA. Conclusion CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA. PMID:24106648

  3. Representing causal knowledge in environmental policy interventions: Advantages and opportunities for qualitative influence diagram applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriger, John F; Dyson, Brian E; Benson, William H

    2018-01-15

    This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation. Policy interventions on social-environmental systems can be intuitively diagrammed for representing knowledge of critical relationships among economic, environmental, and social attributes. Examples relevant to coastal resiliency issues in the U.S. Gulf Coast region are developed to illustrate model structures for developing qualitative influence diagrams useful for clarifying important policy intervention issues and enhancing transparency in decision making. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Hybrid Model Predictive Control for Sequential Decision Policies in Adaptive Behavioral Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuwen; Deshpande, Sunil; Rivera, Daniel E; Downs, Danielle S; Savage, Jennifer S

    2014-06-01

    Control engineering offers a systematic and efficient method to optimize the effectiveness of individually tailored treatment and prevention policies known as adaptive or "just-in-time" behavioral interventions. The nature of these interventions requires assigning dosages at categorical levels, which has been addressed in prior work using Mixed Logical Dynamical (MLD)-based hybrid model predictive control (HMPC) schemes. However, certain requirements of adaptive behavioral interventions that involve sequential decision making have not been comprehensively explored in the literature. This paper presents an extension of the traditional MLD framework for HMPC by representing the requirements of sequential decision policies as mixed-integer linear constraints. This is accomplished with user-specified dosage sequence tables, manipulation of one input at a time, and a switching time strategy for assigning dosages at time intervals less frequent than the measurement sampling interval. A model developed for a gestational weight gain (GWG) intervention is used to illustrate the generation of these sequential decision policies and their effectiveness for implementing adaptive behavioral interventions involving multiple components.

  5. Visibility and recovery of peri-urban family farming. Public policy interventions in La Matanza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Feito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The present paper analyzes social interventions adressed to family farmers living in the buffer periurban zone of La Matanza party –Greater Buenos Aires-, focusing on coordination at levels among different institutions that implement public policies oriented to promote and support such agricultural productions.    Qualitative methodology was used for ethnographic field work and secondary information survey. Author/s aim/s to demonstrate that the articulations and agreements between institutions and actors are still incipient and do not realize about their real potentialities. The author/s describe/s interfaces between different actors: producers, extension agents and implementers, as well as interventions to incorporate appropriate technologies. The conclusions presented above show that this kind of interventions are being carried out on an conflict scenario and dispute over the implementation of development policies and programs.

  6. Strategic choices: Swedish climate intervention policies and the forest industry's role in reducing CO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, Ingrid; Cornland, Deborah W.

    2003-01-01

    Given adequate incentive, the forest industry could play a significant role in achieving Swedish objectives for reducing CO 2 emissions. Whether or not this potential can be harnessed depends on the types of energy policy interventions that are introduced. An analysis of the potential impacts of four policy-intervention strategies on the forest industry is presented in this article. The focus of the analysis is on the four strategies' impacts on forest industry electricity demand from, and renewable energy supply to, the energy system. The strategies analyzed include a reference strategy and strategies targeting electricity production, transportation and the energy system as a whole. The method applied combines scenario analysis with systems engineering modeling. Separate scenario sets were used to reflect visions of development from the forest industry and the energy sector. Separate models were used to enable a more in-depth analysis of the forest industry's role than is commonly the case in energy systems engineering studies

  7. New Zealand policy experts’ appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18–24 year olds. Design We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. Participants We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. Interventions We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers’ licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. Results The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people’s values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Conclusions Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and

  8. Multi-strategic intervention to enhance implementation of healthy canteen policy: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Janssen, Lisa M; Wiggers, John; Reilly, Kathryn; Delaney, Tessa; Williams, Christopher M; Bell, Colin; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Libby; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Oldmeadow, Chris; Freund, Megan; Yoong, Sze Lin

    2017-01-11

    Internationally, governments have implemented school-based nutrition policies to restrict the availability of unhealthy foods from sale. The aim of the trial was to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy. The impact of the intervention on the energy, total fat, and sodium of children's canteen purchases and on schools' canteen revenue was also assessed. Australian primary schools with a canteen were randomised to receive a 12-14-month, multi-strategic intervention or to a no intervention control group. The intervention sought to increase implementation of a state-wide healthy canteen policy which required schools to remove unhealthy items (classified as 'red' or 'banned') from regular sale and encouraged schools to 'fill the menu' with healthy items (classified as 'green'). The intervention strategies included allocation of a support officer to assist with policy implementation, engagement of school principals and parent committees, consensus processes with canteen managers, training, provision of tools and resources, academic detailing, performance feedback, recognition and marketing initiatives. Data were collected at baseline (April to September, 2013) and at completion of the implementation period (November, 2014 to April, 2015). Seventy schools participated in the trial. Relative to control, at follow-up, intervention schools were significantly more likely to have menus without 'red' or 'banned' items (RR = 21.11; 95% CI 3.30 to 147.28; p ≤ 0.01) and to have at least 50% of menu items classified as 'green' (RR = 3.06; 95% CI 1.64 to 5.68; p ≤ 0.01). At follow-up, student purchases from intervention school canteens were significantly lower in total fat (difference = -1.51 g; 95% CI -2.84 to -0.18; p = 0.028) compared to controls, but not in energy (difference = -132.32 kJ; 95% CI -280.99 to 16.34; p = 0.080) or sodium (difference = -46

  9. Transitioning from Military Interventions to a Long-Term Counter-Terrorism Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Boeke

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have shown that it is arguably easier to start a military intervention than to end one. This Research Paper looks at exit strategies from a counter-terrorism perspective, focussing on the link between the end of military interventions and the establishment and implementation of a long term counter-terrorism strategy. While the entry strategy of an intervention is preferred to be clearly defined, Research Fellow Mr. Boeke shows that the exit strategy Dapoxetine UK requires more flexibility. Using examples from recent military operations, he identifies four types of military exits and their consequences for implementing a long-term counter-terrorism policy. Where before military strategies mostly focussed on the actual war, this Paper shows the importance of combining traditional military actions with comprehensive counter-terrorism strategies in order to address the root of the issues.

  10. Analysis of evaluations of health system/policy interventions in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandona, Lalit; Raban, Magdalena Z; Dandona, Rakhi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Analysis of the scope and quality of evaluations of health system/policy interventions done in India is not available. Such analysis can help in conducting more useful evaluations. METHODS. We accessed evaluation reports of health system/ policy interventions aimed at improving population health in India, reported during 2001-08, which were available in the public domain through extensive internet searches. We developed and used a classification system for the type of evaluation, commissioning agency, health system/policy area covered and methodology used, and a method for assessing the quality of evaluation reports. RESULTS. Of the 219 total evaluation reports in the public domain, 6% assessed needs, 22% process, 42% outcome and 30% impact. Seventy-six per cent evaluations were commissioned by international agencies. Among health system components, services were the focus of evaluation in 74.9% of reports, with human resources, financing, drugs/products, information system and governance having little representation. Only 21% of evaluation reports were rated as good quality. Among evaluations based mainly on health system data, 42% were poor quality compared with 20% that were based on population data. Seventy-two per cent of the outcome/impact evaluations presented only basic tabulations and just 12% attempted multivariate analysis. Eighty-two per cent of the outcome/impact evaluations had no controls, among which 42% were poor quality versus 17% poor quality among outcome/impact evaluations with controls. Among the 54% evaluations in which the intervention implementer was involved, only 1% reported negative conclusion about the intervention compared with 37% among evaluations in which the implementer was not involved. CONCLUSION. This analysis of health system/policy intervention evaluation reports from India identifies specific areas that need improvement. We recommend that Indian agencies should commission more evaluations as international agencies

  11. Unproven stem cell-based interventions and achieving a compromise policy among the multiple stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Kirstin R W; Iltis, Ana S

    2015-11-04

    In 2004, patient advocate groups were major players in helping pass and implement significant public policy and funding initiatives in stem cells and regenerative medicine. In the following years, advocates were also actively engaged in Washington DC, encouraging policy makers to broaden embryonic stem cell research funding, which was ultimately passed after President Barack Obama came into office. Many advocates did this because they were told stem cell research would lead to cures. After waiting more than 10 years, many of these same patients are now approaching clinics around the world offering experimental stem cell-based interventions instead of waiting for scientists in the US to complete clinical trials. How did the same groups who were once (and often still are) the strongest supporters of stem cell research become stem cell tourists? And how can scientists, clinicians, and regulators work to bring stem cell patients back home to the US and into the clinical trial process? In this paper, we argue that the continued marketing and use of experimental stem cell-based interventions is problematic and unsustainable. Central problems include the lack of patient protection, US liability standards, regulation of clinical sites, and clinician licensing. These interventions have insufficient evidence of safety and efficacy; patients may be wasting money and time, and they may be forgoing other opportunities for an intervention that has not been shown to be safe and effective. Current practices do not contribute to scientific progress because the data from the procedures are unsuitable for follow-up research to measure outcomes. In addition, there is no assurance for patients that they are receiving the interventions promised or of what dosage they are receiving. Furthermore, there is inconsistent or non-existent follow-up care. Public policy should be developed to correct the current situation. The current landscape of stem cell tourism should prompt a re

  12. Analysing policy interventions to prohibit over-the-counter antibiotic sales in four Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, V J; Herrera-Patino, J J; Santa-Ana-Tellez, Y; Dreser, A; Elseviers, M; Vander Stichele, R H

    2013-06-01

    To describe and evaluate policies implemented in Chile, Colombia, Venezuela and Mexico (1995-2009) to prohibit antibiotic OTC sales and explore limitations in available data. We searched and analysed legislation, grey literature and peer-reviewed publications on regulatory interventions and implementation strategies to enforce prohibition of OTC antibiotic sales. We also assessed the impact using private sector retail sales data of antibiotics studying changes in level and consumption trends before and after the policy change using segmented time series analysis. Finally, we assessed the completeness and data quality through an established checklist to test the suitability of the data for analysis of the interventions. Whereas Chile implemented a comprehensive package of interventions to accompany regulation changes, Colombia's reform was limited to the capital district and Venezuela's limited to only some antibiotics and without awareness campaigns. In Mexico, no enforcement was enacted. The data showed a differential effect of the intervention among the countries studied with a significant change in level of consumption in Chile (-5.56 DID) and in Colombia (-1.00DID). In Venezuela and Mexico, no significant change in level and slope was found. Changes in population coverage were identified as principal limitations of using sales data for evaluating the reform impact. Retail sales data can be useful when assessing policy impact but should be supplemented by other data sources such as public sector sales and prescription data. Implementing regulatory enforcement has shown some impact, but a sustainable, concerted approach will be needed to address OTC sales in the future. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The GREENH-City interventional research protocol on health in all policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcherie, Marion; Vaillant, Zoé; Faure, Emmanuelle; Rican, Stéphane; Simos, Jean; Cantoreggi, Nicola Luca; Heritage, Zoé; Le Gall, Anne Roue; Cambon, Linda; Diallo, Thierno Amadou; Vidales, Eva; Pommier, Jeanine

    2017-10-18

    This paper presents the research protocol of the GoveRnance for Equity, EnviroNment and Health in the City (GREENH-City) project funded by the National Institute for Cancer (Subvention N°2017-003-INCA). In France, health inequities have tended to increase since the late 1980s. Numerous studies show the influence of social, economic, geographic and political determinants on health inequities across the life course. Exposure to environmental factors is uneven across the population and may impact on health and health inequities. In cities, green spaces contribute to creating healthy settings which may help tackle health inequities. Health in All Policies (HiAP) represents one of the key strategies for addressing social and environmental determinants of health inequities. The objective of this research is to identify the most promising interventions to operationalize the HiAP approaches at the city level to tackle health inequities through urban green spaces. It is a participatory interventional research to analyze public policy in real life setting (WHO Healthy Cities). It is a mixed method systemic study with a quantitative approach for the 80 cities and a comparative qualitative multiple case-studies of 6 cities. The research combines 3 different lens: 1/a political analysis of how municipalities apply HiAP to reduce social inequities of health through green space policies and interventions 2/a geographical and topological characterization of green spaces and 3/ on-site observations of the use of green spaces by the inhabitants. City profiles will be identified regarding their HiAP approaches and the extent to which these cities address social inequities in health as part of their green space policy action. The analysis of the transferability of the results will inform policy recommendations in the rest of the Health City Network and widely for the French municipalities. The study will help identify factors enabling the implementation of the HiAP approach at a

  14. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  15. Effect of Policy Interventions on Food Security in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne van der Veen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the design of a conservation-based agricultural development strategy and food security strategy, the Tigray government has implemented different pro-poor development programs over the past years to address the problems of food security. This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of government policy interventions at different scales addressed to improve food security. Food security both at the regional and district level was investigated by deriving food balance sheets for the period 2000-2008. An empirical analysis based on a logit model was also employed to analyze household level food security status. The results of the logit model reveal that government policy interventions such as water harvesting schemes, employment generation schemes, and promotion of technology adoption significantly contribute to a higher likelihood of household food security status. The findings of the food balance sheet also indicate that the region has made some impressive development gains in improving regional food self-sufficiency, indicating the importance of government interventions in improving food security both at the household and regional level.

  16. Impact of area regeneration policies: performing integral interventions, changing opportunity structures and reducing health inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata Moya, Angel R; Navarro Yáñez, Clemente J

    2017-03-01

    Urban regeneration policies are area-based interventions addressing multidimensional problems. In this study, we analyse the impact of urban regeneration processes on the evolution of inequalities in mortality from certain causes. On the basis of Fundamental Cause Theory (FCT), our main hypothesis is that the impact of urban regeneration programmes will be more clearly observed on the causes of preventable deaths, as these programmes imply a direct or indirect improvement to a whole range of 'flexible resources' that residents in relevant areas have access to, and which ultimately may influence the inverse relationship between socioeconomic status and health. Using a quasi-experimental design and data from Longitudinal Statistics on Survival and Longevity of Andalusia (Spain), we analyse differences in the evolution of standard mortality ratios for preventable and less-preventable causes of premature death. This encompasses 59 neighbourhoods in 37 municipalities where urban regeneration projects were implemented in the last decade within the framework of three different programmes and in 59 counterparts where these policies were not implemented. As expected in line with FCT, there are no significant patterns in the evolution of internal differences in terms of less-preventable mortality. However, excessive preventable mortality strongly decreases in the neighbourhoods with intervention programmes, specifically in those where two or more projects were in force. This is even more apparent for women. The urban regeneration policies studied seem to contribute to reducing health inequity when the interventions are more integral in nature. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Legislative, educational, policy and other interventions targeting physicians' interaction with pharmaceutical companies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaled, Lina; Kahale, Lara; Nass, Hala; Brax, Hneine; Fadlallah, Racha; Badr, Kamal; Akl, Elie A

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical company representatives likely influence the prescribing habits and professional behaviour of physicians. The objective of this study was to systematically review the effects of interventions targeting practising physicians' interactions with pharmaceutical companies. We included observational studies, non-randomised controlled trials (non-RCTs) and RCTs evaluating legislative, educational, policy or other interventions targeting the interactions between physicians and pharmaceutical companies. The search strategy included an electronic search of MEDLINE and EMBASE. Two reviewers performed duplicate and independent study selection, data abstraction and assessment of risk of bias. We assessed the risk of bias in each included study. We summarised the findings narratively because the nature of the data did not allow a meta-analysis to be conducted. We assessed the quality of evidence by outcome using the GRADE methodology. Of 11 189 identified citations, one RCT and three observational studies met the eligibility criteria. All four studies specifically targeted one type of interaction with pharmaceutical companies, that is, interactions with drug representatives. The RCT provided moderate quality evidence of no effect of a 'collaborative approach' between the pharmaceutical industry and a health authority. The three observational studies provided low quality evidence suggesting a positive effect of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and pharmaceutical companies (by restricting free samples, promotional material, and meetings with pharmaceutical company representatives) on prescription behaviour. We identified too few studies to allow strong conclusions. Available evidence suggests a potential impact of policies aiming to reduce interaction between physicians and drug representatives on physicians' prescription behaviour. We found no evidence concerning interventions affecting other types of interaction with pharmaceutical

  18. The Intervention of the Judiciary in the Formulation and Implementation of Public Policies in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glalber da Costa Cypreste Queiroz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to discuss the aspects of the intervention of the Judiciary for the enforcement of public policies, developed by Legislative and Executive powers, with aims to accomplish the fundamental rights provided for in the Federal Constitution of 1988. The objective is to find out if there is legitimacy for the jurisdiction to control the actions of the other powers in order to give maximum effectiveness to constitutional requirements, particularly, when there is a violation of those determinations concerned with fundamental rights, since the possibility of such a measure is admitted by thought neoconstitucionalism, not violating the principles of the Democratic State of Law.

  19. Slowing Amazon deforestation through public policy and interventions in beef and soy supply chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel; McGrath, David; Stickler, Claudia; Alencar, Ane; Azevedo, Andrea; Swette, Briana; Bezerra, Tathiana; DiGiano, Maria; Shimada, João; Seroa da Motta, Ronaldo; Armijo, Eric; Castello, Leandro; Brando, Paulo; Hansen, Matt C; McGrath-Horn, Max; Carvalho, Oswaldo; Hess, Laura

    2014-06-06

    The recent 70% decline in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon suggests that it is possible to manage the advance of a vast agricultural frontier. Enforcement of laws, interventions in soy and beef supply chains, restrictions on access to credit, and expansion of protected areas appear to have contributed to this decline, as did a decline in the demand for new deforestation. The supply chain interventions that fed into this deceleration are precariously dependent on corporate risk management, and public policies have relied excessively on punitive measures. Systems for delivering positive incentives for farmers to forgo deforestation have been designed but not fully implemented. Territorial approaches to deforestation have been effective and could consolidate progress in slowing deforestation while providing a framework for addressing other important dimensions of sustainable development. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. INSTITUTIONAL BARRIERS TO EFFICIENT POLICY INTERVENTION IN THE EUROPEAN PORT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry UBBELS

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing role of private involvement in recent port developments, most maritime trade is still largely handled in ports where investments, pricing and other managerial decisions are, to a varying extent, dependent, or at least influenced by public bodies. This paper shows that the extent and type of public intervention differs considerably between ports in the Hamburg-Le Havre range. The wide variety in ownership, financing and management of ports throughout Europe indicates that there is no level playing field at present. Because ports operate in an increasingly competitive environment (intensified by globalisation trends and the completion of the internal market, this may lead to situations of unfair competition. The European Union emphasises the importance of a more harmonised approach of port regulation by national governments (in terms of financing and pricing of infrastructure. Given the differences in (national port management styles and the low levels of transparency, the creation of a level playing field in the European port industry seems far away. This suggests the presence of a major institutional difference in European transport policy that hampers efficient policy intervention.

  1. New Zealand policy experts' appraisal of interventions to reduce smoking in young adults: a qualitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Jude; Hoek, Janet; Tautolo, El Shadan; Gifford, Heather

    2017-12-10

    Reducing smoking in young adults, particularly young Māori and Pacific, is vital for reducing tobacco harm and health inequalities in New Zealand (NZ). We investigated how NZ policy experts appraised the feasibility and likely effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce smoking prevalence among 18-24 year olds. We used a qualitative design, conducting semistructured interviews and applying thematic analysis. We interviewed 15 key informants, including politicians, senior policy analysts and leading tobacco control advocates. Participant selection was based on seniority and expertise and ensuring diverse perspectives were represented. We examined nine interventions that could either promote greater mindfulness or introduce barriers impeding smoking uptake: smoke-free outdoor dining and bars; no tobacco sales where alcohol is sold; social marketing campaigns; real life stories (testimonials); life skills training; raise purchase age to 21; tobacco-free generation; smokers' licence; make tobacco retail premises R18. The policies perceived as more effective denormalised tobacco; made it less convenient to access and use; highlighted immediate disadvantages (eg, impact on fitness); aligned with young people's values; and addressed the underlying causes of smoking (eg, stress). Participants highlighted some political barriers and noted concerns that some interventions might widen ethnic disparities. Exceptions were social marketing campaigns and extending smoke-free regulations to include outdoor areas of cafes and bars, which participants saw as politically feasible and likely to be effective. Our findings suggest the merit of an approach that combines social marketing with regulation that makes accessing and using tobacco less convenient for young adults; however, political barriers may limit the regulatory options available in the short term. Strategies to support self-determination and address the underlying causes of smoking in young people warrant further

  2. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  4. Modeling spatial segregation and travel cost influences on utilitarian walking: Towards policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yong; Auchincloss, Amy H; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Brown, Daniel G; Riolo, Rick; Diez-Roux, Ana V

    2015-05-01

    We develop an agent-based model of utilitarian walking and use the model to explore spatial and socioeconomic factors affecting adult utilitarian walking and how travel costs as well as various educational interventions aimed at changing attitudes can alter the prevalence of walking and income differentials in walking. The model is validated against US national data. We contrast realistic and extreme parameter values in our model and test effects of changing these parameters across various segregation and pricing scenarios while allowing for interactions between travel choice and place and for behavioral feedbacks. Results suggest that in addition to income differences in the perceived cost of time, the concentration of mixed land use (differential density of residences and businesses) are important determinants of income differences in walking (high income walk less), whereas safety from crime and income segregation on their own do not have large influences on income differences in walking. We also show the difficulty in altering walking behaviors for higher income groups who are insensitive to price and how adding to the cost of driving could increase the income differential in walking particularly in the context of segregation by income and land use. We show that strategies to decrease positive attitudes towards driving can interact synergistically with shifting cost structures to favor walking in increasing the percent of walking trips. Agent-based models, with their ability to capture dynamic processes and incorporate empirical data, are powerful tools to explore the influence on health behavior from multiple factors and test policy interventions.

  5. Best practices for using natural experiments to evaluate retail food and beverage policies and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Grummon, Anna H; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Grigsby-Toussaint, Diana S; Leone, Lucia; Caspi, Caitlin Eicher

    2017-12-01

    Policy and programmatic change in the food retail setting, including excise taxes on beverages with added-caloric sweeteners, new supermarkets in food deserts, and voluntary corporate pledges, often require the use of natural experimental evaluation for impact evaluation when randomized controlled trials are not possible. Although natural experimental studies in the food retail setting provide important opportunities to test how nonrandomized interventions affect behavioral and health outcomes, researchers face several key challenges to maintaining strong internal and external validity when conducting these studies. Broadly, these challenges include 1) study design and analysis; 2) selection of participants, selection of measures, and obtainment of data; and 3) real-world considerations. This article addresses these challenges and different approaches to meeting them. Case studies are used to illustrate these approaches and to highlight advantages and disadvantages of each approach. If the trade-offs required to address these challenges are carefully considered, thoughtful natural experimental evaluations can minimize bias and provide critical information about the impacts of food retail interventions to a variety of stakeholders, including the affected population, policymakers, and food retailers. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. HEALTH POLICY INTERVENTION IN SCHOOLS PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AMONG THE PUPILS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    setting. For instance schools are expected to have food and nutrition policy (FNP), physical activity policy (PAP) and a health policy. However instead of seeing these policies as separate entities this paper speculate that there is a possible interrelatedness between the policies. In other words could...

  7. Assessing the impact of policy interventions on the adoption of plug-in electric vehicles: An agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvia, Chris; Krause, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened concern regarding climate change and energy independence has increased interest in plug-in electric vehicles as one means to address these challenges and governments at all levels have considered policy interventions to encourage their adoption. This paper develops an agent-based model that simulates the introduction of four policy scenarios aimed at promoting electric vehicle adoption in an urban community and compares them against a baseline. These scenarios include reducing vehicle purchase price via subsidies, expanding the local public charging network, increasing the number and visibility of fully battery electric vehicles (BEVs) on the roadway through government fleet purchases, and a hybrid mix of these three approaches. The results point to the effectiveness of policy options that increased awareness of BEV technology. Specifically, the hybrid policy alternative was the most successful in encouraging BEV adoption. This policy increases the visibility and familiarity of BEV technology in the community and may help counter the idea that BEVs are not a viable alternative to gasoline-powered vehicles. - Highlights: •Various policy interventions to encourage electric vehicle adoption are examined. •An agent based model is used to simulate individual adoption decisions. •Policies that increase the familiarity of electric vehicles are most effective.

  8. Using systems thinking to conceptually link the monitoring and evaluation function within development interventions and public policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambidima Wotela

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and evaluation function provides for accountability and to some extent transparency and, therefore, governance. However, this function can only be effective if it is conceptually linked within development interventions and public policy. There is an explicit discussion of the middle-third tier (how to monitor and evaluate as well as the bottom-third tier (data collection and storage, data processing and analysis, reporting results and findings, integrating results and findings into planning and implementation as well as overall decision making. Unfortunately, the top-third tier that links monitoring and evaluation within development interventions (the what and public policy (the how is implicit, if present. The discussions often point out that monitoring and evaluation is a management and decision-making tool but they omit or fail to link it to development interventions and public policy, leadership and governance. In this paper, we interrogate literature from a systems thinking perspective to derive a model that conceptually links the monitoring and evaluation function within development interventions and public policy. In doing so, we point out and link the five components (cultural, political, economic, social and environmental and two processes (imminent and immanent of development. Similarly, we point out and link the five components (leadership, governance, political-economy, institutional arrangements and organisation arrangements and three processes (research, decision-making and the public policy cycle of public policy. It is in the latter that we point out, situate and link the monitoring and evaluation function. We envisage that the proposed model may be useful in reconfiguring institutional and organisational arrangements to foster effective monitoring and evaluation of development interventions.

  9. Views of policy makers and health promotion professionals on factors facilitating implementation and maintenance of interventions and policies promoting physical activity and healthy eating: results of the DEDIPAC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muellmann, Saskia; Steenbock, Berit; De Cocker, Katrien; De Craemer, Marieke; Hayes, Catherine; O'Shea, Miriam P; Horodyska, Karolina; Bell, Justyna; Luszczynska, Aleksandra; Roos, Gun; Langøien, Lars Jørun; Rugseth, Gro; Terragni, Laura; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brug, Johannes; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-12-06

    The uptake, implementation, and maintenance of effective interventions promoting physical activity (PA) and a healthy diet and the implementation of policies targeting these behaviors are processes not well understood. We aimed to gain a better understanding of what health promotion professionals and policy makers think are important factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies promoting healthy eating and PA in Belgium, Germany, Ireland, Norway, and Poland. Six interventions and six policies were identified based on pre-defined criteria. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders from various sectors to elicit information on factors impacting adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies. All interview transcripts were coded in NVivo, using a common categorization matrix. Coding in the respective countries was done by one researcher and validated by a second researcher. Active involvement of relevant stakeholders and good communication between coordinating organizations were described as important factors contributing to successful adoption and implementation of both interventions and policies. Additional facilitating factors included sufficient training of staff and tailoring of materials to match needs of various target groups. The respondents indicated that maintenance of implemented interventions/policies depended on whether they were embedded in existing or newly created organizational structures in different settings and whether continued funding was secured. Despite considerable heterogeneity of interventions and health policies in the five countries, stakeholders across these countries identify similar factors facilitating adoption, implementation, and maintenance of these interventions and policies.

  10. Can Legal Interventions Change Beliefs? The Effect of Exposure to Sexual Harassment Policy on Men's Gender Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkler, Justine Eatenson; Li, Yan E.; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2007-01-01

    In spite of the relative success of equal opportunity laws on women's status in the workplace, we know little about the influence of such legal interventions on people's attitudes and beliefs. This paper focuses, in particular, on how sexual harassment policy affects men's beliefs about the gender hierarchy. We employ an experimental design in…

  11. Using frameworks to diagram value in complex policy and environmental interventions to prevent childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Melissa Farrell; Brennan, Laura K; Gentry, Daniel; Kemner, Allison L

    2015-01-01

    To date, few tools assist policy makers and practitioners in understanding and conveying the implementation costs, potential impacts, and value of policy and environmental changes to address healthy eating, active living, and childhood obesity. For the Evaluation of Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities (HKHC), evaluators considered inputs (resources and investments) that generate costs and savings as well as benefits and harms related to social, economic, environmental, and health-related outcomes in their assessment of 49 HKHC community partnerships funded from 2009 to 2014. Using data collected through individual and group interviews and an online performance monitoring system, evaluators created a socioecological framework to assess investments, resources, costs, savings, benefits, and harms at the individual, organizational, community, and societal levels. Evaluators customized frameworks for 6 focal strategies: active transportation, parks and play spaces, child care physical activity standards, corner stores, farmers' markets, and child care nutrition standards. To illustrate the Value Frameworks, this brief highlights the 38 HKHC communities implementing at least 1 active transportation strategy. Evaluators populated this conceptual Value Framework with themes from the strategy-specific inputs and outputs. The range of factors corresponding to the implementation and impact of the HKHC community partnerships are highlighted along with the inputs and outputs. The Value Frameworks helped evaluators identify gaps in current analysis models (ie, benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis) as well as paint a more complete picture of value for potential obesity prevention strategies. These frameworks provide a comprehensive understanding of investments needed, proposed costs and savings, and potential benefits and harms associated with economic, social, environmental, and health outcomes. This framing also allowed evaluators to demonstrate the interdependence

  12. Sustainable Soil Management: Its perception and the need for policy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Kassam, Amir; González-Sánchez, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    As stated in the strategic objectives of the Global Soil Partnership "healthy soils and sustainable soil management are the precondition for human well-being and economic welfare and therefore play the key role for sustainable development". Although the functional properties of a healthy soil are well understood, in practice it is easily overlooked what is necessary to achieve and sustain healthy agricultural soils. This contribution intends: to discuss the concept of sustainable soil management in agricultural production with regard to soil health, and to highlight its importance in the achievement of both Sustainable Development Goals and the 4 per mille objectives, as well as for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In Europe, soil and the need for its conservation and stewardship gained visibility at the beginning of this century during the discussions related to the Soil Thematic Strategy. This higher level of awareness concerning the status of Europe's soils led to the introduction of soil conservation standards into the cross-compliance mechanism within the 1st Pillar of CAP. These standards were applied through the definition of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs) which are compulsory for all farmers receiving direct payments, and in the last CAP reform in 2014, through the introduction of additional Greening Measures in Pilar 1. Despite these measures and the claim of some writers that they already contributed to significantly reducing soil erosion, the EC Joint Research Centre still reports water erosion in Europe amounting to almost one billion tonnes annually. Regarding soil conservation, soil carbon stocks or the provision of additional ecosystem services, measures called for in GAEC 4 (Minimum soil cover), in GAEC 5 (Minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil erosion), and in GAEC 6 (Maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices, …), give the impression that a lot is being

  13. Low-income housing policy and socioeconomic inequalities in women's health: the importance of nursing inquiry and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Dinah; Kneipp, Shawn

    2005-11-01

    Decent, affordable housing is the building block of healthy neighborhoods. Housing characteristics not only shape the quality of life in communities but also affect individual and family health. The structural and social aspects of housing have a significant impact on the health of individuals and populations. Early public health nursing pioneers such as Lillian Wald and Jane E. Hitchcock understood the adverse impact of substandard housing on population health and incorporated advocacy for housing and other social policy reforms as an integral aspect of their nursing interventions. Contemporary nursing literature, however, is lacking in its critical examination of relationships between housing and health. This article presents historical and current issues in low-income housing policy, discusses how low-income housing policy has contributed to social inequalities in health, and advocates for the importance and inherent value of nursing inquiry and intervention in this area.

  14. Factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace: systematic review of drivers of attrition and policy interventions to address them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Koussa, Maria; Atun, Rifat; Bowser, Diana; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-12-01

    The movement of skilled physicians from the public to the private sector is a key constraint to achieving universal health coverage and is currently affecting health systems worldwide. This systematic review aims to assess factors influencing physicians' choice of workplace, and policy interventions for retaining physicians in the public sector. Five literature databases were searched. Studies were included in the review if they focused on at least one of the following criteria: (i) incentives or motivators for retaining physicians in the public sector, (ii) pull factors that encouraged physicians to move to the private sector, (iii) push factors that forced physicians to leave the public sector, (iv) policy interventions or case studies that addressed physician retention in the public sector, and (v) qualitative reviews of policy interventions that were implemented in different health system settings. Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Six major themes that affected physicians' choice of workplace were identified including: financial incentives, career development, infrastructure and staffing, professional work environment, workload and autonomy. The majority of the studies suggested that the use of financial incentives was a motivator in retaining physicians in the public sector. The review also identified policy interventions including: regulatory controls, incentives and management reforms. Regulatory controls and incentives were the two most frequently reported policy interventions. While factors affecting physicians' choice of workplace are country specific, financial incentives and professional development are core factors. Other factors are highly influenced by context, and thus, it would be useful for future cross-country research to use standardized data collection tools, allowing comparison of contextual factors as well as the examination of how context affects physician retention in the public sector.

  15. The effect of state early intervention eligibility policy on participation among a cohort of young CSHCN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Beth; McCormick, Marie C; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores; Ganz, Michael; Hauser-Cram, Penny

    2009-12-01

    This purpose of this study was to describe differences in early intervention (EI) participation according to state among a cohort of young children with parent-reported developmental delays and disabilities. Data were obtained from the 2005-2006 National Survey of Children With Special Health Care Needs to describe state differences in EI participation. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate the relative contributions of child sociodemographic and developmental characteristics, and state EI eligibility policy on EI participation. The overall rate of EI participation was 45.7% (23.1%-83.3% across the states). EI participants were less likely to be Hispanic, live in a multiracial family, be poor, have a developmental delay, or have a less severe condition/delay. The predicted probability of receiving EI was lower for children who lived in states with more strict EI eligibility criteria than those with liberal criteria (.43 vs .52). Poverty influenced this association, with the adjusted probabilities of receiving EI for poor (185% federal poverty level) children being .18 and .36, respectively (P participation as a function of both characteristics of the child and the state program. Improving developmental services for vulnerable populations requires addressing these sources of disparity.

  16. Evaluation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy (CFWPs interventions on the health of full-time caregiver employees (CEs: implementation and cost-benefit analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current Canadian evidence illustrating the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-friendly workplace policies is needed if Canadian employers are to adopt and integrate caregiver-friendly workplace policies into their employment practices. The goal of this three-year, three study research project is to provide such evidence for the auto manufacturing and educational services sectors. The research questions being addressed are: What are the impacts for employers (economic and workers (health of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s for full-time caregiver-employees? What are the impacts for employers, workers and society of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s in each participating workplace? What contextual factors impact the successful implementation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s? Methods Using a pre-post-test comparative case study design, Study A will determine the effectiveness of newly implemented caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s across two workplaces to determine impacts on caregiver-employee health. A quasi-experimental pre-post design will allow the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s to be tested with respect to potential impacts on health, and specifically on caregiver employee mental, psychosocial, and physical health. Framed within a comparative case study design, Study B will utilize cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis approaches to evaluate the economic impacts of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s for each of the two participating workplaces. Framed within a comparative case study design, Study C will undertake an implementation analysis of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s in each participating workplace in order to determine: the degree of support for the intervention(s (reflected in the workplace culture; how sex and gender are implicated; co

  17. Evaluation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy (CFWPs) interventions on the health of full-time caregiver employees (CEs): implementation and cost-benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allison M; Tompa, Emile; Lero, Donna S; Fast, Janet; Yazdani, Amin; Zeytinoglu, Isik U

    2017-09-20

    Current Canadian evidence illustrating the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-friendly workplace policies is needed if Canadian employers are to adopt and integrate caregiver-friendly workplace policies into their employment practices. The goal of this three-year, three study research project is to provide such evidence for the auto manufacturing and educational services sectors. The research questions being addressed are: What are the impacts for employers (economic) and workers (health) of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) for full-time caregiver-employees? What are the impacts for employers, workers and society of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) in each participating workplace? What contextual factors impact the successful implementation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s)? Using a pre-post-test comparative case study design, Study A will determine the effectiveness of newly implemented caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) across two workplaces to determine impacts on caregiver-employee health. A quasi-experimental pre-post design will allow the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) to be tested with respect to potential impacts on health, and specifically on caregiver employee mental, psychosocial, and physical health. Framed within a comparative case study design, Study B will utilize cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis approaches to evaluate the economic impacts of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) for each of the two participating workplaces. Framed within a comparative case study design, Study C will undertake an implementation analysis of the caregiver-friendly workplace policy intervention(s) in each participating workplace in order to determine: the degree of support for the intervention(s) (reflected in the workplace culture); how sex and gender are implicated; co-workers' responses to the chosen intervention(s), and

  18. Applicability of the theory of planned behavior in predicting intended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The predictive validity and applicability of Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) may be a promising model for understanding and predicting intended behaviors to use VCT services. The need for theory based study would thus be essential in designing evidence based HIV-related interventions in the future.

  19. State of the art conference on weight management in VA: Policy and research recommendations for advancing behavioral interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masheb, Robin M; Chan, Stephanie H; Raffa, Susan D; Ackermann, Ronald; Damschroder, Laura J; Estabrooks, Paul A; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Evans, Neil C; Histon, Trina; Littman, Alyson J; Moin, Tannaz; Nelson, Karin M; Pagoto, Sherry; Pronk, Nico P; Tate, Deborah F; Goldstein, Michael G

    2017-04-01

    This article summarizes outcomes of the behavioral interventions work group for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) State of the Art Conference (SOTA) for Weight Management. Sixteen VHA and non-VHA subject matter experts, representing clinical care delivery, research, and policy arenas, participated. The work group reviewed current evidence of efficacy, effectiveness, and implementation of behavioral interventions for weight management, participated in phone- and online-based consensus processes, generated key questions to address gaps, and attended an in-person conference in March 2016. The work group agreed that there is strong evidence for efficacy and effectiveness of core behavioral intervention components and processes, but insufficient evidence to determine the comparative effectiveness of multiple clinician-delivered weight management modalities, as well as technologies that may or may not supplement clinician-delivered treatments. Effective strategies for implementation of weight management services in VHA were identified. The SOTA work group's foremost policy recommendations are to establish a system-wide culture for weight management and to identify a population-level health metric to measure the impact of weight management interventions that can be tracked and clearly communicated throughout VHA. The work group's top research recommendation is to determine how to deploy and scale the most effective behavioral weight management interventions for Veterans.

  20. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  2. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  3. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  4. Animal-assisted interventions: A national survey of health and safety policies in hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Deborah E; Siebens, Hannah C; Mueller, Megan K; Gibbs, Debra M; Freeman, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    Animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs are increasing in popularity, but it is unknown to what extent therapy animal organizations that provide AAI and the hospitals and eldercare facilities they work with implement effective animal health and safety policies to ensure safety of both animals and humans. Our study objective was to survey hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations on their AAI policies and procedures. A survey of United States hospitals, eldercare facilities, and therapy animal organizations was administered to assess existing health and safety policies related to AAI programs. Forty-five eldercare facilities, 45 hospitals, and 27 therapy animal organizations were surveyed. Health and safety policies varied widely and potentially compromised human and animal safety. For example, 70% of therapy animal organizations potentially put patients at risk by allowing therapy animals eating raw meat diets to visit facilities. In general, hospitals had stricter requirements than eldercare facilities. This information suggests that there are gaps between the policies of facilities and therapy animal organizations compared with recent guidelines for animal visitation in hospitals. Facilities with AAI programs need to review their policies to address recent AAI guidelines to ensure the safety of animals and humans involved. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A Training Intervention for Supervisors to Support a Work-Life Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Laharnar

    2013-09-01

    Conclusion: CBT is an effective strategy to increase supervisors' knowledge and awareness to support policy implementation. The lack of supervisor training and knowledge of an important but complex employee benefit exposes a serious impediment to effective policy implementation and may lead to negative outcomes for the organization and the employee, supporting the Ryan-Kossek model. The results further demonstrate that long-time employees need supplementary training on complex workplace policies such as FMLA.

  6. Fading vision: knowledge translation in the implementation of a public health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomm-Bonde, Laura; Schreiber, Rita S; Allan, Diane E; MacDonald, Marjorie; Pauly, Bernie; Hancock, Trevor

    2013-06-04

    implement a collaborative, evidence-informed policy intervention, there were several barriers to the realization of the vision for core public health functions implementation, at least in the early stages. In neglecting the implementation process, it seems unlikely that the expected benefits of the public health renewal process will be realized.

  7. HEALTH POLICY INTERVENTION IN SCHOOLS PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES AMONG THE PUPILS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    such as Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP). This was determined through the comparisons between the FNP based schools and non policy based schools. The study undertook surveys among school food coordinators in the selected Danish primary schools through a web-based questionnaire. The questions in the survey were...

  8. Low-carbon transition of iron and steel industry in China: carbon intensity, economic growth and policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bing; Li, Xiao; Qiao, Yuanbo; Shi, Lei

    2015-02-01

    As the biggest iron and steel producer in the world and one of the highest CO2 emission sectors, China's iron and steel industry is undergoing a low-carbon transition accompanied by remarkable technological progress and investment adjustment, in response to the macroeconomic climate and policy intervention. Many drivers of the CO2 emissions of the iron and steel industry have been explored, but the relationships between CO2 abatement, investment and technological expenditure, and their connections with the economic growth and governmental policies in China, have not been conjointly and empirically examined. We proposed a concise conceptual model and an econometric model to investigate this crucial question. The results of regression, Granger causality test and impulse response analysis indicated that technological expenditure can significantly reduce CO2 emissions, and that investment expansion showed a negative impact on CO2 emission reduction. It was also argued with empirical evidence that a good economic situation favored CO2 abatement in China's iron and steel industry, while achieving CO2 emission reduction in this industrial sector did not necessarily threaten economic growth. This shed light on the dispute over balancing emission cutting and economic growth. Regarding the policy aspects, the year 2000 was found to be an important turning point for policy evolution and the development of the iron and steel industry in China. The subsequent command and control policies had a significant, positive effect on CO2 abatement. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Improving food environments and tackling obesity: A realist systematic review of the policy success of regulatory interventions targeting population nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Street, Jackie M; Merlin, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025276) employs a realist approach to investigate the effect of "real-world" policies targeting different aspects of the food environment that shape individual and collective nutrition. We were interested in assessing intermediate outcomes along the assumed causal pathway to "policy success", in addition to the final outcome of changed consumption patterns. We performed a search of 16 databases through October 2015, with no initial restriction by language. We included all publications that reported the effect of statutory provisions aimed at reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods and beverages in the general population. We allowed all methodological approaches that contained some measure of comparison, including studies of implementation progress. We reviewed included studies using the appraisal tools for pre-post and observational studies developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Given the considerable heterogeneity in interventions assessed, study designs employed, and outcome measures reported, we opted for a narrative synthesis of results. Results drawn from 36 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature reports demonstrated that isolated regulatory interventions can improve intermediate outcomes, but fail to affect consumption at clinically significant levels. The included literature covered six different types of interventions, with 19 studies reporting on calorie posting on chain restaurant menus. The large majority of the identified interventions were conducted in the US. Early results from recent taxation measures were published after the review cut-off date but these suggested more favorable effects on consumption levels. Nevertheless, the evidence assessed in this review suggests that current policies are generally falling short of anticipated health impacts.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Using an Ontario Policy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, K; Blackhouse, G; McCurdy, BR; Bornstein, M; Campbell, K; Costa, V; Franek, J; Kaulback, K; Levin, L; Sehatzadeh, S; Sikich, N; Thabane, M; Goeree, R

    2012-01-01

    Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Pulmonary Rehabilitation for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Long-Term Oxygen Therapy for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Acute Respiratory Failure Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation for Chronic Respiratory Failure Patients With Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Hospital-at-Home Programs for Patients With Acute Exacerbations of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Home Telehealth for Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): An Evidence-Based Analysis Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Using an Ontario Policy Model Experiences of Living and Dying With COPD: A Systematic Review and Synthesis of the Qualitative Empirical Literature For more information on the qualitative review, please contact Mita Giacomini at: http://fhs.mcmaster.ca/ceb/faculty_member_giacomini.htm. For more information on the economic analysis, please visit the PATH website: http://www.path-hta.ca/About-Us/Contact-Us.aspx. The Toronto Health Economics and Technology Assessment (THETA) collaborative has produced an associated report on patient preference for mechanical ventilation. For more information, please visit the THETA website: http://theta.utoronto.ca/static/contact. Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic inflammation throughout the airways, parenchyma, and pulmonary vasculature. The inflammation causes repeated cycles of injury and repair in the airway wall— inflammatory cells release a variety of chemicals and lead to cellular damage. The inflammation process also contributes to the loss of elastic recoil pressure

  11. Advertising, Intended vs. Unintended Effects of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.A.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Arnett, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of television advertising on children and adolescents can be divided into two general types: intended and unintended. Intended effects are the effects that advertisers wish to achieve with their advertisements, and unintended effects include the often-undesired side effects of

  12. Assessment of Alternative Maize Trade and Market Policy Interventions in Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Govereh, Jones; Jayne, Thomas S.; Chapoto, Antony

    2008-01-01

    The economic reforms in maize marketing and trade policies implemented during the 1990s have been highly controversial, and there remains a lack of solid empirical investigation on the impacts of these reforms on national food security, price stability and rural income growth. This study aims to provide a detailed evidence-based analysis of the impacts of maize marketing and trade policies on smallholder agricultural production growth, access to food by consumers, and other important national...

  13. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  14. Success, Failure, and Unfinished Business of Education, Prevention, Policy, and Intervention Programs on Substance Misuse in Brazilian Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Azenildo M

    2015-01-01

    The current Brazilian situation is such that it is difficult to obtain a worldwide evaluation of failure in education, intervention, or prevention programs. How fragile Brazil's anti-doping system is, its appropriateness as well as its relevance, with needed policy infrastructures for achieving the selected goals, and how wide the gap is between education and prevention program effectiveness between high-performance athletes and recreational practitioners who just want to look good. An additional concern, and ever present flaw regarding Brazil's "common sportsman" in day-to-day society is their not receiving known and necessary "sports education," enabling the development of an "at-risk" population for self-harm. Reflections on public health policy are noted.

  15. International policy on intervention in the event of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, P.H.; Crick, M.J.; Gonzalez, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Criteria for taking particular protective actions with the aim of preventing or reducing radiation exposures to the population or to workers in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency can be established on the basis of radiological protection principles for intervention situations. It is of utmost importance that pre-established intervention levels for different protective measures form an integral part of an emergency response plan. Generic optimized intervention levels and their derived operational quantities based on the principles given in this paper are judged to provide protection that would be justified and reasonable optimized for a wide range of accident situations although they can only be used as guidelines. Any specific optimization would lead to intervention levels that might be either higher or lower than those emerging from a generic optimization. (author). 9 refs

  16. Moving towards a new vision: implementation of a public health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valaitis, Ruta; MacDonald, Marjorie; Kothari, Anita; O'Mara, Linda; Regan, Sandra; Garcia, John; Murray, Nancy; Manson, Heather; Peroff-Johnston, Nancy; Bursey, Gayle; Boyko, Jennifer

    2016-05-17

    Public health systems in Canada have undergone significant policy renewal over the last decade in response to threats to the public's health, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome. There is limited research on how public health policies have been implemented or what has influenced their implementation. This paper explores policy implementation in two exemplar public health programs -chronic disease prevention and sexually-transmitted infection prevention - in Ontario, Canada. It examines public health service providers', managers' and senior managements' perspectives on the process of implementation of the Ontario Public Health Standards 2008 and factors influencing implementation. Public health staff from six health units representing rural, remote, large and small urban settings were included. We conducted 21 focus groups and 18 interviews between 2010 (manager and staff focus groups) and 2011 (senior management interviews) involving 133 participants. Research assistants coded transcripts and researchers reviewed these; the research team discussed and resolved discrepancies. To facilitate a breadth of perspectives, several team members helped interpret the findings. An integrated knowledge translation approach was used, reflected by the inclusion of academics as well as decision-makers on the team and as co-authors. Front line service providers often were unaware of the new policies but managers and senior management incorporated them in operational and program planning. Some participants were involved in policy development or provided feedback prior to their launch. Implementation was influenced by many factors that aligned with Greenhalgh and colleagues' empirically-based Diffusion of Innovations in Service Organizations Framework. Factors and related components that were most clearly linked to the OPHS policy implementation were: attributes of the innovation itself; adoption by individuals; diffusion and dissemination; the outer context

  17. The impact of state intervention on "underperforming" schools in Massachusetts: Implications for policy and practice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. McQuillan

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Since passage of the federal No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB in 2002, state departments of education across the U.S. have been busy creating or modifying school accountability systems to meet NCLB guidelines. Ultimately, NCLB seeks to have all public school students proficient in English/Language Arts and mathematics by 2014. To identify schools in danger of not meeting this goal, states must establish student performance benchmarks and identify schools not making adequate yearly progress (AYP. Those consistently failing to make AYP can be ordered into "radical restructuring," which may include having the state intervene in running the school (U. S. Department of Education, 2002. Given these NCLB provisions and the growing number of schools not meeting AYP, the number of state interventions in low-performing schools will certainly increase. Accordingly, this article explores two questions about state-led interventions. First, how have teachers and administrators in underperforming schools in Massachusetts perceived state intervention? In addition, based on their perceptions, what might be done to make the process more effective? At three schools that experienced interventions from the Massachusetts Department of Education, a qualitative study explored the process of state intervention. A survey to principals in 22 of the 23 schools deemed underperforming by the state between 2000 and 2004 supplemented the in-depth qualitative work. Drawing on these mixed methods data sources, this article offers a series of proposals aimed at informing future state interventions in Massachusetts and elsewhere.

  18. Policy interventions related to medicines: Survey of measures taken in European countries during 2010-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Sabine; Zimmermann, Nina; de Joncheere, Kees

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers can use a menu of pharmaceutical policy options. This study aimed to survey these measures that were implemented in European countries between 2010 and 2015. We did bi-annual surveys with competent authorities of the Pharmaceutical Pricing and Reimbursement Information network. Additionally, we consulted posters produced by members of this network as well as further published literature. Information on 32 European countries (all European Union Member States excluding Luxembourg; Iceland, Norway, Serbia, Switzerland, Turkey) was included. 557 measures were reported between January 2010 and December 2015. The most frequently mentioned measure was price reductions and price freezes, followed by changes in patient co-payments, modifications related to the reimbursement lists and changes in distribution remuneration. Most policy measures were identified in Portugal, Greece, Belgium, France, the Czech Republic, Iceland, Spain and Germany. 22% of the measures surveyed could be classified as austerity. Countries that were strongly hit by the financial crisis implemented most policy changes, usually aiming to generate savings and briefly after the emergence of the crisis. Improvements in the economic situation tended to lead to an easing of austerity measures. Countries also implemented policies that aimed to enhance enforcement of existing measures and increase efficiency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consumer Food Security and Labeling Intervention on Food Products through Public Policies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia Crina Petrescu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The correct understanding of consumers’ food labeling knowledge and perceptions is a prerequisite to develop and implement coherent and appropriate food safety policies. One objective of the paper was to discover how often consumers access and use specific food label information. Another objective was to explore stakeholders’ preferences for several public policy options relevant for food safety. In this respect, a survey on a sample of 312 Romanian consumers and the evaluation of several public policy options by four stakeholder groups (food producers and sellers, doctors, fitness trainers, and consumers were carried out. The results revealed that the most frequently read types of information on the label were “expiration date” and “price”, closely followed by “quantity” and “brand”. Among tested public policies, those related to the traffic light labels and to the social interest messages with health claims were rewarded with high scores by investigated stakeholders. Although nutrition has a decisive impact on health state, nutrition information was not frequently read by people, thus justifying the implementation of a public policy meant to enhance consumers’ interest in and reading frequency of nutrition information on food label.

  20. AIMD - a validated, simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bragge

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proliferation of terms describing the science of effectively promoting and supporting the use of research evidence in healthcare policy and practice has hampered understanding and development of the field. To address this, an international Terminology Working Group developed and published a simplified framework of interventions to promote and integrate evidence into health practices, systems, and policies. This paper presents results of validation work and a second international workgroup meeting, culminating in the updated AIMD framework [Aims, Ingredients, Mechanism, Delivery]. Methods Framework validity was evaluated against terminology schemas (n = 51; primary studies (n = 37; and reporting guidelines (n = 10. Framework components were independently categorized as fully represented, partly represented, or absent by two researchers. Opportunities to refine the framework were systematically recorded. A meeting of the expanded international Terminology Working Group updated the framework by reviewing and deliberating upon validation findings and refinement proposals. Results There was variation in representativeness of the components across the three types of literature, in particular for the component ‘causal mechanisms’. Analysis of primary studies revealed that representativeness of this concept lowered from 92 to 68% if only explicit, rather than explicit and non-explicit references to causal mechanisms were included. All components were very well represented in reporting guidelines, however the level of description of these was lower than in other types of literature. Twelve opportunities were identified to improve the framework, 9 of which were operationalized at the meeting. The updated AIMD framework comprises four components: (1 Aims: what do you want your intervention to achieve and for whom? (2 Ingredients: what comprises the intervention? (3 Mechanisms: how do you propose the intervention will

  1. Solution scanning as a key policy tool: identifying management interventions to help maintain and enhance regulating ecosystem services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Sutherland

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The major task of policy makers and practitioners when confronted with a resource management problem is to decide on the potential solution(s to adopt from a range of available options. However, this process is unlikely to be successful and cost effective without access to an independently verified and comprehensive available list of options. There is currently burgeoning interest in ecosystem services and quantitative assessments of their importance and value. Recognition of the value of ecosystem services to human well-being represents an increasingly important argument for protecting and restoring the natural environment, alongside the moral and ethical justifications for conservation. As well as understanding the benefits of ecosystem services, it is also important to synthesize the practical interventions that are capable of maintaining and/or enhancing these services. Apart from pest regulation, pollination, and global climate regulation, this type of exercise has attracted relatively little attention. Through a systematic consultation exercise, we identify a candidate list of 296 possible interventions across the main regulating services of air quality regulation, climate regulation, water flow regulation, erosion regulation, water purification and waste treatment, disease regulation, pest regulation, pollination and natural hazard regulation. The range of interventions differs greatly between habitats and services depending upon the ease of manipulation and the level of research intensity. Some interventions have the potential to deliver benefits across a range of regulating services, especially those that reduce soil loss and maintain forest cover. Synthesis and applications: Solution scanning is important for questioning existing knowledge and identifying the range of options available to researchers and practitioners, as well as serving as the necessary basis for assessing cost effectiveness and guiding implementation strategies. We

  2. Evidence-based obesity prevention in childhood and adolescence: critique of recent etiological studies, preventive interventions, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J

    2012-07-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the "energy gap" that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers.

  3. Evidence-Based Obesity Prevention in Childhood and Adolescence: Critique of Recent Etiological Studies, Preventive Interventions, and Policies123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Prevention of obesity in childhood and adolescence remains a worthwhile and realistic goal, but preventive efforts have been beset by a number of problems, which are the subject of this review. The review draws on recent systematic reviews and evidence appraisals and has a United Kingdom (UK) perspective because there is a rich evidence base in the United Kingdom that may be helpful to obesity prevention researchers elsewhere. Recent evidence of a leveling off in child and adolescent obesity prevalence in some Western nations should not encourage the belief that the obesity prevention problem has been solved, although a better understanding of recent secular trends might be helpful for prevention strategy in future. An adequate body of evidence provides behavioral targets of preventive interventions, and there are frameworks for prioritizing these targets logically and models for translating them into generalizable interventions with a wide reach (e.g., school-based prevention interventions such as Planet Health). An improved understanding of the “energy gap” that children and adolescents experience would be helpful to the design of preventive interventions and to their tailoring to particular groups. In the United Kingdom, some recent etiological evidence has been taken as indicative of the need for paradigm shifts in obesity prevention, but this evidence from single studies has not been replicated, and paradigm shifts probably occur only rarely. Ensuring that the evidence base on etiology and prevention influences policy effectively remains one of the greatest challenges for childhood obesity researchers. PMID:22798005

  4. Economic analysis of three interventions of different intensity in improving school implementation of a government healthy canteen policy in Australia: costs, incremental and relative cost effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Kathryn L; Reeves, Penny; Deeming, Simon; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Wiggers, John

    2018-03-20

    No evaluations of the cost or cost effectiveness of interventions to increase school implementation of food availability policies have been reported. Government and non-government agency decisions regarding the extent of investment required to enhance school implementation of such policies are unsupported by such evidence. This study sought to i) Determine cost and cost-effectiveness of three interventions in improving school implementation of an Australian government healthy canteen policy and; ii) Determine the relative cost-effectiveness of the interventions in improving school implementation of such a policy. An analysis of the cost and cost-effectiveness of three implementation interventions of varying support intensity, relative to usual implementation support conducted during 2013-2015 was undertaken. Secondly, an indirect comparison of the trials was undertaken to determine the most cost-effective of the three strategies. The economic analysis was based on the cost of delivering the interventions by health service delivery staff to increase the proportion of schools 'adherent' with the policy. The total costs per school were $166,971, $70,926 and $75,682 for the high, medium and low intensity interventions respectively. Compared to usual support, the cost effectiveness ratios for each of the three interventions were: A$2982 (high intensity), A$2627 (medium intensity) and A$4730 (low intensity) per percent increase in proportion of schools reporting 'adherence'). Indirect comparison between the 'high' and 'medium intensity' interventions showed no statistically significant difference in cost-effectiveness. The results indicate that while the cost profiles of the interventions varied substantially, the cost-effectiveness did not. This result is valuable to policy makers seeking cost-effective solutions that can be delivered within budget.

  5. Policy Interventions Designed to Combat Sexual Violence: Community Notification and Civil Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S.

    2003-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the problem of sexual predators and the struggles of the legal-justice system to contain them. In response to public outcry over high-profile sex crimes, federal and state legislators have responded in the past decade with innovative but controversial public policy initiatives, called "sexually violent predator…

  6. Impact of a School Health Coordinator Intervention on Health-Related School Policies and Student Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Liam M.; Polacsek, Michele; MacDonald, Pamela B.; Ellis, Jacqueline; Berry, Susan; Martin, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    Background: Health-related, school-based interventions may serve to prevent disease and improve academic performance. The Healthy Maine Partnerships (HMP) initiative funded local school health coordinators (SHCs) as a part of Maine's Coordinated School Health Program (CSHP) beginning in January 2001. SHCs established school health leadership teams…

  7. Working environment interventions – Bridging the gap between policy instruments and practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Nielsen, Klaus T.

    2014-01-01

    In spite of progress in intervention research, our understanding of the transformation of knowledge from the research into national working environment programmes is limited. Research in state regulation is mainly aimed at compliance and efficiency of public administration, while little attention...

  8. A review of policy-relevant strategies and interventions to address ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper focuses on alcohol intervention strategies likely to be effective in a country like South Africa. It begins with an appraisal of the latest data on the burden of harm associated with the misuse of alcohol, globally, regionally and in South Africa. The main part of the paper comprises a critical analysis of a broad array of ...

  9. Integrated assessment of policy interventions for promoting sustainable irrigation in semi-arid environments: a hydro-economic modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Gutiérrez, Irene; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Purkey, David R

    2013-10-15

    Sustaining irrigated agriculture to meet food production needs while maintaining aquatic ecosystems is at the heart of many policy debates in various parts of the world, especially in arid and semi-arid areas. Researchers and practitioners are increasingly calling for integrated approaches, and policy-makers are progressively supporting the inclusion of ecological and social aspects in water management programs. This paper contributes to this policy debate by providing an integrated economic-hydrologic modeling framework that captures the socio-economic and environmental effects of various policy initiatives and climate variability. This modeling integration includes a risk-based economic optimization model and a hydrologic water management simulation model that have been specified for the Middle Guadiana basin, a vulnerable drought-prone agro-ecological area with highly regulated river systems in southwest Spain. Namely, two key water policy interventions were investigated: the implementation of minimum environmental flows (supported by the European Water Framework Directive, EU WFD), and a reduction in the legal amount of water delivered for irrigation (planned measure included in the new Guadiana River Basin Management Plan, GRBMP, still under discussion). Results indicate that current patterns of excessive water use for irrigation in the basin may put environmental flow demands at risk, jeopardizing the WFD's goal of restoring the 'good ecological status' of water bodies by 2015. Conflicts between environmental and agricultural water uses will be stressed during prolonged dry episodes, and particularly in summer low-flow periods, when there is an important increase of crop irrigation water requirements. Securing minimum stream flows would entail a substantial reduction in irrigation water use for rice cultivation, which might affect the profitability and economic viability of small rice-growing farms located upstream in the river. The new GRBMP could contribute

  10. Restricting marketing to children: Consensus on policy interventions to address obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Kim D; Lobstein, Tim; Landon, Jane; Kent, Monique Potvin; Pellerin, Suzie; Caulfield, Timothy; Finegood, Diane; Mongeau, Lyne; Neary, Neil; Spence, John C

    2013-01-01

    Obesity presents major challenges for public health and the evidence is strong. Lessons from tobacco control indicate a need for changing the policy and environments to make healthy choices easier and to create more opportunities for children to achieve healthy weights. In April 2011, the Alberta Policy Coalition for Chronic Disease Prevention convened a consensus conference on environmental determinants of obesity such as marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children. We examine the political environment, evidence, issues, and challenges of placing restrictions on marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages within Canada. We recommend a national regulatory system prohibiting commercial marketing of foods and beverages to children and suggest that effective regulations must set minimum standards, monitor compliance, and enact penalties for non-compliance. PMID:23447026

  11. Policy intervention for arsenic mitigation in drinking water in rural habitations in India: achievements and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Brajesh K

    2016-10-01

    This article provides updated status of the arsenic affected rural habitations in India, summarizes the policy initiatives of the Ministry of Drinking Water & Sanitation (Government of India), reviews the technologies for arsenic treatment and analyses the progress made by states in tackling arsenic problems in rural habitations. It also provides a list of constraints based on experiences and recommends suggested measures to tackle arsenic problems in an holistic manner. It is expected that the paper would be useful for policy formulators in states, non-government organizations, researchers of academic and scientific institutions and programme managers working in the area of arsenic mitigation in drinking water, especially in developing countries, as it provides better insights compared to other available information in India on mitigating arsenic problems in drinking water in rural areas.

  12. Public policy intervention in freight transport costs: effects on printed media logistics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Heijden, R. van der

    2005-01-01

    Trends in contemporary logistics management have led to an increased transport-intensity of production and distribution activities. Transport costs are increasingly traded off against other logistical costs and seem to have lost importance in strategic decision-making. At the same time, in Europe, transport policy aims at regulating freight transport demand by manipulating its costs, for instance, via taxation. In addition, investment in infrastructure lags behind growth in transport, potenti...

  13. Limits of policy intervention in a world of neoliberal mechanism designs: Paradoxes of the global crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dymski Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The current global context poses several paradoxes: the recovery from the 2009 recession was not a recovery; investment, normally driven by profit rates, is lagging and not leading economic activity; the crisis is global but debate involves sub-global levels; and public safety-nets, which have helped to stabilize national income, are being cut. These paradoxes can be traced, in part, to the impact of the “truce” that followed the Keynesian-Monetarist controversy on economists’ ideas about policy activism. This implicit “truce” has removed activist macro policy from discussion, and shifted attention toward institutions as mechanisms for solving game-theoretic coordination problems. Policy activism then centers on how the “agents” (nations can achieve optimal use of their available resources (or optimal access to resources at the global level; and this involves creating and fine-tuning compacts - neoliberal mechanism designs - that can capture rents and attract globally mobile capital. This approach leads economists to see the key problem in the current global crisis as fixing broken neoliberal mechanisms. However, a global economy dominated by mechanisms that feed on aggregate demand without generating it faces the prospect of stagnation or collapse.

  14. Policy framework on energy access and key development indicators: ECOWAS interventions and the case of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglina, Moses Kwame; Agbejule, Adebayo; Nyamuame, Godwin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Energy has become the main driver for development as industries grow, agricultural sectors become more modernized, economies boom and countries become wealthy. There are still vast majority of people living under the poverty line especially in the ECOWAS region. The purpose of this study is to explore how improvements in energy access can be a key driver in economic development and progress in the ECOWAS region. Data for the study was obtained from the database of the World Bank. A regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationships between energy access and development indicators. The paper suggests the need for policy makers in the ECOWAS region to focus on targets, such as household access, consumption of electricity, and ease of use instead on supply targets that focus merely on physical coverage. A case on how Ghana is improving energy access is presented. - Highlights: • Energy policies in the ECOWAS region must focus on demand side targets. • Energy policies should target rural and peri-urban areas of the ECOWAS region. • Improved energy access requires a new supply chain energy model.

  15. Attracting and retaining health workers in rural areas: investigating nurses’ views on rural posts and policy interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodman Catherine

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kenya has bold plans for scaling up priority interventions nationwide, but faces major human resource challenges, with a lack of skilled workers especially in the most disadvantaged rural areas. Methods We investigated reasons for poor recruitment and retention in rural areas and potential policy interventions through quantitative and qualitative data collection with nursing trainees. We interviewed 345 trainees from four purposively selected Medical Training Colleges (MTCs (166 pre-service and 179 upgrading trainees with prior work experience. Each interviewee completed a self-administered questionnaire including likert scale responses to statements about rural areas and interventions, and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted at each MTC. Results Likert scale responses indicated mixed perceptions of both living and working in rural areas, with a range of positive, negative and indifferent views expressed on average across different statements. The analysis showed that attitudes to working in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being older, but negatively affected by being an upgrading student. Attitudes to living in rural areas were significantly positively affected by being a student at the MTC furthest from Nairobi. During FGDs trainees raised both positive and negative aspects of rural life. Positive aspects included lower costs of living and more autonomy at work. Negative issues included poor infrastructure, inadequate education facilities and opportunities, higher workloads, and inadequate supplies and supervision. Particular concern was expressed about working in communities dominated by other tribes, reflecting Kenya’s recent election-related violence. Quantitative and qualitative data indicated that students believed several strategies could improve rural recruitment and retention, with particular emphasis on substantial rural allowances and the ability to choose their rural location

  16. Contextually tailored interventions can increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity: the experiences of two Danish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Maja; Loncarevic, Natasa; Radl-Karimi, Christina; Thøgersen, Malene; Skovgaard, Thomas; Aro, Arja R

    2018-02-21

    The present study aims to test out contextually tailored interventions to increase evidence-informed health-enhancing physical activity policy-making in two Danish municipalities. The study was performed as experiments in natural settings. Based on results from a pre-intervention study defining the needs and contexts of the two settings, the interventions were developed based on logical models. The interventions aimed at increasing the use of knowledge in policy-making, primarily via strengthening intersectoral collaboration. The interventions were evaluated via pre-, post- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires and qualitative interviews were carried out prior to the intervention start. The use of knowledge changed in several ways. In one municipality, the use of stakeholder and target group knowledge increased whereas, in the other municipality, the use of research knowledge increased. In both municipalities, the ability to translate knowledge to local context, the political request and the organisational procedures for use of knowledge increased during the interventions. There was some variation between the two settings, which shows the importance of tailoring to context. Most of the changes were diminished at the 12-month follow-up. Contextually tailored interventions have the potential to increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity. However, this finding needs to be tested in larger samples and its sustainability must be strengthened.

  17. Knowledge, attitude and intending practice of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO) is that infants should be fed exclusively on breast milk for the first 6 months, but the rate of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) has been on the decline in Nigeria. The study determines knowledge, attitude and intending practice of unmarried female undergraduates ...

  18. Education Differences in Intended and Unintended Fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; England, Paula; Edgington, Sarah; Kangas, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Using a hazards framework and panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (1979-2004), we analyze the fertility patterns of a recent cohort of white and black women in the United States. We examine how completed fertility varies by women's education, differentiating between intended and unintended births. We find that the education…

  19. Policy and administrative issues for large-scale clinical interventions following disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S; Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett

    2014-02-01

    Large, programmatic mental health intervention programs for children and adolescents following disasters have become increasingly common; however, little has been written about the key goals and challenges involved. Using available data and the authors' experiences, this article reviews the factors involved in planning and implementing large-scale treatment programs following disasters. These issues include funding, administration, choice of clinical targets, workforce selection, choice of treatment modalities, training, outcome monitoring, and consumer uptake. Ten factors are suggested for choosing among treatment modalities: 1) reach (providing access to the greatest number), 2) retention of patients, 3) privacy, 4) parental involvement, 5) familiarity of the modality to clinicians, 6) intensity (intervention type matches symptom acuity and impairment of patient), 7) burden to the clinician (in terms of time, travel, and inconvenience), 8) cost, 9) technology needs, and 10) effect size. Traditionally, after every new disaster, local leaders who have never done so before have had to be recruited to design, administer, and implement programs. As expertise in all of these areas represents a gap for most local professionals in disaster-affected areas, we propose that a central, nongovernmental agency with national or international scope be created that can consult flexibly with local leaders following disasters on both overarching and specific issues. We propose recommendations and point out areas in greatest need of innovation.

  20. Living both well and sustainably: a review of the literature, with some reflections on future research, interventions and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2017-05-01

    The idea that human well-being (WB) can be supported and even enhanced by using, producing, buying, selling and consuming less `stuff' is anathema to many living under consumer capitalism. Yet a growing research literature actually finds that frequent engagement in pro-ecological behaviours (PEBs) is positively correlated with personal WB. This paper reviews data relevant to three possible explanations for the apparent compatibility of PEBs and WB: (i) engaging in PEBs leads to psychological need satisfaction, which in turn causes WB; (ii) being in a good mood causes people to engage in more prosocial behaviours, including PEBs; and (iii) personal characteristics and lifestyles such as intrinsic values, mindfulness and voluntary simplicity cause both PEBs and WB. Because each explanation has some empirical support, I close by reflecting on some relevant interventions and policies that could strengthen each of these three pathways and thereby promote living both well and sustainably. This article is part of the themed issue 'Material demand reduction'.

  1. Review of solar PV policies, interventions and diffusion in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Pedersen, Mathilde Brix; Nygaard, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research on the diffusion of solar PV in Africa has mainly focused on solar home systems (SHS) in individual countries and thus overlooked developments in other PV market segments that have recently emerged. In contrast this paper adopts a regional perspective by reviewing developments...... in supportive policies, donor programs and diffusion status in all PV market segments in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda, as well as identifying the key factors put forward in the literature to explain differences in the diffusion of SHS in these three countries. The paper finds two emerging trends: (i) a movement...... from donor and government-based support to market-driven diffusion of solar PV; and (ii) a transition from small-scale, off-grid systems towards mini-grids and large-scale, grid-connected solar power plants. The paper points out three generic factors that have contributed to encouraging SHS diffusion...

  2. Health policy in interwar Greece: the intervention by the League of Nations Health Organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorou, Vassiliki; Karakatsani, Despina

    2008-01-01

    The first serious attempts to deal with public health problems in Greece were undertaken between 1925 and 1935. This period also witnessed setbacks to developments in public health, caused by the lack of welfare infrastructure for social relief, as well as extensive health problems brought about by the settlement in Greece of 1,300,000 refugees from Asia Minor. In 1928 following the example set by other European countries, the Liberal Government appealed to international health organisations for support in order to effectively deal with these problems. This contribution constitutes a case study addressing the following issues: a) the impact the League of Nations Health Organisation intervention had on the establishment of public health services; b) the framework for a collaboration of the Rockefeller Foundation and the League of Nations Health Organisation; and c) the factors that led to the failure of the health care reorganisation.

  3. Effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to enhance implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Nicole; Yoong, Sze Lin; Sutherland, Rachel; Reilly, Kathryn; Delaney, Tessa; Janssen, Lisa; Robertson, Katie; Reynolds, Renee; Chai, Li Kheng; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John; Wolfenden, Luke

    2016-10-07

    The implementation of school nutrition policies, which govern the provision of food in schools, is recommended as a public health strategy to support the development of healthy dietary behaviours in school-aged children. Despite this, research internationally and in Australia indicates that few schools implement such policies. This study aims to examine whether a theoretically designed, multi-strategy intervention was effective in increasing the implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools. A parallel group randomised controlled trial was conducted with all government and Catholic primary schools within one region in New South Wales, Australia who had an operational canteen that provided food to primary school aged children (5-12 years) and were not currently receiving an intervention to change their canteen practices. Schools randomised to the intervention arm received a 9-month multicomponent intervention including ongoing support, provision of resources, performance monitoring and feedback, executive support and recognition. The primary outcomes were the proportion of the schools with a canteen menu that: i) did not include 'red' or 'banned' items according to the healthy canteen policy; and ii) had more than 50 % 'green' items. The primary outcome was assessed via menu audit at baseline and follow up by dietitians blinded to group allocation. Fifty-three eligible schools were randomised to either the intervention or control group (28 intervention; 25 control). Analyses with 51 schools who returned school menus found that intervention schools were significantly more likely relative to control schools to have a menu without 'red' or 'banned' items (RR = 5.78 (1.45-23.05); p = 0.002) and have at least 50 % of menu items classified as green (RR = 2.03 (1.01-4.08); p = 0.03). This study found that a multi-component intervention was effective in improving primary schools' compliance with a healthy canteen policy. Given

  4. Measuring food availability and access in African-American communities: implications for intervention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoms-Young, Angela M; Zenk, Shannon; Mason, Maryann

    2009-04-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern in the U.S. As compared to whites, minority populations are disproportionately at risk, with the highest prevalence rates of overweight and obesity occurring among African American women. Although researchers and policymakers argue that environmental approaches have the greatest potential to reverse the rising prevalence of obesity, critical gaps remain in our understanding of the complex mechanisms that underlie the associations between neighborhood food environments and weight status. A major challenge has been the need for reliable and valid measures to assess aspects of the neighborhood food environment that encourage or inhibit healthful eating behaviors and weight management. Investigators have made considerable gains in the development of tools and approaches to measure neighborhood food environments overall, but few studies focus on the specific challenges and issues associated with characterizing neighborhood food environments in communities of color. This paper highlights important considerations for measuring food environments in African-American neighborhoods and their implications for developing programmatic and policy solutions to reduce racial disparities in overweight.

  5. Female labour force status and fertility behaviour in Bangladesh: search for policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, R H

    1983-09-01

    This paper examines the effect of female labor force participation on fertility behavior because of its immediate relevance to the formulation of small family norm policies. The hypothesis that female employment is inversely related to fertility and positively related to contraceptive use is based on the following assumptions: 1) the satisfactions of outside employment can substitute for those of child rearing; 2) employment delays marriage and increases the probability of women remaining single, thus reducing fertility; 3) every additional child increases the "opportunity cost" (income lost) of a working mother; 4) a working wife has more status with her husband, and the resultant improved spousal communication leads to more contraceptive use; and 5) working women do not have to rely on their children for support in their old age. Using data from various rural and urban surveys of women in Bangladesh (mostly in Dhaka) and data from the 1961 Bangladesh Population Census, the author finds that fertility is reduced and contraceptive use increases for poor and illiterate women if they work outside the home, but employment has no effect on fertility for higher educated women, who have comparatively fewer children to begin with. In Java, Indonesia, it was found that poor working women have the lowest fertility compared to any other higher socioeconomic group. In Thailand, too, it was found that women who worked outside the home and who had modern values had significantly fewer children than other women. Evaluations of income generating programs for women in Bangladesh attest to the fertility lowering success of integrating family planning and health services with employment programs. Employment through these cooperatives has also indirectly lowered fertility by leading to longer birth spacing and marriage delays. The author recommends such integrated programs and cooperatives because they enhance the social and economic status of women, and by doing so, modernize the

  6. Tracking implementation and (un)intended consequences: a process evaluation of an innovative peripheral health facility financing mechanism in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Evelyn; Goodman, Catherine; Kedenge, Sarah; Tsofa, Benjamin; Molyneux, Sassy

    2016-03-01

    In many African countries, user fees have failed to achieve intended access and quality of care improvements. Subsequent user fee reduction or elimination policies have often been poorly planned, without alternative sources of income for facilities. We describe early implementation of an innovative national health financing intervention in Kenya; the health sector services fund (HSSF). In HSSF, central funds are credited directly into a facility's bank account quarterly, and facility funds are managed by health facility management committees (HFMCs) including community representatives. HSSF is therefore a finance mechanism with potential to increase access to funds for peripheral facilities, support user fee reduction and improve equity in access. We conducted a process evaluation of HSSF implementation based on a theory of change underpinning the intervention. Methods included interviews at national, district and facility levels, facility record reviews, a structured exit survey and a document review. We found impressive achievements: HSSF funds were reaching facilities; funds were being overseen and used in a way that strengthened transparency and community involvement; and health workers' motivation and patient satisfaction improved. Challenges or unintended outcomes included: complex and centralized accounting requirements undermining efficiency; interactions between HSSF and user fees leading to difficulties in accessing crucial user fee funds; and some relationship problems between key players. Although user fees charged had not increased, national reduction policies were still not being adhered to. Finance mechanisms can have a strong positive impact on peripheral facilities, and HFMCs can play a valuable role in managing facilities. Although fiduciary oversight is essential, mechanisms should allow for local decision-making and ensure that unmanageable paperwork is avoided. There are also limits to what can be achieved with relatively small funds in

  7. [Aids in Madagascar. II. Intervention policy for maintaining low HIV infection prevalence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravaoarimalala, C; Andriamahenina, R; Ravelojaona, B; Rabeson, D; Andriamiadana, J; May, J F; Behets, F; Rasamindrakotroka, A

    1998-01-01

    The HIV seroprevalence per 100,000 adults Malagasy rose from 20 in 1989, to 30 in 1992, and to 70 in 1995. In that year, the total number of HIV infected people in the Big Island was estimated at 5,000, the number of people sick with AIDS at 130, and the people at risk at more than 1,000,000. The latter are the persons infected with other STDs and individuals (or their partners) with risky sexual behaviour (e.g. numerous sexual partners, occasional sexual partners, and/or sexual contacts with commercial sex workers). The HIV prevalence rate is low as compared with those of other countries. Nevertheless, the spread of the HIV infection is alarming in some parts of the country and the risk factors are also present, namely: the high prevalence of STDs, numerous sexual partners, the low use of condoms in all groups, the development of tourism, the development of prostitution associated with social and economical problems, and internal and international migrations (with risky sexual contacts). Therefore, the still low but rising HIV prevalence in 1995 does not warrant complacency. To estimate the trend of HIV prevalence within the population, it is useful to know two different assumptions, as follows: firstly, a controlled evolution of the epidemic (low epidemic) and secondly, a very fast spread of the epidemic (high epidemic). If we consider the 5,000 individuals seropositive in July 1995, the Aids Impact Model (AIM) projection model shows that HIV seroprevalence rates among adults in 2015 might be between 3% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is low) and 15% (when the progression course of HIV epidemic is high). By 2015 AIDS could have severe demographic, social, and economic impacts. Then, it is necessary to take measures to prevent contamination. Five major interventions are required: public information about AIDS, HIV transmission mechanism, and its prevention, communities education via the respected people and the notabilities to promote moral values

  8. Drunker than intended: misperceptions and information treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moxnes, Erling; Jensen, Lene

    2009-01-01

    in a laboratory experiment employing a personalized BAC simulator. A questionnaire and simulations complement the experiment. RESULTS: A long stomach delay causes much larger overshoots in BAC than a short delay. Drinking behavior is in both cases well explained by one and the same feedback strategy. Written...... information about the delay does not reduce overshoots, pre-test experience with a simulator parameterized for a mouse does. CONCLUSION: Our study warrants further studies to see if simulator training, analogies, and rules of thumb can help juveniles not to overshoot intended BAC in real drinking situations...

  9. The Intended Image of a Place Brand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hannibal, Martin; Rasmussen, Erik Stavnsager

    2016-01-01

    to the historically embedded image of the municipality. In this chapter the intended image of the municipality is compared to the image as it is perceived by newcomers. The study shows that historically embedded images of places are hard to manage and change when they involve elements with negative appeal towards...... a specific target audience e.g. entrepreneurs. The branding problem for the municipality is shown to be the conflict between the brands of history, entrepreneurial spirit, family friendly town, and tourism etc. To manage a place brand so diverse is almost impossible and it is clearly demonstrated...... that the solution has been to brand the place as everything for everybody....

  10. A Mixed-Methods Study of Early Intervention Implementation in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania: Supports, Services, and Policies for Young Children with Developmental Delays and Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in high quality early intervention programs is critical for eligible young children who experience atypical development for their future academic success. High quality programs promote access to services, incorporate instructional strategies that encourage children's participation, and advocate public policy that supports…

  11. How to Motivate Adults with Low Literacy and Numeracy Skills to Engage and Persist in Learning: A Literature Review of Policy Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-01-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished…

  12. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Exploring Men and Vulnerability Towards Effective HIV/AIDS Policy Interventions and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogochukwu Nzewi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dynamics between HIV/Aids gender policy strategies and the socio-political demands on HIV/Aids interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender in HIV/Aids intervention seems inescapable. Nowhere else is this more marked than in the social dimensions of HIV/Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. This has resulted in prevention strategies, which are encumbered by the reality of poverty, gender, access, power and the various debates on behavioural change. The social constructions of gender roles and power relations play a significant role in the region’s HIV /Aids dynamic. To this end, the mainstreaming of gender issues into national political, social and economic agenda and policies has been championed by international development and economic institutions. In developing HIV/Aids intervention policies, gender has also been mainstreamed, especially where epidemiological data show the disparity in infection rates between men and women, where women are seen as more susceptible to infection. The gendered approach to HIV/Aids appears to typecast women as the vulnerable and suffering face of HIV/Aids, while men, as ‘the other’, are generally regarded as the perpetuators and spreaders of the virus. While there is no doubt that women’s vulnerability in this milieu has been proven within known research evidence to exist, the neglect of institutional (social, cultural and economic and historical vulnerabilities of African men’s realities are sometimes overlooked. Recently, greater focus has shifted to curbing infection rates in men based on new scientific evidence that shows that risk of transmission in circumcised men is reduced. The article argues that such movement towards showing areas of men’s vulnerability as a focus in HIV/Aids policy interventions may have the potential to shift the observed burden that current HIV/Aids policy thrusts inadvertently place on African women. The article will put forward an argument for

  13. A High Prevalence of Food Insecurity Among University Students in Appalachia Reflects a Need for Educational Interventions and Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArthur, Laura Helena; Ball, Lanae; Danek, Ariel C; Holbert, Donald

    2017-12-12

    To measure prevalence and correlates of food insecurity among college students in Appalachia, compare food-insecure and food-secure students on correlates, and identify predictor variables. Cross-sectional, online questionnaire. University in Appalachia. Nonprobability, random sample of 1,093 students (317 male [30.1%]; 723 females [68.4%]). Food insecurity, coping strategies, money expenditure, academic progress, and demographics. Correlational, chi-square, and regression. A total of 239 students experienced low food security (21.9%) whereas 266 had experienced very low food security (24.3%) in the past 12 months. Predictor variables were higher money expenditure and coping strategy scale scores, lower grade point averages, male gender, receiving financial aid, fair or poor self-rated health status, and never cooking for self or others. These variables accounted for 48.1% of variance in food security scores. Most frequently used coping strategies included purchasing cheap, processed food (n = 282; 57.4%), stretching food (n = 199; 40.5%), and eating less healthy meals to eat more (n = 174; 35.4%). Food-insecure students need interventions that teach budgeting skills and how to purchase and prepare healthy foods, as well as policies that increase access to food resource assistance. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The motivation underlying adolescents׳ intended time-frame for driving licensure and car ownership: A socio-ecological approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdardottir, Sigrun Birna; Kaplan, Sigal; Møller, Mette

    2014-01-01

    of deductive–inductive thematic narrative analysis based on the socio-ecological approach. The results show three groups in line with the market-diffusion model: intended early car users, intended early license holders and later car users, and intended late license holders and car users. The first group...... towards a sustainable future, (ii) applying a policy-package comprising complementary policy measures to target the three identified groups, (iii) relying on social networks for knowledge propagation and success of policy measures and educational campaigns, and (iv) promoting a tangible future vision...

  15. A randomised controlled trial of an intervention to facilitate the implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in childcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jannah; Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca; Finch, Meghan; Yoong, Sze Lin; Dodds, Pennie; Pond, Nicole; Gillham, Karen; Freund, Megan; McElduff, Patrick; Wye, Paula; Wiggers, John

    2014-04-17

    Childhood overweight and obesity tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of developing future chronic disease. Implementing initiatives promoting healthy eating and physical activity in childcare settings has been identified as a priority to prevent excessive child weight gain. Despite this, few trials have been conducted to assess the effectiveness of interventions to support population-wide implementation of such initiatives. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention in increasing the implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices by centre-based childcare services. The study will employ a parallel group randomised controlled trial design. A sample of 128 childcare services in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia, will be recruited to participate in the trial. 64 services will be randomly allocated to a 12-month implementation intervention. The remaining 64 services will be allocated to a usual care control group. The intervention will consist of a number of strategies to facilitate childcare service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices. Intervention strategies will include implementation support staff, securing executive support, consensus processes, staff training, academic detailing visits, performance monitoring and feedback, tools and resources, and a communications strategy. The primary outcome of the trial will be the prevalence of services implementing all healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices targeted by the intervention. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, telephone surveys with nominated supervisors and room leaders of childcare services will be conducted at baseline and immediately postintervention. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely

  16. Effectiveness of an intervention to facilitate the implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices in childcare services: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jannah; Wyse, Rebecca; Finch, Meghan; Lecathelinais, Christophe; Wiggers, John; Marshall, Josephine; Falkiner, Maryann; Pond, Nicole; Yoong, Sze Lin; Hollis, Jenna; Fielding, Alison; Dodds, Pennie; Clinton-McHarg, Tara; Freund, Megan; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-10-25

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to increase the implementation of healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices by centre-based childcare services. The study also sought to determine if the intervention was effective in improving child dietary intake and increasing child physical activity levels while attending childcare. A parallel group, randomised controlled trial was conducted in a sample of 128 childcare services. Intervention strategies included provision of implementation support staff, securing executive support, staff training, consensus processes, academic detailing visits, tools and resources, performance monitoring and feedback and a communications strategy. The primary outcome of the trial was the proportion of services implementing all seven healthy eating and physical activity policies and practices targeted by the intervention. Outcome data were collected via telephone surveys with nominated supervisors and room leaders at baseline and immediately post-intervention. Secondary trial outcomes included the differences between groups in the number of serves consumed by children for each food group within the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating and in the proportion of children engaged in sedentary, walking or very active physical activity assessed via observation in a random subsample of 36 services at follow-up. There was no significant difference between groups for the primary trial outcome (p = 0.44). Relative to the control group, a significantly larger proportion of intervention group services reported having a written nutrition and physical activity policy (p = 0.05) and providing adult-guided activities to develop fundamental movement skills (p = 0.01). There were no significant differences between groups at follow-up on measures of child dietary intake or physical activity. The findings of the trial were equivocal. While there was no significant difference between groups

  17. A randomised controlled trial of an intervention to increase the implementation of a healthy canteen policy in Australian primary schools: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenden, Luke; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Christopher M; Delaney, Tessa; Reilly, Kathryn L; Freund, Megan; Gillham, Karen; Sutherland, Rachel; Bell, Andrew C; Campbell, Libby; Yoong, Serene; Wyse, Rebecca; Janssen, Lisa M; Preece, Sarah; Asmar, Melanie; Wiggers, John

    2014-10-11

    The implementation of healthy school canteen policies has been recommended as a strategy to help prevent unhealthy eating and excessive weight gain. Internationally, research suggests that schools often fail to implement practices consistent with healthy school canteen policies. Without a population wide implementation, the potential benefits of these policies will not be realised. The aim of this trial is to assess the effectiveness of an implementation intervention in increasing school canteen practices consistent with a healthy canteen policy of the New South Wales (NSW), Australia, government known as the 'Fresh Tastes @ School NSW Healthy School Canteen Strategy'. The parallel randomised trial will be conducted in 70 primary schools located in the Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia. Schools will be eligible to participate if they are not currently meeting key components of the healthy canteen policy. Schools will be randomly allocated after baseline data collection in a 1:1 ratio to either an intervention or control group using a computerised random number function in Microsoft Excel. Thirty-five schools will be selected to receive a multi-component intervention including implementation support from research staff, staff training, resources, recognition and incentives, consensus and leadership strategies, follow-up support and implementation feedback. The 35 schools allocated to the control group will not receive any intervention support as part of the research trial. The primary outcome measures will be i) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu that does not contain foods or beverages restricted from regular sale ('red' and 'banned' items) and ii) the proportion of schools where healthy canteen items ('green' items) represent the majority (>50%) of products listed on the menu. Outcome data will be collected via a comprehensive menu audit, conducted by dietitians blind to group allocation. Intervention effectiveness will be assessed using

  18. Public health interventions to protect against falsified medicines: a systematic review of international, national and local policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, William L; Doyle, Cormac; Halliwell-Ewen, Mycroft; Lambert, Gabriel

    2016-12-01

    Falsified medicines are deliberately fraudulent drugs that pose a direct risk to patient health and undermine healthcare systems, causing global morbidity and mortality. To produce an overview of anti-falsifying public health interventions deployed at international, national and local scales in low and middle income countries (LMIC). We conducted a systematic search of the PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases for healthcare or pharmaceutical policies relevant to reducing the burden of falsified medicines in LMIC. Our initial search identified 660 unique studies, of which 203 met title/abstract inclusion criteria and were categorised according to their primary focus: international; national; local pharmacy; internet pharmacy; drug analysis tools. Eighty-four were included in the qualitative synthesis, along with 108 articles and website links retrieved through secondary searches. On the international stage, we discuss the need for accessible pharmacovigilance (PV) global reporting systems, international leadership and funding incorporating multiple stakeholders (healthcare, pharmaceutical, law enforcement) and multilateral trade agreements that emphasise public health. On the national level, we explore the importance of establishing adequate medicine regulatory authorities and PV capacity, with drug screening along the supply chain. This requires interdepartmental coordination, drug certification and criminal justice legislation and enforcement that recognise the severity of medicine falsification. Local healthcare professionals can receive training on medicine quality assessments, drug registration and pharmacological testing equipment. Finally, we discuss novel technologies for drug analysis which allow rapid identification of fake medicines in low-resource settings. Innovative point-of-purchase systems like mobile phone verification allow consumers to check the authenticity of their medicines. Combining anti

  19. Plans should abstractly describe intended behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfleger, K.; Hayes-Roth, B. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Planning is the process of formulating a potential course of action. How courses of action (plans) produced by a planning module are represented and how they are used by execution-oriented modules of a complex agent to influence or dictate behavior are critical architectural issues. In contrast to the traditional model of plans as executable programs that dictate precise behaviors, we claim that autonomous agents inhabiting dynamic, unpredictable environments can make better use of plans that only abstractly describe their intended behavior. Such plans only influence or constrain behavior, rather than dictating it. This idea has been discussed in a variety of contexts, but it is seldom incorporated into working complex agents. Experiments involving instantiations of our Adaptive Intelligent Systems architecture in a variety of domains have demonstrated the generality and usefulness of the approach, even with our currently simple plan representation and mechanisms for plan following. The behavioral benefits include (1) robust improvisation of goal-directed behavior in response to dynamic situations, (2) ready exploitation of dynamically acquired knowledge or behavioral capabilities, and (3) adaptation based on dynamic aspects of coordinating diverse behaviors to achieve multiple goals. In addition to these run-time advantages, the approach has useful implications for the design and configuration of agents. Indeed, the core ideas of the approach are natural extensions of fundamental ideas in software engineering.

  20. Can donated media placements reach intended audiences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Chu, Jennifer; Polonec, Lindsey

    2013-09-01

    Donated media placements for public service announcements (PSAs) can be difficult to secure, and may not always reach intended audiences. Strategies used by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) to obtain donated media placements include producing a diverse mix of high-quality PSAs, co-branding with state and tribal health agencies, securing celebrity involvement, monitoring media trends to identify new distribution opportunities, and strategically timing the release of PSAs. To investigate open-ended recall of PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, CDC conducted 12 focus groups in three U.S. cities with men and women either nearing age 50 years, when screening is recommended to begin, or aged 50-75 years who were not in compliance with screening guidelines. In most focus groups, multiple participants recalled exposure to PSAs promoting colorectal cancer screening, and most of these individuals reported having seen SFL PSAs on television, in transit stations, or on the sides of public buses. Some participants reported exposure to SFL PSAs without prompting from the moderator, as they explained how they learned about the disease. Several participants reported learning key campaign messages from PSAs, including that colorectal cancer screening should begin at age 50 years and screening can find polyps so they can be removed before becoming cancerous. Donated media placements can reach and educate mass audiences, including millions of U.S. adults who have not been screened appropriately for colorectal cancer.

  1. Decision makers, scientists and the public as stakeholders: the connection between traffic intervention policy and air quality in a local context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiand, L.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Schmitz, S.; Niehoff, N.

    2017-12-01

    Urban mobility is a key issue to make cities more inclusive, safer, and more environmentally friendly. To ensure a sustainable future, local policy should, among other actions, aim to improve access to sustainable transport systems and enhance mobility opportunities, while at the same time addressing critical environmental and health targets. In order to assess whether these objectives are met, measures should be informed and evaluated from a social and environmental perspective. Citizens' opinions and the acceptance of environmental policies are crucial to successful implementation of urban mobility measures. The complexity of urban air quality issues require transparent decision-making processes that are grounded in evidence-based research and embrace local knowledge. From this basis, our research group and the city council collaborated to assess a new policy action intended to address environmental and health targets. This talk will present the results from the assessment of this new policy, that was implemented in large part to alleviate air quality exceedances, from the perspective of public acceptability of the measure and the approach taken by the city council to implement the measure. Parallel to assessing the effect of this policy on the recorded levels of air pollution and traffic counts, we conducted a social survey to examine public opinions of this measure, as well as the link between air quality awareness and mobility decisions. 4661 responses were collected over a one month period. Survey participants were those most affected by the traffic measure, including commuters and local residents. The results show that there is an overall low acceptance rate of the measure (8%) as well as low concern for air quality (2,90 - where 1 = not concerned and 6 = very concerned). We also found that there is a negative relationship between air quality rating and air quality concern. A similar approach was taken to understand climate change concern, which will be

  2. Implementing health policy: lessons from the Scottish Well Mens policy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS policy initiative as a ‘real world’ case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the ‘rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. Methods and materials: A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a ‘policy problem’, (b interventions intended to address the problem, and (c anticipated policy outcomes. Results and conclusions: This analysis revealed four key themes: (1 ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2 behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3 uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4 a focus on intervention as outcome. This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  3. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara L. LaRowe

    2016-07-01

    the EPAO; scores showing the greatest increases were the Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01 and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01. Conclusions Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  4. Active Early: one-year policy intervention to increase physical activity among early care and education programs in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRowe, Tara L; Tomayko, Emily J; Meinen, Amy M; Hoiting, Jill; Saxler, Courtney; Cullen, Bridget

    2016-07-20

    Training and Education (14.5 ± 6.5 at 12-months vs. 2.4 ± 3.8 at baseline, p < 0.01) and Physical Activity Policy (18.6 ± 4.6 at 12-months vs. 2.0 ± 4.1 at baseline, p < 0.01). Active Early promoted improvements in providing structured (i.e. teacher-led) physical activity beyond the recommended 60 daily minutes using low- to no-cost strategies along with training and environmental changes. Furthermore, it was observed that Active Early positively impacted child physical activity levels by the end of the intervention. However, resources, training, and technical assistance may be necessary for ECE programs to be successful beyond the use of the Active Early guide. Implementing local-level physical activity policies combined with support from local and statewide partners has the potential to influence higher standards for regulated ECE programs.

  5. The relationship between health policy and public health interventions: a case study of the DRIVE project to "end" the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Trang, Nguyen Thu; Oanh, Khuat Thi Hai; Huong, Nguyen Thi; Giang, Le Minh; Huong, Duong Thi; Nagot, Nicolas; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-03-12

    We present a case study of the effects of health policies on the implementation and potential outcomes of a public health intervention, using the DRIVE project, that aims to 'end' the HIV epidemic among people who inject drugs in Haiphong, Vietnam. DRIVE's success depends on two policy transitions: (1) integration of donor-funded HIV outpatient clinics into public health clinics and expansion of social health insurance; (2) implementation of a "Renovation Plan" for substance use treatment. Interviews and focus group discussions with key informants and review of policy documents and clinic data reveal that both policy transitions are underway but face challenges. DRIVE promises to show how evolving policy affects health interventions and how advocacy based on project data can improve policy. Broad lessons include the importance of clear and consistent policies, vigorous enforcement, and adequate funding of promulgated policies.

  6. Quality improvement intervention to increase adherence to ART prescription policy at HIV treatment clinics in Lusaka, Zambia: A cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Elizabeth A; Subramaniam, Hamsa L; Prust, Margaret L; Prescott, Marta R; Mpasela, Felton; Mwango, Albert; Namonje, Leah; Moyo, Crispin; Chibuye, Benjamin; van den Broek, Jan Willem; Hehman, Lindsey; Moberley, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    In urban areas, crowded HIV treatment facilities with long patient wait times can deter patients from attending their clinical appointments and picking up their medications, ultimately disrupting patient care and compromising patient retention and adherence. Formative research at eight facilities in Lusaka revealed that only 46% of stable HIV treatment patients were receiving a three-month refill supply of antiretroviral drugs, despite it being national policy for stable adult patients. We designed a quality improvement intervention to improve the operationalization of this policy. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in sixteen facilities in Lusaka with the primary objective of examining the intervention's impact on the proportion of stable patients receiving three-month refills. The secondary objective was examining whether the quality improvement intervention reduced facility congestion measured through two proxy indicators: daily volume of clinic visits and average clinic wait times for services. The mean change in the proportion of three-month refills among control facilities from baseline to endline was 10% (from 38% to 48%), compared to a 25% mean change (an increase from 44% to 69%) among intervention facilities. This represents a significant 15% mean difference (95% CI: 2%-29%; P = 0.03) in the change in proportion of patients receiving three-month refills. On average, control facilities had 15 more visits per day in the endline than in the baseline, while intervention facilities had 20 fewer visits per day in endline than in baseline, a mean difference of 35 fewer visits per day (P = 0.1). The change in the mean facility total wait time for intervention facilities dropped 19 minutes between baseline and endline when compared to control facilities (95% CI: -10.2-48.5; P = 0.2). A more patient-centred service delivery schedule of three-month prescription refills for stable patients is viable. We encourage the expansion of this sustainable

  7. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: protocol of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher M; Nathan, Nicole; Delaney, Tessa; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John; Preece, Sarah; Lubans, Nicole; Sutherland, Rachel; Pinfold, Jessica; Smith, Kay; Small, Tameka; Reilly, Kathryn L; Butler, Peter; Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-06-24

    A number of jurisdictions internationally have policies requiring schools to implement healthy canteens. However, many schools have not implemented such policies. One reason for this is that current support interventions cannot feasibly be delivered to large numbers of schools. A promising solution to support population-wide implementation of healthy canteen practices is audit and feedback. The effectiveness of this strategy has, however, not previously been assessed in school canteens. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention, delivered by telephone and email, in increasing the number of school canteens that have menus complying with a government healthy-canteen policy. Seventy-two schools, across the Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales Australia, will be randomised to receive the multicomponent audit and feedback implementation intervention or usual support. The intervention will consist of between two and four canteen menu audits over 12 months. Each menu audit will be followed by two modes of feedback: a written feedback report and a verbal feedback/support via telephone. Primary outcomes, assessed by dieticians blind to group status and as recommended by the Fresh Tastes @ School policy, are: (1) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu containing foods or beverages restricted for sale, and; (2) the proportion of schools that have a menu which contains more than 50% of foods classified as healthy canteen items. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of menu items in each category ('red', 'amber' and 'green'), canteen profitability and cost-effectiveness. Ethical approval has been obtained by from the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated in usual forums, including peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. ACTRN12613000543785. Published by the

  8. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Christopher M; Nathan, Nicole; Delaney, Tessa; Yoong, Sze Lin; Wiggers, John; Preece, Sarah; Lubans, Nicole; Sutherland, Rachel; Pinfold, Jessica; Smith, Kay; Small, Tameka; Reilly, Kathryn L; Butler, Peter; Wyse, Rebecca J; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A number of jurisdictions internationally have policies requiring schools to implement healthy canteens. However, many schools have not implemented such policies. One reason for this is that current support interventions cannot feasibly be delivered to large numbers of schools. A promising solution to support population-wide implementation of healthy canteen practices is audit and feedback. The effectiveness of this strategy has, however, not previously been assessed in school canteens. This study aims to assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an audit and feedback intervention, delivered by telephone and email, in increasing the number of school canteens that have menus complying with a government healthy-canteen policy. Methods and analysis Seventy-two schools, across the Hunter New England Local Health District in New South Wales Australia, will be randomised to receive the multicomponent audit and feedback implementation intervention or usual support. The intervention will consist of between two and four canteen menu audits over 12 months. Each menu audit will be followed by two modes of feedback: a written feedback report and a verbal feedback/support via telephone. Primary outcomes, assessed by dieticians blind to group status and as recommended by the Fresh Tastes @ School policy, are: (1) the proportion of schools with a canteen menu containing foods or beverages restricted for sale, and; (2) the proportion of schools that have a menu which contains more than 50% of foods classified as healthy canteen items. Secondary outcomes are: the proportion of menu items in each category (‘red’, ‘amber’ and ‘green’), canteen profitability and cost-effectiveness. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained by from the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. The findings will be disseminated in usual forums, including peer

  9. CAFÉ: a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention to improve implementation of healthy food policy in primary school canteens: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sze Lin; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiggers, John; Reilly, Kathryn; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Wyse, Rebecca; Sutherland, Rachel; Delaney, Tessa; Butler, Peter; Janssen, Lisa; Preece, Sarah; Williams, Christopher M

    2016-12-05

    The implementation of nutrition policies in schools has been recommended as a strategy to improve child dietary intake. Internationally, research suggests that the majority of schools do not implement these policies. In New South Wales (NSW), Australia, the NSW Healthy School Canteen Policy requires that school canteens prohibit the sale of 'red' foods (i.e. foods that are typically nutrient poor and high in energy, such as confectionary and deep-fried foods) and 'banned'drinks (i.e. soft drinks); and that the majority of items on the menu are 'green' (i.e. foods that are good sources of nutrients, such fruits, vegetables and lean meats). This study examined the impact of a multicomponent audit and feedback intervention on schools' implementation of the NSW Healthy School Canteen Policy. A secondary aim was to assess the impact of the intervention on menu composition. This study was a parallel group randomised controlled trial with 72 rural and remote primary schools (36 interventions, 36 controls) located in one region within NSW, Australia. Intervention schools received an initial face to face contact and up to four cycles of audit and feedback (consisting of a menu audit, written feedback report and telephone feedback) over a 12-month period. The primary trial outcomes were the proportion of schools with a canteen menu that had: i) no 'red' foods or 'banned' drinks; and ii) >50% 'green' items, as assessed via standardised menu audits undertaken by trained dietitians. For each primary outcome, between-group differences were assessed using Fisher's exact test under an intention to treat approach. There was insufficient evidence to conclude the intervention had a positive impact on the proportion of intervention schools with no 'red' or 'banned' items on their menu (RR = 2.8; 95% CI: 0.9 to 8.9; p = 0.0895), or on the proportion of intervention schools with more than 50% 'green' items (RR = 1.5; 95% CI: 0.7 to 3.2; p = 0.2568). These findings

  10. Screenplays: From knowledge to devicing policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjana Gantar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Public policies and related interventions cause diverse territorial impacts; intended and wanted as well as lateral, indirect and unwanted ones. Strategic impact assessments are commonly used to identify and assess these impacts. Besides, the main intention of impact assessments is to influence and optimize the policy actions in terms of their impacts. Forecasting of future development and identification of impacts is a complex task, charged with uncertainties, which requires resourceful use and combination of different tools. Scenarios are among the most effective forecasting, communication and policy design tools. The paper presents the use of scenarios in a strategic environmental impact assessment for a high speed rail in Slovenia. Scenarios were used as an input for environmental vulnerability modelling. Acceptability of environmental costs brought about by planned intervention can only be assessed based on knowledge about the changes/benefits.

  11. The Shift towards Family Reunification in Romanian Child Welfare Policy: An Analysis of Changing Forms of Governmental Intervention in Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Jenny

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the transition in Romanian child welfare policy from a paternalistic attitude of taking responsibility for "abandoned" children to a capitalist orientation of reinstating responsibility for "abandoned" children to the private sphere. While this shift in child policy is often seen to reflect a withdrawal of…

  12. Dress-Related Behavioral Problems and Violence in the Public School Setting: Prevention, Intervention, and Policy--A Holistic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloman, Lillian; LaPoint, Velma; Alleyne, Sylvan I.; Palmer, Ruth J.; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy

    1996-01-01

    Addresses clothing-related behavioral problems for public school children and the increasing use of dress codes and uniform policies as preventive measures. It describes dress-related conflicts for black public school students and parents across socialization and contextual settings. The implications of preventive policies and practices are…

  13. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  14. Health promotion interventions and policies addressing excessive alcohol use: a systematic review of national and global evidence as a guide to health-care reform in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Babor, Thomas F; Zeigler, Donald; Xuan, Ziming; Morisky, Donald; Hovell, Melbourne F; Nelson, Toben F; Shen, Weixing; Li, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Steady increases in alcohol consumption and related problems are likely to accompany China's rapid epidemiological transition and profit-based marketing activities. We reviewed research on health promotion interventions and policies to address excessive drinking and to guide health-care reform. We searched Chinese- and English-language databases and included 21 studies in China published between 1980 and 2013 that covered each policy area from the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy to Reduce the Harmful Use of Alcohol. We evaluated and compared preventive interventions to the global alcohol literature for cross-national applicability. In contrast with hundreds of studies in the global literature, 11 of 12 studies from mainland China were published in Chinese; six of 10 in English were on taxation from Taiwan or Hong Kong. Most studies demonstrated effectiveness in reducing excessive drinking, and some reported the reduction of health problems. Seven were randomized controlled trials. Studies targeted schools, drink-driving, work-places, the health sector and taxation. China is the world's largest alcohol market, yet there has been little growth in alcohol policy research related to health promotion interventions over the past decade. Guided by a public health approach, the WHO Global Strategy and health reform experience in Russia, Australia, Mexico and the United States, China could improve its public health response through better coordination and implementation of surveillance and evidence-based research, and through programmatic and legal responses such as public health law research, screening and early intervention within health systems and the implementation of effective alcohol control strategies. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  16. The intervention effect of local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admission and crime: a natural experiment using a novel Bayesian synthetictime-series method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; Tilling, Kate; Pliakas, Triantafyllos; Angus, Colin; Egan, Matt; Brennan, Alan; Campbell, Rona; Hickman, Matthew

    2017-09-01

    Control of alcohol licensing at local government level is a key component of alcohol policy in England. There is, however, only weak evidence of any public health improvement. We used a novel natural experiment design to estimate the impact of new local alcohol licensing policies on hospital admissions and crime. We used Home Office licensing data (2007-2012) to identify (1) interventions: local areas where both a cumulative impact zone and increased licensing enforcement were introduced in 2011; and (2) controls: local areas with neither. Outcomes were 2009-2015 alcohol-related hospital admissions, violent and sexual crimes, and antisocial behaviour. Bayesian structural time series were used to create postintervention synthetic time series (counterfactuals) based on weighted time series in control areas. Intervention effects were calculated from differences between measured and expected trends. Validation analyses were conducted using randomly selected controls. 5 intervention and 86 control areas were identified. Intervention was associated with an average reduction in alcohol-related hospital admissions of 6.3% (95% credible intervals (CI) -12.8% to 0.2%) and to lesser extent with a reduced in violent crimes, especially up to 2013 (-4.6%, 95% CI -10.7% to 1.4%). There was weak evidence of an effect on sexual crimes up 2013 (-8.4%, 95% CI -21.4% to 4.6%) and insufficient evidence of an effect on antisocial behaviour as a result of a change in reporting. Moderate reductions in alcohol-related hospital admissions and violent and sexual crimes were associated with introduction of local alcohol licensing policies. This novel methodology holds promise for use in other natural experiments in public health. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  18. What are the implications for policy makers? A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions for alcohol misuse in primary care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin eAngus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe efficacy of screening and brief interventions (SBI for excessive alcohol use in primary care is well established; however evidence on their cost-effectiveness is limited. A small number of previous reviews have concluded that SBI programmes are likely to be cost-effective, but these results are equivocal and important questions around the cost-effectiveness implications of key policy decisions such as staffing choices for delivery of SBIs and the intervention duration remain unanswered. MethodsStudies reporting both the costs and a measure of health outcomes of programmes combining screening and brief interventions in primary care were identified by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Econlit, the Cochrane Library Database (including NHS EED, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Assia and the Social Science Citation Index and Science Citation Index via Web of Knowledge. Included studies have been stratified both by delivery staff and intervention duration and assessed for quality using the Drummond checklist for economic evaluations.ResultsThe search yielded a total of 23 papers reporting the results of 22 distinct studies. There was significant heterogeneity in methods and outcome measures between studies; however almost all studies reported SBI programmes to be cost-effective. There was no clear evidence that either the duration of the intervention or the delivery staff used had a substantial impact on this result.ConclusionThis review provides strong evidence that SBI programmes in primary care are a cost-effective option for tackling alcohol misuse.

  19. [Institutional support as a method of analysis-intervention in the context of public health policies: the experience in a general hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Maria Elizabeth Barros de; Guedes, Carla Ribeiro; Roza, Monica Maria Raphael

    2011-12-01

    The article addresses the elaboration of a method for analysis/intervention in the sphere of public health policies. It describes the introduction of the National Humanization Policy of the Unified Health System (SUS) in a general hospital. It proposes institutional support expressed as a method for doing things that seeks the creation of group action, work process analysis and involves examining work management methods. It relies on promotion of health, which implies the production of subjects. The promotion of health is a networking process that involves individuals, work processes, knowledge and power. The challenge of supporting this network is to foster the exercise of the role of individuals and summon the inherent creative potential of life for the construction of new ways of work management that are not new forms of subjection. The study aims to show that by means of institutional support it is possible to bring to the fore the forces involved in the promotion of health and thereby summon the groups for an analysis of its implications. The effects produced indicate that this is a powerful strategy for the intervention of work processes within the scope of public health policies.

  20. Assessment of the health system and policy environment as a critical complement to tracking intervention coverage for maternal, newborn, and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavagnero, Eleonora; Daelmans, Bernadette; Gupta, Neeru; Scherpbier, Robert; Shankar, Anuraj

    2008-04-12

    In 2008, the Countdown to 2015 initiative identified 68 priority countries for action on maternal, newborn, and child health. Much attention was paid to monitoring country-level progress in achieving high and equitable coverage with interventions effective in reducing mortality of mothers, newborn infants, and children up to 5 years of age. To have a broader understanding of the environment in which health services are delivered and health outcomes are produced is essential to increase intervention coverage. Programmes to address MNCH rely on health systems to generate information needed for effective decisions and to achieve the expected outcomes. Governance and leadership are needed throughout the process not only to create policies and implement them but also to assure quality and efficiency of care, to finance health services sufficiently and in an equitable way, and to manage the health workforce. We present a systematic approach to assess the wider health system and policy environment needed to achieve positive outcomes for maternal, newborn, and child health. We report on results from 13 indicators and show gaps in policy adoption as well as weaknesses in other health system building blocks. We identify areas for future action in measurement of key indicators and their use to support decision making. We hope that this information will provide an additional dimension to the discussions on feasible and sustainable solutions to accelerate progress towards Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5, both at the global level but most importantly in individual countries.

  1. Human resource for health reform in peri-urban areas: a cross-sectional study of the impact of policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taderera, Bernard Hope; Hendricks, Stephen James Heinrich; Pillay, Yogan

    2017-12-16

    The need to understand how healthcare worker reform policy interventions impact health personnel in peri-urban areas is important as it also contributes towards setting of priorities in pursuing the universal health coverage goal of health sector reform. This study explored the impact of post 2008 human resource for health reform policy interventions on healthcare workers in Epworth, a peri-urban community in Harare, Zimbabwe, and the implications towards health sector reform policy in peri-urban areas. The study design was exploratory and cross-sectional and involved the use of qualitative and quantitative methods in data collection, presentation, and analysis. A qualitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search, five key informant interviews, seven in-depth interviews, and five focus group discussions was carried out first. This was followed by a quantitative study in which data were collected through a documentary search and 87 semi-structured sample interviews with healthcare workers. Qualitative data were analyzed thematically whilst descriptive statistics were used to examine quantitative data. All data were integrated during analysis to ensure comprehensive, reliable, and valid analysis of the dataset. Three main factors were identified to help interpret findings. The first main factor consisted policy result areas that impacted most successfully on healthcare workers. These included the deployment of community health workers with the highest correlation of 0.83. Policy result areas in the second main factor included financial incentives with a correlation of 0.79, training and development (0.77), deployment (0.77), and non-financial incentives (0.75). The third factor consisted policy result areas that had the lowest satisfaction amongst healthcare workers in Epworth. These included safety (0.72), equipment and tools of trade (0.72), health welfare (0.65), and salaries (0.55). The deployment of community health volunteers impacted

  2. A Handbook of Globalisation and Environmental Policy, 2nd edition. National Governments Interventions in a Global Arena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijen, F.H.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.; Pieters, J.; van Seters, P.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In the current era of globalisation, national governments are increasingly exposed to international influences that present new constraints and opportunities for domestic environmental policies. This comprehensive, revised Handbook pushes the frontiers of theoretical and empirical knowledge, and

  3. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  4. Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic: making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hesselman, Marlies; van Dijk, Jitse P; Herman, Joost

    2017-09-18

    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically.

  5. Special Education and Juvenile Justice: An Overview and Analysis of Prevention and Intervention Policy and Program Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Coalition for the Education of Children with Disabilities, 2006

    2006-01-01

    There is a serious overpopulation of special needs youth in Ohio's juvenile justice system. This study raises policy questions relating to gaining a deeper understanding of the reasons why there is an overpopulation of children with disabilities in youth correctional facilities and what can be done to reduce the need for future incarcerations.…

  6. From laissez-faire to intervention : Analysing policy narratives on interoperability standards for the smart grid in the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muto, M.S.

    2017-01-01

    The imperative of realizing utopian visions of the smart grid puts unprecedented policy focus on standardization. Because standards are a prerequisite for deployment, the US federal government - in a departure from established hands-off practice - intervened to coordinate and accelerate

  7. Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic : making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hesselman, Marlies; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Herman, Joost

    2017-01-01

    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a

  8. Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment: implications of SAMHSA's SBIRT initiative for substance abuse policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F; Del Boca, Frances; Bray, Jeremy W

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes the major findings and public health implications of a cross-site evaluation of a national Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program funded by the US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Eleven multi-site programs in two cohorts of SAMHSA grant recipients were each funded for 5 years to promote the adoption and sustained implementation of SBIRT. The SBIRT cross-site evaluation used a multi-method evaluation design to provide comprehensive information on the processes, outcomes and costs of SBIRT as implemented in a variety of medical and community settings. SBIRT programs in the two evaluated SAMHSA cohorts screened more than 1 million patients/clients. SBIRT implementation was facilitated by committed leadership and the use of substance use specialists, rather than medical generalists, to deliver services. Although the quasi-experimental nature of the outcome evaluation does not permit causal inferences, pre-post differences were clinically meaningful and statistically significant for almost every measure of substance use. Greater intervention intensity was associated with larger decreases in substance use. Both brief intervention and brief treatment were associated with positive outcomes, but brief intervention was more cost-effective for most substances. Sixty-nine (67%) of the original performance sites adapted and redesigned SBIRT service delivery after initial grant funding ended. Four factors influenced SBIRT sustainability: presence of program champions, availability of funding, systemic change and effective management of SBIRT provider challenges. The US Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) demonstration program was adapted successfully to the needs of early identification efforts for hazardous use of alcohol and illicit drugs. SBIRT is an innovative way to integrate the

  9. How to motivate adults with low literacy and numeracy skills to engage and persist in learning: A literature review of policy interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windisch, Hendrickje Catriona

    2016-06-01

    Low basic skills levels of adults are a complex policy problem which has neither straightforward causes nor solutions, and successful interventions are still relatively rare. Tackling serious literacy and numeracy weaknesses among adults is challenging, partly because the task itself is difficult, and partly because even if accomplished successfully, the returns on the investment (of expertise, time and money) are uncertain. The Survey of Adult Skills, an international investigation conducted in 22 member and two partner countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), has revealed that a considerable number of adults possess only limited literacy and numeracy skills. Governments now recognise the need to upskill these adults in order to maintain national prosperity. This literature review examines current evidence on policy interventions for adults with low literacy and numeracy proficiencies to pinpoint what has so far proven to motivate adults to join and persist in basic literacy and numeracy learning. The author identifies three approaches which seem promising in helping to address individual learners' needs: (1) adapting instruction to learners' needs by means of regular assessment (formative assessment); (2) complementary e-learning (blended learning); and (3) contextualisation of basic skills provision both at work and at home (workplace learning and family literacy). The central challenge is to put the evidence to work.

  10. Safety regulation in professional football: Empirical evidence of intended and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrew; Jolly, Nicholas A; Peterson, Jeremy

    2017-05-01

    In response to increasing public awareness and negative long-term health effects of concussions, the National Football League implemented the "Crown-of-the-Helmet Rule" (CHR). The CHR imposes penalties on players who initiate contact using the top of the helmet. This paper examines the intended effect of this policy and its potential for unintended consequences. We find evidence supporting the intended effect of the policy- a reduction in weekly concussion reports among defensive players by as much as 32% (34% for all head and neck injuries), but also evidence of an increase in weekly lower extremity injury reports for offensive players by as much as 34%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The appropriation and dismembering of development intervention : policy, discourse and practice in the field of rural development in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mongbo, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This book concerns a Community Development Programme which provides a vehicle for a theoretical discussion of the reproduction of the discourse and practice of development intervention in general, and the concept of rural development as a field of social interaction in particular. The

  12. A review of the progress and pitfalls of FDA policy process: Planning a pathway for pharmaceutical interventions for hearing loss development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammill, Tanisha L

    2017-06-01

    The Federal Food and Drug Administration, or FDA is generally considered a powerful gatekeeper, able to deliver or withhold life-saving cures and create or destroy economic windfalls. As the decades go by, and technologies, diseases, public health demands, and politics evolve, we can identify patterns of change, action and inter-action among some of these traditional stakeholders in the FDA's policy sphere. A careful examination of this agency's colorful history can shed light on central features of the agency's policy process, which has been quite receptive to its stakeholders and adaptive to change over the decades and, in turn, show the way for development in lanes which do not fit neatly into the current paradigms offered by the agency. This paper will explore the history of FDA policy process, through examination of seminal moments in FDA history, the prominent actors and focusing events within them, and the outcomes of those events, in an attempt to illuminate a pattern of behavior or processes by which a struggling field of pharmaceutical development such as interventions for hearing loss can advance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use and effectiveness of behavioural economics in interventions for lifestyle risk factors of non-communicable diseases: a systematic review with policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaga, Oana M; Vasilescu, Livia; Chereches, Razvan M

    2018-03-01

    There is limited evidence on what behavioural economics strategies are effective and can be used to inform non-communicable diseases (NCDs) public health policies designed to reduce overeating, excessive drinking, smoking, and physical inactivity. The aim of the review is to examine the evidence on the use and effectiveness of behavioural economics insights on reducing NCDs lifestyle risk factors. Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and EconLit were searched for studies published between January 2002 and July 2016 and reporting empirical, non-pharmacological, interventional research focusing on reducing at least one NCDs lifestyle risk factor by employing a behavioural economics perspective. We included 117 studies in the review; 67 studies had a low risk of bias and were classified as strong or very strong, 37 were moderate, and 13 were weak. We grouped studies by NCDs risk factors and conducted a narrative synthesis. The most frequent behavioural economics precepts used were incentives, framing, and choice architecture. We found inconclusive evidence regarding the success of behavioural economics strategies to reduce alcohol consumption, but we identified several strategies with policy-level implications which could be used to reduce smoking, improve nutrition, and increase physical activity. Most studies targeting tobacco consumption, physical activity levels, and eating behaviours from a behavioural economics perspective had promising results with potential impact on NCDs health policies. We recommend future studies to be implemented in real-life settings and on large samples from diverse populations.

  14. Innovative interventions in support of innovation networks. A complex system perspective to public innovation policy and private technology brokering

    OpenAIRE

    Federica Rossi; Margherita Russo; Stefania Sardo; Josh Whitford

    2009-01-01

    The linear model of innovation has been superseded by a variety of theoretical models that view the innovation process as systemic, complex, multi-level, multi-temporal, involving a plurality of heterogeneous economic agents. Accordingly, the emphasis of the policy discourse has shifted over time. It has gone from a focus on direct public funding of basic research as an engine of innovation, to the creation of markets for knowledge goods, to, eventually, the acknowledgement that knowledge tra...

  15. A Policy Intervention Study to Identify High-Risk Groups to Prevent Industrial Accidents in Republic of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwan Hyung Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The manufacturing industry, age over 50 years and workplaces with more than 50 employees showed a high severity level of occupational accidents. Male workers showed a higher severity level of occupational accidents than female workers. The employment period of < 3 years and newly hired workers with a relatively shorter working period are likely to have more occupational accidents than others. Overall, an industrial accident prevention policy must be established by concentrating all available resources and capacities of these high-risk groups.

  16. A Policy-into-Practice Intervention to Increase the Uptake of Evidence-Based Management of Low Back Pain in Primary Care: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Helen; Davies, Stephanie Joy; Parsons, Richard; Quintner, John Louis; Schug, Stephan Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs). Methods To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 =  nil and 5 =  excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale). Results Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change  = −5.6±8.2, ppain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self-reported evidence-based attitudes, beliefs and clinical behaviours in their management of patients with nsLBP. However, further research is required to determine cost effectiveness of this approach when compared with other modes of educational delivery and to examine PCP behaviours in actual clinical practice. PMID:22662264

  17. 40 CFR 35.3555 - Intended Use Plan (IUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intended Use Plan (IUP). 35.3555... ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Drinking Water State Revolving Funds § 35.3555 Intended Use Plan (IUP... consistent with the needs of the RA. (1) Priority system. The IUP must include a priority system for ranking...

  18. 48 CFR 339.7002 - Notice of intended award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice of intended award. 339.7002 Section 339.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SPECIAL... Blanket Purchase Agreements for Independent Risk Analysis Services 339.7002 Notice of intended award. The...

  19. Beliefs Underlying the Decision to Eat Breakfast: The Role of Theory-based Behavioral Analysis in the Development of Policy, Communication and Educational Interventions for Healthy Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlestadt, Susan E; Stevenson, Laurel D; Hung, Chia-Ling; Roditis, Maria Leia; Fly, Alyce D; Sheats, Jylana L

    2011-01-01

    Policy, communication, and education efforts to influence any social or health outcome are more effective if based on an understanding of the underlying behaviors and their determinants. This conceptual paper outlines how behavioral theory can help design interventions for one healthy eating behavior, eating breakfast. More specifically, the paper illustrates how a prominent health behavior theory, the Reasoned Action Approach, can be used to guide formative research to identify factors underlying people's decisions. Select findings are presented from three studies of beliefs underlying eating breakfast: online surveys with 1185 undergraduates from a large university in Indiana; in-depth interviews with 61 adults from four Indiana worksites; and 63 in-depth interviews with students from three middle schools in rural Indiana. Analyses of data from the undergraduates demonstrated the role of self-efficacy. Analyses of data from the working adults revealed the importance of normative beliefs about what employers believed. Analyses comparing consequences perceived by adults with those perceived by middle school students found that both groups believed that eating breakfast would provide energy but only middle school students believed that eating breakfast would improve alertness. For each finding, the theory is presented, the finding is described, implications for interventions are suggested, and the need for additional research is outlined. In sum, theory-based behavioral research can help develop interventions at intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental levels that are warranted to encourage healthy eating.

  20. China’s Evolving Foreign Policy in Africa: A New Direction for China’s Non-Intervention Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    its own territories, drives China to promote national sovereignty and scrutinize intervention elsewhere.51 Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping created...250 Yuwen Wu , “China’s Oil Fears over South Sudan Fighting,” BBC News, January 8, 2014, http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa...step- in-to-protect-its-investments-from-the-ongoing-rebellion-9496895.html. 260 Ibid. 261 Ibid. 262 Wu , “China’s Oil Fears over South Sudan Fighting

  1. Developing Effective Health Interventions for Women Who Inject Drugs: Key Areas and Recommendations for Program Development and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Pinkham

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Women who inject drugs face multiple gender-specific health risks and barriers to healthcare access. These gendered factors may contribute to elevated rates of HIV for this population. Though few countries systematically collect gender-disaggregated data related to injecting drug use, evidence indicates that there are large populations of women who inject drugs and who are in need of improved health services, including HIV prevention. Research on the effectiveness of interventions specifically tailored for women who inject drugs, along with the experience of programs working with this subpopulation, suggests that HIV risk practices need to be addressed within the larger context of women's lives. Multifaceted interventions that address relationship dynamics, housing, employment, and the needs of children may have more success in reducing risky practices than interventions that focus exclusively on injecting practices and condom use. Improved sexual and reproductive healthcare for women who use drugs is an area in need of development and should be better integrated into basic harm reduction programs.

  2. A qualitative analysis of men's involvement in maternal and child health as a policy intervention in rural Central Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Hendriks, Sheryl L

    2018-01-19

    Men's involvement in maternal and child health presents an opportunity for the advancement of maternal and child nutrition as men often play a key role in decision-making particularly regarding women's reproductive health. While most research on men's involvement in maternal and child health has focused on men's participation in antenatal care, this study focuses specifically on men's involvement in maternal and child nutrition. The purpose of the study is to explore how men's involvement is conceptualised in rural Central Malawi, highlighting the key factors influencing men's involvement in maternal and child health. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with 26 informants and 44 community members. Critical policy was used as the theoretical framework to inform the analysis of research findings. In this study, we identified several factors that facilitate men's involvement in maternal and child health, but we also identified several barriers. Facilitators of men's involvement included: recognition by men of the impact of their involvement, pride, advocacy, incentives and disincentives and male champions. Barriers included socio-cultural beliefs, stigmatisation and opportunity costs. The study also found that there were several limitations that had unintended consequences on desired programme outcomes. These included: discriminating against women, marginalisation of married women and reinforcing men's decision-making roles. The study findings highlight the importance of involving men in maternal and child health for improved nutrition outcomes. We emphasise the need for nutrition policy-makers to be aware that gender dynamics are changing. It is no longer just women who are involved in nutrition activities, therefore policy-makers need to revise their approach to ensure that they consider men's role in nutrition.

  3. Child passenger safety laws in the United States, 1978-2010: policy diffusion in the absence of strong federal intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Jin Yung; Anderson, Evan; Silver, Diana; Macinko, James

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the diffusion of U.S. state child passenger safety laws, analyzing over-time changes and inter-state differences in all identifiable features of laws that plausibly influence crash-related morbidity and mortality. The observed trend shows many states' continuing efforts to update their laws to be consistent with latest motor vehicle safety recommendations, with each state modifying their laws on average 6 times over the 30-year period. However, there has been a considerable time lag in knowledge diffusion and policy adoption. Even though empirical evidence supporting the protective effect of child restraint devices was available in the early 1970s, laws requiring their use were not adopted by all 50 states until 1986. For laws requiring minors to be seated in rear seats, the first state law adoption did not occur until two decades after the evidence became publicly available. As of 2010, only 12 states explicitly required the use of booster seats, 9 for infant seats and 6 for toddler seats. There is also great variation among states in defining the child population to be covered by the laws, the vehicle operators subject to compliance, and the penalties resulting from non-compliance. Some states cover only up to 4-year-olds while others cover children up to age 17. As of 2010, states have as many as 14 exemptions, such as those for non-residents, non-parents, commercial vehicles, large vehicles, or vehicles without seatbelts. Factors such as the complexity of the state of the science, the changing nature of guidelines (from age to height/weight-related criteria), and the absence of coordinated federal actions are potential explanations for the observed patterns. The resulting uneven policy landscape among states suggests a strong need for improved communication among state legislators, public health researchers, advocates and concerned citizen groups to promote more efficient and effective policymaking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Why economic analysis of health system improvement interventions matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Ivor Broughton

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available There is little evidence to direct health systems toward providing efficient interventions to address medical errors, defined as an unintended act of omission or commission or one not executed as intended that may or may not cause harm to the patient but does not achieve its intended outcome. We believe that lack of guidance on what is the most efficient way to reduce adverse events and improve the quality of health care limits the scale-up of health system improvement interventions. Challenges to economic evaluation of these interventions include defining and implementing improvement interventions in different settings with high fidelity, capturing all of the positive and negative effects of the intervention, using process measures of effectiveness rather than health outcomes, and determining the full cost of the intervention and all economic consequences its effects. However, health system improvement interventions should be treated similarly to individual medical interventions and undergo rigorous economic evaluation to provide actionable evidence to guide policy-makers in decisions of resources allocation for improvement activities among other competing demands for health care resources.

  5. Getting the mix right: family, community and social policy interventions to improve outcomes for young people at risk of substance misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimpani, Graham

    2005-03-01

    Societal responses to the existence of substance misuse fluctuate between harm minimisation and prohibition. Both approaches are predominantly downstream reactions to substance misuse that focus on the supply of harmful substances and the containment of misuse through treatment, rehabilitation or punishment. Until recently, little attention has been paid to the upstream individual, family, relationship, community or societal antecedents of substance misuse (which often overlap with those for other adverse life outcomes, such as unemployment, antisocial personality disorder and mental health problems) that have operated during earlier life. A growing body of evidence highlights the overlapping biological and experiential antecedents for substance abuse and other poor outcomes as well as the trajectory-changing protective factors that can prevent risks being translated into destiny. Risk minimisation and protection enhancement embedded in family and social systems are the essential building blocks of a set of early intervention strategies that begin antenatally and continue through the developing years of childhood, adolescence and young adult life, that have been shown to be effective in improving many outcomes in development, health and well-being. Much remains to be done to enable the promise of effective universal and targeted early intervention to be translated into policies, programs and practices that could be life-changing for citizens bogged in the mire of substance misuse and their children. Realistic, timely investment, influenced by the best scientific evidence indicating what works, for whom, under what circumstances, an increased degree of collaboration within and between governments and their agencies to enable "whole of government" responses in partnership with community-based initiatives are essential along with investments in multidisciplinary program evaluation research that will enable evidence-informed policy decisions to be tailored to the needs

  6. Applications of isotopes in the development of nutrition policies and evaluation of interventions. Report of a contractual service agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vio, F.; Uauy, R.

    2000-01-01

    In the last 10-20 years, the development of science and technology applied to nutrition has been impressive. Nutrition can no longer be underestimated as a scientific discipline; nutrition embraces now modern physiology and biochemistry (including molecular biology), anthropology and the social sciences and requires real expertise from many sources, including the nuclear sector. Isotopic-based nuclear techniques provide reliable biological indicators that give, at the decision-maker level, important information to target and track progress in food and nutrition programs. They serve as tools for evaluating nutritional status of populations and individuals for micronutrients and vitamins, nutrient intake and bioavailability, body composition and energy balance. The information provided verifies the nature of the nutrition problem, helps implement or redirect on-going programs, guides in the processing of local foods and provides indicators of important long-term health improvements or broader social and economic advances. As a result of the investment in human resources undertaken by IAEA in recent years, under its mandate to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear technology, nutritionists in developing countries are now more aware of the significance and benefits of isotopic techniques. This includes stable isotopic methods that are biologically safe and have no adverse environmental impacts. Equipment is being increasingly made available by national investments in the science base. Sometimes IAEA has given specific and direct support but in many instances support previously provided for other nuclear sectors could be harnessed to address nutritional problems. In summary, the objectives now are to meet the nutrition challenges facing countries by the use of isotopes in nutritional evaluations, bearing in mind that isotopic and nuclear techniques are tools, not solutions by themselves. IAEA does not manage or fund nutrition investigations or interventions at the public

  7. [Promoting a balanced diet and physical activity among children : Conditions for the successful implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies: Results of two qualitative case studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenbock, Berit; Muellmann, Saskia; Zeeb, Hajo; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-01

    To date, conditions for successfully implementing and maintaining multi-level interventions and policies for the promotion of a balanced diet and physical activity are not well understood from the perspective of stakeholders. The aim of this article is to examine which factors are regarded as facilitating or impeding introduction, implementation and maintenance of multi-level interventions and policies from the standpoint of stakeholders. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with stakeholders of one multi-level intervention (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS [IDEFICS] for the prevention of childhood obesity, n = 4) and one policy (Federal state offices coordinating networks for the provision of healthy food options in schools, n = 3) were analysed using qualitative content analysis. In both cases, the use of existing structures facilitated introduction, implementation and maintenance. Additionally, training of staff for implementation according to standardised protocols or concepts and taking structures and work conditions of settings into account during implementation were considered essential. In both cases, conflicting interests in interdisciplinary stakeholder teams regarding intervention content and implementation were identified as a barrier. A lack of political support and insecure long-term funding only played a role in regard to the implementation and maintenance of policies. On the other hand, target groups of the multi-level intervention were not sufficiently involved in the development of intervention materials which resulted in a lack of tailoring and acceptance in the target groups. The results provide important insights into the long-term implementation of multi-level interventions and policies in different settings.

  8. Policy Research and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskell, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Explores what it means to do research intended to be relevant for public policy. Argues against perception of policy research as politically neutral technical exercise. Discusses political implications of methodology. Discusses research examples to illustrate point. Discusses implications for how research might be used in political process.…

  9. Achieved versus intended pulse oximeter saturation in infants born less than 28 weeks' gestation: the AVIOx study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagadorn, James I; Furey, Anne M; Nghiem, Tuyet-Hang; Schmid, Christopher H; Phelps, Dale L; Pillers, De-Ann M; Cole, Cynthia H

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to document pulse oximeter saturation levels achieved in the first 4 weeks of life in infants who were born at signal-extraction oximeters for a 72-hour period in each of the first 4 weeks of life. Data were compared with the pulse oximeter saturation target range prescribed by local institutional policy. Factors that were associated with intended range compliance were identified with hierarchical modeling. Fourteen centers from 3 countries enrolled 84 infants with mean +/- SD birth weight of 863 +/- 208 g and gestational age of 26 +/- 1.4 weeks. Oxygen saturation policy limits ranged between 83% and 92% for lower limits and 92% and 98% for upper limits. For infants who received respiratory support, median pulse oximeter saturation level achieved was 95%. Center-specific medial levels were within the intended range at 12 centers. Centers maintained infants within their intended range 16% to 64% of the time but were above range 20% to 73% of the time. In hierarchical modeling, wider target ranges, higher target range upper limits, presence of a policy of setting oximeter alarms close to the target range limits, and lower gestational age were associated with improved target range compliance. Success with maintaining the intended pulse oximeter saturation range varied substantially among centers, among patients within centers, and for individual patients over time. Most noncompliance was above the intended range. Methods for improving compliance and the effect of improved compliance on neonatal outcomes require additional research.

  10. Mapping the role of structural and interpersonal violence in the lives of women: implications for public health interventions and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesanti, Stephanie Rose; Thurston, Wilfreda E

    2015-11-11

    Research on interpersonal violence towards women has commonly focused on individual or proximate-level determinants associated with violent acts ignores the roles of larger structural systems that shape interpersonal violence. Though this research has contributed to an understanding of the prevalence and consequences of violence towards women, it ignores how patterns of violence are connected to social systems and social institutions. In this paper, we discuss the findings from a scoping review that examined: 1) how structural and symbolic violence contributes to interpersonal violence against women; and 2) the relationships between the social determinants of health and interpersonal violence against women. We used concept mapping to identify what was reported on the relationships among individual-level characteristics and population-level influence on gender-based violence against women and the consequences for women's health. Institutional ethics review was not required for this scoping review since there was no involvement or contact with human subjects. The different forms of violence-symbolic, structural and interpersonal-are not mutually exclusive, rather they relate to one another as they manifest in the lives of women. Structural violence is marked by deeply unequal access to the determinants of health (e.g., housing, good quality health care, and unemployment), which then create conditions where interpersonal violence can happen and which shape gendered forms of violence for women in vulnerable social positions. Our web of causation illustrates how structural factors can have negative impacts on the social determinants of health and increases the risk for interpersonal violence among women. Public health policy responses to violence against women should move beyond individual-level approaches to violence, to consider how structural and interpersonal level violence and power relations shape the 'lived experiences' of violence for women.

  11. Interventional Radiology: Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government affairs Global outreach Publications Annual Report IR Quarterly Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology Newsletters Practice Resources Quality Improvement Clinical practice MACRA Matters Health Policy, Economics, Coding Toolkits Society of Interventional Radiology 3975 Fair ...

  12. Applicability of the theory of planned behavior in predicting intended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    perceived risk in predicting intended use of Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing (VCT) services. Methods: A cross sectional study design was conducted among 20 randomly selected schools in Harari Region between March and April ... focusing on sexual behaviors such as intention to use a condom (17-19), intention to ...

  13. Intending the Faculty and its Relation with the City

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vande Putte, H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the preparation of the idea competition 'Building for Bouwkunde' that was held in 2008. The competition intended entrants to design a replacement building for the lost building of the Faculty of Architecture of the Delft University of Technology, based on the

  14. The intended and unintended effects of advertising on children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijzen, M.; Valkenburg, P.M.; Valdivia, A.N.; Scharrer, E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of advertising on children have often been divided into two general types: intended effects (e.g., children's brand awareness, preferences, and purchase requests) and unintended effects (e.g., materialistic orientations, parent-child conflicts, and unhealthy eating habits). The first

  15. Matching Intended And Actual French Curriculum Objectives In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace ...

  16. How Dogs Know when Communication Is Intended for Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of…

  17. Microgrid Policy Review of Selected Major Countries, Regions, and Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Min [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This report collects and reviews policies and regulations related to microgrid development, and is intended as a reference. The material is divided into three parts under five dimensions: interconnection, RD&D, tariff policy, other policies, and recommendations.

  18. Completed egoism and intended altruism boost healthy food choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Christian; Messner, Claude; Brügger, Adrian

    2014-06-01

    Based on the self-licensing literature and goal theory, we expected and found that completed (im)moral actions lead to markedly different food choices (Studies 1 & 2) than intended (im)moral actions (Study 2). In Study 1, people more often chose healthy over unhealthy food options when they recalled a completed egoistic action than when they recalled a completed altruistic action. Study 2 confirmed this finding and furthermore showed that the self-licensing effect in food choices is moderated by the action stage (completed versus intended) of the moral or immoral action. This article extends the existing self-licensing literature and opens up new perspectives for changing consumers' food consumption behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Device for stretching tapes or cables intended for manipulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudoin, J.-C.; Oger, Robert.

    1975-01-01

    The invention relates to a device for stretching tapes (or cables) intended for remote handling devices. Said equipment consists of a spring system continuously applying a constant tensile stress to said tapes (or cables) in view of taking up the slack in the latter. Said spring system is fastened to a supporting bar able to be rigidly connected to a member of the remote handling device [fr

  20. Use of metakaolin in grouts intended for soil nailing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husson B.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to carry out a feasibility study to evaluate the pertinence of using metakaolin in grout intended for soil nailing. After a first step of grout optimisation based on technical and environmental constraints, an in-situ study was performed to evaluate the compatibility of metakaolin with this kind of application. This part highlights the minimum performance levels necessary if grout is to fulfil its role of transferring stresses between soil and nail.

  1. Prevalence and characteristics of intended adolescent pregnancy: an analysis of the Canadian maternity experiences survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekharan, Vineeth S; Kim, Theresa H M; Oulman, Elizaveta; Tamim, Hala

    2015-11-05

    There is limited research focusing on adolescent women who intended to become pregnant, as majority of research examines unintended adolescent pregnancies. The objective was to examine the prevalence and characteristics of Canadian adolescent women who intended to become pregnant. The analysis was based on the national 2006 Maternity Experiences Survey consisting of women who had a singleton live birth. The sample was restricted to adolescent women between 15 to 19 years of age. The main outcome of this study was the adolescent woman's pregnancy intention. A variety of sociodemographic, maternal, and pregnancy related factors were examined using a multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were reported for all variables. The sample size was 290, weighted to represent 2224 adolescent women. Based on the adjusted model, the odds of experiencing an intended pregnancy were increased if the adolescent woman was between 18-19 years old (OR 2.62, 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57), had a partner (OR 2.37, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.99), experienced no violence/abuse (OR 3.08, 95 % CI 1.38, 6.86), and consumed no alcohol before pregnancy (OR 3.17, 95 % CI 1.56, 6.45). Additionally, adolescent women who reported drug use prior to pregnancy were more likely to have an intended pregnancy (OR 0.39, 95 % CI 0.16, 0.95). The findings from this study can be used as the basis for future research to investigate the characteristics and needs represented by this group of adolescents and to aid in the development of effective policies and programs.

  2. Expanding Bioenergy in Europe: Analysing Interactions and Dysfunction between Policy and Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peck, P.; McCormick, K. (International Inst. for Industrial Environmental Economics (IIIEE), Lund University, 22100 Lund (Sweden)). e-mail: philip.peck@iiiee.lu.se

    2008-10-15

    Despite apparently favourable conditions for investment in the bioenergy sector provided by sustained high oil prices and a multitude of policy support measures throughout the EU that are ostensibly intended to create improved economic conditions, many industrialists and investors are still apparently wary of engagement. National policy interventions intended to support and to expand the bioenergy industry are often uncertain and variable, and there have been many negative market experiences as a result of policy shifts. Moreover, there are cases where industry and/or finance sector actors appear to have invested unwisely within reigning economic and policy support regimes. As a first output of a body of broader research, this paper investigates and compares two cases of interactions and dysfunction between national policy interventions and industrial bio-energy strategies in Sweden and Germany. The paper tests a policy evaluation framework upon the two case studies in order to shed light on why problems have arisen and how similar problems might be avoided in the future. The framework tested here is to be further developed and applied to other analyses in the future

  3. Athletes Intending to Use Sports Supplements Are More Likely to Respond to a Placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Philip; Foad, Abby; Coleman, Damian; Beedie, Chris

    2017-09-01

    We investigated associations between athletes' use of sport supplements and their responsiveness to placebo and nocebo interventions. Participants (n = 627) reported their intention to use, and actual use of, sport supplements. They then completed a 5 × 20 m repeat sprint protocol in the baseline condition, before being randomized to one of three treatments. Participants in the positive-belief treatment were administered an inert capsule described as a potent supplement which would improve sprint performance. Participants in the negative-belief treatment were administered an inert capsule described as a potent supplement which would negatively affect sprint performance. Participants in the control treatment received neither instruction nor capsule. Twenty minutes after baseline trials, all participants completed the same repeat sprint protocol in the experimental condition. Compared with controls, no mean differences in performance were observed between baseline and experimental conditions for the positive-belief treatment (-0.07% ± 0.27%, d = 0.02), but mean differences were observed for the negative-belief treatment (-0.92% ± 0.31%, d = 0.32), suggesting a moderate nocebo effect. In the positive-belief treatment, however, a relationship between intention to use supplements and performance was observed. Performance worsened by -1.10% ± 0.30% compared with baseline for participants not intending to use supplements, worsened by -0.64% ± 0.43% among those undecided about supplement use, but improved by 0.19% ± 0.24% among those participants intending to use supplements. Information about a harmful supplement worsened repeat sprint performance (a mean nocebo effect), whereas information about a beneficial supplement did not improve performance (no mean placebo effect was observed). However, participants' intention to use sport supplements influenced the direction and magnitude of subsequent placebo responses, with participants intending to use supplements more

  4. Active Match Load Circuit Intended for Testing Piezoelectric Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Rødgaard, Martin Schøler; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    famous Rosen type design back in the 1950s. After the discovered of new piezoelectric materials and new PT designs have been invented, the PT based power converters are in the area where they can outperform tradition electromagnetic based converters in certain applications. The performance of PTs can......An adjustable high voltage active load circuit for voltage amplitudes above 100 volts, especially intended for resistive matching the output impedance of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) is proposed in this paper. PTs have been around for over 50 years, were C. A. Rosen is common known for his...

  5. Determinants of recurrence after intended curative resection for colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilhelmsen, Michael; Kring, Thomas; Jorgensen, Lars N

    2014-01-01

    Despite intended curative resection, colorectal cancer will recur in ∼45% of the patients. Results of meta-analyses conclude that frequent follow-up does not lead to early detection of recurrence, but improves overall survival. The present literature shows that several factors play important roles...... with recurrences, and tumors appear to have different mutations depending on their location. Patients with stage II or III disease are often treated with adjuvant chemotherapy despite the fact that the treatments are far from efficient among all patients, who are at risk of recurrence. Studies are now being...

  6. Sustainability Policy and the Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Jens; Reisch, Lucia

    2008-01-01

    for sustainable consumption. Pending policy initiatives about to be taken by the Community, this paper intends to identify some of these barriers and depict the growth of sustainable consumption policy in Europe. It presents the existent tools of Community law and seeks to show the recently enhanced position......Growing awareness of environmental and social concern and the pressing issue of climate change have forcefully re-established sustainability policy as a part of consumer policy. The need for change in consumer behaviour and for more responsible lifestyles on the demand-side of the economy...... is challenging conventional concepts of consumer law and policy. While in particular EC policy traditionally relied on information and other "light-touch" instruments, it appears timely to reflect on the effectiveness of this policy and the expediency of measures intended to overcome persistent barriers...

  7. Valuing Diversity: A Well-Intended but Empty Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Patricia L.

    2012-01-01

    When professional development in diversity is provided to educators in the field, it usually targets classroom practice with the intent of closing the achievement gap. These efforts are critical. But work should not stop there because culture underlies every policy, practice, and procedure in the school and influences every thought, interaction,…

  8. Impact of pharmaceutical policy interventions on utilization of antipsychotic medicines in Finland and Portugal in times of economic recession : interrupted time series analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leopold, Christine; Zhang, Fang; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266775098; Vogler, Sabine; Valkova, Silvia; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Wagner, Anita K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyze the impacts of pharmaceutical sector policies implemented to contain country spending during the economic recession--a reference price system in Finland and a mix of policies including changes in reimbursement rates, a generic promotion campaign and discounts granted to the

  9. The French electricity policy facing European integration and environmental law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begue, M.C.

    2004-02-01

    The french electricity policy is traditionally defined by public authorities. The preference for nuclear power implies great risk and severe damage to the environment. These features of french electricity policy are however questioned by the increasing influence of european law and the (relatively) recent recognition of the environmental issues of such policy. This thesis intends to study the consequences of two 'new' tendencies that seem to be inevitable in the field of electricity policy: the decreasing role of national public authorities and the diffusion of the concept of sustainable development. The theoretical model which underlies the organization of commercial exchanges is replacing the traditional intervention of the State. regarding of this basic good. The adoption of legal rules to organize the electricity market has involved the development of many economic instruments. Those instruments aim at modifying the electricity policy in accordance with the principle of integration of environmental dimension in sectoral policies. The main object of our work is to analyse the consequences of these changes in the concept of public utility as well as in the importance given to environmental protection in the new forms of electricity policies. (author)

  10. Sound classification schemes in Europe - Quality classes intended for renovated housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    According to social surveys in several European countries, occupants of multifamily housing are considerably annoyed by noise from neighbours’ activities. The noise issue has also received increasing attention from WHO. Neighbour noise has been identified as a health problem and reduction of noise...... exposure in the home included in the proposed main objectives for a housing policy. In most countries in Europe, building regulations specify minimum requirements concerning acoustical conditions for new dwellings. In addition, several countries have introduced sound classification schemes with classes...... intended to reflect different levels of acoustical comfort. Consequently, acoustic requirements for a dwelling can be specified as the legal minimum requirements or as a specific class in a classification scheme. Most schemes have both higher classes than corresponding to the regulatory requirements...

  11. Evaluation of a multi-year policy-focused intervention to increase physical activity and related behaviors in lower-resourced early care and education settings: Active Early 2.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Tomayko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012–2014 to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition in settings serving a high proportion of children from underserved groups in recognition of significant disparities in obesity and challenges meeting physical activity recommendations in low-resource settings. The physical activity and nutrition environment were assessed before and after the intervention in 15 ECE settings in Wisconsin using the Environment and Policy Observation Assessment tool, and interviews were conducted with providers and technical consultants. There was no significant change in Total Physical Activity Score or any EPAO subscale over the intervention period; however, significant improvements in the Total Nutrition Score and the several Nutrition subscales were observed. Additionally, the percentage of sites with written activity policies significantly increased. Overall minutes of teacher-led physical activity increased to 61.5 ± 29.0 min (p < 0.05. Interviews identified key benefits to children (i.e., more energy, better rest, improved behavior and significant barriers, most notably care provider and child turnover and low parent engagement. Moderate policy and environmental improvements in physical activity and nutrition were achieved with this intervention, but more work is needed to understand and address barriers and to support sustained changes in lower-resource ECE settings.

  12. Evaluation of a multi-year policy-focused intervention to increase physical activity and related behaviors in lower-resourced early care and education settings:Active Early2.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Prince, Ronald J; Hoiting, Jill; Braun, Abbe; LaRowe, Tara L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-12-01

    Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE) settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012-2014) to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition) in settings serving a high proportion of children from underserved groups in recognition of significant disparities in obesity and challenges meeting physical activity recommendations in low-resource settings. The physical activity and nutrition environment were assessed before and after the intervention in 15 ECE settings in Wisconsin using the Environment and Policy Observation Assessment tool, and interviews were conducted with providers and technical consultants. There was no significant change in Total Physical Activity Score or any EPAO subscale over the intervention period; however, significant improvements in the Total Nutrition Score and the several Nutrition subscales were observed. Additionally, the percentage of sites with written activity policies significantly increased. Overall minutes of teacher-led physical activity increased to 61.5 ± 29.0 min (p care provider and child turnover and low parent engagement. Moderate policy and environmental improvements in physical activity and nutrition were achieved with this intervention, but more work is needed to understand and address barriers and to support sustained changes in lower-resource ECE settings.

  13. European healthcare policies for controlling drug expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ess, Silvia M; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Szucs, Thomas D

    2003-01-01

    In the last 20 years, expenditures on pharmaceuticals - as well as total health expenditures - have grown faster than the gross national product in all European countries. The aim of this paper was to review policies that European governments apply to reduce or at least slow down public expenditure on pharmaceutical products. Such policies can target the industry, the wholesalers and retailers, prescribers, and patients. The objectives of pharmaceutical policies are multidimensional and must take into account issues relating to public health, public expenditure and industrial incentives. Both price levels and consumption patterns determine the level of total drug expenditure in a particular country, and both factors vary greatly across countries. Licensing and pricing policies intend to influence the supply side. Three types of pricing policies can be recognised: product price control, reference pricing and profit control. Profit control is mainly used in the UK. Reference pricing systems were first used in Germany and The Netherlands and are being considered in other countries. Product price control is still the most common method for establishing the price of drugs. For the aim of fiscal consolidation, price-freeze and price-cut measures have been frequently used in the 1980s and 1990s. They have affected all types of schemes. For drug wholesalers and retailers, most governments have defined profit margins. The differences in price levels as well as the introduction of a Single European Pharmaceutical Market has led to the phenomenon of parallel imports among member countries of the European Union. This may be facilitated by larger and more powerful wholesalers and the vertical integration between wholesalers and retailers. To control costs, the use of generic drugs is encouraged in most countries, but only few countries allow pharmacists to substitute generic drugs for proprietary brands. Various interventions are used to reduce the patients' demand for drugs by

  14. 7 CFR 57.45 - Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food... Eggs Not Intended for Human Food § 57.45 Prohibition on eggs not intended for use as human food. (a) No... commerce, any eggs that are not intended for use as human food, unless they are denatured or...

  15. Treacherous Pavements: Paving Slab Patterns Modify Intended Walking Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonards, Ute; Fennell, John G; Oliva, Gaby; Drake, Alex; Redmill, David W

    2015-01-01

    Current understanding in locomotion research is that, for humans, navigating natural environments relies heavily on visual input; in contrast, walking on even ground in man-made obstacle and hazard-free environments is so highly automated that visual information derived from floor patterns should not affect locomotion and in particular have no impact on the direction of travel. The vision literature on motion perception would suggest otherwise; specifically that oblique floor patterns may induce substantial veering away from the intended direction of travel due to the so-called aperture problem. Here, we tested these contrasting predictions by letting participants walk over commonly encountered floor patterns (paving slabs) and investigating participants' ability to walk "straight ahead" for different pattern orientations. We show that, depending on pattern orientation, participants veered considerably over the measured travel distance (up to 8% across trials), in line with predictions derived from the literature on motion perception. We argue that these findings are important to the study of locomotion, and, if also observed in real world environments, might have implications for architectural design.

  16. Psychological distress, work attitudes and intended year of leaving school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winefield, A H; Tiggemann, M

    1993-03-01

    Recent studies in both Australia and the U.K. have shown high levels of psychological distress and anxiety in secondary school pupils, increasing over the final three years of school. Indeed, the levels observed in final year pupils have been just as high as those observed in unemployed young people. It has been suggested that the discrepant findings in some longitudinal studies reported during the past few years might be due to the inappropriate use of at-school baseline measures, where disproportionate numbers of pupils at different levels could have affected the conclusions. In response to this suggestion data are reported from a longitudinal study of school leavers, in which 1980 at-school measures were analysed as a function of year level and intended year of leaving. The findings gave no support to the hypothesis that stress level increased from over the last three years, and therefore the use of baseline measures was vindicated. It was concluded that a decade of sustained high youth unemployment is the reason why those about to leave school seem prone to greater stress and anxiety than was the case ten years ago.

  17. DESIGN OF A TRANSMISSION INTENDED TO WHEELCHAIRS FOR DISABLED PEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut GEONEA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the authors contributions on designing and evaluation of a mechanical transmission intended to be used to wheelchairs for disabled people. In most cases the wheelchairs propulsion system solution consist of two DC motors, mounted on wheels shafts directly, or by means an intermediary transmission with chains or belts. In this case the wheelchair must be equipped with a controller, generally based on a PWM technology. Proposed solution consists of a mechanical transmission based on differential gears, which uses two motors, for steering and for propulsion. For this design architecture the control solution is much simple and easy cost to design, consisting in one servo controller for two motors. Based on dimensional synthesis of transmission gears, is developed the design solution of the robotic wheelchair. The wheelchair motion simulation is studied in Adams software, for the case of traction, steering and combined motion. From Adams simulations are obtained the wheelchair motion trajectories, kinematic and dynamic parameters. Obtained results are analyzed and compared to other wheelchairs design solution, concluding that proposed design solution of this transmission can be successful used to a wheelchair experimental prototype.

  18. Siloxanes in silicone products intended for food contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger

    siloxanes D3 to D13 and linear siloxanes L3-L13 the limit is 60 mg/kg food. In 49 samples of silicone products intended for food contact from the Norwegian markets content of siloxanes has been measured. Coated paper for baking constituted 8 of the samples and in none of those samples siloxanes were found...... above the detection limits. In all of the 41 remaining samples siloxanes were found in content above the quantification limits. The siloxanes were predominately cyclic siloxanes. The types of products were baking moulds and mats, muffin cups, kitchen utensils, boxes and teats. Compared to the proposed...... actions limits for the sum of D3 to D8 and for the sum of D3 to D13 plus L3 to L13, 24 of the samples exceeded these limits. However, the contents were determined by extraction of the total amount of the analysed siloxanes. After migration test to evaluate the migration of siloxanes into a food simulant...

  19. How dogs know when communication is intended for them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Juliane; Schulz, Linda; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Domestic dogs comprehend human gestural communication in a way that other animal species do not. But little is known about the specific cues they use to determine when human communication is intended for them. In a series of four studies, we confronted both adult dogs and young dog puppies with object choice tasks in which a human indicated one of two opaque cups by either pointing to it or gazing at it. We varied whether the communicator made eye contact with the dog in association with the gesture (or whether her back was turned or her eyes were directed at another recipient) and whether the communicator called the dog's name (or the name of another recipient). Results demonstrated the importance of eye contact in human-dog communication, and, to a lesser extent, the calling of the dog's name--with no difference between adult dogs and young puppies--which are precisely the communicative cues used by human infants for identifying communicative intent. Unlike human children, however, dogs did not seem to comprehend the human's communicative gesture when it was directed to another human, perhaps because dogs view all human communicative acts as directives for the recipient. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Evaluation of caregiver-friendly workplace policy (CFWPs) interventions on the health of full-time caregiver employees (CEs): implementation and cost-benefit analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Allison M.; Tompa, Emile; Lero, Donna S.; Fast, Janet; Yazdani, Amin; Zeytinoglu, Isik U.

    2017-01-01

    Background Current Canadian evidence illustrating the health benefits and cost-effectiveness of caregiver-friendly workplace policies is needed if Canadian employers are to adopt and integrate caregiver-friendly workplace policies into their employment practices. The goal of this three-year, three study research project is to provide such evidence for the auto manufacturing and educational services sectors. The research questions being addressed are: What are the impacts for employers (econom...

  1. 75 FR 22577 - Proposed Privacy Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... request for public comment on Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. SUMMARY: The U.S. Election Assistance Commission (EAC) seeks public comment on the Proposed Privacy Policy Statement. OMB Memorandum M-99- 18.... These statements are intended to inform the public of government- wide policies and how each agency...

  2. 76 FR 63957 - Consumer Product Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ... COMMISSION Consumer Product Policy Statement AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed revision... general public (consumer products). While the NRC is not making any significant changes to the policy... intended for use by the general public (consumer products). Under this policy, the AEC and then the NRC...

  3. Practical interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lammer, J.; Schreyer, H.

    1991-01-01

    The book is intended as a practical guide and manual for interventional radiology applications. Main emphasis is placed on the performance of the various techniques, with explanations of the various steps to be taken, illustrated by drawings or pictures. Indications, contra-indications and clinical achievements are given in brief. There is one chapter each for the following techniques: angioplasty - intra-arterial fibrinolysis - vascular stents - neuroembolisation - embolisation of other vessels - biliary interventions - abscess drainage - nephrostomy and ureteral manipulations -percutaneous fine-needle biopsy - vena cava filters - interventional radiology in infants. (orig.)

  4. A guide to scaling up population health interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milat, Andrew J; Newson, Robyn; King, Lesley; Rissel, Chris; Wolfenden, Luke; Bauman, Adrian; Redman, Sally; Giffin, Michael

    2016-01-28

    The 'how to' of scaling up public health interventions for maximum reach and outcomes is receiving greater attention; however, there remains a paucity of practical tools to guide those actively involved in scaling up processes in high-income countries. To fill this gap, the New South Wales Ministry of Health developed Increasing the scale of population health interventions: a guide (2014). The guide was informed by a systematic review of scaling up models and methods, and a two-round Delphi process with a sample of senior policy makers, practitioners and researchers actively involved in scaling up processes. Although it is a practical guide to assist health policy makers, health practitioners and others responsible for scaling up effective population health interventions, it can also be used by researchers in the design of research studies that are potentially suitable for scaling up, particularly where research-practice collaborations are involved. The guide is divided into four steps: step 1, 'scalability assessment', aims to determine if an intervention is scalable; step 2, 'developing a scale up plan', aims to develop a practical and workable scaling up plan that can be used to convince stakeholders there is a compelling case for action. Step 3, 'preparing for scale up', aims to identify ways of securing resources needed for going to scale, operating at scale, and building a foundation of legitimacy and support to sustain the scaling up effort through the implementation stage; and step 4, 'scaling up the intervention', involves putting the plan developed in step 2 into place. Although the guide is written as though the user is starting from the point of assessing the scalability of an intervention, later steps can be used by those already involved in scaling up to review their implementation processes. The guide is not intended to be prescriptive. Its purpose is to help policy makers, practitioners, researchers and other decision makers decide on appropriate

  5. The Relationship of Students' Awareness on Drug Policy, Procedures, and Intervention Programs to the Drug and Alcohol Use on College Campuses: A Correlational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love-Quick, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most pressing concerns that universities and colleges face today is the drug and alcohol abuse of students. In order to address this, there is a need to strengthen university policies in order to mitigate the increasing rate and cases of drug and alcohol abuse among students. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the…

  6. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved.

  7. An integrative literature review of interventions to reduce violence against emergency department nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Linda; FitzGerald, Mary; Luck, Lauretta

    2010-09-01

    To critique the evidence that underpins interventions intended to minimise workplace violence directed against emergency department nurses, to inform researchers and policy makers regarding the design, development, implementation and evaluation of emergency nursing anti-violence and counter-violence interventions. Workplace violence perpetrated against emergency department nurses is at least continuing and at worst increasing. Occupational violence has detrimental effects on job satisfaction, retention and recruitment, and the quality and cost of patient care. An integrated literature review. Searches of the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, MEDLINE and the Joanna Briggs Institute between 1986-May 2007. Included articles were appraised and then synthesised into a narrative summary. Ten primary research studies were included. Interventions were classified as environmental, practices and policies, or skills. While each study has useful information regarding the implementation of interventions, there is no strong evidence for their efficacy. The weight of effort is still directed towards defining the phenomenon rather than addressing solutions. Studies that assessed the efficacy of a single intervention failed to take account of context; and participatory context-driven studies failed to provide generalisable evidence. Concerted multi-site and multi-disciplinary, action-oriented research studies are urgently needed to provide an evidence base for the prevention and mitigation of violence perpetrated against emergency department nurses. The investigation of interventions rather than repeatedly redefining the problem and directing resources into debating semantics or differentiating 'degrees' of violence and aggression is recommended. This review unambiguously identifies the gap in research-based interventions. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. From Policy to Practice: A Program Logic Approach to Describing the Implementation of Early Intervention Services for Children with Physical Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviani, Jenny; Darlington, Yvonne; Feeney, Rachel; Head, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of providing early intervention services (including multidisciplinary therapy and family support) for children with physical disabilities and their families are widely acknowledged. Evidence, however, of their efficacy is not well documented. Furthermore, many studies fail to adequately describe the programs being evaluated and how…

  9. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  10. Global Status Report on Local Renewable Energy Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinot, Eric; Yamashita, Noriaki; Tan, Vincent; Irie, Risa; Van Staden, Maryke; Zimmermann, Monika

    2011-01-01

    This report complements the REN21 Renewables Global Status Report by providing more detailed information at the city and local levels about policies and activities to promote renewable energy. It is intended to facilitate dialogue and illuminate pathways for future policies and actions at the local level. This 'working draft' version is intended to solicit comments and additional information

  11. 27 CFR 19.397 - Spirits not originally intended for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., originally intended for domestic use may be exported with benefit of drawback or without payment of tax if... intended for export. 19.397 Section 19.397 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX....397 Spirits not originally intended for export. Spirits manufactured, produced, bottled in bottles...

  12. Green infrastructure as a climate change adaptation policy intervention: muddying the waters or clearing a path to a more secure future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussams, L W; Sheate, W R; Eales, R P

    2015-01-01

    As dangerous climate change looms, decision-makers are increasingly realising that societies will need to adapt to this threat as well as mitigate against it. Green infrastructure (GI) is increasingly seen as an ideal climate change adaptation policy response. However, with this research the authors identify a number of crucial knowledge gaps within GI and, consequently, call for caution and for a concerted effort to understand the concept and what it can really deliver. GI has risen to prominence in a range of policy areas in large part due to its perceived ability to produce multiple benefits simultaneously, termed 'multifunctionality'. This characteristic strengthens the political appeal of the policy in question at a time when environmental issues have slipped down political agendas. Multifunctionality, however, brings its own set of new challenges that should be evaluated fully before the policy is implemented. This research takes important first steps to developing a critical understanding of what is achievable within GI's capacity. It focuses on one of GI's single objectives, namely climate change adaptation, to focus the analysis of how current obstacles in applying GI's multifunctionality could lead to the ineffective delivery of its objective. By drawing on expert opinion from government officials and representatives from the private, non-government organisation (NGO) and academic sectors, this research questions GI's ability to be effectively 'multifunctional' with an inconsistent definition at its core, deficiencies in its understanding and conflicts within its governance. In light of these observations, the authors then reflect on the judiciousness of applying GI to achieve the other objectives it has also been charged with delivering. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of maternal and child health policies in. Malawi: The methodological perspective. Abstract. The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy.

  14. A Bayesian procedure for estimating the causal effects of nursing home bed-hold policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutman, Roee; Intrator, Orna; Lancaster, Tony

    2017-10-03

    Nursing home bed-hold policies provide continuity of care for Medicaid beneficiaries by paying nursing homes to reserve beds so residents can return to their facility of occupancy following an acute hospitalization. In 2001, Michigan implemented bed-hold policies in nursing homes. We investigated the impact of these policies on mortality and hospitalizations using 1999-2004 quarterly data from nursing homes in Michigan and nursing homes in 11 states that did not implement such policies. Synthetic Control has been used to estimate the effects of policies by accounting for changes over time unrelated to the intervention. Synthetic Control is intended for scalar continuous outcome at each period, and assumes a single treated unit and multiple control units. We propose a Bayesian procedure to overcome these limitations. It imputes the outcomes of nursing homes in Michigan if they were not exposed to the policy by matching to non-exposed nursing homes that are associated with the exposed ones in the pre-policy period. Because sampling from a Bayesian model is computationally challenging, we describe an approximation procedure that can be implemented using existing software. Our approach can be applied to other studies that examine the impact of policies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Transfers among women intending a birth center delivery in the San Diego birth center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen-Sa D T; Rothman, Kenneth J; Demissie, Serkalem; Jackson, Debra J; Lang, Janet M; Ecker, Jeffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the San Diego Birth Center Study that enrolled underserved women between 1994 and 1996, we examined demographic, sociobehavioral, and medical predictors of hospital transfer in a group of women who intended to deliver at a freestanding birth center. Of the 1808 women, 34.6% transferred to the hospital antenatally and 19.6% transferred during labor, while 45.7% delivered at the birth center. Compared with multiparous women who had never had a cesarean and never had a previous hospital delivery, nulliparous women were 2.0 times more likely (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.7), multiparous women with a previous cesarean were 2.6 times more likely (95% CI, 1.7-3.8), and women without a previous cesarean but who had a previous hospital delivery were 2.1 times more likely (95% CI, 1.5-3.0) to transfer after adjusting for other predictors of transfer. Nulliparity, cesarean history and having a previous hospital delivery were among the strongest predictors of a hospital transfer even after adjusting for demographic, sociobehavioral, and other medical conditions. Understanding predictors of transfer may assist practitioners, patients, and policy makers in considering the appropriateness of individuals for birth center delivery or to target further education to reduce nonmedical transfers.

  16. Mapping evidence of interventions and strategies to bridge the gap in the implementation of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV programme policy in sub-Saharan countries: A scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroda H. Ngidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT of HIV is a life-saving public health intervention. Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries have made significant progress in the programme, but little is known about the strategies used by them to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV.Aim: To map evidence of strategies and interventions employed by SSA in bridging the implementation gap in the rapidly changing PMTCT of HIV programme policy.Methods: Electronic search of the databases MEDLINE, PubMed and SABINET for articles published in English between 2001 and August 2016. Key words included ‘Sub-Saharan African countries’, ‘implementation strategies’, ‘interventions to bridge implementation gap’, ‘prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV’ and ‘closing implementation gap’.Results: Of a total of 743 articles, 25 articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Manual content analysis resulted in the identification of three categories of strategies: (1 health system (referral systems, integration of services, supportive leadership, systematic quality-improvement approaches that vigorously monitors programme performance; (2 health service delivery (task shifting, networking, shared platform for learning, local capacity building, supportive supervision; as well as (3 community-level strategies (community health workers, technology use – mHealth, family-centred approaches, male involvement, culturally appropriate interventions.Conclusion: There are strategies that exist in SSA countries. Future research should examine multifaceted scientific models to prioritise the highest impact and be evaluated for effectiveness and efficiency.

  17. Política Social e Serviço Social: os desafios da intervenção profissional Social Policy and Social Work: the challenges of professional intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Celia Tamaso Mioto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute política social e Serviço Social e os desafios que esta relação apresenta para a intervenção profissional. Enfatiza o florescimento e o aprofundamento desse debate ao longo das duas últimas décadas do século 20, e a sua consolidação no início do século 21, que se expressam através da consistente produção de conhecimento e da inserção peculiar dos órgãos representativos da categoria profissional no processo de luta pela institucionalização das políticas públicas compatíveis com os valores contidos no Código de Ética Profissional dos assistentes sociais. O enfoque maior recai sobre a questão da intervenção dos assistentes sociais, no campo da política social, ao implementar o projeto profissional, comprometido com a defesa dos direitos sociais de caráter universal. Nessa perspectiva, trata a política social como um campo contraditório, permeado por interesses e projetos societários antagônicos, no qual se reatualizam questões diretamente articuladas à especificidade e à autonomia profissional.This article discusses social policy and Social Work and the challenges that their relationship presents for professional intervention. It emphasizes the flourishing and deepening of the debate about this issue in the past two decades of the 20th century, and its consolidation in the early 21st century, which is expressed through the constant production of knowledge and the peculiar insertion of agencies that represent the professional category in the struggle for the institutionalization of public policies compatible with the values found in the Code of Professional Ethics for social workers. The strongest focus is on the issues of the intervention of social workers in the field of social policy, through implementation of the professional project, committed to defending social rights of a universal character. From this perspective, it involves social policy as a contradictory field that is permeated

  18. Propuesta de políticas e intervenciones para reducir las desigualdades sociales en salud en España A proposal of policies and interventions to reduce social inequalities in health in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En noviembre de 2008, a petición de la Dirección General de Salud Pública y Sanidad Exterior del Ministerio de Sanidad y Política Social, se constituyó la Comisión para Reducir las Desigualdades Sociales en Salud en España con el cometido de elaborar una propuesta de medidas de intervención para disminuir las desigualdades en salud. El objetivo de este artículo es exponer el trabajo realizado y los documentos elaborados por la Comisión. Los 18 profesionales que la formaban realizaron un análisis de situación sobre las desigualdades en salud y las políticas para reducirlas, revisaron documentos internacionales y consultaron a 56 expertos de distintos ámbitos para elaborar una propuesta de recomendaciones para disminuir las desigualdades en salud. En mayo de 2010, la Comisión presentó el documento «Avanzando hacia la equidad: Propuesta de políticas e intervenciones para reducir las desigualdades sociales en salud en España». En el documento se detallan 166 recomendaciones, divididas en 14 áreas y ordenadas por prioridad. Las recomendaciones evidencian que la reducción de las desigualdades sociales en salud no es posible sin un compromiso para impulsar la salud y la equidad en todas las políticas y para avanzar hacia una sociedad más justa.In November 2008, at the request of the Directorate General of Public Health of the Ministry of Health and Social Policy, the Commission to Reduce Social Inequalities in Health in Spain was established with a mandate to develop a proposal for interventions to reduce health inequalities. This article aims to present the work carried out and the documents prepared by the Commission. The Commission, consisting of 18 members, conducted a situational analysis of health inequalities and of the policies to reduce them, reviewed international documents and consulted 56 experts from distinct fields to develop a proposal for recommendations to reduce health inequalities. In May 2010, the Commission

  19. Science and policy on endocrine disrupters must not be mixed: a reply to a “common sense” intervention by toxicology journal editors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Becher, Georg

    2013-01-01

    The “common sense” intervention by toxicology journal editors regarding proposed European Union endocrine disrupter regulations ignores scientific evidence and well-established principles of chemical risk assessment. In this commentary, endocrine disrupter experts express their concerns about...... a recently published, and is in our considered opinion inaccurate and factually incorrect, editorial that has appeared in several journals in toxicology. Some of the shortcomings of the editorial are discussed in detail. We call for a better founded scientific debate which may help to overcome a polarisation...

  20. Public Policy and the Prison System Failure Brazil: Legal Theses 17 and 18 of the Attorney General's Office - Ago, and Immediate Intervention Judicial Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Almeida Da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal feasibility of the judiciary determine the Executive to carry out works in prisons; confronting the reservation of the theory of financially possible and the immediate applicability of explicit fundamental rights in the Constitution, and the latest understanding of our Constitutional Court on the subject. Thus, it was taken as a backdrop the extraordinary appeal object if 592 581 / RS - which resulted in the legal arguments of nos 17 and 18 of the Attorney General - PGR, which concerned about the problem of "judicial control policies public "to ensure the preservation of the fundamental right to physical and moral integrity of prisoners, including renovation, expansion and construction of prisons in the event of failure of state entities. Finally, there was a brief analysis of the structural crisis of the Brazilian prison system, sign flagrant violation of the supreme value of human dignity.

  1. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  2. A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of an implementation intervention to increase healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies, and practices in centre-based childcare services: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Meghan; Yoong, Sze Lin; Thomson, Rebecca J; Seward, Kirsty; Cooney, Mairead; Jones, Jannah; Fielding, Alison; Wiggers, John; Gillham, Karen; Wolfenden, Luke

    2015-05-21

    Promotion of healthy eating and physical activity in early childhood is recommended as a global chronic disease prevention strategy. Centre-based childcare services represent a promising setting to provide children with opportunities to improve healthy eating and physical activity. Evidence to inform implementation of childcare obesity prevention guidelines into routine practice in childcare, however, is lacking. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention, delivered to childcare staff, aiming to increasing service implementation of healthy eating and physical activity-promoting policies and practices. A pragmatic parallel group randomised controlled trial will be undertaken with 165 childcare services in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia. Services will be randomised to receive either a 10-month evidence-based performance review intervention with other resources to support practice change, or to a waitlist control group. The primary trial outcome is the proportion of services implementing all of the following recommended healthy eating and physical activity promoting practices: written nutrition, physical activity and small screen recreation policies; providing information to families regarding healthy eating (including breastfeeding), physical activity and small screen time; providing twice weekly healthy eating learning experiences to children; providing water and only plain milk to children; providing fundamental movement skills activities for children every day; and limiting and using electronic screen time more for educational purposes and learning experiences. Effectiveness will be assessed using a telephone interview of practice implementation with childcare staff at baseline and 12 months following baseline. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee and the University of Newcastle Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer

  3. Critical Time Intervention: Model Description and Implications for the Significance of Timing in Social Work Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel B.; Mandiberg, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the dimension of time in the design of social work interventions. Critical time intervention (CTI), an empirically supported psychosocial intervention intended to reduce the risk of homelessness by enhancing continuity of support for individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) during the transition…

  4. Improving health promotion through central rating of interventions: the need for Responsive Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maarten Olivier; Bal, Roland; Roelefs, Caspar David; Schuit, Albertine Jantine

    2017-11-23

    In several countries, attempts are made to improve health promotion by centrally rating the effectiveness of health promotion interventions. The Dutch Effectiveness Rating System (ERS) for health promotion interventions is an improvement-oriented approach in which multi-disciplinary expert committees rate available health promotion interventions as 'theoretically sound', 'probably effective' or 'proven effective'. The aim of this study is to explore the functioning of the ERS and the perspective of researchers, policy-makers and practitioners regarding its contribution to improvement. We interviewed 53 selected key informants from research, policy and practice in the Netherlands and observed the assessment of 12 interventions. Between 2008 and 2012, a total of 94 interventions were submitted to the ERS, of which 23 were rejected, 58 were rated as 'theoretically sound', 10 were rated as 'probably effective' and 3 were rated as 'proven effective'. According to participants, the ERS was intended to facilitate both the improvement of available interventions and the improvement of health promotion in practice. While participants expected that describing and rating interventions promoted learning and enhanced the transferability of interventions, they were concerned that the ERS approach was not suitable for guiding intervention development and improving health promotion in practice. The expert committees that assessed the interventions struggled with a lack of norms for the relevance of effects and questions about how effects should be studied and rated. Health promotion practitioners were concerned that the ERS neglected the local adaptation of interventions and did not encourage the improvement of aspects like applicability and costs. Policy-makers and practitioners were worried that the lack of proven effectiveness legitimised cutbacks rather than learning and advancing health promotion. While measuring and centrally rating the effectiveness of interventions can be

  5. Structuring AHP-based maintenance policy selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan; Basten, Robertus Johannes Ida; Hummel, J. Marjan; van der Wegen, Leonardus L.M.

    2015-01-01

    We aim to structure the maintenance policy selection process for ships, using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets, and it is gaining increasing interest and relevance. A maintenance policy is a

  6. 32 CFR 249.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF DoD-RELATED SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PAPERS AT MEETINGS § 249.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Encourage the presentation of scientific and technical information generated by or for the Department of... DoD employee and contractor papers intended for presentation at scientific and technical conferences...

  7. Public Policies that Help Foster Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2013-01-01

    Public policies can be effective in raising people's social inclusion as intended only reasonably through their implementation. With respect to the implementation perspective, this study examines the effectiveness of eight policies as perceived to implement in Hong Kong, China. The study employs data collected from 1,109 Chinese adults randomly…

  8. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  9. Policy bill of program on the radioactive materials and wastes management. Press conference. Intervention of Francois Loos, Ministry delegate to the Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document provides the presentation of Francois Loos concerning the policy bill on the program of radioactive materials and wastes. Three axis of researches are decided: the separation and transmutation, the deep underground disposal and long dated storage and conditioning processes. The bill institutes a national radioactive materials and waste management plan and defines a programme and calendar for research and work leading to implementation of this plan, which will comprise three major points: with a view to looking to reduce the quantity of waste, spent nuclear fuels taken from the nuclear power plants will be reprocessed for recycling in the plants; waste which cannot be recycled will be packaged in a robust matrix and then temporarily stored on the surface; after interim storage, waste which cannot be finally disposed of in a surface facility, will be placed in a deep geological reversible repository. In order to monitor each step in this plan, the bill strengthens independent assessment of research and involves greater information of the public. With regard to financing, the bill clarifies the fact that economic development of the departments concerned by research into disposal options and the research itself will be financed by additional taxes on the operators of nuclear installations. (A.L.B.)

  10. Investigation of Social Studies Teachers' Intended Uses of Social Networks in Terms of Various Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akgün, Ismail Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine Social Studies teacher candidates' intended uses of social networks in terms of various variables. The research was carried out by using screening model of quantitative research methods. In the study, "The Social Network Intended Use Scale" was used as a data collection tool. As a result of the…

  11. Drinking Refusal Self-Efficacy and Intended Alcohol Consumption During a Mass-Attended Youth Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongenelis, Michelle I; Pettigrew, Simone; Biagioni, Nicole

    2017-10-20

    Mass-attended youth events represent a substantial public health challenge due to high levels of alcohol consumption and corresponding high rates of alcohol-related harm. Although previous research has documented the protective effect of high drinking refusal self-efficacy (DRSE) on alcohol consumption in general, there is a lack of research examining the role of DRSE in reducing consumption during mass-attended youth events and the factors associated with DRSE in these contexts. This study aimed to identify potentially modifiable factors that influence DRSE and drinking intentions to inform interventions designed to reduce alcohol-related harm during mass-attended events. Australian secondary school students (n = 586; 70% female) in their final two years of high school completed an online survey assessing their alcohol consumption intentions for Schoolies, their perceived degree of DRSE, and other individual and environmental factors. Path analysis was used to assess a mediational model examining factors associated with DRSE and alcohol consumption intentions. DRSE was found to be significantly associated with intended alcohol consumption during Schoolies. Specifically, leavers who believed they would not be able to refuse others' offers of alcoholic drinks reported significantly greater alcohol consumption intentions. Results also revealed that DRSE was enhanced in those respondents who believed there would be a variety of non-drinking activities and non-alcoholic beverages available to them during Schoolies. Results suggest the need to increase leavers' confidence in their ability to refuse unwanted alcoholic beverages and highlight the importance of providing celebration options that do not involve alcohol consumption.

  12. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  13. Federal Mechanisms to Support Intervention Dissemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diana, Augusto; Bennett, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines federal mechanisms that support program developers and researchers in disseminating effective interventions for public benefit. The purpose of this paper is not to discuss the dissemination of intervention research (i.e., how to inform stakeholders about research findings), nor is it intended to discuss the research of…

  14. 76 FR 33700 - Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-09

    ... Foreign Agricultural Service Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade; Renewal AGENCY: Foreign... Representative (USTR), has renewed the Agricultural Policy Advisory Committee for Trade (APAC). DATES: Effective... Secretary and the USTR concerning agricultural trade policy. The committee is intended to ensure that...

  15. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  16. Policy Responses to Address Student "Brain Drain": An Assessment of Measures Intended to Reduce the Emigration of Singaporean International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziguras, Christopher; Gribble, Cate

    2015-01-01

    For several decades, Singapore has experienced a high rate of outbound degree mobility with around 1 in 10 higher education students currently studying outside the country according to UNESCO figures. Singapore's successful economic development strategy, which has seen it become a key Asian hub for knowledge-intensive industries for…

  17. Creating Adaptive Policies: A Guide for Policy-making in an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... Today's policy-maker has a tough job to do. Policies that cannot perform effectively under today's complex, dynamic, and uncertain conditions run the risk of not achieving their intended purpose. Instead of helping, they may actually hinder the ability of individuals, communities, and businesses to cope with ...

  18. ROMANIA MEASURES UNDERTAKEN TO OVERCOME THE CRISIS MACROECONOMIC POLICIES THROUGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This research paper is intended to be an analysis of the measures taken by the Romanian economic recoverythrough levers it has at hand, namely macroeconomic policies. Current financial and economic crisis appears to beunprecedented in the last half century. Whether it's a financial crisis or an economic one, we can talk about theeconomy installing a pronounced instability, uncertainty and insecurity about the future. There is a significantdecrease in the volume of transactions on the stock exchange, lack of trust in the financial system, a disturbance ofmarket mechanisms.The crisis has caused and continues to cause effects in various sectors of the economy, includingjob losses. Following the severe global economic problems, the crisis has spread rapidly in all areas.States have beenthe subject of theoretical dispute for decades, and these arguments have been rekindled with interventions bygovernments of countries affected by the recent crisis.

  19. The influence of human factor on security of software intended for educational purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Valentinovich Gurov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The report considers the construction and analysis of attack tree on the software tools intended for educational purposes. This takes into account different groups of attackers. The criterion of security for such tools is introduced.

  20. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ning; Zhou, Lihua; Hauger, J Scott

    2013-01-01

    This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES), will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  1. How sustainable is government-sponsored desertification rehabilitation in China? Behavior of households to changes in environmental policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Liu

    Full Text Available This paper undertakes a direct, comprehensive assessment of the long-term sustainability of desertification rehabilitation in China under a plausible but worst case scenario where governmental interventions, in the form of payments for environmental services (PES, will cease. The analysis is based on household behavior as well as experimental data. Our econometric results highlight the main obstacles to the sustainability of rehabilitation programs subsequent to cessation of government intervention, including specific shortfalls in households' preference for a free ride, budget constraints, attitudes, tolerance of and responsibility for desertification, and dissatisfaction with governmental actions. We conclude that desertification rehabilitation is not sustainable in China without continued governmental intervention. The results of this study are intended to support policy makers as they consider future directions for rehabilitation sustainability.

  2. Universal compact lower limb turning module intended for use in orthotic robots

    OpenAIRE

    Janowski Mateusz; Jasińska-Choromańska Danuta; Osiński Dymitr; Zaczyk Marcin

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a model of an orthotic robot’s lower limb rotation system is presented. The system is intended for use in typical contemporary orthotic robots such as the ‘Veni-Prometheus’ System for Verticalization and Aiding Motion designed at the Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology. In the paper, the state of the art is briefly stated, with the relatively low number of orthotic robots allowing realization of pivoting turns highlighted. The intended two-stage pivoting tu...

  3. Insects in the teaching of biology in elementary and secondary school: Intended and implemented curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    VARAUSOVÁ, Eliška

    2016-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on the curriculum topic of insects from two perspectives. The first view is intended (presumed) curriculum, the second implemented (achieved) curriculum. To determine the intended curriculum, a curriculum analysis of the insects contained in 6th grade primary biology textbooks and the corresponding level for grammar schools was used. Based on the analysis a didactic test is compiled, in order to determine the mastery of the subject matter by pupils the implemented ...

  4. Portion size and intended consumption. Evidence for a pre-consumption portion size effect in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Eric; te Raa, Wesselien; Hardman, Charlotte A

    2015-08-01

    Larger portions increase energy intake (the 'portion size effect'); however, the mechanisms behind this effect are unclear. Although pre-meal intentions are thought to be an important determinant of energy intake, little research has examined how much of a meal individuals intend to eat when served standard versus larger portion sizes. Three studies examined the effect of manipulating portion size on intended food consumption. In Studies 1 (spaghetti bolognese) and 2 (curry and rice) male participants were shown an image of either a standard or a larger meal and indicated how much of the meal they intended to consume. In Study 3 male and female participants were served either a standard or a larger portion of ice cream for dessert, they indicated how much they intended to consume and then ate as much of the ice cream as they desired. Regardless of being shown standard or large portion sizes, in Studies 1 and 2 participants reported that they intended to eat the majority of the meal, equating to a large difference in intended energy consumption between portion size conditions (a 'pre-consumption portion size effect'). This finding was replicated in male participants in Study 3, although females intended to eat a smaller proportion of the larger portion of ice cream, compared to the standard portion. Both male and female participants tended to eat in accordance with their pre-meal intentions and a portion size effect on actual consumption was subsequently observed in males, but not in females. The portion size effect may be observed when measuring pre-meal intended consumption in males. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. A value- and expectancy-based approach to understanding residents' intended response to a wildfire threat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McNeill, Ilona M.; Dunlop, Patrick D.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    To motivate residents to evacuate early in case of a wildfire threat, it is important to know what factors underlie their response-related decision-making. The current paper examines the role of the value and expectancy tied to potential outcomes of defending vs evacuating on awareness of a commu......To motivate residents to evacuate early in case of a wildfire threat, it is important to know what factors underlie their response-related decision-making. The current paper examines the role of the value and expectancy tied to potential outcomes of defending vs evacuating on awareness...... of a community fire threat. A scenario study among 339 Western Australians revealed that residents intending to leave immediately on awareness of a community fire threat differ from those not intending to leave immediately in both value and expectancy. For one, intended leavers were more likely than those...... expectancies regarding the likelihood of achieving positive outcomes by defending than those intending to defend or wait and see before deciding what to do. Finally, intended leavers perceived it more likely that they would avoid harm to their pets by evacuating than those intending to defend throughout...

  6. Characteristics of Graduating Family Medicine Residents Who Intend to Practice Maternity Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Sebastian T; Hochheimer, Camille J; Barr, Wendy B; Leveroni-Calvi, Matteo; Lefevre, Nicholas M; Wallenborn, Jordyn T; Peterson, Lars E

    2018-03-08

    Prior research found that 24% of graduating family medicine residents intend to provide obstetrical deliveries, but only 9% of family physicians 1 to 10 years into practice are doing so. Our study aims to describe the individual and residency program characteristics associated with intention to provide obstetrical deliveries and prenatal care. Cross-sectional data on 2014-2016 graduating residents were obtained from the American Board of Family Medicine certification examination demographic questionnaire that asked about intended provision of specific clinical activities. A hierarchical model accounting for clustering within residency programs was used to determine associations between intended provision of maternity care with individual and residency program characteristics. Of 9,541 graduating residents, 22.7% intended to provide deliveries and 51.2% intended to provide prenatal care. Individual characteristics associated with a higher likelihood of providing deliveries included female gender, graduation from an allopathic medical school, and participation in a loan repayment program. Residency characteristics included geographic location in the Midwest or West region, training at a federally qualified health center (FQHC)-based clinic, funding as a teaching health center (THC), more months of required maternity care rotations, larger residency class size, and maternity care fellowship at residency. Our findings suggest that increasing the proportion of graduating family medicine residents who intend to provide maternity care may be associated with increased exposure to maternity care training, more family medicine training programs in FQHCs and THCs, and expanded loan repayment programs.

  7. The regulatory reform in the European Union environmental policy: A first appraisal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leveque, Francois [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines, Paris (France)]|[CERNA, Center of Industrial Economics, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper is aimed to outline the expected outcome of the regulatory reform which is occurring in the European Union environmental policy: it intends to point out the new institutional procedures for rulemaking introduced by the Maastricht Treaty and the fifth Programme of Action, which would result in the use of market-based instruments and voluntary approaches oppositely to traditional command and control mechanisms. The paper consists of three sections: while the first one is plainly introductory, the following two sections represent a survey on eight recent pieces of European Union legislation, chiefly directives, showing the systematic decrease in the environmental objectives due to the presence of industrial interest groups, and the new problems affecting public intervention caused by the development of the above mentioned voluntary approaches. Moreover, the former provides an analytical model of a firm`s involvement in the policy process, the latter an analytical apparatus on the very nature and failures of self-and co-regulation.

  8. Research, Evaluation, and Policy Analysis: Heuristics for Disciplined Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Yvonna S.; Guba, Egon E.

    Research, evaluation, and policy analysis are elements of inquiry whose functions, aims, purposes, intended audiences, and intended outcomes have been confused in the literature discussing how to accomplish them. Using the definition of "disciplined inquiry" provided by Cronbach and Suppes (1969), which defines disciplined inquiry as the…

  9. Ironic effects of antiprejudice messages: how motivational interventions can reduce (but also increase) prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legault, Lisa; Gutsell, Jennifer N; Inzlicht, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Although prejudice-reduction policies and interventions abound, is it possible that some of them result in the precise opposite of their intended effect--an increase in prejudice? We examined this question by exploring the impact of motivation-based prejudice-reduction interventions and assessing whether certain popular practices might in fact increase prejudice. In two experiments, participants received detailed information on, or were primed with, the goal of prejudice reduction; the information and primes either encouraged autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice or emphasized the societal requirement to control prejudice. Ironically, motivating people to reduce prejudice by emphasizing external control produced more explicit and implicit prejudice than did not intervening at all. Conversely, participants in whom autonomous motivation to regulate prejudice was induced displayed less explicit and implicit prejudice compared with no-treatment control participants. We outline strategies for effectively reducing prejudice and discuss the detrimental consequences of enforcing antiprejudice standards.

  10. Mindfulness Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J David

    2017-01-03

    Mindfulness interventions aim to foster greater attention to and awareness of present moment experience. There has been a dramatic increase in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of mindfulness interventions over the past two decades. This article evaluates the growing evidence of mindfulness intervention RCTs by reviewing and discussing (a) the effects of mindfulness interventions on health, cognitive, affective, and interpersonal outcomes; (b) evidence-based applications of mindfulness interventions to new settings and populations (e.g., the workplace, military, schools); (c) psychological and neurobiological mechanisms of mindfulness interventions; (d) mindfulness intervention dosing considerations; and (e) potential risks of mindfulness interventions. Methodologically rigorous RCTs have demonstrated that mindfulness interventions improve outcomes in multiple domains (e.g., chronic pain, depression relapse, addiction). Discussion focuses on opportunities and challenges for mindfulness intervention research and on community applications.

  11. Policy Interventions to address Discrimination against Girls

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    China and India, the two most populous countries in the world, have for centuries manifested the strongest preference for sons and the worst discrimination against daughters. In both countries, son preference has ... Droits et participation citoyenne des femmes dalits en Inde - phase I. Les dalits (ou intouchables) sont une ...

  12. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  13. Crisis intervention: program evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simington, J A; Cargill, L; Hill, W

    1996-11-01

    Crisis intervention is based upon crisis theory and is defined as a short-term active mode of therapy that focuses on solving the client's immediate problem and reestablishing psychological equilibrium. The crisis intervention program was the first phase in the development of a broader mental health program with advancement decisions being based upon evaluation results of this initial phase. An evaluation methodology using the Stufflebeam Goal-Stakeholder Model (1980) was designed and implemented. A satisfaction survey was conducted to develop a database relative to the program's process. The Mental Health Category Measure, and the Crisis Call Outcome Rating Scale were used to capture outcome data. Analysis of the qualitative and quantitative data indicate that stakeholders are satisfied with the program. outcome data demonstrates that the program produces the intended outcomes. Triangulation, a method of comparing the qualitative and quantitative findings revealed consistency, and thus provides confidence in the accuracy of the findings.

  14. SMART HERITAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Radej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available European Cultural Heritage Strategy for the 21st Century (Council of Europe, 2017 has importantly contributed to emphasizing integrative intervention logic of heritage policy by shifting from vertical, sector based to cross-sector based horizontal thinking. Paper develops and explain integral logic that combines vertical and horizontal approach. Three integration measures are proposed: weak and strong balance and cohesion. It is illustrated by a hypothetical example showing how integral heritage policy can be programmed (and evaluated in relatively simple and transparent way, despite its essential complexity.

  15. Axis Shift in Turkish foreign policy during AKP administration: New fundamental foreign policy: Principles and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Mehtap

    2011-01-01

    Turkish foreign policy has evolved since 1923. The Second World War, the Cold War and the post-Cold War period externally and separatist and Islamist movements, military interventions and economic instabilities domestically designate Turkish foreign policy until new millennium. Since 2002, with arrival of the AKP, foreign policy decisions had a rapid transformation through new set of foreign policy principles. Ahmet Davutoğlu perceived as most influential person on this new foreign policy lin...

  16. Demonstration lessons in mathematics education: teachers' observation foci and intended changes in practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Doug; Roche, Anne; Wilkie, Karina; Wright, Vince; Brown, Jill; Downton, Ann; Horne, Marj; Knight, Rose; McDonough, Andrea; Sexton, Matthew; Worrall, Chris

    2013-06-01

    As part of a teacher professional learning project in mathematics education, university mathematics educators taught demonstration lessons in project primary schools. These lessons were part of a "pre-brief, teaching, and debrief" process, in which up to eight teachers observed each lesson. Using brief questionnaires completed in advance of the lesson, during the lesson, following the debrief, and several weeks later, data were collected on teachers' intended and actual observation foci and any anticipated changes in their beliefs and practices arising from the experience. There were several common themes in teachers' intended observations, including a focus on questioning, catering for individual differences, and building student engagement. As evident in other research, teachers' intended and actual observations gave greater attention to teacher actions and decision making than to student learning and thinking. In this paper, we situate demonstration lessons within teacher professional learning models, describe the features of our model, summarise teacher data, and discuss issues arising from our work.

  17. Towards Behaviorally Informed Public Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Olejniczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This article informs readers about the theoretical and practical origins of the behaviorally informed interventions (BIPI, analyzes examples of the BIPI from different policy sectors and strategies they offer for policy and regulatory design, and discusses applications and implications of BIPI for public interventions Methodology: This paper is based on a review of literature, as well as an inspection of administrative practices in OECD countries. It encompasses a systematic analysis of scientific papers fromthe SCOPUS database and a query carried out at the library of George Washington University. Findings: The traditional approach to public policy research is based on rational choice theory. It offers limited support, because by assuming perfect rationality of policy decisions, it overlooks existence of systematic errors and biases of human decision-making. The authors argue that behaviorally informed public interventions (BIPI might contribute to improving the effectiveness of a number of public measures – regulation, projects, programs, and even entire policies. Practical implications: The behavioral approach allows decision-makers to better understand the decisions and behaviors of citizens, as well as to design more effective interventions with minimum effort by adapting the existing solutions to real decision mechanisms of citizens. Originality: By combining the concepts of traditional approach with the growing behavioral approach, the authors aim to propose a new theoretical framework (BIPI to be used as a tool for policy design, delivery and evaluation.

  18. Public support for alcohol policies associated with knowledge of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buykx, Penny; Gilligan, Conor; Ward, Bernadette; Kippen, Rebecca; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-04-01

    Several options are advocated by policy experts to mitigate alcohol-related harms, although the most effective strategies often have the least public support. While knowledge of tobacco-related health risks predicts support for relevant public health measures, it is not known whether knowledge of alcohol health risks is similarly associated with the acceptability of policies intended to reduce alcohol consumption and related harms. This study aims to gauge public support for a range of alcohol policies and to determine whether or not support is associated with knowledge of a long-term health risk of alcohol consumption, specifically cancer. 2482 adults in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, participated in an online survey. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between demographic data, alcohol consumption, smoking status, knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer and support for alcohol-related policies. Most participants were supportive of health warnings, restricting access to internet alcohol advertising to young people, and requiring information on national drinking guidelines on alcohol containers. Almost half of participants supported a ban on sport sponsorship, while less than 41% supported price increases, volumetric taxation, or reducing the number of retail outlets. Only 47% of participants identified drinking too much alcohol as a risk factor for cancer. Knowledge of alcohol as a risk factor for cancer was a significant predictor of support for all policies, while level of alcohol consumption had a significant inverse relationship with policy support. The finding that support for alcohol management policies is associated with awareness that drinking too much alcohol may contribute to cancer could assist in the planning of future public health interventions. Improving awareness of the long term health risks of alcohol consumption may be one avenue to increasing public support for effective alcohol harm-reduction policies

  19. Policy on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This Regulatory Policy Statement describes the policy of the Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) on the decommissioning of those facilities defined as nuclear facilities in the Atomic Energy Control (AEC) Regulations. It is intended as a formal statement, primarily for the information of licensees, or potential licensees, of the regulatory process and requirements generally applicable to the decommissioning of nuclear facilities licensed and regulated by the AECB pursuant to the authority of the AEC Act and Regulations

  20. Long-term intended and unintended experiences after Advanced Life Support training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, M.B.; Dieckmann, Peter; Issenberg, Berry

    2012-01-01

    Highly structured simulation-based training (SBT) on managing emergency situations can have a significant effect on immediate satisfaction and learning. However, there are some indications of problems when applying learned skills to practice. The aim of this study was to identify long-term intended...... and unintended learner reactions, experiences and reflections after attending a simulation based Advanced Life Support (ALS) course....

  1. 21 CFR 1040.20 - Sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended for use in sunlamp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sunlamp products and ultraviolet lamps intended for use in sunlamp products. 1040.20 Section 1040.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... injury and allergic reactions. Repeated exposure may cause premature aging of the skin and skin cancer...

  2. Loss optimizing low power 50 Hz transformers intended for AC/DC standby power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the measured efficiency on selected low power conventional 50 Hz/230 V-AC transformers. The small transformers are intended for use in 1 W@5 V-DC series- or buck-regulated power supplies for standby purposes. The measured efficiency is compared for cheap off-the-self transformer...

  3. 21 CFR 201.310 - Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Phenindione; labeling of drug preparations intended for use by man. 201.310 Section 201.310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Specific Labeling Requirements for Specific Drug Products § 201.310 Phenindione;...

  4. Assessing Students' Opportunity to Learn the Intended Curriculum Using an Online Teacher Log: Initial Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Alexander; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kettler, Ryan J.; Yel, Nedim

    2014-01-01

    This study provides initial evidence supporting intended score interpretations for the purpose of assessing opportunity to learn (OTL) via an online teacher log. MyiLOGS yields 5 scores related to instructional time, content, and quality. Based on data from 46 middle school classes, the evidence indicated that (a) MyiLOGS has high usability, (b)…

  5. 27 CFR 478.148 - Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armor piercing ammunition... AMMUNITION COMMERCE IN FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION Exemptions, Seizures, and Forfeitures § 478.148 Armor piercing ammunition intended for sporting or industrial purposes. The Director may exempt certain armor piercing...

  6. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  7. The Acquisition of Stereochemical Knowledge by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukhechem, Mohamed-Salah; Dumon, Alain; Zouikri, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this work we evaluated the level of difficulty found in learning stereochemistry concepts, by students intending to teach physical sciences at the Ecole Normale Superieure (ENS) Kouba (Algeria). A paper and pencil questionnaire was administered to 170 students to evaluate: their familiarity with Newman representations; their ability of linking…

  8. Conceptual Integration of Hybridization by Algerian Students Intending to Teach Physical Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Hazzi; Dumon, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This work aims to assess the difficulties encountered by students of the Ecole Normale Superieure of Kouba (Algeria) intending to teach physical science in the integration of the hybridization of atomic orbitals. It is a concept that they should use in describing the formation of molecular orbitals ([sigma] and [pi]) in organic chemistry and gaps…

  9. 21 CFR 1010.5 - Exemptions for products intended for United States Government use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that intends to procure or manufacture a product or class of products subject to electronic product... requirements of the applicable standard. (7) An explanation of the advantages to be derived from such deviation... concerning the manufacture, use, control, and disposal of the excess or surplus exempted product of class of...

  10. NREL Carbon Metabolism Modeling Intends to Make Biofuels Engineering Routine and Reliable (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-02-01

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) scientists, supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing (SciDAC) Program, have assembled and simulated a model of key eukaryotic carbon metabolism that intends to move biochemical simulations into new realms of chemical fidelity.

  11. 9 CFR 381.193 - Poultry carcasses, etc., not intended for human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., conventional retail-size containers, and retail-size packages of semi-moist animal food need not be denatured... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry carcasses, etc., not intended for human food. 381.193 Section 381.193 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE...

  12. Examining LGBTQ-Based Literature Intended for Primary and Intermediate Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, John H., III

    2018-01-01

    This content analysis research examined how lesbian, gay, bisexual, transsexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) individuals and issues are represented in elementary-level trade books. The data pool included every LGBTQ-based trade book with intended audiences of primary (grades K-2) and intermediate (grades 3-5) elementary students. Trade books…

  13. A Review of "Intended for Pleasure: Sex Technique and Sexual Fulfillment in Christian Marriage"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    "Intended for Pleasure" presents information regarding sex and sexuality oriented towards Christian couples. Written by a medical doctor with his wife, the book is particularly strong in describing common sexual problems with an additional strength of focusing not only sexual intercourse but also on the whole relationship as being important to…

  14. ANTIMICROBIAL REAGENTS AS FUNCTIONAL FINISHING FOR TEXTILES INTENDED FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS. I. SYNTHETIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madalina Zanoaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article offers an overview of some contemporary antimicrobial (biocides and biostatics agents used as functional finishing for textiles intended for biomedical applications. It reviews only synthetic agents, namely quaternary ammonium compounds, halogenated phenols, polybiguanides, N-halamines, and renewable peroxides, as a part of an extensive study currently in progress.

  15. Anthony Nazombe In this paper, I intend to examine the manner in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, I intend to examine the manner in which the Malawian writer Steve Chimombo has utilized material from Chewa and Mang'anja orature to give structural and thematic unity to his play, The Rainmaker. I shall dwell particularly on the playwright's adaptation of the two main traditions around the M'bona myth.

  16. Influence of Attitudes, Significant Others, and Aspirations on How Adolescents Intend to Resolve a Premarital Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazzell, Jan F.; Acock, Alan C.

    1988-01-01

    Examined how sexually active adolescent women intended to deal with premarital pregnancy and what influenced intentions. Subjects holding positive general attitudes toward abortion showed stronger intentions toward terminating unwanted pregnancy. Abortion attitudes of significant others influenced intentions. More career-oriented subjects…

  17. The Dynamics of Study-Work Choice and Its Effect on Intended and Actual University Attainment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaodong

    2017-01-01

    We study the dynamics of study-work choices of Australian high school students and how these choices affect intended and actual enrolment in universities when they finish their school education. A dynamic random effect multi-equation model is constructed and estimated. We find that study-work choices are state dependent, driven by student…

  18. Prior Knowledge of Target Direction and Intended Movement Selection Improves Indirect Reaching Movement Decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongbao; Hao, Yaoyao; Zhang, Shaomin; Wang, Yiwen; Chen, Weidong; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Previous studies have demonstrated that target direction information presented by the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement planning could be incorporated into neural decoder for achieving better decoding performance. It is still unknown whether the neural decoder combined with only target direction could work in more complex tasks where obstacles impeded direct reaching paths. Methods. In this study, spike activities were collected from the PMd of two monkeys when performing a delayed obstacle-avoidance task. We examined how target direction and intended movement selection were encoded in neuron population activities of the PMd during movement planning. The decoding performances of movement trajectory were compared for three neural decoders with no prior knowledge, or only target direction, or both target direction and intended movement selection integrated into a mixture of trajectory model (MTM). Results. We found that not only target direction but also intended movement selection was presented in neural activities of the PMd during movement planning. It was further confirmed by quantitative analysis. Combined with prior knowledge, the trajectory decoder achieved the best performance among three decoders. Conclusion. Recruiting prior knowledge about target direction and intended movement selection extracted from the PMd could enhance the decoding performance of hand trajectory in indirect reaching movement.

  19. Matching Intended and Actual French Curriculum Objectives in Secondary Schools in Western Province, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omusonga, T. O.; Kazadi, I. M.; Indoshi, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace (Republic of Kenya,…

  20. 30 CFR 75.1907 - Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground coal mines. 75.1907 Section 75.1907 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Diesel-Powered Equipment § 75.1907 Diesel-powered equipment intended for use in underground coal mines. (a) As of...

  1. 9 CFR 590.45 - Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT) Eggs and Egg Products Not Intended for Human Food § 590.45 Prohibition on eggs and egg products not intended for use as human food. (a) No person shall buy, sell, or transport... not intended for use as human food. 590.45 Section 590.45 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND...

  2. 21 CFR 328.50 - Principal display panel of all OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. 328.50 Section 328.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG... OTC drug products intended for oral ingestion that contain alcohol. (a) The amount (percentage) of... contain no alcohol (0 percent). (f) For any OTC drug product intended for oral ingestion containing over 5...

  3. Interventions to address household food insecurity in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loopstra, Rachel

    2018-03-27

    Household food insecurity is a serious public health concern in high-income countries. Canada and the USA regularly monitor household food insecurity, while in other countries, such as the UK, it has been the rapid rise of food bank usage that has drawn increased attention to this longstanding, but largely overlooked, problem. This review evaluates evidence on interventions intended to reduce household food insecurity in high-income countries. Research on social protection interventions suggests both cash transfers and food subsidies (e.g. the US Supplement Nutrition and Assistance Programme) reduce household food insecurity. In contrast, research on community-level interventions, such as food banks and other food programmes, suggests limited impacts. Although food banks have become a common intervention for food insecurity in high-income countries, evidence suggests their reliance on donations of volunteer time and food make them inevitably limited in the assistance they are able to provide. The stigma people feel using food banks may also make them untenable. Alternatives to, or enhanced, food banks such as community shops or community kitchens, have become common, but evidence also suggests they may be limited in effectiveness if they do not reach people experiencing food insecurity. This review highlights the difficulty of trying to address household food insecurity with community-based food interventions when solutions likely lie upstream in social protection policies.

  4. Communication and Inference of Intended Movement Direction during Human-Human Physical Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Keivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Artemiadis, Panagiotis; Santello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Of particular interest to the neuroscience and robotics communities is the understanding of how two humans could physically collaborate to perform motor tasks such as holding a tool or moving it across locations. When two humans physically interact with each other, sensory consequences and motor outcomes are not entirely predictable as they also depend on the other agent's actions. The sensory mechanisms involved in physical interactions are not well understood. The present study was designed (1) to quantify human-human physical interactions where one agent ("follower") has to infer the intended or imagined-but not executed-direction of motion of another agent ("leader") and (2) to reveal the underlying strategies used by the dyad. This study also aimed at verifying the extent to which visual feedback (VF) is necessary for communicating intended movement direction. We found that the control of leader on the relationship between force and motion was a critical factor in conveying his/her intended movement direction to the follower regardless of VF of the grasped handle or the arms. Interestingly, the dyad's ability to communicate and infer movement direction with significant accuracy improved (>83%) after a relatively short amount of practice. These results indicate that the relationship between force and motion (interpreting as arm impedance modulation) may represent an important means for communicating intended movement direction between biological agents, as indicated by the modulation of this relationship to intended direction. Ongoing work is investigating the application of the present findings to optimize communication of high-level movement goals during physical interactions between biological and non-biological agents.

  5. Communication and Inference of Intended Movement Direction during Human–Human Physical Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, Keivan; Whitsell, Bryan; Artemiadis, Panagiotis; Santello, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Of particular interest to the neuroscience and robotics communities is the understanding of how two humans could physically collaborate to perform motor tasks such as holding a tool or moving it across locations. When two humans physically interact with each other, sensory consequences and motor outcomes are not entirely predictable as they also depend on the other agent’s actions. The sensory mechanisms involved in physical interactions are not well understood. The present study was designed (1) to quantify human–human physical interactions where one agent (“follower”) has to infer the intended or imagined—but not executed—direction of motion of another agent (“leader”) and (2) to reveal the underlying strategies used by the dyad. This study also aimed at verifying the extent to which visual feedback (VF) is necessary for communicating intended movement direction. We found that the control of leader on the relationship between force and motion was a critical factor in conveying his/her intended movement direction to the follower regardless of VF of the grasped handle or the arms. Interestingly, the dyad’s ability to communicate and infer movement direction with significant accuracy improved (>83%) after a relatively short amount of practice. These results indicate that the relationship between force and motion (interpreting as arm impedance modulation) may represent an important means for communicating intended movement direction between biological agents, as indicated by the modulation of this relationship to intended direction. Ongoing work is investigating the application of the present findings to optimize communication of high-level movement goals during physical interactions between biological and non-biological agents. PMID:28450834

  6. STD Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of STD prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a non-systematic review of policy evidence for sexually transmitted disease prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact...

  7. O processo de produção normativa tributária infralegal como instrumento de intervenção regulatória: mecanismos e impactos/Tax regulatory process in Brazil as public policy intervention tool: Its mechanisms and impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Cardoso Leite

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article aims to provide an inicial analysis of the regulation process in the current Brazilian tax environment. It also intends to investigate whether those tax administrative regulations have their guidelines extracted from a legal-procedural theory that allows them to be clear, simple and trusty on their rulemaking process. Methodology/approach/design – The text adopts as methodological approach the regulatory administrative procedure that is actually applied by Brazil’s Revenue Service (Portuguese acronym: SRF, Foreign Trade Chamber (Portuguese acronym: Camex, National Committee on Revenue Policy (Portuguese acronym: Confaz, and Revenue Appeal Chamber (Portuguese acronym: Carf, considered the regulatory influence and the economic consequences that they entail. As a guideline to this text, some theoretical assumptions needs to be made on public choice and public interest theories, based on Steven P. Croley criticism, and on legal analysis of economic policy developed by Marcus Faro de Castro. Findings – Debates on proposed reforms of Brazil’s tax system have brought about concerns related to excessive amount of regulations, leading to lack of perception of safety, clarity and confidence in the national legal environment. Practical implications – It provides basic guidelines to developing a regulatory rulemaking process focused on taxation. Originality/value – This article fosters the debate on the Brazilian tax system simplification, transparency, and publicity, focusing on regulatory rulemaking process and on social participating at the discussion agenda about tax public policies and regulation.

  8. European energy policy and Italian industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinale, A.; Verdelli, A.

    2008-01-01

    The competitiveness of the Italian industry is very sensitive to the rising costs of energy. The European energy policy, if intended as an additional constraint, could deteriorate the situation. It could be, however, a good opportunity for the Italian industry to become more independent from fossil fuels, through an innovatory project at country level [it

  9. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  10. SECURITY POLICIES APPROACHED BY VALUE ANALYSIS CONCEPTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Varlanuta

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to redefine the role of the end users of the Internet facilities, in the process of creation of more secure transactions on the Internet, in respect of their privacy. In this context, the purpose is to introduce the use of end user (customer value concept in the process of Security policy framework design.

  11. Evidence-based policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    2013-01-01

    A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy-makers and the re......A current ambition in welfare states as diverse as Denmark, the UK, and in the USA is to base political decision making on rigorous research (Cartwright et al 2009; Mulgan 2009; Bason 2010). Sound as this might seem the ambition has nevertheless been problematized by both policy......-makers and the research community (e.g. Boden & Epstein 2006; House of Commons 2006; Cartwright et al 2009; Rod 2010; Vohnsen 2011). This article intends to draw out some general pitfalls in the curious meeting of science and politics by focusing on a particular attempt to make evidence-based legislation in Denmark (for...... a full account, see Vohnsen 2011). These insights will be relevant for the anthropological researcher of legislative processes who wishes to move beyond a merely discursive approach to the study of policy and politics....

  12. Improving diabetes medication adherence: successful, scalable interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zullig LL

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leah L Zullig,1,2 Walid F Gellad,3,4 Jivan Moaddeb,2,5 Matthew J Crowley,1,2 William Shrank,6 Bradi B Granger,7 Christopher B Granger,8 Troy Trygstad,9 Larry Z Liu,10 Hayden B Bosworth1,2,7,11 1Center for Health Services Research in Primary Care, Durham Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 3Center for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Pittsburgh Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Institute for Genome Sciences and Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 6CVS Caremark Corporation; 7School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 8Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA; 9North Carolina Community Care Networks, Raleigh, NC, USA; 10Pfizer, Inc., and Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York, NY, USA; 11Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA Abstract: Effective medications are a cornerstone of prevention and disease treatment, yet only about half of patients take their medications as prescribed, resulting in a common and costly public health challenge for the US healthcare system. Since poor medication adherence is a complex problem with many contributing causes, there is no one universal solution. This paper describes interventions that were not only effective in improving medication adherence among patients with diabetes, but were also potentially scalable (ie, easy to implement to a large population. We identify key characteristics that make these interventions effective and scalable. This information is intended to inform healthcare systems seeking proven, low resource, cost-effective solutions to improve medication adherence. Keywords: medication adherence, diabetes mellitus, chronic disease, dissemination research

  13. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  14. Towards an integrated analytical framework of information and communications technology literacy: from intended to implemented and achieved dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Markauskaite

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Theoretical approaches and frameworks that help us to understand the contemporary notion of information and communication technology (ICT literacy in the formal education sector are reviewed and examined. Method. The analysis is conducted from a technology (i.e., computer science conceptual perspective. The focus is on those aspects of new literacies that are directly related to the use of ICT. Structured literature review and documentary research techniques are applied. Analysis. Relationships between ICT literacy, information literacy, media literacy and other new literacies are clarified. Important terms - 'ICT', 'literacy' and 'ICT literacy' - are discussed. An analytical framework for the investigation of contemporary understandings of ICT literacy is presented. Three analytical dimensions of ICT literacy - (1 intended, (2 implemented and (3 achieved - are employed in this framework. The main perspectives and structural approaches that can be applied for the examination of ICT literacy in each of these three dimensions are discussed. Results. The proposed analytical framework reveals links between (1 the conceptual approaches and initial aims of ICT literacy policies, proposed at the top-level of policymaking; (2 teaching and learning practices, implemented at the middle-level of educational system and (3 ICT literacy learning experiences and students' outcomes, expected at the base-level of educational system. Conclusion. . It is argued that this analytical framework can be applied for an integrated analysis of ICT literacy. The framework provides a conceptual structure for discovering inconsistencies in the understanding of ICT literacy at various levels of educational systems.

  15. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  16. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  17. Biotechnology and Innovation Systems: The Role of Public Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-02-29

    Feb 29, 2012 ... This book explores how policies targeting public research institutions, such as universities, contribute to the appropriation of biotechnology through national innovation systems. Around the world, biotechnology has become a driving force for dramatic change in systems and policies intended to spur ...

  18. The Impact of Zero Tolerance Policy on Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnaim, Mariam

    2018-01-01

    The Zero Tolerance policy was intended to eliminate learners who are a danger to a learning institution (Henson, 2012). The development of this policy was to assist schools with better policing approaches of students conducts by employing tough disciplinary action and subsequently provide a safer learning environment. While the Zero Tolerance…

  19. Policy conflicts : Market-oriented reform in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfsma, W.A.; Mcmaster, R.

    From an institutionalist perspective, we identify five sources of policy conflict. Each may explain why policies intended to obtain particular goals for an institutionalized practice may have unintended consequences. We illustrate by analyzing attempts at introducing market-oriented reform in health

  20. The intended and unintended consequences of communication systems on general internal medicine inpatient care delivery: a prospective observational case study of five teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Robert C; Lo, Vivian; Morra, Dante; Wong, Brian M; Sargeant, Robert; Locke, Ken; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Quan, Sherman D; Rossos, Peter; Tran, Kim; Cheung, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Effective clinical communication is critical to providing high-quality patient care. Hospitals have used different types of interventions to improve communication between care teams, but there have been few studies of their effectiveness. To describe the effects of different communication interventions and their problems. Prospective observational case study using a mixed methods approach of quantitative and qualitative methods. General internal medicine (GIM) inpatient wards at five tertiary care academic teaching hospitals. Clinicians consisting of residents, attending physicians, nurses, and allied health (AH) staff working on the GIM wards. Ethnographic methods and interviews with clinical staff (doctors, nurses, medical students, and AH professionals) were conducted over a 16-month period from 2009 to 2010. We identified four categories that described the intended and unintended consequences of communication interventions: impacts on senders, receivers, interprofessional collaboration, and the use of informal communication processes. The use of alphanumeric pagers, smartphones, and web-based communication systems had positive effects for senders and receivers, but unintended consequences were seen with all interventions in all four categories. Interventions that aimed to improve clinical communications solved some but not all problems, and unintended effects were seen with all systems.

  1. Weed problem on the newly established prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata plantations intended for energetic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SEKUTOWSKI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In our research conducted in years 2009-2011 three herbicides were examined in the respect of their usefulness at the plantation of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata intended for energetic purposes. In the light of the conducted observations, it seems that selectivity of particular herbicides for prairie cordgrass plants and their effectiveness on particular weed species depend mainly on the growing phase of the plants as well as on particular weed species.

  2. Weed problem on the newly established prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata plantations intended for energetic purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz SEKUTOWSKI

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In our research conducted in years 2009-2011 three herbicides were examined in the respect of their usefulness at the plantation of prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata intended for energetic purposes. In the light of the conducted observations, it seems that selectivity of particular herbicides for prairie cordgrass plants and their effectiveness on particular weed species depend mainly on the growing phase of the plants as well as on particular weed species.

  3. Intended Use of Proceeds and the Performance of Initial Public Offerings (IPO)

    OpenAIRE

    Adanan Siti Azrina; Sani A’ieshah Abdullah; Bustamam Khair Syakira; Saidin Amilia

    2017-01-01

    Other than debt financing, Initial Public Offerings (IPO) become a common method of capital raising among firms for various purposes. Prospectus is issued on the pre-issuance of the IPO disclosing various mandatory and non-mandatory voluntary information to help the potential investors in their decision making process. Other than financial information on previous and forecasted future performance, the intended use of the IPO’s proceeds information is one of the crucial information for the sta...

  4. Childhood adversity accelerates intended reproductive timing in adolescent girls without increasing interest in infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Clutterbuck

    Full Text Available Women experiencing greater childhood adversity exhibit faster reproductive trajectories. One possible psychological mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an increased interest in infants. Interest in infants is thought to be an adaptation important for successful rearing as it motivates the acquisition of caretaking skills. We investigated the relationships between childhood adversity, intended reproductive timing and interest in infants in a sample of English adolescent girls. Specifically we sought to investigate the relationship between 1 childhood adversity and intended reproductive timing; 2 childhood adversity and interest in infants; and 3 intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. Additionally we explored different methods of measuring interest in infants using self-reported fondness for babies, a forced choice adult versus infant paper-based preference task and a novel computer based attention task using adult and infant stimuli. In total 357 girls aged nine to 14 years participated in the study, which took place in schools. Participants completed the two interest in infants tasks before moving on to a childhood adversity questionnaire. Girls with more childhood adversity reported earlier ideal ages at parenthood. We found some evidence that, contrary to our predictions, girls with less childhood adversity were more interested in infants. There was no relationship between intended reproductive timing and interest in infants. The different measurements for interest in infants were only weakly related, if at all, highlighting the complexity of measuring this construct. Our findings suggest that rather than interest in infants being a mechanism for the effect of childhood adversity on early reproductive timing it might instead be an indicator of future reproductive strategies.

  5. Smorgasbord or symphony? Assessing public health nutrition policies across 30 European countries using a novel framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Williams, Ffion; Bromley, Helen; Orton, Lois; Hawkes, Corinna; Taylor-Robinson, David; O'Flaherty, Martin; McGill, Rory; Anwar, Elspeth; Hyseni, Lirije; Moonan, May; Rayner, Mike; Capewell, Simon

    2014-11-21

    Countries across Europe have introduced a wide variety of policies to improve nutrition. However, the sheer diversity of interventions represents a potentially bewildering smorgasbord. We aimed to map existing public health nutrition policies, and examine their perceived effectiveness, in order to inform future evidence-based diet strategies. We created a public health nutrition policy database for 30 European countries. National nutrition policies were classified and assigned using the marketing "4 Ps" approach Product (reformulation, elimination, new healthier products); Price (taxes, subsidies); Promotion (advertising, food labelling, health education) and Place (schools, workplaces, etc.). We interviewed 71 senior policy-makers, public health nutrition policy experts and academics from 14 of the 30 countries, eliciting their views on diverse current and possible nutrition strategies. Product Voluntary reformulation of foods is widespread but has variable and often modest impact. Twelve countries regulate maximum salt content in specific foods. Denmark, Austria, Iceland and Switzerland have effective trans fats bans. Price EU School Fruit Scheme subsidies are almost universal, but with variable implementation.Taxes are uncommon. However, Finland, France, Hungary and Latvia have implemented 'sugar taxes' on sugary foods and sugar-sweetened beverages. Finland, Hungary and Portugal also tax salty products. Promotion Dialogue, recommendations, nutrition guidelines, labelling, information and education campaigns are widespread. Restrictions on marketing to children are widespread but mostly voluntary. Place Interventions reducing the availability of unhealthy foods were most commonly found in schools and workplace canteens. Interviewees generally considered mandatory reformulation more effective than voluntary, and regulation and fiscal interventions much more effective than information strategies, but also politically more challenging. Public health nutrition

  6. University Students Intend to Eat Better but Lack Coping Self-Efficacy and Knowledge of Dietary Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, June I; Doerr, Lisa; Dworatzek, Paula D N

    2016-01-01

    To assess university students' knowledge, intentions, and coping self-efficacy related to dietary recommendations. The study used a cross-sectional online survey. Large university campus. Students (n = 6,638; 22% response). Self-efficacy and intentions were measured using 11-point scales. Students' perceived dietary recommendations were evaluated as correct or incorrect. Categorical variables were analyzed using chi-square and continuous variables by t tests or ANOVAs. Significance was set at P ≤ .05 and multiple comparisons at P ≤ .01. Respondents believed that they need fewer vegetables and fruit and more milk or alternatives servings/d than recommended; eg, males aged ≥ 19 years perceived milk or alternatives recommendations to be 4.3 ± 2.1 servings/d, significantly more than the 2 servings/d recommended (P Students in health sciences or with a food or nutrition course were significantly more likely to claim that they met recommendations (eg, 56% with vs 47% without a food or nutrition course for vegetables and fruit; P self-efficacy than females aged Students do not have adequate knowledge of age- and sex-specific food guide recommendations. Simpler food guide recommendations or age- and sex-targeted campaigns may enhance knowledge. Students intend to consume more vegetables and less HCFB; however, they have low coping self-efficacy, all of which could be targeted in nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Improving brain-machine interface performance by decoding intended future movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Francis R.; Suminski, Aaron J.; Fagg, Andrew H.; Hatsopoulos, Nicholas G.

    2013-04-01

    Objective. A brain-machine interface (BMI) records neural signals in real time from a subject's brain, interprets them as motor commands, and reroutes them to a device such as a robotic arm, so as to restore lost motor function. Our objective here is to improve BMI performance by minimizing the deleterious effects of delay in the BMI control loop. We mitigate the effects of delay by decoding the subject's intended movements a short time lead in the future. Approach. We use the decoded, intended future movements of the subject as the control signal that drives the movement of our BMI. This should allow the user's intended trajectory to be implemented more quickly by the BMI, reducing the amount of delay in the system. In our experiment, a monkey (Macaca mulatta) uses a future prediction BMI to control a simulated arm to hit targets on a screen. Main Results. Results from experiments with BMIs possessing different system delays (100, 200 and 300 ms) show that the monkey can make significantly straighter, faster and smoother movements when the decoder predicts the user's future intent. We also characterize how BMI performance changes as a function of delay, and explore offline how the accuracy of future prediction decoders varies at different time leads. Significance. This study is the first to characterize the effects of control delays in a BMI and to show that decoding the user's future intent can compensate for the negative effect of control delay on BMI performance.

  8. Processing of intended and unintended strategic issues and integration into the strategic agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridder, Hans-Gerd; Schrader, Jan Simon

    2017-11-01

    Strategic change is needed in hospitals due to external and internal pressures. However, research on strategic change, as a combination of management and medical expertise in hospitals, remains scarce. We analyze how intended strategic issues are processed into deliberate strategies and how unintended strategic issues are processed into emergent strategies in the management of strategy formation in hospitals. This study empirically investigates the integration of medical and management expertise in strategy formation. The longitudinal character of the case study enabled us to track patterns of intended and unintended strategic issues over 2 years. We triangulated data from interviews, observations, and documents. In accordance with the quality standards of qualitative research procedures, we analyzed the data by pattern matching and provided analytical generalization regarding strategy formation in hospitals. Our findings suggest that strategic issues are particularly successful within the strategy formation process if interest groups are concerned with the strategic issue, prospective profits are estimated, and relevant decisions makers are involved early on. Structure and interaction processes require clear criteria and transparent procedures for effective strategy formation. There is systematic neglect of medical expertise in processes of generating strategies. Our study reveals that the decentralized structure of medical centers is an adequate template for both the operationalization of intended strategic issues and the development of unintended strategic issues. However, tasks, roles, responsibility, resources, and administrative support are necessary for effective management of strategy formation. Similarly, criteria, procedures, and decision-making are prerequisites for effective strategy formation.

  9. Effect evaluation of a two-year complex intervention to reduce loneliness in non-institutionalised elderly Dutch people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honigh-de Vlaming, R.; Haveman-Nies, A.; Heinrich, J.; Veer, van 't P.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Public health policy calls for intervention programmes to reduce loneliness in the ageing population. So far, numerous loneliness interventions have been developed, with effectiveness demonstrated for few of these interventions. The loneliness intervention described in this manuscript

  10. Travelling Policy Reforms Reconfiguring the Work of Early Childhood Educators in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttall, Joce; Thomas, Louise; Wood, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Interventions in the field of early childhood education policy, drawn from global policy flows, are reconfiguring the work of early childhood educators in Australia. One such intervention is the requirement to designate an "educational leader" (EL) in each service for young children and their families. This policy intervention has its…

  11. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  12. An exploratory study to examine intentions to adopt an evidence-based HIV linkage-to-care intervention among state health department AIDS directors in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton Wynne E

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Widespread dissemination and implementation of evidence-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV linkage-to-care (LTC interventions is essential for improving HIV-positive patients' health outcomes and reducing transmission to uninfected others. To date, however, little work has focused on identifying factors associated with intentions to adopt LTC interventions among policy makers, including city, state, and territory health department AIDS directors who play a critical role in deciding whether an intervention is endorsed, distributed, and/or funded throughout their region. Methods Between December 2010 and February 2011, we administered an online questionnaire with state, territory, and city health department AIDS directors throughout the United States to identify factors associated with intentions to adopt an LTC intervention. Guided by pertinent theoretical frameworks, including the Diffusion of Innovations and the "push-pull" capacity model, we assessed participants' attitudes towards the intervention, perceived organizational and contextual demand and support for the intervention, likelihood of adoption given endorsement from stakeholder groups (e.g., academic researchers, federal agencies, activist organizations, and likelihood of enabling future dissemination efforts by recommending the intervention to other health departments and community-based organizations. Results Forty-four participants (67% of the eligible sample completed the online questionnaire. Approximately one-third (34.9% reported that they intended to adopt the LTC intervention for use in their city, state, or territory in the future. Consistent with prior, related work, these participants were classified as LTC intervention "adopters" and were compared to "nonadopters" for data analysis. Overall, adopters reported more positive attitudes and greater perceived demand and support for the intervention than did nonadopters. Further, participants varied with

  13. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  14. The importance of learning when supporting emergent technologies for energy efficiency-A case study on policy intervention for learning for the development of energy efficient windows in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, Bernadett; Neij, Lena

    2011-01-01

    The role of policy instruments to promote the development and diffusion of energy efficient technologies has been repeatedly accentuated in the context of climate change and sustainable development. To better understand the impact of policy instruments and to provide insights into technology change, assessments of various kinds are needed. This study analyzes the introduction and development of energy efficient windows in Sweden and the policy incentives applied to support this process. The study focuses on the assessment of technology and market development of energy efficient windows in Sweden; and by applying the concept of learning, it assesses how conditions for learning-by-searching, learning-by-doing, learning-by-using and learning-by-interacting have been supported by different policies. The results show successful progress in technology development and an improvement in best available technology of Swedish windows from 1.8 W/m 2 K in the 1970s to 0.7 W/m 2 K in 2010; in the same time period the market share of energy efficient windows increased from 20% in 1970 (average U-value of 2.0 W/m 2 K) to 80-85% in 2010 (average U-value of 1.3-1.2 W/m 2 K). The assessment shows that various policy instruments have facilitated all four learning processes resulting in the acknowledged slow but successful development of energy efficient windows. - Highlights: → Policy instruments for learning and technology change are assessed. → The development and diffusion of energy efficient windows (EEWs) in Sweden is taken as showcase. → Learning has been supported by various policies resulting in successful development of EEWs. → The thermal performance of EEWs improved with 2/3 and their market share increased by 3/5 in 40 years. → Main policies for learning are RD and D, technology procurement, testing and voluntary initiatives.

  15. Interest Rate Dynamics and Monetary Policy Implementation in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Puriya Abbassi; Dieter Nautz; Christian Offermanns

    2010-01-01

    The maturity of the operational target of monetary policy is a distinguishing feature of the SNB's operational framework of monetary policy. While most central banks use targets for the overnight rate to signal the policy-intended interest rate level, the SNB announces a target range for the three-month Libor. This paper investigates the working and the consequences of the SNB's unique operational framework for the behavior of Swiss money market rates before and during the financial crisis.

  16. Integration of targeted health interventions into health systems: a conceptual framework for analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; de Jongh, Thyra; Secci, Federica; Ohiri, Kelechi; Adeyi, Olusoji

    2010-03-01

    The benefits of integrating programmes that emphasize specific interventions into health systems to improve health outcomes have been widely debated. This debate has been driven by narrow binary considerations of integrated (horizontal) versus non-integrated (vertical) programmes, and characterized by polarization of views with protagonists for and against integration arguing the relative merits of each approach. The presence of both integrated and non-integrated programmes in many countries suggests benefits to each approach. While the terms 'vertical' and 'integrated' are widely used, they each describe a range of phenomena. In practice the dichotomy between vertical and horizontal is not rigid and the extent of verticality or integration varies between programmes. However, systematic analysis of the relative merits of integration in various contexts and for different interventions is complicated as there is no commonly accepted definition of 'integration'-a term loosely used to describe a variety of organizational arrangements for a range of programmes in different settings. We present an analytical framework which enables deconstruction of the term integration into multiple facets, each corresponding to a critical health system function. Our conceptual framework builds on theoretical propositions and empirical research in innovation studies, and in particular adoption and diffusion of innovations within health systems, and builds on our own earlier empirical research. It brings together the critical elements that affect adoption, diffusion and assimilation of a health intervention, and in doing so enables systematic and holistic exploration of the extent to which different interventions are integrated in varied settings and the reasons for the variation. The conceptual framework and the analytical approach we propose are intended to facilitate analysis in evaluative and formative studies of-and policies on-integration, for use in systematically comparing and

  17. Classification schemes for knowledge translation interventions: a practical resource for researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E. Slaughter

    2017-12-01

    -five classification schemes had broad applicability, six were specific, and four had elements of both. Twenty-three schemes targeted health providers, nine targeted both patients and providers and one targeted policy-makers. Most classification schemes were intended for implementation rather than dissemination. Conclusions Thirty-five classification schemes of KT interventions were developed and reported with sufficient rigour to be recommended for use by researchers interested in KT in healthcare. Our additional categorization and quality analysis will aid in selecting suitable classification schemes for research initiatives in the field of implementation science.

  18. Neonatal morbidity after spontaneous labor onset prior to intended cesarean delivery at term: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavind, Julie; Milidou, Ioanna; Uldbjerg, Niels; Maimburg, Rikke; Henriksen, Tine B

    2017-04-01

    We aimed to investigate if labor onset before planned cesarean delivery (CD) affects the risk of neonatal admission, respiratory distress, or neonatal infectious morbidity. Our cohort included singleton term pregnant women with intended CD who delivered at Aarhus University Hospital from 1990 to 2012. Two groups of women were identified: women with intended CD performed before labor (nonlabor CD) and women with intended CD performed after spontaneous labor onset (labor-onset CD); in both groups there was no other maternal or fetal medical indication for an immediate CD or for early-term CD scheduling. Data were stratified in early-term (37-38 weeks) and full-term (39-40 weeks) deliveries. The main outcome measures were neonatal admission, respiratory distress and neonatal infectious morbidity. Among 103 919 live births, 5071 deliveries were nonlabor CDs and 731 were labor-onset CDs. Compared to nonlabor CD, labor-onset CD was associated with similar risks of neonatal admission and respiratory distress, both at early and full term, but with a two- to three-fold increased risk of newborn septicemia or antibiotic treatment at early term. Labor onset at early term was associated with a lower risk of maternal blood loss of more than 500 mL, but with a higher risk of postoperative antibiotic treatment and endometritis. Labor onset before planned CD was not associated with a decrease in neonatal respiratory morbidity, but may be associated with increased risks of neonatal infection. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  19. Renewable energies and public policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochet, Y.; Pierret, Ch.; Lienemann, M.N.

    2002-04-01

    This document presents the interventions of political personalities on the topic of the renewable energies development policies and the necessity of financial incentives which have been discussed during the colloquium of thursday 4 april 2002 at Paris. (A.L.B.)

  20. Health Policy and Research Organizations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    gprudhomme

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... themes: • high impact community based maternal, newborn and ... demonstrate willingness and capacity to expand their work in all the .... interventions. This is the focus of a separate call on Implementation Research. Teams. The Health Policy and Research Organizations call is based on the premise that.

  1. Intervention Targets for Youth with Disabilities in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwick, Robin; Tyre, Ashli; Beisse, Kay; Thomas, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    This article will focus on students with disabilities in foster care to help school psychologists identify effective school-based interventions for these students. We will report our findings from three independent studies and then apply the findings to suggest targeted interventions for these students that are intended to improve educational and…

  2. Modeling the degradation of a metallic waste form intended for geologic disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, T.H.; Morris, E.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear reactors operating with metallic fuels have led to development of robust metallic waste forms intended to immobilize hazardous constituents in oxidizing environments. Release data from a wide range of tests where small waste form samples have been immersed in a variety of oxidizing solutions have been analyzed and fit to a mechanistically-derived 'logarithmic growth' form for waste form degradation. A bounding model is described which plausibly extrapolates these fits to long-term degradation in a geologic repository. The resulting empirically-fit degradation model includes dependence on solution pH, temperature, and chloride concentration as well as plausible estimates of statistical uncertainty. (authors)

  3. A color display device recording X ray spectra, especially intended for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulch, J.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a color display recording device for X ray spectra intended for medical radiography. The video signal of the X ray camera receiving the radiation having passed through the patient is amplified and transformed into a color coding according to the energy spectrum received by the camera. In a first version, the energy spectrum from the camera gives directly an image on the color tube. In a second version the energy spectrum, after having been transformed into digital signals, is first sent into a memory, then into a computer used as a spectrum analyzer, and finally into the color display device [fr

  4. 77 FR 62269 - Draft Tribal Protocol Manual and Scoping for Proposed Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ... intended to assist the NRC in developing an effective tribal consultation policy statement. III. Questions... it as a starting point for developing a policy statement on consultation with Native American tribes... policies and licensing actions, and therefore is committed to meaningful consultation and coordination with...

  5. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanya, Richard E; Tumwesige, Edward; Elliott, Alison M; Seeley, Janet

    2017-10-01

    Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities. In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach. Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  6. Perceptions about interventions to control schistosomiasis among the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E Sanya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Praziquantel-based mass treatment is the main approach to controlling schistosomiasis mansoni in endemic areas. Interventions such as provision and use of safe water, minimising contact with infested water, disposal of stool in latrines and snail control provide key avenues to break the transmission cycle and can sustain the benefits of mass treatment in the long term. Efforts are also being made to develop a schistosomiasis vaccine which, if effective, might reduce the incidence of re-infection after treatment. However, any interventions deployed need to be acceptable to, and sustainable by, the target communities.In this qualitative study, we investigated the perceptions of six Lake Victoria island communities of Koome, Uganda, about interventions to control Schistosoma mansoni infection and their willingness to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials. Thirty-two in-depth interviews, 12 key informant interviews and 10 focus group discussions were conducted. Data were analysed using a thematic content approach.Intestinal schistosomiasis was not regarded as a serious health problem because a mass treatment programme is in place. However, the communities lack safe water sources and latrines. Mass treatment with praziquantel, safe water supplies and use of toilets were deemed the most acceptable interventions by the participants. The communities are willing to participate in Schistosoma vaccine trials.Knowledge of a community's perception about interventions to control schistosomiasis can be valuable to policy makers and programme implementers intending to set up interventions co-managed by the community members. In this study, the views of the Lake Victoria island communities of Koome are presented. This study also provides data to guide further work on alternative interventions such as Schistosoma vaccine trials in these communities.

  7. From policy to reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia; Reventlow, Susanne; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh

    2016-01-01

    visitors and which complicate implementation of the policies of the Danish health authorities. Findings show that the current system is not well equipped to treat early overweight. A gap in primary preventive health care for children at age 3–5, indistinct lines of responsibility, inadequate cooperation......, and lack of resources together make it difficult for health care professionals to initiate interventions and reach the children in need of support. By analyzing the policy implementation process in a theoretical framework that discloses the discursive allocation of responsibilities, the study is able...... to provide a deeper description and analysis of the problem. The study makes it clear how preventive health care for overweight children rests on the negotiation of formal and performed responsibilities among health practitioners within a framework of scarce resources and communication deficit....

  8. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation’s effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that

  9. Social Media as a Catalyst for Policy Action and Social Change for Health and Well-Being: Viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Douglas

    2018-03-19

    This viewpoint paper argues that policy interventions can benefit from the continued use of social media analytics, which can serve as an important complement to traditional social science data collection and analysis. Efforts to improve well-being should provide an opportunity to explore these areas more deeply, and encourage the efforts of those conducting national and local data collection on health to incorporate more of these emerging data sources. Social media remains a relatively untapped source of information to catalyze policy action and social change. However, the diversity of social media platforms and available analysis techniques provides multiple ways to offer insight for policy making and decision making. For instance, social media content can provide timely information about the impact of policy interventions. Social media location information can inform where to deploy resources or disseminate public messaging. Network analysis of social media connections can reveal underserved populations who may be disconnected from public services. Machine learning can help recognize important patterns for disease surveillance or to model population sentiment. To fully realize these potential policy uses, limitations to social media data will need to be overcome, including data reliability and validity, and potential privacy risks. Traditional data collection may not fully capture the upstream factors and systemic relationships that influence health and well-being. Policy actions and social change efforts, such as the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's effort to advance a culture of health, which are intended to drive change in a network of upstream health drivers, will need to incorporate a broad range of behavioral information, such as health attitudes or physical activity levels. Applying innovative techniques to emerging data has the potential to extract insight from unstructured data or fuse disparate sources of data, such as linking health attitudes that are

  10. Interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, B.A.; Quint, D.J.; Sanders, W.P.; Patel, S.C.; Boulos, R.S.; Burke, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    This presentation reviews the authors' angiographic approach to interventional cases and demonstrates examples of procedures we have performed including preoperative embolizations (dural, arteriovenous malformations, meningioma, juvenile angiofibroma, gliosarcoma, glomus tympanicum, hemangiopericytoma, and spinal hemangioma), therapeutic interventions (balloon occlusion of cavernous-carotid and vertebral fistulas, intracranial and extracranial aneurysms, and angioplasty of vertebral, external carotid, and subclavian arteries), and pain management (alcohol injection of spine metastases). Potential and actual complications are reviewed

  11. Policies to promote healthy eating in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Macias, José Brambila

    2012-01-01

    This review provides a classification of public policies to promote healthier eating and a structured mapping of existing measures in Europe. Complete coverage of alternative policy types was ensured by complementing the review with a selection of major interventions from outside Europe. Within...

  12. Decoding of intended saccade direction in an oculomotor brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Nan; Brincat, Scott L.; Salazar-Gómez, Andrés F.; Panko, Mikhail; Guenther, Frank H.; Miller, Earl K.

    2017-08-01

    Objective. To date, invasive brain-computer interface (BCI) research has largely focused on replacing lost limb functions using signals from the hand/arm areas of motor cortex. However, the oculomotor system may be better suited to BCI applications involving rapid serial selection from spatial targets, such as choosing from a set of possible words displayed on a computer screen in an augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) application. Here we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of a BCI utilizing the oculomotor system. Approach. We developed a chronic intracortical BCI in monkeys to decode intended saccadic eye movement direction using activity from multiple frontal cortical areas. Main results. Intended saccade direction could be decoded in real time with high accuracy, particularly at contralateral locations. Accurate decoding was evident even at the beginning of the BCI session; no extensive BCI experience was necessary. High-frequency (80-500 Hz) local field potential magnitude provided the best performance, even over spiking activity, thus simplifying future BCI applications. Most of the information came from the frontal and supplementary eye fields, with relatively little contribution from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Significance. Our results support the feasibility of high-accuracy intracortical oculomotor BCIs that require little or no practice to operate and may be ideally suited for ‘point and click’ computer operation as used in most current AAC systems.

  13. Intended Use of Proceeds and the Performance of Initial Public Offerings (IPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adanan Siti Azrina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Other than debt financing, Initial Public Offerings (IPO become a common method of capital raising among firms for various purposes. Prospectus is issued on the pre-issuance of the IPO disclosing various mandatory and non-mandatory voluntary information to help the potential investors in their decision making process. Other than financial information on previous and forecasted future performance, the intended use of the IPO’s proceeds information is one of the crucial information for the stakeholders especially the investors as they will be the financial contributor for the purposes. In one hand, the issuers may decide to issue highly priced IPO to fulfil their financial needs and other going-public motives. In the other hand, the investors willing to subscribe for the IPO to meet their investment target. The gap between the objectives of these two main stakeholders create uncertainties that may jeopardize the interest of the investors. Thus, the objective of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the intended uses of the IPO’s proceed disclosed in the prospectus and their subsequent performance of the stocks. The result of the study can provide input for the investors and other stakeholders for their decision making process to meet their respective objectives.

  14. Universal compact lower limb turning module intended for use in orthotic robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janowski Mateusz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a model of an orthotic robot’s lower limb rotation system is presented. The system is intended for use in typical contemporary orthotic robots such as the ‘Veni-Prometheus’ System for Verticalization and Aiding Motion designed at the Faculty of Mechatronics, Warsaw University of Technology. In the paper, the state of the art is briefly stated, with the relatively low number of orthotic robots allowing realization of pivoting turns highlighted. The intended two-stage pivoting turning movement is analyzed in detail and the operating conditions as well as limitations of the turning module are indicated. The conception of a turning module introduces additional degree of freedom to the existing orthotic robot designs by realizing the rotation about the lengthwise axis in the thigh link. A three-dimensional model and its analysis are shown. The proposed design ensures the necessary movement of the lower limb and the torso of an impaired person during the execution of pivoting turn while remaining compact in order to ease the introduction of the turning system to different orthotic robot designs.

  15. A morphometric assessment of the intended function of cached Clovis points.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briggs Buchanan

    Full Text Available A number of functions have been proposed for cached Clovis points. The least complicated hypothesis is that they were intended to arm hunting weapons. It has also been argued that they were produced for use in rituals or in connection with costly signaling displays. Lastly, it has been suggested that some cached Clovis points may have been used as saws. Here we report a study in which we morphometrically compared Clovis points from caches with Clovis points recovered from kill and camp sites to test two predictions of the hypothesis that cached Clovis points were intended to arm hunting weapons: 1 cached points should be the same shape as, but generally larger than, points from kill/camp sites, and 2 cached points and points from kill/camp sites should follow the same allometric trajectory. The results of the analyses are consistent with both predictions and therefore support the hypothesis. A follow-up review of the fit between the results of the analyses and the predictions of the other hypotheses indicates that the analyses support only the hunting equipment hypothesis. We conclude from this that cached Clovis points were likely produced with the intention of using them to arm hunting weapons.

  16. A morphometric assessment of the intended function of cached Clovis points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Briggs; Kilby, J David; Huckell, Bruce B; O'Brien, Michael J; Collard, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A number of functions have been proposed for cached Clovis points. The least complicated hypothesis is that they were intended to arm hunting weapons. It has also been argued that they were produced for use in rituals or in connection with costly signaling displays. Lastly, it has been suggested that some cached Clovis points may have been used as saws. Here we report a study in which we morphometrically compared Clovis points from caches with Clovis points recovered from kill and camp sites to test two predictions of the hypothesis that cached Clovis points were intended to arm hunting weapons: 1) cached points should be the same shape as, but generally larger than, points from kill/camp sites, and 2) cached points and points from kill/camp sites should follow the same allometric trajectory. The results of the analyses are consistent with both predictions and therefore support the hypothesis. A follow-up review of the fit between the results of the analyses and the predictions of the other hypotheses indicates that the analyses support only the hunting equipment hypothesis. We conclude from this that cached Clovis points were likely produced with the intention of using them to arm hunting weapons.

  17. Fluid Biomarkers of Traumatic Brain Injury and Intended Context of Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Bogoslovsky

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death and disability around the world. The lack of validated biomarkers for TBI is a major impediment to developing effective therapies and improving clinical practice, as well as stimulating much work in this area. In this review, we focus on different settings of TBI management where blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF biomarkers could be utilized for predicting clinically-relevant consequences and guiding management decisions. Requirements that the biomarker must fulfill differ based on the intended context of use (CoU. Specifically, we focus on fluid biomarkers in order to: (1 identify patients who may require acute neuroimaging (cranial computerized tomography (CT or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI; (2 select patients at risk for secondary brain injury processes; (3 aid in counseling patients about their symptoms at discharge; (4 identify patients at risk for developing postconcussive syndrome (PCS, posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE or chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE; (5 predict outcomes with respect to poor or good recovery; (6 inform counseling as to return to work (RTW or to play. Despite significant advances already made from biomarker-based studies of TBI, there is an immediate need for further large-scale studies focused on identifying and innovating sensitive and reliable TBI biomarkers. These studies should be designed with the intended CoU in mind.

  18. Attitude of students intending to be teachers toward nuclear power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiomi, Tetsuro; Tada, Yasuyuki

    2002-01-01

    The ''Period for Integrated study'' will be added to the existing subjects in elementary schools, junior and high schools from 2002. Subjects included in the period are, for example, international understanding, information, environment, etc. To treat the issues about environment, energy and nuclear power generation in the period, it is necessary to study the attitude of the teachers and the students intending to be teachers toward environment, energy, atomic power and integrated study. The results of the present survey show that the teachers studying in under graduate schools and the students intending to be teachers have negative attitude toward nuclear power, have concern about environment and energy, value cooperation with a company in the period. When they deal with the environment, energy and nuclear power in the period, individual ideas and principles are not taught, and teachers gather information from the pros and cons, and motivate the children to judge by themselves. This reflects the basic idea of ''the Period of Integrated Study''. (author)

  19. The what, how much, and when of study strategies: comparing intended versus actual study behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiman, Rachael N; Dunlosky, John; Rawson, Katherine A

    2017-07-01

    The study behaviours of students can be assessed from several perspectives, such as what study strategies are used, the total number of hours of study, and the distribution of studying over time. Here, we present the results of a survey study that considered each of these perspectives by asking students to report the what, how much, and when of their study behaviours over the course of a semester. As important, to better understand students' use of study strategies, we also had students report at the beginning of the semester how they intended to study and their beliefs about the effectiveness of a variety of common strategies. Our results indicate that during the semester, students rely on relatively ineffective strategies and mass their studying the day or two before an exam. However, students intended to begin studying earlier and to use a mix of effective and ineffective study habits. Despite their use of some ineffective strategies, they did have a relatively accurate assessment of which strategies were less versus more effective. Taken together, our results suggest that students have some excellent intentions but may falter because massing study the evening before an exam limits their use of more effective study strategies.

  20. Dissipation kinetics of fluquinconazole and pyrimethanil residues in apples intended for baby food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa; Walorczyk, Stanisław

    2013-12-15

    Dissipation behaviour of simultaneously applied fungicides fluquinconazole and pyrimethanil was studied in/on apples intended for baby food production (cultivars Jonagold Decosta, Golden and Champion). The apples were sprayed at two dosages to control the pathogen Venturia inaedequalis (Cooke) Aderh. A validated gas chromatographic method (GC-ECD and GC-NPD) was used to determine the fungicides residues, the analytical performance of which was highly satisfactory with expanded uncertainties not higher than 15% (coverage factor k=2, confidence level 95%) The dissipation of the fungicide residues was fitted to the experimental data assuming pseudo first-order decay kinetics (R(2) between 0.897 and 0.992). To obtain the fungicide residues below 0.01 mg/kg, which is the default maximum residue level for food intended for infants and young children, the application of the fungicides under study should be carried out 2 or 3 months before harvest at the lower (1.0 L/ha) and the higher (1.5 L/ha) recommended dose, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Change Interventions of the Ministry of National Education: An Evaluation from an Organizational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Kılıçoğlu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Change movements in the Turkish education system have been ongoing since the first years of the Republic. It is clear that restructuring the Ministry of National Education through enacted regulations has moved the current state of the Turkish education system to a different position. In this study, change interventions of the Ministry of National Education are aimed to be examined and the theoretical foundations of these movements are intended to be revealed regarding the organizational theories. This study is designed as a qualitative study in which document analysis is utilized. Government policy documents like laws, legislations, regulations, notices, and decrees enacted between the years of 2009 and 2014 in Turkey are used as data source. By means of examining the conducted changes, this study is thought to present a holistic perspective about the future of the Turkish education system and the tenor in the change initiatives.

  2. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals With Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2016-03-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People With Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities.

  3. Communication Services and Supports for Individuals with Severe Disabilities: Guidance for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Nancy C.; Bruce, Susan; Goldman, Amy; Erickson, Karen; Mineo, Beth; Ogletree, Bill T.; Paul, Diane; Romski, Mary Ann; Sevcik, Rose; Siegel, Ellin; Schoonover, Judith; Snell, Marti; Sylvester, Lorraine; Wilkinson, Krista

    2015-01-01

    The National Joint Committee for the Communication Needs of People with Severe Disabilities (NJC) reviewed literature regarding practices for people with severe disabilities in order to update guidance provided in documents originally published in 1992. Changes in laws, definitions, and policies that affect communication attainments by persons with severe disabilities are presented, along with guidance regarding assessment and intervention practices. A revised version of the Communication Bill of Rights, a powerful document that describes the communication rights of all individuals, including those with severe disabilities is included in this article. The information contained within this article is intended to be used by professionals, family members, and individuals with severe disabilities to inform and advocate for effective communication services and opportunities. PMID:26914467

  4. Energy policy of Lower Saxony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    1988-01-01

    The government of the Land Lower Saxony in February 1988 submitted a new energy programme intended to define the energy-political boundary data for energy industry and energy consumers, and to bring about the broadest possible consensus for the implementation of this energy policy between politicians, the energy industry and the population. The Minister of Economy of Lower Saxony in his statement refers particularly to the topics nuclear energy and coal, renewable energies, structure of areas to be supplied with energy, and considerations relating to a revision of the antitrust laws. (orig.) [de

  5. Improving Middle School Students' Subjective Well-Being: Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention Targeting Small Groups of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rachel A.; Suldo, Shannon M.; Ferron, John M.

    2017-01-01

    Most interventions intended to improve subjective well-being, termed "positive psychology interventions" (PPIs), have neglected to include relevant stakeholders in youth's lives and have not included booster sessions intended to maintain gains in subjective well-being. The current study investigated the impact of a multitarget,…

  6. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  7. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  8. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  9. Success factors for the implementation of an intended brand personality : Conceptual framework and insights from the Swiss luxury industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyer, Wayne D.; Krohmer, Harley; Lobschat, Lara

    2015-01-01

    The creation and implementation of an intended brand personality has become a prevailing topic, both for practitioners and researchers. Especially in luxury industry, where brands hold a strong symbolic meaning, marketers are faced with the challenge of successfully establishing an intended brand

  10. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose. 152.10 Section 152.10 Protection of Environment... pesticidal purpose. A product that is not intended to prevent, destroy, repel, or mitigate a pest, or to...

  11. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for... DRUGS Drugs Regarded as Misbranded § 250.11 Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment... number of drug preparations containing thyroid or thyrogenic substances in combination with central...

  12. Who Has the Advantages in My Intended Career? Engaging Students in the Identification of Gender and Racial Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Stephen; Baker, Kimberly M.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and assesses two learning modules designed to make students aware of gender and racial inequalities present in their own intended careers. Students identify their intended occupation in respect to the Standard Occupational Classification system and then use that code to determine the composition and earnings in that…

  13. CIRCO Y POLÍTICA CULTURAL EN BUENOS AIRES / Circus and cultural policies in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Infantino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo propongo analizar el lanzamiento de una política cultural de fomento  para las artes del circo en la ciudad de Buenos Aires, iniciada en 2009 a través del I Festival Internacional de Circo de Buenos Aires. A partir del estudio de la formulación e implementación de la política pública, presentaré algunas de las controversias que se desataron ante la intervención estatal en el campo artístico circense local en relación a ciertos conceptos clave: qué se entiende por políticas culturales, por democratización/popularización de la cultura y acerca del rol atribuido al Estado en dicha área. A través del análisis propuesto pretendo problematizar el entramado de diversos y desiguales agentes involucrados en el campo de las políticas (culturales.   Así, propongo analizar los discursos oficiales que inspiraron la creación de la política en estudio y los rechazos y negociaciones que generó la implementación de esta nueva modalidad de intervención pública en el ámbito cultural circense.  Abstract  In this paper I propose to analyze the release of a cultural policy to promote circus arts in the city of Buenos Aires, started in 2009 through the First Buenos Aires International Circus Festival. Through the analysis of the formulation and implementation of the public policy, I will present some of the controversies that emerged from state intervention in the local circus art field in relation to certain key concepts: what is meant by cultural policies, by democratization / popularization of culture and about the role attributed to the State in this area. Through the analysis proposed I intend to problematize the diverse and unequal actors involved in the field of (cultural policies. Thus, I intend to analyze the official speeches that inspired the creation of the policy under study and the rejections and negotiation generated by the implementation of this new way of public intervention in the circus cultural field. 

  14. Evidence for Agile Policy Makers: The Contribution of Transformative Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Room, Graham

    2013-01-01

    Advocates of evidence-based policy making (EBPM) are typically concerned with the impact of particular interventions. This implicit ontology of the policy world, as disaggregated into a variety of independent interventions, has been challenged by Pawson (2006), in terms of the contingencies that activate, inhibit or reshape the impact of any…

  15. Tracing Early Interventions on Childhood Overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia

    This thesis presents results from a qualitative research project on early interventions to counter childhood obesity in Denmark. Overall, it was found that these interventions in families with preschool children were rarely performed. One barrier to the interventions is the structural setting...... to enforce lifestyle changes. Overall, this thesis addresses issues of childhood obesity, inequality in health, health policy, individualization, racialized biases in health care, the role of health care practitioners and insecurity and health....

  16. Safety of parsley intended for processing depending on the cultivation technology and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pobereżny Jarosław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The factors that affect the value of parsley for consumption include its taste, flavour and dietary utility (vitamins C and E, β-carotene, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and iron, raw fibre, proteins as well as the content of hazardous substances, especially nitrogen compounds. A study was carried out in 2013–2015 to determine the effect of the cultivation technology and storage on the safety of parsley intended for processing. The study material was taken from an experiment where the following fertilisers were applied to the ground: nitrogen (0, 40, 80, 120 kg N∙ha−1 and magnesium (0; 30 kg Mg∙ha−1. Parsley roots were stored for six months in a storage room at +1°C and RH 95%. The content of nitrates (V and (III was determined by the ion selective method immediately after the harvest and after storage in parsley roots.

  17. The Facial Width-to-Height Ratio Predicts Sex Drive, Sociosexuality, and Intended Infidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnocky, Steven; Carré, Justin M; Bird, Brian M; Moreau, Benjamin J P; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Ortiz, Triana; Marley, Nicole

    2017-09-19

    Previous research has linked the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR) to a host of psychological and behavioral characteristics, primarily in men. In two studies, we examined novel links between FWHR and sex drive. In Study 1, a sample of 145 undergraduate students revealed that FWHR positively predicted sex drive. There were no significant FWHR × sex interactions, suggesting that FWHR is linked to sexuality among both men and women. Study 2 replicated and extended these findings in a sample of 314 students collected from a different Canadian city, which again demonstrated links between the FWHR and sex drive (also in both men and women), as well as sociosexuality and intended infidelity (men only). Internal meta-analytic results confirm the link between FWHR and sex drive among both men and women. These results suggest that FWHR may be an important morphological index of human sexuality.

  18. Interplay Between Intended Brand Identity and Identities in a Nike Related Brand Community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornum, Niels; Gyrd-Jones, Richard; Al Zagir, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    with the resulting tensions is more urgent on the collective as compared to the individual level of the community. The community copes with the incurred tension by letting the commercial brand artifacts become a verbally tacit communicative element of the collective “space” of community life.......While branding research traditionally views brand identity as an inside-out management controlled phenomenon, recent research emphasizes that a wide variety of stakeholders in the brand ecosystem enact and co-create brand identity. Following this theoretical perspective, management forms...... the intended brand identity in a deliberate process and articulates this identity, surfacing as values and artifacts. Stakeholders develop and articulate values and artifacts in their own manner, but enact the brand identity at the same time. On the basis of data from a participatory ethnographic study...

  19. [Fractures of the scapula in pigs intended for slaughter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Wal, P G; Nieuwenhuijsen, H T; Sybesma, W; Scholten, J I

    1975-06-01

    Fractures may be observed in the scapulae of those pigs intended for slaughter, which have undergone electrical stunning. These fractures may be classified into three types. That type in which the fracture is localized in the glenoid cavity is the most injurious one as it is accompanied by haemorrhage and therefore will result in loss of meat. This is liable to cause injuries to the employees engaged in boning out. It was concluded from an inquiry as well as from experimental exposure to stress that fractures of the shoulder are due to the marked tonic contractions of mainly antagonistic muscles, resulting in excessive strain on the shoulder blade and its joints. It is a striking fact that fractures of the shoulder were not observed in pigs stunned electrically while they were in a restraining apparatus.

  20. The Influence of Climate Change Efficacy Messages and Efficacy Beliefs on Intended Political Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P Sol; Feldman, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed.

  1. Complementary bipolar application specific analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end units

    CERN Document Server

    Atkin, E; Kondratenko, S; Maslennikov, V; Meshcheriakov, V; Mishin, Yu; Volkov, Yu

    2002-01-01

    The structure of an analog semicustom array, intended to implement front-end electronics ICs on its basis, is considered. The features of this array are: implementation with an inexpensive bipolar process despite containing an equal number of NPN and PNP structures with well matched characteristics, supply voltages from 1.5 V to 15 V, transistor current gains Bst~100 and unity gain frequencies Ft > 3 GHz at collector currents of (100...300) mu A, high- and low-ohmic resistors, MOS capacitors, minimum two variable plating levels available. Specific circuit diagrams and parameters of the front-end electronics ICs, created on the basis of the considered array, are presented. The results of their tests are given. (4 refs).

  2. The Influence of Climate Change Efficacy Messages and Efficacy Beliefs on Intended Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, P. Sol; Feldman, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Using an online survey experiment with a national sample, this study examined how changing the type and valence of efficacy information in news stories discussing global climate change may impact intended political participation through the mediators of perceived internal, external, and response efficacy. Overall, the results revealed that after a single exposure to a news story, stories including positive internal efficacy content increased perceived internal efficacy, while stories including negative external efficacy content lowered perceived external efficacy. There were limited impacts of other types of efficacy content on perceived efficacy. Perceived internal, external, and response efficacy all offered unique, positive associations with intentions to engage in climate change-related political participation. The results suggest that news stories including positive internal efficacy information in particular have the potential to increase public engagement around climate change. The implications for science communication are discussed. PMID:27487117

  3. Characterization of Semolina Protein Film with Incorporated Zinc Oxide Nano Rod Intended for Food Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarzadeh Shima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to provide biopolymer films used as food packaging, which will result in reducing environmental pollution produced by the activities of synthetic food packaging. We used zinc oxide nanorods (ZnO-nr and we prepared nanocomposite films by means of solvent casting. FTIR and SEM were employed to characterize the final films. SEM images revealed that ZnO-nr particles were homogenously distributed throughout the film surface. The thermal, optical, and heat sealability properties of the films were also examined. Adding ZnO-nr significantly reduced oxygen permeability and heat sealability. The semolina films’ UV absorbance was highly impacted by the degree of ZnO-nr addition. The nanocomposite films absorbed above 90% of the near infrared spectra. In addition, the zeta potential revealed the surface charge of ZnO-nr had a negative charge of about −33.9 mV.

  4. Analysis for organic residues from aids to polymerization used to make plastics intended for food contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordham, P J; Gramshaw, J W; Castle, L

    2001-05-01

    Polymers intended for food contact use have been analysed for organic residues which could be attributed to a range of substances employed as polymerization aids (e.g. initiators and catalysts). A wide range of polymers was extracted with solvents and the extracts analysed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The overwhelming majority of substances identified were not derived from aids to polymerization but were oligomers, additives and adventitious contaminants. However, a small number of substances were identified as initiator residues. These included tetramethylsuccinonitrile (TMSN) which was observed in two polymers and it derived from recombination of two azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) initiator radicals. Methyl benzoate, benzoic acid, biphenyl and phenyl benzoate were detected in one poly(methyl methacrylate) sample and in two polyvinylchlorides and they are thought to be derived from benzoyl peroxide initiator. TMSN was subsequently targeted for analysis of poly-(methyl methacrylate) plastics using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry (1H-NMR) and GC-MS. NMR detected the presence of cyanoisopropyl radical residues in the plastic at 470-3400 mg/kg whereas GC-MS detected TMSN at only 65-540 mg/kg in the samples. It is concluded that the bulk of cyanoisopropyl residues detected by NMR were either polymer-bound or were the products of side-reactions of the initiator radical. The migration of TMSN itself into the food simulants 3% aqueous acetic acid, 15% aqueous ethanol, and olive oil, at 40 degrees C for 10 days, was measured using GC-MS. Migration was very low with straw) and plastics intended for food contact and their potential for migration to foods is correspondingly low.

  5. METHODOLOGICAL BASIS DISTRIBUTION AND REDISTRIBUTION OF LAND FOR THE INTENDED PURPOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Lobunko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Methodological Issues of distribution and redistribution of land for the intended purpose is not new, but remains relevant to today, especially in decentralization. Distribution and redistribution of land is a continuous process for the transfer of land from one of the other caused by the objective necessity of permanent land to attract economic turnover. This process is regulated by law governed priority to particularly valuable in economic terms of land and is a turnover of land.In land-legal theory and practice has long and firmly established the concept of "distribution" and "redistribution" of land for their trust and economic use. This is due to the fact that all lands have different qualities, different natural characteristics and indicators have different economic, social and environmental values in society, the goal is effective management of the relevant authorities in terms of decentralization. Therefore, in the article the methodological basis of distribution and redistribution of land for the intended purpose. A logical-semantic model objectives tree in the formation of distribution (redistribution of land as a function of land management and land use and its targeted tools. In this case, given that the public interest due to the need to preserve the environment, the priority is precisely the public interest. Such restrictions include making specific methodological approaches to distribution and redistribution of land. Therefore, the primary factor that determines the characteristics of land use are natural properties of the land and the availability of other natural resources that produce or provide biologically necessary conditions for life and meet a variety of human needs and should be implemented regardless of ownership of land, because basically they have the right to lif

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of novel multilayer mirrors intended for astronomical and laboratory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragozin, Eugene N.; Mednikov, Konstantin N.; Pertsov, Andrei A.; Pirozhkov, Alexander S.; Reva, Anton A.; Shestov, Sergei V.; Ul'yanov, Artem S.; Vishnyakov, Eugene A.

    2009-05-01

    We report measurements of the reflection spectra of (i) concave (spherical and parabolic) Mo/Si, Mg/Si, and Al/Zr multilayer mirrors (MMs) intended for imaging solar spectroscopy in the framework of the TESIS/CORONAS-FOTON Satellite Project and of (ii) an aperiodic Mo/Si MM optimized for maximum uniform reflectivity in the 125-250 Å range intended for laboratory applications. The reflection spectra were measured in the configuration of a transmission grating spectrometer employing the radiation of a tungsten laser-driven plasma as the source. The function of detectors was fulfilled by backside-illuminated CCDs coated with Al or Zr/Si multilayer absorption filters. High-intensity second-order interference reflection peaks at wavelengths of about 160 Å were revealed in the reflection spectra of the 304-Å Mo/Si MMs. By contrast, the second-order reflection peak in the spectra of the new-generation narrow-band (~12 Å FWHM) 304-Å Mg/Si MMs is substantially depressed. Manifestations of the NEXAFS structure of the L2, 3 absorption edges of Al and Al2O3 were observed in the spectra recorded. The broadband Mo/Si MM was employed as the focusing element of spectrometers in experiments involving (i) the charge exchange of multiply charged ions with the donor atoms of a rare-gas jet; (ii) the spectroscopic characterization of a debris-free soft X-ray radiation source excited by Nd laser pulses in a Xe jet (iii) near-IR-to-soft-X-ray frequency conversion (double Doppler effect) occurring in the retroreflection from the relativistic electron plasma wake wave (flying mirror) driven by a multiterawatt laser in a pulsed helium jet.

  7. Scaling-up impact in perinatology through systems science: Bridging the collaboration and translational divides in cross-disciplinary research and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munar, Wolfgang; Hovmand, Peter S; Fleming, Carrie; Darmstadt, Gary L

    2015-08-01

    Despite progress over the past decade in reducing the global burden of newborn deaths, gaps in the knowledge base persist, and means of translating empirical findings into effective policies and programs that deliver life-saving interventions remain poorly understood. Articles in this issue highlight the relevance of transdisciplinary research in perinatology and calls for increased efforts to translate research into public policy and to integrate interventions into existing primary care delivery systems. Given the complexity and multi-causality of many of the remaining challenges in newborn health, and the effects that social and economic factors have over many newborn conditions, it has further been proposed that integrated, multi-sector public policies are also required. In this article, we discuss the application of systems science methods to advance transdisciplinary research and public policy-making in perinatology. Such approaches to research and public policy have been used to address various global challenges but have rarely been implemented in developing country settings. We propose that they hold great promise to improve not only our understanding of complex perinatology problems but can also help translate research-based insights into effective, multi-pronged solutions that deliver positive, intended effects. Examples of successful transdisciplinary science exist, but successes and failures are context specific, and there are no universal blueprints or formulae to reproduce what works in a specific context into different social system settings. Group model building is a tool, based in the field of System Dynamics, that we have used to facilitate transdisciplinary research and, to a lesser extent, policy formulation in a systematic and replicable way. In this article, we describe how group model building can be used and argue for scaling its use to further the translation of empirical evidence and insights into policy and action that increase maternal

  8. Empiricist Interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian; Abrahamsson, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Recent papers by prominent scholars in science and technology studies (notably JohnLaw and Bruno Latour) have crystallized a fundamental disagreement about the scope and purpose of intervention in actor-network theory or what we here choose to bracket as empirical philosophy. While the precept...

  9. Expanded carrier screening: what determines intended participation and can this be influenced by message framing and narrative information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorwinden, Jan S; Buitenhuis, Anne H; Birnie, Erwin; Lucassen, Anneke M; Verkerk, Marian A; van Langen, Irene M; Plantinga, Mirjam; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2017-06-01

    Next-generation sequencing enabled us to create a population-based expanded carrier screening (ECS) test that simultaneously tests for 50 serious autosomal recessive diseases. Before offering this test universally, we wanted to know what factors are related to intended participation and how the general public can be informed about the test without being influenced in their intention to participate. We studied this by measuring to what extent 'message framing' and 'narrative information' can influence people's intended participation. Data were collected by means of an online survey of 504 potential users, and the factors examined were based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour and on previous research on intended participation in preconception carrier screening. Message framing was manipulated by explaining the risk of couple carriership in different ways, while narrative information was provided to only half of the respondents. The factors most positively related to intended participation were perceiving benefits of the screening, having a positive attitude towards the screening, having no religion, having an actual child wish and experiencing the choice to participate as easy. Perceived benefits and a positive attitude were most influential factors by far. Message framing and narrative information had no significant effect on intended participation, reinforcing that message framing and narrative information can help to inform the general public about ECS without influencing their intended participation. Future research should study if the importance of perceived benefits and a positive attitude can be replicated when other factors are included and when actual participation is measured instead of intended participation.

  10. Language Policy and the Manufacturing of Consent for Foreign Intervention in Colombia (La política lingüística y la fabricación del consentimiento para la intervención extranjera en Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Marlon

    2013-01-01

    The present paper provides a critical analysis of Colombia's National Program of Bilingualism focusing on the ideologies behind it, how it facilitates the manufacturing of Colombian citizens' consent for foreign intervention through free trade agreements, and the progressive dismantling of public education. The program is analyzed with a critical…

  11. Interventions to Increase Walking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David M.; Matthews, Charles; Rutt, Candace; Napolitano, Melissa A.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2009-01-01

    Walking is the most prevalent and preferred method of physical activity for both work and leisure purposes, thus making it a prime target for physical activity promotion interventions. We identified 14 randomized controlled trials, which tested interventions specifically targeting and assessing walking behavior. Results show that among self-selected samples intensive interventions can increase walking behavior relative to controls. Brief telephone prompts appear to be as effective as more substantial telephone counseling. Although more research is needed, individual studies support prescriptions to walk 5–7 d/wk versus 3–5 d/wk and at a moderate (versus vigorous) intensity pace, with no differences in total walking minutes when single or multiple daily walking bouts are prescribed. Mediated interventions delivering physical activity promotion materials through non-face-to-face channels may be ideal for delivering walking promotion interventions and have shown efficacy in promoting overall physical activity, especially when theory-based and individually tailored. Mass media campaigns targeting broader audiences, including those who may not intend to increase their physical activity, have been successful at increasing knowledge and awareness about physical activity, but are often too diffuse to successfully impact individual behavior change. Incorporating individually tailored programs into broader mass media campaigns may be an important next step, and the Internet could be a useful vehicle. PMID:18562974

  12. MODERN APPROACHES TO THE IMPLEMENTATION OF MONETARY POLICY AND THE REGULATION OF FINANCIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CUHAL

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF. New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy. The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  13. Modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and the regulation of financial systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basistîi Nicolae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study determines the modern approaches to the implementation of monetary policy and regulation of financial systems. Set of measures to prevent and overcome the financial crisis is grounded taking into consideration different areas of research and the IMF.New tasks of monetary policy in central banks are specified and they are intended to ensure the financial stability of the state (within the common fiscal policy.The main directions of elaboration and implementation of new monetary policy mechanism, which is intended to ensure the effective solution of problems in macro prudential supervision and financial stability, are examined.

  14. Realist Review of Programs, Policies, and Interventions to Enhance the Social, Emotional, and Spiritual Well-Being of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Young People Living in Out-of-Home Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Lindstedt

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The child protection system in Australia includes out-of-home care (OoHC for children and young people at risk of harm and neglect. In Australia, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children and young people are 9 times more likely to be placed in care than non-Aboriginal young people (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2015. Australia’s history of colonization and subsequent policies have caused trauma to individuals, families, and communities and resulted in poor physical and mental health and mistrust of services. This review was undertaken to identify programs and policies currently in place that aim to improve the mental health and well-being of this vulnerable population. It provides an analysis of both the strengths of the current system as well as what has been inadequately addressed based on literature in the area.By incorporating an Aboriginal perspective, this review focuses on social, emotional, and spiritual well-being (SESWB and the aspects of a child’s life and community that promote this. A realist review of the academic and grey literature was conducted in 2014. It included an extensive search of government and non-government (NGO publications. The review identified nine programs or policies that are designed to improve the SESWB of Aboriginal young people in OoHC in local and international settings. These are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Child Placement Principle, cultural support plans, Aboriginal Community Controlled Organisations (ACCOs, family group decision-making, therapeutic care, and Panyappi Mentoring Program. Given that culturally competent service provision is important to SESWB, the review concludes that an increase in monitoring and evaluation is necessary to determine the effectiveness of programs and ensure their implementation and sustainability when warranted. Policy and research work is needed to adapt and devise programs promoting the SESWB of Aboriginal young people (at both the

  15. The Impact of Response to Intervention on Learning Disability Identification: School Based Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tina B.

    2017-01-01

    The "Response to Intervention Guidance for New York State School Districts" (2010) document indicates Response to Intervention (RTI) is a mandated general education process intended to provide early interventions to struggling at-risk students. The multi-level RTI framework is structured to include targeted evidence-based interventions…

  16. Reading with Ease: The Impact of an Oral Reading Fluency Intervention with Adolescent Struggling Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wig, Ann

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative, quasi-experimental study was to investigate the impact of a repeated reading fluency intervention focused on prosody, counterbalanced with an intervention focused on reading strategies. Both of these interventions were designed to promote feelings of achievement through participation in activities intended to…

  17. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  18. Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-12-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults. Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools

  19. Implementation of pro-poor exemption policy in Tanzania: policy versus reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idd, Aisha; Yohana, Odongo; Maluka, Stephen Oswald

    2013-01-01

    Like many other African countries, Tanzania has been implementing user fee policy in its health sector since the early 1990s. Accompanying user fee, mechanisms were designed that exempted the poor and vulnerable groups of the society from paying user charges. Although studies on the implementation of exemption policies in Tanzania exist, very few have documented the actual process of translating exemption policies into actions-the process of implementation. Drawing from policy analysis and implementation theories, this paper documents the implementation of the waiver (need-based exemptions) policy in Tanzania. The findings indicate that waiver systems, while potentially effective in principle, were ineffective in implementation. Lack of specification of criteria by which the poor could be identified made policy implementers at different levels to implement the policy in their own style. Low level of public awareness about the existence of waiver mechanisms hindered the poor to demand exemptions. Furthermore, fear of loss of revenue at the health facilities and ineffective enforcement mechanisms provided little incentives for local government leaders and health workers to communicate the policy to beneficiaries. It is concluded from this study that to better achieve the objectives of the pro-poor exemption policy, it is important to engage policy implementers more actively in the management and implementation of policies. Additionally, it is imperative to understand the behaviour and practices of policy implementers, especially district health managers, health workers and village and ward leaders, who may react negatively to new policies and implement the policies in ways contrary to what policy makers had intended. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  1. The Role of Ethnographic Interviewing in Climate Change Evaluation Research: Investigating Intended and Unintended program effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, T.

    2012-12-01

    Ethnographic interviewing is an under-utilized tool in climate change evaluation research, even though it has the potential to serve as a powerful method of data collection. The utility of the ethnographic interview lies in its ability to elicit responses from program participants describing what a program is in practice, shedding light on both intended and unintended program impacts. Drawing on evaluation work involving a federally-funded climate change grant at the University of California, Riverside, I will discuss how to design an ethnographic interview protocol in an effort to share "best practices" with other climate change evaluators. Particular attention will be given to applying ethnographic approaches to various program types, even those differing from the one discussed. I will share some of the concrete findings from my work on this grant, to serve as examples of the kinds of data evaluators can collect when employing an ethnographic approach to interviewing. UC Riverside's climate change grant is multi-faceted, however the component studied ethnographically was a science fair mentoring program. About twenty K-12 students from high poverty, ethnically diverse schools who expressed an interest in participating in science fair were paired up with graduate student mentors to simultaneously research climate change and design authentic science fair projects to compete at various levels. Since one of the stated goals of the grant is to "stimulate…students to consider climate science as a career track through experiential education activities" I was particularly interested in how student experiences with the project might differ from school science which has historically "pushed out" ethnically diverse students like those in many of Riverside's schools. (In the program students are able to interact one-on-one with a mentor and in school settings there is typically one teacher for more than thirty students). I also sought to understand student perceptions of

  2. United Kingdom government policy towards radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchard, G.

    1986-01-01

    There are three areas of radioactive waste management which exemplify, beyond any reasonable doubt, that the United Kingdom has in the past (and intends in the future), to pursue a policy of dispersal and disposal of radioactive wastes: These are: (I) dumping of low-level waste in the deep ocean and, on a parallel, seabed emplacement of highly active waste; (II) the liquid discharges from Windscale into the Irish Sea; and (III) land dumping of low- and intermediate-level waste

  3. An Operational Semantics for Trust Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krukow, Karl Kristian

    2005-01-01

    In the trust-structure model of trust management, principals specify their trusting relationships with other principals in terms of trust policies. In their paper on trust structures, Carbone et al. present a language for trust policies, and provide a suitable denotational semantics. The semantics...... ensures that for any collection of trust policies, there is always a unique global trust-state, compatible with all the policies, specifying everyone's degree of trust in everyone else. However, as the authors themselves point out, the language lacks an operational model: the global trust-state is a well......-defined mathematical object, but it is not clear how principals can actually compute it. This becomes even more apparent when one considers the intended application environment: vast numbers of autonomous principals, distributed and possibly mobile. We provide a compositional operational semantics for a language...

  4. Fiscal policy and the global financial crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

     The financial crisis raises demands for fiscal policy interventions. While a fall in aggregate demand is an important consequence of the crisis, it also reflects more underlying structural problems and changes. Hence, appropriate policy designs have to take account of the nature of the crisis...... and the underlying need for structural changes. While fiscal policy should mainly rely on automatic stabilizers in normal situations, a more active fiscal policy strategy is called for in the present situation.  The effectiveness of various types of fiscal instruments and conceivable tensions between short and long...

  5. Conceptual Underpinnings for Innovation Policy Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Edquist, Charles

    In cases where innovation indicators and data fail to serve properly as a (necessary) basis for the design of innovation policies, it often has its roots in conceptual unclarities in the underlying concepts. The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical and conceptual basis for the design...... of innovation policy. This serves two important purposes. Firstly, it allows the identification of problems in an innovation system that require public policy intervention through the choice of appropriate policy instruments. Secondly, it allows a theoretically based identification of input indicators...

  6. Lessee´s Liabilities In The Leasing Housing Contract Intended For Family Dwelling Purposes Not Related To His Holder Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Arrieta Blanquicett

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The leasing housing contract intended for family dwelling purposes was enforced in Colombia for nearly a decade, being quite useful for developing the country economy, in particular for the purchase of home. Despite the usefulness when executing it, several conflicts have arisen, reason why it is mandatory to build a legal regulation harmonized with its philosophy, such as “Creating new long and medium-term home financing mechanisms in Colombia”. All the foregoing in order to give a wide development to the postulate set forth in article 51 of the Political Constitution of 1991 that ensures the right to access to a decent housing. Since the legal regulation of housing leasing intended to family dwelling has been scarce and keeping in mind its atypical nature, it is required to identify what are the liabilities that arise to the contracting parties, in particular to the lessee, taking into account that between him and the good given in leasing there is a tenure relation. The leasing housing contract intended for family dwelling purposes besides of being an atypical contract is also a finance nature contract for which reason the entities authorized to enter into such type of transactions impose to the lessee several clauses that might be unrelated to the holder quality of the lessee; and thus, could turn out to be abusive in the light of the Political Constitution, the law and the doctrine regarding to the protection to the consumer. In conformity with the above mentioned reality, both the legislator and the Constitutional Court have set forth the guidelines to implement the mechanisms that seek for the protection of the lessee, bearing in mind that the subject matter of the housing leasing contract intended to family dwelling falls on a human right. Therefore, it is helpful to identify which are the liabilities of the lessee that are not related to his quality as holder in order to be able to assess them and conclude that they are in conflict

  7. Dual containment in the Persian Gulf: strategic considerations and policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Mraz, Jerry L; McCallen, John P.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis is a critical analysis of US foreign policy toward Iran and Iraq known as a policy of dual containment. The objective of dual containment is to isolate these regimes politically, economically and militarily. This thesis evaluates American conduct in the region for the last 50 years, in order to show how previous strategies culminated in the present policy. It discusses both the merits and problems inherent in dual containment, as well as the impact of this policy on its two intend...

  8. National policy for integration of ICT: a comparative study between Brazil and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    José GOMES DA SILVA; Maria NEIDE SOBRAL

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to present the results of a comparative study of national educative policies for integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) used in basic education schools in Brazil and Spain. In general terms, this article intends to examine possible convergences and divergences in objectives presented by these policies. The time frame was between 1997 and 2010, when these policies and the launch of new transnational policies for ICT integration began. The research has...

  9. Policy activity and policy adoption in rural, suburban, and urban local health departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jenine K; Mueller, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Public health policy is among the most effective and cost-effective interventions in some areas of public health and is emerging as effective in others. Policy may be especially important for rural communities, where residents face serious health and economic disparities and local health departments (LHDs) lack resources to provide necessary services. Data from the 2008 National Association of County and City Health Officials National Profile of Local Health Departments were used to examine policy activity (eg, policy development; communication with policymakers) and policy adoption in a sample of 454 LHDs. Results indicate policy activity was low in some policy areas for all LHDs and lowest in all policy areas for rural departments. Policy activities had significant positive relationships with policy adoption for land use (φ = 0.31; P rural, suburban, and urban LHDs. Significant positive correlations were also identified between overall levels of policy activity and any policy adoption (r = 0.16-0.27; P < .05). Local health departments should increase participation in policy activity to facilitate public health policy adoption nationwide.

  10. Interventional MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukatsu, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2002-01-01

    MR guided interventional procedures have become useful clinical tools recently. In this article the authors discuss the usefulness and problems of MR-guided needle biopsy and MR-guided laser induced thermotherapy (LITT) for clinical cases. MR enabled optimal plane monitoring with desired image contrast during the procedure without X-ray irradiation for puncture and tissue sampling. Also only MR could non-invasively provide interstitial temperature information during laser ablation. Bone and soft tissue lesions are likely to be candidates for MR interventions because they are free from any physiological motions, and radiologists should compare MR-guidance with CT- or US guidance for individual cases in order to achieve a less invasive diagnosis or treatment. (author)

  11. FACTOR-ANALYSIS OF THE LEVEL OF EXPRESSED EMOTION SCALE, A QUESTIONNAIRE INTENDED TO MEASURE PERCEIVED EXPRESSED EMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERLSMA, C; VANDERLUBBE, PM; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, C

    When the factor structure and psychometric qualities of the Level of Expressed Emotion scale, an instrument intended to assess patient's perceptions of expressed emotion, were evaluated, three moderately intercorrelated factors emerged, with good internal consistency; these were lack of emotional

  12. Spinal interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Santiago, F; Filippiadis, D K; Guzmán Álvarez, L; Martínez Martínez, A; Castellano, M M

    2016-04-01

    We review the state of the art in imaging-guided percutaneous interventional procedures used to diagnose and/or treat the diverse causes of back pain. These procedures can be used for diagnosis, treatment, or both. They are focused on the vertebral bodies, the facet joints, the intervertebral discs, and the nerve structures. Copyright © 2015 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of a multi-year policy-focused intervention to increase physical activity and related behaviors in lower-resourced early care and education settings: Active Early 2.0

    OpenAIRE

    Tomayko, Emily J.; Prince, Ronald J.; Hoiting, Jill; Braun, Abbe; LaRowe, Tara L.; Adams, Alexandra K.

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is a critical component of obesity prevention, but few interventions targeting early childhood have been described. The Active Early guide was designed to increase physical activity in early care and education (ECE) settings. The purpose of Active Early 2.0 was to evaluate the effectiveness of Active Early along with provider training, microgrant support, and technical assistance over 2 years (2012–2014) to increase physical activity and related behaviors (e.g., nutrition) i...

  14. Analysing policy delivery in the United Kingdom: the case of street crime and anti-social behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin; Richards, David; Geddes, Andrew; Mathers, Helen

    2011-01-01

    For all governments, the principle of how and whether policies are implemented as intended is fundamental. The aim of this paper is to examine the difficulties for governments in delivering policy goals when they do not directly control the processes of implementation. This paper examines two case studies – anti-social behaviour and street crime – and demonstrates the difficulties faced by policy-makers in translating policy into practice when the policy problems are complex and implementation involves many actors.

  15. Fluoride content of beverages intended for infants and young children in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opydo-Szymaczek, Justyna; Opydo, Jadwiga

    2010-10-01

    Results of the studies indicate that fluoride content in beverages may be highly variable and children can consume substantial amounts of fluoride with these products. Ingestion of excessive fluoride during infancy and early childhood may cause dental fluorosis of permanent maxillary central incisors--the most aesthetically important teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the fluoride content in Polish beverages designed for infants and young children nutrition. Forty-three brands of juices and juice-flavored drinks and 23 instant teas were evaluated. Analyses were performed with the use of ion-selective fluoride electrode (09-37 type) and a RAE 111 chloride-silver reference electrode (MARAT). Fluoride concentrations in most beverages did not exceed 0.3 ppm. However, in three beverages containing tea extract levels of fluoride were higher (0.35-1.14 ppm). Consumption of these beverages could significantly increase child's fluoride exposure. Therefore, the need exists for continuous monitoring of fluoride levels in products intended for children. Listing fluoride content on beverages would be desirable. Knowledge about possible fluoride ingestion from dietary sources permits the clinician to recommend the safest schedule of fluoride treatment so as the optimal caries preventive effect can be obtained and the risk of dental fluorosis reduced. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Nakai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we conducted in vitro genotoxicity tests to evaluate the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers extracted from polystyrene intended for use in contact with food. Styrene oligomers were extracted with acetone and the extract was subjected to the Ames test (OECD test guideline No. 471 and the in vitro chromosomal aberration test (OECD test guideline No. 473 under good laboratory practice conditions. The concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers in the concentrated extract were 540 and 13,431 ppm, respectively. Extraction with acetone provided markedly higher concentrations of styrene oligomers compared with extraction with 50% ethanol aqueous solution, which is the food simulant currently recommended for use in safety assessments of polystyrene by both the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Food Safety Authority. And these high concentrations of styrene dimers and trimers were utilized for the evaluation of genotoxicity in vitro. Ames tests using five bacterial tester strains were negative both in the presence or absence of metabolic activation. The in vitro chromosomal aberration test using Chinese hamster lung cells (CHL/IU was also negative. Together, these results suggest that the risk of the genotoxicity of styrene oligomers that migrate from polystyrene food packaging into food is very low.

  17. Addition of Phenols Compounds to Meat Dough Intended for Salami Manufacture and its Antioxidant Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Enrico; Fasolato, Luca; Cardazzo, Barbara; Carraro, Lisa; Taticchi, Agnese; Balzan, Stefania

    2014-08-28

    A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass) obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill) was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively). The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20) and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C) with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  18. INTENDED NATIONALLY DETERMINED CONTRIBUTIONS FROM THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mahbubur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available All Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC were requested to communicate intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs in a clear, transparent and understandable way before the Conference of the Parties (known as COP21 held in Paris in 2015. The Contributions were supposed to be balanced and comprehensive to ensure sustainable development and expected to include finance, technology requires, technology transfer and capacity building aiming at mitigation and adaptation. This research focuses on investigating the INDCs prepared by countries from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA, one of the most water-scarce and dry regions in the world. Following a content analysis, this research has found that INDCs from the region have not been able to reflect the desired output. Submissions were also not timely and not sufficiently ahead of time. Many countries were not able to disclose the current status. INDCs can play a significant role by providing objective, timely, and reliable information, which is missing at present in the countries from MENA.

  19. Realizing the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution: The Role of Renewable Energies in Vietnam

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    Thanh Tu Tran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study contributes to the realization of intended nationally determined contributions (INDCs by analyzing their implications for the energy production system and the economy, and determines the role of renewable energies (RE in reducing the challenge of committing to the INDCs. The Asia-Pacific Integrated Model/Computable General Equilibrium (AIM/CGE model was used to assess seven scenarios having the same socioeconomic development but different shares of RE in power generation. By comparing different relative reductions caused by the emission constraints vis-a-vis the business-as-usual (BaU scenario, the mitigation costs can be estimated. Results show that the economic impact could be reduced by around 55% in terms of welfare loss (from 6.0% to 2.7% and by around 36% in terms of gross domestic product (GDP loss (from 3.4% to 2.1% through the incorporation of high levels of renewable energy. Furthermore, the additional double deployment of wind and SPV to 5.4% and 12.0%, respectively, which currently comprise 43.1% of the renewable energies used in electricity generation, could reduce the GDP loss from 2.1% to 1.9% and reduce the welfare loss from 2.7% to 1.5% in order to achieve a 25.0% GHG emissions reduction. These losses are less than those in the pricing-only scenario (2.1% and 2.3%, respectively.

  20. Guidelines for collecting vouchers and tissues intended for genomic work (Smithsonian Institution: Botany Best Practices

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    Vicki Funk

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Next Generation Sequencing into the disciplines of plant systematics, ecology, and metagenomics, among others, has resulted in a phenomenal increase in the collecting and storing of tissue samples and their respective vouchers. This manual suggests standard practices that will insure the quality and preservation of the tissue and vouchers and their respective data. Although written for use by the Smithsonian Institution botanists it suggests a framework for collecting tissues and vouchers that other research programs can adapt to their own needs. It includes information on collecting voucher specimens, collecting plant tissue intended for genomic analysis, how to manage these collections, and how to incorporate the data into a database management system. It also includes many useful references for collecting and processing collections. We hope it will be useful for a variety of botanists but especially those who know how to collect plants and want to collect tissue samples that will be useful for genomic research, and those who are skilled in lab work and want to know how to properly voucher and record their tissue collections.

  1. Water sorption properties of HM-pectin and liposomes intended to alleviate dry mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczak, Małgorzata I; Martinsen, Ørjan G; Smistad, Gro; Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-06-15

    Pharmaceutical formulations intended for treatment of xerostomia (dry mouth) should be able to keep the oral mucosa hydrated for a prolonged period of time. The products already existing on the market contain water-soluble polymers, however their ability to moisturize the oral mucosa for a longer period of time seems limited. In this paper the sorption properties of water vapor of high-methoxylated pectin (HM-pectin, a hydrophilic biopolymer) and phosphatidylcholine-based (Soya-PC) liposomes have been studied and compared using a gravimetric method. The kinetics of water desorption and sorption have been recorded over the relative humidity range RH=95-0-95%, at 35°C. The obtained isotherms were found to be well described by the n-layer Brunauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) adsorption model. The water isotherms on HM-pectin were Type II (IUPAC), while water isotherms on liposomes were Type III. The maximum water sorption capacity of liposomes (1.2mg water per mg of adsorbent at 95% RH) was found to be twice as high as for pectin. Due to the slower water release from the liposomes, as well as their high water sorption capacity, they seem to have great potential in relieving the symptoms of dry mouth syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Variations in problem conceptualizations and intended solutions among Hong Kong students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, F M; Lee, S Y; Chan, Y Y

    1983-09-01

    Cognitive schema were used to explain health and illness behaviors among Chinese students. University students in Hong Kong were asked to attribute causes and suggest solutions to five health/mental health problems: Weakness/Fatigue, Tension/Anxiety, Sleep Difficulty, Hollow/Emptiness, and Headache. The patterns of endorsement on the causal and solution categories used for the five problems were compared using a new asymptotic chi-squared test. The response patterns were found to be significantly different across the five problems. Each problem was attributed to multiple causes including psychological, social, situational, somatic, and existential factors. The intended solutions were often related to the nature of the causal attributions especially when the problems were mild. In lay help-seeking, the Hong Kong students would attempt a variety of self-help measures. However, for professional consultation, the medical doctor would be the primary care professional the students would turn to for most of the problems except in the case of Hollow/Emptiness.

  3. Fungi and Mycotoxins in Feed Intended for Sows at Different Reproductive Stages in Argentina

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    Carina Maricel Pereyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fungi and contamination levels of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in raw materials and finished feed intended for sows at different reproductive stages. Total fungi, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species occurrence, were examined. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate spp., and F. verticillioides were the prevalent species. Fungal counts exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (1×104 colony forming units at all reproductive stages. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels in 80% samples of finished sow feeds were over the permitted levels of 0.02 μg g-1 (mean 228.2±95 μg Kg−1. Fumonisin B1 was detected in all tested raw materials at levels that varied from 50.3 to 1137.64 μg Kg−1 and finished feed samples at levels that ranged from 99.8 to 512.4 μg Kg−1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were not detected in raw materials. All finished feeds were negative for zearalenone contamination whereas all nonpregnant gilt samples were contaminated with low OTA levels (mean 0.259±0.123. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize hazards to human health.

  4. Understanding smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior in the Brazilian Cerrado following environmental registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Jung, Suhyun; Dantas Brites, Alice; Watkins, Cristy; Agrawal, Arun

    2016-09-01

    Brazil’s Rural Environmental Registry (CAR) is a potentially promising avenue to slow deforestation on private properties as it facilitates the monitoring of land use. Yet limited empirical evidence exists on how the CAR affects smallholders’ behavior and recent scholarly efforts have in fact indicated that it may be doing less to protect forests than previously assumed. Based on 1177 smallholder surveys conducted in the Cerrado, we assess 1) whether the CAR might incentivize smallholders to pursue deforestation and 2) which factors are associated with smallholders’ intended deforestation behavior. We find that upon CAR registration, factors significantly associated with smallholders’ intention to deforest are: the existing percentage of native vegetation on the property, the use of agricultural loans, property owner’s age, and livestock production experience. To curb deforestation that may follow expressed intentions of smallholders, the CAR, and environmental registration programs alike, should account for existing land use by, for example, improving the system already in place for trading areas of native vegetation as this system is not widely adopted by those smallholders with more native vegetation than the legal cut-off. Also, such programs should assess the role of whether conditions related to land cover maintenance may protect against deforestation if credit access is supported especially to younger smallholders and/or livestock producers with a high percentage of native vegetation in their properties.

  5. Effects of insecticides intended for Ceutorhynchus napi Gyll. control in oilseed rape on ground beetles

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    Sivčev Lazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of insecticides that are commonly used for conventional and integrated oilseed rape (OSR management on ground beetles were studied. Monitoring of harmful species showed that only insecticides intended against Ceutorhynchus napi should be applied. There were no differences in beetle numbers and phenology of settling of C. napi in the OSR fields that received different management practices. The type of OSR management has a primary and significant impact on ground beetles abundance. Early in the spring, ground beetles settled more massively on the non-tilled OSR field with abundant weed cover and mulch on soil surface. However, there were no significant differences in species richness between the OSR fields managed differently. A total of 22 species were recorded. Early in the spring, the granivorous ground beetles Amara aenea (47.3% and Harpalus distinguendus (32.5% were dominant. When insecticides were applied, immigration of ground beetles began, so that their adverse effect was minimal. In both management systems the number of ground beetles and their diversity increased after spraying. In conclusion, no significant harmful effects of the insecticides on ground beetles were detected in OSR fields managed in two different ways.

  6. Simulation of tritium behavior after intended tritium release in ventilated room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Yasunori; Hayashi, Takumi; Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Nishi, Masataka

    2001-01-01

    At the Tritium Process Laboratory (TPL) at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Caisson Assembly for Tritium Safety study (CATS) with 12 m 3 of large airtight vessel (Caisson) was fabricated for confirmation and enhancement of fusion reactor safety to estimate tritium behavior in the case where a tritium leak event should happen. One of the principal objectives of the present studies is the establishment of simulation method to predict the tritium behavior after the tritium leak event should happen in a ventilated room. The RNG model was found to be valid for eddy flow calculation in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson with acceptable engineering precision. The calculated initial and removal tritium concentration histories after intended tritium release were consistent with the experimental observations in the 50 m 3 /h ventilated Caisson. It is found that the flow near a wall plays an important role for the tritium transport in the ventilated room. On the other hand, tritium behavior intentionally released in the 3,000 m 3 of tritium handling room was investigated experimentally under a US-Japan collaboration. The tritium concentration history calculated with the same method was consistent with the experimental observations, which proves that the present developed method can be applied to the actual scale of tritium handling room. (author)

  7. Classification of intended phoneme production from chronic intracortical microelectrode recordings in speech motor cortex

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    Jonathan S Brumberg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a neurophysiological study of attempted speech production in a paralyzed human volunteer using chronic microelectrode recordings. The volunteer suffers from locked-in syndrome leaving him in a state of near-total paralysis, though he maintains good cognition and sensation. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of supervised classification techniques for prediction of intended phoneme production in the absence of any overt movements including speech. Such classification or decoding ability has the potential to greatly improve the quality-of-life of many people who are otherwise unable to speak by providing a direct communicative link to the general community. We examined the performance of three classifiers on a multi-class discrimination problem in which the items were 38 American English phonemes including monophthong and diphthong vowels and consonants. The three classifiers differed in performance, but averaged between 16-21% overall accuracy (chance-level is 1/38 or 2.6%. Further, the distribution of phonemes classified statistically above chance was non-uniform though 20 of 38 phonemes were classified with statistical significance for all three classifiers. These preliminary results suggest supervised classification techniques are capable of performing large scale multi-class discrimination for attempted speech production and may provide the basis for future communication prostheses.

  8. Optimisation of spray drying process conditions for sugar nanoporous microparticles (NPMPs) intended for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, Maria Inês; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2011-12-12

    The present study investigated the effect of operating parameters of a laboratory spray dryer on powder characteristics, in order to optimise the production of trehalose and raffinose powders, intended to be used as carriers of biomolecules for inhalation. The sugars were spray dried from 80:20 methanol:n-butyl acetate (v/v) solutions using a Büchi Mini Spray dryer B-290. A 2(4) factorial design of experiment (DOE) was undertaken. Process parameters studied were inlet temperature, gas flow rate, feed solution flow rate (pump setting) and feed concentration. Resulting powders where characterised in terms of yield, particle size (PS), residual solvent content (RSC) and outlet temperature. An additional outcome evaluated was the specific surface area (SSA) (by BET gas adsorption), and a relation between SSA and the in vitro deposition of the sugar NPMPs powders was also investigated. The DOE resulted in well fitted models. The most significant factors affecting the characteristics of the NPMPs prepared, at a 95% confidence interval, were gas flow: yield, PS and SSA; pump setting: yield; inlet temperature: RSC. Raffinose NPMPs presented better characteristics than trehalose NPMPs in terms of their use for inhalation, since particles with larger surface area resulting in higher fine particle fraction can be produced. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Readiness to change and reasons for intended reduction of alcohol consumption in emergency department versus trauma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Craig; Hoonpongsimanont, Wirachin; Anderson, Craig L; Roumani, Samer; Weiss, Jie; Chakravarthy, Bharath; Lotfipour, Shahram

    2014-05-01

    The primary objective was to identify the most common reasons for intending to cut back on alcohol use, in emergency department (ED) and trauma patient populations. The secondary objective was to determine the association between reason to cut back on alcohol and education level. We conducted the study at a level one trauma center in California between 2008 and 2012. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI). We excluded patients who drank too little, and those whose scores were consistent with dependency (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]>19). The CASI database includes the patient's age, gender, language, education level, an AUDIT score (1-40 scale), a readiness to change score (1-10), and the option to choose any of 10 "reasons to cut back" on their alcohol consumption. From 10,537 patients, 1,202 met criteria for the study (848 ED, 354 trauma). Overall, the most common reasons cited for cutting back on alcohol were "To avoid health problems" (68.5%), "To avoid getting a DUI" (43.6%), "It could save me money" (42.0%), and "To avoid situations where I could get hurt" (41.0%). Trauma patients cited the following reasons significantly more than ED patients: "To avoid situations where I could get hurt" (46.3% versus 38.8%, respectively), "So I can be in control of my behavior" (40.7% versus 32.2%), and "My partner or spouse wants me to stop" (20.1% versus 15.0%). Additionally, those patients who cited "To avoid health problems" reported 1.2 points higher than average (pchange scale. Those who have completed some college or an associate degree cited "To avoid health problems" less often than high school graduates (odds ratio [OR] 0.45), while they cited "To avoid situations where I could get hurt" (OR 2.5) and "To avoid being in a car crash caused by alcohol use" (OR 3.8) more often than high school graduates. Health, injury, finances, and legal issues remain top concerns for

  10. Readiness to Change and Reasons for Intended Reduction of Alcohol Consumption in Emergency Department versus Trauma Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Harrison

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The primary objective was to identify the most common reasons for intending to cut back on alcohol use, in emergency department (ED and trauma patient populations. The secondary objective was to determine the association between reason to cut back on alcohol and education level. Methods: We conducted the study at a level one trauma center in California between 2008 and 2012. This was a retrospective analysis of data collected from computerized alcohol screening and intervention (CASI. We excluded patients who drank too little, and those whose scores were consistent with dependency (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT]>19. The CASI database includes the patient’s age, gender, language, education level, an AUDIT score (1-40 scale, a readiness to change score (1-10, and the option to choose any of 10 “reasons to cut back” on their alcohol consumption. Results: From 10,537 patients, 1,202 met criteria for the study (848 ED, 354 trauma. Overall, the most common reasons cited for cutting back on alcohol were “To avoid health problems” (68.5%, “To avoid getting a DUI” (43.6%, “It could save me money” (42.0%, and “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (41.0%. Trauma patients cited the following reasons significantly more than ED patients: “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (46.3% versus 38.8%, respectively, “So I can be in control of my behavior” (40.7% versus 32.2%, and “My partner or spouse wants me to stop” (20.1% versus 15.0%. Additionally, those patients who cited “To avoid health problems” reported 1.2 points higher than average (p<0.001 on the 10-point readiness to change scale. Those who have completed some college or an associate degree cited “To avoid health problems” less often than high school graduates (odds ratio [OR] 0.45, while they cited “To avoid situations where I could get hurt” (OR 2.5 and “To avoid being in a car crash caused by alcohol use

  11. Intended and unintended consequences of democracy promotion assistance to Georgia after the Rose Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available What are the political consequences of democratization assistance to regimes transitioning from authoritarian rule? By exploiting the downstream effects of a field experiment designed to encourage citizen monitoring of Georgia’s 2008 parliamentary elections, we evaluate the political consequences of one type of democracy promotion aid. The intervention increased citizen activism, but it also had the unanticipated effect of suppressing overall voter turnout by approximately 5%. We hypothesize that the civic education campaign was interpreted as a sign of increased political attention to a selected voting precinct, which suppressed opposition turnout. Two additional experiments provide additional evidence for the hypothesis.

  12. Evaluating health systems strengthening interventions in low-income and middle-income countries: are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Taghreed; Hsu, Justine; de Savigny, Don; Lavis, John N; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bennett, Sara

    2012-10-01

    In recent years, there have been several calls for rigorous health policy and systems research to inform efforts to strengthen health systems (HS) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), including the use of systems thinking concepts in designing and evaluating HS strengthening interventions. The objectives of this paper are to assess recent evaluations of HS strengthening interventions to examine the extent to which they ask a broader set of questions, and provide an appropriately comprehensive assessment of the effects of these interventions across the health system. A review of evaluations conducted in 2009-10 was performed to answer these questions. Out of 106 evaluations, less than half (43%) asked broad research questions to allow for a comprehensive assessment of the intervention's effects across multiple HS building blocks. Only half of the evaluations referred to a conceptual framework to guide their impact assessment. Overall, 24% and 9% conducted process and context evaluations, respectively, to answer the question of whether the intervention worked as intended, and if so, for whom, and under what circumstances. Almost half of the evaluations considered HS impact on one building block, while most interventions were complex targeting two or more building blocks. None incorporated evaluation designs that took into account the characteristics of complex adaptive systems such as non-linearity of effects or interactions between the HS building blocks. While we do not argue that all evaluations should be comprehensive, there is a need for more comprehensive evaluations of the wider range of the intervention's effects, when appropriate. Our findings suggest that the full range of barriers to more comprehensive evaluations need to be examined and, where appropriate, addressed. Possible barriers may include limited capacity, lack of funding, inadequate time frames, lack of demand from both researchers and research funders, or difficulties in undertaking this

  13. Interventions for preventing obesity in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Waters

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention of childhood obesity is an international public health priority given the significant impact of obesity on acute and chronic diseases, general health, development and well-being. The international evidence base for strategies that governments, communities and families can implement to prevent obesity, and promote health, has been accumulating but remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: This review primarily aims to update the previous Cochrane review of childhood obesity prevention research and determine the effectiveness of evaluated interventions intended to prevent obesity in children, assessed by change in Body Mass Index (BMI. Secondary aims were to examine the characteristics of the programs and strategies to answer the questions "What works for whom, why and for what cost?" METHODS: Search methods: The searches were re-run in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO and CINAHL in March 2010 and searched relevant websites. Non-English language papers were included and experts were contacted. Selection criteria: The review includes data from childhood obesity prevention studies that used a controlled study design (with or without randomisation. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions, policies or programs in place for twelve weeks or more. If studies were randomized at a cluster level, six clusters were required. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data was extracted on intervention implementation, cost, equity and outcomes. Outcome measures were grouped according to whether they measured adiposity, physical activity (PA-related behaviours or diet-related behaviours. Adverse outcomes were recorded. A meta-analysis was conducted using available BMI or standardized BMI (zBMI score data with subgroup analysis by age group (0-5, 6-12, 13-18 years, corresponding to stages of developmental and childhood settings. MAIN RESULTS: This

  14. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Web security systems usually involve cooperation between domains with non-identical policies. The network management and Web communication software used by the different organizations presents a stumbling block. Many of the tools used by the various divisions do not have the ability to communicate network management data with each other. At best, this means that manual human intervention into the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints is required. Developing practical, sound, and automated ways to compose policies to bridge these differences is a long-standing problem. One of the key subtleties is the need to deal with inconsistencies and defaults where one organization proposes a rule on a particular feature, and another has a different rule or expresses no rule. A general approach is to assign priorities to rules and observe the rules with the highest priorities when there are conflicts. The present methods have inherent inefficiency, which heavily restrict their practical applications. A new, efficient algorithm combines policies utilized for Web services. The method is based on an algorithm that allows an automatic and scalable composition of security policies between multiple organizations. It is based on defeasible policy composition, a promising approach for finding conflicts and resolving priorities between rules. In the general case, policy negotiation is an intractable problem. A promising method, suggested in the literature, is when policies are represented in defeasible logic, and composition is based on rules for non-monotonic inference. In this system, policy writers construct metapolicies describing both the policy that they wish to enforce and annotations describing their composition preferences. These annotations can indicate whether certain policy assertions are required by the policy writer or, if not, under what circumstances the policy writer is willing to compromise and allow other assertions to take

  15. Addition of phenols compounds to meat dough intended for salami manufacture and its antioxidant effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A purified extract of phenols compounds (65% of phenolic content of which decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycone represented 45% of the wet mass obtained from vegetation water (a by-product of oil mill was added to a ground meat dough intended for salami manufacture in two concentration levels: 75 and 150 mg/100 g of dough (F1 and F2, respectively. The control batch was composed of lean and fat cuts of pork in 70:30 ratio, 2.7% salt and a mixed starter culture of staphylococci and pediococci. After stuffing into natural casings, salamis were aged until they reached a total weight loss of 30%. The product was then sliced and packaged in a protective atmosphere (nitrogen:carbon dioxide 80:20 and placed in a refrigerator thermostat (2-4°C with alternating 12 h of artificial light and darkness. The samples were analysed for the measurement of pH, water activity, organic acidity, peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation at the time of slicing and after 10, 20 and 30 days of storage into the refrigerated thermostat. The pH and water activity were not substantially different between the control and the two enriched batches. The peroxide number and secondary products of lipid peroxidation values in the two batches with phenols were at least substantially lower than the control sample. In conclusion, the phenol compounds obtained from vegetation water have shown no interference with the ripening process while protecting the dough from oxidation.

  16. Anticoagulants Influence the Performance of In Vitro Assays Intended for Characterization of Nanotechnology-Based Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedrone, Edward; Neun, Barry W; Rodriguez, Jamie; Vermilya, Alison; Clogston, Jeffrey D; McNeil, Scott E; Barenholz, Yechezkel; Szebeni, Janos; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A

    2017-12-21

    The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To enable such tests one has to prevent the blood from coagulating, which is usually achieved by the addition of an anticoagulant into blood collection tubes. Heparin, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), and citrate are the most commonly used anticoagulants. Novel anticoagulants such as hirudin are also available but are not broadly used. Despite the notion that certain anticoagulants may influence assay performance, a systematic comparison between traditional and novel anticoagulants in the in vitro assays intended for immunological characterization of nanotechnology-based formulations is currently not available. We compared hirudin-anticoagulated blood with its traditional counterparts in the standardized immunological assay cascade, and found that the type of anticoagulant did not influence the performance of the hemolysis assay. However, hirudin was more optimal for the complement activation and leukocyte proliferation assays, while traditional anticoagulants citrate and heparin were more appropriate for the coagulation and cytokine secretion assays. The results also suggest that traditional immunological controls such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS ) are not reliable for understanding the role of anticoagulant in the assay performance. We observed differences in the test results between hirudin and traditional anticoagulant-prepared blood for nanomaterials at the time when no such effects were seen with traditional controls. It is, therefore, important to recognize the advantages and limitations of each anticoagulant and consider individual nanoparticles on a case-by-case basis.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE REGARDING FAMILY PLANNING METHODS AND INTENDED FAMILY SIZE AMONG MEN OF URBAN SLUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Mohan Dixit

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge of contraceptive methods and intended family size among the men of urban slum.Material and Method: Present study conducted in urban slum area of Jaipur. Information from 400 married men of age group 18-49 years collected on semi structured schedule during June to October 2012.House to house survey conducted to achieve defined sample size. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 12 soft ware. Chi square, t test and ANOVA were used for interpretation.Result and Conclusion: Most commonly known methods of family planning were female sterilization (95.2%, condom (94.7% and Male sterilization (93.5%.  IUCD (57% was still not popularly known method of contraception. Emergency contraceptive pills (12.2% and Injectables (25.7% were least known methods among men. Knowledge of different contraceptive differs according to educational status and caste of men.  TV and radio were main source of information. Only 16% men said that they got information from health personnel. On analysis present family size was 3.125 while desired family size was 2.63, it shows that two child norm is not ideal to all. Men who had already two children 53 % of them still want to expand their family. Approximately half of the men feel that they have larger family size and the main reasons were inappropriate knowledge (37% and ignorance (21%. Those men who want to expand their family size, son preference was the major reason. Only 3% men show the intention of one child as ideal in family, which indicate that one child norm is too far to reach.

  18. Intended and unintended consequences of abortion law reform: perspectives of abortion experts in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, L A; Newton, D; Bayly, C; McNamee, K; Hardiman, A; Webster, A; Bismark, M

    2017-01-01

    In Victoria, Australia, abortion was decriminalised in October 2008, bringing the law in line with clinical practice and community attitudes. We describe how experts in abortion service provision perceived the intent and subsequent impact of the 2008 Victorian abortion law reform. Experts in abortion provision in Victoria were recruited for a qualitative semi-structured interview about the 2008 law reform and its perceived impact, until saturation was reached. Nineteen experts from a range of health care settings and geographic locations were interviewed in 2014/2015. Thematic analysis was conducted to summarise participants' views. Abortion law reform, while a positive event, was perceived to have changed little about the provision of abortion. The views of participants can be categorised into: (1) goals that law reform was intended to address and that have been achieved; (2) intent or hopes of law reform that have not been achieved; (3) unintended consequences; (4) coincidences; and (5) unfinished business. All agreed that law reform had repositioned abortion as a health rather than legal issue, had shifted the power in decision making from doctors to women, and had increased clarity and safety for doctors. However, all described outstanding concerns; limited public provision of surgical abortion; reduced access to abortion after 20 weeks; ongoing stigma; lack of a state-wide strategy for equitable abortion provision; and an unsustainable workforce. Law reform, while positive, has failed to address a number of significant issues in abortion service provision, and may have even resulted in a 'lull' in action. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Anticoagulants Influence the Performance of In Vitro Assays Intended for Characterization of Nanotechnology-Based Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Cedrone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The preclinical safety assessment of novel nanotechnology-based drug products frequently relies on in vitro assays, especially during the early stages of product development, due to the limited quantities of nanomaterials available for such studies. The majority of immunological tests require donor blood. To enable such tests one has to prevent the blood from coagulating, which is usually achieved by the addition of an anticoagulant into blood collection tubes. Heparin, ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA, and citrate are the most commonly used anticoagulants. Novel anticoagulants such as hirudin are also available but are not broadly used. Despite the notion that certain anticoagulants may influence assay performance, a systematic comparison between traditional and novel anticoagulants in the in vitro assays intended for immunological characterization of nanotechnology-based formulations is currently not available. We compared hirudin-anticoagulated blood with its traditional counterparts in the standardized immunological assay cascade, and found that the type of anticoagulant did not influence the performance of the hemolysis assay. However, hirudin was more optimal for the complement activation and leukocyte proliferation assays, while traditional anticoagulants citrate and heparin were more appropriate for the coagulation and cytokine secretion assays. The results also suggest that traditional immunological controls such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS are not reliable for understanding the role of anticoagulant in the assay performance. We observed differences in the test results between hirudin and traditional anticoagulant-prepared blood for nanomaterials at the time when no such effects were seen with traditional controls. It is, therefore, important to recognize the advantages and limitations of each anticoagulant and consider individual nanoparticles on a case-by-case basis.

  20. Intervenciones preventivas de la violencia interna en el trabajo: políticas de buenas prácticas y gestión de conflictos Internal violence at work preventive interventions: good practice policies and conflict management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Bernat Jiménez

    2011-01-01

    that which happens between coworkers, including middle management and high command. It includes physical violence and sexual and psychological harassment, as well as other psychological violent conducts different from that. It must be considered as a psychosocial risk which involves important danger for people's health and safety as well as organizational repercussions through direct and indirect costs. Considering internal violence from the "work risk" point of view means that it should be approached using the preventive action principles while it also allows the adoption of active strategies directed to prevent the phenomenon. Main national and international organizations propose to implement policies to prevent violence in the workplace. This article deals with the convenience of the development and implementation in organizations of an internal violence prevention policy, which involves all the organization, orientated to achieve healthy workplace environments focused on organizational and psychosocial factors. This article approaches the essential premises of internal violence prevention policies, dealing as well with the basic moments of the preventive strategy: - psychosocial risks evaluation - good practice policy - procedures for management of conflicts and psychological harassment at work - organizational communication strategies and formative actions To accomplish actual effectiveness, the internal violence prevention policies must be incorporated to the organization's Prevention Management System, which will at the same time, be integrated in all the rest of the management systems of the company.

  1. Interventional Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William T N

    2016-05-01

    The approach to the treatment of cancer in veterinary patients is constantly evolving. Whenever possible and practical, surgery is pursued because it provides the greatest opportunity for tumor control and may result in a cure. Other cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy, are commonplace in veterinary medicine, and the data outlining treatment regimens are growing rapidly. An absence of treatment options for veterinary cancer patients, however, has historically existed for some tumors. Interventional oncology options have opened the door to the potential for better therapeutic response and improved patient quality of life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  3. Individual, employment and psychosocial factors influencing walking to work: Implications for intervention design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available Promoting walking for the journey to and from work (commuter walking is a potential strategy for increasing physical activity. Understanding the factors influencing commuter walking is important for identifying target groups and designing effective interventions. This study aimed to examine individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors associated with commuter walking and to discuss the implications for targeting and future design of interventions.1,544 employees completed a baseline survey as part of the 'Walking Works' intervention project (33.4% male; 36.3% aged <30 years. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associations of individual (age, ethnic group, educational qualifications, number of children <16 and car ownership, employment-related (distance lived from work, free car parking at work, working hours, working pattern and occupation and psychosocial factors (perceived behavioural control, intention, social norms and social support from work colleagues with commuter walking.Almost half of respondents (n = 587, 49% were classified as commuter walkers. Those who were aged <30 years, did not have a car, had no free car parking at work, were confident of including some walking or intended to walk to or from work on a regular basis, and had support from colleagues for walking were more likely to be commuter walkers. Those who perceived they lived too far away from work to walk, thought walking was less convenient than using a car for commuting, did not have time to walk, needed a car for work or had always travelled the same way were less likely to be commuter walkers.A number of individual, employment-related and psychosocial factors were associated with commuter walking. Target groups for interventions to promote walking to and from work may include those in older age groups and those who own or have access to a car. Multi-level interventions targeting individual level behaviour change, social support within

  4. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Background Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. Selection criteria All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. Data collection and analysis We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56). Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the

  5. Psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J; Sabioni, Pamela; Copeland, Jan; Le Foll, Bernard; Gowing, Linda

    2016-05-05

    Cannabis use disorder is the most commonly reported illegal substance use disorder in the general population; although demand for assistance from health services is increasing internationally, only a minority of those with the disorder seek professional assistance. Treatment studies have been published, but pressure to establish public policy requires an updated systematic review of cannabis-specific treatments for adults. To evaluate the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for cannabis use disorder (compared with inactive control and/or alternative treatment) delivered to adults in an out-patient or community setting. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Cumulaive Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and reference lists of articles. Searched literature included all articles published before July 2015. All randomised controlled studies examining a psychosocial intervention for cannabis use disorder (without pharmacological intervention) in comparison with a minimal or inactive treatment control or alternative combinations of psychosocial interventions. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 23 randomised controlled trials involving 4045 participants. A total of 15 studies took place in the United States, two in Australia, two in Germany and one each in Switzerland, Canada, Brazil and Ireland. Investigators delivered treatments over approximately seven sessions (range, one to 14) for approximately 12 weeks (range, one to 56).Overall, risk of bias across studies was moderate, that is, no trial was at high risk of selection bias, attrition bias or reporting bias. Further, trials included a large total number of participants, and each trial ensured the fidelity of treatments provided. In contrast, because of the nature of the interventions provided, participant blinding was not possible, and reports of

  6. Analysis of Foreign Exchange Interventions by Intervention Agent with an Artificial Market Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Hiroki; Tojo, Satoshi

    We propose a multi-agent system which learns intervention policies and evaluates the effect of interventions in an artificial foreign exchange market. Izumi et al. had presented a system called AGEDASI TOF to simulate artificial market, together with a support system for the government to decide foreign exchange policies. However, the system needed to fix the amount of governmental intervention prior to the simulation, and was not realistic. In addition, the interventions in the system did not affect supply and demand of currencies; thus we could not discuss the effect of intervention correctly. First, we improve the system so as to make much of the weights of influential factors. Thereafter, we introduce an intervention agent that has the role of the central bank to stabilize the market. We could show that the agent learned the effective intervention policies through the reinforcement learning, and that the exchange rate converged to a certain extent in the expected range. We could also estimate the amount of intervention, showing the efficacy of signaling. In this model, in order to investigate the aliasing of the perception of the intervention agent, we introduced a pseudo-agent who was supposed to be able to observe all the behaviors of dealer agents; with this super-agent, we discussed the adequate granularity for a market state description.

  7. Learning and innovation in the Indian pharmaceutical industry: the role of IPR and other policy interventions - DOI: 10.3395/reciis.v2i2.192en

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shovon Ray

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Through the decades of 1970s and 1980s, the Indian pharmaceutical industry (IPR reached new heights of processcapabilities. At the present juncture, however, the industry is at a watershed, trying to cope with the challenges of globalisation and reforms. It is going through a turbulent phase of adjustment driven by the emerging international economic order of the WTO, especially the TRIPS agreement establishing a new IPR environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the trajectory of learning and innovation in the IPR as it evolved through the various phases of government policy environment and IPR regimes. We conclude that although India has reached impressive heights of technological maturity in pharmaceuticals, it is yet to arrive at the global frontiers of cutting edge drug discovery research. This can only be achieved through sustained technological effort and continued R&D.

  8. Policy, Sport and Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine; Sørensen, Jan Kahr

    2010-01-01

    in sport, although sports clubs do get economic support and are seen as having the potential to solve crucial social issues. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the ways in which the political assumption that sport can enhance social integration is reflected in the practical governance......Increased public funding, more governmental involvement and an emphasis on the instrumental values of physical activities have in general become characteristic of Western nations’ policies towards sport. Denmark is, however, a little different in that there is still little political intervention...... of integration issues in particular in sports clubs. The article is based on a local field study in which we interviewed 10 talented football players with ethnic minority backgrounds and eight coaches and club leaders from six different football clubs. Distinguishing between integration and assimilation...

  9. Attitudes of practicing nurses as predictors of intended care behavior with persons who are HIV positive: testing the Ajzen-Fishbein Theory of Reasoned Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laschinger, H K; Goldenberg, D

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive correlational study was to examine practicing nurses' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions to care for HIV positive patients, using the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and forty-one subjects completed a questionnaire developed according to guidelines described by Ajzen and Fishbein (1980). Consistent with the theory, nurses' attitudes and subjective norms were found to be significant predictors of intentions to care for persons who are HIV positive (R2 = 0.27). Personal beliefs found to discriminate between intenders and nonintenders were those related to possible consequences for self, family, and friends, but not job-related consequences. Normative beliefs which discriminated between groups were also related to nonprofessional referents' expectations. In addition, qualitative data showed persistent concerns about occupational risk for contracting AIDS. Based on the results of this research, it is recommended that nurse educators in both clinical and academic settings, target specific educational/training interventions to include transmission, prevention, as well as exploration of feelings, attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions about HIV-related topics. Further theory-based research and testing of interventions to change practicing nurses' attitudes and beliefs about HIV disease are advocated.

  10. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  11. Characterization of different vitamin E carriers intended for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouini, A; Andrieu, V; Vecellio, L; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2014-08-25

    The targeted release of drugs intended for pulmonary delivery is a research field which has been so far rather unexploited but is currently becoming increasingly attractive. Liquid dispersions encapsulating vitamin E (liposomes, micelles, nano-emulsion, and solid lipid particles) were prepared using various methods based on membrane contactor. The dispersions were nebulized and aerodynamic characteristics of the generated aerosols were assessed using two different methods: laser light scattering and cascade impaction. When the laser diffraction technique was used, results showed that fine particle fractions (<5 μm) were 19, 29, 38 and 71% for solid lipid particles, micelles, nano-emulsion and liposomes, respectively. When the impaction method was applied, using a next generation pharmaceutical impactor operated at 30 l/min, results showed that fine particle fractions were 39, 78, 82 and 87% for solid lipid particles, micelles, nano-emulsion and liposomes, respectively. The differences observed between the results obtained from both methods confirm that the laser diffraction method is not always suitable for aerodynamic characterization of aerosols and should be validated against an impaction method. Nebulization of the drug-carrier systems led to an increase of their size most likely due to aggregation phenomena. The size was increased by a factor of 2-26 depending on the encapsulation system. The most important aggregation was obtained with nano-emulsion; the less one with solid lipid particles. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the generated aerosols ranged from 1.76 to 6.10 μm. The application of a mathematical model, the Multiple-Path Particle Dosimetry (MPPD), for the prediction of the pulmonary deposit gave encouraging results. The rate of vitamin E able to reach the lung ranged from 37.6 (for the liposomes) to 51.6% (for the micelles). The obtained results showed that the different systems developed for vitamin E encapsulation were suitable to

  12. Hemorrhage in mouse tumors induced by dodecaborate cluster lipids intended for boron neutron capture therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaffran T

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tanja Schaffran,1 Nan Jiang,1 Markus Bergmann,2,3 Ekkehard Küstermann,4 Regine Süss,5 Rolf Schubert,5 Franz M Wagner,6 Doaa Awad,7 Detlef Gabel1,2,8 1Department of Chemistry, University of Bremen, 2Institute of Neuropathology, Klinikum Bremen-Mitte; 3Cooperative Center Medicine, University of Bremen, 4“In-vivo-MR” AG, FB2, University of Bremen, Bremen, 5Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Freiburg, Freiburg im Breisgau, 6Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II, Technische Unversitaet Muenchen, Garching, Germany; 7Department of Biochemistry, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt; 8School of Engineering and Science, Jacobs University Bremen, Bremen, Germany Abstract: The potential of boron-containing lipids with three different structures, which were intended for use in boron neutron capture therapy, was investigated. All three types of boron lipids contained the anionic dodecaborate cluster as the headgroup. Their effects on two different tumor models in mice following intravenous injection were tested; for this, liposomes with boron lipid, distearoyl phosphatidylcholine, and cholesterol as helper lipids, and containing a polyethylene glycol lipid for steric protection, were administered intravenously into tumor-bearing mice (C3H mice for SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma and BALB/c mice for CT26/WT colon carcinoma. With the exception of one lipid (B-THF-14, the lipids were well tolerated, and no other animal was lost due to systemic toxicity. The lipid which led to death was not found to be much more toxic in cell culture than the other boron lipids. All of the lipids that were well tolerated showed hemorrhage in both tumor models within a few hours after administration. The hemorrhage could be seen by in vivo magnetic resonance and histology, and was found to occur within a few hours. The degree of hemorrhage depended on the amount of boron administered and on the tumor model. The observed unwanted effect of the lipids

  13. The Elusive Goal: The Quest for a Credible Immigration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years the United States has unsuccessfully struggled to reform its often maligned and massively abused immigration policies. Matters went awry following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965. There were unexpected consequences. Intended to remove the overtly discriminatory features of the "national origins"…

  14. 76 FR 40591 - Coordinating Policies on Automotive Communities and Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby... that include land-use redevelopment, small business support, and worker training. The purpose of this... Federal policies and programs intended to address issues of special importance to automotive communities...

  15. Evaluating Frameworks That Provide Value Measures for Health Care Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne S; Ramsey, Scott D; Lieu, Tracy A; Phelps, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    The recent acceleration of scientific discovery has led to greater choices in health care. New technologies, diagnostic tests, and pharmaceuticals have widely varying impact on patients and populations in terms of benefits, toxicities, and costs, stimulating a resurgence of interest in the creation of frameworks intended to measure value in health. Many of these are offered by providers and/or advocacy organizations with expertise and interest in specific diseases (e.g., cancer and heart disease). To help assess the utility of and the potential biases embedded in these frameworks, we created an evaluation taxonomy with seven basic components: 1) define the purpose; 2) detail the conceptual approach, including perspectives, methods for obtaining preferences of decision makers (e.g., patients), and ability to incorporate multiple dimensions of value; 3) discuss inclusions and exclusions of elements included in the framework, and whether the framework assumes clinical intervention or offers alternatives such as palliative care or watchful waiting; 4) evaluate data sources and their scientific validity; 5) assess the intervention's effect on total costs of treating a defined population; 6) analyze how uncertainty is incorporated; and 7) illuminate possible conflicts of interest among those creating the framework. We apply the taxonomy to four representative value frameworks recently published by professional organizations focused on treatment of cancer and heart disease and on vaccine use. We conclude that each of these efforts has strengths and weaknesses when evaluated using our taxonomy, and suggest pathways to enhance the utility of value-assessing frameworks for policy and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bridging science and health policy in cardiovascular disease: focus on lipid management: A Report from a Session held during the 7th International Symposium on Multiple Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Diseases: Prevention and Intervention--Health Policy, in Venice, Italy, on 25 October, 2008.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Atella, V

    2009-06-10

    In Europe, cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the main cause of morbidity and mortality, costing countries euro 190 billion yearly (2006). CVD prevention remains unsatisfactory across Europe largely due to poor control of CVD risk factors (RFs), growing incidence of obesity and diabetes, and sedentary lifestyle\\/poor dietary habits. Hypercholesterolaemia is a proven CVD RF, and LDL-C lowering slows atherosclerotic progression and reduces major coronary events. Lipid-lowering therapy is cost-effective, and intensive treatment of high-risk patients further improves cost effectiveness. In Italy, models indicate that improved cholesterol management translates into potential yearly savings of euro 2.9-4 billion. Identifying and eliminating legislative and administrative barriers is essential to providing optimal lipid care to high-risk patients. Public health and government policy can influence clinical practice rapidly, and guideline endorsement via national health policy may reduce the CVD burden and change physician and patient behaviour. Action to reduce CVD burden should ideally include the integration of strategies to lower the incidence of major CV events, improvement in total CV risk estimation, database monitoring of CVD trends, and development of population educational initiatives on CVD prevention. Failure to bridge the gap between science and health policy, particularly in relation to lipid management, could result in missed opportunities to reverse the burgeoning epidemic of CVD in Europe.

  17. A software complex intended for constructing applied models and meta-models on the basis of mathematical programming principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Михаил Юрьевич Чернышов

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A software complex (SC elaborated by the authors on the basis of the language LMPL and representing a software tool intended for synthesis of applied software models and meta-models constructed on the basis of mathematical programming (MP principles is described. LMPL provides for an explicit form of declarative representation of MP-models, presumes automatic constructing and transformation of models and the capability of adding external software packages. The following software versions of the SC have been implemented: 1 a SC intended for representing the process of choosing an optimal hydroelectric power plant model (on the principles of meta-modeling and 2 a SC intended for representing the logic-sense relations between the models of a set of discourse formations in the discourse meta-model.

  18. The intended and unintended consequences of benzodiazepine monitoring programmes: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J; Sanyal, C; Frail, D; Sketris, I

    2012-02-01

    Concern has been expressed regarding the potential over-prescription of benzodiazepines (BZDs) and their potential for misuse and abuse. Patterns of BZD use can be tracked by prescription monitoring programmes (PMPs). This study reviews the literature examining the impact of PMPs on the use of BZDs. Studies published in English from January 1980 to April 2009 were identified though PubMed, EMBASE, IPA, CINHL and Web of Science using MeSH terms: 'Benzodiazepines' OR 'Benzodiazepines/supply and distribution' AND ('Social Control, Formal/legislation, jurisprudence'); Emtree terms: 'drug control'/exp AND 'benzodiazepine derivative'/exp/mj. A broad search strategy was also used: benzodiazepines; triplicate prescription program; prescription monitoring program; triplicate prescribing; and triplicate prescription policy. This search identified 32 relevant articles that addressed the impact of implementation of a PMP for BZDs in New York State in 1989. Overall, BZD prescribing declined following implementation, but the decline was not consistent across population groups. In particular, marginalized and vulnerable populations, such as persons with chronic mental health disorders, may be disproportionately affected. We provide a critical review of the impact of PMPs on the use of BZDs. PM decreases overall use of BZDs, but may have unintended consequences that differentially impact certain populations. Furthermore, research is warranted to understand better the long-term costs and benefits. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Labour market policies, poverty and insecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Standing, Guy

    2008-01-01

    The paper sets out to evaluate the performance in terms of poverty alleviation of conventional labour market and social policies and arrangements in the era of globalised labour markets. To this end, it develops a framework based on five policy evaluation principles, centred on the normative notion of social justice, whereby the expansion of full freedom requires basic economic security for all.\\ud \\ud It concludes that most of the labour market interventions reviewed have suffered from commo...

  20. [Family policy in Western Europe: a sociological reflection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumon, W

    1987-01-01

    Family policy, a primarily European phenomenon including all governmental actions designed to maintain, support, or influence the structure and life of families, must be distinguished from measures intended for other purposes which merely impact upon the family. Family policy may concern legislative measures governing the formation and dissolution of households and marriages, or it may concern social transfers. The transfers may be monetary ones as in the tax, social security, and public assistance systems, or services such as child care made available to families. This article argues that recent changes in family policy in Western Europe tend to blur the distinction between family policy and a policy of family impact. 3 phases can be distinguished in development of family policy in Western Europe. The first, developed after World War II, involved economic and financial aid to families through tax benefits and family allowances; it was explicitly intended to safe guard the economic base of productive families. Next came nonmaterial assistance intended to increase the welfare of families through such measures as sex education and marriage preparation courses and centers for family therapy or marriage counseling. The final step was provision of services such as child care intended to substitute partially and temporarily for the family. In the 1960s and 1970s economic aid to families was criticized by feminists for perpetuating sexual stereotypes and by others for benefiting middle income and wealthy families more than the disadvantaged. The economic recession which began in the late 1970s, the diffusion of nontraditional household and family types, and the spectre of population decline due to very low birth rates have been important influences on family policy during the 1980s. Employment has become an issue in family policy for the first time, with feminists rejecting policy initiatives that would discourage female employment and other groups arguing that jobs

  1. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin R; Niculescu, Mihai; Just, David R; Kelly, Michael P

    2014-09-01

    Grocery stores represent a context in which a majority of people's food purchases occur. Considering the nutrition quality of the population's food intake has dramatically decreased, understanding how to improve food choice in the grocery store is paramount to healthier living. In this work, we detail the type of financial resources from which shoppers could draw (i.e., personal income and benefits from government food assistance programs to low income populations) and explain how these financial resources are allocated in the grocery store (i.e., planned, unplanned, error). Subsequently, we identify a conceptual framework for shopper marketing nutrition interventions that targets unplanned fruit and vegetable purchases (i.e., slack, or willingness to spend minus list items). Targeting slack for fresh fruit and vegetable purchases allows retailers to benefit economically (i.e., fruit and vegetables are higher margin) and allows shoppers to improve their nutrition without increasing their budgets (i.e., budget neutrality). We also provide preliminary evidence of what in-store marketing of fresh fruits and vegetables could entail by modifying grocery carts and grocery floors to provide information of what is common, normal, or appropriate fruit and vegetable purchases. In each example, fresh fruit and vegetable purchases increased and evidence suggested shopper budget neutrality. To provide context for these results, we detail measurement tools that can be used to measure shopper behaviors, purchases, and consumption patterns. Finally, we address theoretical, practical, and policy implications of shopper marketing nutrition interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Maintenance policy selection for ships: an investigation using the analytic hierarchy process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, Adriaan

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance is an important contributor to reach the intended life-time of capital technical assets. How to maintain these assets is gaining increasing attention and relevance. One of the decisions within maintenance is selecting the right maintenance policy: maintenance policy selection (MPS). A

  3. In the Eyes of the Beholder: Urban Student Perceptions of Zero Tolerance Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Laura; Dunbar, Christopher, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Zero tolerance policy was created as a result of the Gun Free Schools Act of 1994. Varied views exist on zero tolerance policy that include its substantive impact, for whom it is intended, and its viability to address the problem of school violence. Parents, politicians, principals, and teachers have stated their views on the issues. However,…

  4. PROCSEE: Policy Challenges for Professional Higher Education in Central and South-Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policnik, Jasmina; Sauli Miklavcic, Alicia Leonor; Alupei-Durach, Flavia; Nožica, Žarko; Chrást, Ondrej; Voldánová, Iva; Karpíšek, Michal; Dinya, László; Medve, Anna; Wéber, György; Racsko, Réka; Perényi, Petra; Camilleri, Anthony F.

    2016-01-01

    PROCSEE is a policy-oriented project, aimed at strengthening the provision of professional higher education, by strengthening the policy-work conducted by umbrella organizations representing professional higher education institutions in Central and South-Eastern in Europe. Working together over three years, the project intends to: (1) identify the…

  5. "We want to offer you peace of mind": Marketing of transnational commercial surrogacy services to intended parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezinski, Lindsay B; Karandikar, Sharvari; Levitt, Alexis; Ghaffarian, Roxanne

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to conduct a content analysis of commercial surrogacy websites to explore how surrogacy is marketed to intended parents. The researchers developed a template to code website data, and a total of 345 website pages were reviewed. Websites depicted surrogacy as a solution to a problem, privileged genetic parenthood, ignored the potential for exploitation, dismissed surrogates' capacity to bond with the fetuses they carry, emphasized that surrogacy arrangements are mutually beneficial, ignored structural inequalities, and depicted surrogates as conforming to strict gender roles. These framings introduce vulnerabilities to both intended parents and surrogate mothers.

  6. Assignment Procedure Biases in Randomised Policy Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldashev, Gani; Kirchsteiger, Georg; Sebald, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    's propensity to act reciprocally. When people are motivated by reciprocity, the choice of assignment procedure influences the RCTs’ findings. We show that even credible and explicit randomisation procedures do not guarantee an unbiased prediction of the impact of policy interventions; however, they minimise......Randomised controlled trials (RCT) have gained ground as the dominant tool for studying policy interventions in many fields of applied economics. We analyse theoretically encouragement and resentful demoralisation in RCTs and show that these might be rooted in the same behavioural trait – people...... any bias relative to other less transparent assignment procedures....

  7. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  8. The Demise of Russian Health Capital: The Continuity of Ineffective Government Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Van Wagoner, Jarad L

    2007-01-01

    .... Government policies and intervention have contributed to the crisis. The purpose of this research is to find a possible explanation for the continuity in ineffective government policy regarding health care...

  9. Efficiency versus fairness : The evaluation of labor market policies by economists and laypeople

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haferkamp, Alexandra; Fetchenhauer, Detelf; Belschak, Frank; Enste, Dominik

    The present study examines the criteria used by economic laypeople (N = 380 German citizens) and economists (N = 80 professors or postgraduates in economics) in judging reform measures as illustrated by policies of governmental labor market intervention policies. Results reveal substantial

  10. European Cohesion Policy: A Proposed Evaluation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Bouroşu (Costăchescu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The current approach of European Cohesion Policy (ECP is intended to be a bridge between different fields of study, emphasizing the intersection between "the public policy cycle, theories of new institutionalism and the new public management”. ECP can be viewed as a focal point between putting into practice the principles of the new governance theory, theories of economic convergence and divergence and the governance of common goods. After a short introduction of defining the concepts used, the author discussed on the created image of ECP by applying three different theories, focusing on the structural funds implementation system (SFIS, directing the discussion on the evaluation part of this policy, by proposing a model of performance evaluation of the system, in order to outline key principles for creating effective management mechanisms of ECP.

  11. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  12. Renewable Energy: Policy Considerations for Deploying Renewables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This information paper accompanies the IEA publication Deploying Renewables 2011: Best and Future Policy Practice (IEA, 2011a). It provides more detailed data and analysis on policies for Deploying Renewables, and is intended to complement the main publication. It provides an account of the strategic drivers underpinning renewable energy (RE) technology deployment (energy security, economic development and environment protection) and assesses RE technologies with respect to these drivers, including an estimate of GHG emissions reductions due to RE technologies. The paper also explores the different barriers to deploying renewables at a given stage of market maturity and discusses what tools policy makers can avail of to succeed in removing deployment barriers. An additional topical highlight explores the challenges associated with accelerating the diffusion of RE technologies in developing countries.

  13. Basics of energy policy; Grundlagen der Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiche, D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book displays basics of German and international energy policy. It explains the subject area for newcomers like students as well as for experts from industry, sciences or journalism and is intended to be a valuable source of information and helpfull reference book. It is made purposely in a way to be read section-wise. How is the state of development of special energy sources as coal, wind power or tidal and wave power respectively? Which actors operate in energy policy, what instruments of energy policy can be used by the legislator? The book is supposed to answer those questions. It was tried to achieve a high level of readability and useability by structuring and the use of many pictures and tables. (orig./uke)

  14. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child’s life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure’s reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children’s developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children’s needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing

  15. A National Early Intervention System as a Strategy to Promote Inclusion and Academic Achievement in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Vitor; Melo, Madalena; Santos, Graça; Apolónio, Ana; Amaral, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention with children at risk or facing developmental problems is a practice defined by three fundamental characteristics: being family-centered, being based on the community and on the child's life context, and being conducted by a team with transdisciplinary practice. In this paper we wish to present how the SNIPI-National System of Early Intervention, implemented in Portugal over the past 15 years, contributes to promote maximum development and the full inclusion of children up to 6 years of age and works to prevent school failure. The SNIPI covers the entire territory and intends to respond to the needs of children with developmental disorders or those in at risk situations. This community-based early intervention model is linked to the health, education and social care systems, involving the three responsible Ministries. In the present community case study, we present the implementation of this program in the Alentejo region, involving 31 local teams and almost 2500 children. Through the regional structure's reports and the responses of parents and professionals in impact studies, we demonstrate how the system is established and how it tackles school failure and improves the educational inclusion of these children. The impact of this Early Intervention model has been significant not only on children's developmental outcomes, but also for the health, education and social care professionals who work in a transdisciplinary perspective, as well as for the families who became more skilled at evaluating the children's needs and the support provided. This approach to implementing a family-centered Early Intervention program can contribute to full inclusion. It facilitates the transition to schooling based on a non-discriminatory approach and educational achievement by aiding development and an adapted contextualization in pre-school education. This program system introduces significant innovation within the framework of existing educational policies that

  16. Healthy Food Procurement Policies and Their Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niebylski, Mark L.; Lu, Tammy; Campbell, Norm R. C.; Arcand, Joanne; Schermel, Alyssa; Hua, Diane; Yeates, Karen E.; Tobe, Sheldon W.; Twohig, Patrick A.; L’Abbé, Mary R.; Liu, Peter P.

    2014-01-01

    Unhealthy eating is the leading risk for death and disability globally. As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) has called for population health interventions. One of the proposed interventions is to ensure healthy foods are available by implementing healthy food procurement policies. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the evidence base assessing the impact of such policies. A comprehensive review was conducted by searching PubMed and Medline for policies that had been implemented and evaluated the impact of food purchases, food consumption, and behaviors towards healthy foods. Thirty-four studies were identified and found to be effective at increasing the availability and purchases of healthy food and decreasing purchases of unhealthy food. Most policies also had other components such as education, price reductions, and health interventions. The multiple gaps in research identified by this review suggest that additional research and ongoing evaluation of food procurement programs is required. Implementation of healthy food procurement policies in schools, worksites, hospitals, care homes, correctional facilities, government institutions, and remote communities increase markers of healthy eating. Prior or simultaneous implementation of ancillary education about healthy eating, and rationale for the policy may be critical success factors and additional research is needed. PMID:24595213

  17. Evaluation of radiation risk and work practices during cerebral interventions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingstone, Roshan S; Raghuram, L; Korah, Ipeson P; Raj, D Victor [Department of Radiodiagnosis, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004 (India)

    2003-09-01

    This study was intended to evaluate radiation risk to patients during cerebral interventions and the contribution to this risk from work practices. Thirty nine patients undergoing cerebral interventions in a digital subtraction angiography suite were included in this study. Patients who underwent cerebral interventions were categorised into two groups according to the number of cerebral interventions performed on them, and their effective doses were calculated. The effective dose for patients undergoing a single cerebral intervention (group A) varied from 1.55 to 15.9 mSv and for multiple cerebral interventions (group B) varied from 16.52 to 43.52 mSv. Two patients who underwent multiple cerebral interventions (group B) had alopecia of the irradiated scalp.

  18. High quantity but limited quality in healthcare applications intended for HIV-infected patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robustillo Cortés, María de las Aguas; Cantudo Cuenca, María Rosa; Morillo Verdugo, Ramón; Calvo Cidoncha, Elena

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, through the creation of a specific questionnaire, the information quality in mobile applications (apps) aimed at human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. We also established a quality rating and identified the main strengths and weaknesses of this kind of health app. Smartphone apps specifically related to HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were searched. We conducted a key word search with the terms "HIV," "AIDS," and "acquired immune deficiency syndrome" in the Apple™ (Cupertino, CA) App Store and the Android™ Google™ (Mountain View, CA) Play Store. A questionnaire was developed based on the different quality recommendations for health apps up to December 2012. The recommendations consulted were as follows: the Happtique Health App Certification Program, the Food and Drug Administration (Mobile Medical Applications), and recommendations for the design, use, and evaluation of health apps of the Agency of Health Quality in Andalusia. A group of 17 experts assessed the importance of the different sections by using a Delphi method. In total, 41 health apps were analyzed. Only one app (2.4%), called in Practice HIV, approached class A. The remaining were classed as follows: 2 (4.9%) class B, 1 (2.4%) class C, 5 (12.2%) class D and E, and 27 (65.9%) class F (not exceeding minimum criteria). The design and the relevance were highlighted among the strengths. The main areas for improvement are provision of services and confidentiality in addition to privacy policies. The quality of the revised apps is limited. Only one app complied with the excellence criteria, and over 50% of the apps did not exceed minimum quality standards. The worst rated aspects were political advertising and logical security.

  19. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description......This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....

  20. Food policy an ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde; Kemp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This entry gives an overview of food policy and major ethical principles that in the last decades have been proposed and advocated for in debates on food policy. Food policies touch upon a vast area of interrelated policies (like health, transport, environment, poverty, animal welfare etc.) which...... makes of food policy a highly complex and diverse area. The entry opens with at description of the concept of policy and food policy and how it relates to ethical principles and values. The fourth section discusses some influental definitions of food policy. The final section contains a description...... of ethical principles and ideas of relevance to food policy....