WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy international affairs

  1. African Journal of International Affairs: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. » Focus and Scope; » Section Policies; » Publication Frequency; » Editorial Advisory Board; » Subscriptions to hard copies (only) ...

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-09

    in Albania. Born in 1937. Graduate of Moscow Institute of International Relations. Worked for TASS starting in: 1968 , Was editor for the European...deputy chairman of the USSR Committee of Youth Organizations; chief of the international administration, " Olimpiada - 80" Organizing Committee; chief...Syrian border. As a result of conducting a racist policy of exterminating or expelling the Palestinian Arabs, Israel by 1968 (i.e., within two

  3. African Journal of International Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of International Affairs (AJIA) is a bi-annual publication of CODESRIA, Dakar, Senegal. It offers a platform for analyses on contemporary issues in African International Affairs in relation to global developments as they affect Africa. AJIA welcomes contributions in English and in French from both African ...

  4. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  5. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-16

    to repeal the laws prohibiting interracial marriages and extramarital relations—the most odious laws in South Africa, as Minister of Home Affairs F...rapprochement of their economies and formation of the modern, highly effective economic structures being consciously regulated by the CMEA member...favourable condi- tions are created for the more effective use of the countries’ resources and wider application of the achievements of scientific and

  6. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-08

    prepared to support their verbal condemnation of international terrorism with practical steps, but stood in the way not only of the development but also of...Crisis and Perspectives], Moscow, Ediciones Cultura Hispanica, September 1984, 255 pp] [Text] In foreign economic literature devoted to Latin America...States the Saudis then participated in the secret opera- tion to help the ’Contras.’" What, then, can explain the fact that Riyadh, while verbally

  7. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-14

    de estudios internationales (CEPEI), Lima, 1986, XXXVI+498 pp] [Text] The latest publication of the Peruvian Center for International Research is...United States on the Malvinas Islands and Easter Island (p 377). Mercado Harrin, former minister of foreign affairs and prime minister of Peru who...urgent tasks in the realm of foreign policy. E. Mercado Harrin, analyzing the geopolitical climate in Latin America after the Malvinas conflict of

  8. Archives: African Journal of International Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 13 of 13 ... Archives: African Journal of International Affairs. Journal Home > Archives: African Journal of International Affairs. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives ...

  9. African Journal of International Affairs and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The African Journal of International Affairs and Development (AJIAD) began in 1995 as a bi-annual devoted to the study of Africa in global affairs and development. Vol 17, No 2 (2014). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles. The Global ...

  10. Norwegian Gas in International Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-01-01

    Scarcity of oil and gas will continue to characterize international energy markets, either in an economic, physical or political sense, over shorter or longer time. With a constantly increasing Norwegian petroleum production, it is likely that the international community closely will observe petroleum developments in Norway. Apart from security policy, petroleum issues may be the most central single factor in Norwegian foreign policy, simply because the outside world defines it so. The size of the natural gas exports makes Norway a strategic player in a market of vital interest for the energy supplies to Europe. The economic development and national security of the receiving countries depend on secure supplies of energy at stable prices on an acceptable level. Norwegian gas strategy must be conscious that the USA, the EU and great European purchasing countries like Germany, France, the UK and Italy, as well as competitors Russia, Algeria and others, will be interested in its content. As an example of how Norwegian petroleum policy may be influenced from the outside world, the author analyzes the case when Norwegian energy policy first became an explicit element in a larger political game. In order to prevent Western European countries from completing a notable gas contract with the Soviet Union in 1982, the U.S. introduced a ban on all American exports to firms supporting the project. Also the U.S. boycotted European firms supplying equipment. The Americans claimed that if Western Europe became too dependent on Soviet gas, one might come under pressure in a future political crisis if the Soviets turned off the taps to stop the energy supply. The U. S. urged Norway to increase her gas exports as a substitute for Soviet gas. Norway, on the other hand, maintained that gas production could not be increased as quickly as desired. The Norwegians also wanted, in case a development should be accelerated, a ''price premium'' to justify an act that otherwise would have been

  11. Global power knowledge science and technology in international affairs

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Kai-Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Osiris annualy examines a particular topic in the history of science, bringing together experts in the field to consider multiple aspects of the time period, episode, or theme. Volume 21, Historical Perspectives on Science, Technology, and International Affairs, explores the ways in which scientists and issues in science and technology have played significant roles in foreign policy and international relations, especially since the Second World War.

  12. International Affairs Sector (NAICS 928120)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find EPA laws and regulatory information for international agreements, including import and export, Montreal Protocol for Ozone depleting substances, ocean vessels, MARPOL, and port and border compliance assistance centers.

  13. Cultural Diplomacy and its Presentation in International Affairs Textbooks, 1945-1971. A Study of the Treatment Accorded International Education and Cultural Relations in 171 Textbooks on International Relations, Foreign Policy, and International Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Michael J.; And Others

    International education and cultural relations (IEC) are surveyed in the content of books from three areas of political science--international relations, foreign policy, and international organizations. One hundred seventy one texts published in the U.S. from 1945-mid 1971 are statistically analyzed in terms of amount of consideration of IEC;…

  14. On the Teaching of Science, Technology and International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Despite the ubiquity and critical importance of science and technology in international affairs, their role receives insufficient attention in traditional international relations curricula. There is little literature on how the relations between science, technology, economics, politics, law and culture should be taught in an international context. Since it is impossible even for scientists to master all the branches of natural science and engineering that affect public policy, the learning goals of students whose primary training is in the social sciences should be to get some grounding in the natural sciences or engineering, to master basic policy skills, to understand the basic concepts that link science and technology to their broader context, and to gain a respect for the scientific and technological dimensions of the broader issues they are addressing. They also need to cultivate a fearless determination to master what they need to know in order to address policy issues, an open-minded but skeptical attitude towards the views of dueling experts, regardless of whether they agree with their politics, and (for American students) a world-view that goes beyond a strictly U.S. perspective on international events. The Georgetown University program in Science, Technology and International Affairs (STIA) is a unique, multi-disciplinary undergraduate liberal arts program that embodies this approach and could be an example that other institutions of higher learning might adapt to their own requirements.

  15. 17 CFR 200.15 - Office of International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to international securities markets. OIA facilitates the development of and, where appropriate... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office of International... Organization § 200.15 Office of International Affairs. (a) The Office of International Affairs (“OIA”) is...

  16. African Journal of International Affairs and Development: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of International Affairs and Development. ... and military-security issues at the core of Africa's foreign relations and world affairs. It covers the environment, development issue, conflict, and cooperation among regional actors in a global context. Despite its African origin, AJIAD maintains a wide thematic variety ...

  17. Connecting the Dots: The Tale of an Undergraduate Research Experience Investigating International Affairs Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbitter, Benjamin; Bach, Hannah; Berkowitz, Michael; Brown, Teresa; Krebs, Kara

    2011-01-01

    While there is considerable information about the knowledge (or lack thereof) and views, informed or not, of U.S. citizens, and there are many studies that correlate levels of education with foreign policy views, this study was intended to fill a number of gaps in the literature by connecting knowledge of international affairs and sources of that…

  18. How Do Science and Technology Affect International Affairs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Science and technology influence international affairs by many different mechanisms. Both create new issues, risks and uncertainties. Advances in science alert the international community to new issues and risks. New technological capabilities transform war, diplomacy, commerce, intelligence, and investment. This paper identifies six basic…

  19. Reciprocity in International Affairs: An Analysis of Nigeria/South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DrNneka

    2012-03-07

    Mar 7, 2012 ... It argued that the principle of reciprocity in international relations came to the fore in the row. The paper made the point ... Key Words: Reciprocity, International, Affairs, Diplomatic face-off, Nigeria, South. Africa. Introduction. In an increasingly ...... Public Law 3 (1), 105 – 111. Emewu, I. (2012). Nigeria, South ...

  20. US International Environmental Policy. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, June 14 and September 12, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Nine witnesses spoke at a two-day hearing on global environmental concerns, which are interrelated to problems of poverty and political instability. At issue was US foreign assistance and the role of natural resources and environmental protection in foreign policy decisions. The Committee reviewed both bilateral and multilateral aid programs, treaties, and conventions, as well as current policy toward multilateral involvement. The witnesses represented the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, Office of Technology Assessment, companies concerned with industrial ecology, and several private organizations concerned with world resources. Material submitted for the record and 11 appendices with correspondence, statements, and recommendations follow the testimony.

  1. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-04

    this "image" well, that’s because he would never substitute colors : white is white, black is black; nor did the phrase "let’s talk about this...de la planification alimentaire ," paris, 1983, pp 26, 27. 10. Quoted from "Poverty, Unemployment and Devel- opment Policy," New York, 1975, pp 11...depersonalizing green and blue uniforms and choose brighter colored clothes with a more modern cut. But for some reason the taxi driver, who I

  2. JPRS Report, Soviet Union, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-03

    cuts to fashion parade held a BUDAPRINT showroom to which Soviet and other journalists were invited; shows models displaying fashions made at...half its territory, including Texas and California with their very rich natural resources. The virtually indefinite occupation of alien territory has...subregion, has allowed itself the liberty of expressing dissatisfaction with IMF policy. Virtually all countries support in one form or another a review of

  3. Petroleum and international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pertuzio, A.

    2002-01-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  4. Global Affairs Canada | IDRC - International Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund is a CA$125 million initiative that aims to bring market-ready agriculture innovations to more people, improving lives and livelihoods. Canadian and low- and middle-income country researchers are working together to improve food supply chains to increase nutrition ...

  5. Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. Prepared for the Subcommittees on Arms Control, International Security and Science and on International Economic Policy and Trade of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and the Subcommittee on Energy, Nuclear Proliferation, and Federal Processes of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate, 99th Congress, 1st session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    To provide a handy reference for those concerned with ways to avoid the further spread, or proliferation, of nuclear weapons, the House Committee on Foreign Affairs and the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs have since 1977 sponsored periodic publication of the Nuclear Proliferation Factbook. This fourth edition of the factbook includes a…

  6. Journal of Student Affairs in Africa: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal of Student Affairs in Africa (JSAA) is an independent, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary, open-access academic journal that publishes scholarly research and reflective discussions about the theory and practice of student affairs in Africa. JSAA aims to contribute to the professionalization of ...

  7. USSR Report, International Affairs, Peoples of Asia and Africa,No 6, November-December 1986

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    The report primarily contains information on issues related to education, political transformations and International affairs including education in the countries of Tropical Africa, traditional art...

  8. Can Taking an IB Course Change Students' Attitudes towards International Affairs and Welfare of Other Countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemala, Prasad; Chen, Jim; Cox, Susie S.

    2014-01-01

    Americans in general tend to pay less attention to international affairs than their counterparts around the world. Therefore, Americans know much less about international affairs and lack international knowledge than people in other countries (Ivengar & Morin, 2006). As we move to high levels of globalization on all fronts, we must confront…

  9. 76 FR 81984 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... and Labor Affairs; Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement; Notice of Extension of the Period of...) of the Bahrain--United States Free Trade Agreement (FTA). The submission was received on April 21... of Inquiry and the proposal of the Government of Bahrain to the Governing Body of the International...

  10. The Love Affair Between the Policy and the Voluntary Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Anders

    2012-01-01

    A refreshing and empirically founded discussion on the nature of power in contemporary society. This volume brings new critical analysis and theories about hybridization of governance in the areas of financial policy, voluntary policy, educational policy and public steering technologies...

  11. 17 CFR 200.13b - Director of the Office of Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and Research. 200.13b Section 200.13b Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION; CONDUCT AND ETHICS; AND INFORMATION AND REQUESTS..., Policy Evaluation, and Research. The Director of the Office of Public Affairs, Policy Evaluation, and...

  12. Gender characteristics of legal conscience in internal affairs agencies staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova O.V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the empirical research results of the level of legal conscience forming in law enforcement officials. The study of gender specifics of personnel is now becoming more and more relevant due to a constant increase in the number of women entering the Ministry of Internal Affairs service. The study involved 160 male and 120 female staff members. Analysis of the results revealed a general legal conscience trend typical for male and female employees which manifests in a high level of legal knowledge, adequate understanding of group relativity of moral and ethical norms, civic un-engagement and disinterest to leadership role. This trend reflects a certain viewpoint when human rights are considered to include only freedom, independence and personal self-assertion without responsibility and civic duties. It was found that female employees have higher level of legal conscience forming than male employees. This led to the conclusion of a high-availability of female employees to comply with legal regulations and requirements.

  13. 27 October 2014 - L. Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Italian Republic

    CERN Multimedia

    Guillaume, Jeanneret

    2014-01-01

    Mr Lapo Pistelli Vice Minister at Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation, Member of the Italian Parliament (Chamber of Deputies), Italian Republic, signing the Guest Book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer ; Physics Department Head L. Mapelli also present

  14. 77 FR 75362 - Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and Operations, and Funding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ... of agricultural real estate loans (guaranteed securities); and (2) To issue debt obligations (which... be read for ``Farm Credit securities,'' and ``Farmer Mac'' shall be read for ``Farm Credit banks... FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 615 Funding and Fiscal Affairs, Loan Policies and...

  15. African Journal of International Affairs and Development: Editorial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJIAD) began its course in 1995 as a bi-annual devoted to the study of Africa in global affairs and development. Initially appearing as a combined volume in 1999 it was able to publish as two separate issues. Not that we have acquired ...

  16. Transport, environment and health in central and Eastern Europe. State of affairs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report provides a review of the current state of affairs and development trends in the transport sector in Central and Eastern Europe including the associated environmental and health effects. Focus in the report is on the challenges and policy options for counteracting the negative effects from transport as well as integrating environmental and health aspects in transport policies. The report is undertaken as a desk study supplemented by two case studies in the Czech Republic and Bulgaria. (au)

  17. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  18. Technology and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  19. International plutonium policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-12-01

    The need to distinguish between diversion by sub-national groups and by governments is clearly stated. The paper identifies the international safeguards measures which already exist for the handling of plutonium. It proposes that the implementation of Article XII A5 of the IAEA statute concerning the international storage of plutonium could be an important additional measure. The paper also mentions the concept of using confinement as a complimentary safeguards measure and identifies the PIPEX concept. In addition, greater use is proposed of containment and surveillance procedures. The multiplication of small reprocessing plants spread over many countries is perceived as a proliferation risk. Other means such as co-location of reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities are relevant to diversion by sub-national groups

  20. The Value of Science Policy Internships to Interns and Employers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, E. A.

    2014-12-01

    My interns often look at me wide-eyed when I tell them to approach a Member of Congress at a congressional reception and introduce themselves. I understand their shock, as I once had the same experience. This presentation will look at the internship experience from the perspective of the intern and the employer, describing the value of the internship to each. I will detail my experience as an intern in the American Geosciences Institute Government Affairs Program, and my current position as the creator and hiring manager of the American Geophysical Union Public Affairs Department internship. This perspective will be augmented by information from recent AGU Public Affairs interns. Internships equate to experience, one critical and often underdeveloped component of a student or recent graduate's resume. Each of these internships offers the unique opportunity for students and recent graduates of geophysical science programs to immerse themselves in the science policy field, doing work alongside professionals and serving as an important part of their respective work environment. The networking opportunities and skills learned are highly valuable to those building their resumes and trying to break into the field - or simply figuring out what future career path to take. Scientific societies see value in investing in the next generation of scientific leaders and ensuring their perspective includes an understanding of science policy and the societal impacts of science. These internship experiences are often eye-opening and sometimes career-changing.

  1. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report contains articles from China dealing with Economic Affairs. The Topics include National Affairs and Policy, Foreign Trade and Investment, Economic Zones, Finance and Banking, and Agriculture.

  2. International migration policies: conceptual problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritz, M M

    1987-01-01

    Kritz reviews national concepts and policies of migration. She examines how nation-states approach migration and how they define who is a migrant. Policies for permanent, temporary, and illegal migrants are examined for selected countries. While the traditional permanent immigration countries--Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and the US--continue to admit large numbers of permanent migrants, they are also admitting growing numbers of temporary migrants. Other countries, in Europe and the developing world, have different migration histories and use other approaches to admit foreigners--migrants are generally admitted on a temporary basis for work or other purposes. Growing numbers of these temporary migrants, however, do become long-term or permanent settlers, and the distinction between permanent and temporary migration policies becomes a short-term legal one rather than a long-term sociological one. Governments have been seeking those policy instruments that would allow them to improve control over who enters and settles in their territories, and temporary migration policies are the measures to which they are turning. While increasing restriction characterizes the policy stance of most countries toward international migration, this does not necessarily mean that the number of migrants entering is declining. Kritz argues that the concepts employed by countries in their immigration policies frequently do not correspond to the reality, making it necessary to examine the actual context.

  3. 77 FR 1548 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or Enoch... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2012-232 Filed 1-9-12; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7721] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  4. 76 FR 53165 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-25

    ... Secretary of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... concerning issues and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will focus on U.S.-Brazil... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy...

  5. 78 FR 59412 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-26

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... climate change, and provide foreign assistance to help other nations mitigate and adapt to the effects of.... Financial Resources and Transfer of Technology 10. Research and Systematic Observation 11. Education...

  6. 75 FR 17989 - Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... of Oceans and International Environmental Scientific Affairs; Climate Action Report AGENCY... help other nations mitigate and adapt to the effects of climate change. Table of Contents of the draft... systematic observation 9. Education, training, and outreach Public Input Process This Federal Register notice...

  7. African Journal of International Affairs - Vol 11, No 2 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Big Think', Disjointed Incrementalism: Chinese Economic Success and Policy Lessons for Africa, or the Case for Pan-Africanism · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. J-G Gros. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajia.v11i2.57265 ...

  8. Reciprocity in International Affairs: An Analysis of Nigeria/South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analysed the March 2012 yellow fever diplomatic row between Nigeria and South Africa. It argued that the principle of reciprocity in international relations came to the fore in the row. The paper made the point that the row was a mild explosion of underlying tensions between the two African giants. An issue is the ...

  9. African Journal of International Affairs and Development - Vol 11, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of sports in international relation: A cross cultural study of reflections of sentiment through newspapers · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. S Riaz, MP Shelat, A Sinha, 97-127. Bringing the state back in?: A critique of neoliberal globalisation · EMAIL FULL TEXT ...

  10. The international state of affairs in marine safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkert, W.M.

    1978-01-01

    The three-fold objective of marine safety is examined with emphasis on international cooperation as a means of achievement. In this respect, the recent and present activities of the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative organization are reviewed by looking at the accomplishments and goals of several subcommittees of the Maritime Safety Committee. The United States program for commercial vessel safety is briefly discussed along with a comment on the recent Tanker Safety initiatives

  11. The use of economic instruments for environmental policy: a half-hearted affair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1995-01-01

    their use of economic instruments, but with a few exceptions it has been a somewhat half-hearted affair. Economic imstruments have often been applied on the basis of the principle of the least political resistance. Using Wilson's regulation theory (1980), this paper analyses how the costs and benefits......As a key to a more sustainable development the use of economic instruments for environmental policy has been on the agenda for about eight years. Despite of that, a recent OECD survey recorded only a modest increase in their use since the mid-1980s. In particular the Nordic counries have increased...... of regulations and particular policy-instruments affect the use and design of economic instruments. The outcome has been green taxes that are often fiscally biased , which are too low compared with the externalities they should price and which address the smaller rather than the larger polluters, granting...

  12. USSR Report, International Affairs Peoples of Asia and Africa No 2, March-April 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-26

    Murakami Sigeyoshi (pp 166-176) (G.Ye. Svetlov) (not translated) Reviews L.A. Fridman Review of I.A. Zevelev’s ’Southeast Asia : Urbanization and...282085 JPRS-UIA-86-038 26 AUGUST 1986 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PEOPLES OF ASIA AND AFRICA No 2, MARCH-APRIL 1986 DISTRIBUTION...B* i;mited ^„> »Bpä|lf|SpI £a%Q&S; ■;.’; M*%’>’’V.i -••’::"■;• •:■■ "■• ÄÄUST 1986 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PEOPLES OF ASIA

  13. Conceptual Framework of Crisis Negotiation Competency Development in Managers of Internal Affairs Bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakhnina V.V.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors examine the psychological features of the development of an integral psychological concept of crisis negotiation activities from the perspective of system-situational and reflexive approaches.This research forms the basis of a new scientific direction in legal psychology, the psychology of crisis negotiation activities of employees of internal affairs bodies, as a system of coping with and preventing crisis in negotiations.The data was collected and analysed in several stages from 1995 to 2014 and included a survey of managers of internal affairs bodies as well as a systematic analysis of the data pool of 1705 crisis situations.Basing on the analysis the authors propose a matrix of negotiations which identifies priority strategies and possible crisis zones at various stages of the negotiation process depending on the characteristics of the situation, thus helping to carry out crisis negotiations effectively.

  14. USSR Report, International Affairs. Peoples of Asia and Africa, Number 4, July-August 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-22

    East and Southeast Asia . This struggle brought political independence to many countries. URBAN LOWER STRATA: SOCIAL AND CLASS STRUGGLE A.I...i \\ 07 1016 JPRS-UI A-86-003 22 January 1986 USSR Report INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS PEOPLES OF ASIA AND AFRICA No. 4...reproduction must be obtained from copyright owner. JPRS-UIA-86-003 22 January 1986 USSR REPORT INTERNATIONALAF FAIRS PEOPLES OF ASIA AND AFRICA

  15. 76 FR 4987 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    ... and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or EnochT... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011-1785 Filed 1-26-11; 8:45 am] BILLING... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7238] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  16. 78 FR 24784 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or MaggioGFmailto... Public Diplomacy. [FR Doc. 2013-09962 Filed 4-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 4710-07-P ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8300] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  17. Organizational administrative assurance of the movement of staff within the internal affairs bodies of the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina JURAVLIOVA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The insufficiency of the scientific development of the organization and legal support of the staff rotation process within Internal Affairs bodies has determined the choice of the article topic.

  18. Internal Affairs

    CERN Document Server

    Martell, E C

    1999-01-01

    This thesis explores five topics in theoretical high energy physics. The first project involves the study of relationships between the wave functions at the origin for mesons composed of a heavy quark and a heavy anti- quark. Within the context of nonrelativistic potential models, we obtain several formulas (with varying degrees of rigor) relating the wave functions at the origin of the S-wave quarkonium systems containing b and c quarks. One of our main results is a model-independent relation which seems to hold to within 3.5% for any reasonable choice of interquark potential and any choice of radial quantum number. The second and third projects involve the study of bound states containing colored leptons. We study the spectra and decay widths of these states in the context of a nonrelativistic potential model which matches the recently calculated two-loop QCD potential at short distances to a successful phenomenological quarkonium potential at intermediate distances. We first considered bound states of hea...

  19. The Bavarian State Minister of Economic Affairs and Transportation: Answers in energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a detailed discussion in parliament of the problems of energy supply in Bavaria, the committees for economic affairs and transportation and for regional development and environmental problems reported on the various aspects of power supply in Bavaria in a hearing at the Bavarian Land parliament on June 20-22, 1977. The answers of the ministers to questions raised in parliament are compiled in this documentation which of course, cannot give a full picture of the very detailed material. Part 1 discusses all major problems of energy policy in Bavaria with sections on energy consumption, economic growth, and energy supply from all available energy sources. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 MKO [de

  20. International Public-private Partnership Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    This paper focuses on how international public-private partnership (PPP) policies are formulated and implemented by international organizations. PPPs for infrastructure projects are relevant and present in many countries around the world. The literature is full of studies of individual countries...... make policy for PPPs and to focus on perception issues related to their actions. The research questions are: How do international organizations make policy for PPPs and what tools do they use? Do PPP policies from international organizations converge on the same kind of themes? The theoretical lenses...... and various aspects of PPPs governance and finance. But what has been less emphasized in the literature is the way in which international organizations have been developing and promoting policies for PPPs. This paper makes a first attempt in trying to describe and analyze the way international organizations...

  1. Time to Move On? The International State of Affairs with Respect to Child Relocation Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Maria Bérénos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available By surveying binding law in civil and common law jurisdictions and non-binding law produced by national, regional and international organizations, this article tries to map the international state of affairs with respect to child relocation. Various legal topics that have concerned legislatures are discussed. It appears that - worldwide and more specifically within Europe - great variety exists with respect to child relocation law, which leads to legal uncertainty. As a consequence, parents often do not know how to act in case of child relocation. This might have a negative effect on other issues, such as child abduction. Harmonization of law on child relocation seems necessary to diminish the existing legal uncertainty. It is concluded that the development of a European or international non-binding law instrument that addresses both national and international relocation cases could be a first step in the harmonization process.

  2. THE EUROPEAN UNION’S EXTERNAL AFFAIRS POLICY – THE HIGH REPRESENTATIVE OF THE UNION FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS AND SECURITY POLICY – A FAVORABLE FRAMEWORK FOR CREATING A SINGLE VOICE FOR THE EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC SYSTEM OR JUST A NEW BUREAUCRATIC STRUCTURE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Bogdan CALANCE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Starting with the Lisbon Treaty, which establishes the new European diplomatic landscape structure, this paper analyses the difference between the objectives expressed in the treaties governing the European Union's foreign policy, and the diplomatic European and international reality. The main objective of this paper is to reveal the extent in which the European Union runs a coherent and unified foreign policy, especially highlighting the problems faced by these institutions in the current international environment, after five years since the creation of the High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, as well as the European External Action Service The results of this paper show that, although from a legal standpoint it was attempted to clearly outline how the Union's external policies should work, on a practical level, this area still faces difficulties in performing at its full capacity.

  3. Canadian Policy Responses to International Comparison Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines policy responses across Canada to international student assessment programs such as the program for international student assessment, trends in international mathematics and science study, and progress in international reading and literacy study. Literature reviewed included refereed and non-refereed journal articles,…

  4. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations : Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Couverture du livre Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge and Power in Latin America. Directeur(s) : Mercedes Botto. Maison(s) d'édition : Routledge, CRDI. 7 octobre 2009. ISBN : 9780415801911.

  5. The control of nuclear proliferation: future challenges. Swedish Institute of International Affairs, Stockholm, 23 April 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElBaradei, M.

    1998-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the conference given by the Director General of the IAEA at the Swedish Institute of International Affairs in Stockholm on 23 April 1998. After a short presentation of the Agency's current verification activities, particularly in Iraq and Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the Director General focuses on the present and future role of the IAEA in the control of nuclear proliferation through its strengthened safeguards system, in the prevention of nuclear terrorism, and future challenges of controlling nuclear proliferation from both political and technical point of view

  6. Tasks and problems of international energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerberth, R.

    1979-01-01

    International energy policy creates an international 'energy consciousness' which supports the national energy-political efforts, strengthening and directing them. Limited, categorized goals have, in international votings, higher chances of success than global concepts; careful determination is better than quick proceeding. (orig.) [de

  7. Issues in International Climate Policy: Theory and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Gupta, J.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change is currently at the center of scientific and political debate, and the need for well-designed international climate policies is widely recognized. Despite this, the complexity of both the climate change problem and the international negotiation process has resulted in a large number

  8. DoD International Armaments Cooperation Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, William

    1997-01-01

    .... In the evolving environment of coalition warfare, limited resources, and a global industrial and technology base, it is DoD policy that we utilize International Armaments Cooperation to the maximum...

  9. US DOE International energy policy on Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, B.G.

    1996-04-01

    This report describes the importance of the United States Department of Energy`s (US DOE) International Energy Policy to Russia. Key objectives identified include the support of the transition to democracy and a market based economy. The U.S.interests at stake, importance of energy to Russia, key institutional mechanism, energy-policy committee, joint energy activities, and the key to the success of other U.S. policy are discussed.

  10. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively shaping current directions and developments in…

  11. Analyst, Policy and Strategy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development policy of other countries, the shifting development discourse of non-government actors, and the changing international landscape for IDRC's work, Prepares analysis and advice in relation to specific developments in IDRC's policy and strategy environment, including the Canadian political and Parliamentary ...

  12. Multinationals and international environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, L.; Scholtens, B.

    2009-01-01

    Multinationals with relatively poor environmental policy establish themselves in countries with weak environmental regulation. These activities are not undertaken in the poorest or most corrupt countries though. The question arises if multinationals with relatively developed environmental behavior settle less or more often in countries with environmental legislation. [mk] [nl

  13. International institutions and China's health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanzhong

    2015-02-01

    This article examines the role of international institutional actors in China's health policy process. Particular attention is paid to three major international institutional actors: the World Bank, the World Health Organization, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Through process tracing and comparative case studies, the article looks at how international institutions contribute to policy change in China and seeks to explain different outcomes in the relationship between international institutions and China's health policies. It finds that despite the opaque and exclusive authoritarian structure in China, international institutions play a significant role in the country's domestic health governance. By investing their resources and capabilities selectively and strategically, international institutions can change the preferences of government policy makers, move latent public health issues to the government's agenda, and affect the timing of government action and the content of policy design. Furthermore, the study suggests that different outcomes in the relationship between China's health policies and global health governance can be explained through the seriousness of the externalities China faces. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  14. International study on energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2004-01-01

    A study, presented in September 2004 at the world energy council congress of Sydney (Australia) by the French agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe) evaluates the energy efficiency policies and their impact in 63 countries, and in particular in the developing countries. It has permitted to identify the five most efficient measures about which case studies have been given to subject specialists for thorough analysis. Completed in July 2004, this triennial report has been carried out by the Ademe and the World energy council with the joint collaboration of the Latin American energy organization (Olade) and the Asia Pacific energy research centre (Aperc) under the coordination of Enerdata agency. This short article makes a brief summary of this presentation: energy efficiency at the global scale, transport sector, world power consumption and CO 2 emissions, evaluation of energy efficiency policies and measures (institutions and programmes, efficiency labels and standards for household appliances, innovative financing means, local information centers). (J.S.)

  15. International climate policy and trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuik, O.

    2000-01-01

    If a country takes steps to counter the greenhouse effect, it could influence the country's foreign trade. If a large group of countries consider such measures, e.g. the signatories to the Kyoto Protocol, that could possibly have major consequences for global trading patterns. How will the measures work out for countries, industries, and climate policy itself? Can countries mitigate any negative consequences for their trade balance? The results of a study to answer those questions are discussed

  16. Maximising policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    by analysing the cooperation in the committees of the Nordic Council of Ministers. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point, fifteen hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things, it is concluded that in order to maximise policy learning in international committees......In spite of their long history and extensive activities, the international committees of the Nordic Council of Ministers have not hitherto been subject to scholarly examination. This paper demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning in practise and theoretically...

  17. International perceptions of US nuclear policy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, Elizabeth A. (Georgetown Universtiy, Washington, DC)

    2006-02-01

    The report presents a summary of international perceptions and beliefs about US nuclear policy, focusing on four countries--China, Iran, Pakistan and Germany--chosen because they span the spectrum of states with which the United States has relationships. A paradox is pointed out: that although the goal of US nuclear policy is to make the United States and its allies safer through a policy of deterrence, international perceptions of US nuclear policy may actually be making the US less safe by eroding its soft power and global leadership position. Broadly held perceptions include a pattern of US hypocrisy and double standards--one set for the US and its allies, and another set for all others. Importantly, the US nuclear posture is not seen in a vacuum, but as one piece of the United States behavior on the world stage. Because of this, the potential direct side effects of any negative international perceptions of US nuclear policy can be somewhat mitigated, dependent on other US policies and actions. The more indirect and long term relation of US nuclear policy to US international reputation and soft power, however, matters immensely to successful multilateral and proactive engagement on other pressing global issues.

  18. Science diplomacy: Investigating the perspective of scholars on politics-science collaboration in international affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähnrich, Birte

    2017-08-01

    Science diplomacy is a widely practiced area of international affairs, but academic research is rather sparse. The role of academia within this field of politics-science interaction has hardly been considered. This article analyzes this scholarly perspective: Based on a literature review, a case study of a German science diplomacy program is used to explore objectives, benefits, and constraints of science diplomacy for participating scholars. While political approaches suggest an ideal world where both sides profit from the collaboration, the findings of the case study point to another conclusion which shows that the interaction of scholars and officials in science diplomacy is far more complex. Thus, the contribution is regarded as both a useful starting point for further research and for a critical reflection of academics and politicians in science diplomacy practice to gauge what can be expected from the collaboration and what cannot.

  19. Psychological Practice in the Bodies of Internal Affairs: Current Condition and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulyanina O.A.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the main directions and reveals the content of psychological work in the bodies of internal affairs which is continuously implemented at each stage of staff performance. Among the leading areas of activity of psychologists are the following: professional psychological selection of candidates for service; psychological diagnosis of employees in the course of support of official activity; the study of the socio-psychological climate in the collectives and the moral and psychological state of the personnel; carrying out special psychophysiological studies using a polygraph; adaptation of young employees; professional psychological training of personnel; psychological prevention and correction of negative psychoemotional states; psychological counseling of personal, family and professional problems of employees. Taking into account the described state of the departmental psychological service, the prospective directions of its development are outlined, and the need to implement a systemic, integrated approach when solving problems related to the psychological maintenance of staff performance is emphasized.

  20. Animal Research International: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Animal Research International is an online Journal inaugurated in University of Nigeria to meet the growing need for an indigenous and authoritative organ for the dissemination of the results of scientific research into the fauna of Africa and the world at large. Concise contributions on investigations on ...

  1. International Organisations and Transnational Education Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2009-01-01

    This paper focuses on the World Bank/IMF (International Monetary Fund), the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) and the WTO (World Trade Organisation) as institutions of transnational policy making. They are all at present making education policies which are decisively...... shaping current directions and developments in national education systems. The paper reviews the enhanced role of these institutions in producing education policies and investigates the ideological basis as well as the processes through which these policies are made. It is argued that decisions are taken...... largely through asymmetric, non-democratic and opaque procedures. It is also argued that the proposed policies purport to serve the principles of relentless economic competition. Taking into account similar policies and initiatives, the paper concludes that we are experiencing not only...

  2. 76 FR 20713 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Request for Comments on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Church Albertson, Deputy Division Chief of Trade Agreement Administration and Technical Cooperation... number). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Paula Church Albertson, Deputy Division Chief of Trade....gov/Trade_Agreements/Regional/CAFTA/Section_Index.html , and the International Labour Organization...

  3. 76 FR 35244 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Office of Trade and Labor Affairs; Bahrain-United States...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Bahrain Trade Unions. The submission alleges the Government of Bahrain has violated Article 15.1.1 of the... and commitments under the International Labour Organization Declaration on Fundamental Principles and...

  4. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  5. Policy Simulation of the International Coffee Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    HIGH7 ROUT I NE 1>COFFEE0QUTA2= COFFE §UTA2 EXCEPT tQHD5,C 2>ENAEO05 XSMO 5 EXAFREQH CEXBAEQ5Exl 4> COFFEE @QUOtA2= COFF W OCT7R Q0 >EXNME EXSAI4OT1HEE , 5...AD-AI1N 682 DEPARTMENT OF STATE. WASHINGTON DC OFFICE OF EXTERNAL-ETC F/8 5/3 POLICY SIMULATION OF THE INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY.(U) 1981 W C...POLICY SIMULATION OF T=E INTERNATIONAL COFFEE ECONOMY: FINAL REPORT by Walter C. Labys* This final report describes the completed research of the coffee

  6. Documents issued by the french ministry of foreign affairs and international development

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    New provisions and reminder In the interests of simplifying administrative procedures and formalities, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development (hereinafter referred to as “the MAE”) and CERN have decided that members of the CERN personnel domiciled in France, whether of French nationality or long-term residents1, will no longer be issued with an AR- or FR-type “attestation de fonctions”. The MAE also wishes to remind members of the personnel of the following rules concerning the documents that it issues and to point out that compliance with these rules is essential for the proper operation of all international organisations established in France.  This notification replaces the one that appeared in issue 19/2006 of the Bulletin (ref. CERN/DSU-DO/RH/13173/Rev.2). 1.         Types of document and use a)   Special CD-, FI- and AT-type residence ...

  7. A history of international climate change policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gupta, J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the history of international climate change policy over the last 30 years, divided into five periods. It examines the pre-1990 period, the period leading up to the adoption of the Climate Change Convention, the period of the Kyoto Protocol until US withdrawal,

  8. Policy Analysis, International Relations, and European Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Christian Dagnis; Tatham, Michaël

    2017-01-01

    The article highlights the rationale of the special issue in terms of its objectives and guiding principles. It maps different evolutions and challenges within three analytical streams (1) regarding the field of policy analysis, (2) concerning the interaction between domestic and international...

  9. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  10. Neurotization indicators and state of mental desadaptation in personnel of internal affairs organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyshnichenko S.I.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the data of psychological testing of personnel of internal affairs organs, using LNP test: levels of neuroticism and psychopathsation, prevalence of levels of neuroticism among the personnel, the relationship between neuroticism level and clinical groups (mentally healthy, with burnout syndrome and with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism reflects both dynamic and static (states and properties personality characteristics, i.e. neuroticism is elective personality variable. The clinical picture is characterized by manifestations of asthenonevurotic and psycho-vegetative syndromes. More often among those with non-psychotic mental disorders a high (100% level of neuroticism, increased (87.5% and in the zone of uncertain diagnosis (50% occur, than among those with burnout syndrome, and lower than normal (36.36% and low (19.08% neuroticism level – more often among with burnout syndrome, than in those with non-psychotic mental disorders. Level of neuroticism on the verge of normal and pathological conditions occurs mostly in people with burnout syndrome (50% and non-psychotic mental disorders (50%.

  11. Social management in the system of physical education and sports of employees of internal affairs of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko V.G.

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The main forms, principles and methods of the physical training’s management of the Internal Affairs Agencies’s staff are considered. Reveals its consistency and conceptual approach to the mechanism of targeted and effective operation of the system under different conditions of the employees police. Determined that the system of physical training and sports of bodies and organs of internal affairs of Ukraine, except for departmental purposes, partly related to the overall social and cultural life of modern society, and the management of this system is social in nature and depends on the level of socialization of its top performers and other regional representatives. It is set that optimization of correction foresees subsequent purposeful realization of the planned complex of measures which answer certain terms and real possibilities of operating control the system.

  12. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    , this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things......In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, it is concluded that in order to maximize policy learning in international committees, empirical data should be made available to committees and provided by sources close to the participants (i.e. the Commission). In addition, the work in the committees should be made prestigious in order to attract well...

  13. Sociopolitical determinants of international health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Pol; Van der Stuyft, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    For decades, two opposing logics have dominated the health policy debate: a comprehensive health care approach, with the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration as its cornerstone, and a private competition logic, emphasizing the role of the private sector. We present this debate and its influence on international health policies in the context of changing global economic and sociopolitical power relations in the second half of the last century. The neoliberal approach is illustrated with Chile's health sector reform in the 1980s and the Colombian reform since 1993. The comprehensive "public logic" is shown through the social insurance models in Costa Rica and in Brazil and through the national public health systems in Cuba since 1959 and in Nicaragua during the 1980s. These experiences emphasize that health care systems do not naturally gravitate toward greater fairness and efficiency, but require deliberate policy decisions. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Challenging the premises of international policy review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feinstein, Noah Weeth; Læssøe, Jeppe; Blum, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, a think tank called the International Alliance of Leading Education Institutes (IALEI) announced the results of a study entitled Climate Change and Sustainable Development: The Response from Education. Intended for a policy audience, the study offered a glimpse into the status of Education...... for Sustainable Development (ESD) and an early look at the emergence of Climate Change Education (CCE), in 10 different nations. As with most international reports, the IALEI report provoked many questions, some of which are more broadly relevant to scholarship and practice. This paper introduces a review...

  15. Professional information culture as the purpose of vocational training of experts the ministry of internal affairs of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Николаевич Григорьев

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Formation of professional information culture of the expert of law-enforcement bodies is considered as one of the major purposes of its vocational training is given in the article. Such statement of a problem is caused by that information-communication technologies from a technology factor convert now into element of functioning of a modern society and act as an integral part of professional work of an expert of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.

  16. National policies and their international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saddington, K.

    1979-01-01

    Much work has been done on the technical problems associated with the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. However, the topic raises many problems of a political/legal nature. This paper seeks to identify those areas where such problems arise and points to the role of governments in framing national policies within which decommissioning activities can be carried out. The value of international collaboration is emphasized. (author)

  17. International spillovers of labour market policies

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Chi Dao

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a dynamic open-economy model to analyse the domestic and international spillover effects of policies aiming at reducing domestic labour costs, e.g., through cuts in labour taxes and unemployment benefits, when labour markets are unionized. Domestically, unionization dampens the downward wage adjustment due to unions' strategic rent-seeking and leads to a more muted expansion relative to a frictionless setting. Externally, the rent-sharing mechanism ensures that the terms of tr...

  18. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Contact. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Contact. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  6. ''Neighbourhood'' as an international energy policy concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Campaner, Nadia

    2005-01-01

    Since 2002, the concept of ''neighbourhood'' has been central to the EU thinking about the emergence of a European foreign and security policy. The relations between the EU and the countries that share - or could share in the future - a border with it, but have little or no prospects for full membership, are supposed to be structured by the emerging ''European Neighbourhood Policy'' (ENP). On the receiving end of this policy proposal are a number of countries on the Eastern edge of the Union, in the South Caucasus, East and South of the Mediterranean. The ENP is very much a ''transformationist'' agenda, with very ambitious goals of bringing about long term political and economic reforms in the neighbour countries. The ultimate goal is to promote stability and prosperity on the edges of the Union. The means for that is to exchange gradual integration into the EU common market and direct economic aid against verifiable commitments of political and economic reforms. Many neighbour countries are of great significance as energy producers, energy exporters, or transit countries to the EU. Hence the following two questions: 1) Is there an explicit energy security component - or energy motive - in the ENP. If yes, how is it structured. 2) What are the potential energy security implications of the ENP. In other words: To what extent, and through which mechanisms, would EU energy security be served by a process of economic and political reforms in the neighbour countries. It's worth extending the questioning to the study of the ''neighbourhood'' dimension in the existing EU international energy policy. It appears that the energy security thinking of the EU Commission has long been structured by the concept of ''neighbourhood''. It is then of some importance to study how the development of this policy will be affected by the implementation of the ENP. Beyond that, we develop a critical assessment of ''neighbourhood'' as a concept for energy security policies. Based on a

  7. Biosecurity policies at international life science journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Aken, Jan; Hunger, Iris

    2009-03-01

    The prospect of bioterrorism has raised concerns about the potential abuse of scientific information for malign purposes and the pressure on scientific publishers to prevent the publication of "recipes" for weapons of mass destruction. Here we present the results of a survey of 28 major life science journals--20 English-language international journals and 3 Chinese and 5 Russian journals--with regard to their biosecurity policies and procedures. The survey addressed the extent to which life science journals have implemented biosecurity procedures in recent years, how authors and reviewers are advised about these procedures and the underlying concerns, and what the practical experiences have been. Few of the English-language publishers and none of the Russian and Chinese publishers surveyed implement formal biosecurity policies or inform their authors and reviewers about potentially sensitive issues in this area.

  8. International trade and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, D.; Grubb, M.; Windram, C.

    2000-01-01

    Can the World Trade Organisation deal with climate change? Can a world of liberalised trade implement the Kyoto Protocol? As trade and environment head for a global collision, this book provides an essential guide to one of the key confrontations. It analyzes the conflicts now intensifying. How will climate change policies, including energy and carbon taxation and the removal of energy subsidies, affect overall trade structures and volumes? Will countries tackling climate change become less competitive? What of taxing international aviation and marine fuels? Will the 'flexibility mechanisms' of the Kyoto Protocol, such as emissions trading, fall under WTO disciplines? Can trade restrictions be applied to enforce the Kyoto Protocol? (Author)

  9. Communication of 12 June 2000 received from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia regarding Slovenia's nuclear export policies and practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Note Verbale dated 12 June 2000 received by the Secretariat of the IAEA from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Slovenia providing information on the nuclear export policies and practices of the Government of the Republic of Slovenia

  10. Policy Analyst | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary. The Policy Analyst works as a member of the Policy and Planning Group providing information, research analysis and advice on matters of policy and planning. The Policy Analyst works closely with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Senior Policy Analyst to initiate and undertake research and ...

  11. Enhancing the professionalisation of student affairs through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    education through conferences, organisations and publications, student affairs professionals ... assessment, student affairs, best practices, higher education. ..... on college campuses: Shifting the focus from teaching to learning. Boston, MA: Pearson. International Association of Student Affairs and Services (n.d.). History.

  12. China Report, Economic Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1987-01-01

    .... This report from China contains the topics: NATIONAL POLICY AND ISSUES, PROVINCIAL AFFAIRS, ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ZONES, ECONOMIC PLANNING, ECONOMIC MANAGEMENT, FINANCE AND BANKING, INDUSTRY, SMALL- SCALE ENTERPRISES, CONSTRUCTION, DOMESTIC...

  13. ASSUMING REGULATORY AUTHORITY FOR TRANSNATIONAL TORTS: AN INTERSTATE AFFAIR? A HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE CANADIAN PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW TORT RULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Banu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In Tolofson v. Jensen, the Supreme Court of Canada determined that in most cases the law of the place where the tort occurred has exclusive authority to regulate all legal aspects related to it. In developing this choice of law rule, the Supreme Court relied on an analogy between Private International Law and Public International law. This allows Private International Law to claim a structural, neutral function in the distribution of legislative authority in the international realm and to ignore both private law and public law considerations. To best reveal the way in which the Supreme Court injected these limitations into Private International Law by reference to Public International Law, I show the striking similarity between the Supreme Court’s reasoning and several Private International Law writings at the end of the 19th century in Continental Europe. In the context of the extraterritorial tortious activity of multinational corporations, these limitations make Private International Law oblivious to arguments of Corporate Social Responsibility scholars showing that a multinational corporation may legitimately be regulated by the state of its headquarters, even for extraterritorial conduct. Overall, I argue that an overemphasis on legislative authority as a symbol of state sovereignty transforms Private International Law matters generally, and transnational torts in particular, in inter-state affairs, removed from the interests and pleas of the individuals and communities affected by them.   Dans l’arrêt Tolofson c. Jensen, la Cour suprême du Canada a décidé que, dans la plupart des cas, la loi du lieu où le délit a été commis régit exclusivement tous les aspects juridiques qui s’y rapportent. Pour établir cette règle du choix de la loi applicable, la Cour suprême s’est fondée sur une analogie entre le droit international privé et le droit international public. Cela permet au droit international privé de réclamer une

  14. Policy Analysis in National Security Affairs: New Methods for a New Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    downturn seems unlikely, periods of recession and slowed growth are real possibilities. If they occur, the result could be a stuttering world economy...policy analyst and a practitioner and teacher of this book’s analytical methods. Currently, he is Distinguished Research Profes- sor in the Center for

  15. 75 FR 51812 - The Consumer and Governmental Affairs Bureau Seeks Comment on the Commission's Policies and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-23

    ... 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Notice...), initiates a review of the Commission's policies and practices under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of... can be sent by hand or messenger delivery, by commercial overnight courier, or by first-class or...

  16. Public Health and International Drug Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csete, Joanne; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Kazatchkine, Michel; Altice, Frederick; Balicki, Marek; Buxton, Julia; Cepeda, Javier; Comfort, Megan; Goosby, Eric; Goulão, João; Hart, Carl; Horton, Richard; Kerr, Thomas; Lajous, Alejandro Madrazo; Lewis, Stephen; Martin, Natasha; Mejía, Daniel; Mathiesson, David; Obot, Isidore; Ogunrombi, Adeolu; Sherman, Susan; Stone, Jack; Vallath, Nandini; Vickerman, Peter; Zábranský, Tomáš; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Executive summary In September 2015, the member states of the United Nations endorsed sustainable development goals (SDG) for 2030 that aspire to human rights-centered approaches to ensuring the health and well-being of all people. The SDGs embody both the UN Charter values of rights and justice for all and the responsibility of states to rely on the best scientific evidence as they seek to better humankind. In April 2016, these same states will consider control of illicit drugs, an area of social policy that has been fraught with controversy, seen as inconsistent with human rights norms, and for which scientific evidence and public health approaches have arguably played too limited a role. The previous UN General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on drugs in 1998 – convened under the theme “a drug-free world, we can do it!” – endorsed drug control policies based on the goal of prohibiting all use, possession, production, and trafficking of illicit drugs. This goal is enshrined in national law in many countries. In pronouncing drugs a “grave threat to the health and well-being of all mankind,” the 1998 UNGASS echoed the foundational 1961 convention of the international drug control regime, which justified eliminating the “evil” of drugs in the name of “the health and welfare of mankind.” But neither of these international agreements refers to the ways in which pursuing drug prohibition itself might affect public health. The “war on drugs” and “zero-tolerance” policies that grew out of the prohibitionist consensus are now being challenged on multiple fronts, including their health, human rights, and development impact. The Johns Hopkins – Lancet Commission on Drug Policy and Health has sought to examine the emerging scientific evidence on public health issues arising from drug control policy and to inform and encourage a central focus on public health evidence and outcomes in drug policy debates, such as the important deliberations of

  17. Scope and Limits of International Economic Cooperation and Policy Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Jocelyn Horne; Paul R. Masson

    1988-01-01

    Several important issues relating to international economic cooperation and policy coordination are considered for the scope and limits to both within the present international monetary system. Sources of the perceived need for cooperation and coordination are identified, and the experience of countries with policy coordination within the current international system are described. The benefits and costs to policy coordination are then discussed, followed by consideration of ways to increase ...

  18. International Commercial Remote Sensing Practices and Policies: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    /geography, civil government, and have provided for appropriate measures for monitoring and compliance. This approach provides a valuable framework for companies, investors, customers, and foreign partners. The clearly-defined ground rules are designed to facilitate full private sector competition, innovation, and domestic and international market development. International market development remains a key issue for the U.S. Government and for U.S. industry in general. NOAA has learned of some interest by foreign governments in promulgating new laws and regulations to address this growing industry. However, to date, most governments have yet to publicize new commercial remote sensing laws or regulations. In some instances, data policies for commercial remote sensing have been developed, but only in the context of government-owned and operated systems, or private systems in which a government is the controlling shareholder. Other than some initial consultations and limited agreements between supplier nations, there has to date been little overall international coordination of commercial remote sensing policies and practices. The result has been an uncertain and non- uniform international business environment, which can cause difficulties for all commercial remote sensing operators. Related international market distortions inhibit the maturation of the industry and the normalization of business practices. This situation may make it more difficult for key stakeholders to make decisions on investments, purchases, regulatory affairs, and international partnerships. To put this growing industry on a more level footing, there should be further coordination

  19. Organization of War Prisoners Security and Prevention of Escapes in the Camps of the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the USSR in 1941-1956

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorov Sergey Grigoryevich

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The organization of guarding the prisoners of war in the People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD and in the Ministry of Internal Affairs (MVD camps of the USSR in the war and post-war years underwent essential changes. If at the beginning of the war the convoy troops escort was allocated on guarding the soldiers of the enemy at the rate of 1 convoy for 8 prisoners of war, in 1943 it was impossible to allocate escort at this rate because of the mass arrival of prisoners of war in People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs camps. Escort number for guarding the contingent at works was determined at the rate of 1 convoy for 15 prisoners of war, in 1944 – already for 25 prisoners. The insufficient organization of guarding, proximity of a front line, strong belief of the German soldiers in a victory of Wehrmacht led to escapes. In 1943 the share of prisoners of war that made escape was the highest during all years of prisoners staying in the USSR and made 0,4% of their total number in the NKVD camps in the end of the year. In 1945 over 100 new camps for the prisoners of war consisting of more than 1600 camp subdivisions were organized in the USSR. During this organizational period the share of the prisoners of war who made escape grew a little. However, almost all escapes were unsuccessful. In 1946 only 29 escaped prisoners out of 5761 weren’t caught. During the post-war period the auxiliary teams formed of the prisoners of war started playing the increasing value for guarding the camps. The number of the convoy troops was annually reduced. Help to the management of camps in 1947 in a capture of the escaped prisoners of war was given by crews of tens of thousands of people from the local population. In the conditions of reducing the convoy troops the regime camp and camp offices for the prisoners who made earlier escape with the strengthened guard were created to prevent the growth of escapes. In 1949 in the not-regime camps the teams

  20. Administrative Assistant - Policy and Planning | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary Under the supervision of the Director, Policy and Planning, the administrative assistant provides operational and administrative support to the Director and the Policy and Planning team (consisting of the Senior Policy Analyst and the Research Officer) in carrying out the activities of the Group. Performing a ...

  1. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A longtime advocate of advancing health research and policy in Africa, Sewankambo led the effort that established the REACH Policy Initiative, an East African institutional brokerage mechanism linking research to health policy and action. His 25-year contribution to HIV/AIDS and health research in Africa has been ...

  2. 75 FR 78758 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January 12, 2011; 10 a.m.-11:30 a.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution...

  3. 77 FR 20054 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs; Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14, 2012; 2 p.m.-4 p.m.; U.S. Department of Labor, Secretary's Conference Room, 200 Constitution Ave. NW...

  4. 75 FR 9615 - Bureau of International Labor Affairs: Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March... Constitution Ave., NW., Washington, DC. Purpose: The meeting will include a review and discussion of current...

  5. Leprosy: International Public Health Policies and Public Health Eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyi Awofeso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Public health policies continue to play important roles in national and international health reforms. However, the influence and legacies of the public health eras during which such policies are formulated remain largely underappreciated. The limited appreciation of this relationship may hinder consistent adoption of public health policies by nation-states, and encumber disinvestment from ineffective or anachronistic policies. This article reviews seven public health eras and highlights how each era has influenced international policy formulation for leprosy control—“the fertile soil for policy learning”. The author reiterates the role of health leadership and health activism in facilitating consistency in international health policy formulation and implementation for leprosy control.

  6. Uncertainty, learning and international environmental policy coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulph, A.; Maddison, D.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we construct a simple model of global warming which captures a number of key features of the global warming problem: (1) environmental damages are related to the stock of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere; (2) the global commons nature of the problem means that these are strategic interactions between the emissions policies of the governments of individual nation states; (3) there is uncertainty about the extent of the future damages that will be incurred by each country from any given level of concentration of greenhouse gases but there is the possibility that at a future date better information about the true extent of environmental damages may become available; an important aspect of the problem is the extent to which damages in different countries may be correlated. In the first part of the paper we consider a simple model with two symmetric countries and show that the value of perfect information is an increasing function of the correlation between damages in the two countries in both the cooperative and non-cooperative equilibria. However, while the value of perfect information is always non-negative in the cooperative equilibrium, in the non- cooperative equilibrium there is a critical value of the correlation coefficient below which the value of perfect information will be negative. In the second part of the paper we construct an empirical model of global warming distinguishing between OECD and non-OECD countries and show that in the non-cooperative equilibrium the value of perfect information for OECD countries is negative when the correlation coefficient between environmental damages for OECD and non-OECD countries is negative. The implications of these results for international agreements are discussed. 3 tabs., 26 refs

  7. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations: Knowledge ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-10-07

    Oct 7, 2009 ... It will also be useful for decision-makers and policy advisors involved in trade negotiations and the formulation of trade policy. The editor. Mercedes Botto is Senior Researcher at FLACSO, the Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Related content. Asian outlook: New ...

  8. Process Coordination & Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    When a policy requires updating, the applicable level of management will provide the incumbent with operational and other relevant information; the incumbent will provide Division management with information on current trends and the results of research. Together they will develop the parameters for the policy work that ...

  9. Influencing policy for resilient societies | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-03

    Nov 3, 2010 ... For research results to improve people's lives, they must reach decision-makers who can use them to develop more effective policies and practices. About 20% of IDRC's project funding in the past year — and the past decade — went to research that aimed to influence policies. To help IDRC-supported ...

  10. How policies affect international biofuel price linkages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajcaniova, Miroslava; Drabik, Dusan; Ciaian, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining which country is the price leader in world biofuel markets using a cointegration analysis and a Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. Weekly prices are analyzed for the EU, US, and Brazilian ethanol and biodiesel markets in the 2002–2010 and 2005–2010 time periods, respectively. The US blender's tax credit and Brazil's consumer tax exemption are found to play a role in determining the ethanol prices in other countries. For biodiesel, our results demonstrate that EU policies – the consumer tax exemption and blending target – tend to determine the world biodiesel price. - Highlights: • We estimate the role of biofuel policies in determining biofuel prices. • We use a cointegration analysis and the Vector Error Correction (VEC) model. • The biofuel policies in US and Brazil determine the world ethanol prices. • EU biofuel policies tend to form the world biodiesel price

  11. Explaining citizens’ perceptions of international climate-policy relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Faure, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically analyses the antecedents of citizens’ perceptions of the relevance of international climate policy. Its use of representative surveys in the USA, China and Germany controls for different environmental attitudes and socio-economic factors between countries. The findings of the micro-econometric analysis suggest that the perceived relevance of international climate policy is positively affected by its perceived effectiveness, approval of the key topics discussed at international climate conferences, and environmental attitudes, but is not affected by perceived procedural justice. A higher level of perceived trust in international climate policy was positively related to perceived relevance in the USA and in China, but not in Germany. Citizens who felt that they were well informed and that their position was represented at climate summits were more likely to perceive international climate policy as relevant in China in particular. Generally, the results show only weak evidence of socio-demographic effects. - Highlights: • Perceptions of climate-policy relevance increase with perceptions of effectiveness. • In China and the USA, trust increases perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • Environmental attitudes are related to perceptions of climate-policy relevance. • In China, well-informed citizens perceive climate policy as more relevant. • Socio-demographics only weakly affect perceptions of climate-policy relevance.

  12. 76 FR 33399 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... to the advent of cloud computing as a new business model in international trade, the implications of... of State for Economic, Energy, and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and Committee Chair Ted... and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or [email protected] . This announcement might appear in the...

  13. Communication received from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of Austria with regard to the Austrian proposal on the multilateralization of the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Agency has received a communication dated 10 May 2007 from the Federal Minister for European and International Affairs of the Republic of Austria, attaching a paper on the Multilateralization of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. As requested in that communication, the paper is herewith circulated for the information of Member States

  14. 75 FR 33885 - Office of International Affairs; Survey of Foreign Ownership of U.S. Securities as of June 30, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of International Affairs; Survey of Foreign Ownership of U.S... it is conducting a mandatory survey of foreign ownership of U.S. securities as of June 30, 2010. This... equities, short-term debt securities (including selected money market instruments), and long-term debt...

  15. African Journal of International Affairs - Vol 13, No 1-3 (2010)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria-China Economic Relations Under the South-South Cooperation · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ... United States Foreign Policy and the Second Liberian Civil War · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  16. African Journal of International Affairs - Vol 9, No 1-2 (2006)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Welfare State Within the Context of Liberal Globalisation in Africa: Is the Concept Still Relevant in Social Policy Alternatives for Africa? EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. T Lumumba-Kasongo. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajia.v9i1-2.57240 ...

  17. Petroleum and international policy; Petrole et politique internationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pertuzio, A

    2002-07-01

    To illustrate the relation between the petroleum and the international policy, the author presents the place of the petroleum industry in the international relations by an analysis of the historical aspects, the states and international organizations interventions and the prices evolution. (A.L.B.)

  18. Towards nuclear disarmament: State of affairs in the international legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanielle, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of the nuclear era, nuclear disarmament has been one of the highest priorities of the international community in ensuring global peace and security. Accordingly, numerous multilateral and bilateral political initiatives have been launched to fulfil this objective in a comprehensive manner. Many of these political efforts have resulted in the negotiation and adoption of legal instruments, which currently comprise the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. Despite numerous achievements, this framework appears to be at a turning point. As a matter of fact, recent political and diplomatic tensions have reminded the international community that the far-reaching objective of global nuclear disarmament is under continuous pressure. In this context, is the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament effective? This article addresses both development and effectiveness of the international legal framework on nuclear disarmament. It first describes the position of nuclear disarmament within the United Nations (UN) machinery and the related political challenges. It then focuses on the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT),1 with a particular focus on the interpretation and legal requirements associated with Article VI. Finally, it provides an overview of the Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones (NWFZs) and their role in the international denuclearization dynamics. (author)

  19. Climate policy in India: what shapes international, national and state policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atteridge, Aaron; Shrivastava, Manish Kumar; Pahuja, Neha; Upadhyay, Himani

    2012-01-01

    At the international level, India is emerging as a key actor in climate negotiations, while at the national and sub-national levels, the climate policy landscape is becoming more active and more ambitious. It is essential to unravel this complex landscape if we are to understand why policy looks the way it does, and the extent to which India might contribute to a future international framework for tackling climate change as well as how international parties might cooperate with and support India's domestic efforts. Drawing on both primary and secondary data, this paper analyzes the material and ideational drivers that are most strongly influencing policy choices at different levels, from international negotiations down to individual states. We argue that at each level of decision making in India, climate policy is embedded in wider policy concerns. In the international realm, it is being woven into broader foreign policy strategy, while domestically, it is being shaped to serve national and sub-national development interests. While our analysis highlights some common drivers at all levels, it also finds that their influences over policy are not uniform across the different arenas, and in some cases, they work in different ways at different levels of policy. We also indicate what this may mean for the likely acceptability within India of various climate policies being pushed at the international level.

  20. A GUIDE TO UNDERSTANDING WORLD AFFAIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ROGERS, WILLIAM C.

    WRITTEN IN EVERYDAY ENGLISH, THIS READING BOOK PRESENTS MANY FACTS AND IDEAS ABOUT WORLD AFFAIRS. CHAPTERS COVER INTERNATIONAL LIFE, POWER IN WORLD AFFAIRS, WAR AS INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT, THE MEANS AND VARIETIES OF ARMED CONFLICT, INTERNATIONAL CONFLICT SHORT OF WAR, THE ACCOMMODATION OF CONFLICT IN WORLD AFFAIRS, AND PEACE--WHAT IT IS AND HOW TO…

  1. Taking Leadership in Initiating a Comprehensive US International Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kaetlyn

    2008-01-01

    A first step to ensuring that emerging school leaders possess the dispositions and skills necessary to be successful in a global community is for educational leaders to take initiative in moving toward a comprehensive Us International Education Policy. This article introduces possible steps to initiate such a policy.

  2. PISA and Its Consequences: Shaping Education Policies through International Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Dennis; Martens, Kerstin; Teltemann, Janna

    2017-01-01

    As the field of education has become a highly internationalised policy field in the last decade, international organisations such as the OECD play an ever more decisive role in the dissemination of knowledge, monitoring of outcomes, and research in education policy. Although the OECD lacks any binding governance instruments to put coercion on…

  3. Prospects for Mainstreaming Ecosystem Goods and Services in International Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kok, M.T.J.; Prins, A.G.; Tyler, S.R.; Pinter, L.; Baumuller, H.; Bernstein, J.; Tsioumani, E.; Venema, H.D.; Grosshans, R.

    2010-08-01

    Degradation of ecosystems worldwide threatens local and regional supplies of food, forest products and fresh water, and also biodiversity. Although most decisions that directly affect ecosystem management are made locally, these decisions are influenced by national and international policies. This study shows how local delivery of ecosystem goods and services (EGS) is closely linked to international policies on development cooperation, trade, climate change and reform of international financial institutions. Integrating or mainstreaming EGS considerations into these policies provides significant opportunities for reducing poverty, while simultaneously improving the quality of local EGS. Furthermore, mainstreaming EGS in international policies can contribute significantly to achieving policy objectives on biodiversity and sustainable management of natural resources. However, mainstreaming EGS requires careful consideration because many of the opportunities identified as reducing poverty, may have the opposite effect if poorly managed or implemented. A major challenge is, therefore, to ensure consistent policies across scales and policy domains based on analysis of the local situation. In order to support poverty reduction it matters how the mainstreaming is done and who benefits locally. Tools to mainstream EGS into non-environmental policy domains are available, but there are few examples of their systematic application. Examples of tools that could play a constructive role in this process are the monitoring and reporting mechanisms developed by the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  4. Understanding Canada's International Trade Policy. "Understanding Economics" Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Peter M.

    Written for secondary school Canadian students, the document examines Canada's international trade policy. It is arranged in three sections. Part I discusses the affect of Canada's trade policy on the individual citizen. Tariffs and non-tariff barriers to trade such as import licenses, preferential purchasing agreements, health and safety…

  5. The slow development of international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the vague results of the fourth Conference of Parties (CoP-4) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the authors consider the climate summit as a step forward. Some of the issues of the CoP-4 results, as formulated in the Plan of Action are discussed. Also the consequences for the climate policy in the Netherlands are outlined. 5 refs

  6. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  7. Process Coordination and Policy Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary This job encompasses the development and maintenance of financial and administrative policies and procedures that affect all aspects of IDRC operations at head office as well as in regional offices. The job bridges functional areas and management information systems. It constitutes a key lever for the ...

  8. Research award: Policy and Evaluation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-14

    Jan 14, 2018 ... What are the opportunities to integrate big data and artificial intelligence into strategy and evaluation for research for development? ... Applications must be submitted via email directly to the Policy and Evaluation Division at poev@idrc.ca and may consist only of a resume and cover letter, including an ...

  9. University Education Of Specialists In International Affairs As A Way Of Passing Cultural Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Shepeleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the cultural code approach to the process of higher education requires global understanding and awareness of the integrity of academic studies at the university, comprising both professional and humanitarian disciplines, such as philosophy, history, ethnography, psychology etc. International communication playing the key role in the development of the world community presupposes systemic and interdisciplinary approach to solving problems and facing challenges arising in the modern times. Language is the most essential component of communication whose organization is based on the principles of interaction, cooperation and politeness ensuring the molding of communicative norms of social behavior. Compliance with these norms creates conditions for effective exchange of opinions, shapes an environment for positive interaction and implementation of communicative strategies by participants in verbal disquisition. On the other hand, national pictures of the world, implanted in the conscience of a child by their family and society serve as natural limits to international communication and understanding cross-cultural peculiarities. They often prevent people from reaching rapport with their foreign counterparts, as their worldviews come into contradiction. National and cultural distinctions cause main differences between systems, norms and uses. National stereotypes, focusing on most typical features of a nation, could serve as a tool for overcoming this discrepancy. Holistic approach to studying a foreign language as an integral part of the culture, alongside with other humanitarian and social disciplines, involves a deep insight into core mental and spiritual values of the society. So, the guiding role of the university teacher consists in dealing with professional issues while addressing the wide cultural content and intercultural objectives.

  10. UNIVERSITY EDUCATION OF SPECIALISTS IN INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS AS A WAY OF PASSING CULTURAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina M. Shepeleva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the cultural code approach to the process of higher education requires global understanding and awareness of the integrity of academic studies at the university, comprising both professional and humanitarian disciplines, such as philosophy, history, ethnography, psychology etc. International communication playing the key role in the development of the world community presupposes systemic and interdisciplinary approach to solving problems and facing challenges arising in the modern times. Language is the most essential component of communication whose organization is based on the principles of interaction, cooperation and politeness ensuring the molding of communicative norms of social behavior. Compliance with these norms creates conditions for effective exchange of opinions, shapes an environment for positive interaction and implementation of communicative strategies by participants in verbal disquisition. On the other hand, national pictures of the world, implanted in the conscience of a child by their family and society serve as natural limits to international communication and understanding cross-cultural peculiarities. They often prevent people from reaching rapport with their foreign counterparts, as their worldviews come into contradiction. National and cultural distinctions cause main differences between systems, norms and uses. National stereotypes, focusing on most typical features of a nation, could serve as a tool for overcoming this discrepancy. Holistic approach to studying a foreign language as an integral part of the culture, alongside with other humanitarian and social disciplines, involves a deep insight into core mental and spiritual values of the society. So, the guiding role of the university teacher consists in dealing with professional issues while addressing the wide cultural content and intercultural objectives.

  11. Understanding Internal Capital Markets and Corporate Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, M.; Huang, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This study looks inside a large retail-banking group to understand how corporate politics affect internal capital allocation. The group consists of a headquarters organization and about 150 member banks which own the headquarters. Our data is from the firm’s managerial accounting system and covers

  12. International Policies on Bioenergy and Biofuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajcaniova, M.; Ciaian, P.; Drabik, D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter provides an overview of international biofuel polices and their main impacts on food prices and land use. Global biofuel production has experienced a rapid growth by increasing from almost a zero level in 1970 to 29 billion gallons in 2011; the United States, the European Union, and

  13. 76 FR 42625 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Duplicate, Overlap, or Conflict With the Proposed Rule None. 9. Ordering Clauses It is ordered that... communications, if the agreement is for an international route on the Commission's ``Exclusion List,'' and the..., pursuant to Note 3 to this section. The Commission's ``Exclusion List'' identifies countries and facilities...

  14. International Journal of Humanistic Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Humanistic Studies is an annual peer-reviewed Journal. It focuses on every aspect of Humanistic Studies and has a strong interdisciplinary thrust. Contributions are accepted from the fields of Philosophy, English Language, Literature, History, Theatre Arts, Music, Communication Arts, Anthropology, ...

  15. 78 FR 11109 - International Settlements Policy Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... routes giving U.S. consumers competitive pricing when they make international calls. The Commission also... apply, with the exception of Cuba. The market has seen significant competitive growth since the Commission last reviewed the ISP. Further, in today's competitive market, maintaining the ISP has the...

  16. Research and International Trade Policy Negotiations

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Second, to the institutions and organizations—such as the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), the Secretariat for Science, Technology and Productive ..... A fourth challenge in the postreform period is the growing demand for participation in government activities, and for transparency in those activities.

  17. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the fiscal year (FY) 1996 UMTRA Project public affairs program and to identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It describes the roles of various agencies involved in the public affairs program and defines the functions of the UMTRA Project Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It replaces the FY 1995 Public Affairs Plan (DOE/AL/62350-154). The plan also describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about UMTRA Project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in UMTRA Project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Team; the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO); the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Public Affairs (OPA); the TAC; the UMTRA Project Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  18. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  19. Efficient Climate Policy with Internationally Mobile Firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestad, O.

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in the design of an incomplete climate agreement is that firms that use fossil fuels intensively may respond to emission regulations by relocating their plants from cooperating to non-cooperating countries. This paper analyses how the cooperating countries might deal with the issue of firm delocation through emission taxes, trade provisions and a localisation subsidy to mobile firms. It is shown that firms should not be induced to stay in the cooperating countries by lowering emission taxes below the Pigouvian tax rate. Incentives to stay should be given partly through trade provisions and partly through a localisation subsidy. A second best solution without localisation subsidies is also discussed. In that case, the efficient emission tax is lower than the Pigouvian tax rate. Finally, the paper discusses the implications of the first best and the second best policy regimes for the pattern of firm localisation. 19 refs

  20. The OECD and Educational Policy Reform: International Surveys, Governance, and Policy Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volante, Louis; Fazio, Xavier; Ritzen, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Over the past 50 years, the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) has increasingly influenced the nature and scope of education policies in primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors around the world. Policy suggestions in these sectors primarily stem from the results of their various international surveys such as the…

  1. Trump's trade policy: first international consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Schmieg, Evita

    2017-01-01

    Donald Trump’s election campaign and first hundred days in office were marked by abrasive rhetoric on trade, in particular blaming free trade agreements for causing eco­nomic suffering and unemployment in America. Countries that run large export sur­pluses with the United States, like Mexico, Germany and China, have drawn the greatest ire. Internationally this has provoked fears of trade wars and the end of the multilateral world trade order. Latin American countries, for whom the United Stat...

  2. Statement at Lowy Institute for International Policy, 4 October 2012, Sydney, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Y.

    2012-01-01

    It is a great pleasure for me to address this distinguished audience. The Lowy Institute for International Policy has established itself in less than a decade as a major contributor to serious thinking on foreign policy. Coming, as I do, from Japan, I welcome your focus on issues that particularly affect the Asia-Pacific region. This region sometimes has a different perspective on global affairs from Europe and North America. The research programmes and events organized by the Institute help to focus fresh thinking on issues critical to this region, and indeed to the whole world. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been around quite a bit longer than the Lowy Institute - 55 years, in fact. I suppose that makes us middle-aged. But I can assure you that the Agency has lost none of its youthful vigour when it comes to tackling the challenging mandate entrusted to us by our 155 Member States. Our mission is manifold, but can be summarised very simply. We help to make nuclear science and technology available to all countries for peaceful purposes - especially to countries in the developing world. And we work to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons

  3. New United States policies regarding international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, H.R. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the United States policy on international nuclear power development in the light of the priorities established by President Reagan in the guidelines for his Administration's nuclear co-operation policy. The aim is to establish a framework allowing for co-operation in peaceful nuclear development while remaining committed to the objective of preventing the further spread of nuclear weapons, in particular by supporting the Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA Safeguards System and the Tlatelolco Treaty (NEA) [fr

  4. International Commission on Radiological Protection. History, policies, procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, Bo; Dunster, H.J.; Valentin, Jack; )

    2000-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the history, mode of operation, concepts, and current policies of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). It touches upon the objectives of the Commission's recommendations, the quantities used, the biological basis of the Commission's policy, the quantitative basis for its risk estimates, the structure of the system of protection, some problems of interpretation and application in that system, and the need for stability, consistency, and clarity in the Commission's recommendations. (author)

  5. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettner, Michael; Freibauer, Annette; Haug, Constanze; Cantner, Uwe

    2010-06-04

    The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2 degrees C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  6. Regaining momentum for international climate policy beyond Copenhagen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haug Constanze

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The 'Copenhagen Accord' fails to deliver the political framework for a fair, ambitious and legally-binding international climate agreement beyond 2012. The current climate policy regime dynamics are insufficient to reflect the realities of topical complexity, actor coalitions, as well as financial, legal and institutional challenges in the light of extreme time constraints to avoid 'dangerous' climate change of more than 2°C. In this paper we analyze these stumbling blocks for international climate policy and discuss alternatives in order to regain momentum for future negotiations.

  7. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there i...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and relate to India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and concluding remarks....

  8. Ocean carbon sinks and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S.J.; Wetzel, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial vegetation sinks have entered the Kyoto Protocol as offsets for anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, but ocean sinks have escaped attention. Ocean sinks are as unexplored and uncertain as were the terrestrial sinks at the time of negotiation of the Kyoto Protocol. It is not unlikely that certain countries will advocate the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks to reduce their emission reduction obligations in post-2012 negotiations. We use a simple model of the international market for carbon dioxide emissions to evaluate who would gain or loose from allowing for ocean carbon sinks. Our analysis is restricted to information on anthropogenic carbon sequestration within the exclusive economic zone of a country. We use information on the actual carbon flux and derive the human-induced uptake for the period from 1990 onwards. Like the carbon sequestration of business as usual forest management activities, natural ocean carbon sequestration applies at zero costs. The total amount of anthropogenic ocean carbon sequestration is large, also in the exclusive economic zones. As a consequence, it substantially alters the costs of emission reduction for most countries. Countries such as Australia, Denmark, France, Iceland, New Zealand, Norway and Portugal would gain substantially, and a large number of countries would benefit too. Current net exporters of carbon permits, particularly Russia, would gain less and oppose the inclusion of ocean carbon sinks

  9. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.

  10. 09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    09 September 2013 - Japanese Members of Internal Affairs and Communications Committee House of Representatives visiting the ATLAS experimental cavern with ATLAS Spokesperson D. Charlton. T. Kondo and K. Yoshida present.

  11. Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Mr Huidong LI Deputy Chairman and Secretary-General, Rev. Committee of Chinese Nationalist Party Vice President, Sun Yat-Sen Culture Interchange Association of China Member, Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs of the National People's Congress of China

  12. 11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    11 June 2012 - Austrian Federal Minister of Labour, Social Affairs and Consumer Protection R. Hundstorfer signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Ambassador to the UN C. Strohal (CERN-HI-120611334)

  13. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-08

    first fime Soviet exhibitors displayed a unit working on the principle of super-high-frequency vibrational energy which can thaw a ton of frozen...vitamin-mineral preparations, stomatological mater- ials, medical adhesives, powders for preparing beverages and baby food were displayed

  14. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-22

    Sumer. Fantasies have now given way to practical deeds. We have entered the space era and are taking the first steps to conquer solar space. Space...the possibility of intelligent life on the planets of the solar system are not finding confirmation. Attempts to detect extraterrestrial civilizations...Conservative members of parliament want to reduce the pressure in their own social pressure cooker with the help of an escape valve. The move toward the

  15. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-19

    laws as well," said Marat Khordos. "It is especially regrettable that this is being done not by private persons, but by highly placed government...lengthy commentary to these words. Their sincerity cannot be doubted— Marat Khordos also appeared on television with a 53 similar announcement. I

  16. Celebrities in International Affairs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Budabin, Alexandra Cosima

    2016-01-01

    Celebrity engagement in global “helping” is not a simple matter of highly photogenic caring for needy others across borders; it is a complex relationship of power that often produces contradictory functions in relation to the goals of humanitarianism, development, and advocacy. This article argues...

  17. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-14

    is the scientific name for the acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus), then at least various stories and conjectures have crossed the borders...ringing in the vestibule of the Soviet embassy in Washington. A stranger’s voice said In broken French: "On Monday, 30 December, we intend to do

  18. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-27

    Caribbean Sea, the Atlantic Ocean and in the mouth of the Orinoco River . According to the firm’s estimates, the total natural-gas reserves on the shelf... river and maritime navigation directly affecting the 200-mile limit lie within its area of competence. At the same time one cannot say that the...plan. It called for the search to be extended to the entire shelf zone (from the Gulf of Venezuelan in the west to the mouth of the Amacuro river in

  19. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-19

    reestructuracion....; Presidencia de la Republica. Criterios generales de politica economica para la iniciativa de ley de ingresos y el proyecto de...economicos. IV. Indicadores del sector externo, September 1985; EL FINANCIERO, Mexico City, 12 Nov 85; Criterios generales de politica economica ...reestructuracion...., p 16. 19.-’ Ibid. ■ 20. EXCELSIOR, Mexico City, 3 Dec 85. 21. Criterios generales de politica economica para la iniciativa

  20. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-07

    Washington’s hypocrisy and self-interest. In May 1984 when after an "exchange of ambassadors" between the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" and Ankara ...such areas as nuclear power engineering, electrification, petroleum, gas, che- mical and petrochemical industry, metallurgy, machine building, geology

  1. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-26

    countries to the intensive type of social reproduction (progressive structural shifts in the economy; the acceleration of scientific-technical...between economic and extra-economic factors ot social reproduction . He reveals not only the workings and results of the technological revolution, but

  2. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-29

    Reggio nell’ Emilia —capital of the province of the same name. It is extremely interesting because of the fact that here there are other examples of...cooperation with our country, thus showing how many spheres there are for the joint application of forces. The city of Reggio nell’ Smilia and its

  3. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-16

    annual expeditions to study the earth’s last terra incognita, we can speak of a special, Antarctic type of personality, brave, enterprising, efficient...Liechtenstein Turnover Export Import 25,8 1,0 24,8 7,9 0,8 7,1 Luxembourg Turnover Export Import 14,7 7,4 7,3 19,3 8,1 11,2 Malta

  4. USSR Report, International Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-19

    Autonomy’, by Vladimir Katin 63 U.S. ’Presure*, ’Lies’ 66 ’ Shattered Illusion’,by Vladislav Drobkov 67 Spanish Membership in NATO: ’Fight Not Over...corn, and other cereals have been introduced with im- proved characteristics. In the mid-eighties a computerized system of soil di- agnosis made...tell the "anonymous source:" "mask, I know you!" ’ Shattered Illusion1 PM241059 Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 23 Apr 86 First Edition p 5 [Vladislav

  5. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-13

    VERITE, 1985, Paris, No 30, p 4. 6. "Sobre America Latina. Proyecto de resolucion de la mayoria de Secretariado unificado de la IV Internacional... Investigacion y Documentacion de la Costa Atlantica, 1983" quoted in PENSAMIENTO PROP10, Managua, 1985, No 26, p 34. American banana, lumber, gold...fleur- de -lis symbol super- imposed on a cross, little icons of the Mother of God, and all kind of other badges which have nothing in common with the

  6. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-10-08

    corporations. British banks dominate finances; American, South African, British firms dominate industry’. Some of the villas belonging to Europeans...Council, headed by Bishop Abel Muzorewa, a traitor to his own people, the self-seeking "Judas Iscariof of the Zim- babwe people", as he was aptly

  7. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-21

    internacional. Caracteristicas generales y particulares de los procesos revolucionarios. Memorias . La Habana, 1982, p 49.) The Izquierda...the United States, in the graphic expression of the journal NUEVA SOCIEDAD , "was licking the wounds inflicted by the Malvinas conflict," (Footnote 2...Nueva Sociedad . San Jose, 1982, No 63, P 79) the presidents of Mexico and Venezuela came out with a joint initiative, sending messages to the

  8. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-24

    conference, by the political realism ’ and sense of responsi- bility, which they showed. This enabled them to overcome many barriers arid difficulties in...desire to circumvent the acute social aspects of the topic and substitute abstract theorizing in the spirit of bourgeois neoclassical concepts for a

  9. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-28

    Angola IDEOLOGY AND POLITICS . B. Klyuyev. Islam in India • • • OUR TRIBUNAL ,.,■., Said Amir Zara . Afghanistan. The Social Base of Revolution...states. An example of such cooperation may be the relations with India . They are distinguished by a high degree of trust and mutual understanding. The...an exhibit entitled "Contemporary Industrial Technology of Austria" which will be an important part of the year’s bilateral economic relations

  10. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-23

    nacimiento del marxismo en la Argentina." Buenos Aires, 1974, pp 39-40. 91 23. C. Balino. "Documento y articulos ." La Habana, 1976, pp 107-114. 24...Essays on the Interpretation of Peruvian Reality], Moscow, 1963, P 401. 28. J.A. Mella. "Documento y articulos ." La Habana, 1975, p 387. 29. CHILE...1. C. Balino. "Documento y articulos ." La Habana, 1976, p 241-242. In this book the problem of working class participation in the revolution is

  11. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-26

    PRODUCTION TO BEGIN—Yet another drink, Coca - cola will be added to Fanta and Pepsi Cola drinks which are produced in our country. Its production will...weapons. We understand and support the peace-loving initiatives of your country." CSO:1807/189-P 64 UNITED STATES AND CANADA BRIEFS COCA - COLA ...hand and the Coca - Cola company from the United States of America and the (Ladacars) firm on the other hand. The agreement envisages cooperation in the

  12. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-06

    capitalist countries; the power availability per worker and capital intensity ratios in the given production sector; the material intensity-output ratio ...into an agrarian-industrial continent. In 1950 the ratio between agriculture and industry was 1:1, while in 1980 it was already 1:3. [2] Significant...LATINA. Buenos Aires, No 11, 1984, p 155. 8. EL FINANCIERO , Mexico, 11 October 1984. 9. NEWSWEEK. New York, 1984, Vol 103, No 16, p 4. 10. CEPAL

  13. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-01

    In 1976 they accounted for 70 per cent of world exports of bananas, rice, rubber and oil, over 80 per cent of exports of cocoa , tea, coffee, wheat... ferment preparations for cheese- making, production of pectin and instant coffee, construction of hot- house complexes, etc. - • The USSR

  14. USSR Report, International Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-11

    among states. In turn, General Edgardo Mercado Jarrin sharply condemned the interventionist actions of the CIA against Libya and Nicaragua, and...1979, P 62. 2. ESTUDIO CENTROAMERICANOS. San Salvador, No 359, 1979, P 777. 3. INFORMACION CATOLICA IBEROAMERICANA. Vol 1, No 237, 1981. 4

  15. NEA international peer reviews of post-accident protection policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, T.

    2011-01-01

    For many years, the NEA has offered international peer reviews of national, high-level radioactive waste management policies and approaches. Until recently, this service had not been requested in the area of radiological protection. However, the 3. International Nuclear Emergency Exercise (INEX-3, 2005-2006) addressed post-accident consequence management for the first time in a broad, international sense, and helped generate significant national reflections in this area. In particular, in 2005 the French government began an extensive programme of post-emergency consequence management planning, resulting in a draft national policy to address such situations. The Finnish government used the INEX-3 exercise as a vehicle to discuss post-emergency consequence management with a broad group of governmental and private stakeholders, and also began to develop national policy in this area. In order to further refine national efforts, the French Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) invited the NEA to perform in April 2011 its first international peer review in the radiological protection area focusing on its post-emergency consequence management policy under development. Finnish experts participated in this peer review team, and as a result, subsequently invited the NEA to perform an international peer review of its developing policy in this area in September 2011. These draft national policies and their international peer reviews are briefly presented in this paper. Feedback from both the French ASN and the Finnish STUK suggests that the detailed, external input provided by the international peer review teams have been extremely valuable in refining the content of the guides so that they are more clear, concise, understandable and implementable. It should be recalled that both national policy documents reviewed are far more detailed and extensive than described here. The intent of this article was not to provide a review of the national policies themselves, but rather to give an

  16. International terrorism in internal and foreign policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Shchyholev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of the problem of social radicalization that lead to terrorism, because it is the basis and the crisis in the socio ­economic, political and spiritual spheres , and the context of inter­ethnic and inter­religious relations , geopolitical and foreign influences. This is a problematic basis on which the transformation processes of radicalization in immediate threat of terrorist attacks, it becomes more tangible in some member states of the European Union. The global financial and economic crisis, which significantly affected the welfare of the population, especially in Greece, Spain , Italy, led to an increase in the number of terrorist acts organized by members of the radical left and anarchist groups. According to Europol, there has been increasing aggressiveness of these groups, which have become priority objectives authorities. Moreover, almost twice the share of terrorist attacks using explosive devices. Finding effective ways to counter radicalization, extremism and terrorism , without exaggeration, be called one of the most serious challenges of the XXI century for most of the leading countries of the world. In today no one doubts the fact that effective work in this area requires a systematic approach by the state, not limited by narrow national boundaries. International experience suggests that the threat of the spread of radicalism , extremism and terrorism is becoming more global scale. Thus it is not only the common (or similar roots , but also the general trends of transformation and adaptation to modern conditions , respectively ­ and similar systematic countermeasures .Experience of leading nations to set the most common          (conceptual approach to the formulation of guidelines , directions and forms of state activity in combating radicalism , extremism and terrorism.

  17. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Cultural and economic geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  18. Migration and development policies: The state of affairs before the 2015 European migration crises in the Czech Republic and its current implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stojanov, R.; Bureš, O.; Duží, Barbora

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2017), s. 169-181 ISSN 0967-067X Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : development policy * migration policy * coherence * international migration * European Union Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.607, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0967067X17300272

  19. Public affairs plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies.

  20. Public affairs plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Public Affairs Plan is to establish goals for the Fiscal Year 1995 UMTRA public affairs program and identify specific activities to be conducted during the year. It also describes the roles of various agencies involved in the conduct of the public affairs program and defines the functions of the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) Public Affairs Department. It integrates and replaces the Public Participation Plan (DOE/AL/62350-47D) and Public Information Plan (DOE/AL/623590-71). The plan describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) plans to keep stakeholders and other members of the public informed about project policies, plans, and activities, and provide opportunities for stakeholders and interested segments of the public to participate in project decision-making processes. The plan applies to the UMTRA Project Office; the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office, Office of Intergovernmental and External Affairs (OIEA); the UMTRA TAC; the UMTRA Remedial Action Contractor (RAC); and other cooperating agencies

  1. Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; Twigg, D; Dussault, G; Duffield, C; Stone, P W

    2015-06-01

    Examine metrics and policies regarding nurse workforce across four countries. International comparisons inform health policy makers. Data from the OECD were used to compare expenditure, workforce and health in: Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Workforce policy context was explored. Public spending varied from less than 50% of gross domestic product in the US to over 80% in the UK. Australia had the highest life expectancy. Portugal has fewer nurses and more physicians. The Australian national health workforce planning agency has increased the scope for co-ordinated policy intervention. Portugal risks losing nurses through migration. In the UK, the economic crisis resulted in frozen pay, reduced employment, and reduced student nurses. In the US, there has been limited scope to develop a significant national nursing workforce policy approach, with a continuation of State based regulation adding to the complexity of the policy landscape. The US is the most developed in the use of nurses in advanced practice roles. Ageing of the workforce is likely to drive projected shortages in all countries. There are differences as well as variation in the overall impact of the global financial crisis in these countries. Future supply of nurses in all four countries is vulnerable. Work force planning is absent or restricted in three of the countries. Scope for improved productivity through use of advanced nurse roles exists in all countries. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  2. The Palgrave international handbook of higher education policy and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; de Boer, Harry F.; Souto-Otero, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This authoritative, state-of-the-art reference collection addresses the major themes, theories and key concepts related to higher education policy and governance on an international scale in one accessible volume. Mapping the field and showcasing current research and theorizations from diverse

  3. Policy Analysis for Growth and Employment | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Through the network, research teams from different countries compare and contrast policies and programs, promoting South-South learning. Increasingly, PEP is being called upon by international institutions like the United Nations Children's Fund, the United Nations Development Programme, and the United Nations ...

  4. 47 CFR 64.1002 - International settlements policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS International Settlements Policy and Modification... accounting rate modification, filed pursuant to § 64.1001, that includes a settlement rate that is at or... behavior that is harmful to U.S. customers. Carriers and other parties filing complaints must support their...

  5. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  6. Energy policy under the aspect of international economic interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaelis, H.

    1978-01-01

    A few introductory remarks on the status of and on prospects fo the world energy economy as well as on reasons given for the necessity of a world-wide coordination of energy policy and economic policy are followed by an explanation of the policy led by oil extracting countries and of the endeavour of western industrialized countries to reduce oil imports. Even if the state of utilizing nuclear energy does not yet present a sufficient alternative, the international nuclear energy continues to be directed towards this goal. Seen from an international viewpoint, relieving contributions are to be expected from energy-conservation-actions and from the development of regenerative energy sources. (UA) [de

  7. EU energy policies of the mid-1990s. A comprehensive and analytical guide to all European Union policies with an impact on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1996-04-01

    Chapters consider regulation and competition approaches to the internal energy market; environmental policies and air quality and a climate change strategy; economics and social cohesion; security of supply; nuclear issues; research and development; and international affairs. (UK)

  8. International trade agreements: a threat to tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, E R; Brenner, J E; Houston, T P

    2005-08-01

    International covenants establish a role for governments in ensuring the conditions for human health and wellbeing, which has been recognised as a central human right. International trade agreements, conversely, prioritize the rights of corporations over health and human rights. International trade agreements are threatening existing tobacco control policies and restrict the possibility of implementing new controls. This situation is unrecognised by many tobacco control advocates in signatory nations, especially those in developing countries. Recent agreements on eliminating various trade restrictions, including those on tobacco, have expanded far beyond simply international movement of goods to include internal tobacco distribution regulations and intellectual property rules regulating advertising and labelling. Our analysis shows that to the extent trade agreements protect the tobacco industry, in itself a deadly enterprise, they erode human rights principles and contribute to ill health. The tobacco industry has used trade policy to undermine effective barriers to tobacco importation. Trade negotiations provide an unwarranted opportunity for the tobacco industry to assert its interests without public scrutiny. Trade agreements provide the industry with additional tools to obstruct control policies in both developed and developing countries and at every level. The health community should become involved in reversing these trends, and help promote additional measures to protect public health.

  9. Promoting Social Equity, Diversity, and Inclusion through Accreditation: Comparing National and International Standards for Public Affairs Programs in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubaii, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which accreditation of public affairs programs can be a tool to advance social equity, diversity, and inclusion. The paper is presented in the context of the widespread acceptance of the importance of addressing social inequalities in Latin America and the critical role that public…

  10. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  11. Extremism and Neo-Liberal Education Policy: A Contextual Critique of the Trojan Horse Affair in Birmingham Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, James

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers new insights into the effects of neo-liberal education policies on some Muslim majority schools in Birmingham. It critically reveals how the implementation of neo-liberal education policies, pursued by both Labour and Conservative Governments, has contributed to the failure of some mechanisms of school leadership and governance.…

  12. Water resource quality policy: the approach adopted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry under the Water Law principles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available for all, forever." The development of a water resource protection policy was begun in that review. This paper describes the major aspects of the policy at one point in a process of rapid development. Initial proposals are to use the concept of ecological...

  13. [The foundation of international migration policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmora, L

    1988-12-01

    A government's international migration policies are intended to influence the size, composition, direction, destination, or integration of international migratory flows. The justification for migratory policies has been based on a series of themes that have had varied weights in different stages of Latin American history. Migrations as population settlement, the desired or undesired characteristics of migrants, the economic impact of migration, the role of migration in relations between countries, and the ethical dimensions of migratory movement have been the major policy issues. The 1st migration policies in Latin America saw international migration as a means of settling the colonies. After independence, migratory policies oriented toward massive settlement became common. Although the stated goals were to settle entire territories with immigrants, the usual result was to absorb immigrants in certain economic sectors with high demand for labor. In the colonial period both Spain and Portugal attempted to restrict immigration to the Catholic segment of their own populations. After independence, the criteria were liberalized somewhat but still reflected prejudices about the racial superiority of certain types of European immigration. The selection principals which appeared most clearly during the 19th century were overwhelmed to the extent that immigration was tranformed into provision of labor to meet unsatisfied needs for workers. Indiscriminate admissions and recourse to nontraditional elements such as Chinese and Japanese was strongest in countries needing labor for tropical agriculture or extractive industries. The economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread economic argument that migration contributed to development was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but new rules were made to restrict immigration to protect local labor markets during the worldwide depression of the 1930s. In recent decades, migration policies

  14. Improvement of psychological work in the system of moral and psychological support for the operational activities in the internal affairs personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir L. Kubyshko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation is one of the professional activities, the departments must perform the tasks of the following two tiers: professionally-based and system-wide. Those tasks of the first tier perform the tree groups of individual and group diagnostics, personal and professional development, and professional and psychological support. When implemented they are determined by system-wide goals, with the main one shaping the patriotic worldview, corporate culture and the significantprofessionalproperties of the employees. Objective. Within the framework of the approach mentioned above, the paper considers static and dynamic models of psychological work in the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation at the present stage, current issues and ways to resolve them are revealed. Progress Report. Based on the brief analysis of the static model of psychological work it is concluded that there are forces and means for the successful accomplishment of the assigned tasks which is confirmed by the external indicators. When considering the on-line dynamic model issues, the issues of scientific and methodological character are identifiedand also the corporate personnel and the systemwide (worldview typeof work are determined. Their essence and content are specified, and also the ways to constructively eliminate these issues are highlighted. Research results. The author emphasizes that the worldviewissues require special consideration as their solution demand a set of measures connected with the extension of the functional duties of the psychologists working in the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Conclusion. In the conditions of negative information and psychological impact on the professional and corporate consciousness of the Ministry of Internal Affairs employees, the increased attention of some researchers to the negative moments of the history of the police when its

  15. Organizing and conducting career guidance and crime prevention among young people by means of physical culture and sports specialized university departments Internal Affairs of Ukraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakorko I.P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of social development takes on special urgency the problem of finding new means and methods of crime prevention among youth in the context of strengthening the nation's health. In our opinion, employees of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry must take a decisive role in solving these problems. One of the most effective ways to solve them is to organize youth sports schools and clubs to professionally-applied sports at the bases of relevant departments of higher educational institutions of Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the involvement of the best specialists and trainers.

  16. Structural policy in the context of international competition aggravation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Bodrov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article researches the essence and peculiarities of the structural policy, performs classification of its models and determines possibilities of their use in the context of increasing international competition. It discovers the main components of the economic structure and trends of the state policy regarding their modernization. Measures on improvement of state regulation instruments are offered, factors of influence upon improvement of the Ukrainian economy structure are analyzed and priority goals are systematized which require urgent implementation in the terms of competitive struggle aggravation at the global markets. The article also researches the matter of importance of performing a complex of state functional and selective measures in the form of matrix policy for the purpose of protecting national interests of the country in the context of global challenges

  17. On the efficiency of climate policies international coordination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Helioui

    2006-01-01

    This article analyses the economic efficiency of climate policies international coordination acknowledging long term perspectives and political constraints. It questions the economic and political viability of emission trading with respect to market power and dynamic distortions. The latter proves more worrying. While one may reasonably expect national positions being decentralized, the Climate Convention cannot commit on long term emission objectives. As a consequence, there is room for strategic behaviour by governments. Structural public programs, crucial to curb long term emissions, are likely to be scaled down because governments expect post-2012 quotas to be revised according to observed trends. This might jeopardize the climate action and further weaken the political consensus it requires. Are carbon taxes a better policy option? It might be the case provided the tax is levied at the international level, but this option faces political obstacles. A hybrid scheme should realize a good compromise between economic efficiency and political acceptability. (author)

  18. Assessment of Information Security Management System based on ISO/IEC 27001:2013 On Subdirectorate of Data Center and Data Recovery Center in Ministry of Internal Affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnianto Ari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Information security is a problem effected business process of an organization, so it needs special concern. Information security assessment which is good and has international standard is done using Information Security Management System (ISMS ISO/IEC 27001:2013. In this research, the high level assessment has been done using ISO/IEC 27001:2013 to observe the strength of information secuity in Ministry of Internal Affairs. The research explains about the assessment of information security management which is built using PHP. The input data use primary and secondary data which passed observation. The process gets maturity using the assessment of ISO/IEC 27001:2013. GAP Analysis observes the condition now a days and then to get recommendation and road map. The result of this research gets all of the information security process which has not been already good enough in Ministry of Internal Affairs, gives recommendation and road map to improve part of all information system being running. It indicates that ISO/IEC 27001:2013 is good used to rate maturity of information security management. As the next analyzation, this research use Clause and Annex in ISO/IEC 27001:2013 which is suitable with condition of Data Center and Data Recovery Center, so it gets optimum result and solving problem of the weakness information security.

  19. Assessment of Information Security Management System based on ISO/IEC 27001:2013 On Subdirectorate of Data Center and Data Recovery Center in Ministry of Internal Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianto, Ari; Isnanto, Rizal; Widodo, Aris Puji

    2018-02-01

    Information security is a problem effected business process of an organization, so it needs special concern. Information security assessment which is good and has international standard is done using Information Security Management System (ISMS) ISO/IEC 27001:2013. In this research, the high level assessment has been done using ISO/IEC 27001:2013 to observe the strength of information secuity in Ministry of Internal Affairs. The research explains about the assessment of information security management which is built using PHP. The input data use primary and secondary data which passed observation. The process gets maturity using the assessment of ISO/IEC 27001:2013. GAP Analysis observes the condition now a days and then to get recommendation and road map. The result of this research gets all of the information security process which has not been already good enough in Ministry of Internal Affairs, gives recommendation and road map to improve part of all information system being running. It indicates that ISO/IEC 27001:2013 is good used to rate maturity of information security management. As the next analyzation, this research use Clause and Annex in ISO/IEC 27001:2013 which is suitable with condition of Data Center and Data Recovery Center, so it gets optimum result and solving problem of the weakness information security.

  20. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  1. The Baltic policy of Germany and current international relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikov Aleksey

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Baltic policy of united Germany from the 1990s until today. The authors set out to identify the significance of German-Baltic relations and the role of the Eastern policy in Russian-German relations. The method of dynamic comparison between the political and economic narrative in intergovernmental relations makes it possible to identify distinctive features of Germany’s Baltic policy in the context of current international relations. In particular, it is noted that Germany was most active in the Baltic region in the 1990s, when the country was establishing political, economic, and cultural ties with the new independent states. In the second half of the 1990s, Germany’s foreign policy became less intense. After the accession of Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia to the EU and NATO in 2004, certain disagreements started to arise between Germany and the Baltics. It explains the lukewarm relations between them. The Ukraine events brought about a change in Germany’s regional policy. Despite Russia remaining one of the key economic and political counteractors, Germany, being a partner of the Baltics in the EU and NATO, cannot adopt a neutral position in the conflict of interests between the Baltics and Russia.

  2. International Market Leakage from China’s Forestry Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon leakage can be a problem when seeking to reduce carbon emissions through forest policy. International market leakage is mainly caused by supply and demand imbalances in the timber market. This paper selects China, which is implementing forestry policy changes, as the research object. We begin by offering a brief analysis of China’s forestry policy changes, such as the logging quota and Six Key Forestry Programs to determine whether those policies affect timber supply. Second, through the use of three shock variables, carbon leakage is simulated under different scenarios by the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP model. The results reveal that the magnitude of leakage caused by implementing China’s forestry policies is between 79.7% and 88.8% with carbon leakage mainly displaced to Russia, Southeast Asia, and the EU. Two effective scenarios for reducing market leakage are presented: forest tenure reform and fast growing forest projects to improve domestic timber production, and raising tariffs on timber imports to reduce imports.

  3. Globalization, Competitiveness, International Trade, Industrial Policy and Employement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Novella

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness is presented as a variable key in the present context of a worldwide economy and extends its influence over the international trade tendencies, industrial policies and employment.The variations which trade relations at international level have undergone throughout the second half of the twentieth century have been accompanied by successive theoretical contributions, which have evolved from the traditional theories of the nineteenth century concerning comparative advantages and which introduce more complex factors.The product cycle model expounded by Vernon offers an explanation for the continual flow of sectors at international level as well as the characteristics of the most adequate industrial policy and the commercial patterns of each State revealing the importance of technology, human capital and international marketing as key factors for international competitiveness.This article explains the appearance of news procedures of international competitiveness based on product diferentiation, quality and brand image which, nowadays, coexist with traditional models such as costs and prices reductions.At every stage of a country’s development, a sectorial production structure together with some specific demand characteristics, salary and productivity levels correspond to it. All these latter aspects are interelated and should be analysed all together. With globalization, the speed with which a product passes from one phase to another has accelerated as well as the time it travels from the central countries to those intermediate ones and from there successively to those in the South, in such a way that these sectorialswings in international trade should be considered as a normal effect of it. Competition via salary reductions and social security benefits is not the only nor the most recommendable solution given that, in the long term, it affects the quality of production and social stability degrading as it does the standard of

  4. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: The Institute of Economic Affairs, Ghana. This funding will help strengthen the Institute of Economic Affairs' (IEA-Ghana) role as a credible public policy institution by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Institute of Economic Affairs

  5. 75 FR 67804 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ..., contact Deputy Outreach Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy... 28, 2010. Maryruth Coleman, Office Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7224] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  6. Features of the application of five-factor personality questionnaire in the activities of psychologists of the bodies of internal affairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrov V.E.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study opportunities five-factor personality questionnaire as diagnostic tools for the study of the personality of employees of internal Affairs bodies in different categories. Subject of research – the practice of application of this methodology in the activities of the departmental psychologists. The research urgency is caused by necessity of scientific verification of the questionnaire for the decision of tasks of internal Affairs bodies. The study was conducted by psychological testing and expert evaluation. As the mathematical tools used descriptive statistics (frequency analysis and grouping, criterion *2 and student's t-test. The novelty of this study is to clarify the regulatory indicators questionnaire for categories such as "employee of ATS" (generalized image, "employee commandant's offices", "police", "policeman-driver". Study allows you to expand the scope of the questionnaire (the study of the personality of employees, demonstrating certain types of deviant behavior; individualization of forms and methods of psychological preparation and assistance; prediction of behavior in extreme conditions and professional and personal development.

  7. LEGISLATIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AID IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION AS THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STATE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Demydenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes normative documents according to which economic incentives can become state aid, ways of developing European and national policies that allow the allocation of state aid for environmental protection and protected areas, and the promotion of biodiversity conservation on legal grounds.

  8. Residence Hall Student Satisfaction with Interim Alcohol Policy. Office for Student Affairs Research Bulletin; v15 n4 Jul74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabourg, Deborah; And Others

    At the beginning of the 1973-74 academic year alcohol usage was officially permitted for the first time in residence halls at the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. To determine residents' perceptions of the effects of the change in drinking policy, interviews were conducted with 49 current dormitory residents, who had also lived…

  9. Student Perceptions of Alcohol Policy Issues. Office for Student Affairs Research Bulletin; v15 n5 Jul74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel; And Others

    A mailed survey was conducted of students' opinions on issues relevant to the university's policy toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus. Responses were received from 402 members of a random sample of 496 students from the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. Key findings include: A majority of respondents believed…

  10. 77 FR 57180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8022] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting The Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy (ACIEP) will meet from 2 p... and challenges in international economic policy. The meeting will examine U.S.-Egypt relations...

  11. International trade agreements challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Donald W

    2006-11-01

    This report reviews aspects of trade agreements that challenge tobacco and alcohol control policies. Trade agreements reduce barriers, increase competition, lower prices and promote consumption. Conversely, tobacco and alcohol control measures seek to reduce access and consumption, raise prices and restrict advertising and promotion in order to reduce health and social problems. However, under current and pending international agreements, negotiated by trade experts without public health input, governments and corporations may challenge these protections as constraints on trade. Advocates must recognise the inherent conflicts between free trade and public health and work to exclude alcohol and tobacco from trade agreements. The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control has potential to protect tobacco policies and serve as a model for alcohol control.

  12. Corporate Policies and Procedures on Advertising & Promotion. Report of the Sub-Council on Advertising and Promotion of the National Business Council for Consumer Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Business Council for Consumer Affairs, Washington, DC.

    This report is the result of efforts to encourage thoughtful individual corporate action in maintaining up-to-date internal policies and procedures relating to the functions of advertising and promotion. Information for the report was gathered by sending letters to the chief executives of major national advertisers requesting a personal review of…

  13. New Directions in Land Remote Sensing Policy and International Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Timothy

    2010-12-01

    Recent changes to land remote sensing satellite data policies in Brazil and the United States have led to the phenomenal growth in the delivery of land imagery to users worldwide. These new policies, which provide free and unrestricted access to land remote sensing data over a standard electronic interface, are expected to provide significant benefits to scientific and operational users, and open up new areas of Earth system science research and environmental monitoring. Freely-available data sets from the China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites (CBERS), the U.S. Landsat satellites, and other satellite missions provide essential information for land surface monitoring, ecosystems management, disaster mitigation, and climate change research. These missions are making important contributions to the goals and objectives of regional and global terrestrial research and monitoring programs. These programs are in turn providing significant support to the goals and objectives of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC), the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), and the UN Reduction in Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) program. These data policies are well-aligned with the "Data Democracy" initiative undertaken by the international Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS), through its current Chair, Brazil's National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais, or INPE), and its former chairs, South Africa's Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and Thailand's Geo Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA). Comparable policies for land imaging data are under consideration within Europe and Canada. Collectively, these initiatives have the potential to accelerate and improve international mission collaboration, and greatly enhance the access, use, and application of land surface imagery for environmental monitoring and societal adaption to changing

  14. Proceedings; 4th Tsuruga international energy forum. Energy policy and international cooperation of Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The forum was opened at Tsuruga City in Japan from 26 to 27 in April, 2004. It initially discussed Japan's energy policy with the central focus based on the fundamental law of energy, presenting energy policies of each country and the position and future prospects of nuclear energy from these policies. Considering that the forum took place in Tsuruga City (where the FBR 'Monju' is located), expectations on 'Monju' and demands for its international utilization was discussed by researches from abroad, universities in Japan, and the possibility of its realization with views on firm implementation measures was exchanged. Keynote speech was 'Energy policy in the 21st century', special presentation 'importance of science and technology development and cultivation of improvement'. The forum consisted of three sessions: the session I 'energy policy and the role of each country in the 21st century', session II 'international utilization of Monju for FR development' and III 'regional technology development by utilizing nuclear related technology and facilities in Fukui pref.'. There were three panel discussions. 24 members composed speaker and panelists from USA, Turkey, France, UK, China, Switzerland, Korea, Russia and Japan. (S.Y.)

  15. The trends and constructive ambiguity in international agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs: Implications for domestic legislations in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Kyung-Bok; Lee, Tae-Jin

    2017-06-06

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the trends in international agreements including Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), Korea-United States Free Trade Agreements, and Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreements on intellectual property and pharmaceutical affairs with the updated framework. The study also assesses constructive ambiguity in international agreements, which might affect the implementation process through interpretation and domestic legislations. Five flexibility clauses and three TRIPS-plus provisions were selected, and presence of constructive ambiguity in the agreements was analysed to draw actual trends in international agreements. Flexibility provisions excluding compulsory licensing were not noticeably changed, and TRIPS-plus provisions including data exclusivity and patent linkage were expanded in scope or newly appeared, respectively. The clause regarding compulsory licensing, extension of the patent term, data exclusivity, and patent linkage showed unclear definitions or the lack of adequate explanations. With constructive ambiguity in those clauses, a country who wants to join international agreements in the near future could amend domestic legislations to minimise the detrimental effect of international agreements on access to medicines.

  16. Global Issues Confronting Student Affairs Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Allen R.

    1999-01-01

    An Australian student affairs leader summarizes issues discussed at recent international conferences. A significant number of commonalities appear in the information. These issues provide a global perspective on some of the problems and challenges facing student affairs. This international perspective has rarely been described in the literature…

  17. IJEPA: Gray Area for Health Policy and International Nurse Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efendi, Ferry; Mackey, Timothy Ken; Huang, Mei-Chih; Chen, Ching-Min

    2017-05-01

    Indonesia is recognized as a nurse exporting country, with policies that encourage nursing professionals to emigrate abroad. This includes the country's adoption of international principles attempting to protect Indonesian nurses that emigrate as well as the country's own participation in a bilateral trade and investment agreement, known as the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement that facilitates Indonesian nurse migration to Japan. Despite the potential trade and employment benefits from sending nurses abroad under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement, Indonesia itself is suffering from a crisis in nursing capacity and ensuring adequate healthcare access for its own populations. This represents a distinct challenge for Indonesia in appropriately balancing domestic health workforce needs, employment, and training opportunities for Indonesian nurses, and the need to acknowledge the rights of nurses to freely migrate abroad. Hence, this article reviews the complex operational and ethical issues associated with Indonesian health worker migration under the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement. It also introduces a policy proposal to improve performance of the Indonesia-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement and better align it with international principles focused on equitable health worker migration.

  18. 75 FR 27857 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... issues, and international market access issues. Members of the public may submit suggestions and comments... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6973] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  19. 75 FR 881 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... generation communications technology issues, international market access, Internet governance, ICT... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6846] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  20. 75 FR 18940 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State has renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  1. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  2. EU internal energy market policy: new dynamics in the Brussels policy game?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikeland, Per Ove

    2008-11-15

    The paper analyses the September 2007 European Commission proposal for a third internal energy policy package. It asks if the proposal reflected fundamental changes in the Brussels policy game from 2003, when the existing legislation had been adopted. A multi-level governance approach has inspired this check of alternative propositions. We find that the proposal was primarily the result of greater will on the part of the Commission to pressure unwilling member-state governments. There is also strong evidence that the Commission pursued a new form of multi-level game, pressing non-state agents directly to change the political game at the national level. Our study finally discusses whether different network approaches would add explanatory power to our study, acknowledging that agents working in larger networks could have greater thrust on the Commission. The main conclusion is that EU policy networks have become less stable and more issue-specific, making policy predictions less certain than before. (author).refs.,tab

  3. Presidential address: International medical graduates in the surgical workforce and the Veterans Affairs hospitals: where are we coming from? Where are we going?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Kamal M F

    2008-09-01

    The demand for physicians has fluctuated from shortages to oversupply, with reliance on international medical graduates (IMGs) during periods of shortages. Twenty-four percent of the total physician workforce and 20% of general surgeons are IMGs. To address an estimated shortage of 200,000 physicians by 2020 to 2025, a constant and stable supply of IMG physicians, in addition to greater numbers of graduating medical students is needed. General surgery, especially in underserved areas, will be severely affected, and little has been done so far to address this shortage. Over the years, Veteran Affairs hospitals have addressed physician shortages in their facilities by relying on IMGs despite mounting difficulties with visa sponsorship. A sensible solution is presented to address general surgery shortages in the United States while preventing global brain drain.

  4. The Veterans Choice Act: A Qualitative Examination of Rapid Policy Implementation in the Department of Veterans Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattocks, Kristin M; Mengeling, Michelle; Sadler, Anne; Baldor, Rebecca; Bastian, Lori

    2017-07-01

    Congress enacted the Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 [Veterans Choice Act (VCA)] to improve access to timely, high-quality health care for Veterans. Although Congress mandated that VCA must begin within 90 days of passage of the legislation, no guidelines were provided in the legislation to ensure that Veterans had access to an adequate number of community providers across different specialties of care or distinct geographic areas, including rural areas of the country. To examine VCA policy implementation across a sampling of Veterans Health Administration (VHA) Medical Centers. We conducted a qualitative study of 43 VHA staff and providers by conducting in-person interviews at 5 VA medical centers in the West, South, and Midwest United States. Interview questions focused on perceptions and experiences with VCA and challenges related to implementation for VHA staff and providers. We identified 3 major themes to guide description of choice implementation: (1) VCA implemented too rapidly with inadequate preparation; (2) community provider networks insufficiently developed; and (3) communication and scheduling problems with subcontractors may lead to further delays in care. Our evaluation suggests that VCA was implemented far too rapidly, with little consideration given to the adequacy of community provider networks available to provide care to Veterans. Given the challenges we have highlighted in VCA implementation, it is imperative that the VHA continue to develop care coordination systems that will allow the Veterans to receive seamless care in the community.

  5. Principles and Policies for International Coordination of Research Data Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.; Mokrane, M.; Sorvari, S.; Treloar, A.; Smith, C.

    2017-12-01

    International data networks enable the sharing of data within and between scientific disciplines and countries and thus provide the foundation for Open Science. Developing effective and sustainable international research data networks is critical for progress in many areas of research and for science to address complex global societal challenges. However, the development and maintenance of effective networks is not always easy, particularly in a context where public resources for science are limited and international cooperation is not a priority for many countries. The global landscape for data sharing in science is complex; many international data networks already exist and have highly variable structures. Some are linked to large intergovernmental research infrastructures, have highly developed centralized services and deal mainly with the data needs of single disciplines. Some are highly distributed, have much less rigid governance structures and provide access to data from many different domains. Most are somewhere between these two extremes and they cover different geographic regions, from regional to global. All provide a mix of data and associated data services which meets the needs of the research community to various extents and this provision depends on a mix of hardware, software, standards and protocols and human skills. These come together, working across national boundaries, in technical and social networks. In all of this, what makes a network function effectively or not is unclear. This means that there is also no simple answer to what can usefully be done at the policy level to promote the development of effective and sustainable data networks. Hence the rational for the present project - to study a variety of currently successful networks, explore the challenges that they are facing and the lessons that can be learned from confronting these challenges, and, where applicable, to translate this analysis into potential policy actions. Detailed

  6. International Education Policies and the Boundaries of Global Citizenship in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Christopher J.; Whitehead, Dawn Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses recent policy statements around international education produced by US state boards of education and their international education advisory councils, and investigates policy developments in two US states, Ohio and Indiana, to better ground the discussion of education policy-making in the local political, economic, and…

  7. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  8. Online Education in Public Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Martha H.; Hammond, Augustine

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory study provides an overview of the current landscape of online education in the fields of Master of Public Administration and Master of Public Policy (MPA/MPP) utilizing a dataset compiled from content analysis of MPA/MPP programs' websites and survey of 96 National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration…

  9. World oil: the growing case for international policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, D.; Khanna, N.

    2000-01-01

    Can the economic theory of depletion be reconciled with low petroleum prices? This article uses a revision of the theory, which reflects demand functions that rise in response to increasing world population and income. The magnitude of producers' and consumers' surplus is estimated under both competitive and monopolistic assumptions; the result indicates a present value comparable to or in excess of today's gross world economic product. Game theory suggests a framework that explains the interaction between oil pricing and military policy, and the economic incentives that result in a general pattern of recent market equilibrium crude oil prices often fluctuating with a 15-20 US dollars per barrel range. The analysis concludes that the economic incentives for political instability in the Persian Gulf will increase, and more formal methods of setting the international framework for Persian Gulf oil may be expected. (author)

  10. Global Education Policy in the Making: International Organisations and Lifelong Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobi, Anja P.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, policy scholars have increasingly turned towards the international level as a source for national policy change. This article conceptualises this development as the emergence of a global policy field of education. The example of lifelong learning is given to illustrate this global policy process. In the first part, I introduce…

  11. The international migration of dentists: directions for research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Madhan; Brennan, David Simon; Spencer, A John; Short, Stephanie Doris

    2016-08-01

    In 2010, the World Health Organization Global Code of Practice for International Recruitment of Health Personnel (the WHO Code) was adopted by the 193 Member States of the WHO. The WHO Code is a tool for global diplomacy, providing a policy framework to address the challenges involved in managing dentist migration, as well as improving the retention of dental personnel in source countries. The WHO Code recognizes the importance of migrant dentist data to support migration polices; minimum data on the inflows, outflows and stock of dentists are vital. Data on reasons for dentist migration, job satisfaction, cultural adaptation issues, geographic distribution and practice patterns in the destination country are important for any policy analysis on dentist migration. Key challenges in the implementation of the WHO Code include the necessity to coordinate with multiple stakeholders and the lack of integrated data on dentist migration and the lack of shared understanding of the interrelatedness of workforce migration, needs and planning. The profession of dentistry also requires coordination with a number of private and nongovernmental organizations. Many migrant dentist source countries, in African and the South-Asian WHO Regions, are in the early stages of building capacity in dentist migration data collection and research systems. Due to these shortcomings, it is prudent that developed countries take the initiative to pursue further research into the migration issue and respond to this global challenge. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  13. EU energy policies towards the 21st century: a business intelligence report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, Paul K.

    1998-06-01

    This report discusses the EU energy policy, and examines the single market, the internal electricity and gas markets, and the single market with respect to coal, oil and biofuel. The environmental policy, the control of air quality, climate change policies, security of supplies, and economic and social cohesion are addressed. Nuclear issues, research and demonstration programmes, EU enlargement, and international affairs are discussed. (UK)

  14. Brain Gain / Circulation Policy and International Student Policy in Korea : In Light of its Migration Policy and Implications for Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Yuriko

    2015-01-01

    In the knowledge based economy, brain gain has vital importance for many countries. However, the non-English speaking countries, such as Korea and Japan, face a similar disadvantage in attracting talented foreigners. International student policy plays an important role in attracting and fostering future talents in such countries. In this paper, the characteristics of international student policy and brain gain/circulation policy of Korea will be analyzed in light of its emigration history and...

  15. Minutes of Proceedings and Evidence of the Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade Respecting: Pursuant to Standing Order 108(2), consideration of nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Standing Committee on External Affairs and International Trade met to consider the nuclear dumping and testing in the Russian Arctic. Canada is concerned about the environmental effects of the radioactive waste to the marine environment. The safe dismantlement of nuclear weapons or reactors is of major concern

  16. The Stories They Tell: Understanding International Student Mobility through Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Doria; Abd Aziz, Mohd Ismail; Mohd Ibrahim, Abdul Latiff

    2017-01-01

    The movement of students across borders has had profound impact on higher education policy development. This article seeks to unpack international student mobility through a discourse approach, using five policy documents on international student mobility from well-established recruiters of international students. Eight headline findings are…

  17. 76 FR 17180 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... competitive global economy. The Committee also appraises the role and limits of international economic... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7327] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy... Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy. The Committee serves in a solely...

  18. Climate change policy and international trade. Policy considerations in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Christopher L.; Peters, Glen P.

    2009-01-01

    Significant recent attention, in both research and policy realms, has been given to the intersection of international trade and global climate change. Trade presents challenges to climate policy through carbon leakage and competitiveness concerns, but also potential solutions through the use of cooperative trade agreements, technology transfer, or carbon tariffs against recalcitrant nations. This study examines how trade may affect climate policy in the US and specifically examines the use of carbon tariffs as suggested by recent bills before the US Congress. We argue that even if such actions are legal at the World Trade Organization, they are probably not necessary to protect industrial competitiveness in the traditional sense, could cover only a small proportion of total embodied emissions in trade, and may in fact be counterproductive at a moment when global cooperation is desperately needed. While political agreement may necessitate at least the threat of carbon tariffs, cooperative agreements such as global sectoral agreements, technology sharing, etc. could be more productive in the short term. (author)

  19. The Arts and Urban Development: Critical Comment and Discussion. Monograph Series in Public and International Affairs No. 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendon, William S., Ed.

    This is a collection of essays on the arts and urban development. Included are the following articles: (1) "The Arts and Urban Development" by James L. Shanahan; (2) "Cultural Policy and Intra-Urban Development" by Richard Raymond and Michael Sesnowitz; (3) "The Vague World of the Arts and Urban Development," by Bruce Seaman; (4) "Business…

  20. Language Selection Policies in International Standardization – Perception of the IEC Member Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Teichmann (Hans); H.J. de Vries (Henk)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInternational standards setting organizations have different language selection policies. These policies have, besides their financial aspects, also an important cultural/ political dimension. The standards setting organizations are either bilingual (English/ French), or unilingual

  1. Decarbonizing the international shipping industry: Solutions and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Zheng; El Makhloufi, Abdel; Chen, Yang; Tang, Jiayuan

    2018-01-01

    Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% by 2050 from their 2012 levels, owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive, and crucial industrial support is absent. In 2003, the International Maritime Organization adopted Resolution A.963 (23) to regulate shipping CO 2 emissions via technical, operational, and market-based routes. However, progress has been slow and uncertain; there is no concrete emission reduction target or definitive action plan. Yet, a full-fledged roadmap may not even emerge until 2023. In this policy analysis, we revisit the progress of technical, operational, and market-based routes and the associated controversies. We argue that 1) a performance-based index, though good-intentioned, has loopholes affecting meaningful CO 2 emission reductions driven by technical advancements; 2) using slow steaming to cut energy consumption stands out among all operational solutions thanks to its immediate and obvious results, but with the already slow speed in practice, this single source has limited emission reduction potential; 3) without a technology-savvy shipping industry, a market-based approach is essentially needed to address the environmental impact. To give shipping a 50:50 chance for contributing fairly and proportionately to keep global warming below 2°C, deep emission reductions should occur soon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Climate change: what is the optimal international policy response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, B.S.

    1995-01-01

    In each country, the factors which will determine the future growth in emissions of greenhouse gases are: the rate of population growth; the level of economic growth; the speed of technological change and the policy settings adopted. An international model called MAGABARE to develop new carbon dioxide emission scenarios which take account of these factors, is considered. Whether or not there is sustained economic growth, the model shows that emissions from non-OECD countries will grow more rapidly than emissions from OECD economies. The implication is that any agreement to limit emissions that is confined to OECD will become more ineffective overtime and in fact will create incentives to relocate emission intensive activities to non-OECD countries. In the long term, there must be a way of involving non-OECD countries in emission control. One important aspect of this is technology transfer for energy efficiency. A global tradable quota system would provide a mechanism for the international transfer of financial resources and energy efficient technology to developing countries and therefore provide a means of encouraging participation in the scheme. 7 figs., 4 refs

  3. 76 FR 16032 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation IWP... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. Abstract of proposed...

  4. 76 FR 16030 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports... and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture... the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of technology. Abstract of proposed...

  5. 76 FR 16033 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports... Cultural Affairs, Office of Policy and Evaluation, Evaluation Division: Sports & Culture Evaluation BTL... forms of technology. Abstract of proposed collection: To meet OMB and Congressional reporting...

  6. Identifying Priorities for International Arctic Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachold, V.; Hik, D.; Barr, S.

    2015-12-01

    The International Arctic Science Committee (IASC) is a non-governmental, international scientific organization, founded in 1990 by representatives of national scientific organizations of the eight Arctic countries - Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia (at that time Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), Sweden and the United States of America. Over the past 25 years, IASC has evolved into the leading international science organization of the North and its membership today includes 23 countries involved in all aspects of Arctic research, including 15 non-Arctic countries (Austria, China, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, India, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland and the UK). The Founding Articles committed IASC to pursue a mission of encouraging and facilitating cooperation in all aspects of Arctic research, in all countries engaged in Arctic research and in all areas of the Arctic region. IASC promotes and supports leading-edge multi-disciplinary research in order to foster a greater scientific understanding of the Arctic region and its role in the Earth system. IASC has organized three forward-looking conferences focused on international and interdisciplinary perspectives for advancing Arctic research cooperation and applications of Arctic knowledge. Indeed, the IASC Founding Articles call for IASC to host these conferences periodically in order to "review the status of Arctic science, provide scientific and technical advice, and promote cooperation and links with other national and international organizations." Through its members, including national science organizations and funding agencies from all countries engaged in Arctic research, IASC is uniquely placed to undertake this task. As an accredited observer on the Arctic Council, IASC is also in the position to introduce the outcome of its science planning efforts into the Arctićs main political body and to liaise with the Arctic Council Permanent

  7. New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... The Cyber Policy Centres initiative was established in 2017 to strengthen independent policy research institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America by providing support and mentorship to build research and policy capacity in the key areas of digital rights, cybersecurity, and innovation policy.

  8. Toward Optimal Budget Utilization at the Department of Foreign Affairs: Focus on Foreign Service Posts and the International Commitment Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Macaranas, Federico M.; Lasala, Norma; Maulion, Alain M.; Furagganan, Brenda B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the optimization in the use of scarce budgetary resources available to the Philippine national government in fulfilling its role in the three pillars of foreign policy (traditional political-security areas, economic and social development concerns, and more recent engagement on the assistance to nationals). The lack of consistent data for longer-term analysis of benefits and costs in these three pillars and the inadequately defined value-addition of the Department of Foreig...

  9. Global Summit on Student Affairs and Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Bardill Moscaritolo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the most recent issue of the Journal of Student Affairs in Africa (JSAA, readers were introduced to the 3rd Global Summit on Student Affairs and Services that was hosted by Stellenbosch University (SU in Cape Town, South Africa, this past October 2016. This summary will provide a more detailed outline of the organisation of the summit, its processes, and the final written product for the 2016 summit, which was initiated by the International Association for Student Affairs and Services (IASAS and Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education (NASPA.

  10. The Gendered Nature of Student Affairs: Issues of Gender Equity in Student Affairs Professional Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Evelyn LaVette

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the gendered nature of the student affairs profession by investigating how three student affairs professional associations, the National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA), ACPA: College Student Educators International, and the Association of College and University Housing Officers International (ACUHO-I)…

  11. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  12. International Law and the climate change adaptation policy in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Araya Ahumada

    2016-01-01

    This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.

  13. From conflict to cooperation : international policies to protect the Brazilian Amazon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.

    1998-01-01

    When environmental degradation in a particular country has international consequences, a dilemma arises: how to find effective policies which address the causes and take domestic sensitivities into account? This article analyzes the Brazilian Amazon, where international concern over deforestation

  14. 3rd May 2009 - Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, visiting ATLAS experimental area, LHC tunnel and CERN Control Centre with CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti and Beams Department Head P. Collier.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    090506101-08: signature of the guest book and exchange of gifts; 090506109 + 46-64: Japanese Ambassador to the United Nations Office S. Kitajima, Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Non Member-State relations Adviser J. Ellis and ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson F. Gianotti visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1; 090506110-11 + 28-45: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda and his delegation visiting ATLAS experimental area with CERN Japanese users and Management; 090506112 + 86-94: Japanese Minister of State for Science and Technology Policy, Food Safety, Minister of Consumer Affairs, Minister of Space Policy S. Noda, CERN Director-General R. Heuer and Japanese users in front of an LHC superconducting magnet; sLHC Project Leader also present. 090506113-19: Arrival of Japanese Min...

  15. Review of International Policies for Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This paper reviews past and current voluntary and regulatory fuel efficiency programs and then assesses the effectiveness of these policies from the viewpoints of enforcement, standard design, standard stringency and standard related policies.

  16. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  17. Information report published by the Commission of European affairs on international negotiations related to climate change - Nr 1550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This report first outlines the urgency of struggle against global warming. It refers the scientific results recently published by the IPCC which notably worsened the diagnosis on global warming. It discussed the mixed results of the Doha Conference. In a second part, the authors discuss the stakes of the Warsaw climate Conference while outlining the need of a global agreement in 2015. For the Warsaw conference, the main identified issues are: to operate the green fund for climate and the technological mechanism, to finance aids to adaptation and to compensation of losses and damages, a better transparency and a greater ambition for emission reductions. The third part addresses the international struggle against global warming at the ICAO level (International Civil Aviation Organization), to reach a constraining agreement (top down versus bottom up approach), at the European Union level. The last part addresses the struggle against climate scepticism

  18. International employment policies: employment and stabilisation in Mexico.

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens L

    1986-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub. Working paper on the impact of stabilization and adjustment policies (economic policy) on employment, Mexico, prospects for the 1980s - examines the transition from import substitution industrialization to an economic model based on export oriented industry, structural changes and subsequent financial collapse (financial policy), economic growth performance, 1978-1981, the external debt crisis, etc. Bibliography, statistical tables.

  19. The European Union Arctic Policy and National Interests of France and Germany: Internal and External Policy Coherence at Stake?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelaudeix, Cecile; Rodon, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Coherence, a fundamental principle of European Union (EU) foreign policy remains a challenge for the EU. For example, the development of an EU Arctic policy raises both internal and external challenges as two non-Arctic member states, France and Germany, move to establish their own Arctic policies...... coordination and a clearer vision of its role in order to position itself as an effective foreign-policy stakeholder in the Arctic, in particular when new powerful actors like Asian states enter the geopolitics and geo-economics of the Arctic....

  20. 78 FR 42148 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-15

    ...: Gregory Maggio, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and Business..., Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy. [FR Doc. 2013-16895 Filed 7-12-13; 8:45 am... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8380] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  1. 76 FR 71617 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy..., Acting Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7654] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  2. 75 FR 42813 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, Energy and... Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2010... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7092] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  3. 77 FR 33014 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Coordinator Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic and..., Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2012-13450... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 7912] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  4. 75 FR 16894 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... Nancy Smith- Nissley, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic.... Sandra E. Clark, Office Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6910] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  5. 76 FR 75599 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Meeting Cancellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... Tiffany Enoch, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, Bureau of Economic, and Business... Director, Office of Economic Policy Analysis and Public Diplomacy, U.S. Department of State. [FR Doc. 2011... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7659] Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy...

  6. Brazil responses to the international financial crisis: A successful example of Keynesian policies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Cunha André

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the economic policy responses of the Brazilian government to the international financial crisis. In doing so, the paper aims to answer a specific question: Can the economic policies implemented in 2008-09 be identified as Keynesian economic policies? It concludes that, despite the fact the Brazilian economic policies response to the international financial crisis seems remember Keynesian economic policies, it is not possible to argue that the recovery of the Brazilian economy can be considered a Keynesian showcase.

  7. International Organizations as an Instrument of Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    1999-01-01

    ...) and its affiliates, international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank, or functional bodies such as the Universal Postal Union or the International Civil Aviation Organization...

  8. Forks in the Road. Alternative Routes for International Climate Policies and their Implications for the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slingerland, S.; Meyer, L.; Van Vuuren, D.; Den Elzen, M.

    2011-11-01

    Several scenarios are possible for future international climate policies, each with a different role in the climate negotiations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). These scenarios assume policies that are comparable to the current policies, as well as more fragmented and more integrated international climate policies. The various alternative routes have been assessed with respect to their potential consequences. These assessments showed that none of the proposed routes could fully replace the current negotiation process under the UNFCCC, but rather that they could contribute to generating societal support for future climate policies. In addition, the report presents an analysis of how the Netherlands could use this development of alternative routes for international climate policy. Possible responses by the Netherlands to each of these scenarios would depend on the degree to which climate change as a policy topic is considered a priority in the Netherlands.

  9. Physical training of teaching staff at higher educational establishment of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and attitude of officers-instructors to its improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezpaliy S.M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The attitude of teaching staff to the modern state of organizing and conducting physical training at higher educational establishment of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine and directions of its improvement is shown. 126 officers-instructors took part іn an experiment in age 30-50 years old. The questioning was conducted after an author questionnaire. Тhe insufficient efficiency of the operating system of physical training of teaching staff at higher educational establishment has been confirmed and the reasons of low level of physical preparedness and health of officers-instructors have been exposed. It is definite, that about 50% officers-instructors are skipped the employments on physical training systematically. It is set, that principal reasons of admissions of employments are: absence of time (70,7%, unclear planning of employments (11,9%, large volume of tasks of everyday activity (9,5%. It is sat, that officers-instructors desire to be regularly engaged in physical exercises and sport, the advantage is given by independent employment in the mode of day, directed on the improvement of general physical preparedness.

  10. Student Affairs in Complex Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Schreiber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Western world – with Brexit, Trump, Festung Europa, and so forth – seems to be increasingly retreating into narrow nationalism, the Journal of Student Affairs in Africa is connecting African academics, executives and administrators and is becoming an evermore accessed international, African platform for publishing research on higher education and Student Affairs in Africa. In this issue, we do not only publish several commentaries on the recent Global Summit of Student Affairs and Services held in October 2016 at Stellenbosch University, South Africa. We also publish contributions from Ethiopia alongside articles from Australia, the USA, and universities in South Africa (University of the Free State, University of Johannesburg.

  11. Brazilian Soybean Policy: The International Effects of Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gary W. Williams; Robert L. Thompson

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the complex set of Brazilian soybean sector policies on the world soybean and products market. Brazilian policy makers have intended to encourage domestic crushing of soybeans and exports of processed rather than raw soybeans. Removal of the Brazilian policy set for the period 1960–78 is simulated with an econometric model of the world soybean market. The results indicate that the intervention objectives were not achieved. Moreover, the U.S. soybean industry...

  12. Information report made by the Commission for European Affairs on international negotiations on climate change. Nr 3248

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    In its first part, this report discusses the Lima agreement with questions left to be answered in Paris, and large divergences. It also comments the issue of national contributions and its process which has been adopted in Lima, and highlights the shortcomings of the Lima call. Then, it discusses progresses related to the creation of a Green Fund, and outlines uncertainties for the period 2015-2020. In the second part, it describes and discusses stakes and challenges faced by the Paris conference: the importance of a legally constraining treaty, the necessity of higher level of ambition regarding mitigation, the essential guarantee of control and transparency, the attention paid to the adaptation of the most vulnerable countries, and the need of a sufficient and sustainable financing. The third part addresses the situation and role of the European Union within international negotiations on climate change: position of the EU and of the European Parliament regarding the COP21, publications by Eurostat to assess and measure advances made by the EU. It also addresses the uncertain conciliation with other important interveners like the USA, China, the G7 and the G20

  13. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Public Affairs Centre | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Public Affairs Centre's (PAC) role as a credible public policy institution in India by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Public Affairs Centre PAC is a not-for-profit, non-partisan organization committed to improving the quality of ...

  14. Tradeoffs in Examination Policies: An International Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Harold J.; Eckstein, Max A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on recent changes in examination policy and practice in China, England and Wales, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Identifies and discusses some significant trade-offs arising from the implementation of examination policy. Discusses four nearly universal dilemmas of…

  15. Strategic HR Policy and Planning Officer | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The incumbent is responsible for developing new policy or revising existing policies for the full range of human resources areas in the Centre, as well as the management of related projects in line with Centre's priorities and Strategic HR Plan. The incumbent is responsible for liaising and supporting members of the HR team ...

  16. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  17. Search Results | Page 3 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-05-01

    Results 21 - 30 of 8531 ... ... Centre (IDRC), partnering with CGIAR's International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and with the collaboration of Global Affairs Canada, is hosting the Canadian launch of IFPRI's 2018 Global Food Policy. Event date(s). May 1, 2018. Event location. Delta Hotels Marriott Ottawa City Centre.

  18. Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the world's nuclear power countries differ from each other with respect to their spent nuclear fuel (SNF) policies. The emergence and evolution of three principal SNF approaches are analyzed: direct disposal, reprocessing and SNF export. Five broad explanatory factors are identified and discussed in relation to the observed differences in policy outcomes: military ambitions and non-proliferation, technological culture, political culture and civil society, geological conditions, and energy policy. SNF policy outcomes can generally be seen to result from a complex interaction between these broad factors, but it is also possible to discern a number of important patterns. To the extent that the five factors may undergo far-reaching changes in the future, the historical experience of how they have shaped SNF policies also give a hint of possible future directions in SNF policymaking around the world

  19. [The coordination of the forensic medical service with the medical criminology subdivisions of internal affairs organs in the personal identification of unidentified corpses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashinian, G A; Tuchik, E S

    1997-01-01

    In order to improve the cooperation between medical criminology departments of the organs of home affairs and forensic medical service in personality identification of unidentified corpses, the authors propose amendments to the routine procedure regulated by documents of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Russian Federation, for these documents are in need of serious correction and revision, so that they conform to the judicial legislation and other documents.

  20. Iceland’s External Affairs from 1550-1815: Danish societal and political cover concurrent with a highly costly economic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldur Þórhallsson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper argues that there is not necessarily a correlation between political, economic and societal shelter. Iceland received considerable societal and political shelter from Denmark in the period under study, but Denmark failed to provide its remote island with economic cover. Firstly, and most importantly, it provided substantial and highly valuable societal shelter. Copenhagen was the main channel by which new knowledge and technology could enter Iceland. The islanders benefited from educational, health-care and social policies of the crown and it played an invaluable role in preserving Iceland’s cultural heritage. Secondly, Denmark provided partial protection of Icelandic waters and land though Iceland’s peripheral position continued to be its main protection from outside attacks. However, at the end of our period, the Danish kingdom was in decline and unable to provide political cover. Nevertheless, increased centralization, initiated from Denmark, provided internal order and political stability and citizens became more equal before the law. Thirdly, Icelanders paid a heavy price for the Danish trade monopoly though Icelanders continued to receive partial economic and societal shelter from foreign merchants and fishermen. The crown’s policies towards Iceland can largely be explained by current ideological trends at any given time. By being in constant contact with the European continent through Denmark, Icelandic society was part of the societal, political and economic evolution in Europe and managed to avoid isolation despite its geographical remoteness.

  1. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  2. Information report presented by the Commission of European Affairs about the international negotiations relative to climate change - No. 2391

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deflesselles, Bernard; Lambert, Jerome; Leroy, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The conclusion put forward by scientists is clear-cut and alarming: the current efforts to limit the increase in global temperature to 2 deg. C are insufficient. This was the aim which the international community set itself in order to avoid the catastrophic effect of climate change. In their fifth report, the experts of the IPCC recommend the limitation, before the end of the century, of the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, to 450 parts per million. This level is equivalent, according to the scientists, to a rise in global temperature of 2 deg. C and would imply a reduction of between 40 % and 70 % of global emissions between now and 2050 and would envisage decreasing them to an 'almost zero level' before the end of the century. The last Conference of the United Nations on Climate Change which was held in Warsaw at the end of 2013 (COP19) was a 'stepping-stone' conference according to the very words of its participants. In order to remain on track concerning the global agreement on climate for 2015, two types of decision were taken there: - the notion of bringing nations together in the framework of a global initiative aiming to reduce emissions quite quickly so as to allow humanity to avoid, in the long term, the dangerous threshold concerning climate change, whilst, at the same time, strengthening the capabilities for adaptation; - the idea of moving so as to speed up and bolster the current plan of action. The Warsaw Conference managed to chart the way towards the Paris Conference on Climate in 2015 during which a new world agreement on climate should be signed. However, it also showed that the road will be long and difficult. Basic questions remain unanswered and require a high level of political commitment. The negotiations on climate change of the 20. Climate Change Conference or COP, will take place in Lima between December 1 - 12, 2014. The Conference will thus be the last within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change

  3. The Mobility of International Students and Higher Education Policies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Miki, Sugimura

    2015-01-01

    Today, as international students become more mobile, and as further diversification of mobility takes place, transnational strategic development is demanded of Japan's higher education policies in lieu of traditional concepts such as "international intellectual contribution" and "mutual international understanding." Global 30, the Project for Establishing a University Network for Internationalization, the Project for Promotion of Global Human Resources Development, and the Top Global Universi...

  4. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  5. Scoping Study. Linking RE Promotion Policies with International Carbon Trade (LINK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Paula; Hayashi, Daisuke; Kristiansen, Kjell Olav; Michaelowa, Axel; Stadelmann, Martin

    2011-06-15

    Implementing national policies may threaten the eligibility of renewable energy projects for Clean Development Mechanism/Joint Implementation (CDM/JI), thus reducing international development financing. Countries hence need to be very careful when crafting their national promotion policies. The objectives of the Renewable Energy Technology Deployment (IEA-RETD) project were to perform a scoping study on the interplay between national Renewable Energy (RE) promotion policies and international carbon trade. The study summarizes the ongoing discussion, describes the main barriers that may hinder -- or at least not sufficiently support -- the implementation of national RE promotion policies, and provides suggestions for removing these barriers.

  6. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Journal uniquely provides a platform for educational research dissemination in Africa, covering pedagogy, language policy, and ICT in education. Occasionally, papers on Special Education and governance are featured. Lecturers and students are the main target community.

  7. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal provides a platform for educational research dissemination in Africa, covering pedagogy, language policy, and ICT in education. Occasionally, papers on Special Education and governance are featured. Lecturers and students are our target community.

  8. East Europe Report, Political, Sociological and Military Affairs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1984-01-01

    Partial Contents: International Affairs, Radio, Birthday Celebration, School Anniversary, Cultural Agreement, Presidents, Trade Union Bureau, Education, Olympic Committee, Ambassador, Conference, Exhibition, Campaign...

  9. The International Impact of US Unconventional Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lutz, Chandler

    2015-01-01

    Using a structural factor-augmented vector autoregression model and a large data set of daily time series, we study the impact of US unconventional monetary policy on British and German financial markets. Our findings indicate that a surprise US unconventional monetary policy easing leads to incr...... to increased equity returns and lower government bond yields for both Germany and the United Kingdom. These effects then nearly completely dissipate after approximately 750 days....

  10. SOME FEATURES OF ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION, TAKING PLACE ON THE BACKGROUND OF OBESITY IN MEN OF WORKING AGE, EMPLOYEES IN THE SYSTEM OF INTERNAL AFFAIRS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Kovaleva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study was to reveal the peculiarities of arterial hypertension, that occurs in male law enforcement officers of working age against the background of obesity, to evaluate the factors associated with obesity that affect hypertension. Materials and methods. The study included men of working age working in the system of internal affairs bodies and hospitalized on a scheduled basis in a cardiological hospital with the main diagnosis — arterial hypertension. All studied patients were divided into two groups, the first group included patients with arterial hypertension in combination with obesity, the second group included hypertension and normal body weight. All patients underwent a general clinical and indepth anthropometric examination. Instrumental examination of patients included echocardiography, 24-hour blood pressure monitoring and pulse oximetry. In addition, all patients had an assessment of the risk of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and studied psycho-emotional status using standard questionnaires. Results and discussion. A comparative analysis of the two groups showed that significant differences were observed with respect to some anthropometric indicators. In patients with obesity, more pronounced signs of myocardial remodeling were revealed by the results of echocardiography. Also, patients of this group were more likely to develop obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, greater propensity to anxiety, combined with eating disorders, more often in a restrictive type. A comparative analysis of the diurnal blood pressure profile of the two groups showed no significant differences, but obese patients required significantly more intensive antihypertensive therapy to achieve target blood pressure figures. Conclusion. Obesity leads to more pronounced myocardial remodeling in working age men with arterial hypertension. More intensive antihypertensive therapy is required for compensation arterial hypertension in the case of

  11. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  12. The parallel diplomacy and the International Relations of the regions

    OpenAIRE

    Zeraoiu, Zidane

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of subnational entities in international politics, breaks with the exclusive privilege of handling external relations by the States. Regions and municipalities have developed international policies that strengthen local affairs in cultural, economic, politic, security and strategic cooperation aspects, through the so-called parallel diplomacy activities. The influence of regional institutions in global affairs is growing; however paradiplomacy practice is not institutionalized a...

  13. Development, health, and international policy: the research and innovation dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Paulo Marchiori; Chamas, Claudia; Faid, Miriam; Morel, Carlos

    2016-11-03

    This text main objective is to discuss development and health from the perspective of the influence of global health governance, using as the tracer the dimension of research, development, and innovation policies in health, which relate to both important inputs for the health system, like drugs and medicines, vaccines, diagnostic reagents, and equipment, and innovative concepts and practices for the improvement of health systems and public health. The authors examine the two main macro-processes that influence development and health: the post-2015 Development Agenda and the process under way in the World Health Organization concerning research and development, intellectual property, and access to health inputs. The article concludes, first, that much remains to be done for the Agenda to truly represent a coherent and viable international political pact, and that the two macro-processes related to innovation in health need to be streamlined. But this requires democratization of participation by the main stakeholders - patients and the general population of the poorest countries - since this is the only way to overcome a "zero sum" result in the clash in the current debates among member State representatives. Resumo: O objetivo central deste texto é discutir desenvolvimento e saúde sob a ótica da influência da governança da saúde global, utilizando como traçador a dimensão das políticas de pesquisa, desenvolvimento e inovação em saúde, que se referem, de um lado, a insumos importantes para o sistema de saúde - como fármacos e medicamentos, vacinas, reativos para diagnóstico e equipamentos e, de outro, a conceitos e práticas inovadoras para o aperfeiçoamento dos sistemas de saúde e da saúde pública. Examina os dois principais macroprocessos que influenciam o desenvolvimento e a saúde: a Agenda do Desenvolvimento para o pós-2015 e o processo sobre pesquisa e desenvolvimento, propriedade intelectual e acesso a insumos em saúde em curso na Organiza

  14. Information report made on the behalf of the European Affairs Commission on European policy for nuclear safety; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires europeennes (1) sur la politique europeenne de surete nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, J.; Sutour, S.

    2011-05-15

    This report aims at defining some perspectives for the evolution of the European general legal framework for nuclear safety. The authors first outline the difficulty for a European policy to emerge. They explain this statement by the importance of the current policy of national states, of their operators and of their national regulation authorities. They evoke the few elements of this legal framework (EURATOM Treaty, jurisprudence) but outline the strong cooperation between national authorities. Then, they discuss some progresses which have been noticed during the past two years (the 'safety' directive, a proposition for a directive on the management of used fuel and radioactive wastes, and the recent works by WENRA), and discuss the consequences of the accident in Fukushima. Propositions are made, notably concerning the support to the 'waste' directive, the perpetuation of strength tests, the rewriting of the 'safety' directive of June 2009

  15. Internationalisation policies and international practises in higher education institutions. A case study of five Norwegian higher education institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Frølich, Nicoline

    2005-01-01

    This report examines internationalisation policies and international practises at higher education institutions. It investigates how the external environment of these institutions influences internationalisation policies and international practises. It also analyses how academic values in higher education impact internationalisation policies and international practises.

  16. A Study on the Information Analysis and Legal Affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W. S.; Yang, M. H.; Yun, S. W.; Lee, D. S.; Kim, H. R.; Noh, B. C.

    2009-02-01

    It is followed that results and contents of a Study on the Nuclear Information Analyses and Legal Affairs. Our team makes an effort to secure KAERI's best legal interest in the process of enacting nuclear laws and codes, international collaborative study, and management. Moreover, as a international trend analysis, we studied Japan government's position to nuclear energy under the aspect of reducing climate change and supplying sustainable energy. Improvement of Japan's radiation use showed increasing contribution of radiation technology to the people. Results of studies of nuclear policy of Kazakhstan, forecasting global trend in 2030 of Nuclear area, and new U.S. government's policy to nuclear energy are also explained. Lastly, we performed evaluation of source of electric generator which reduce emitting carbon dioxide in the aspect of greenhouse gas emission statistic and tested green gas reducing ability of Korea's green source of electric generator that reducing greenhouse gas effect

  17. Maximizing policy learning in international committees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    In the voluminous literature on the European Union's open method of coordination (OMC), no one has hitherto analysed on the basis of scholarly examination the question of what contributes to the learning processes in the OMC committees. On the basis of a questionnaire sent to all participants......, this article demonstrates that valuable lessons can be learned about policy learning, in practice and theoretically, by analysing the cooperation in the OMC committees. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework as the starting point of analysis, 15 hypotheses on policy learning are tested. Among other things...

  18. International Financial Institution Policies of Conditionality and Public Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhail, Scott; McGray, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Conditionalities are most broadly defined as the provisos that are to be met by a country when borrowing money from the International Financial Institutions (IFIs). Increasingly, they have proven to have far reaching consequences for countries entering into agreements with The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and the World Trade…

  19. Integrating rather than juxtaposing environmental policy and the internal market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, Hans; Koutrakos, Panos; Snell, Jukka

    2017-01-01

    This contribution to the research handbook on the internal market describes and analyses the case law on environmental measures that impact the internal market and notably the free movement of goods. It argues that an integration may be better for both environmental protection and market

  20. International agreements relating to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and implications for Dutch policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eaton, D.J.F.; Kalaugher, E.; Bijman, J.

    2004-01-01

    Policy issues related to plant genetic resources are socially, technically and scientifically complex. This report summarises the international agreements and relevant bodies con-cerning plant genetic resources for food and agriculture, including the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), FAO

  1. Arctic Science Diplomacy: Opportunities for International Collaboration and Policy-Engaged Scholarship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sztein, E.; Burkins, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    All scientists working abroad or with international colleagues are, in practice, science diplomats. As such, scientists represent their scientific disciplines, their institutions, their countries, and their cultures in their international interactions. The Arctic presents a special set of research conditions for international collaboration and policy-relevant research, and science diplomacy is particularly important in the management of the resources and the research that takes place there. Understanding of cultural differences, scientific and diplomatic protocol, and of the geopolitical stances and needs of all the parties is crucial to successful outcomes. This presentation will describe the landscape of existing national and international scientific organizations working in the Arctic as well as international entities with interest in science-informed policy development, including the National Academies' Polar Research Board (PRB) and Board on International Scientific Organizations (BISO), the International Arctic Research Center (IARC), the International Arctic Science Committee (IASC), the U.S. Arctic Research Commission (USARC), the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), the Arctic Council itself, and the recently-launched Arctic Fulbright Initiative, among others. The discussion will be focused on the ways in which science - and scientists - are already informing Arctic policy decisions as well as ways in which scientists may become more engaged in Arctic science policy and diplomacy activities.

  2. Incorporating translation into sociolinguistic research: translation policy in an international non-governmental organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Tesseur, Wine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores aspects of translation, multilingualism and language policy in the field of transnational civil society. By focusing on translation policies at Amnesty International, an international non-governmental organisation that performs a key role in global governance, this article seeks to contribute to a globalisation-sensitive sociolinguistics. It argues that combining a sociolinguistic approach, more precisely linguistic ethnography, with translation studies leads to an incre...

  3. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerr, Jacqueline; Sallis, James F; Owen, Neville

    2013-01-01

    National and international strategies to increase physical activity emphasize environmental and policy changes that can have widespread and long-lasting impact. Evidence from multiple countries using comparable methods is required to strengthen the evidence base for such initiatives. Because some...... environment and policy changes could have generalizable effects and others may depend on each country's context, only international studies using comparable methods can identify the relevant differences....

  4. Perceived value congruence and attitudes toward international relations and foreign policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetherell, Geoffrey; Benson, Or'Shaundra; Reyna, Christine; Brandt, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Much of the justification for granting foreign aid is to support nations and international policies promoting one's national values. However, little to no research has examined how perceptions of similarity between nations, especially value similarity, drive feelings toward other nations and policy

  5. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Those articles will feed into policy development through briefs, website content for the Institute of Development Studies, other online platforms, and the publication of an edited book and/or journal issue. A symposium in India will share research results with key policymakers, researchers, civil society, and the media in order ...

  6. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the aid policies of these countries have garnered attention, there is, as yet, little understanding of their systems and strategies. This study addresses this gap by updating data on each country's foreign assistance and mapping the institutions involved, the beneficiaries, the sectors they are investing in, and their funding ...

  7. Mandatory rules and public policy in international contract law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pauknerová, Monika

    -, č. 11 (2010), s. 29-43 ISSN 1612-3093 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA407/08/0188 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70680506 Keywords : mandatory rules * public policy * Rome Convention Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  8. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  9. POLICY BRIEF 1 - WDM Criteria | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-18

    Jan 18, 2012 ... Water demand management ― WDM ― can be hard to define. More an issue of policy than of technology, it is about managing and moderating our demands for good quality fresh water. It is less a matter of piping and pumps and more a tool for changing the ways we use water and the rates at which we ...

  10. Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Telework, Climate Change and Public Policy. The daily commute of millions of people to their workplace is a major source of pollution in urban areas. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) make it possible to work from remote locations, resulting in a reduction of transport-related greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Map of CCAA policy links | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The CCAA program supports participatory action research that informs policy processes with science-based evidence on vulnerability and adaptation. This map shows the connections of CCAA projects where there has been sustained interaction with policymaking bodies at the local, national or regional level. Download the ...

  12. Building policy research capacity in Myanmar | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support training and mentoring for emerging professionals, mostly women, who have worked in government and/or non-governmental organizations, are pursuing or have completed a graduate degree on public policy, public administration, or other relevant social science, and are aiming to improve their ...

  13. Undernourishment and Public Policy in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    It aims to shape policies underlying the development of India's proposed National Food Security Act. As well, it will help restructure the public food distribution system and the delivery of social welfare programs that affect food and nutritional security. The project's two streams are led by the National Council for Applied ...

  14. International Journal of Pedagogy, Policy and ICT in Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. GUIDELINES FOR SUBMISSION OF ARTICLES. The Journal accepts articles that address research, theory or practice in pedagogy, policy and ICT in education. A cover letter should accompany all articles. It should include all authors' names and institutional affiliation. The cover letter should have the ...

  15. International Processes of Education Policy Formation: An Analytic Framework and the Case of Plan 2021 in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    This article uses multiple perspectives to frame international processes of education policy formation and then applies the framework to El Salvador's Plan 2021 between 2003 and 2005. These perspectives are policy attraction, policy negotiation, policy imposition, and policy hybridization. Research reveals that the formation of Plan 2021 was the…

  16. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B. [Industrial and Biological Section. Institute of Geological and Nuclear Science. P.O. Box 31. Lower Hutt (New Zealand)

    1997-12-31

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  17. International standards, Agreements and Policy of food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, P.B.

    1997-01-01

    There are few internationally recognised standards and agreements related to irradiated foods. Codex Alimentarius has its General standard for Irradiated foods. This sets standards for the production of irradiated foods that are safe and nutritionally adequate. Guidelines for the proper processing of foods by irradiation are covered in the Codex Recommended International Code of Practice for the Operation of Radiation Facilities Used for the Treatment of Food. For irradiation as a quarantine treatment for fruit, vegetables and other plants, the relevant international organization is the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), IPPC has no standards or guidelines for irradiation treatments. However, regional organizations within IPPC are moving towards recognition of irradiation as a technically viable and effective method of insect disinfestation. Especially notable are actions within the North American Plant Protection Organisation (NAPPO). NAPPO has endorsed a standard on the use of irradiation as a quarantine treatment. Other speakers have provided considerable detail on the Codex standard and on the situation with regard to quarantine issues. In this talk I will concentrate on irradiated foods as commodities that will be traded internationally in increasing amounts as we approach the next century. International trade is governed by bilateral arrangements. However, these arrangements should be consistent with the overarching multilateral agreements of the World trade Organization (WTO). The WTO Agreements do not refer directly to irradiation or irradiated foods. However, in this talk I will try to interpret the implications of the Agreements for trade in irradiated food. (Author)

  18. GENETICALLY MODIFIED CROPS: INTERNATIONAL TRADE AND TRADE POLICY EFFECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frisvold

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Where approved, producers have adopted genetically modified (GM crops extensively. Yet, areas not adopting GM crops account for large shares of production and consumption. GM crops differ from previous agricultural innovations because consumers may perceive them as fundamentally different from (and potentially inferior to conventionally grown crops. Many countries maintain restrictions on production and importation of GM crops. GM crop adoption affects producers and consumers, not only through technological change, but also through trade policy responses. This article reviews open economy analyses of impacts of GM crops. To varying degrees, commodities are segmented into GM, conventionally grown, and organic product markets. Recent advances in trade modeling consider the consequences of market segmentation, along with consequences of GM crop import restrictions, product segregation requirements, and coexistence policies.

  19. Housing sector in emerging countries and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, C.

    2006-01-01

    After a first part on the relationship between housing and greenhouse effect in developing countries (assessment of the share of the housing-tertiary sector in CO 2 emissions in the world, housing stock growth and livelihood improvement, trend towards a sustainable city), this report proposes an overview of the Chinese situation in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, energy consumption in the housing sector, fossil energy production, energy prices, urban demographic dynamics and its impact on the housing stock. It describes the Chinese institutional frame (housing policy reform, energy mastering policy, actors of the housing sector), discusses some perspective aspects of housing energy consumption and CO 2 emissions: energy consumption by 2020, regional approach, usages of electricity, evolution of the housing stock by 2020, potential gains in CO 2 emissions, methodological framework for the assessment of the evolution of housing energy consumptions, simulation tool

  20. China’s Internal Migration, Public Policies, and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    much needed to food to feed the country. In addition, the push to industrialize faster also did not help: “While much of the output was unusable junk ... effect of migration on economic performance has had a discernible impact both positive and negative at different times. There are two distinct aspects...the actual migration patterns and their relative effects on the economy; and the domestic policies enacted by the PRC that directly prompted

  1. International migration and related policies in europe 1950 - 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penninx Rinus

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Immigration in Europe has been shaped by: a its particular development in time; b the geographical patterns of migration within and towards European countries; and c the shifting types of migration and characteristics of migrants involved. The first part of this contribution outlines changes in these three basic migration-related factors. Migration outcomes are not haphazard nor are these the result of unhindered economic push and pull factors in a free market. Immigration policies of receiving countries do greatly influence the volume and patterns of migration, the place of settlement and the characteristics of migrants. Regulations on conditions of residence and integration do furthermore influence significantly the position of immigrants in their new destination, among others by setting conditions for their stay (residence rights and access to the labour market. The second part of this chapter outlines the migration and integration regimes that have been developed by states of different parts of Europe and by the European Union. In conclusion, immigration has become a relevant phenomenon in all EU countries. However, as a consequence of different timing of immigration, different socio-economic contexts and varying governmental migration and integration policies, European countries are confronted with different forms migration (immigration, emigration, transit migration and with different types of migrants. European states have also developed different governmental policies of migration and integration. Historically, a common denominator in the framing of European policies is that countries do not see themselves as immigration countries; they are immigration countries against their will. In recent times, such framing is reinforced by populist and nationalist movements that see immigrants not only as economic competitors, but also as a threat to the national "culture and world views". The more Europe needs immigrants for economic and

  2. 19 September 2011 - Austrian State Secretary for European and International Affairs W. Waldner, signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss; visiting CMS service cavern with Collaboration Spokesperson G. Tonelli and the LHC superconducting magnet test hall with M. Zerlauth.

    CERN Multimedia

    Benoît Jeannet

    2011-01-01

    Austrian state secretary for foreign affairs, Wolfgang Waldner, left, was welcomed to CERN by Felicitas Pauss, head of international relations at CERN, on 19 September. While at CERN, he toured the CMS control room and underground experimental service cavern, the LHC superconducting magnet test hall, and the Universe of Particles exhibition in the Globe of Science and Innovation.

  3. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  4. International commission radiological protection: its policy, its works, its thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    The I.C.R.P. is an advisory organism. It offers recommendations to regulatory and advisory organisms at the international and national levels. Given the differences that exist between the national legislations, its recommendations cannot be directly transcribed in regulatory terms. The base recommendations are used for the essential in the international regulations and in particular in the European Directive, whom transposition in national law is compulsory. The aim of the Commission is to elaborate a protection system against ionizing radiations, sufficiently general to apply at the totality of situations during which ones the human is exposed or could be exposed to radiations. (N.C.)

  5. US Interpretation of International Space Policies Regarding Commercial Resource Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Russia, India, China, and the U.S. to gain access to the moon’s Helium 3 (He3), an extremely rare commodity believed to be ideal for fusion reactors .53...international treaties that conceptualize ‘The Common Heritage of all Mankind,’ specifically the UN 3 Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the...between current and proposed Space Laws with other international treaties that conceptualize ‘The Common Heritage of all Mankind,’ specifically

  6. The International Baccalaureate Career Programme: A Case Study of College and Career Readiness Policy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.; Donovan, Martha K.

    2018-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) is noted in school reform policy circles as the gold standard of academic excellence. While the presence of IB as a sought-after education vendor has grown in the past decade, the organization has attempted to shake off its image as an elite agency serving only private international schools with its…

  7. International Policy and Roma Education in Europe: Essential Inputs or Centralized Distractions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Melanie H.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the case of Roma inclusion in education as a study of the ways in which international policy can and cannot bring change at the local level. I first reflect on the numerous international organizations and initiatives to improve the educational outcomes of Roma, and to reduce segregation and other non-inclusionary practices.…

  8. International Test Score Comparisons and Educational Policy: A Review of the Critiques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Stanford education professor Martin Carnoy examines four main critiques of how international test results are used in policymaking. Of particular interest are critiques of the policy analyses published by the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA). Using average PISA scores as a comparative measure of student achievement is misleading…

  9. The Development of U.S. Refugee and Migration Policies: An International Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the current U.S. policy response to refugee and immigration problems in an international context and identifies instruments of international cooperation. Emphasizes the interrelationship between refugee and migration issues and proposes long term solutions. Makes recommendations based on the experience of the Intergovernmental Committee…

  10. Bridging Scholarship and Practice: 20 Years of the Public International Law and Policy Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraser, J.A.; Mc Gonigle, B.N.

    2017-01-01

    When the Editor-in-Chief of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (UJIEL) approached us with the possibility of guest editing a special issue related to public international law and policy, we felt the timing could not have been better. As academics at Utrecht University with the

  11. International Monetary Policy Coordination in a New Keynesian Model with NICE Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poutineau, Jean-Christophe; Vermandel, Gauthier

    2018-01-01

    The authors provide a static two-country new Keynesian model to teach two related questions in international macroeconomics: the international transmission of unilateral monetary policy decisions and the gains coming from the coordination monetary rules. They concentrate on "normal times" and use a thoroughly graphical approach to…

  12. International Law and the climate change adaptation policy in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Araya Ahumada

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes in what ways international environmental law, the international regime of climate change and the European Union have influenced current climate change adaptation governance in the United Kingdom, especially in relation with the sustainable development policy.

  13. Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Facility Siting and Policy Considerations: International Comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-21

    Carbon fiber is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications due largely to its superior material properties such as high strength-to-weight ratio. The current global carbon fiber manufacturing industry is predominately located in China, Europe, Japan, and the United States. The carbon fiber market is expected to expand significantly through 2024 and to require additional manufacturing capacity to meet demand. Carbon fiber manufacturing facilities can offer significant economic development and employment opportunities as exemplified by the $1 billion investment and 500 jobs expected at a new Toray plant in Moore, South Carolina. Though the market is expected to expand, it is unclear where new manufacturing facilities will locate to meet demand. This uncertainty stems from the lack of research evaluating how different nations with significant carbon fiber manufacturing capacity compare as it relates to certain manufacturing facility siting factors such as costs of labor and energy as well as policy directed at supporting carbon fiber development, domestic deployment, and exports. This report fills these gaps by evaluating the top carbon fiber manufacturing countries, including China, European Union countries, Japan, Mexico, South Korea, Taiwan, and the United States. The report documents how the United States compares to these countries based on a range of manufacturing siting considerations and existing policies related to carbon fiber. It concludes with a discussion of various policy options the United States could adopt to both (1) increase the competitiveness of the United States as it relates to attracting new carbon fiber manufacturing and (2) foster broader end-use markets for deployment.

  14. Trade Policy and Pro Poor Growth in Ghana | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As in other sub-Saharan countries, small-scale subsistence farming constitutes the predominant source of livelihood in Ghana. This grant will allow the Institute of Statistical, Social and Economic Research (ISSER) at the University of Ghana to assess the linkages between international trade and poverty with special ...

  15. Investment Policy, Internal Financing and ownership Concentration in the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goergen, M.; Renneboog, L.D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether investment spending of firms is sensitive to the availability of internal funds.Imperfect capital markets create a hierarchy for the different sources of funds such that investment and financial decisions are not independent.The relation between corporate investment

  16. Africa and International Policy Making for Lifelong Learning: Textual Revelations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preece, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between international agendas for lifelong learning and financial aid for low income countries, especially those on the African continent. It argues that there are subtle differences in terminology written by policymakers respectively in Europe and South Africa for lifelong learning but that international…

  17. Campus Support Services, Programs, and Policies for International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna, Ed.; Foster, Charlotte, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    Study abroad programs have proven beneficial for both the international student as well as the domestic community and school population interacting with the student. In an effort to promote cultural awareness, intercultural communications as well as opportunities for future study abroad program success, universities must take care to provide…

  18. Decarbonizing the international shipping industry : solutions and policy recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Makhloufi, A.

    2017-01-01

    Ship-source greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions could increase by up to 250% from 2012 levels by 2050 owing to increasing global freight volumes. Binding international legal agreements to regulate GHGs, however, are lacking as technical solutions remain expensive and crucial industrial support is absent.

  19. Impact of research on policy and practice | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-31

    Jan 31, 2011 ... Aids prevention billboard in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. UN AIDS researchers are starting to take Research donors increasingly acknowledge this. The UK Department for International Development (DFID), for example, will double spending on development research from US $200 to $400 million per year over the ...

  20. Monetary policy games and international migration of labor in interdependent economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agiomirgianakis, G M

    1998-01-01

    "In this paper we incorporate the possibility of international migration into a monetary policy game played by governments in unionized interdependent economies. We show that contrary to usual presumptions, established by earlier studies that ignore the possibility of international migration, inter-government cooperation in the monetary field may well turn out to be advantageous. This has important implications for the European economies, since it suggests that measures taken towards encouraging international migration within EU [the European Union] will not only harmonize the European labor markets but will also make monetary policy cooperation within Europe, as required by the Maastrict Treaty, more advantageous." excerpt

  1. Effects of international law on migration policy and practice: the uses of hypocrisy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, D A

    1989-01-01

    Classical learning recognizes no role for international law in affecting migration policy and practice, but in modern times the salutary effects are increasing, although they remain modest. International law influences migration policy primarily through effective invocation of various forms of "soft law" in internal and international political forums. More limited prospects exist for beneficial changes enforced by international institutions and domestic courts. The article cautions against inflated expectations in the latter settings, however, particularly because overly ambitious claims can be counterproductive. It then offers a few predictions about near-term effects of international law, having to do with departures from a country, refugee law, and the integration of migrants into their new homelands.

  2. Evolution of International Research Cooperation models in the Contemporary Foreign Policy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovsky I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the principle models of international research and academic cooperation. The author divides international academic cooperation into periods and analyses the evolution of the connection between foreign policy and international cooperation in education and research aimed at raising the prestige and improving the position of a state in the international arena. The author focuses on the non-linear nature of periods stemming from the fact that different states are characterized by different (non-linear time cycles resulting from the differences in cultural and historical backgrounds and dissimilar foreign policy contents and formats. Through comparing a variety of foreign policy approaches (including that of the Russian Federation, the author answers the question about the contribution of universities to the development of mechanisms of cooperation and mutual understanding in the modern world — a world increasingly influenced by information and communication technologies.

  3. Romanian accounting policies between international accounting convergence and corporate governance regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Dobre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Our paper aims to look at accounting impact on the systems of Romanian corporate governance. The purpose is aligned to discover research leads at the intersection of corporate governance and financial accounting. The hypothesis is that the corporate governance is influenced by accounting policies monitored by internal control. The empirical study focus on several points: (i concepts and specific Terms; (ii elements to be considered in establishing accounting policies; (iii change and remodelling of accounting policies; (iv the influence of enterprise accounting policies on indicators level. We present the role of accounting policies to generate futures economic benefices and the intricacy of accounting valuation. We conclude about the process configuration and modelling accounting policies in terms of business engineering

  4. International petroleum investment and policies: green, privatising, and moving eastward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelde, T.W.; Ndi, G.K.

    1994-01-01

    Some of the issues currently shaping transnational investment in the petroleum industry are examined. These include; the re-defining of the role of the state in petroleum development strategy; the evolution of contractual practice; the introduction of more liberal investment legislation; the restructuring of state petroleum enterprises with a view to commercialisation, corporatisation or privatisation; the increasing significance of petroleum production in emerging nations; and heightened international awareness of the environmental impacts of energy development. The discussion includes an analysis of the implications of these issues for developing countries in terms of inward foreign investment, some reflections on the development versus environment debate and some consideration of the influence of current trends on the future of the international petroleum industry. (UK)

  5. Thinking upstream: the roles of international health and drug policies in public health responses to chemsex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Oliver; Forrest, Jamie I

    2018-03-19

    Chemsex is a growing public health concern in urban centres, and few interventions exist to mitigate the significant sexual, drug-related, and social harms potentially experienced by people who participate in chemsex. In much of the world, these immediate harms are further compounded by the criminalisation and stigmatisation of both homosexuality and drug use, preventing participants fully engaging with treatment services or provision of health care. Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men participating in chemsex fall between the traditional definitions of key populations and consequently are poorly provided for by existing drug and sexual health frameworks. Aetiologically complex issues such as chemsex require multifaceted interventions that may fall outside conventional frameworks. Existing interventions have been designed and implemented at the local level. The use of international policy to mitigate these structural barriers, however, has largely been ignored. International policy is broad in nature and its implementation is, in principle, binding for member states. We believe that despite its low international prevalence, international policy can be of use in improving the lives of people who participate in chemsex. Through stimulating a much-needed debate on the interplay between sex and drugs within global health and harm reduction frameworks, this paper aims to address the paucity of substantial discussion surrounding the applicability of international language to chemsex. We analyse international policy aimed at addressing HIV, illicit drugs, harm reduction, and development, and make recommendations for both national advocacy, and advocates working to alter the positions of member states internationally.

  6. Women's Homelessness: International Evidence on Causes, Consequences, Coping and Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Guy; Ribar, David C.; Zhu, Anna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews international evidence regarding women's homelessness. It discusses different definitions of homelessness and how women are frequently part of the "hidden homeless" population and less a part of the unsheltered homeless population. It also considers the data that are used to enumerate and study homeless people. The structural, personal, and random causes of homelessness are discussed, with evidence pointing to highly gendered patterns. The paper also describes the consequen...

  7. Technology Policy and Practice in Africa | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Osita M. Ogbu a un doctorat en sciences économiques de l'Université Howard et a été économiste chercheur au Département technique de l'Afrique à la Banque mondiale à Washington. Il est administrateur régional principal de programmes au Centre de recherches pour le développement international, notamment ...

  8. Adherence policy, education and practice – an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider MP

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonadherence to chronic therapy has become a large burden on the healthcare system of many countries. Community pharmacists are well positioned to address nonadherence as part of their overall patient care activities, and contribute to patients’ quality use of medicines. Between 2008 and 2010, a series of narrative, peer-reviewed articles were published in Pharmacy Practice which focused on community pharmacists’ activities in medication adherence, specifically in the areas of the education they receive, their practice, the research conducted and national or local policies. This editorial aims to summarise the key findings presented in the series, and highlight the pertinent issues and gaps in the literature. There is a need to implement global and long-term objectives focussing on enhancing the quality of education and competencies of community pharmacists and the research conducted in medication adherence, to develop guidelines for pharmacists and enhance the uptake of adherence promoting services in routine care.  

  9. International trade agreements, environmental policy, and relocation of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eerola, Essi

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of free trade agreements on national environmental policies and location strategies of polluting firms. It is shown that banning export subsidies makes relocation of production more attractive for firms. When export subsidies are banned relocation is profitable because: (1) the rival firm reduces output due to more stringent emission regulation in the host country of the investment and (2) relocation leads to lower emission tax rate in the original home country of the investing firm. When export subsidies are used, the first effect is absent because the host government is able to use the export subsidy to compensate the negative effect of more stringent emission taxation on domestic shareholders. (author)

  10. Recommendations for international gambling harm-minimisation guidelines: comparison with effective public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainsbury, Sally M; Blankers, Matthijs; Wilkinson, Claire; Schelleman-Offermans, Karen; Cousijn, Janna

    2014-12-01

    Problem gambling represents a significant public health problem, however, research on effective gambling harm-minimisation measures lags behind other fields, including other addictive disorders. In recognition of the need for consistency between international jurisdictions and the importance of basing policy on empirical evidence, international conventions exist for policy on alcohol, tobacco, and illegal substances. This paper examines the evidence of best practice policies to provide recommendations for international guidelines for harm-minimisation policy for gambling, including specific consideration of the specific requirements for policies on Internet gambling. Evidence indicates that many of the public health policies implemented for addictive substances can be adapted to address gambling-related harms. Specifically, a minimum legal age of at least 18 for gambling participation, licensing of gambling venues and activities with responsible gambling and consumer protection strategies mandated, and brief interventions should be available for those at-risk for and experiencing gambling-related problems. However, there is mixed evidence on the effectiveness of limits on opening hours and gambling venue density and increased taxation to minimise harms. Given increases in trade globalisation and particularly the global nature of Internet gambling, it is recommended that jurisdictions take actions to harmonise gambling public health policies.

  11. Disintegrated care: the Achilles heel of international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To review the evidence basis of international aid and health policy. Context of case: Current international aid policy is largely neoliberal in its promotion of commoditization and privatisation. We review this policy's responsibility for the lack of effectiveness in disease control and poor access to care in low and middle-income countries. Data sources: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Conclusions and discussion: We document how health care privatisation has led to the pool of patients being cut off from public disease control interventions—causing health care disintegration—which in turn resulted in substandard performance of disease control. Privatisation of health care also resulted in poor access. Our analysis consists of three steps. Pilot local contracting-out experiments are scrutinized; national health care records of Colombia and Chile, two countries having adopted contracting-out as a basis for health care delivery, are critically examined against Costa Rica; and specific failure mechanisms of the policy in low and middle-income countries are explored. We conclude by arguing that the negative impact of neoliberal health policy on disease control and health care in low and middle-income countries justifies an alternative aid policy to improve both disease control and health care.

  12. International policies toward parental leave and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, J

    2001-01-01

    The pleasures and pressures of parenting a newborn are universal, but the supports surrounding parents vary widely from country to country. In many nations, decades of attention to benefits and services for new parents offer lessons worthy of attention in this country. This article describes policies regarding parental leave, child care, and early childhood benefits here and in 10 industrial nations in North America and Europe. The sharpest contrast separates the United States from the other countries, although differences among the others also are instructive: The right to parental leave is new to American workers; it covers one-half of the private-sector workforce and is relatively short and unpaid. By contrast, other nations offer universal, paid leaves of 10 months or more. Child care assistance in Europe is usually provided through publicly funded programs, whereas the United States relies more on subsidies and tax credits to reimburse parents for part of their child care expenses. Nations vary in the emphasis they place on parental leave versus child care supports for families with children under age three. Each approach creates incentives that influence parents' decisions about employment and child care. Several European nations, seeking flexible solutions for parents, are testing "early childhood benefits" that can be used to supplement income or pay for private child care. Based on this review, the author urges that the United States adopt universal, paid parental leave of at least 10 months; help parents cover more child care costs; and improve the quality of child care. She finds policy packages that support different parental choices promising, because the right mix of leave and care will vary from family to family, and child to child.

  13. Restoring international competitiveness in Croatia: The role of fiscal and monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćorić Tomislav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has joined the European Union as a country with several substantial structural problems, of which the most important is weak competitiveness. Although competitiveness can be viewed from the ‘institutional’ perspective, which includes World Development Indicators (WDI and Doing Business reports, in this paper the authors focus on the more standard view of competitiveness based on unit labour costs (ULC and real effective exchange rate (REER. As a small, open and highly dollarized/euroised economy that has to coordinate its economic policy with the EU policy framework, Croatia has limited space for increasing international competitiveness using monetary policy measures aimed at (nominal devaluation of the national currency. Therefore economic policy stakeholders should focus on decreasing unit labour costs and real effective exchange rate mainly through the process of internal devaluation, which is based on adequate fiscal policy measures. In this paper the authors analyse the role of monetary and fiscal policy in the deteriorating real effective exchange rate and unit labour costs since 2000, and their current capabilities and restrictions in restoring international competitiveness. The Structural VAR model (SVAR is used to estimate the effects of foreign (banking capital, credit growth, and current public expenditure on REER and ULC. The preliminary hypothesis of the paper is that monetary policy should continue to support bank lending activities and the role of fiscal policy is to achieve an internal devaluation, which will increase the competitiveness of the Croatian economy. Restoring international competitiveness is necessary due to its impact on net exports and consequently the economic recovery of the national economy, which has faced recession conditions for five years in a row. Also, restoring competitiveness is one of the most important preconditions for the success of a small country joining the single European market.

  14. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  15. Launching the Journal of International Economic Policy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soogil Young

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available In the phase when the World Economy takes its agitation, that is, characterized as the new initiative in the International economic order and the infinite competition of the borderless world market, as well as economic integration of all regions, the economy of Korea is facing an unprecedented challenge. After 1990s, when the Cold War came to an end, globalization officially started with the support of information and communications technology revolution. On the other hand, the economic hegemonism and the ideology of "economy-first" intentions was being widely spread in the World. Governments all over the world one after another appealed for foreign investments.

  16. On financing the internal enforcement of illegal immigration policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, G A; Tenorio, R

    1996-02-01

    "We introduce a government budget constraint into an illegal immigration model, and show that the effect of increasing internal enforcement of immigration laws on the host country's disposable national income depends on the mix of employer fines and income taxation used to finance the added enforcement. These issues are addressed under alternative assumptions about (a) the ability of host country employers to discern between legal and illegal workers, and (b) host country labor market conditions. Empirical evidence for the United States indicates that the employer sanctions program may have had a negative impact on disposable national income." excerpt

  17. Altogether now... understanding the role of international organizations in iCCM policy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Sara; Dalglish, Sarah L; Juma, Pamela A; Rodríguez, Daniela C

    2015-12-01

    Policy transfer theories explain how policy ideas move across time and geography and offer an approach to understanding waves of policy change, a common phenomenon in global health. Four primary mechanisms for the transfer of policies from global to national levels are posited: learning, coercion, socialization and competition. We used six concurrent country case studies of policy change for child survival followed by a global study to analyse (1) mechanisms for policy transfer and (2) the roles of international organizations in promoting policy transfer. Our six country cases drew upon early adopters of integrated Community Case Management of Childhood Illness policy (Malawi, Niger), as well as countries that were slower to adopt due either to practical implementation challenges (Mozambique, Mali) and/or policy resistance (Burkina Faso, Kenya). In total, 145 semi-structured interviews and 283 document reviews were conducted across the six country cases, and 25 semi-structured interviews and 72 document reviews for the global study. Three of the four diffusion mechanisms (learning, coercion and socialization) were important in these cases, but not competition. Multiple strategies were employed by multilateral organizations to support policy transfer, such as regional meetings or academic publications, frequently serving multiple diffusion mechanisms simultaneously (e.g. both learning and socialization). In just one country case, funding conditionalities were used to press for policy change. The emphasis of policy transfer mechanisms varied between early and later adopters. Early adopters, for example, were more likely to engage in learning. International multilateral organizations were active policy transfer agents, and national policy-makers perception of them as "trusted partners" made them well suited for this role. However, on occasion their role became more that of advocates than neutral facilitators. International actors use multiple synergistic channels to

  18. Review of the Report of the Commission To Assess Veterans' Education Policy and the Response of the DVA. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education, Training and Employment of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs, House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document describes a hearing to review a report of the Commission to Assess Veterans' Education Policy, which was established by Congress in 1986, and the initial response from the Department of Veterans Affairs (DVA), which administers education and training programs. Following the opening statements by Congressmen Timothy J. Penny and…

  19. 17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2013-01-01

    17 October 2013 - C. Ashton High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Vice-President of the European Commission visiting the ATLAS cavern with ATLAS Collaboration Spokesperson D. Charlton; visiting the LHC tunnel at Point 1 with Technology Department Head F. Bordry and signing the Guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer.

  20. Social values and health policy: a new international research programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Peter; Weale, Albert; Chalkidou, Kalipso; Faden, Ruth; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2012-01-01

    This editorial aims to outline the context of healthcare priority-setting, and summarise each of the other ten papers in this special edition. It introduces a new multidisciplinary research programme drawing on ethics, philosophy, health economics, political science and health technology assessment, out of which the papers in this edition have arisen. Key normative concepts are introduced and policy and research context provided to frame subsequent papers in the edition. Common challenges of health priority-setting are faced by many countries across the world, and a range of social value judgments is in play as resource allocation decisions are made. Although the challenges faced by different countries are in many ways similar, the way in which social values affect the processes and content of priority-setting decisions means that those challenges are resolved very differently in a variety of social, political, cultural and institutional settings, as subsequent papers in this edition demonstrate. How social values affect decision making in this way is the subject of a new multi-disciplinary research programme. Technical analyses of health priority setting are commonplace, but approaching the issues from the perspective of social values and conducting comparative analyses across countries with very different cultural, social and institutional contexts provides the content for a new research agenda.

  1. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  2. The Tax Wedge in Slovenia: International Comparison and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Dolenc

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available When taxes on labor are introduced, a “tax wedge” appears between the labor costs paid by the employer (gross wage and the net wage received by an employee. At a certain level of wage, a higher tax wedge increases unemployment and decreases employment, all other things being equal. The paper tackles three main questions: the characteristics of the tax wedge, unemployment and employment rates in OECD countries in the recent past, tax wedge policy in the EU15 and the new EU members and the tax system and its effects on the unemployment and employment rates in Slovenia. We found that the OECD countries can be classified into two groups of countries if the tax wedge, the unemployment rate and the employment rate are taken into consideration. The first group is the high tax wedge, high unemployment rate and low employment rate group of countries, whereas the other group has the opposite characteristics. European member states (old and new have on average a higher tax burden on labor than the OECD average, consequently suffering from higher unemployment rates. Slovenia has an unreasonably high tax wedge; in the EU only Belgium and Germany have a higher tax burden. According to previous and our empirical findings we suggest that Slovenia could benefit from a reduction in the tax wedge.

  3. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Namie Sakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter “Violence: a global public health problem” from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  4. International economy. 82, controlling greenhouse effect: the stake of the international public policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, O.; Oliveira-Martins, J.; Sgard, J.

    2000-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is one of the first stake of public policy which needs to be considered at the worldwide level. The climate changes shade doubts on the economic growth strategies adopted by all countries, and, if no major effort is made in the mastery of energy demand, worldwide greenhouse gas emissions will rapidly reach dangerous thresholds. This book gives a status of the research carried out on the economical impact of these policies. (J.S.)

  5. Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public policy research (empirical and theoretical) on the democracy, security, and development nexus. Democracy & Development: Journal of West African Affairs is the only one of its kind entirely devoted to reporting and explaining democratic developments in the sub-region. It is read widely by researchers, journalists, ...

  6. International governmental organisations and global youth unemployment: the normative and ideational foundations of policy discourses

    OpenAIRE

    Fergusson, Ross; Yeates, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This article compares policy discourses concerning youth unemployment of seven international governmental organisations (IGOs). We classify the discourses according to broadly neo-liberal and social democratic positions across labour market and social welfare domains, regarding causes of and responses to youth unemployment. We relate evidence of hybrids and shifts in IGOs' discourses to wider institutional contexts of global social policy and to debates about IGO responses to the global finan...

  7. History, framework and perspectives of international policy for preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1985-12-01

    The study analyses the framework conditions, such as the Non-Proliferation Treaty and the international non-proliferation regime and their interlacement with international nuclear energy policies, and evaluates the results achieved so far on an international level by the efforts directed towards preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The conclusion to be drawn as stated by the author is that the classical tool of non-proliferation policy - denial of technology transfer - will lose in importance and give way to enhanced, controlled cooperation between countries of the Third World and the industrialised countries. Another instrument that will maintain its value for non-proliferation policy is cooperation for political stabilisation in those parts of the world where regional conflicts might aggravate. (orig./HP) [de

  8. Framing energy efficiency and renewable energy policies: An international comparison between Mexico and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Jose Maria; Qi, Ye

    2012-01-01

    This essay compares national strategies on mitigation of GHG emissions for Mexico and China. This state-centered analysis stresses the importance of the interaction between international commitments, the disposition of internal interest of economy-wide actors, and the legacies of policy making and institutions, particularly in relation to economic development and central–local government relations. This research does not attempt to classify institutions according to their effectives to foster climate change policies, but rather explores specific circumstances for climate change policy making on developing countries. Contrary to international proposal to find a generic optimal policy choice, the research explored the relevance of certain political and economic institutions that can be present in other national cases. It shows that the legacies on liberalization and state retreat undermine the state ability to effectively engage with the economic actors on decisions and management. Likewise regular engagement with them undermines the state affinity towards pursuing economic efficient solutions. The relevance of adequate system of incentives for local government to engage in an agenda that is, by nature, adopted by the central government. - Highlights: ► We compared China and Mexico CO 2 emissions potentials and strategies on energy. ► Cost abatement curves were used to induce societal interest. ► Policies on management decision are effective but not clearly efficient. ► Policies that stress efficiency face serious limitations of scope. ► Centrally provided incentives are highly required for local governments action.

  9. Energy policy of the International Energy Agency (IEA) countries. General review of the year 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This book is a general review on energy policy leaded by Members countries of International Energy Agency (IEA) during the year 1990. This book describes also the trends and the recent events which have affected energy demand, energy conservation, energy efficiency, energy supply and energy source development. This annual review gives the IEA energy forecasting for the next years, till year 2001. A detailed study of energy policy in Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Denmark, Greece, Ireland and Japan is given. The policy of fifteen another Members countries, which have been analyzed the previous years, is recapitulated and briefly brought up to date

  10. Economic aspects of the Chinese energy policy in the international background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdeau, F

    1983-05-01

    A first part sets out the situation of the Chinese energy industry in the following sectors: coal, hydrocarbons, electricity, and other energy sources such as nuclear energy and the renevable energy sources. A second part deals with the structure and the evolution of the Chinese energy balance: supply and demand, modeling of energy consumption, and forecasting for 1990-2000. The third part is about the foreign aspects of the Chinese energy policy means of an international energy policy, the aims of the Chinese energy policy and its influence in the world.

  11. Arms Transfer Policies and International Security: the Case of Brazilian-Swedish Co-operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Federico Domínguez Avila

    Full Text Available Abstract This article discusses arms trade policies from an international security perspective. Arms transfers are widely treated as political issues even when economic incentives exist. They affect bilateral and multilateral relations among suppliers, countries receiving the arms, non-state actors, taxpayers, and victims. Following the agreement to build Swedish SAAB Gripen NG fighter jets in Brazil, more may be produced for sale to third countries. This, in turn, calls for a review of Brazil’s arms transfer policy. In this instance, Sweden’s principled arms sales model could serve as a basis for a revised Brazilian arms transfer policy as well.

  12. EVALUATION OF POSTGRADUATES STRICTO SENSU: MONITORING POLICY FOR INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma Terezinha Anselmo Lima

    Full Text Available Objective: Search for references in relationship to international alumni on the website of the postgraduate programs of all postgraduate courses at Ribeirão Preto Medical School - FMRP. Methods: Verify with more attention to the ones with 5, 6 and 7 notes, and also the same search on the website of courses with notes 5, 6 and 7 of CAPES - Medicine III. Results: Of the 22 programs of FMRP only three had any information on the site about the destiny of the postgraduates; they were: Surgical Clinics, Genetics, and Basic and Applied Immunology. Programs in the area of Medicine III, notes 5, 6 and 7, only Ophthalmology and Visual Programs and Translational Sciences Surgery, both of UNIFESP, presented such information. Conclusion: It is urgent: to create project and funding evaluation mechanisms that are approved by different sources; to stimulate more efficient controls in relation to teachers and their students who participate in these projects; and to stimulate the interaction of teachers and students with the institution and the program.

  13. Center for Homeland Defense and Security Homeland Security Affairs Journal

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Homeland Security Affairs is the peer-reviewed online journal of the Center for Homeland Defense and Security (CHDS). The journal provides a forum to propose and debate strategies, policies and organizational arrangements to strengthen U.S. homeland security.

  14. EVALUATION OF POSTGRADUATES STRICTO SENSU: MONITORING POLICY FOR INTERNATIONAL GRADUATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Wilma Terezinha Anselmo

    2015-01-01

    Search for references in relationship to international alumni on the website of the postgraduate programs of all postgraduate courses at Ribeirão Preto Medical School - FMRP. Verify with more attention to the ones with 5, 6 and 7 notes, and also the same search on the website of courses with notes 5, 6 and 7 of CAPES - Medicine III. Of the 22 programs of FMRP only three had any information on the site about the destiny of the postgraduates; they were: Surgical Clinics, Genetics, and Basic and Applied Immunology. Programs in the area of ​​Medicine III, notes 5, 6 and 7, only Ophthalmology and Visual Programs and Translational Sciences Surgery, both of UNIFESP, presented such information. It is urgent: to create project and funding evaluation mechanisms that are approved by different sources; to stimulate more efficient controls in relation to teachers and their students who participate in these projects; and to stimulate the interaction of teachers and students with the institution and the program. Verificar a existência de referências aos egressos internacionais nos sites dos programas de pós-graduação de todos os cursos de pós-graduação da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto - FMRP. Verificar com mais atenção aos cursos notas 5, 6 e 7, e também a mesma busca nos sites dos cursos com notas 5, 6 e 7 da Medicina III da CAPES. Dos 22 programas da FMRP apenas três tinham no site alguma informação sobre o destino dos egressos, foram eles: Clínica Cirúrgica, Genética e Imunologia Básica e Aplicada. Dos programas da área de Medicina III, notas 5, 6 e 7 apenas os programas de Oftalmologia e Ciências Visuais e Cirurgia Translacional, ambos da UNIFESP, apresentavam informações sobre o destino dos seus egressos. É urgente criar mecanismos de avaliação para os projetos de incentivo e fomento à pesquisa dos diferentes órgãos; estimular controles mais eficientes e atualizados em relação aos docentes e seus respectivos discentes que

  15. Synergy effects of international policy instruments to reduce deforestation: a cross-country panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Solenn Leplay; Sophie Thoyer

    2011-01-01

    Localisation : Centre de documentation P. Bartoli, UMR LAMETA, Montpellier (S WPL 2011-01); Safeguarding tropical rainforests is one of the most important challenges for the future, particularly to mitigate climate change. The international community has actively sought international policy solutions to curb deforestation in tropical countries. Debt-for-nature swaps and certification of sustainable forest management have been implemented by NGOs. Some states are currently negotiating the impl...

  16. The new philanthropy : private power in international development policy?\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Michael; Stone, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines the role and function of philanthropy in international development policy. Philanthropy has deep roots in international development and its present influence is far from novel. Yet changes in the political economy of development finance, including growing private aid flows and continuing strain on the bilateral and multilateral aid systems, have increased its relative importance. Simultaneously, newly emerging foundations have financed novel institutional mechanisms for ...

  17. Department of Veterans Affairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Media Room Public Affairs News Releases Speeches Videos Publications National Observances Veterans Day Memorial Day Celebrating America's Freedoms Special Events Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training – Exposure – Experience (TEE) Tournament ...

  18. Global climate change. Economic dimensions of a cooperative international policy response beyond 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the economic implications of a range of international abatement strategies and to identify the most cost effective approaches to achieve given environmental objectives. International responses to concerns about global warming are discussed and trends in sectoral and global patterns of production, consumption and trade are examined with a view to providing a business as-usual scenario for carbon dioxide emissions to the year 2020. The study uses a dynamic general equilibrium model of the world economy, MEGABARE. Simulation results for alternative stabilisation and emission reduction targets are also presented. Policy options are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in stabilizing carbon dioxide emissions and impact on economic welfare in various countries and regions, including an analysis of the feedhack effects of policies on developing countries. Equity principles and rules, and joint implementation issues are also considered. The focus is on designing approaches to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by the same amount as stabilisation policies, but at lower cost to the international community and with more equitable sharing of costs. An analysis of tradable carbon dioxide emission quota schemes is provided and some broad policy conclusions are noted in the final chapter on the economic impacts of emission abatement policies. 84 refs., 22 tabs., 50 figs

  19. The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium: Policies and Guidelines to maximize impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochmüller, Hanns; Torrent I Farnell, Josep; Le Cam, Yann; Jonker, Anneliene H; Lau, Lilian Pl; Baynam, Gareth; Kaufmann, Petra; Dawkins, Hugh Js; Lasko, Paul; Austin, Christopher P; Boycott, Kym M

    2017-12-01

    The International Rare Diseases Research Consortium (IRDiRC) has agreed on IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines, following extensive deliberations and discussions in 2012 and 2013, as a first step towards improving coordination of research efforts worldwide. The 25 funding members and 3 patient umbrella organizations (as of early 2013) of IRDiRC, a consortium of research funders that focuses on improving diagnosis and therapy for rare disease patients, agreed in Dublin, Ireland in April 2013 on the Policies and Guidelines that emphasize collaboration in rare disease research, the involvement of patients and their representatives in all relevant aspects of research, as well as the sharing of data and resources. The Policies and Guidelines provide guidance on ontologies, diagnostics, biomarkers, patient registries, biobanks, natural history, therapeutics, models, publication, intellectual property, and communication. Most IRDiRC members-currently nearly 50 strong-have since incorporated its policies in their funding calls and some have chosen to exceed the requirements laid out, for instance in relation to data sharing. The IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines are the first, detailed agreement of major public and private funding organizations worldwide to govern rare disease research, and may serve as a template for other areas of international research collaboration. While it is too early to assess their full impact on research productivity and patient benefit, the IRDiRC Policies and Guidelines have already contributed significantly to improving transparency and collaboration in rare disease research.

  20. Social Protection as Development Policy: A New International Agenda for Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Merrien

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available At the turn of the millennium, social protection became a new priority for both states of the global South and international development policy more generally. As, in the past, social protection policies were considered unsuitable for development countries, the elevation of social protection to the level of a preferred instrument of development marks a fundamental paradigm shift. This shift began in the late 1990s, driven by disenchantment with the results of economic adjustment programmes, the 1997 Asian economic crisis, and a heightened awareness of the negative effects of global poverty. Social protection thus became a preferred instrument of the Millennium Development Goals, while the World Bank promoted social protection as a key component of international poverty reduction strategies (social risk management. The Department for International Development (DfID in the United Kingdom, along with other organisations, promoted a development model centred on the rights of the poor. Successful social protection programmes developed in the Global South – such as Brazilian and South African social pension schemes and conditional cash transfers (CCT established in Mexico and Brazil – were adopted as model programmes at the global level. The purpose of this article is to analyse the emergence of social protection in development policies. From this perspective, it examines the various types of programmes promoted by the international community, with a specific focus on CCT. It concludes with an assessment of the relative appropriateness of social protection policies for developing countries.

  1. Curbing International Piracy of Intellectual Property. Policy Options for a Major Exporting Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Gary M.; Marcou, George T.

    This report of the International Piracy Project addresses three major topics: (1) The Costs and Complications of Piracy; (2) Rights Enforcement Today; and (3) Policy Options for Curbing Piracy. The first section discusses piracy of copyrights, patents, and other intellectual property, including economic losses and damage to the finances and…

  2. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  3. International Education Policy Transfer--Borrowing Both Ways: The Hong Kong and England Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestier, Katherine; Crossley, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses how the impact of international student achievement studies and the recent economic crisis in Europe are influencing the development of educational policy transfer and borrowing, from East to West. This is contrasted with education reform movements in East Asia, which have long legacies of borrowing from so-called…

  4. Researching International Processes of Education Policy Formation: Conceptual and Methodological Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This article elaborates one approach to conceptualizing and investigating international processes of education policy formation (IPEPF), which are dynamic, multi-level and processual in nature. This contribution is important because, although research is increasingly conducted on phenomena with such characteristics, extended discussions of how…

  5. Developments in international solid biofuel trade - an analysis of volumes, policies and market factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, P.; Junginger, H.M.; Hamelinck, C.N.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses international solid biofuel trade and concludes upon interactions with bioenergy policies and market factors. It shows that trade has grown from about 56 to 300 PJ between 2000 and 2010. Wood pellets grew strongest, i.e. from 8.5 to 120 PJ. Other relevant streams by

  6. Fundamental economic irreversibilities influence policies for enhancing international forest phytosanitary security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P. Holmes; Will Allen; Robert G. Haight; E. Carina H. Keskitalo; Mariella Marzano; Maria Pettersson; Christopher P. Quine; E. R. Langer

    2017-01-01

    National and international efforts to manage forest biosecurity create tension between opposing sources of ecological and economic irreversibility. Phytosanitary policies designed to protect national borders from biological invasions incur sunk costs deriving from economic and political irreversibilities that incentivizes wait-and-see decision-making. However, the...

  7. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  8. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio

    2015-07-01

    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  9. Soft Power as a Policy Rationale for International Education in the UK: A Critical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomer, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a textual analysis conducted on policy discourses on international students in the UK between 1999 and 2013. A number of rationales for and against increasing their numbers have been made, which have largely remained consistent over changing political administrations. One key rationale is that international…

  10. A study on the development of nuclear policy to respond to international non-proliferation regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Jung, W. H.; Lim, C. Y

    2006-01-15

    This study analyzed the trends of the nonproliferation regimes in the following three aspects. First, this study analyzed the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international nuclear export control regime and multilateral nuclear approach. Second, this study forecast the future trends of the nonproliferation systems with the reflection of current international situations. Third, this study also analyzed outstanding issues in nuclear control regimes and derived some factors to reflect national nuclear foreign policy.

  11. Global Summit on Student Affairs and Services: Prof. Adam Habib's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-01

    Nov 1, 2016 ... NASPA, and Stellenbosch University and the International Association of Student Affairs and Services, with 50 student affairs leaders in attendance. To survive the 21st century, it is essential to come together as global citizens and a global academy, said Habib, who is also chair of Universities South Africa, ...

  12. Asia-Pacific Journal for Student Affairs (AJSA)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The International Association of Student Affairs and Services (IASAS) serves as a global network of student affairs and services workers that encourages sharing, cooperation, research, exchanges, and attendance at each other's conferences. The Vice President and. General Secretary of IASAS attended the 2016 Asia ...

  13. Towards international consensus on patient harm: perspectives on pressure injury policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie; Barnason, Susan; Li, William; Mannix, Judy; Neville, Stephen; Piper, Donella; Power, Tamara; Smith, Graeme D; Usher, Kim

    2016-10-01

    To analyse influential policies that inform practice related to pressure injury management in Australia, England, Hong Kong, New Zealand, Scotland and the United States of America. Pressure injuries are associated with significant harm to patients, and carry economic consequences for the health sector. Internationally, preventing and managing pressure injuries is a key nursing activity and quality indicator. Comparative review and synthesis of pressure injury policies that inform practice. The predominant focus of policy is on patient risk assessment, compliance with documentation and pressure relief. Financial penalty for institutions is emerging as a strategy where pressure injuries occur. Comparisons of prevalence rates are hampered by the lack of consensus on data collection and reporting. To date there has been little evaluation of policy implementation and implemented policy strategies, associated guidelines remain founded upon expert opinion and low-level evidence. The pressure injury policy agenda has fostered a discourse of attention to incidents, compliance and penalty (sanctions). Prevention and intervention strategies are informed by technical and biomedical interpretations of patient risk and harm, with little attention given to the nature or design of nursing work. Considerable challenges remain if this policy agenda is successfully to eliminate pressure injury as a source of patient harm. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. From Alma Ata to the Global Fund: The history of international health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italian Global Health Watch

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available “Global Funds are like stars in the sky, you can see them, admire them, appreciate their abundance… but fail to touch them.” - Ministry of Health Official, Malawi Abstract The paper traces the evolution of international health policies and international health institutions, starting from the birth of the World Health Organization, the setting up of the Health for All target at the Alma Ata conference in 1978 and the rise of neo-liberal policies promoted by international financial institutions from 1980 to the present. The paper looks at different issues surrounding public-private partnerships and the setting up of the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and the influence of these institutions on the health systems in poor countries.

  15. No. 3468 information report deposed in application of the article 145 of the regulation by the Commission of foreign Affairs in conclusion of the works concerning an information mission constituted the 8 February 2006 on 'energy and geo-policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-11-01

    The energy history is a history of violence, punctuated with wars between countries or territories conflicts in a same country. To understand this history and propose an adapted energy policy, this report presents in a first part the necessity of taking care of the energy crisis. In a second part it shows the international dimension of the crisis with the part of the middle east, Asia, Russia and Africa in the energy supply and the economic, political and environmental consequences. It analyzes also the political power of the United States and the difficult equation of the european energy policy. The third part proposes a global policy answer against the energy fatality, by a reinforcement of the european union credibility, a better answer to the climatic change, the definition of new international rules and the reduction of the North-South energy failure. (A.L.B.)

  16. Directed International Technological Change and Climate Policy: New Methods for Identifying Robust Policies Under Conditions of Deep Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Perez, Edmundo

    It is widely recognized that international environmental technological change is key to reduce the rapidly rising greenhouse gas emissions of emerging nations. In 2010, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) Conference of the Parties (COP) agreed to the creation of the Green Climate Fund (GCF). This new multilateral organization has been created with the collective contributions of COP members, and has been tasked with directing over USD 100 billion per year towards investments that can enhance the development and diffusion of clean energy technologies in both advanced and emerging nations (Helm and Pichler, 2015). The landmark agreement arrived at the COP 21 has reaffirmed the key role that the GCF plays in enabling climate mitigation as it is now necessary to align large scale climate financing efforts with the long-term goals agreed at Paris 2015. This study argues that because of the incomplete understanding of the mechanics of international technological change, the multiplicity of policy options and ultimately the presence of climate and technological change deep uncertainty, climate financing institutions such as the GCF, require new analytical methods for designing long-term robust investment plans. Motivated by these challenges, this dissertation shows that the application of new analytical methods, such as Robust Decision Making (RDM) and Exploratory Modeling (Lempert, Popper and Bankes, 2003) to the study of international technological change and climate policy provides useful insights that can be used for designing a robust architecture of international technological cooperation for climate change mitigation. For this study I developed an exploratory dynamic integrated assessment model (EDIAM) which is used as the scenario generator in a large computational experiment. The scope of the experimental design considers an ample set of climate and technological scenarios. These scenarios combine five sources of uncertainty

  17. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  18. The Limits and Possibilities of International Large-Scale Assessments. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…

  19. CO2 embodied in international trade with implications for global climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Glen P; Hertwich, Edgar G

    2008-03-01

    The flow of pollution through international trade flows has the ability to undermine environmental policies, particularly for global pollutants. In this article we determine the CO2 emissions embodied in international trade among 87 countries for the year 2001. We find that globally there are over 5.3 Gt of CO2 embodied in trade and that Annex B countries are net importers of CO2 emissions. Depending on country characteristics--such as size variables and geographic location--there are considerable variations in the embodied emissions. We argue that emissions embodied in trade may have a significant impact on participation in and effectiveness of global climate policies such as the Kyoto Protocol. We discuss several policy options to reduce the impact of trade in global climate policy. If countries take binding commitments as a part of a coalition, instead of as individual countries, then the impacts of trade can be substantially reduced. Adjusting emission inventories for trade gives a more consistent description of a country's environmental pressures and circumvents many trade related issues. It also gives opportunities to exploit trade as a means of mitigating emissions. Not least, a better understanding of the role that trade plays in a country's economic and environmental development will help design more effective and participatory climate policy post-Kyoto.

  20. Tax and Fiscal Policies for Promotion of Industrial EnergyEfficiency: A Survey of International Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Sinton, Jonathan; Worrell,Ernst; Graus, Wina

    2005-09-15

    The Energy Foundation's China Sustainable Energy Program (CSEP) has undertaken a major project investigating fiscal and tax policy options for stimulating energy efficiency and renewable energy development in China. This report, which is part of the sectoral sub-project studies on energy efficiency in industry, surveys international experience with tax and fiscal policies directed toward increasing investments in energy efficiency in the industrial sector. The report begins with an overview of tax and fiscal policies, including descriptions and evaluations of programs that use energy or energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2) taxes, pollution levies, public benefit charges, grants or subsidies, subsidized audits, loans, tax relief for specific technologies, and tax relief as part of an energy or greenhouse gas (GHG) emission tax or agreement scheme. Following the discussion of these individual policies, the report reviews experience with integrated programs found in two countries as well as with GHG emissions trading programs. The report concludes with a discussion of the best practices related to international experience with tax and fiscal policies to encourage investment in energy efficiency in industry.

  1. Integrated care: a fresh perspective for international health policies in low and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Unger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To propose a social-and-democrat health policy alternative to the current neoliberal one. Context of case: The general failure of neoliberal health policies in low and middle-income countries justifies the design of an alternative to bring disease control and health care back in step with ethical principles and desired outcomes. Data sources: National policies, international programmes and pilot experiments—including those led by the authors—are examined in both scientific and grey literature. Case description: We call for the promotion of a publicly-oriented health sector as a cornerstone of such alternative policy. We define ‘publicly-oriented’ as opposed to ‘private-for-profit’ in terms of objectives and commitment, not of ownership. We classify development strategies for such a sector according to an organisation-based typology of health systems defined by Mintzberg. As such, strategies are adapted to three types of health systems: machine bureaucracies, professional bureaucracies and divisionalized forms. We describe avenues for family and community health and for hospital care. We stress social control at the peripheral level to increase accountability and responsiveness. Community-based, national and international sources are required to provide viable financing. Conclusions and discussion: Our proposed social-and-democrat health policy calls for networking, lobbying and training as a joint effort in which committed health professionals can lead the way.

  2. Undergraduate Consumer Affairs Program Needs: Employers' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kathryn; Saboe-Wounded Head, Lorna; Cho, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Forty-six Consumer Affairs (CA) internship supervisors were surveyed to identify critical knowledge and skills demonstrated by interns and to examine the importance of knowledge and skills needed in the workplace from the supervisors' perspectives.The knowledge and skills measured were identified through program goals. Results revealed that CA…

  3. Educational policy and its relation with the internationalization and international cooperation on higher education: Mexico case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Amador Fierros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The idea of international cooperation linked to educational processes appeared explicitly in the 1990s in Latin America. International- cooperation processes as well as higher-education internationalization in Mexico started before the existence of a State policy, which helped build consensus for the adoption of the International Cooperation for Development Act in 2011. The drive of associations of universities and individuals, such as the National Association of Universities (ANUIES and later the Consortium of Mexican Universities (CUMEX, as well as the Mexican Association for International Education (AMPEI has been key in promoting international cooperation, as a catalyst for higher-education internationalization. It is now recognized that emerging work and sharing environments need a variety of competences as well as knowledge that sometimes researchers, professors or government officials do not have. In addition, there is a need to obtain knowledge and skills that do not come through traditional teaching and learning, but through processes of interaction with the world. The internationalization of higher education appears as a strategy that can help universities improve their quality, thus strengthening the need to cooperate with similar institutions and other organizations beyond our borders. Moreover, the type of academic achievement to which internationalization processes can lead are viewed by some authors as part of the very concept of quality and educational excellence in the 21st century.There is logic in the sequence in which policies and reforms have been implemented in the field of education in different parts of the world, as certain needs that the political class sees as priorities are met: expansion of coverage and access, education quality and, finally, international cooperation. This might explain the late arrival of the International Cooperation for Development Act in Mexico, although a mixed model is emerging in Latin

  4. Monetary policy as a source of risk in international business financings and investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paun Cristian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at explaining the volatility of two main macroeconomic variables (interest rate and exchange rate that impact the cost of international capital and, consequently, the international financing decision. Firstly, the main economic theories are called to illustrate the relevant determinants of these variables from the perspective of demand and supply of capital sides. The state intervention through monetary policy is introduced to emphasize the alteration of these prices (the price of capital, the price of foreign currencies. The paper is presenting the role of these prices in international financing decision (based on the theoretical model used to estimate cost of international capital, their impact on the foreign direct investment decision and on the international portfolio investment decision. Finally, the paper describe the economic consequences of the monetary public intervention on the financing and investment decision in direct connection with the business cycle theory. The paper associates the monetary policy to the business cycles. The paper comments the unsound solutions proposed against the economic crises and that continued to harm negatively these prices generating the seeds for next international economic recession. The paper is a theoretical one, containing some very interesting research hypothesis and opening the paths for presumable further empirical researches.

  5. Moving Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Evidence into Policy in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project brings together and supports the uptake of maternal and child health research evidence into policies and practices in West Africa. ... is a collaboration between Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, and the International Development Research Centre.

  6. 78 FR 2709 - Advisory Committee on International Economic Policy; Notice of Open Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    ... hosted by the Assistant Secretary of State for Economic and Business Affairs Jose W. Fernandez and... meeting will examine the Anti- Bribery Convention, the OECD Working Group on Bribery and related anti... Economic and Business Affairs, at (202) 647-2231 or MaggioGFmailto:@state.gov. Dated: January 8, 2013...

  7. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there is n......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...

  8. The role of international policy transfer within the Multiple Streams Approach: the case of smart electricity metering in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Lovell, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws on Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Approach (MSA) to consider international flows of policy, not just domestic. It is argued that using the MSA in conjunction with international policy transfer and mobility theories allows for a fuller explanation of the development of smart electricity metering policy in Australia. The MSA is based originally on empirical research within a single country - the USA - in the late 1970s, and all three of the ‘streams’ identified as important to poli...

  9. 77 FR 75695 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Notice of Public Meeting of the Study Group on the Hague Judgments Project The Office of the Assistant Legal Adviser for Private International Law, Department of State, hereby gives... International Law. Last April, the General Affairs and Policy Council of the Hague Conference decided to proceed...

  10. 76 FR 9072 - U.S. Department of State Advisory Committee on Private International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... International Law (ACPIL): Public Meeting on Jurisdiction and the Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments The Department of State, Office of Legal Adviser, Office of Private International Law would like to give notice... the Council on General Affairs and Policy of the Hague Conference on Private International Law...

  11. Evaluation of Joint Regulation of the Minister of Religion and Minister of Home Affairs No. 9 and 8 of 2006: Study on Maintenance of Religious Harmony Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Ya'arozatulo Harefa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the implementation of the regulation in the province of East Java. The method used in this study is naturalistic or qualitative with a descriptive explanation. The study result shows that in general, the implementation of the regulation in the province of East Java has not been effective. Factors that affect, among others, are the lack of commitment of in implementing the regulation, weak socialization of the regulation, weak law enforcement,and the lack of multicultural education to the community. The policy that needs to be implemented is mainly of the regulation needs to be improved to become a Law. The approval of the existing Draft Law on the Protection of Religious Community needs to be accelerated.

  12. The role of international development strategies in making regional development policies: Hokkaido as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Saunavaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, national governments and international institutions have both searched for ways to equalise disparities and revitalise lagging regions. Although ideas and examples of the most effective ways to achieve these goals originate in various places, their influence is inclined to permeate elsewhere. Therefore, the processes involved in policy transfers are highly relevant from the perspective of regional development. This study approaches these processes through the case study of post-war Hokkaido and pays special attention to the role of three international development strategies: the Tennessee Valley Authority model, the Growth Pole Theory and the Industrial Cluster Theory. As a result, this research shows the wide variety of agents involved in policy transfer, analyses the processes of incorporating exogenous ideas into regional development polices and demonstrates the variety of sources from which different agents can draw lessons.

  13. Assessment report on NRP sub-theme 'International instruments for climate change policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggink, J.J.C.; Van Beek, P.; Folmer, H.; Zhang, Z.X.; Blok, K.; Phylipsen, D.; Worrell, E.; Gupta, J.; Junne, G.; Van der Wurff, R.

    1995-01-01

    The projects implemented in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change are organised in several themes and sub-themes. Within the theme on Sustainable Solutions five projects are grouped under the heading International Instruments for Climate Change Policy. These five projects deal primarily with issues concerning the position of developing countries in the debate on limiting global CO2-emissions. They cover a broad spectrum of topics: international negotiation strategies, tropical deforestation, industrial energy conservation, national energy scenarios, emission guidelines. This contribution presents an overview of the objectives, methodologies and results of the projects and includes a critical evaluation of the potential relevance of the work for policy makers. 1 tab., 36 refs

  14. Multinational enterprises and international climate policy; Multinationale ondernemingen en internationaal klimaatbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolk, A. [Wetenschappelijk Instituut voor Milieu Management WIMM, Faculteit der Economische Wetenschappen en Econometrie, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    Over the past year, there have been substantial changes in international climate policy. The negotiations on the Kyoto treaty have coincided with firms shifting their positions, both individually and at sector level. An increasing number of large firms now support climate measures. In particular, multinational enterprises in the car and oil industry, traditional opponents of climate policies, have become proponents. Examples include British Petroleum, Shell and General Motors. In these firms, a defensive or hesitant approach has given way to a proactive strategy. This article analyses the changes at firm and sector levels, together with the background and implications. The more such environmental views fit into corporate strategies, and the larger and more international the firm, the greater its influence on other firms, within and outside the sector, and on governments. 13 refs.

  15. Learning together, growing apart: Global warming, energy policy and international trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kydd, Andrew H., E-mail: akydd@sas.upenn.ed [Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, 110 North Hall, 1050 Bascom Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Standard models of uncertainty in economics imply that sharing information can reduce uncertainty and help identify welfare improving policies. In international relations, 'epistemic communities' of scientists are thought to help provide information for these purposes. However, conflicting preferences can frustrate the transmission of information and prevent effective information sharing. In addition, opportunities for information sharing can deepen distrust as actors observe each other's reaction to what to them is credible information. A model that assumes uncertainty both about the state of the world and the parties' motivations is applied to international climate change negotiations.

  16. Learning together, growing apart. Global warming, energy policy and international trust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kydd, Andrew H. [Department of Political Science, University of Wisconsin, 110 North Hall, 1050 Bascom Mall, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    Standard models of uncertainty in economics imply that sharing information can reduce uncertainty and help identify welfare improving policies. In international relations, 'epistemic communities' of scientists are thought to help provide information for these purposes. However, conflicting preferences can frustrate the transmission of information and prevent effective information sharing. In addition, opportunities for information sharing can deepen distrust as actors observe each other's reaction to what to them is credible information. A model that assumes uncertainty both about the state of the world and the parties' motivations is applied to international climate change negotiations. (author)

  17. Learning together, growing apart: Global warming, energy policy and international trust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kydd, Andrew H.

    2010-01-01

    Standard models of uncertainty in economics imply that sharing information can reduce uncertainty and help identify welfare improving policies. In international relations, 'epistemic communities' of scientists are thought to help provide information for these purposes. However, conflicting preferences can frustrate the transmission of information and prevent effective information sharing. In addition, opportunities for information sharing can deepen distrust as actors observe each other's reaction to what to them is credible information. A model that assumes uncertainty both about the state of the world and the parties' motivations is applied to international climate change negotiations.

  18. Voluntary agreements as instruments for international environmental policy; Frivillege avtaler som internasjonalt miljoepolitisk verkemiddel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torvanger, Asbjoern

    1997-12-31

    According to this report, voluntary agreements have a potential as instruments for environmental policy. Such agreements can be national or international. Through an international voluntary agreement the authorities in one country may make contracts with factories in another country about emission reductions against some kind of compensation. A supranational organisation of voluntary agreements may ensure equal environmental political conditions for factories in different countries and be a useful means for the regulation of environmental problems of regional or global extent. It is most realistic to establish a supranational system of voluntary agreements in a group of countries that have already institutionalized their relations, such as the European Union. 14 refs., 1 table

  19. Policy and technical issues for international safeguards in nuclear weapons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of international safeguards into the military and commercial fuel cycles of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) -- the subject of previous proposals in international safeguards discussions and of studies in the safeguards literature -- has been given impetus by recent US government initiatives for safeguards on excess weapons materials and a verified fissile materials production cutoff. These proposals, if implemented, would have implications on the safeguards objectives, approaches, and technologies that are traditionally employed in international safeguards. This paper examines the modifications and innovations that might be required to the current international safeguards regime in meeting these proposed new roles. Although the examples given are in the context of the US materials and facilities, many of the conclusions are valid for other NWS. None of the statements in this paper represent official US position on policy for international safeguards in weapons states. Instead, the purpose is to identify policy and technical issues and to offer, where possible, options for their resolution. This paper limits consideration to the potential role of the IAEA in verifying these proposed initiatives for declared facilities, recognizing that there may also be a role for bilateral, multilateral, or regional verification regimes. Indeed, in some cases verification of weapons materials may be more appropriate for a bilateral arrangement. Because traditional IAEA safeguards may not be admissible for weapons materials, the concept of ''transparency'' is suggested as a less intrusive alternative providing some confidence that materials are as declared

  20. International and national energy and oil policy - Where we are going to

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welbergen, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    International and National Energy and Oil Policy-In the long run energy policy is to be based on the available energy reserves. It is necessary to use the reserves carefully and to develop new and economical energy sources in due course. The short-term policy is shaped by the availability of oil, the price level, and by the worldwide economic situation. The result is overcapacity of refineries and tankers for the coming years and unutilized production capacity in the OPEC countries. The reduction of oil consumption in the European Community with overcapacity in the domestic oil industry creates a conflict with the export intention of the producing countries. In order to avoid unnecessary investments it is necessary to have an international understanding. The energy economy of the Federal Republic of Germany faces structural problems. As a result of the reduced consumption of heavy fuel oil, the load on the refineries will be considerably lowered in the future. Cracking units are required to convert the heavy fuel oil into lighter products. Many risks are involved in the investments, since these investments run over a long term, whereas the political situation may change quickly. As far as temporary governmental measures become necessary, those should be flexible and agreeable to the economic structure, without contradicting the long term energy policies. (orig.) [de

  1. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  2. Professional mentoring in student affairs: evaluation of a global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IASAS) offered a global professional mentoring programme that would link student affairs leaders internationally with new graduates and early career professionals in student services. Protégé participants were primarily new graduates of ...

  3. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  4. Bridging Scholarship and Practice: 20 Years of the Public International Law and Policy Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne McGonigle Leyh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available When the Editor-in-Chief of the Utrecht Journal of International and European Law (UJIEL approached us with the possibility of guest editing a special issue related to public international law and policy, we felt the timing could not have been better. As academics at Utrecht University with the Netherlands Institute of Human Rights and Montaigne Centre for Judicial Administration and Conflict Resolution, we felt that a theme linking the world of lawyers with that of policymakers was important in order to examine the role of law in protecting human rights and security. Moreover, as Senior Counsel with the Public International Law & Policy Group (PILPG, which celebrated its 20-year anniversary in 2016, we welcomed the idea to link academic scholarship with the work of PILPG. After all, PILPG’s founders, Professor Paul Williams and Professor Michael Scharf, have themselves acted as bridges between scholarship and practice for years. As a result, this special edition is not only intended to highlight the extraordinary work carried out by PILPG on issues of law and policy around the world, but also to emphasise the importance of linking scholarship with practice and addressing contemporary issues impacting the world in which we live. PILPG’s motto ‘lawyering peace’ requires reflection on the role that law can play in helping to bring about the peaceful resolution of serious problems affecting individuals and societies as a whole. This special edition of UJIEL, addressing a variety of themes, does just that.

  5. International heat pump status and policy review 1993-1996. Part 2. National Position Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breembroek, G.; Lazaro, F.

    1999-07-01

    Four years after the publication of the International heat pump status and policy review, the International Energy Agency (IEA) Heat Pump Centre set out to compile an update of this study. The update reviews developments in the years 1993-96 and provides an outlook on future developments. Where available it includes data on 1997 as well. In 1997, roughly 90 million heat pumps were in operation worldwide (55 million in 1992). The main objective of the update of the International heat pump status and policy review is to provide an assessment of basic factors affecting heat pumps, policy measures regarding heat pumps, the status of various heat pump technologies and the current and expected penetration of heat pumps in all marker sectors. The analysis is based on a survey of the heat pump situation in 18 countries: Austria, Canada, China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and USA. In part one, for which a separate abstract has been prepared, the information from all these countries is brought together, compared and analysed. The information is gathered from detailed reviews of the situations in the individual countries, the so-called National Position Papers, which can be found in this volume (part two) of the report. The reports reveal that overall the heat pump market showed a favourable development in the years 1993-96

  6. Behind the scenes: International NGOs' influence on reproductive health policy in Malawi and South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storeng, Katerini T; Palmer, Jennifer; Daire, Judith; Kloster, Maren O

    2018-03-14

    Global health donors increasingly embrace international non-governmental organisations (INGOs) as partners, often relying on them to conduct political advocacy in recipient countries, especially in controversial policy domains like reproductive health. Although INGOs are the primary recipients of donor funding, they are expected to work through national affiliates or counterparts to enable 'locally-led' change. Using prospective policy analysis and ethnographic evidence, this paper examines how donor-funded INGOs have influenced the restrictive policy environments for safe abortion and family planning in South Sudan and Malawi. While external actors themselves emphasise the technical nature of their involvement, the paper analyses them as instrumental political actors who strategically broker alliances and resources to shape policy, often working 'behind the scenes' to manage the challenging circumstances they operate under. Consequently, their agency and power are hidden through various practices of effacement or concealment. These practices may be necessary to rationalise the tensions inherent in delivering a global programme with the goal of inducing locally-led change in a highly controversial policy domain, but they also risk inciting suspicion and foreign-national tensions.

  7. The financial crisis and global health: the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) policy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckert, Arne; Labonté, Ronald

    2013-09-01

    In this article, we interrogate the policy response of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to the global financial crisis, and discuss the likely global health implications, especially in low-income countries. In doing so, we ask if the IMF has meaningfully loosened its fiscal deficit targets in light of the economic challenges posed by the financial crisis and adjusted its macro-economic policy advice to this new reality; or has the rhetoric of counter-cyclical spending failed to translate into additional fiscal space for IMF loan-recipient countries, with negative health consequences? To answer these questions, we assess several post-crisis IMF lending agreements with countries requiring financial assistance, and draw upon recent academic studies and civil society reports examining policy conditionalities still being prescribed by the IMF. We also reference recent studies examining the health impacts of these conditionalities. We demonstrate that while the IMF has been somewhat more flexible in its crisis response than in previous episodes of financial upheaval, there has been no meaningful rethinking in the application of dominant neoliberal macro-economic policies. After showing some flexibility in the initial crisis response, the IMF is pushing for excessive contraction in most low and middle-income countries. We conclude that there remains a wide gap between the rhetoric and the reality of the IMF's policy and programming advice, with negative implications for global health.

  8. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  9. 30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    30th November 2010 - Norwegian Ministry of Government Administration, Reform and Church Affairs State Secretary R. Valle signing the guest book with Head of International Relations F. Pauss and Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci; visiting CERN Computer Centre with Information Technology Department Head F. Hemmer.

  10. 28th February 2011 - Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs A. Davutoğlu signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; meeting the CERN Turkish Community at Point 1; visiting the ATLAS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2011-01-01

    28th February 2011 - Turkish Minister of Foreign Affairs A. Davutoğlu signing the guest book with CERN Director for Research and Scientific Computing S. Bertolucci and Head of International Relations F. Pauss; meeting the CERN Turkish Community at Point 1; visiting the ATLAS control room with Former Collaboration Spokesperson P. Jenni.

  11. 5 June 2013 - Sri Lankan Senior Minister of Scientific Affairs T. Vitharana signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser R. Voss and in the CMS cavern with CERN Team leader A. Petrilli.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    5 June 2013 - Sri Lankan Senior Minister of Scientific Affairs T. Vitharana signing the guest book with Director-General R. Heuer, in the LHC tunnel at Point 5 with International Relations Adviser R. Voss and in the CMS cavern with CERN Team leader A. Petrilli.

  12. A study on the nuclear technology policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Maeng Ho; Ham, C. H.; Kim, H. J.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Lee, B. O.; Yun, S. W.; Choi, Y. M.; Eom, T. Y.

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the major issues as the research activities for the support of establishment and implementation of national policy. The analyses were focused on the recommendations of the responsive direction of national policy in positive and effective manners in accordance with the changes of international nuclear affairs. This study also analyzed the creation of environmental foundation for effective implementation of the national policy and national R and D investment such as securing national consensus and openings of policy information to the public. The major results of the role and position of nuclear policy, trends of nuclear policy and nuclear R and D activities of USA, France, Japan, Asian developing countries etc. and international trends of small- and medium-sized reactor as well as spin-offs of nuclear R and D activities, were analyzed. (author). 66 refs., 27 tabs., 15 figs

  13. Institutional Support : Institute of Economic Affairs (IEA-Ghana ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Institute of Economic Affairs in Ghana (IEA-Ghana) was founded in 1989 during the twilight of the military dictatorship. At that time there were no independent policy centres in the country and hence little public policy dialogue. Still, IEA-Ghana succeeded in creating a platform for debate and made a strong case for major ...

  14. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  15. Recent trends in reproductive tourism and international surrogacy: ethical considerations and challenges for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deonandan, Raywat

    2015-01-01

    Reproductive tourism, or "cross-border reproductive care", is the phenomenon of people crossing international borders to access reproductive technologies. One of the fastest-growing categories of cross-border reproductive care is international surrogacy, the act of infertile clients traveling internationally to engage the paid services of foreign surrogates to carry their babies to term. It is a multibillion-dollar global industry presenting unique legal, ethical, and risk-management challenges. Clients tend to be price-sensitive, middle-income individuals seeking services from surrogates who in the global market are thought to be of quite low socioeconomic status. Risks are experienced by all parties involved in the transaction, including the client's countries of origin and destination. The risks to the surrogate evolve from the potential to exploit her economic vulnerability in order to encourage both consent and unfair pricing. Opportunities for policy development are explored.

  16. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Aucoin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization, knowledge economy, and knowledge society. This emphasis creates an imbalance in opportunities for using ICTs in education and presents challenges for international educators. This paper discusses the Canadian International Development Agency’s report, CIDA’s Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies, as an example of how rhetoric does not always meet reality. The paper concludes with four simple recommendations for good ICT practice in developing contexts.

  17. Access to health care as a human right in international policy: critical reflections and contemporary challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Camilo Hernán Manchola; Garrafa, Volnei; Cunha, Thiago; Hellmann, Fernando

    2017-07-01

    Using the United Nations (UN) and its subordinate body, the World Health Organization (WHO), as a frame of reference, this article explores access to healthcare as a human right in international intergovernmental policies. First, we look at how the theme of health is treated within the UN, focusing on the concept of global health. We then discuss the concept of global health from a human rights perspective and go on to outline the debate surrounding universal coverage versus universal access as a human right, addressing some important ethical questions. Thereafter, we discuss universal coverage versus universal access using the critical and constructivist theories of international relations as a frame of reference. Finally, it is concluded that, faced with the persistence of huge global health inequalities, the WHO began to reshape itself, leaving behind the notion of health as a human right and imposing the challenge of reducing the wide gap that separates international intergovernmental laws from reality.

  18. Designing a climate change policy for the international maritime transport sector: Market-based measures and technological options for global and regional policy actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miola, A.; Marra, M.; Ciuffo, B.

    2011-01-01

    The international maritime transport sector has a significant abatement potential and some technical improvements that reduce GHG emissions would already be profitable without any policy in place. This paper analyses in-depth the limits and opportunities of policy options currently under consideration at the international level to stimulate the sector to reduce its GHG emissions. In particular, in order for the maritime transport sector to become more environmentally friendly, the flexible nature of international market-based measures and the European Union Emission Trading Scheme provide a definite window of opportunity without placing unnecessary high burden on the sector. However, the development of a regional policy, such as at European level, for the international maritime transport sector faces several obstacles: allocation of emissions, carbon leakage, permit allocation, treatment of the great variety in ship type, size and usage, and transaction cost. Global market-based policies could overcome most of these challenges. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the policy instruments currently under discussion to reduce the sector's burden on the environment, and focuses on economic theory, legal principles, technological options, and the political framework that together make up the basis of decision-making regarding the international maritime transport sector's climate change policies. - Highlights: → Technologies for a more environmental friendly maritime transport sector and their cost-effectiveness. → How to combine ambitious CO 2 reduction goals with a sector-wide market-based policy. → Permits should be auctioned frequently and small emitters have to be excluded. → Inclusion of shipping in the EU ETS causes carbon leakage, so the policy should aim at expansion.

  19. The '"[H]unt for New Canadians Begins in the Classroom": The Construction and Contradictions of Canadian Policy Discourse on International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trilokekar, Roopa Desai; El Masri, Amira

    2017-01-01

    In Canada's first-ever strategy, international education (IE) is linked to immigration policy with international students (IS) recruited as "ideal" immigrants. This paper engages in policy sociology and Ball's concepts of "policy as text" and "policy as discourse" (10). It follows three stages of critical policy…

  20. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  1. Toward Optimal Budget Utilization at the Department of Foreign Affairs: Focus on Foreign Service Posts and the International Commitment Funds (a zero-based budgeting attempt)

    OpenAIRE

    Macaranas, Federico M.; Lasala, Norma; Maulion, Alain M.; Furagganan, Brenda B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the optimization in the use of scarce budgetary resources available to the Philippine national government in fulfilling its role in the three pillars of foreign policy (traditional political-security areas, economic and social development concerns, and more recent engagement on the assistance to nationals). The lack of consistent data for longer-term analysis of benefits and costs in these three pillars and the inadequately defined value-addition of the Department of Foreig...

  2. Korean public opinion on alcohol control policy: a cross-sectional International Alcohol Control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seonwha; Chun, Sungsoo; Newell, Maxine; Yun, Mieun

    2015-01-01

    To examine Korean public opinions toward alcohol control measures on availability, advertisement, drink-driving and pricing policy, and how the views on alcohol control policy vary by demographics, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments. The study used national-based, cross-sectional data collected in 2012 as part of the International Alcohol Control study. 2510 people (M: 1163, F: 1261) aged 15-65 and living in geographically diverse regions of Korea completed the questionnaire asking the support of 12 alcohol control measures. Generally, targeted measures (purchase age of 20 and drink-driving) were more popular than universal (availability, advertisement and price) among Koreans. Gender, age, marital status, drinking patterns and attitude to drinking environments related to alcohol use of young and heavy drinkers were strong predictors of the opinions on most of the alcohol control measures. It was daily/weekly drinkers who opposed most restrictions on alcohol availability and price and the support from individuals who are more aware of problems with drinking in public place was outstanding in every control measure. These findings should be taken into account by Korean policy-makers as they formulate an alcohol policy for the country. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fostering a Renewable Energy Technology Industry: An InternationalComparison of Wind Industry Policy Support Mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Joanna; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-11-15

    This article examines the importance of national and sub-national policies in supporting the development of successful global wind turbine manufacturing companies. We explore the motivations behind establishing a local wind power industry, and the paths that different countries have taken to develop indigenous large wind turbine manufacturing industries within their borders. This is done through a cross-country comparison of the policy support mechanisms that have been employed to directly and indirectly promote wind technology manufacturing in twelve countries. We find that in many instances there is a clear relationship between a manufacturer's success in its home country market and its eventual success in the global wind power market. Whether new wind turbine manufacturing entrants are able to succeed will likely depend in part on the utilization of their turbines in their own domestic market, which in turn will be influenced by the annual size and stability of that market. Consequently, policies that support a sizable, stable market for wind power, in conjunction with policies that specifically provide incentives for wind power technology to be manufactured locally, are most likely to result in the establishment of an internationally competitive wind industry.

  4. International Seminar on Nuclear policy in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 25 and April 26, 2013 was held in Buenos Aires the International Seminar 'Nuclear Politics in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives', organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), the National University of San Martin (UNSAM) and University of San Andres (UdeSA). With the main objective of creating an area for reflection and discussion on the state of the global nuclear policy, its impact on the region and in our country, and raised as an area of interaction between the academic and those working in the sector policies. The seminar consisted of six thematic panels, in addition to the opening session, in which academics and researchers exposed renowned in dialogue with officials and professionals of the nuclear sector. In this seminar were presented some papers of the following topics: historical approaches to nuclear policy in emerging contexts; nuclear policy and civil society; discussion and perspectives on proliferation and non-proliferation, security in the post-Fukushima: discussion and perspectives; Argentina-Brazil: from competition to cooperation, present and prospects for the nuclear industry.

  5. International Student Access to U.S. Higher Education since World War II: How NAFSA (Association of International Educators) Has Influenced Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyokawa, Norifumi

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation is a study of the policy process behind the legislation and regulation governing international student access to U.S. higher education since the immediate aftermath of World War II. The particular research focus of this dissertation is on NAFSA: Association of International Educators (originally established as the National…

  6. What we do | Page 129 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In doing so, we contribute to Canada's foreign policy, complementing the work of Global Affairs Canada, and other government departments and agencies. .... The International Model Forest Network (IMFN) dates from a commitment made by Canada at the UNCED (United Nations Conference on Environment and ...

  7. The Essonne affairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique (CEA) had to deal with a series of issues concerning depositories of radioactive substances of very low activity, culminating, in October 1990, with the discovery of small amounts of plutonium in a depository. These were important issues for the following reasons: they highlighted the question o low activity wastes and their treatment, that is not yet resolved; they drew attention to the sensitivity of the concerned organisations, elected representatives and the public to the problems of radioactivity however low its level; they made the CEA aware of the gap that existed between the nuclear industry's practices, language and perception of risks and the perception of the French public. This paper outlines the different 'affairs', shows their common bases, and analyses the consequences for the CEA and the nuclear industry in general. These 'affairs' illustrate the absolute obligation for all producers of wastes to know, and to make known in the smallest detail, the way in which the wastes are treated and the places where they are stored and kept. Waste management has not always been as a noble task. These 'affairs' have shown that the reputation of the CEA was measured as much by the quality of its waste management as by the success of its research programme, with a budget that has doubled in the last few years. (author)

  8. Effective policy for sustainable behavior. An international comparison; Effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag. Een internationale vergelijking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunsting, S.; Uyterlinde, M.; Pol, M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Breukers, S.; Mourik, R.; Backhaus, J.; Mathijsen, T. [DuneWorks, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This international comparative case study (the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, United Kingdom) compares policy themes (household energy, food, mobility, household waste) and cases of interventions aims at more sustainable behaviours. It investigates how national policy can contribute to sustainable behaviour in these four themes. The study focuses on policy contexts and concrete 'best practice examples' (both policy -initiated and society-driven initiatives), paying attention to the extent to which social scientific insights have been utilised to conduct and evaluate the interventions. The conceptual approach in this study regards individual behaviour not in isolation but as embedded in institutional, social and physical contexts. In line with this, the evaluation of best practice examples focuses on how the following dimensions have been addressed in order to enable, support and sustain behavioural changes: the policy environment and institutional environment, individual behaviour, social norms a nd the physical environment. In this discussion, the Netherlands is both the starting point and the point of return, enabling us to draw lessons for Dutch policy. We conclude that a more proactive, dynamic and supportive role would fit national policy if it aims at encouraging the spread of more sustainable behaviours in society. Dutch policy could learn from the experiences of other countries and attempt at (among others): showing explicit commitment, connecting initiatives at different levels, and facilitating platforms for exchange of knowledge, experience and expertise, across sectors and departments, in order to arrive at a more integrated approach towards encouraging sustainable behaviours [Dutch] Als achtergrondstudie voor het advies Duurzame gedragspatronen zijn twee onderzoeken uitgevoerd naar effectief beleid voor duurzaam gedrag (1) in Nederland en (2) internationaal. De twee rapporten beschrijven een aantal beleidscases die vanuit gedragskundig

  9. The rise and fall of Australian physical activity policy 1996 – 2006: a national review framed in an international context

    OpenAIRE

    Bellew, Bill; Schöeppe, Stephanie; Bull, Fiona C; Bauman, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Background This paper provides an historical review of physical activity policy development in Australia for a period spanning a decade since the release of the US Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health in 1996 and including the 2004 WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health. Using our definition of 'HARDWIRED' policy criteria, this Australian review is compared with an international perspective of countries with established national physical activity policie...

  10. RETURN ON INVESTMENT OF PUBLIC SPENDING IN TOURISM POLICY AND INTERNATIONAL TOURISM GROWTH: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS BETWEEN COUNTRIES.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Gardenia Ramos Higuera.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the international tourism growth and public funding invested in the tourism policy by United States, Australia and Mexico. The research method is quantitative, based on country level data; an econometric statistical analysis was carried out, using simple linear regressions. This study found that the public investment in the tourism policy is strongly statistically related to (1) international tourist expenditure generated and (2...

  11. Staff and Student Perceptions of English Language Policies and Practices in "International" Universities: A UK Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Jennifer; Wingate, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a small qualitative study which aimed to gain an understanding of how lecturers and international students perceive the English language policies and practices at their institutions. The findings show that most participants perceive current policies and practices as unfair. However, there were discrepancies in lecturers' and…

  12. Investigating the Impact of the Tier 4 Policy on International Students at Private Colleges in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughal, Abdul Waheed

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the United Kingdom government introduced the Tier 4 (general) student visa policy for foreign students, out of European Economic Area and Switzerland, aged 16 or over. According to this policy, any institution recruiting international students must be a highly trusted sponsor--a status determined by the UK Border Agency. Further, right to…

  13. Photovoltaic power: public policies and economic impacts. The French choices in the international context 1973-2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricaud, Alain

    2013-06-01

    This article summarizes 40 years of international public policies in favour of solar cells development and deployment with their economic impacts: strengths and weaknesses of solar energy and its societal impact; French R and D, financial support, competition and national energy policy; the US pioneering role; the Japanese take over; the German example; the European Union federating role; the Chinese leading position

  14. Perspectives of interns and residents toward do-not-resuscitate policies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoudi AS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abdullah S Amoudi,1 Mohammed H Albar,2 Amjed M Bokhari,3 Sultan H Yahya,4 Anas A Merdad1 1Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Surgery, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, 4Department of Radiology, King Saud University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Objective: Do-not-resuscitate (DNR orders in Saudi Arabia were first regulated by a fatwa on a national level in 1988, one that excludes the patient and their families from decision making. Although the core of this policy is taken up by all hospitals in Saudi Arabia, there is no homogeneity in implementation. Here, we appraise what interns and residents know of these policies and their attitudes toward DNR. Methods: Interns and residents in four major hospitals in Jeddah, King Abdulaziz University Hospital, National Guard Hospital, King Fahad General Hospital, and King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, were given a questionnaire in English with four blocks of questions. Results: A total of 140 questionnaires were included in our study. From these questionnaires, we conclude a lack of familiarity with DNR's policies and the fatwa and also a lack of understanding when it comes to treating DNR-labeled patients. The majority opinion was to include the patient in the decision-making process who is excluded according to the fatwa. Participants considered patients' dignity, religious concerns, and legal concerns to be important in considering resuscitation. Conclusion: We conclude a need to emphasize the issue of DNR and treatment of DNR patients in medical ethics classes in Saudi Arabia and put more effort to enact national DNR laws that include the patient in the decision-making process. Keywords: passive euthanasia, Middle East, cross-sectional study

  15. The Colombian Policy of Rewards from the perspective of International Humanitarian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Galvis - Martínez

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The scandal caused by the assassination of a guerrilla leader by one of his subordinates and the payment of a substantial economic reward made to him by the State, led to the first questionings regarding the legality of the reward system in Colombia. This article seeks to establish if the state spon sored reward policy respects the rules of International Humanitarian Law applicable to the Colombian armed conflict. For this purpose the article will analyze both the legislative development and three of the most controversial situations raised in practice which prove the range and effects of the use of rewards as a strategic tactic within the armed conflict.

  16. Gender, international migration and social reproduction: implications for theory, policy, research and networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong T-d

    1996-01-01

    "This paper aims to contribute to the development of an analytical framework that provides the space for the understanding of female migrants as reproductive workers in a cross-national transfer of labor. It will first provide some hypothetical guidelines for the explanation of female migration in the context of reproductive labor. Based on accessible data, a discussion on the case of Japan will be presented to highlight the main issues and problems concerning female migrants as reproductive workers. Finally, implications on policy-making and networking at the international and national level will be analyzed and discussed, taking into account the specific ideological, political and socioeconomic constraints." excerpt

  17. German and international energy and environmental policies in 1992 - a wasted year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuermann, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The settlement of important energy- and environmental-policy issues hoped for in 1992 has not been reached, and 'wait and see' has become the ruling attitude in matters of energy economy. The investments planned for eastern Germany are stagnating, and the German-German integration suffers from political uncertainties in addition to its market risks. The utilities have been left without the necessary reliable long-term data. Disillusionment also prevails in the European integration process and at the international level. (orig.) [de

  18. EURATOM radiation protection policy - in expectation of the European Internal Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriskat, H.

    1991-01-01

    Everything should be avoided in order that varying radiation protection regulations of individual member states may not hamper the realization of the EC Internal Market, whereby the EURATOM Treaty does not really allow variability because of the following: It is the task of the Community to set up and implement uniform safety standards for the public health of the population and the working force. From this can be deduced that member states may not deviate from EURATOM basic norms when putting these standards into practice. Summarizing, it can be said that on the basis of the EURATOM Treaty the implementation of industrial targets and of the aims of public health policy do not compete with each other in principle. When observing the regulations of the European Atomic Community Treaty, no serious obstacles are to be expected for radiation protection when the European Internal Market becomes reality. (orig./HSCH) [de

  19. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  20. Protecting policy space for public health nutrition in an era of international investment agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; McGrady, Benn

    2014-02-01

    Philip Morris has recently brought claims against Australia (2011) and Uruguay (2010) under international investment agreements (IIAs). The claims allege that Philip Morris is entitled to compensation following the introduction of innovative tobacco packaging regulations to reduce smoking and prevent noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Since tobacco control measures are often viewed as a model for public health nutrition measures, the claims raise the question of how investment law governs the latter. This paper begins to answer this question and to explain how governments can proactively protect policy space for public health nutrition in an era of expanding IIAs. The authors first consider the main interventions proposed to reduce diet-related NCDs and their intersection with investment in the food supply chain. They then review the nature of investment regimes and relevant case law and examine ways to maximize policy space for public health nutrition intervention within this legal context. As foreign investment increases across the food-chain and more global recommendations discouraging the consumption of unhealthful products are issued, investment law will increase in importance as part of the legal architecture governing the food supply. The implications of investment law for public health nutrition measures depend on various factors: the measures themselves, the terms of the applicable agreements, the conditions surrounding the foreign investment and the policies governing agricultural support. This analysis suggests that governments should adopt proactive measures--e.g. the clarification of terms and reliance on exceptions--to manage investment and protect their regulatory autonomy with respect to public health nutrition.

  1. Immigration policy and internationally educated nurses in the United States: A brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Leah E; Jones, Cheryl B

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, U.S. policy makers have used immigration policy to influence the supply of nurses by allowing or restricting the entry of internationally educated nurses (IENs) into the U.S. workforce. The methods pursued have shifted over time from temporary visa categories in the 1980s and 1990s to permanent immigrant visas in the 2000s. The impact of policy measures adopted during nursing shortages has often been blunted by political and economic events, but the number and representation of IENs in the U.S. nursing workforce has increased substantially since the 1980s. Even as the United States seeks to increase domestic production of nurses, it remains a desirable destination for IENs and a target market for nurse-producing source countries. Hiring organizations and nurse leaders play a critical role in ensuring that the hiring and integration of IENs into U.S. health care organizations is constructive for nurses, source countries, and the U.S. health care system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Corruption and compliance: preventive legislations and policies in international business projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh PATHAK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an insight on the international phenomenon of corruption, dealing with its existence, and whether compliance is higher with Anti-Corruption laws or with corruption itself, resulting in anti-corruption laws being much less effective than the legislators intended it to be and the reasons for increasing demand worldwide for new governance standards and higher compliance controls and other effective anti-corruption laws and policies in light of rapid increase in corruption every year. This article further deals with the diagnosis and measures to deal with the cause of corruption – the short-comings in anti-corruption law – the reasons why corporations are willing to face continuing legal risks and adverse publicity but still indulge in corrupt practices and the extent of negative impact the prevailing levels of corruption ultimately have on international business and trade. Strict compliance controls are being introduced with increasing enforcement of anti-corruption laws internationally and nations have also started to focus on individual and corporate liability in cases of violation of anti-corruption laws, for both government and private organisations. In this context of far-reaching developments, whether European and South-east Asian Countries like India and International Business Organisations can act in ignorance or buck up and accept this trend, slowly and steadily moving towards a less corrupt nation and International business projects – if not towards a totally corruption free one, keeping in mind the growth of international trade and Commerce and its sustainability.

  3. An International Orientation on Institutional Strategies and Governmental Policies for the Use of ICT in Higher Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wende, Marijk; Beerkens, Eric

    1999-01-01

    This article provides an international comparative overview of institutional strategies, collaboration patterns and governmental policies related to the use of ICT in higher education. It has been produced as part of an international comparative study on the use of ICT in higher education. A study

  4. A clean and green ASEAN. The ASEAN as actor of multilateral environmental policy using the example of the international climate regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobersalske, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses the following issues. Fundamentals, international climate policy, institutional and procedural boundary conditions of ASEAN, compilation of the indicator list, climate policy of ASEAN. The chapter on the climate policy of ASEAN covers the following topics: the question of development of ASEAN, development of a regional environmental policy, the ASEAN as actor in the international climate policy, cooperation in case of trans-border haze pollution, energy cooperation.

  5. Revolution in Detection Affairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern W.

    2013-11-02

    The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.

  6. Public affairs committee actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  7. International environmental agreements: institutional innovation in European transboundary air pollution policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castells, N. [Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The analysis of International Environmental Agreements (IEAs) is addressed in this study by means of a cross-disciplinary approach with the purpose of building an explanatory framework that includes the various dimensions of the process leading to the definition of an IEA. It concentrates on analysing the factors underlying the emergence of international concern, which builds up to eventually overcome the necessary threshold that enables it to be ultimately transformed into an IEA. The critical factors to explain this dynamic process are analysed from the different disciplinary fields of the social sciences, so as to take advantage of the multiplicity of analytical tools that they contribute twofold. At the theoretical level, the study combines pre-existing analytical tools in an innovative way, as a meta-analytical exercise; at the empirical level, it analyses the most recent developments of a well-known case-study: the agreements on long-range transboundary air pollution in Europe. This is done by analysing in-depth the forthcoming legislation in the field, from the UN-ECE/LATAP Convention and the European Community, which are the two most relevant sources of legislation in this field for Europe. It addresses in particular the forthcoming LRTAP Protocol to abate acidification, eutrophication and ground-level ozone and the recent European Commission's proposals for two Directives on National Emission Ceilings and Ozone in Ambient Air. The policy lessons of this study are that IEAs result from complex processes that depend on the interplay of multiple actors which represent different realities and interests. In order to achieve successful IEAs, these actors have found themselves involved in creating new networks for defining international policies that acknowledge uncertainty in scientific knowledge but do not use it for postponing political decisions. 322 refs.

  8. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project n 3080 authorizing the ratification of the statutes of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document first recalls that the creation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is due to a German initiative. It recalls the rather quick negotiations (2007-2009) which led to the creation of the Agency, outlines that its statutes were inspired by those of other organizations coming under the United Nations. It comments the content of the article which defines the agency's missions. Then it discusses some questions which have been shelved: the absence of China and Russia, the risk of non ratification by the United States, the language issue. In a second part, the document reports the discussions during the bill examination by the Commission. An appendix indicates the countries which have signed or ratified the IRENA statutes

  9. Student Affairs Capitalism and Early-Career Student Affairs Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.; Helm, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This study explores student affairs capitalism as the alteration of professional practice towards the financial interests of institutions. Student affairs capitalism has the potential to create dynamics in which the interests of students become secondary to the institution's economic needs. This study examined this phenomenon from the perspectives…

  10. Health policy as a fuzzy concept: methodological problems encountered when evaluating health policy reforms in an international perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroneman, M.W.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    Investigating health policy reforms at a national level is a troublesome task, since it is difficult to establish exactly when a certain policy change took place and it is also difficult to determine the content of the reform. In this paper three main causes are distinguished that contribute to the

  11. Emissions trading in transition economies: the link between international and domestic policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.

    2003-01-01

    International emissions trading has the potential to significantly lower carbon mitigation costs and to promote environmentally friendly investment in transition economies. The design of domestic systems to complement international emissions trading will likely play a major role in emissions trading's effectiveness. This paper examines the benefits and challenges of proposed domestic systems and the related flows of emissions trading revenue in seller nations. The overwhelming majority of emissions available for sale will come from transition economies, which is why this article considers these countries as a group. Governments in countries such as Russia and Poland are interested in the potentially significant revenue they would reap from emissions trading, and some in those governments feel the money would best be used as general revenue for the government. Others argue that emissions trading should involve the private sector and other emitters in order to provide maximum incentives to reduce emissions and generate additional emissions trading revenue (the rules for international emissions trading explicitly allow this). Still others feel that special carbon mitigation funds would allow the government to maintain control yet stimulate additional emission reductions. Each policy contains its own set of challenges: stimulating further emission reductions, credibly monitoring emissions and emission reductions, or applying adequate fiscal accounting to the money flows

  12. Long-term forecasting of international relations as strategic planning of national security policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Podberezkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary transformation and chaos in international relations reduce its predictability, which must be compensated by strengthening the normative content of its analysis that is in fact strategic planning. The deepening of international relations in recent years allows one to make a pessimistic conclusion about the most likely and dangerous scenario for the development of international relations - «the strengthening of military power struggles among the major local human civilizations» and they represent a militarypolitical coalitions and power centers. It should be noted that an effective tool for the implementation of this confrontation is the system of military and civilian instruments used to provide comprehensive multi-factor and multi-dimensional effect on an object. Today, the most striking example of such an integrated infl uence policy is the new public diplomacy. For implementation of such an integrated approach Russia needs to reform the system of national security to include in it not only the traditional enforcement agencies, but also the organizations of business and civil society, as well as to improve coordination between its individual parts. However, the implementation of such a reform is impossible without national ideology that forms the regulatory priorities of national development and national security

  13. Analysis of existing international policy evidence in public health genomics: mapping exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Syurina

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the last decades we have seen a constant growth in the fields of science related to the use of genome-based health information. However, there is a gap between basic science research and the Public Health everyday practice. For a successful introduction of genome-based technologies policy actions on the international level are needed. This work represents the initial stage of the PHGEN II (Public Health Genomics European Network II project. In order to prepare a base for bridging genomics and Public Health, an inventory study of the existing legislative base dealing with controversies of genome-based knowledge was conducted. The work results in the mapping of the most and the least legislatively covered areas and some preliminary conclusions about the existing gaps. Design and Methods. The collection of the evidence-based policies was done through the PHGEN II project. The mapping covered the meta-level (international, European general guidelines. The expert opinion of the partners of the project was required to reflect on and grade the collected evidence. Results. An analysis of the evidence was made by the area of coverage: using the list of important policy areas for successful introduction of genome-based technologies into Public Health and the Public Health Genomics Wheel (originally Public Health Wheel developed by Institute of Medicine. Conclusions. Severe inequalities in coverage of important issues of Public Health Genomics were found. The most attention was paid to clinical utility and clinical validity of the screening and the protection of human subjects. Important areas such as trade agreements, Public Health Genomics literacy, insurance issues, behaviour modification in response to genomics results etc. were paid less attention to. For the successful adoption of new technologies on the Public Health level the focus should be not only on the translation to clinical practice, but the translation from bench to Public

  14. 75 FR 3952 - Delegation by the Under Secretary of State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs to the Coordinator, Bureau of International Information Programs, or... Diplomacy and Public Affairs by law, including by Delegation of Authority No. 234 of October 1, 1999, and... State for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs may at any time exercise the functions and authorities...

  15. Political goals during liquidation of masonic organizations by Joint State Political Directorate – People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs in USSR in the 1920s–1930s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermakov V.A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available this research is dedicated to the political specificity of elimination of «masonic underground organization» by soviet special forces in USSR. The issue of relations between communist movements with political masonry was also considered in the article. It appears that in the beginning of 1920s «freemasons» planned prospects in cooperation with Bolsheviks, while having hidden goal to «cover» Soviet government with masonic ideas. Masons of 1920s were quite satisfied with Bolshevism as a weapon to eradicate Russian national self-awareness and its Orthodox religion. Liquidation process of masonic underground, which started in 1925, was conditioned by inner-party strife between «Stalinists», conducting anti-masonic and anti-Zionist campaigns, and «Trotskyists», who appeared to be a weapon of international masonic politics in Soviet Russia. Authors conclude that liquidation of occult-masonic underground in USSR had several political goals: covering communist party leaders' masonic past, elimination masons as potential western secret service agents, threatening conservative intelligentsia, exposure masonic people from the environment of Soviet officials and cultural elites, extermination masonic alternative of communistic ideology and preparation of «grand terror» against «Lenin's guard».

  16. A study on the long-term nuclear policy direction responding the changes of international and domestic nuclear situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun Jun; Yang, M. H.; Lee, B. O.; Ham, C. H.; Chung, W. S.; Lee, T. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.; Nha, K. H.

    1998-06-01

    The long-term nuclear policy directions are proposed with three aspects of nuclear technology development policy, nuclear regulatory policy, and tasks required for promoting pro-nuclear movement. Several nuclear technology areas, such as technology for the improvement of nuclear economics, safety enhancement technology, radwaste, treatment/disposal technology, fuel cycle technology, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology, fuel recycle technology, and proliferation-resistant nuclear technology, appear very important in the future nuclear technology development policy. Nuclear regulation policy should be established with balancing between public safety and expansion of nuclear industry. Objective of nuclear regulation should be recognized not to collapse a nuclear industry, and the worth of nuclear regulatory regime may be also meaningful if nuclear industry can be well developed. It should be necessary to make a proper atmosphere that can resolve revealed or potential problems and issues against the harmonious implementation of nuclear policy. For the purpose, nuclear policy should contain certain policies to promote a nuclear development, such as social policy, international cooperation strategy, and national resource allocation policy. (author). 20 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  17. International stem cell collaboration: how disparate policies between the United States and the United Kingdom impact research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jingyuan; Flynn, Jesse M; Solnick, Rachel E; Ecklund, Elaine Howard; Matthews, Kirstin R W

    2011-03-08

    As the scientific community globalizes, it is increasingly important to understand the effects of international collaboration on the quality and quantity of research produced. While it is generally assumed that international collaboration enhances the quality of research, this phenomenon is not well examined. Stem cell research is unique in that it is both politically charged and a research area that often generates international collaborations, making it an ideal case through which to examine international collaborations. Furthermore, with promising medical applications, the research area is dynamic and responsive to a globalizing science environment. Thus, studying international collaborations in stem cell research elucidates the role of existing international networks in promoting quality research, as well as the effects that disparate national policies might have on research. This study examined the impact of collaboration on publication significance in the United States and the United Kingdom, world leaders in stem cell research with disparate policies. We reviewed publications by US and UK authors from 2008, along with their citation rates and the political factors that may have contributed to the number of international collaborations. The data demonstrated that international collaborations significantly increased an article's impact for UK and US investigators. While this applied to UK authors whether they were corresponding or secondary, this effect was most significant for US authors who were corresponding authors. While the UK exhibited a higher proportion of international publications than the US, this difference was consistent with overall trends in international scientific collaboration. The findings suggested that national stem cell policy differences and regulatory mechanisms driving international stem cell research in the US and UK did not affect the frequency of international collaborations, or even the countries with which the US and UK most

  18. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  19. [Labeling of food containing genetically modified organisms: international policies and Brazilian legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Thadeu Estevam Moreira Maramaldo; Marin, Victor Augustus

    2011-08-01

    The increase in surface area planted with genetically modified crops, with the subsequent transfer of such crops into the general environment for commercial trade, has raised questions about the safety of these products. The introduction of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety has led to the need to produce information and ensure training in this area for the implementation of policies on biosafety and for decision-making on the part of governments at the national, regional and international level. This article presents two main standpoints regarding the labeling of GM products (one adopted by the United States and the other by the European Union), as well as the position adopted by Brazil and its current legislation on labeling and commercial release of genetically modified (GM) products.

  20. International labour migration in the Asian-Pacific region: patterns, policies and economic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athukorala, P

    1993-11-01

    "This paper reviews the literature on international labour migration from and within the Asian-Pacific region. It deals with patterns and characteristics of migration flows, government policies towards labour migration, and economic implications of labour migration for both labour-exporting and importing countries in the region. The indications are that, despite gradual slowing down of labour flows to the western industrial countries and the Middle East, labour migration will continue to be a major economic influence on surplus-labour countries in the region. As an integral part of the growth dynamism in the region, labour migration has now begun to take on a regional dimension, with immense implications for the process of industrial restructuring in high growth economies and the changing pattern of economic interdependence among countries." excerpt