WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy initiatives needed

  1. Sustainable energy policy - implementation needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson, M. [Global Energy and Environmental Consultants, Felmersham (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Implementation of sustainable energy must address current needs arising from poverty, inequity, unreliability of supplies, social and economic development requirements, and increasing efficiency as well as widening the fuel mix, accelerating the deployment of appropriate new renewable energy schemes, and giving the necessary consideration to protection of the biosphere and the needs of future generations. To achieve these multiple goals markets need to work better, additional investments need to be mobilised in sustainable energy, technological innovation needs to be encouraged, technological diffusion and capacity building in developing countries needs to be supported, and both sounder domestic policies and greater international co-operation are required. (author)

  2. Nuclear energy, needs and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousefpour, B.; Rahimi, A.R.

    2002-01-01

    As an oil-and gas-rich state, Iran is among the main energy exporting countries of the world. No doubt, economic development in a country causes increase in its energy demand. Having a glance at the statistics of energy consumption in Iran during the past three decades reveals that energy consumption has been quadrupled. Due to dependability of the country's energy-supply system on fossil industries and thanks to the increasing demand, social and economic development will face great problems. For this reason, the problem has prompted Iranian officials to diversify the country's energy-supply system, as it has been give top priority in the policies of the first and second plans. The discovered and undiscovered fields of applied nuclear sciences and technologies indicate the importance of transferring and developing nuclear technologies for different countries' economic systems. Like many other countries, Iran is also in dire need of transferring nuclear technology and applying the related sciences in various fields, paving the way for economic, agricultural, medical development and having a more active presence in the international markets through quality and standard products. Iran has all the time called for a Middle East region free of nuclear weapons and expressed its concern over production and development of atomic weapons by certain regional countries and called it a serious threat to its national and regional security

  3. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  4. Why Social Policy Needs Objective Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThere are many qualms about subjective indicators, and some believe that social policy would be better for not using them. This paper consists of a review of these objections. It is argued that policy makers need subjective indicators. The main reasons being: 1. Social policy is never

  5. Understanding health policy leaders' training needs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carey Roth Bayer

    Full Text Available We assessed the training needs of health policy leaders and practitioners across career stages; identified areas of core content for health policy training programs; and, identified training modalities for health policy leaders.We convened a focus group of health policy leaders at varying career stages to inform the development of the Health Policy Leaders' Training Needs Assessment tool. We piloted and distributed the tool electronically. We used descriptive statistics and thematic coding for analysis.Seventy participants varying in age and stage of career completed the tool. "Cost implications of health policies" ranked highest for personal knowledge development and "intersection of policy and politics" ranked highest for health policy leaders in general. "Effective communication skills" ranked as the highest skill element and "integrity" as the highest attribute element. Format for training varied based on age and career stage.This study highlighted the training needs of health policy leaders personally as well as their perceptions of the needs for training health policy leaders in general. The findings are applicable for current health policy leadership training programs as well as those in development.

  6. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based ... This project responds to the needs of TTI-funded institutions by launching the Policy ... highly engaged support and continual learning, the program will enable TTI ...

  7. Smart Grid: Smart Customer Policy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    In September 2010, the International Energy Agency (IEA) held a workshop on the regulatory, market and consumer policies necessary to ensure that smart grids are deployed with adequate consideration of their risks and benefits to all stakeholders. This was one of several workshops that brought together energy providers, network operators, technology developers, regulators, customers and government policy makers to discuss smart grid technology and policy. The Smart Grid - Smart Customer Policies workshop allowed stakeholders to: gain a perspective on key issues and barriers facing early deployment of smart grids; hear expert opinion on regulatory, consumer and market challenges to smart grids; discuss smart grid-smart customer policy priorities; and build consensus on the technology and policy ingredients needed for customer-friendly smart grid deployments. Drawing on workshop discussions, the following paper lays out a logical framework to maximise the benefits and minimise the risks that smart grids pose for customers. The paper also describes key policy research questions that will guide future IEA research on this topic.

  8. Policy Needs for Carbon Capture & Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peridas, G.

    2007-12-01

    Climate change is one of the most pressing environmental problems of our time. The widespread consensus that exists on climate science requires deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions, on the order of 50-80% globally from current levels. Reducing energy demand, increasing energy efficiency and sourcing our energy from renewable sources will, and should, play a key role in achieving these cuts. Fossil fuels however are abundant, relatively inexpensive, and still make up the backbone of our energy system. Phasing out fossil fuel use will be a gradual process, and is likely to take far longer than the timeframe dictated by climate science for reducing emissions. A reliable way of decarbonizing the use of fossil fuels is needed. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has already proven to be a technology that can safely and effectively accomplish this task. The technological know-how and the underground capacity exist to store billions of tons of carbon dioxide in mature oil and gas fields, and deep saline formations. Three large international commercial projects and several other applications have proved this, but substantial barriers remain to be overcome before CCS becomes the technology of choice in all major emitting sectors. Government has a significant role to play in surmounting these barriers. Without mandatory limits on greenhouse gas emissions and a price on carbon, CCS is likely to linger in the background. The expected initial carbon price levels and their potential volatility under such a scheme dictates that further policies be used in the early years in order for CCS to be implemented. Such policies could include a new source performance standard for power plants, and a low carbon generation obligation that would relieve first movers by spreading the additional cost of the technology over entire sectors. A tax credit for capturing and permanently sequestering anthropogenic CO2 would aid project economics. Assistance in the form of loan guarantees for components

  9. An Assessment of Current Policy Initiatives in Zambia's Cotton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Ballard; Tschirley, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses three of these policy initiatives: input credit provision for smallholder producers of selected cash crops including cotton, the proposed creation of a Cotton Board, and the emergence in 2003 of District Council levies as a point of conflict between local governments and cotton companies. The purpose of the paper is to provide guidance to public and private decision makers regarding key modifications which may need to be made to these policies to ensure continued healthy d...

  10. Political initiative needed in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollister, K.

    1979-01-01

    The financing of nuclear power stations in the United States is in trouble mainly because of the long lead times caused by licensing. It will again become feasible when legislation reduces the construction time to eight years or less. The overriding need to protect the dollar by reducing oil imports, will lead the US Government to embrace nuclear power openly. (U.K.)

  11. General employee training: Initial needs assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.; Copenhaver, E.D.

    1987-01-01

    US Department of Energy Orders, including those for Emergency Preparedness, require that DOE facility employees receive a preparatory course on certain basic work practices and employee responsibilities before receiving any job-specific training. Most of this general information is required for employees to either prevent or to handle emergency situations that may arise in the workplace. While the categories are general, the information should be given at both Laboratory and individual-site levels, if possible. A simple checklist developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory proved beneficial when assessing its general employee orientation compliance status. The checklist includes subject areas covered, organizational identities and responsibilities, and documentation needs

  12. Do we need an energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, Geoffrey.

    1992-01-01

    The debate on the two alternatives of planning or the free operation of market forces as a means of securing the nation's energy supply is of obvious political interest in this pre-election period in the United Kingdom. In UK Energy Policy Post Privatisation, the study reported here, the authors argue for an energy policy that is environment driven. (author)

  13. Need for Oral Health Policy in India

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    implementation of National Oral Health Policy in India in order to expand the oral health care to ... Professional dental organizations can also support government programs to .... who can play effective role in providing oral health care services.

  14. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  15. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  16. Why do we need new energy policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studenec, O.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper the author deals with the old and new energy policy of the Slovak Republic. In September 1997 the former government adopted and update of the energy policy for the Slovak Republic until the year 2005. Its main aims were set correctly but the requirements for a new price policy were not implemented at all. The last policy considerably overestimated the increase in the consumption of electricity, in its prognoses of development. This supposed development encouraged the building of new, large energy sources. The installed output in the Slovak Republic at present exceeds 8 GW, while the maximum load is about 4 GW. On the contrary, the consumption of oil products was underestimated. The new energy policy should reevaluate the prognosis of development of energy consumption in Slovakia. At the same time it is high time to adopt measures which would approximate to the principles valid in the European Union. The opening up of the electricity and gas markets and gradual introduction of competition is depend on making the prices for all groups of consumers more realistic. Adopting a timetable for the electricity and gas price modification is a key instrument for the start of approximation of this important part of acquis communautaire. The most important mission of the new energy policy is to create conditions for ensuring reliable supplies of energy for the economy of the Slovak Republic. (author)

  17. Does Europe Need a Comprehensive Energy Policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egenhofer, C.; Behrens, A.; Tol, R.S.; Bethelemy, M.; Leveque, F.; Jansen, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear meltdown in Fukushima has given renewed momentum to the anti-nuclear power movement across Europe. However, the degree of momentum varies greatly from country to country, and considering the geographically widespread consequences of a nuclear accident, it hardly appears optimal for one country to ban nuclear power while multiple nuclear power plants are still active in neighbouring countries. Even beyond the nuclear power dilemma, the economic and political externalities associated with energy policy are difficult to overstate. The contributions to this Forum look into the benefits expected from a comprehensive common energy policy for Europe and the problems which establishing such a policy would involve. The titles of the contributions are 'The Future of EU Energy Policy after Fukushima' by Egenhofer and Behrens; 'The Impact of EU Environmental Policy on the Energy Sector' by Tol; 'Harmonising Nuclear Safety Regulation in the EU: Which Priority?' by Bethelemy and Leveque; and 'In the Wake of Fukushima, Should our Electricity become Almost Completely Renewable and Completely Non-Nuclear?' by Jansen.

  18. Do nations still need national energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesinger, James [Lehman Brothers, Washington, DC (United States); Odell, P [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands). Dept. of International Energy Studies; Jones, D

    1993-02-01

    Once again the issue has arisen whether a national energy policy is necessary or even desirable. No doubt renewed debate has been stimulated by recent developments - the collapse of the Soviet threat, an altered perception of the power of OPEC, or a jaundiced view regarding the effectiveness of governments in this arena. Yet, beneath the surface lie longer-standing issues regarding interests and ideology. This article attempts to deal with the issue, first, as a generic level, then in terms of the transformed energy market, and, finally, in relation to the content of energy policy. (author)

  19. The Affordances and Constraints of Special Education Initial Teacher Licensure Policy for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Linda P.; Boveda, Mildred; Munoz, Lorena R.; Pugach, Marleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Initial licensure polices in special education were examined to determine how these policies support or hinder reform efforts to develop teacher education programs that prepare graduates for the increasingly complex needs of diverse students. Initial special education licensure policies are described with an emphasis on the differences across…

  20. Taking Leadership in Initiating a Comprehensive US International Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kaetlyn

    2008-01-01

    A first step to ensuring that emerging school leaders possess the dispositions and skills necessary to be successful in a global community is for educational leaders to take initiative in moving toward a comprehensive Us International Education Policy. This article introduces possible steps to initiate such a policy.

  1. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  2. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia, CAIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Gartner estimates, due to increased variety, speed and data volume, by 2015 there will be a global demand of 4.4 million professionals for real-time analysis of data from sources with different structures, but only one third of the demand will be met. The purpose of this research is to identify possible solutions for improved academic results in the IT domain, considering the time management policies, the content and the student motivations, as well as the business strategy tendencies. These proposals are targeted toward meeting the IT specialists demand. The research is composed of two parts: the first explores the Romanian IT labour market characteristics, while the second investigates the academic education policies that can help mitigate deficiencies and attain higher performance. The deficiencies are identified through a series of statistical research and analysis based on national level databases, adopting a quantitative approach. The policies proposed are supported by a flow model developed considering the students' activity, motivation, traits and results, measured and analysed quantitatively.

  3. Government policies, inequality and basic needs in Ecuador.

    OpenAIRE

    Vos R

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper on development policy, basic needs and poverty in Ecuador - discusses economic policy, and access to public expenditure; argues that income redistribution does not necessarily result from rural area infrastructure, health service, housing and educational expenditure. References, statistical tables.

  4. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions and Limitations: The Need ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research ... This 'divorce' of monetary and debt management functions calls for the need for effective coordination of monetary and fiscal policy if overall economic ... Therefore an appropriate combination of monetary and fiscal policy mix is crucial for macroeconomic management.

  5. Well-defined power policy needed to augment power capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines the importance of energy policy and energy development in both energy production and energy needs. A summary of key points related to energy accounting, energy consumption, energy resources, public utilities and government plans are elaborated

  6. Communicating the Needs of Climate Change Policy Makers to Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; Escobar, Vanessa M.; Lovell, Heather

    2012-01-01

    This chapter will describe the challenges that earth scientists face in developing science data products relevant to decision maker and policy needs, and will describe strategies that can improve the two-way communication between the scientist and the policy maker. Climate change policy and decision making happens at a variety of scales - from local government implementing solar homes policies to international negotiations through the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Scientists can work to provide data at these different scales, but if they are not aware of the needs of decision makers or understand what challenges the policy maker is facing, they are likely to be less successful in influencing policy makers as they wished. This is because the science questions they are addressing may be compelling, but not relevant to the challenges that are at the forefront of policy concerns. In this chapter we examine case studies of science-policy partnerships, and the strategies each partnership uses to engage the scientist at a variety of scales. We examine three case studies: the global Carbon Monitoring System pilot project developed by NASA, a forest biomass mapping effort for Silvacarbon project, and a forest canopy cover project being conducted for forest management in Maryland. In each of these case studies, relationships between scientists and policy makers were critical for ensuring the focus of the science as well as the success of the decision-making.

  7. A Justified Initial Accounting Estimate as an Integral Part of the Enterprise Accounting Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marenych Tetyana H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is justification of the need to specify in the order on accounting policies not only the elements of the accounting policy itself but also the initial accounting estimates, which will increase the reliability of financial reporting and the development of proposals on improvement of the given administrative documents of the enterprise. It is noted that in recent years the importance of a high-quality accounting policy has increased significantly not onl...

  8. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbers, R.; Fluit, C.R.M.G.; Bolhuis, S.; Sluiter, R.; Stuyt, P.M.J.; Laan, R.F.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards

  9. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  10. The Education of Children with Special Needs in Ghana: Policies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that some policies have been put in place in the country regarding the education of special needs children. The main facilities that exist for children with special needs are in the areas of visual impairment, hearing impairment and mental retardation. No special facilities or services exist for the gifted, the ...

  11. United States policy initiatives in promoting the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.

    1996-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been successful in furthering efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate highly enriched uranium (HEU) from international commerce. Three key policy initiatives are underway to further promote the RERTR program. The first initiative is implementation of a new nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Under this policy, the United States will accept over the next 13 years research reactor spent fuel from 41 countries that have converted or plan to convert to use LEU fuels. The second initiative is to pursue cooperative efforts to expand the RERTR program to new regions of the globe, including Russia and China. The third initiative is to restart the advanced LEU fuels development program at the Argonne National Laboratory in order to increase the number of reactors that can convert to use LEU without significant detriment to their performance

  12. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that stakeholder's cohesion and coordination of efforts is needed for increased production and commercialization. Also governmental intervention is needed in the areas of policy initiatives and acts that will go beyond the ad-hoc response which are usually triggered by natural disaster such as pest and ...

  13. National Livestock Policy of Nepal: Needs and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra B. Pradhanang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Nepal’s national livestock policies and considers how they can be improved to help meet the pressing national challenges of economic development, equity, poverty alleviation, gender mainstreaming, inclusion of marginalized and underprivileged communities, and climate vulnerability. Nepal is in the process of transforming its government from a unitary system to a federal democratic structure through the new constitution expected by 2015, offering the opportunity to bring a new set of priorities and stakeholders to policymaking. Nepal’s livestock subsector comes most directly within the purview of the National Agricultural Policy 2004, Agro-Business Policy, 2006 and Agricultural Sectoral Operating Policies of the Approach Paper to 13th Plan, 2012/13–2015/16 policy instruments. We systematically review these and other livestock-related national policies through analysis of their Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT. We conclude with the need to formulate a separate, integrated national livestock policy so that Nepal can sustainably increase livestock productivity and achieve diversification, commercialization and competitiveness of the livestock subsector within the changing national and international contexts.

  14. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from District Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the California State Board of Education voted to require all students to enroll in algebra by 8th grade. This policy initiative, yet to be actually implemented, represents the culmination of a decades-long movement toward offering algebra instruction before the traditional high school years. Nationally, the proportion of 8th grade…

  15. Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the promotion of HPs (heat pumps) while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding EVs (electric vehicles). It is found...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality...... that the conversion to HPs in the Nordic region relies on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...

  16. Policy silences: why Canada needs a National First Nations, Inuit and Métis health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Josée G

    2013-12-27

    Despite attempts, policy silences continue to create barriers to addressing the healthcare needs of First Nations, Inuit and Métis. The purpose of this article is to answer the question, if what we have in Canada is an Aboriginal health policy patchwork that fails to address inequities, then what would a Healthy Aboriginal Health Policy framework look like? The data collected included federal, provincial and territorial health policies and legislation that contain Aboriginal, First Nation, Inuit and/or Métis-specific provisions available on the internet. Key websites included the Parliamentary Library, federal, provincial and territorial health and Aboriginal websites, as well as the Department of Justice Canada, Statistics Canada and the Aboriginal Canada Portal. The Indian Act gives the Governor in Council the authority to make health regulations. The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) of Health Canada historically provided health services to First Nations and Inuit, as a matter of policy. FNIHB's policies are few, and apply only to Status Indians and Inuit. Health legislation in 2 territories and 4 provinces contain no provision to clarify their responsibilities. In provinces where provisions exist, they broadly focus on jurisdiction. Few Aboriginal-specific policies and policy frameworks exist. Generally, these apply to some Aboriginal peoples and exclude others. Although some Aboriginal-specific provisions exist in some legislation, and some policies are in place, significant gaps and jurisdictional ambiguities remain. This policy patchwork perpetuates confusion. A national First Nation, Inuit and Métis policy framework is needed to address this issue.

  17. What kind of innovation policy does the bioeconomy need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütte, Georg

    2018-01-25

    In recent years, the bioeconomy has established itself worldwide as a mainstay for achieving a sustainable economy. The targeted use of biological resources for industrial purposes can help to successfully reconcile ecology and economy in the long term. Like digitalization, biologization as the guiding principle of the bioeconomy has the potential to effect a fundamental change in industry. This change must be driven and supported by a committed research and innovation policy. The German Federal Government was one of the first governments worldwide to put the bioeconomy on its research policy agenda when it adopted the "National Research Strategy BioEconomy 2030" in 2010. The respective national policy strategy was published two years later. Since then we have been successfully implementing measures to establish the bioeconomy. Our research programme is currently being developed further. Our aim is to strengthen the biobased transformation process towards a sustainable economy and to attach special importance to innovative technologies. Furthermore, bioeconomy research policy will have to be aimed more strongly towards achieving international goals such as the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and to showing what contribution the bioeconomy can make in this context. The success of the bioeconomy requires a societal discourse on how our society can reconcile economic growth and sustainability in future. This requires the adaptation and continued development of national agendas and initiatives as well as efficient international cooperation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Food consumption data needs for food and agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, L H

    1994-09-01

    Food and agricultural policy strives to provide stable, safe, nutritional, and affordable food supplies with policies on farm income, low-income food security, food safety (including nutritional risk), and nutrition education. For each policy area, comparisons are made between food consumption data needs and information currently collected with four human nutrition monitoring system components administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Identified data gaps become the basis for recommendations for future data needs. Food consumption data are essential to management of programs. However, many food safety and nutritional well-being issues require specific food product consumption data for high risk groups. Sampling procedures are often too aggregate to meet these needs. Food consumed away-from-home is not well measured, yet this market segment now accounts for about half of all consumer food expenditures. Surveys should be designed to provide complementary and additive data. A premium should be placed on standardizing household description variables to enable "splicing" together data from different surveys. Survey continuity across time is essential. Data collection should be planned with funding limitations and respondent burden in mind so that a balance is achieved between survey objectives and the practical constraints of obtaining accurate data.

  19. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  20. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  1. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  2. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  3. Community Policy Initiatives. In search of European Union added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Rodriguez A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's proposal, approved in early 2003, contains general requirements more of a political and juridical nature rather than a technical one, and is generally based on the IAEA's Safety Fundamentals and on the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel and on the safety of radioactive waste, already ratified by nearly all Member States of the European Union. In general terms, it can be said that the proposal aims at creating a common legal framework enabling the harmonization of policies and practices at Community level and, in particular, to motivate the decision-making processes in Member States with the objective to make real progress to implement permanent solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste. Generally speaking, it can be said that implementing permanent solutions for radioactive waste depends, not only on the availability of technical solutions and economical resources, but also to a great extent on socio-political factors, which requires the development of complex decision-making processes involving concerned stakeholders. These processes are country specific and very difficult to be extrapolated from one country to another, because they largely depend on historical and cultural aspects as well as on the countries' legal and administrative systems. Nevertheless, there exist common elements, which are critical for the development of these processes. On the one hand, there is the need for political willingness to initiate its development and, on the other hand, there are the rules of the game necessary to guide the process. These two elements should conform the objective and driving force of the Directive for the development of national programmes. This is the context in which the Directive can contribute with a positive effect in national programmes and provide real added value on existing international framework. The proposed Directive should provide beneficial effects in national programmes if it keeps to the intentions and

  4. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Remediation technology needs and applied R ampersand D initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.C.T.; Levine, R.S.; Webster, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently consolidated its environmental restoration and waste management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to support Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and, Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities with the following objectives: rapidly advance beyond currently available technologies; provide solutions to key technical issues that will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and safety; and enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year compliance and cleanup goals. Four general categories have been identified where R ampersand D (and DT ampersand E) efforts need to be focused. These include: waste minimization technologies, site characterization and assessment methods, waste treatment technologies, and remediation technologies with emphasis on in-situ methods. The DOE has already supported a number of R ampersand D activities in these areas and plans to continue that support in the future. For technology development, the DOE is committed to forming cooperative partnerships and eliciting broad participation from qualified organizations who can contribute to RDDT ampersand E activities. The new technologies resulting from these R ampersand D initiatives will enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year cleanup goal, reduce environmental risk, and provide significant cost savings over existing technologies. Even modest investments in these emerging technologies now can be expected to generate a high rate of return. 3 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Remediation technology needs and applied R ampersand D initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lien, S.C.T.; Levine, R.S.; Devgun, J.S.; Beskid, N.J.; Erickson, M.D.; Webster, S.L.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently consolidated its environmental restoration and waste management activities. Within that new organization, DOE has committed to support Research, Development, Demonstration, Testing and Evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities with the following objectives: rapidly advance beyond currently available restoration and waste management technologies; provide solutions to key technical issues that will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and safety; and enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year compliance and cleanup goals. Four general categories have been identified where R ampersand D (and DT ampersand E) efforts need to be focused: waste minimization technologies, site characterization and assessment methods, waste treatment technologies, and remediation technologies with emphasis on in-situ methods. The DOE has already supported a number of R ampersand D activities in these areas and plans to continue that support in the future. For technology development, the DOE is committed to forming cooperative partnerships and eliciting broad participation from qualified organizations who can contribute to RDDT ampersand E activities. The new technologies resulting from these R ampersand D initiatives will enhance DOE's ability to meet its 30-year cleanup goal reduce risk, and provide significant cost savings over existing technologies. Even modest investments in these emerging technologies now can be expected to generate a high rate of return

  7. Need for re-skilltraining towards make in India initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Singh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With rapid change in global environment and technology, Indian corporate and industry is facing a big hurdle to fill existing jobs due to shortage of skilled manpower. To fill this gap the government has taken ‘Make in India’ initiative for skilling and re skilling manpower. Most of the Indian IT companies have shifted their focus from hiring to training and re skilling their employees at every level to match the needs of their client and make the organization cost effective. Training brings about attitudinal changes, improves skill, and there by improves job performance. The study attempts to understand attitude of employees towards imparting Re Skilling Training program, whether employees feels that re-skilling training is necessary or they are burdened by it. The basic focus of this paper is to identify the factor that influence employees attitude towards re-skilling. A survey is conducted to attain the objectives of the research. Respondents are the employees working in IT sector. Finding of the study includes that employees agree that re-killing is important for job growth and it also helps them in learning new technology and skills .They are of the opinion that re skilling provides them with better growth opportunities and enhances overall performance of the organization.

  8. Coral seas in fifty years: Need for local policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, P.; Cheng, N. S.; Fontaine, R. M.; Horton, K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-12-01

    Arising stressors from both global and local sources threaten coral reefs, with studies indicating that local and global sources might reduce coral resilience. Local sources include sediment stress and nutrient stress from fishing; global sources include increasing sea surface temperature and ocean acidification. Through an in-depth review and re-analysis of published work, conducted under the scope of a course in the spring of 2017 semester and follow up research over the summer of 2017 and fall of 2017, students in Environmental Studies Course, ENVS 4100: Coral reefs, at the University of Colorado Boulder have developed a framework to initiate a discussion of global and local policies focused on protection of coral reefs. The research aims to assess current threats and suggest mitigation efforts. The paper uses secondary research to analyze impact of ocean acidification on aragonite saturation levels, current thermal stress, nutrient stress, and sediment factors that influence the health of coral and its surrounding ecosystem over the Common Era. Case studies in this paper include the Caribbean and Red Sea coral reefs, due to the variation of the atmosphere, temperature, and human activity in these regions. This paper intends to offer sufficient evidence that will lead to appropriate policy decisions that pertain to reef conservation.

  9. The UCAR Africa Initiative: Enabling African Solutions to African Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, R.; Bruintjes, R.; Foote, B.; Heck, S.; Hermann, S.; Hoswell, L.; Konate, M.; Kucera, P.; Laing, A.; Lamptey, B.; Moncrieff, M.; Ramamurthy, M.; Roberts, R.; Spangler, T.; Traoré, A.; Yoksas, T.; Warner, T.

    2007-12-01

    The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) Africa Initiative (AI) is a coordinated effort aimed at building sustainable partnerships between UCAR and African institutions in order to pursue research and applications for the benefit of the African people. The initiative is based on four fundamental operating principles, concisely summarized by the overall philosophy of enabling African solutions to African needs. The four principles are: • Collaborate with African institutions • Focus on institutional capacity building and research support • Explore science research themes critical to Africa and important for the world • Leverage the research infrastructure in UCAR to add value These principles are realized in a set of pilot activities, chosen for their high probability of short-term results and ability to set the stage for longer-term collaboration. The three pilot activities are listed below. 1. A modest radar network and data-distribution system in Mali and Burkina Faso, including a data-sharing MOU between the Mail and Burkina Faso Weather Services. 2. A partnership among UCAR, the Ghana Meteorological Agency, and the Ghana university community to develop an operational Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model for West Africa. The output is used by researchers and operational forecasters in Africa. Model output is also part of a demonstration project that aims to allow humanitarian agencies to share geo-referenced information in Africa via a web portal. 3. A workshop in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso from April 2-6, 2007, with the theme Improving Lives by Understanding Weather. The workshop, co-organized with Programme SAAGA and the Commité Permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte Contre la Sécheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS), included over 80 participants from 18 countries, and produced a set of recommendations for continued collaboration. Our presentation will provide an update of these pilot activities and point to future directions. Recognizing

  10. Relations between policy for medical teaching and basic need satisfaction in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M

    2015-10-01

    Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed.

  11. Climate-agriculture interactions and needs for policy making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J. G.

    2010-12-01

    Research exploring climate change interactions with agriculture has evolved from simplistic “delta T” simulation experiments with crop models to work highlighting the importance of climate variability and extreme events, which characterized the negative impacts possible if no adaptation occurred. There soon followed consideration of socioeconomic factors allowing for adaptive strategies that are likely to mitigate the worst case outcomes originally projected. At the same time, improved understanding of biophysical feedbacks has led to a greater recognition of the role that agriculture plays in modifying climate, with a great deal of attention recently paid to strategies to enhance carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. Advances in models of biogeochemical cycling applied to agronomic systems have allowed for new insights into greenhouse gas emissions and sinks associated with current, conventional farming systems. Yet this work is still relatively simplistic in that it seldom addresses interactions between climate dynamics, adoption of mitigation strategies, and feedbacks to the climate system and the surrounding environment. In order for agricultural policy to be developed that provides incentives for appropriate adaptation and mitigation strategies over the next 50 years, a systems approach needs to be utilized that addresses feedbacks and interactions at field, farm and regional scales in a broader environmental context. Interactions between carbon and climate constraints on the one hand, and environmental impacts related to water, nutrient runoff, and pest control all imply a transformation of farming practices that is as of yet not well defined. Little attention has been paid to studying the implications of “alternative” farming strategies such as organic systems, intensive rotational grazing of livestock, or increases in the perennial component of farmscapes, all of which may be necessary responses to energy and other environmental constraints

  12. Area-based initiatives - Engines of planning and policy innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Norvig Larsen, Jacob

    studies of local planning culture change are discussed. Main findings are that during the past two decades a general change in planning culture has developed gradually, triggered by urban regeneration full scale experimentation with place-based approaches. Second, planners as well as public administrators...... and development in planning culture turns out to be a more substantial result than the reduction of social exclusion and economic deprivation. The paper analyses all available official evaluation studies of Danish place-based urban policy initiatives from mid-1990s through 2010. In addition to this, recent...... attitude towards the involvement of local citizens and stakeholders is significantly transformed. While earlier, public participation in planning was mostly restricted to what was lawfully mandatory, the new turn in planning culture demonstrates a practice that goes much further in involving citizens...

  13. Public opinion on food-related obesity prevention policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.

  14. The medical community's need for a BRC policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The quality of medical care in the United States is among the best in the world. The use of radioactive materials in medicine has led to advances in biomedical research, medical diagnostic procedures, and therapeutic procedures. Radioactive materials in medicine offer modalities that would not otherwise be available. With advances in nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography, and monoclonal antibodies, it is clear that the use of radioactive materials in medicine will be prevalent for quite some time into the future. Disposal of both by-product and naturally occurring and accelerator-produced radioactive material below-regulatory-concern (BRC) waste has been occurring for years. It is a safe and effective method for disposing of this medical radioactive waste. Without an effective, nationwide BRC policy, the medical community may be forced to send this waste to a LLW landfill, which is unnecessary and extremely costly. These additional costs for waste disposal will divert needed money for medical research programs and increase the cost of medical care while providing no increased protection of the public

  15. A Justified Initial Accounting Estimate as an Integral Part of the Enterprise Accounting Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenych Tetyana H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is justification of the need to specify in the order on accounting policies not only the elements of the accounting policy itself but also the initial accounting estimates, which will increase the reliability of financial reporting and the development of proposals on improvement of the given administrative documents of the enterprise. It is noted that in recent years the importance of a high-quality accounting policy has increased significantly not only for users of financial reports but also for achieving the purposes of determining the object of levying the profits tax. There revealed significant differences at reflecting in accounting the consequences of changes in the accounting policy and accounting estimate. There has been generalized the information in the order on the enterprise accounting policy with respect to accounting estimates. It is proposed to provide a separate section in the order, where there should be presented information about the list of accounting estimates taken, about how the company will make changes in the accounting policy, accounting estimate as well as correct errors

  16. Initial validation of a healthcare needs scale for young people with congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chi-Wen; Ho, Ciao-Lin; Su, Wen-Jen; Wang, Jou-Kou; Chung, Hung-Tao; Lee, Pi-Chang; Lu, Chun-Wei; Hwang, Be-Tau

    2018-01-01

    To validate the initial psychometric properties of a Healthcare Needs Scale for Youth with Congenital Heart Disease. As the number of patients with congenital heart disease surviving to adulthood increases, the transitional healthcare needs for adolescents and young adults with congenital heart disease require investigation. However, few tools comprehensively identify the healthcare needs of youth with congenital heart disease. A cross-sectional study was employed to examine the psychometric properties of the Healthcare Needs Scale for Youth with Congenital Heart Disease. The sample consisted of 500 patients with congenital heart disease, aged 15-24 years, from paediatric cardiology departments and covered the period from March-August 2015. The patients completed the 25-item Healthcare Needs Scale for Youth with Congenital Heart Disease, the questionnaire on health needs for adolescents and the WHO Quality of Life-BREF. Reliability and construct, concurrent, predictive and known-group validity were examined. The Healthcare Needs Scale for Youth with Congenital Heart Disease includes three dimensions, namely health management, health policy and individual and interpersonal relationships, which consist of 25 items. It demonstrated excellent internal consistency and sound construct, concurrent, predictive and known-group validity. The Healthcare Needs Scale for Youth with Congenital Heart Disease is a psychometrically robust measure of the healthcare needs of youth with congenital heart disease. It has the potential to provide nurses with a means to assess and identify the concerns of youth with congenital heart disease and to help them achieve a successful transition to adult care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Uganda cabinet approves policy initiated by IDRC grantee | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), an IDRC grantee under the ... on May 4, 2016, with cabinet approval of their National Fertilizer Policy. ... that 20% of the country's population has some form of physical disability.

  18. A road map for leptospirosis research and health policies based on country needs in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Martha Maria; Schneider, Maria Cristina; Munoz-Zanzi, Claudia; Costa, Federico; Benschop, Jackie; Hartskeerl, Rudy; Martinez, Julio; Jancloes, Michel; Bertherat, Eric

    2018-02-19

    This report summarizes the presentations, discussions and the recommendations coming from the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/FIOCRUZ International Workshop for Leptospirosis Research Based on Country Needs and the 5th Global Leptospirosis Environmental Action Network meeting, which was held in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 10-12 November 2015. The event focused on health policy and worked to develop a road map as a consensus document to help guide decision-making by policymakers, funding bodies, and health care professionals. The direction that leptospirosis research should take in the coming years was emphasized, taking into account the needs of countries of Latin America, as well as experiences from other world regions, as provided by international experts. The operational concepts of "One Health" and translational research underlaid the discussions and the resulting recommendations. Despite the wide geographic distribution of leptospirosis and its impact in terms of incidence, morbidity, and mortality, leptospirosis is not yet considered a "tool-ready" disease for global initiatives. Surveillance programs need new tools and strategies for early detection, prevention, and follow-up. The major recommendations developed at the Rio meeting cover both health policy and research. The health policy recommendations should be taken into account by decisionmakers, government officials, and the Pan American Health Organization. The priorities for research, technological development, and innovation should be considered by research institutions, universities, and stakeholders.

  19. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  20. Nuclear data needs for the space exploration initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Auchampaugh, G.

    1991-01-01

    On July 20, 1989, the President of the United States announced a new direction for the US Space Program. The new Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) is intended to emplace a permanent base on the Lunar surface and a manned outpost on the Mars surface by 2019. In order to achieve this ambitious challenge, new, innovative and robust technologies will have to be developed to support crew operations. Nuclear power and propulsion have been recognized as technologies that are at least mission enhancing and, in some scenarios, mission enabling. Because of the extreme operating conditions present in a nuclear rocket core, accurate modeling of the rocket will require cross section data sets which do not currently exist. In order to successfully achieve the goals of the SEI, major obstacles inherent in long duration space travel will have to be overcome. One of these obstacles is the radiation environment to which the astronauts will be exposed. In general, an unshielded crew will be exposed to roughly one REM per week in free space. For missions to Mars, the total dose could exceed more than one-half the total allowed lifetime level. Shielding of the crew may be possible, but accurate assessments of shield composition and thickness are critical if shield masses are to be kept at acceptable levels. In addition, the entire ship design may be altered by the differential neutron production by heavy ions (Galactic Cosmic Rays) incident on ship structures. The components of the radiation environment, current modeling capability and envisioned experiments will be discussed

  1. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  2. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Separation of Powers in National Security Matters....................................................................... 10 Congressional Constraints on Executive Action ........................................................................... 15 Policy Considerations and Congressional Options........................................................................ 17 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 18 Author Contact

  3. Lifelong Learning as Social Need and as Policy Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2009-01-01

    Lifelong learning is a key concept in EU policy documents not only on education, but also on economic competitiveness and social cohesion. The discourse on lifelong learning has been strongly criticised by educational researchers, who document that it often reflects narrow notions of learning and...

  4. What energy policy we need?; Kakvu energetsku politiku trebamo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matic, M [INGPROJEKT, Zagreb (Croatia)

    1997-12-31

    In this paper are presented basic guidelines of Croatian energy policy which should be a part of the program of energy development in Croatia. It starts from a basic postulate that is more easily for consumers to cut down the energy consumption than for a government to build new energy objects. (author).

  5. Why Status Effects Need not Justify Egalitarian Income Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graafland, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    Economic research overwhelmingly shows that the utility individuals derive from their income depends on the incomes of others. Theoretical literature has proven that these status effects imply a more egalitarian income policy than in the conventional case, in which people value their income

  6. The need to revitalize our national noise policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, William W.; Beranek, Leo L.

    2002-05-01

    At the present time, our Nation does not have a national noise policy. The Congress attempted to define one with the passage of the Noise Control Act of 1972 as follows: The Congress declares that it is the policy of the United States to promote an environment for all Americans free from noise that jeopardizes their health and welfare. The Act assigned to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) the role of leading Federal agency with the task of coordinating the programs of all Federal agencies relating to noise research and noise control. Ten years later (1982), all funds for noise control were withdrawn from the EPA, and today the Nation is without an effective, overall noise policy. Residual responsibility for the control of environmental and occupational noise currently rests with a dozen agencies of the Federal government, as well as State, municipal, and local authorities. But the activities of these organizations are largely uncoordinated, and the enforcement of existing noise control regulations is at best sporadic, and in some cases nonexistent. To assure our quality of life and to minimize the economic impact of potential trade barriers, a study team is recommending that a national noise policy be developed and then implemented in the immediate future.

  7. GRACEnet: addressing policy needs through coordinated cross-location research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawson, Michael D.; Walthall, Charles W.; Shafer, Steven R.; Liebig, Mark; Franzluebbers, Alan J.; Follett, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    GRACEnet (Greenhouse gas Reduction through Agricultural Carbon Enhancement network) was conceived to build upon ongoing USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) research to improve soil productivity, while addressing the challenges and opportunities of interest in C sequestration from a climate change perspective. The vision for GRACEnet was and remains: Knowledge and information used to implement scientifically based agricultural management practices from the field to national policy scales on C sequestration, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and environmental benefits. The national focus of GRACEnet uses a standardized approach by ARS laboratories and university and land manager (e.g. farmer and rancher) cooperators to assess C sequestration and GHG emission from different crop and grassland systems. Since 2002, GRACEnet has significantly expanded GHG mitigation science and delivered usable information to agricultural research and policy organizations. Recent developments suggest GRACEnet will have international impact by contributing leadership and technical guidance for the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases.

  8. Public gambling policy : the need for gambling market segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Grebliauskas, Artūras

    2011-01-01

    Gambling services market is characterized by their complexity: they contain private and public goods characteristics, external effects and are politically sensitive. Therefore, understanding the contents of these services is necessary for the effective delivery of public gambling policy. Lithuanian gambling market can be distinguished according the following types of market structure: 1) Monopolistic competition – a category B slot parlors and 2) Oligopoly – betting, casinos, and 3) A natural...

  9. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Dana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered, blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs, and building blocks (resources to develop programs. Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the

  10. Skills and educational needs of accident and emergency nurses in Ghana: An initial needs analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Rominski

    2011-09-01

    Discussion: Current nurse knowledge and function as well as areas to focus on for future specialty training in emergency nursing have been identified by this needs assessment. The emergency department nurses shared an overwhelming interest in increasing their skill level, learning new methods of patient care and implementing new technologies into their clinical practice.

  11. The need for economic policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States: Policy recommendations for the 1990s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Knoester (Anthonie); A. Kolodziejak (André)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractBetter policy coordination between Europe, Japan, and the United States is urgently needed in order to restore economic growth and to diminish mutual trade imbalances. Using the EC Compact model it is shown how coordinated fiscal policies can contribute to reaching these goals in the

  12. Conditions and need for negotiation in energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, S.

    1987-01-01

    The use of wind energy has attracted little attention in the official energy policies so far. It is estimated that by the year 2000 about 4 to 7% of primary energy comsumption could be covered by regenerative energy sources. The energy economy regards State help as necessary for using these renewable energy sources. Varying energy supplies from wind energy converters could be accommodated on the grid without any problems. The monopoly of energy supplies tied to transmission lines is regarded as an obstacle in this context. There is reference to relevant wind energy converter-network plans. (HWJ).

  13. 75 FR 28622 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U...: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of the second phase of the Transparency... Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U.S. Food and...

  14. Direction and Policies Needed to Support Hybrid Electric Car Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Arief Subekti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The rising number of vehicles over the years has driven the increase of air pollution and fuel consumption. One of the solutions to overcome this problem is using hybrid electric car because it is environmentally friendly and efficient in fuel consumption. LIPI has conducted electric car research since 1997, but there were so many problems in its development that electric car can not be developed into a national industry scale. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study that maps the problems and finds the solutions to prevent the same failure of electric car commercialization process from happening to hybrid electric car . This study was done by collecting and analyzing the primary and secondary data through interviews, discussing electric hybrid car with stakeholders, and examining earlier study results and regulations. Based on this study, several policies to support sustainability research of hybrid electric car were proposed. Some recommendations were the making of national roadmap and regulation for the usage of hybrid electric car on the road. For policy makers at LIPI, a research focus, research coordination, and pre-commercialization program were recommended.

  15. How much monetary policy rules do we need to estimate DSGE model for Russia?

    OpenAIRE

    Shulgin, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a three-sector DSGE model for a small open economy under the intermediate exchange rate regime. The central bank balance sheet equations are added to allow introducing two different monetary policy rules in the model. The principal question is how many independent monetary policy rules we need to describe Russian monetary policy in 2001–2012. To get an answer we perform Bayesian estimation of the DSGE model for four different combinations of monetary policy rules. The main...

  16. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  17. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  18. General equilibrium basic needs policy model, (updating part).

    OpenAIRE

    Kouwenaar A

    1985-01-01

    ILO pub-WEP pub-PREALC pub. Working paper, econometric model for the assessment of structural change affecting development planning for basic needs satisfaction in Ecuador - considers population growth, family size (households), labour force participation, labour supply, wages, income distribution, profit rates, capital ownership, etc.; examines nutrition, education and health as factors influencing productivity. Diagram, graph, references, statistical tables.

  19. IS A NEW EUROPEAN UNION ENERGY POLICY NEEDED?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina, PETRUCA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In January 2009, because of a different between Russia and Ukraine, a major natural gas pipeline was closed, this being the worst gas cut-off of the decade. Eighteen countries have been interrupted from gas supplies and countries which had limited reserves and a shortage of alternative supply met a serious energy deficit, in the middle of an especially cold winter. After 22 days, the gas flows to all European countries were back to the normal level. A result of this, and of another similar dispute from 2006, was that the EU has put into question the confidence on the Russian gas supplies. The insecurity has led to a renewal of the political interest in energy security on EU level. The Russian cut-offs have been like a wake-up call to policy makers at a time when the EU faces significant energy security challenges as a result of the emerging world order. More than half of its energy, the EU buys from non-EU sources, while the demand for energy is always higher. In the meantime, the EU production levels of hydrocarbons are decreasing, leading to higher dependency on non-EU sources. Thereby, the energy security became a globally important topic and will raise important challenges for the EU in the future.

  20. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  1. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  2. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    CERN Document Server

    Alandes, M; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI...

  3. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  4. Education Policy and Family Values: A Critical Analysis of Initiatives from the Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes current education policy initiatives from the political Right in the United States, focusing on initiatives at the federal level (standards and testing), the state level (funding), the local level (alternative certification), and the campus level (censorship). Each initiative has received wide bipartisan and public support,…

  5. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production. (author)

  6. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  7. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  8. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    OpenAIRE

    Marquita Elliott; Nicole Rhoades; Christina M. Jackson; B. Jean Mandernach

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities – and differences – in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An examination of interest, attendance and completion rates of faculty development initiatives targeting online faculty revealed no distinct preferences in...

  9. Solving public passenger transportation problems: a need for policy reorientation. [Brokerage or consumer-oriented approach needed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, F.W. Jr.; Oen, K.

    1977-01-01

    Public transportation has declined because policymakers and outdated regulations have restricted the evolution of transportation systems which more closely reflect the mobility and lifestyles of today. Public policy needs to take a consumer-oriented approach to public transportation by recognizing that all consumers do not have the same transportation needs and that one or two modes of transportation cannot satisfy these needs. This report argues that if public transportation is to become an efficient method of satisfying the transportation needs of a community, a brokerage or consumer-oriented approach should be adopted. The transportation broker will match specific individual needs with a broad array of transportation services, and overcome institutional, legal, and operational barriers to the development of new forms of transportation service. 51 references or footnotes.

  10. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Marquita; Rhoades, Nicole; Jackson, Christina M.; Mandernach, B. Jean

    2015-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities--and differences--in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An…

  11. Breaking the silence: South African HIV policies and the needs of men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispel, Laetitia C; Metcalf, Carol A

    2009-05-01

    Although the HIV epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM) in South Africa preceded the onset of the generalised HIV epidemic by several years, current policies and programmes focus on heterosexual transmission and mother-to-child transmission. We used an adaptation of the UNAIDS Country Harmonised Alignment Tool (CHAT) to assess whether existing HIV policies and programmes in South Africa address the needs of MSM. This covered mapping of key risk factors and epidemiology of HIV among MSM; participation of MSM in the HIV response; and an enabling environment for service provision, funding and human resources. We found that current policies and programmes are unresponsive to the needs of MSM and that epidemiologic information is lacking, in spite of policy on MSM in the National Strategic Plan. We recommend that government initiate sentinel surveillance to determine HIV prevalence among MSM, social science research on the contexts of HIV transmission among MSM, and appropriate HIV prevention and care strategies. MSM should be closely involved in the design of policies and programmes. Supportive programme development should include dedicated financial and human resources, appropriate guidelines, and improved access to and coverage of HIV prevention, treatment and care services for MSM.

  12. Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders: The Catalan public policy initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Professional Development: Designing Initiatives to Meet the Needs of Online Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marquita Elliott

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of online courses mandates an examination of the similarities – and differences – in the faculty training and development needs of those teaching online. With institutions facing increasingly limited resources, there is a need to prioritize faculty development initiatives that will encourage faculty participation. An examination of interest, attendance and completion rates of faculty development initiatives targeting online faculty revealed no distinct preferences in relation to the focus or format of programs offered. The authors recommend offering flexibility and diversity in faculty development initiatives to accommodate the disparate needs of a remote, heterogeneous faculty population; as such, a sample needs assessment is offered to help guide faculty development programming to support online teaching.

  14. The Healthy People 2010 outcomes for the care of children with special health care needs: an effective national policy for meeting mental health care needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Amanda P

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Maternal and Child Health Bureau's (MCHB) Six Core Outcomes for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) as indicators in measuring the degree to which mental health care needs are met. This study analyzes data from the 2001 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs for 9,748 CSHCN who needed mental health care. Bivariate and logistic analyses were employed to investigate the impact of the MCHB's Six Core Outcomes on the probability of having an unmet need for mental health services. Of the 2.3 million CSHCN in the U.S. who needed mental health care in 2001, almost one-fifth did not receive all of the mental health services that they needed. Ultimately, eight Outcomes and sub-categories of Outcomes were considered. Sixty-one percent of CSHCN with a need for mental health care had care that fulfills six of the eight considered Outcomes. Logistic analysis indicates that individual fulfillment of each of the Core Outcomes and fulfillment of additional Outcomes have a significant association with reducing the probability of having an unmet mental health care need for CSHCN. This study is the first attempt to apply the Six Core Outcomes to meeting the needs for mental health care among CSHCN. Estimates of unmet need for mental health care suggest that efforts can be made to improve access for CSHCN. The initial estimates generated by this study indicate that the MCHB Outcomes are important in meeting children's mental health needs and are important indicators for informing MCHB policy.

  15. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  16. MAMI background and future needs – Making policy when evidence is sparse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, Marie; Kerac, Marko

    2014-01-01

    neglected in emergency interventions; neglect of nutrition and health of mothers has consequences for their infants. MAMI is a public health opportunity that needs to network health and community service providers, professional organisations, and approaches around mothers and their infants. A MAMI network is needed that galvanises and supports (strategically and technically) country-based initiatives to lead on evidence development, harmonised and shared in a way that informs international policy and global practice. (author)

  17. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOIL AND GROUNDWATER SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY NEEDS, PLANS AND INITIATIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aylward, B; V. ADAMS, V; G. M. CHAMBERLAIN, G; T. L. STEWART, T

    2007-12-12

    This paper presents the process used by the Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program to collect and prioritize DOE soil and groundwater site science and technology needs, develop and document strategic plans within the EM Engineering and Technology Roadmap, and establish specific program and project initiatives for inclusion in the EM Multi-Year Program Plan. The paper also presents brief summaries of the goals and objectives for the established soil and groundwater initiatives.

  18. EU COHESION POLICY NEEDS DIFFERENTIATED POLICY MIX ADEQUATE TO SPECIFICS OF ECONOMIC REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe ZAMAN

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2007-2013 programming period of the EU focuses on economic and social cohesion via three fundamental objectives: convergence – competitiveness and employment – European territorial co-operation. The horizontal dimension of cohesion policy refers to diminishing the regional disparities and solidarity with the lagging regions’ population. Considering the big regional disparities in the New Member States (NMS as well as the gap between their GDP per capita at national level and the EU average, these countries are the main beneficiary of the EU financial allocations, especially via convergence objective. However, two interrelated questions are entailed by this issue. One of them refers to the capacity of these countries to absorb effectively the EU funds. The other one concentrates on the impact of the absorbed EU funds, in other words to the qualitative aspects of the absorption capacity. Our paper discusses these aspects mainly from the viewpoint of regional disparities in the NMS, proposing a typology of their regions based on the main regional growth characteristics. The implications of the structural assistance on regional disparities are also addressed, taking into consideration economic and social criteria and requirements at EU, national, regional and local levels.

  19. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Philippine Regulatory Frameworks, Support Policies, And Initiatives Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    EDRALIN, Divina M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Philippine regulatory frameworks, support policies, initiatives, and barriers to encouraging women entrepreneurship. Currently, women entrepreneurship seems to be nurtured with the right environment, including regulatory frameworks, financial resources and support programs for, as well as business practices and social attitudes in the country towards women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in general. However, though many SME-friendly laws and policies exist, their im...

  1. From Waste Management to Resource Efficiency—The Need for Policy Mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Wilts

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating waste as a resource and the design of a circular economy have been identified as key approaches for resource efficiency. Despite ambitious targets, policies and instruments that would enable a transition from a conventional waste management to an integrated and comprehensive resource management are still missing. Moreover, this will require innovative policy mixes which do not only address different end-of-pipe approaches but integrate various resource efficiency aspects from product design to patterns of production and consumption. Based on the results of a project funded by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development named “POLFREE—Policy Options for a resource efficient economy”, this paper addresses several aspects of the conceptualization of policy mixes with regard to waste as a specific resource efficiency challenge. The guiding research interest of this paper is the combination of policies necessary to create a full circular economy. In a first step, the present waste policy frameworks, institutions and existing incentives at national level are examined in order to disclose regulatory and policy gaps. Based on this, the second part of the paper describes and analyses specific waste-related resource efficiency instruments with regard to their potential impacts under the constraints of various barriers. Based on the assessment of the country analyses and the innovative instruments, the paper draws conclusions on waste policy mixes and political needs.

  2. The CPD Needs of Mentors in Post-Compulsory Initial Teacher Training in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingleby, Ewan; Hunt, John

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the compulsory professional development (CPD) needs of mentors within post-compulsory Initial Teacher Training (ITT) provision in England. The discussion applies the ideas of Weber, Foucault, Habermas and Bourdieu in interpreting the implications for post-compulsory ITT mentor CPD training. The paper's primary and secondary…

  3. Need for baby friendly commu- nity initiative to improve the low ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ekanem EE. Fajola AO. Need for baby friendly commu- nity initiative to improve the low exclusive breastfeeding rates in. Nigeria. Accepted: 26th April 2016. Ekanem EE. Department of Paediatrics,. University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria. Email:emmanuelekanem@unical.edu.ng. Fajola AO. Regional Community Health,.

  4. Reproductive health policy affecting low-income women: historical precedents and current need for social work action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averitt Taylor, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the historical arguments surrounding reproductive health policy and current policy initiatives. Because reproductive policy itself is a vast subject matter with sometimes blurry boundaries, the struggle concerning the advent of birth control is used to illustrate the historic complexities of policy affecting such a wide array of individuals. The battle over introduction of the birth control pill is pertinent because the very same arguments are used today in debates over reproductive health policy.

  5. Meeting Patient and Professional Needs: Views of Stakeholders on a Training Initiative for DwSIs in Endodontics in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haboubi, Mustafa; Newton, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    A pilot scheme was established across London to train NHS primary dental care practitioners to provide endodontic treatment of moderate difficulty. It was co-led by the former London Deanery (Health Education England: North West London) and local NHS commissioners. This research aimed to explore key stakeholders' perceptions about the purpose of the initiative, its advantages, disadvantages and future implications. Nineteen semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders (commissioners and providers of the educational initiative; commissioners and providers of care, including trainees, principal dentists and specialists) involved in establishing, running and participating in the initiative and wider endodontic service provision in London. Interviews were based on a topic guide informed by the literature, and a workshop involving the London trainees. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using framework methodology. The project was perceived as supporting four key areas: addressing services, improving quality/outcomes, delivering education and enhancing professional status. There was evidence that dentists were harnessing health policy in facilitating 'reprofessionalisation' of dentistry with the creation of dentists with enhanced skills (DwSIs). Learning outcomes from the pilot were related to the accreditation of the participants, service tariffs, reimbursement for endodontic treatment on the NHS, and the need for continuity within and between services across the dental system. Uncertainty about funding and the changes within the NHS were among the concerns expressed regarding the future of the initiative. The findings of this research suggest that extending the skills of primary care practitioners may contribute to the reprofessionalisation of dentistry, which has much to contribute to patient care and the development of an integrated and accessible dental care system of quality, with improved outcomes for patients. The implications for

  6. "Tolerating" Adolescent Needs: Moving beyond Zero Tolerance Policies in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Anne; Cornell, Dewey

    2009-01-01

    The authors contend that zero tolerance discipline policies are inconsistent with adolescent developmental needs for authoritative, as distinguished from authoritarian, discipline. Previous research has applied the notion of authoritative parenting to teaching styles in classrooms, and a similar model of authoritative discipline can guide…

  7. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry, The Need for Changes in Food Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Heine; Nielsen, Thorkild

    1997-01-01

    have established rules and control systems for organic agriculture (the last decade). A break-through of organic food production is now taking place in some EU member states. This third change is indicated by more positive attitudes to organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing...... need for a more appropriate respons in the food policy....

  8. Evolving Policy Initiatives for Effective Vocational Technical Education in North Central Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombugus, Danjuma A.; Angbre, Francis Adams

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on evolving policy initiatives for effective Vocational Technical Education (VTE) on sustainable development. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was carried out in North Central Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The population for the study was 450 respondents (VTE teachers/lecturers, government officials,…

  9. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  10. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  11. Public Policies and Private Initiatives in Transition: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Falkowski, J.; Malak-Rawlikowska, A.; Milczarek-Andrzejewska, D.

    2011-01-01

    The drivers of institutional change in Central and Eastern Europe have changed considerably since 1989. Taking these changes into account, we identify three – partly overlapping – transition stages: public policy changes dominated the start of transition, private initiatives became crucial in a

  12. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative: a wealth of information, but what is next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the outcomes were published of the Global Opioid Policy Initiative, evaluating the availability, cost of opioid medicines and the regulatory barriers that are possibly impeding access for the management of cancer pain in developing countries. Other studies have shown that the vast majority of the world population has no access to opioid analgesics. This study shows by country which opioid medicines are available, what they cost to the patient, and investigates the presence of barriers for access to these medicines. Data from the project will be an important resource for those who advocate for improved access to opioid analgesics. Yet, like so often, many more aspects of inadequate opioid analgesic consumption require exploration and reporting, including legislative barriers. The last publication on the project is a "What's next?" that is over focusing on palliative care, forgetting that outside palliative care is also a huge need for opioid analgesics in moderate and severe pain. While promoting access to palliative care and pain management, their recognition as a human right by UN bodies would be of great help. Moreover, WHO's Access to Controlled Medicines Programme, could be an important programme to support the countries in making these improvements.

  13. Convergence, Crisis and Unemployment in Europe: The Need for Innovative Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Marelli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the double crisis that affected the euro area in the recent period. The focal point is that the austerity measures that have been undertaken in the area, especially in the peripheral countries hurt by the sovereign debt crisis, have not only caused a deep recession but are likely to lead to stagnation and persistent unemployment. In the first part of the paper, original weaknesses in the construction of the monetary union are examined, the emphasis being placed on nominal convergence criteria without taking into account the need for real convergence. This analysis is corroborated by some econometric investigations based on sigma and beta convergence for different macroeconomic variables, distinguishing between the pre-crisis period, 1999-2007, and the recent 2008-2013 period. The empirical section continues with a discussion of recent macroeconomic trends focusing on unemployment: it stresses that the deep and prolonged recession can be defeated only by adequate demand management policies. The next section explains how the excessive austerity policies recently carried out have also been caused by wrong assumptions about the size of the fiscal multipliers. The final policy section emphasizes three aspects: (i the radical reforms, at the European level, necessary if the monetary union is to survive; (ii the changes in macroeconomic policies required to put an end to the present stagnation; (iii the different and innovative policies needed to fight the high level of unemployment (especially youth unemployment.

  14. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  15. Protecting care home residents from mistreatment and abuse: on the need for policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelan A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Amanda Phelan School of Nursing, Midwifery and Health Systems, University College Dublin, Ireland Abstract: With a rising older person population with increasing life expectancies, the demand for care homes will increase in the future. Older people in care homes are particularly vulnerable due to their dependencies related to cognitive and/or functional self-care challenges. Although many care homes provide good care, maltreatment and abuse of older people can and does occur. One major step in preventing and addressing maltreatment in care homes is having comprehensive and responsive policy, which delineates national expectations that are locally implemented. This paper examines the literature related to maltreatment in care homes and argues for policy based on a multisystems approach. Policy needs to firstly acknowledge and address general societal issues which tacitly impact on older person care delivery, underpin how care homes and related systems should be operationalized, and finally delineate expected standards and outcomes for individual experience of care. Such a policy demands attention at every level of the health care and societal system. Furthermore, contemporary issues central to policy evolution in care homes are discussed, such as safeguarding education and training and fostering organization whistle-blowing protection. Keywords: care homes, maltreatment, policy, older people

  16. Domestic Violence and Pregnancy: A CBPR Coalition Approach to Identifying Needs and Informing Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Candace Forbes; Bagley, Braden; Pulliam, Ivie; Newton, Amy Swetha

    2018-01-01

    Community engagement-the collaborative process of addressing issues that impact the well-being of a community-is a strategic effort to address community issues. The Gulf States Health Policy Center (GS-HPC) formed the Hattiesburg Area Health Coalition (HAHC) in November 2014 for the purpose of addressing policies impacting the health of Forrest and Lamar counties in Mississippi. To chronicle the community-based participatory research (CBPR) process used by HAHC's identification of infant and maternal health as a policy area, domestic violence in pregnancy as a priority area within infant and maternal health, and a community action plan (CAP) regarding this priority area. HAHC reviewed data and identified infant and maternal health as a priority area. They then conducted a policy scan of local prenatal health care to determine the policy area of domestic violence in pregnancy. HAHC developed a CAP identifying three goals with regard to domestic violence and pregnancy that together informed policy. Changes included the development of materials specific to resources available in the area. The materials and recommended changes will first be implemented by Southeast Mississippi Rural Health Initiative (SeMRHI) through a screening question for all pregnant patients, and the adoption of policies for providing information and referrals. The lack of community-level data was a challenge to HAHC in identifying focus and priority areas, but this was overcome by shared leadership and community engagement. After completion of the CAP, 100% of expecting mothers receiving prenatal care in the area will be screened for domestic violence.

  17. The need for a formalised system of Quality Control for environmental policy-science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, Piers; Ridd, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Research science used to inform public policy decisions, herein defined as "Policy-Science", is rarely subjected to rigorous checking, testing and replication. Studies of biomedical and other sciences indicate that a considerable fraction of published peer-reviewed scientific literature, perhaps half, has significant flaws. To demonstrate the potential failings of the present approaches to scientific Quality Control (QC), we describe examples of science associated with perceived threats to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. There appears a serious risk of efforts to improve the health of the GBR being directed inefficiently and/or away from the more serious threats. We suggest the need for a new organisation to undertake quality reviews and audits of important scientific results that underpin government spending decisions on the environment. Logically, such a body could also examine policy science in other key areas where governments rely heavily upon scientific results, such as education, health and criminology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Struggle over energy transition in Berlin: How do grassroots initiatives affect local energy policy-making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the growing role of grassroots initiatives in the governance of urban energy systems. In recent years, research has increasingly underlined the potential for sustainable innovation of community-led bottom-up actions but has at the same time underestimated their potential impact on the governance of energy systems. Based on a strategic action field framework (SAF), this paper analyses the conflicts over the remunicipalisation of Berlin's electricity grid and investigates the creation and strategic development of two grassroots initiatives as well as their interaction with the local government and the established grid operator. We argue that grassroots initiatives have an important impact on the local energy system, not just through their influence on the implementation of local energy policy but above all by their framing of a specific vision of a local energy transition. The paper discusses the scope and limits of such initiatives in an urban context. - Highlights: • Grassroots initiatives as actors with countervailing power in local energy policy. • They increase citizens' awareness and impact the action of the local government. • Grids as objects of struggle between competing visions of energy transition. • Urban context is both a resource and a constraint for grassroots initiatives action

  19. Trade policy governance: What health policymakers and advocates need to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Holly

    2017-11-01

    Trade policies affect determinants of health as well as the options and resources available to health policymakers. There is therefore a need for health policymakers and related stakeholders in all contexts to understand and connect with the trade policymaking process. This paper uses the TAPIC (transparency, accountability, participation, integrity, capacity) governance framework to analyze how trade policy is commonly governed. I conclude that the health sector is likely to benefit when transparency in trade policymaking is increased, since trade negotiations to date have often left out health advocates and policymakers. Trade policymakers and negotiators also tend to be accountable to economic and trade ministries, which are in turn accountable to economic and business interests. Neither tend to appreciate the health consequences of trade and trade policies. Greater accountability to health ministries and interests, and greater participation by them, could improve the health effects of trade negotiations. Trade policies are complex, requiring considerable policy capacity to understand and influence. Nevertheless, investing in understanding trade can pay off in terms of managing future legal risks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Risks, revenues and investment in electricity generation. Why policy needs to look beyond costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, Robert; Heptonstall, Philip; Blyth, William

    2010-01-01

    Energy policy goals frequently depend upon investment in particular technologies, or categories of technology. Whilst the British government has often espoused the virtues of technological neutrality, UK policies now seek to promote nuclear power, coal with CO 2 capture and storage, and renewable energy. Policy decisions are often informed by estimates of cost per unit of output (for example, pound /MWh), also known as levelised costs. Estimates of these costs for different technologies are often used to provide a 'ballpark' guide to the levels of financial support needed (if any) to encourage uptake, or direct investment away from the technologies the market might otherwise have chosen. Levelised cost estimates can also help to indicate the cost of meeting public policy objectives, and whether there is a rationale for intervention (for example, based on net welfare gains). In the UK electricity sector, investment is undertaken by private companies, not governments. Investment is driven by expected returns, in the light of a range of risks related to both costs and revenues. Revenue risks are not captured in estimates of cost or cost-related risks. An important category of revenue risk is associated with electricity price fluctuations. Exposure to price risks differs by technology. Low electricity prices represent a revenue risk to technologies that cannot influence electricity prices. By contrast, 'price makers' that set marginal prices are, to an extent, able to pass fuel price increases through to consumers. They have an inherent 'hedge' against fuel and electricity price fluctuations. Based on recent research by the UK Energy Research Centre, this paper considers the implications of such price risks for policy design. The authors contrast the range of levelised costs estimated for different generating options with the spread of returns each is exposed to when electricity price fluctuations are factored in. Drawing on recent policy experiences in the renewable

  1. Rapid urbanization and the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukmana, D.

    2018-03-01

    Not only is Jakarta the largest metropolitan area in Southeast Asia, it is the also one of the most dynamic, though beset with most of the urban problems experienced in twenty-first century Southeast Asia. Batavia, colonial capital of the Netherland Indies in the first half of the 20th century was a small urban area of approximately 150,000 residents. In the second half, Batavia became Jakarta, the 28 million megacity capital of independent Indonesia. Among many urban problems, one major problem plagued Jakarta in the last two decades is traffic congestions. This paper discusses the extent to which rapid urbanization in Jakarta has contributed to the need for sustainable transportation policies in Jakarta. The development of MRT could be viable solutions to alleviate the acute traffic jams in Jakarta. Jakarta will need to implement other innovative sustainable transportation policies including promoting active live through more walking and bicycling, carpool matching services, shuttle services, telecommuting and downzoning in downtown areas.

  2. Financial Management: DOD Needs to Clarify Its General Gift Fund Policies to Provide for Effective Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-27

    Representatives Subject: Financial Management: DOD Needs to Clarify Its General Gift Fund Policies to Provide for Effective Oversight From fiscal...year 2005 through fiscal year 2008, the military services received about $295 million in monetary and nonmonetary gifts from individuals and...organizations wishing to donate gifts to the Department of Defense (DOD).1 Section 2601(a) of Title 10, U.S. Code is a long-standing authority under which

  3. WOMEN IN BUSINESS. THE NEED FOR POLICIES TO FOSTERING WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Adriana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing economies, the issue of overcoming the gaps in public policies regarding gender is closely linked to the ability of governments to identify policies that have worked successfully in regions with similar economic circumstances. Equally, there is a need for innovative data solutions that have the capacity to determine a real change of socio-economic relations. For now, as far as the Romanian context is concerned, female entrepreneurs do not enjoy as much government support as it is really needed. What literature refers to as the "glass ceiling" seems to be doubled in Romania by collective suspicion towards the discrepancy between the ambition and the skills of women who find themselves in the position of decision makers at top management level. This crisis of confidence faced by women makes their management tasks even more difficult. Not incidentally, literature mentions opinions according to which a woman must work twice as hard as a man to reach a certain position. The crisis brought about by the lack of models is confirmed by numerous studies and researches, all highlighting the urgent need for mentoring. Given such gender related constraints, it is only natural to expect that decision makers at government level would show a special interest for policies designed to encourage female entrepreneurship, and, in general, to support increase of employment of women in economic activities.

  4. A European initiative to define research needs and foster the adoption of Managed Aquifer Recharge into river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneppers, Angeline; Grützmacher, Gesche; Kazner, Christian; Zojer, Hans

    2010-05-01

    The European Technology Platform for Water (WssTP) was initiated by the European Commission to federate a highly fragmented sector with the aim to foster competitive innovations and promote sustainable solutions. To achieve this, pilot programmes endorsing a bottom-up approach were launched in 2007 with a variety of stakeholders having representative water issues to solve. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) was adopted as a balancing process for the safe and sustainable development, allocation and monitoring of water resource use in the context of current and future social, economic and environmental objectives. As a result key drivers were selected and a methodology was followed to identify and validate the needs with stakeholders and experts, and demonstrate solutions as an integrated part of the river basin management plans. Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) was identified as a key component of integrated water resources management, especially in water scarce regions and an area relevant for further research. The paper shall summarize the process followed by the WssTP, initiating a Task Force with 36 representatives from European research institutes and industry partners with participation of a few international experts. During a workshop conducted in Graz in June 2009 these experts developed the basis for a report that has now been submitted to the European Commission for consideration in future research calls. Implementing IWRM and MAR is made difficult by the number of different water bodies, but also by the large number of stakeholders, policies, legislations and conflicting interests. The results of the MAR Task Force initiative set the basis for further discussions with the international MAR community on the relevance of the identified research needs but also on the importance and process to associate the institutional and managerial entities for capacity building and the adoption of MAR into the overall management strategies.

  5. Do green tech policies need to pass the consumer test? The case of ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a question sometimes overlooked by policymakers and regulators, namely the need of a robust value proposition for green technologies to successfully enter the market. In particular, results from consumer choice models are used to develop measures of consumer acceptance of ethanol blends and flex-fuel vehicles is studied, a fuel-vehicle system that has received attention in a variety of federal and state policies. The analysis suggests that, under projected fuel prices and given the characteristics of the competing vehicle-fuel systems, consumers are unlikely to substitute ethanol blends for gasoline. The analysis also highlights the need for further research in this area. (author)

  6. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, John Fp; Gallego, Gisselle; Blauvelt, Barri M

    2011-07-28

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary), de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1) Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2) Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3) Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  7. Broadband ICT policies in Southern Africa: Initiatives and dynamic spectrum regulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available regulatory agencies. These ICT regulatory agencies had been established with the aim of liberalizing the telecommunications sector to ensure that governments are not the direct providers of telecom services, but the regulators [1]. Moreover, due to out... goals demand liberal and dynamic spectrum regulation policies designed at a country level and more importantly across a majority of countries in the same region. This paper highlights various initiatives aimed at formulating the all...

  8. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sherin Susan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a “senior recreation day care” model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  9. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N Sherin Susan; Asirvatham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a "senior recreation day care" model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  10. Biofuels development in China: Technology options and policies needed to meet the 2020 target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Shiyan; Zhao, Lili; Timilsina, Govinda R.; Zhang, Xiliang

    2012-01-01

    China promulgated the Medium and Long-Term Development Plan for Renewable Energy in 2007, which included sub-targets of 2010 and 2020 for various renewable energy technologies. Almost all the 2010 sub-targets have been met and even surpassed except non-grain fuel ethanol. There is debate surrounding the questions of whether and how the country will be able to meet the 2020 biofuels target. This paper provides the assessment of potential technology pathways to achieve the 2020 target regarding their respective resource potential and supply cost. Barriers and policy options are identified based on broad literatures review. And an overview of biofuels projections is presented to provide insight into the comparison of various policy scenarios. The study shows that China can potentially satisfy non-grain fuel ethanol target by 2020 from technology perspective. But she will probably fall far short of this target if current situations continue. Additional policy efforts are needed. Meanwhile, the target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved. However, if given support policies, it will develop better. - Highlights: ► I. Non-grain feedstocks such as cassava, sweet sorghum and sweet potato grown in low productive arable lands or unutilized lands have enough potential to meet ethanol targets in 2020. ► II. If current situations continue, China will fall far short of the 2020 target. ► III. The target of biodiesel production has high probability to be achieved, while, if given support policies, it will develop better. ► IV. Supply cost is one of the major barriers faced by all biofuels pathways. ► V. Various policy measures would be necessary to overcome the costs barriers to biofuels in China.

  11. The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy Initiative: Findings From a Collaborative, Participatory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sheryl; D'Silva, Joanne; Hernandez, Carol; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Martinez, Jaime; Matter, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine." The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy initiative works to address this complex and challenging context. This article describes results of a participatory evaluation from 2010 to 2013 in four Minnesota Tribal Nations-three Ojibwe and one Dakota. Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy coordinators used their cultural knowledge to develop community-level strategies, identifying appropriate strategies from best practices on tobacco advocacy, while drawing on the strengths of their own sovereignty and sacred tobacco traditions. Tribal coordinators generated support for policy change by conducting culturally relevant education, engaging tribal members, and nurturing relationships. This approach resulted in norm changes, practices toward restoring traditional tobacco, informal policies, and tribal resolutions to advance smoke-free policies.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRADE LAWS: IMPLICATIONS IN THE PRICE CONTROL POLICY OF COMMUNITY NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engkus Engkus

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available [Implementation Of Trade Laws: Implications In The Price Control Policy Of Community Needs] Issuing the act no 7 year 2014 about tade, Indonesia has new hope to design the obscene of social basic requirements were going on all this time. The main problem in the research that “increasing and decreasing pricefluctuatively” has became repeatedly in Ramadhan. It has been caused by some factors: Unbalancing Supply and demand not done optimally yet. The aim of the research to collect data, facta and problems analyses them and directly or indirectlywe want to know and increase for academic nuance as theorital, also who want to know about them deeply. The research is qualitative research, using the technical of theresearch are observation, interview, documental history and documental audio visual. The results of research, before, at the moment, after Ramadhan, the price of social basic requirements still increasely and fluctuatively. Government intervention, by short term policy not touched social basic requirements continously yet. So piling them were not clearness of official. Raring supply, increasing demand, It has been caused by social increasing consumption, Finally high increasing price. Conclusion: The price control social basic requirements policy, complately by redesign comprehensive, transparancy, participative and continuosly policy, from central government to local government towards nation autonomy in food. Keywords: Increasing Price, clearness of official, Control.

  13. Management of clandestine drug laboratories: need for evidence-based environmental health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Tamara A; Fletcher, Stephanie M

    2014-01-01

    Clandestine drug laboratories (CDLs) have been emerging and increasing as a public health problem in Australia, with methamphetamine being the dominant illegally manufactured drug. However, management and remediation of contaminated properties are still limited in terms of regulation and direction, especially in relation to public and environmental health practice. Therefore, this review provides an update on the hazards and health effects associated with CDLs, with a specific look at the management of these labs from an Australian perspective. Particularly, the paper attempts to describe the policy landscape for management of CDLs, and identifies current gaps and how further research may be utilised to advance understanding and management of CDLs and inform public health policies. The paper highlights a significant lack of evidence-based policies and guidelines to guide regulatory authority including environmental health officers in Australia. Only recently, the national Clandestine Drug Laboratory Guidelines were developed to assist relevant authority and specialists manage and carry out investigations and remediation of contaminated sites. However, only three states have developed state-based guidelines, some of which are inadequate to meet environmental health requirements. The review recommends well-needed inter-sectoral collaborations and further research to provide an evidence base for the development of robust policies and standard operating procedures for safe and effective environmental health management and remediation of CDLs.

  14. Threshold amounts of organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Thomas, Lashun K.; Bradley, Paul M.; Rectanus, Heather V.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Aquifer sediment and groundwater chemistry data from 15 Department of Defense facilities located throughout the United States were collected and analyzed with the goal of estimating the amount of natural organic carbon needed to initiate reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems. Aquifer sediments were analyzed for hydroxylamine and NaOH-extractable organic carbon, yielding a probable underestimate of potentially bioavailable organic carbon (PBOC). Aquifer sediments were also analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC) using an elemental combustion analyzer, yielding a probable overestimate of bioavailable carbon. Concentrations of PBOC correlated linearly with TOC with a slope near one. However, concentrations of PBOC were consistently five to ten times lower than TOC. When mean concentrations of dissolved oxygen observed at each site were plotted versus PBOC, it showed that anoxic conditions were initiated at approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC. Similarly, the accumulation of reductive dechlorination daughter products relative to parent compounds increased at a PBOC concentration of approximately 200 mg/kg. Concentrations of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAA) in sediments also increased at approximately 200 mg/kg, and bioassays showed that sediment CO2 production correlated positively with THAA. The results of this study provide an estimate for threshold amounts of bioavailable carbon present in aquifer sediments (approximately 200 mg/kg of PBOC; approximately 1,000 to 2,000 mg/kg of TOC) needed to support reductive dechlorination in groundwater systems.

  15. Brain death determination: the imperative for policy and legal initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru-Siika, Wangari; Clement, Meredith Edwards; Lukoko, Lilian; Nadel, Simon; Rosoff, Philip M; Naanyu, Violet; Kussin, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The concept of brain death (BD), defined as irreversible loss of function of the brain including the brainstem, is accepted in the medical literature and in legislative policy worldwide. However, in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) there are no legal guidelines regarding BD. Hypothetical scenarios based on our collective experience are presented which underscore the consequences of the absence of BD policies in resource-limited countries (RLCs). Barriers to the development of BD laws exist in an RLC such as Kenya. Cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity creates a complex perspective about death challenging the development of uniform guidelines for BD. The history of the medical legal process in the USA provides a potential way forward. Uniform guidelines for legislation at the state level included special consideration for ethnic or religious preferences in specific states. In SSA, medical and social consensus on the definition of BD is a prerequisite for the development BD legislation. Legislative policy will (1) limit prolonged and futile interventions; (2) mitigate the suffering of families; (3) standardise clinical practice; and (4) facilitate better allocation of scarce critical care resources in RLCs. There is a clear-cut need for these policies, and previous successful policies can serve to guide these efforts.

  16. Applying gene flow science to environmental policy needs: a boundary work perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Caroline E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2016-08-01

    One application of gene flow science is the policy arena. In this article, we describe two examples in which the topic of gene flow has entered into the U.S. national environmental policymaking process: regulation of genetically engineered crops and clarification of the jurisdictional scope of the Clean Water Act. We summarize both current scientific understanding and the legal context within which gene flow science has relevance. We also discuss the process by which scientific knowledge has been synthesized and communicated to decision-makers in these two contexts utilizing the concept of 'boundary work'. Boundary organizations, the work they engage in to bridge the worlds of science, policy, and practice, and the boundary objects they produce to translate scientific knowledge existed in both examples. However, the specific activities and attributes of the objects produced varied based on the needs of the decision-makers. We close with suggestions for how scientists can contribute to or engage in boundary work with policymakers.

  17. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  18. The Initial Purging Policies after the 1965 Incident at Lubang Buaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Djakababa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Lubang Buaya incident on 1 October 1965 in which six top Indonesian Army generals and a lieutenant were killed, the Army began to implement a nationwide purging campaign with the assistance of civilian anti-communist groups. Thousands of PKI members, supporters and pro-Sukarno groups/individuals immediately became the target of this purge. For organisational purposes, several purging policies were released and then strictly enforced. The official purging policies that are highlighted in this paper are a series of initial directives that were released within days of the generals’ executions. They do not explicitly translate into orders to kill, but are more of a guideline to help anti-communist officials classify and contain communists and other PKI followers. This article attempts to show how these initial directives evolved and also discusses competing purge policies from non-military sources. The co-existence and overlapping nature of the various directives indicate that a power struggle existed between the anti-communist group led by General Soeharto and the presidium of the Dwikora Cabinet who were loyal to President Soekarno.

  19. Development and Initial Validation of the Need Satisfaction and Need Support at Work Scales: A Validity-Focused Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Tafvelin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the relevance of employee need satisfaction and manager need support have been examined, the integration of self-determination theory (SDT into work and organizational psychology has been hampered by the lack of validated measures. The purpose of the current study was to develop and validate measures of employees’ perception of need satisfaction (NSa-WS and need support (NSu-WS at work that were grounded in SDT. We used three Swedish samples (total 'N' = 1,430 to develop and validate our scales. We used a confirmatory approach including expert panels to assess item content relevance, confirmatory factor analysis for factorial validity, and associations with theoretically warranted outcomes to assess criterion-related validity. Scale reliability was also assessed. We found evidence of content, factorial, and criterion-related validity of our two scales of need satisfaction and need support at work. Further, the scales demonstrated high internal consistency. Our newly developed scales may be used in research and practice to further our understanding regarding how satisfaction and support of employee basic needs influence employee motivation, performance, and well-being. Our study makes a contribution to the current literature by providing (1 scales that are specifically designed for the work context, (2 an example of how expert panels can be used to assess content validity, and (3 testing of theoretically derived hypotheses that, although SDT is built on them, have not been examined before.

  20. Children's safety initiative: a national assessment of pediatric educational needs among emergency medical services providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew; Meckler, Garth; Dickinson, Caitlyn; Dickenson, Kathryn; Jui, Jonathan; Lambert, William; Guise, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Emergency medical services (EMS) providers may have critical knowledge gaps in pediatric care due to lack of exposure and training. There is currently little evidence to guide educators to the knowledge gaps that most need to be addressed to improve patient safety. The objective of this study was to identify educational needs of EMS providers related to pediatric care in various domains in order to inform development of curricula. The Children's Safety Initiative-EMS performed a three-phase Delphi survey on patient safety in pediatric emergencies among providers and content experts in pediatric emergency care, including physicians, nurses, and prehospital providers of all levels. Each round included questions related to educational needs of providers or the effect of training on patient safety events. We identified knowledge gaps in the following domains: case exposure, competency and knowledge, assessment and decision making, and critical thinking and proficiency. Individual knowledge gaps were ranked by portion of respondents who ranked them "highly likely" (Likert-type score 7-10 out of 10) to contribute to safety events. There were 737 respondents who were included in analysis of the first phase of the survey. Paramedics were 50.8% of respondents, EMT-basics/first responders were 22%, and physicians 11.4%. The top educational priorities identified in the final round of the survey include pediatric airway management, responder anxiety when working with children, and general pediatric skills among providers. The top three needs in decision-making include knowing when to alter plans mid-course, knowing when to perform an advanced airway, and assessing pain in children. The top 3 technical or procedural skills needs were pediatric advanced airway, neonatal resuscitation, and intravenous/intraosseous access. For neonates, specific educational needs identified included knowing appropriate vital signs and preventing hypothermia. This is the first large-scale Delphi

  1. Energy crisis? The continuing need for a national energy policy in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felmy, J.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre on the 11th September 2001 on the price of crude oil and petroleum products and the ensuing concentration on security measures in the oil and gas industries. The reasons for the need of a comprehensive energy policy are listed and include ensuring the physical security of energy supplies, helping to diversify oil supplies and reducing the effects of market disruptions, benefiting from additional efforts to increase energy efficiency, promoting conservation, encouraging the use of renewable energy sources, investing in the energy delivery infrastructure, and increasing domestic energy supplies

  2. Controlling liver cancer internationally: A qualitative study of clinicians' perceptions of current public policy needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges John FP

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer in men and the seventh for women. Usually because of late diagnosis, the prognosis for liver cancer remains poor, resulting in liver cancer being the third most common cause of death from cancer. While some countries have treatment guidelines, little is known or understood about the strategies needed for liver cancer control internationally. Objective To explore leading liver cancer clinician's perceptions of the current public policy needs to control liver cancer internationally. Methods Key informant interviews were conducted with a range of liver cancer clinicians involved in policy in eleven countries. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, translated (where necessary, de-identified and analyzed by two researchers using a constant comparative method. Results Twenty in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in: Australia, China, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Spain, South Korea, Taiwan, Turkey and the United States. Nine themes were identified and cluster into three groups: 1 Promoting prevention via early risk assessment, focusing on viral hepatitis and other lifestyle factors; 2 Increasing political, public and medical community awareness; and 3 Improving funding for screening, liver cancer surveillance and treatment. Conclusion This study is an important step towards developing an evidence-based approach to assessing preparedness for implementing comprehensive liver cancer control strategies. Evaluation mechanisms to assess countries' performance on the needs described are needed. Future research will concentrate of understanding how these needs vary across countries and the optimal strategies to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of patients with liver cancer internationally.

  3. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  4. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  5. Managing Law Enforcement Presence in the Emergency Department: Highlighting the Need for New Policy Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahouni, Morsal R; Liscord, Emory; Mowafi, Hani

    2015-10-01

    The Emergency Department (ED) is the portal of entry to the health care system for a large percentage of patients. This is especially true for victims and perpetrators of interpersonal violence. Frequently, law enforcement personnel (LEP) accompany patients to the ED or seek access to patients during their ED stay or subsequent hospitalization. The time-sensitive nature of both emergency care and criminal investigation motivates both health care personnel and LEP, and can lead to potential conflicts of interest regarding access to patients in the ED. We hope to examine the relationship among patients, providers, and LEP in the ED, and the potential impact these interactions have on patient care. This article presents a review of the relevant literature and policy consideration as well as provides guidance on the development of such policies for EDs. Hospitals, EDs, and trauma resuscitation rooms are highly regulated environments, but LEP largely fall outside the ethical and institutional guidelines of health care institutions. Many potential areas of conflict exist when LEP are present in the ED that can have detrimental effects on patient care, provider liability, and LEP efficacy. Patients' perceptions of collaboration between ED personnel and LEP can compromise emergency patient care. There is a need for hospital policies to govern interactions among patients, emergency health care providers, and LEP in the ED. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A New U.S. Water Policy: Long Overdue and Urgently Needed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P.

    2008-12-01

    The United States has no consistent, integrated national or international water policy in place, and has not conducted a review of its water institutions or priorities since 1970. This talk will summarize the state of US water policy and make recommendations for the new administration. As we enter the 21st century, pressures on United States and international water resources are growing and conflicts among water users are worsening. International attention to these problems is increasing and the US - intentionally or not - plays a vital and irreplaceable role. Even in the US, where basic human needs for water are largely (though not completely) satisfied, controversy continues over the proper role of expensive dams, failure to adequately fund infrastructure maintenance and expansion, the different roles of public and private corporations, and local communities in managing water. And new challenges are arising, as climate change and extreme events seem to worsen, new water quality threats materialize, and financial constraints grow. Arguments among western states over allocations of shared rivers are rising, as are tensions between cities and farmers over water rights. The US and Mexico have unresolved disagreements over the Colorado and Rio Grande/Rio Bravo rivers, and our Canadian neighbors are concerned about proposals to divert Great Lakes or Canadian water. Bottled water is raising new issues about equity, cost, environmental impacts, and the role of the private sector. Some of the new ideas, new policies, and new efforts that will be required to address these issues in the coming decade will be presented here.

  7. Community Organizing for Healthier Communities: Environmental and Policy Outcomes of a National Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published

  8. Statutory Regulation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Practices: The Need for Distinct Policy Making Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather

    2018-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.

  9. New Ways of Delivering Marine Scientific Evidence for Policy Needs in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, T.

    2016-12-01

    The UK Department for Environment, Food, and Rural Affairs (Defra) is responsible for safeguarding the natural environment, supporting a world-leading food and farming industry, and sustaining a thriving rural economy. This includes the marine environment which makes a significant contribution to the economy of the UK through fisheries, aquaculture, transport, leisure and recreation, energy (including renewable), coastal tourism, and naval defence. The overall vision for the Defra marine programme is to therefore achieve clean, healthy, safe, productive and biologically diverse oceans and seas. In order to attain this it is essential that the decisions that government makes can be justified and that these decisions use the best available evidence and allow for any uncertainty. However, reductions across the budgets of departments such as Defra means that new ways of delivering evidence for policy needs must be sought. To do this we must consider marine monitoring efficiencies including the use of novel technologies, more integrated monitoring programmes, and greater collaboration with the research councils, industry, and academia. We must also seek to leverage other sources of funding from the European Union and other international partners. This presentation will address the main policy drivers (e.g. EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive) and future needs of the marine programme, the Defra Evidence Action Plan (EAP), and how we plan to use new avenues of gaining high quality marine scientific evidence in an era of declining budgets.

  10. Area-based initiatives – engines of innovation in planning and policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Agger, Annika

    . Nevertheless, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the most important outcomes of place-based initiatives. Evaluations have mostly focussed on direct quantitative socio-economic indicators. These have often been quite insignificant, while other effects have been largely neglected. This paper proposes...... and development in planning culture turns out to be a more substantial result than the reduction of social exclusion and economic deprivation. The paper analyses all available official evaluation studies of Danish place-based urban policy initiatives from mid-1990s through 2010. In addition to this, recent...... studies of local planning culture change are discussed. Main findings are that during the past two decades a general change in planning culture has developed gradually, triggered by urban regeneration full scale experimentation with place-based approaches. Second, planners as well as public administrators...

  11. The Impact of Policy and Legislation on Maori Children with Special Needs in Aotearoa/New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortune, Kiri

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review literature related to the impact of policy and legislation on Maori children with special needs. The historical perceptions of disability for Maori will be discussed and the impacts of western influences and policy will be reviewed. The article investigates relevant studies and literature, both national and…

  12. Further research needed to support a policy of antiretroviral therapy as an HIV prevention initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodger, Alison J; Bruun, Tina; Vernazza, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The results from the HPTN 052 trial have increased the focus on use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for prevention of HIV transmission; however, condom use also effectively prevents HIV transmission. Studies in heterosexual serodiscordant couples with viral suppression have so far only reported f...

  13. Is a top-heavy initial mass function needed to reproduce the submillimetre galaxy number counts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Lu, Yu; Hayward, Christopher C.

    2017-12-01

    Matching the number counts and redshift distribution of submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) without invoking modifications to the initial mass ffunction (IMF) has proved challenging for semi-analytic models (SAMs) of galaxy formation. We adopt a previously developed SAM that is constrained to match the z = 0 galaxy stellar mass function and makes various predictions which agree well with observational constraints; we do not recalibrate the SAM for this work. We implement three prescriptions to predict the submillimetre flux densities of the model galaxies; two depend solely on star formation rate, whereas the other also depends on the dust mass. By comparing the predictions of the models, we find that taking into account the dust mass, which affects the dust temperature and thus influences the far-infrared spectral energy distribution, is crucial for matching the number counts and redshift distribution of SMGs. Moreover, despite using a standard IMF, our model can match the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution reasonably well, which contradicts the conclusions of some previous studies that a top-heavy IMF, in addition to taking into account the effect of dust mass, is needed to match these observations. Although we have not identified the key ingredient that is responsible for our model matching the observed SMG number counts and redshift distribution without IMF variation - which is challenging given the different prescriptions for physical processes employed in the SAMs of interest - our results demonstrate that in SAMs, IMF variation is degenerate with other physical processes, such as stellar feedback.

  14. Initial counselling for cleft lip and palate: parents' evaluation, needs and expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttenberger, J; Ohmer, J N; Polska, E

    2010-03-01

    During the first counselling after the birth of a child with cleft lip and palate (CLP) information about the malformation should be delivered and a long-standing relationship between the cleft team and the affected family must be established. The present study was conducted to evaluate the parents' experiences, needs and expectations with this first consultation. A questionnaire was sent to 105 parents at the cleft clinic, which could be answered anonymously. It collected demographic data, data on the parents' pre-existing level of information and the parents' assessment of the counselling at the cleft centre. Seventy percent of the questionnaires were returned. In 16% the clefts were diagnosed prenatally, in 32% there were relatives with clefts. Seventy-one percent of the parents received detailed counselling, 89% of which occurred in the first week. The parents requested that information about surgery (80%), feeding the child (63%) and the aetiology of clefts (44%) should be given. The quality of the consultation was rated very good or good by 87% of families. This study confirms the importance of initial counselling for CLP. The exceptional psychological situation of the family has to be considered and a close collaboration between cleft centre and maternity hospitals is mandatory.

  15. United nations internship programme policy and the need for its amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Marko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An internship at the United Nations is an opportunity that young people interested in international law, international relations, and many other fields, perceive as he best possible career starting point - and rightfully so. The United Nations internship is an experience second to none in the world of international organizations and this is why it must be available to the widest range of people, regardless of their status, place of birth and social context. However, the current United Nations internship policy is very controversial and in desperate need of a change. While voices for change of policy are raised more and more, this topic has been very rarely addressed in academic literature across the world and papers and books dealing exclusively with this issue are almost non-existent. In this article, the author will address the main points of the concern regarding unpaid internship and will offer potential solutions for its improvement. This article is a humble contribution that will hopefully instigate wider academic acknowledgment of this problem and eventually contribute to the resolution of this unfortunate practice.

  16. Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI) : User Needs Assessment: Stakeholder Engagement Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The Accessible Transportation Technologies Research Initiative (ATTRI) is a joint U.S. Department of Transportation (U.S. DOT) initiative that is co-led by the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). ATTRI ...

  17. Food waste disposal units in UK households: The need for policy intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. - Highlights: ► FWDs can be a less conventional way for diverting food waste from landfill. ► We compared water industry costs to savings from MSW collection and treatment. ► A large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs to the water industry. ► At a low uptake, MSW collection savings are not enough to cover these costs. ► Findings highlight the need for policy intervention, regulating the use of FWDs.

  18. Active Aging Policies between Individual Needs and Collective Goods. A Study of Active Aging Policies and Practices in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Midtsundstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A main objective of European governments is to reduce the number of early retirees, either by reforming pension systems or promoting active aging in working life. The importance of formulating a coherent personnel policy for all age groups is increasingly recognized by employers. However, there is still a lack of knowledge as how to strategically cope with an aging labor force. The aim of this article is to define and discuss a number of challenges arising from workplace-related active aging policies. We in particular discuss how an emphasis on economic incentives and gains (“senior goods” may give rise to unanticipated side effects for the employers as well as the employees. The article is based on results from two recent studies: one study examining six Norwegian municipalities with seemingly good practices in work-related old age policies, and another examining such policies in eight establishments in four different industries.

  19. Policy initiatives for change and innovation in basic education programmes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kadingdi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an historical perspective, the recent history of educational policy making in Ghana, as it relates to the provision of basic education, is examined. Three periods or phases are identified corresponding to the situation prior to Independence, the period between 1951 and 1986 and the reforms instituted in 1987 and the years that followed. Despite the willing cooperation of various donor agencies and the availability of resources, progress has been limited. The policy and contextual reasons for this comparative lack of progress are examined in turn. The paper concludes with what can be learnt from these attempts at reform and suggests that, whilst the issues involved are complex, greater attention needs to be focused on the training and support of teachers in their classroom role rather than focusing on the provision of resources. Helping teachers to understand the desired changes in their practice and the need to make pupils independent learners, coupled with reforms of teacher training and support, and the nature and quality of teacher continuing professional development, can all be seen as key ways in which further progress may be made

  20. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Development of Legal Policy and Legal Needs of Indonesian Immigration Law: Answered Partially, Forget the Rest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Dewansyah

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the immigration law, from Law No. 9 of 1992 to Law No. 6 of 2011 reflected the development of immigration legal policy. As a branch of administrative law that has dynamic character, the reform immigration laws should address the immigration legal needs in practice. This paper discusses the development of Indonesian immigration legal policy and to what extent these developments address the immigration legal needs. Based on the author analyses, it can be concluded, firstly, the development of immigration legal policy, in legal direction context, emphasized to face the impact of globalization both positive and negative effects, and other developments in the future. In legal substances aspect, the current immigration legal policy change various principles immigration laws, such as the principle of selective policies are balanced with the principle of respect for human rights, although in certain settings are not in line with human rights (as in the case of the period of temporary prohibition to leave Indonesia, that can be extended continuously. In legal form and scope context, Indonesian immigration legal policy today, is more concerned with the rules of immigration law in detail than ever before. Secondly, the development of immigration legal policy answered the immigration legal needs particularly, such as in the case of human smuggling, but forget the rest of the immigration legal needs, in terms of the handling of illegal immigrants, asylum seekers and refugees.

  2. Does Funding for Arctic Research Align with Research Priorities and Policy Needs? Trends in the USA, Canada and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, M. S.; Ibarguchi, G.; Rajdev, V.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past twenty years, increasing awareness and understanding of changes in the Arctic system, the stated desires of Arctic Peoples to be engaged in the research process, and a growing international interest in the region's resources have informed various stakeholders to undertake many Arctic science planning activities. Some examples of science planning include priority-setting for research, knowledge translation, stakeholder engagement, improved coordination, and international collaboration. The International Study of Arctic Change recently initiated an analysis of the extent to which alignment exists among stated science priorities, recognized societal needs, and funding patterns of the major North American and European agencies. In this paper, we present a decade of data on international funding patterns and data on two decades of science planning. We discuss whether funding patterns reflect the priority research questions and identified needs for information that are articulated in a myriad of Arctic research planning documents. The alignment in many areas remains poor, bringing into question the purpose of large-scale science planning if it does not lead to funding of those priorities identified by Arctic stakeholder communities (scientists, Arctic Peoples, planners, policy makers, the private sector, and others).

  3. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  4. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV disease – new data needed to guide future policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Bont

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available RSV is the main cause of childhood lower respiratory infections, globally, an important cause of childhood wheeze and may be responsible for a substantial burden of disease in the very elderly and in adults with chronic medical problems, such as COPD. It is thus responsible for substantial healthcare and social costs. There are currently many companies and academic groups developing and testing candidate vaccines and there is an expectation that these will lead to effective and safe vaccines which will be available to health systems globally in the short- medium term. Despite this, there is an incomplete understanding of RSV disease, especially in adult groups, and large scale data are only available from a few countries and settings leading to low levels of awareness of the importance of this pathogen. We discuss the need for widespread national sentinel systems of RSV surveillance and some means by which this could be achieved. These data will be needed by national policy makers and immunisation advisory groups to guide future priority setting and decision making.

  5. Policies for friendly cities: the need for a new approach by governments and the donor community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puccioni, V.

    2018-03-01

    Since the 1990s, the major issues in the world’s cities of Developing and Emerging Economy Countries have in some few cases improved in terms of the percentage of urban population living without appropriate housing and access to essential services- but in terms of numbers such population has severely increased. The theory by which economic development would automatically produce a trickle down effect that would take care of the needs of the poor has proved ineffective, and while the middle-lower classes have seen their lot improved, the lowest income groups are more destitute then ever- and more and more vulnerable to natural disasters. The approach of Governments and the donor community needs to be radically revisited, with a new urban policy agenda that should put emphasis on support to the lowest income groups, and relying on the informal sector as the main actor in implementing such support. The impacts of Climate Change and the increased frequency and severity of natural catastrophes also call for such a revised approach. The two-step approach to interventions in disasters situations – i.e. providing temporary shelters and only subsequently reconstructing homes- is ineffective and wasteful.

  6. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  7. Acid emissions monitoring needs in ceramic tile industry: challenges derived from new policy trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celades, Irina; Gomar, Salvador; Romero, Fernando; Chauhan, Amisha; Delpech, Bertrand; Jouhara, Hussam

    2017-11-01

    The emission of acid compounds during the manufacture of ceramic tiles is strongly related to the presence of precursors in the raw materials and/or fuels used, with some exceptions such as the production of thermal NOX. The stages with the potential to produce significant emissions of these compounds have been identified as the suspension spray drying and tile firing stages. The monitoring of emission levels of acid pollutants in these stages has turned in a great importance issue from a regulatory and industrial aspect. The DREAM project (https://www.spire2030.eu/dream) will tackle the regulation of acidic emissions focusing in the firing stage. The initial stages of the project have made it possible to identify the design requirements for the monitoring system. This will allow the control of acid pollutants emissions and other key parameters such as pressure, flow, temperature and humidity. One of the tasks developed has been the review and compilation of current emissions monitoring systems detailing technical specifications such as: position (in situ or extractive), measurement principle and frequency. The future policy trends in air pollution are encouraging the continuous monitoring across the European industry. The present document assesses the advantages regarding environmental impact control, highlighting the main challenges for the ceramic tile industry.

  8. Sustainable Soil Management: Its perception and the need for policy intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Gottlieb; Kassam, Amir; González-Sánchez, Emilio

    2017-04-01

    As stated in the strategic objectives of the Global Soil Partnership "healthy soils and sustainable soil management are the precondition for human well-being and economic welfare and therefore play the key role for sustainable development". Although the functional properties of a healthy soil are well understood, in practice it is easily overlooked what is necessary to achieve and sustain healthy agricultural soils. This contribution intends: to discuss the concept of sustainable soil management in agricultural production with regard to soil health, and to highlight its importance in the achievement of both Sustainable Development Goals and the 4 per mille objectives, as well as for the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). In Europe, soil and the need for its conservation and stewardship gained visibility at the beginning of this century during the discussions related to the Soil Thematic Strategy. This higher level of awareness concerning the status of Europe's soils led to the introduction of soil conservation standards into the cross-compliance mechanism within the 1st Pillar of CAP. These standards were applied through the definition of Good Agricultural and Environmental Conditions (GAECs) which are compulsory for all farmers receiving direct payments, and in the last CAP reform in 2014, through the introduction of additional Greening Measures in Pilar 1. Despite these measures and the claim of some writers that they already contributed to significantly reducing soil erosion, the EC Joint Research Centre still reports water erosion in Europe amounting to almost one billion tonnes annually. Regarding soil conservation, soil carbon stocks or the provision of additional ecosystem services, measures called for in GAEC 4 (Minimum soil cover), in GAEC 5 (Minimum land management reflecting site specific conditions to limit soil erosion), and in GAEC 6 (Maintenance of soil organic matter level through appropriate practices, …), give the impression that a lot is being

  9. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  10. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Pennsylvania quality initiative : a synthesis of customer satisfaction and additional research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-29

    Customer satisfaction is at the heart of the Pennsylvania Quality Initiative (PQI), which was created in 1994 to build a more effective partnership among all the stakeholders involved in the process of designing, building, operating, and maintaining ...

  12. Interpreting the need for initial support to perform tandem stance tests of balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hile, E.S.; Brach, J.S.; Perera, S.; Wert, D.M.; VanSwearingen, J.M.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Geriatric rehabilitation reimbursement increasingly requires documented deficits on standardized measures. Tandem stance performance can characterize balance, but protocols are not standardized. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of: (1) initial support to

  13. Governing China’s Clean Energy Transition: Policy Reforms, Flexible Implementation and the Need for Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the ten years since committing to clean energy transition, China has formulated a large number of policies and programs to achieve some very ambitious targets. This paper argues that the dearth of empirical studies concerning the implementation of these new policies and programs has created a knowledge gap between official policy documents, which are vague and lacking in specifics, and official policy outcomes, which are unreliable. In particular, the merits and limitations of flexible implementation with regard to desirable outcomes need to be debated and clarified. This paper calls for more empirical investigation in four areas as a starting point: (1 the nature and extent of flexibility in the implementation; (2 implementation strategies and their impacts; (3 factors that shape the behavior of local officials responsible for implementation; and (4 the relationship between the central-local relation and policy implementation.

  14. Meeting the healthcare needs of transgender people within the armed forces: putting UK military policy into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whybrow, Dean; New, Chris; Coetzee, Rik; Bickerstaffe, Paul

    2016-12-01

    To explain how the healthcare needs of transgender personnel are met within the United Kingdom Armed Forces. It may be that when transgender people disclose their gender preference that they are at increased risk of social exclusion. The United Kingdom Armed Forces has an inclusive organisational policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. This is a position paper about how the healthcare needs of transgender military personnel are met by the United Kingdom Armed Forces. United Kingdom Armed Forces policy was placed into context by reviewing current research, discussing medical terminology and describing the policy. This was followed by an account of how UK AF policy is applied in practice. Where armed forces had an inclusive policy for the management of transgender personnel, there seemed to be little cause for secrecy and zero tolerance of discrimination when compared to nations where this was not the case. Medical terminology has changed to reflect a more inclusive, less stigmatising use of language. The United Kingdom Armed Forces policy has been described as progressive and inclusive. The application of this policy in practice may be dependent upon strong leadership and training. The wider United Kingdom Armed Forces seems capable of adopting a pragmatic and flexible approach to meeting the healthcare needs of transgender personnel. The United Kingdom Armed Forces value diversity within their workforce and have a progressive, inclusive policy for the recruitment and management of transgender personnel. When supporting a transgender military person, healthcare professionals, civilian organisations and military line managers should consider referring to United Kingdom Armed Forces policy as early as possible. Other military and uniformed services may wish to examine the United Kingdom Armed Forces exemplar in order to consider the applicability within their own organisational setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The geography of graduate medical education: imbalances signal need for new distribution policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullan, Fitzhugh; Chen, Candice; Steinmetz, Erika

    2013-11-01

    Graduate medical education (GME) determines the overall number, specialization mix, and geographic distribution of the US physician workforce. Medicare GME payments-which represent the largest single public investment in health workforce development-are allocated based on an inflexible system whose rationale, effectiveness, and balance are increasingly being scrutinized. We analyzed Medicare cost reports from teaching hospitals and found large state-level differences in the number of Medicare-sponsored residents per 100,000 population (1.63 in Montana versus 77.13 in New York), total Medicare GME payments ($1.64 million in Wyoming versus $2 billion in New York), payments per person ($1.94 in Montana versus $103.63 in New York), and average payments per resident ($63,811 in Louisiana versus $155,135 in Connecticut). Ways to address these imbalances include revising Medicare's GME funding formulas and protecting those states that receive less Medicare GME support in case funding is decreased and making them a priority if it is increased. The GME system badly needs a coordinating body to deliberate and make policy about public investments in graduate medical education.

  16. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  17. Engineering bacterial translation initiation - Do we have all the tools we need?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigar, Justin R J; Wieden, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Reliable tools that allow precise and predictable control over gene expression are critical for the success of nearly all bioengineering applications. Translation initiation is the most regulated phase during protein biosynthesis, and is therefore a promising target for exerting control over gene expression. At the translational level, the copy number of a protein can be fine-tuned by altering the interaction between the translation initiation region of an mRNA and the ribosome. These interactions can be controlled by modulating the mRNA structure using numerous approaches, including small molecule ligands, RNAs, or RNA-binding proteins. A variety of naturally occurring regulatory elements have been repurposed, facilitating advances in synthetic gene regulation strategies. The pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of mechanisms governing translation initiation provides the framework for future engineering efforts. Here we outline state-of-the-art strategies used to predictably control translation initiation in bacteria. We also discuss current limitations in the field and future goals. Due to its function as the rate-determining step, initiation is the ideal point to exert effective translation regulation. Several engineering tools are currently available to rationally design the initiation characteristics of synthetic mRNAs. However, improvements are required to increase the predictability, effectiveness, and portability of these tools. Predictable and reliable control over translation initiation will allow greater predictability when designing, constructing, and testing genetic circuits. The ability to build more complex circuits predictably will advance synthetic biology and contribute to our fundamental understanding of the underlying principles of these processes. "This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Biochemistry of Synthetic Biology - Recent Developments" Guest Editor: Dr. Ilka Heinemann and Dr. Patrick O'Donoghue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  18. The initial development of the 'Cancer Caregiving Tasks, Consequences and Needs Questionnaire' (CaTCoN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Line; Ross, Lone; Grønvold, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    To develop a questionnaire for cancer patients' informal caregivers, measuring the caregiving tasks and consequences, and the caregivers' needs with a main focus on the interaction with the health care professionals. Such an instrument is needed to evaluate the efforts directed towards caregivers...

  19. Why do we need to integrate farmer decision making and wildlife models for policy evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2014-01-01

    Environmental and agricultural policy instruments cause changes in land-use which in turn affect habitat quality and availability for a range of species. These policies often have wildlife or biodiversity goals, but in many cases they are ineffective. The low effectiveness and the emergence...... on human (farmers) actions, which the policies aim to affect, and wildlife responses to land-use and management changes imposed by farmers. Thus, in order to design effective agri-environmental policies, detailed ex-ante assessments of both of these aspects are necessary. Due to the restrictive assumptions...

  20. A Human-Needs-Based Dynamics to Simulate Technology Policy and Its Effects on Both Business Success and Human Happiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Yeon Lim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on how human needs are reflected in the market and how several technological and political policies affect the market share of government-supported industries, as well as the satisfaction of human desires and consequent happiness. In this paper, we seek to understand the dynamics of consumer decision-making processes in relation to technology products in the market. In this study, we present a new marketing model based on human needs, wants, and demands, and focus on both holistic and social perspectives. We have shown that human-based policy dynamics and sustainable human happiness can be realized by stimulating national policies for consumer happiness in the human-needs-based sector, e.g., the healthcare industry.

  1. Children in Need of Protection: Reporting Policies in Ontario School Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewchuk, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    A clear, well defined policy can help empower school personnel to make informed decisions on how to handle cases of suspected child abuse. This article presents an analysis of (N = 64) school board child abuse reporting policies and procedures in Ontario and explored what training, resources, and support school boards state they will provide to…

  2. Xhosa male initiation: freedom of choice versus the need to belong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Rienie

    2013-01-01

    The question of choice and individual decision making in groups where a strong ideology exists has been repeatedly studied and debated. The objective of this paper is to highlight the aspects of influence pertaining to initiation in the life world of the Xhosa boy. The amaXhosa are speakers of Bantu languages traditionally living in south-east South-Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. To substantiate the literature study, a survey in the form of a questionnaire was done to establish the attitudes of Xhosa people regarding traditional male initiation. To gather in-depth information from persons who had personal contact with initiates, interviews were conducted with two selected people in helping professions. The author argues that the traditional custom of male initiation among the amaXhosa rests on an ideology that tolerates no dissent or critique and that deprives individuals of their decision-making power. It is further argued that the implication of not undergoing the ritual is so severe for Xhosa boys that the choice they are thought to have may not be a choice in practice. Questions were raised regarding the role of children and women in general in a patriarchal society. As an example of culture and religion as influencing factors in a group's reality, Xhosa male initiation was discussed. These arguments call for the raising of questions and identifying themes and discourse in the area of children's right to choice. The results indicate that, regardless of physical and psychological implications, the custom in its traditional form is still preferred by most respondents.

  3. Food waste disposal units in UK households: the need for policy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovidou, Eleni; Ohandja, Dieudonne-Guy; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2012-04-15

    The EU Landfill Directive requires Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste disposed of to landfill. This has been a key driver for the establishment of new waste management options, particularly in the UK, which in the past relied heavily on landfill for the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). MSW in the UK is managed by Local Authorities, some of which in a less conventional way have been encouraging the installation and use of household food waste disposal units (FWDs) as an option to divert food waste from landfill. This study aimed to evaluate the additional burden to water industry operations in the UK associated with this option, compared with the benefits and related savings from the subsequent reductions in MSW collection and disposal. A simple economic analysis was undertaken for different FWD uptake scenarios, using the Anglian Region as a case study. Results demonstrated that the significant savings from waste collection arising from a large-scale uptake of FWDs would outweigh the costs associated with the impacts to the water industry. However, in the case of a low uptake, such savings would not be enough to cover the increased costs associated with the wastewater provision. As a result, this study highlights the need for policy intervention in terms of regulating the use of FWDs, either promoting them as an alternative to landfill to increase savings from waste management, or banning them as a threat to wastewater operations to reduce potential costs to the water industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Converging research needs across framework convention on tobacco control articles: making research relevant to global tobacco control practice and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leischow, Scott J; Ayo-Yusuf, Olalekan; Backinger, Cathy L

    2013-04-01

    Much of the research used to support the ratification of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was conducted in high-income countries or in highly controlled environments. Therefore, for the global tobacco control community to make informed decisions that will continue to effectively inform policy implementation, it is critical that the tobacco control community, policy makers, and funders have updated information on the state of the science as it pertains to provisions of the FCTC. Following the National Cancer Institute's process model used in identifying the research needs of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's relatively new tobacco law, a core team of scientists from the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco identified and commissioned internationally recognized scientific experts on the topics covered within the FCTC. These experts analyzed the relevant sections of the FCTC and identified critical gaps in research that is needed to inform policy and practice requirements of the FCTC. This paper summarizes the process and the common themes from the experts' recommendations about the research and related infrastructural needs. Research priorities in common across Articles include improving surveillance, fostering research communication/collaboration across organizations and across countries, and tracking tobacco industry activities. In addition, expanding research relevant to low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), was also identified as a priority, including identification of what existing research findings are transferable, what new country-specific data are needed, and the infrastructure needed to implement and disseminate research so as to inform policy in LMIC.

  5. Policy Debate | Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Initiative : What Can We Learn from its Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.In her article ‘Pay to Preserve: The Global Politics of Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Proposal’, published in DevPol’s special issue on  Energy and Development in 2011, Pamela L. Martin, Associate Professor of Politics at the Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, provided a favourable outlook on Ecuador’s innovative environmental governance mechanism. Accordingly, its unique potential lay in its objective of contributing towards sustainable development and social justice and in case of success, the author even predicted a possible replication in other developing countries. Despite its benefits, the initiative was abandoned in 2013. In this paper, Martin revisits the initiative and analyses the reasons for its failure, namely President Correa’s public pursuit of a Plan B, entering into negotiations with oil firms interested to explore the ITT reserves. Moreover, the initiative was in stark competition with the national REDD+ programme, the mainstream policy approach to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation against payments, which is being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC.Pamela L. Martin’s article is followed by a response by Dr. Imme Scholz, Deputy Director of the German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE. She examines why Germany, as the largest European donor, withdrew its support for the Yasuní-ITT Initiative.Readers who are intetested are invited to contribute to this policy debate on our blog .Download the whole

  6. Removing Dams: Project-Level Policy and Scientific Research Needs (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graber, B.

    2010-12-01

    . Applied research is needed to provide management tools for practitioners on questions such as: How do we determine the quantity of sediment that is acceptable to release downstream without causing long-term harm to habitat? How can we estimate how much sediment rivers naturally carry in places where there are no sediment gauges? Will the release of coarse-grain sediment help build habitat structure downstream or will it smother habitat? What is the trajectory of habitat quality in an impoundment wetland and is it justifiable to use self-sustainability as an argument to allow a reduction in wetland area for native river habitat? Will having construction equipment working in the flowing river channel do less harm than dewatering a river channel for a longer period of time? American Rivers staff have collectively had an active involvement in more than one hundred dam removal projects. In this presentation, an American Rivers geomorphologist will pose the questions that need to be answered to reduce project-level policy challenges and allow the implementation of cost-effective dam removal projects.

  7. An Investigation of the Guidance Counselling Needs of Adults with Dyslexia in the Adult Educational Guidance Initiative (AEGI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elftorp, Petra; Hearne, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The experiences of adult learners with dyslexia is an under-researched area in Ireland at present. This article will discuss the findings from phase one of a mixed methods research study, which is investigating the guidance counselling needs of clients with dyslexia within the Adult Education Guidance Initiative (AEGI). The research is underpinned…

  8. Single Mothers' Experiences with Pregnancy and Child Rearing in Korea: Discrepancy between Social Services/Policies and Single Mothers' Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Eun; Lee, Jin Yong; Lee, Sang Hyung

    2018-05-10

    This study aims to explore single mothers’ experiences with social services/policies for their independent living and to identify gaps between these experiences and the needs of single mothers. A focus group discussion was performed to collect data. Seven single mothers discussed their experiences in significant periods of their lives: pregnancy, childbirth, and parenting. Findings from the qualitative thematic analysis show discrepancies between the direction of social services/policies and single mothers’ needs, in terms of difficulties in healthcare, childcare, housing, employment, and income security. To the single mothers in this study, the social safety net is not inclusive, compared to that which is available to two-parent families or adoptive families. It is necessary to intervene in current blind spots of services/policies for single mothers, and to provide a social safety net to strengthen single mothers’ self-reliance and their children’s social security in the long term.

  9. Design and Formative Evaluation of the Policy Liaison Initiative: A Long-Term Knowledge Translation Strategy to Encourage and Support the Use of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for Informing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sue E.; Cumpston, Miranda; Misso, Marie L.; McDonald, Steve; Murphy, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The Policy Liaison Initiative (PLI) is a long-term knowledge translation initiative designed to support the use of Cochrane systematic reviews in health policy. A joint initiative between the Australasian Cochrane Centre and Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, the PLI includes: 1) a community of practice for evidence-informed…

  10. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to identify the key challenges with current Army personnel policies and to provide recommendations that would reduce the impact of single parents on Army unit readiness...

  11. Report: EPA Needs to Improve Recording Information Technology Investments and Issue a Policy Covering All Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0292, September 22, 2015. The EPA management of its $334 million in IT investments is noncompliant with its current policy. Thus, the EPA is at risk of not managing taxpayer dollars properly.

  12. The African Capacity Building Initiative: Toward Improved Policy Analysis and Development Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of the African Capacity Building Initiative is to build and strengthen local capabilities for policy analysis and development management in Sub-Saharan Africa. This report examines the nature and magnitude of the problem, which basically consists of a shortage of development management skills combined with weakness in the area of…

  13. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  14. Can Perceptions of Similarity Reduce the Ability to See the Other's Needs? The Case of Immigrant Students' Integration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpaizman, Ilana; Kogut, Tehila

    2010-01-01

    In this age of wide migration waves all over the world, when schools' populations become more diverse, educators often make policies regarding groups of immigrant students (from the same origin) with unique needs. Perceptions of homogeneity of the group, as well as perceptions of similarity between the decision maker and the group members are…

  15. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Ciais; A. J. Dolman; A. Bombelli; R. Duren; A. Peregon; P. J. Rayner; C. Miller; N. Gobron; G. Kinderman; G. Marland; N. Gruber; F. Chevallier; R. J. Andres; G. Balsamo; L. Bopp; F.-M. Bréon; G. Broquet; R. Dargaville; T. J. Battin; A. Borges; H. Bovensmann; M. Buchwitz; J. Butler; J. G. Canadell; R. B. Cook; R. DeFries; R. Engelen; K. R. Gurney; C. Heinze; M. Heimann; A. Held; M. Henry; B. Law; S. Luyssaert; J. Miller; T. Moriyama; C. Moulin; R. B. Myneni; C. Nussli; M. Obersteiner; D. Ojima; Y. Pan; J.-D. Paris; S. L. Piao; B. Poulter; S. Plummer; S. Quegan; P. Raymond; M. Reichstein; L. Rivier; C. Sabine; D. Schimel; O. Tarasova; R. Valentini; R. Wang; G. van der Werf; D. Wickland; M. Williams; C. Zehner

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires...

  16. AskFuse Origins: System Barriers to Providing the Research That Public Health Practice and Policy Partners Say They Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushmer, Rosemary; Shucksmith, Janet

    2018-01-01

    In this paper the development of askFuse is used as a case study to illustrate contextual and system barriers to universities providing useful, usable and timely research evidence in response to local practice and policy partners' stated public health research needs. Entrenched systems (research excellence framework, academic career pathways,…

  17. Synthesis of the initial survey related to PSAs End-Users needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guigueno, Yves; Duflot, Nicolas; Durin, Thomas; Pihl, Joel; Benzoni, Stephane; Brac, Pascal; Gallois, Marie; Vasseur, Dominique; Loeffler, Horst; Nitoi, Mirela; Volkanovski, Andrija; Sevbo, Oleksandr; Ivanov, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The ASAMPSA-E project aims at identifying good practices for the development of extended PSAs that include low-probability internal and external hazards which can lead to extreme consequences, and at discussing the application of extended PSAs for NPP safety enhancement decision making in the European context. A first questionnaire related to End-Users needs (ASAMPSA-E/WP10/D10.112013-4) has been disseminated at international level to PSA End-Users in November 2013 in order to identify the needs for guidance for the performance and application of extended PSA. This document presents the analysis of the responses to the survey. A draft version has been used to present the responses to the survey and discuss End-Users' needs during an international workshop organized on 26, 27 and 28 May 2014 in Uppsala (Sweden). The final version of this document has been prepared by incorporating the comments received from the project partners and the outcomes of the discussions at the Uppsala workshop. (authors)

  18. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  19. The Local Initiator Role in the Adoption of Biogas Energy Innovation for Household Needs in Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiningsih

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for Kerosene is very high. When energy crisis hit Indonesia, it caused the scarcity and soaring prices of kerosene. Hence, finding alternative energy sources is needed, especially a renewable energy to households. One is which is Biogas energy. Biogas is an energy that uses simple technology, which uses raw materials of animal waste. Many rural communities do not know about it, so it requires a pioneer, called the local initiator. The local initiator is an agent of change that comes from the local community, who has the initiative to make changes and become a guide passage of the change process in an organization or community, in order to achieve the expected goals. Local initiator becomes an important factor in the success of biogas innovation adoption. Biogas is used for household needs such as cooking, water heating, and lighting. Biogas program has been reinforced by Presidential Decree No 5 of 2006, Minister of ESDM Regulation (Permen ESDM No 3 of 2013, Permen ESDM No 10 of 2015, and Minister of Rural Affairs Regulation (Permen Desa No 5 of 2015. This paper aims to examine the role of a local initiator as an agent of change and the most dominant factors in the successful adoption of biogas for the needs of rural households. This study uses a qualitative method by using a case study approach and conducting a descriptive analysis. The focus of the data analysis is only performed on the local initiator in the successful adoption of biogas in Haurngombong village in West Java and Pandua-North Lombok, NTB. The result of the study shows that the successful adoption of biogas in Haurngombong Village and Pandua Village is strongly influenced by the local initiator. The local initiator success is not determined by the position, age, and gender, but is determined by the experience in the use of biogas, biogas sector knowledge, dissemination strategies, and communication among stakeholders of biogas program. The key to the success of local

  20. The Initiative to extend Medicare into Mexico: a case study in changing U.S. Health Care Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Ibarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the geo-political activities of interest groups, governments and multinational corporations involved in an initiative to extend Medicare to U.S. retirees residing in Mexico.  If the initiative to change the current Medicare policy succeeds, the relocation of Medicare-eligible populations from the U.S. to Mexico is likely to increase; the U.S. is expected to gain cost-savings for taxpayers on Medicare; Mexico can develop senior-housing and options for long-term care it currently lacks; and foreign-led multinational corporations will increase their profits and dominance, fostering even more privatization in Mexico’s health care sector. By exploring new issues about retirement migration and health this study seeks to gain knowledge about the phenomena in a number of areas.  First, the retirement migration of North Americans to Latin America is an under-studied phenomenon in the fields of social gerontology, migration research, and health policy studies.  Second, the Medicare in Mexico initiative is even less well-known among health policy scholars than the retirement migration phenomenon into Mexico. Yet this initiative is inherently international in scope and involves a number of US-based institutions and interest groups actively promoting the project from within Mexico. Thus, the initiative has important geo-political and socio-economic implications for reforming health care systems in the U.S. and Mexico.

  1. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  2. Forgotten but not gone: an examination of fit between leader consideration and initiating structure needed and received.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Lisa Schurer; Tepper, Bennett J; Carr, Jon C; Holt, Daniel T; Barelka, Alex J

    2012-09-01

    We examined the effects of fit between leader consideration and initiating structure needed and received on employees' work-related attitudes (i.e., trust in the supervisor, job satisfaction, and affective commitment to the organization). Consistent with predictions that derive from the person-environment fit research tradition, results from Study 1 suggested that deficient amounts of both leadership behaviors were associated with unfavorable attitudinal outcomes. However, while excess levels of consideration were associated with favorable attitudinal outcomes, excess levels of initiating structure were associated with unfavorable attitudes, and for both forms of leadership, higher levels of absolute fit were associated with more favorable outcomes. Results from Study 2 suggested that attitudes generated by the fit between leadership needed and received influence employees' organizational citizenship behavior as reported by their supervisors. The relationship between consideration needed and received and subordinates' organizational citizenship behavior relating to individuals (OCBI) and organizational citizenship behavior relating to the organization itself (OCBO) was partially mediated by employees' trust in the supervisor, while the relationship between initiating structure needed and received and OCBI was fully mediated by trust in the supervisor, and for OCBO was partially mediated.

  3. The effects of autonomy-supportive coaching, need satisfaction, and self-perceptions on initiative and identity in youth swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, J Douglas; Conroy, David E

    2009-03-01

    This study tested a sequential process model linking youth sport coaching climates (perceived coach behaviors and perceived need satisfaction) to youth self-perceptions (perceived competence and global self-esteem) and youth development outcomes (initiative, identity reflection, identity exploration). A sample of 119 youth between the ages of 10 and 18 who participated in a community-directed summer swim league completed questionnaires over the course of the 7-week season. Results indicated that coaches' autonomy support, particularly via process-focused praise, predicted youth competence need satisfaction and relatedness need satisfaction in the coaching relationship. Youth competence need satisfaction predicted self-esteem indirectly via perceived competence. Finally, self-esteem predicted identity reflection, and perceived competence predicted both identity reflection and initiative. Effects of age, sex, and perceptions of direct contact with the coach were not significant. Findings suggest that the quality of the coaching climate is an important predictor of the developmental benefits of sport participation and that one pathway by which the coaching climate has its effect on initiative and identity reflection is through developing youth self-perceptions.

  4. Inclusive Education for Children with Special Education Needs:A Critique of Policy and Practice in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Hornby

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the issue of inclusive education for children with disabilities and special educational needs, in particular with regard to policies and practices in developed countries, such as New Zealand. The article reviews the debate about inclusive education and outlines several confusions about inclusion that have emerged from this debate. It then provides a critique of policies and practices regarding inclusive education in New Zealand, in comparison to those in other developed countries, such as the USA and England. Finally, implications of the issues discussed for developing countries, such as those in the Asia-'‐Pacific region, are outlined.

  5. White paper on science and technology, 1999. New development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This white paper presents various considerations on present important issues on Japanese science and technology by focusing on what is demanded of Japan's science and technology policy in responding to these national and social needs. This papers concern policy measures intended to promote science and technology, and has been submitted to the hundred forty-second session of the Diet, pursuant to Article 8 of the Science and Technology Basic Law (Law No. 130), enacted in 1995. Part 1 and Part 2 of this report discuss the trends in a wide range of scientific and technical activities to help understanding the policy measures implemented to promote science and technology, which are then discussed in Part 3. The title of Part 1 is new development in science and technology policy: responding to national and societal needs. In this part, what sort of efforts is needed in the world of today, where science and technology are engines for social and economic revolution was examined in order for science and technology to better meet national and societal needs. In Part 2, current status of science and technology in Japan and other nations in the areas pertaining to science and technology were examined using various data as to the scientific and technical activities in Japan. This information will then be used for a more in-depth analysis of the trends in Japan's research activities. Part 3 provides a summary of the Science and Technology Basic Plan that was determined in July 1996 based on the Science and Technology Basic Law. It continues with a discussion of the policies that were implemented in FY1998 for the promotion of science and technology, in line with this basic plan. (M.N.)

  6. Five Portraits of Teachers' Experiences Teaching Writing: Negotiating Knowledge, Student Need, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahleithner, Juliet Michelsen

    2018-01-01

    Background: Numerous reports have highlighted problems with writing instruction in American schools, yet few examine the interplay of teachers' preparation to teach writing, the instructional policies they must navigate, and the writing development of the students in their classrooms. Purpose: This study examines high school English teachers'…

  7. Offensive Cyber Operations: The Need for a Policy to Contend with the Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    18 Sun Tzu , The Art of War, translated by Samuel B. Griffith, (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1963), pg 77. 25 A policy that articulates...accessed: September 10, 2015). Sun Tzu , The Art of War, translated by Samuel B. Griffith, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1963. U.S. Government...35 Bibliography

  8. Structural Approaches to Health Promotion: What Do We Need to Know about Policy and Environmental Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lisa; Golden, Shelley D.; Earp, Jo Anne L.

    2013-01-01

    Although the public health literature has increasingly called on practitioners to implement changes to social, environmental, and political structures as a means of improving population health, recent research suggests that articles evaluating organization, community, or policy changes are more limited than those focused on programs with…

  9. Attachment to Parents and Depressive Symptoms in College Students: The Mediating Role of Initial Emotional Adjustment and Psychological Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Smojver-Ažić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to explore the role of parental attachment in students' depressive symptoms. We have examined wheather initial emotional adjustment and psychological needs would serve as a mediator of the relationship between attachment dimensions (anxiety and avoidance and depressive symptoms.A sample consisted of 219 students (143 females randomly selected from the University of Rijeka, Croatia, with mean age 19.02 years. Participants provided self-report on the Experiences in Close Relationship Inventory and The Student Adaptation to College Questionnaire at the beginning of the first year of college, and The Basic Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II at the third year of college.Results of hierarchical regression analyses confirm that emotional adjustment had a full mediation effect on anxiety dimension and partial mediation on avoidance dimension. Only a partial mediation effect of psychological needs for autonomy and relatedness between attachment and depressive symptoms was found.The findings of this study give support to the researches indicating the importance of parental attachment for college students not only through its direct effects on depressive symptoms, but also through effects on the initial emotional adjustment and satisfaction of psychological needs. The results of the mediation analysis suggest that both attachment dimensions and emotional adjustment as well as psychological need satisfaction have a substantial shared variance when predicting depressive symptoms and that each variable also gives a unique contribution to depressive symptoms.

  10. Joint Improvised-Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter-Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-09

    E XC E L L E N C E Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device...USE ONLY DODIG-2016-120 (Project No. D2015-D000AE-0222.000) │ i Results in Brief Joint Improvised ‑Threat Defeat Agency Needs to Improve Assessment and...Documentation of Counter‑ Improvised Explosive Device Initiatives Visit us at www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether

  11. Policy needs and options for a common transatlantic approach towards measuring adoption, usage and benefits of eHealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroetmann, Karl A; Middleton, Blackford

    2011-01-01

    The European Union (EU) sponsored ARGOS project analysed current eHealth policy thinking in both the EU and the USA, compared strategic challenges and outcomes in selected fields, and drafted roadmaps towards developing advanced global approaches for these issues. This policy brief focuses on better understanding the benefits and costs of eHealth investments, assessing their overall socio-economic impact, identifying challenges and success factors, as well as measuring and globally benchmarking the concrete usage of eHealth solutions. These are by now key policy priorities not only of national governments and the European Commission, but also of international institutions like WHO or OECD. There is a strong felt transatlantic need for stocktaking, identifying lessons learned, sharing of experience, and working together to advance these issues for the benefit of health systems. A growing number of national and international activities can be taken advantage of. Recommendations on how to proceed with such transatlantic activities are proposed.

  12. 31 CFR 363.96 - What do I need to know if I initially purchase a bond as a gift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... purchase a bond as a gift? 363.96 Section 363.96 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money...Direct Gifts § 363.96 What do I need to know if I initially purchase a bond as a gift? (a) An entity may not purchase a gift savings bond. (b) The gift bond will be registered in the name of the recipient(s...

  13. CORAL CONSERVATION BIOLOGY APPLIED TO POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES. (R825158)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Viewpoint: methanol poisoning outbreak in Libya: a need for policy reforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed

    2014-11-01

    We address the controversies surrounding a 2013 outbreak of methanol poisoning in Tripoli, Libya. We critically examine and systematically analyze the outbreak to highlight the lessons learned from this disaster and how to act properly to prevent similar outbreaks in future. Many health problems have been directly attributed to drinking alcohol; the type and quality of alcohol determines the detrimental effects. An unregulated and flourishing black market in alcohol is among the factors behind the Libyan tragedy, where approximately 90 deaths and about 1000 hospital admissions were reported. We reviewed gaps in local and regional alcohol policy, and highlighted the issue of illegally produced and home-made alcohol. Collaboration between countries in the region plus critical health and policy reforms in Libya, with emphasis on public health preparedness, can dramatically decrease morbidity and mortality associated with such outbreaks.

  15. Secure energy supply in 2025: Indonesia's need for an energy policy strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujiyanto, Sugeng; Tiess, Günter

    2013-01-01

    Indonesia as an emerging country with one of the fastest growing economies requires sufficient supply with energy for national development. Domestic energy production cannot satisfy the domestic demand, and the deficiency necessitates growing imports. The present energy mix consists of 96% from non-renewable sources, i.e. fossil fuels, less than 4% from renewables. Government Regulation 5/2006 aims at increasing the proportion of renewable sources to 17%. Two scenarios for the energy situation in 2025 have been elaborated and are discussed. An overall energy policy strategy and regulatory framework covering non-renewable and renewable resources are crucial for securing energy demand. - Highlights: • Indonesia aims at 17% renewable energy in energy mix 2025. • Population growth exceeds increase of energy production. • Investment incentives for new technologies, exploration and efficient production are necessary. • Clear and comprehensive energy policy strategy and regulatory framework are crucial

  16. Support Policies in Clusters: Prioritization of Support Needs by Cluster Members According to Cluster Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulcin Salıngan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Economic development has always been a moving target. Both the national and local governments have been facing the challenge of implementing the effective and efficient economic policy and program in order to best utilize their limited resources. One of the recent approaches in this area is called cluster-based economic analysis and strategy development. This study reviews key literature and some of the cluster based economic policies adopted by different governments. Based on this review, it proposes “the cluster life cycle” as a determining factor to identify the support requirements of clusters. A survey, designed based on literature review of International Cluster support programs, was conducted with 30 participants from 3 clusters with different maturity stage. This paper discusses the results of this study conducted among the cluster members in Eskişehir- Bilecik-Kütahya Region in Turkey on the requirement of the support to foster the development of related clusters.

  17. Food allergy - science and policy needs - The UK Food Standards Agency Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Joelle; Hattersley, Sue; Kimber, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Food allergy is a significant health issue in the UK, affecting between 1 and 2% of adults and 5 and 8% of children. The UK Food Standards Agency seeks to ensure the safety of food allergic consumers by providing them with information and guidance on food choices. Since 1995, with the aim of addressing important policy issues and improving the quality of the support and guidance available for food allergic consumers, the Agency (and before that the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food), has had a programme of research dedicated to investigating the causes and mechanisms of food allergy and delivering benefits for UK consumers. In this paper, we outline some of the major scientific challenges that the programme has sought to address. We reflect on how the findings have been used as a basis for the development of sound, evidence-based policy and advice for UK consumers, and the current direction of research being supported by the programme.

  18. The marketing of dissolvable tobacco: social science and public policy research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwell, Brian G; Kim, Annice E; Tessman, Greta K; MacMonegle, Anna J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Evans, Sarah E; Johnson, Robin D

    2012-01-01

    The latest generation of smokeless tobacco products encompasses a wide range of offerings, including what is commonly referred to as dissolvable tobacco. Designed to deliver nicotine upon dissolving or disintegrating in a user's mouth, dissolvable tobacco products currently appear in various United States markets as strips, orbs, sticks, and lozenges. The emergence of these new products poses distinct opportunities and challenges for social and behavioral science and public health research and raises important public policy questions.

  19. A Utilitarian Perspective of Social and Medical Contributions to Three Illustrative Conditions, and Recent UK NHS Policy Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Hugh; Shaw, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date debate concerning the relative merits of social and medical sciences has been\\ud largely academic.\\ud Aims: To outline and critically appraise a utilitarian approach to mental health research that reflects a\\ud critical realist perspective.\\ud Method: Consideration of the relative utility of differing approaches to illustrative ‘‘psychiatric’’\\ud disorders, and recent policy initiatives.\\ud Results: Socially relevant outcomes of Bipolar Affective Disorder are determined by...

  20. Landscapes in transition: an analysis of sustainable policy initiatives and emerging corporate commitments in the palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Hou Tham, Mun

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and forests of high conservation value. Focusing on palm oil—a versatile food crop and source of bioenergy—this paper analyses national, international and corporate policy initiatives in ...

  1. An evaluation of the new home-care needs assessment policy in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, M.; Francke, A.L.; Kerkstra, A.; Zee, J. van der

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the realisation of the new-style needs assessment in the Netherlands and how it is evaluated. Furthermore, judgements about the new way of assessing (chronic) patients' needs with respect to home care are presented. Data were gathered by means of a postal

  2. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  3. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  4. The local exchange network in the information age - The need for new policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fons, J.P. (Ausley, McMullen, McGehee, Carothers and Proctor, Tallahassee, FL (USA))

    1990-01-18

    This article is an analysis of a conventional belief that the local exchange telephone networks are bottleneck monopolies. It also examines the alleged bases for excluding the local exchange telephone companies from participating directly in existing and developing technologies and markets other than those of a telephone service, or dial-tone. The author concludes that adherence to the current policy in the face of a demand for information age technology and services, and the availability of competing systems, will condemn the local exchange networks to the technological junk heap - and at the same time deprive the public of some of its best opportunities for new and enhanced services.

  5. The initial development of an instrument to assess the psychosocial needs and unmet needs of young people who have a parent with cancer: piloting the offspring cancer needs instrument (OCNI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Pandora; Pearce, Angela; Slawitschka, Emma

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to identify the psychosocial needs of young people (12-24 years) who have a parent with cancer and to assess whether these needs are being met. This paper also presented the initial steps in the development of a need-based measure-the Offspring Cancer Needs Instrument (OCNI). Study 1 used qualitative methods to identify the needs of the target population, including a focus group (n = 6), telephone interviews (n = 8) and staff survey (n = 26). In study 2, a quantitative survey design was employed where 116 young people completed the 67-item OCNI and either the total difficulties score of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ-TD; 12-17-year-old) or Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21) (18-24-year-old). Tests of reliability (Cronbach's alpha) were used to assess the properties of each domain, where a level of 0.70 was deemed satisfactory as per scale guidelines. Construct validity was assessed by testing the proposed relationship between unmet needs and functioning where a coefficient of 0.03 was deemed satisfactory. The qualitative data yielded eight need domains (information, peer support, feelings, carer support, family, school/work environment, access to support and respite and recreation), which were subsequently used to inform the item content of the OCNI. The survey data revealed that 90% of young people endorsed 10 or more needs, and nearly a quarter indicated >50 needs. It was also found that these needs often go unmet: 87% of the participants had at least one unmet need, 43% reported >10 and just under a quarter had >20 unmet needs. The two highest reported unmet needs related to understanding from friends and assistance with concentrating and staying on task. The OCNI exhibited face and content validity and acceptable reliability for most of the domains. Cronbach's alpha ranged from 0.64 (access to support) to 0.92 (information). Preliminary construct validity was assessed through the hypothesised positive

  6. Policy initiatives by the Government of India to accelerate growth of nuclear installed capacity in the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    When examined from the point of view of the size of its population and economy, India is not well endowed with energy resources. Studies done by the Department of Atomic Energy indicate that even after exploiting full potential of every available source of energy including nuclear energy, India needs to continue to import energy resources. In this backdrop, an initiative was launched by Government of India to open up international civil nuclear commerce so as to enable India to access natural uranium from international market and to set up nuclear reactors in technical cooperation with other countries. International civil nuclear trade is governed by guidelines of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and its guidelines, as they were, required all nuclear materials and facilities in the recipient country, other than those identified as Nuclear Weapon States in the Treaty for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to be under Comprehensive Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The civil nuclear initiative of the Government of India involved having a dialogue with several NSG members; negotiating agreements of cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy with France, Russia and USA; formulating a plan separating certain nuclear facilities and a timetable for offering them, in a phased manner, to IAEA for implementation of safeguards; and negotiating an India-specific safeguards agreement with IAEA. As a result of all these steps, the guidelines for civil nuclear cooperation were modified by the NSG on 6th September 2008 to facilitate nuclear trade with India without the condition of Comprehensive Safeguards. India has since been able to import uranium and dialogue is ongoing with France, Russia and the USA to set up, with their technical cooperation, light water reactors at selected sites. To facilitate international civil nuclear trade, a policy resolution has also been issued and The Civil Nuclear Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 is under

  7. The Need to Change Army Policies Toward Single Parents and Dual Military Couples With Children

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carroll, Carolyn

    2005-01-01

    ... and to best manage our single parent service members and dual-military couples. There is a need to address the Army regulations that are ambiguous and contradictory toward enlisting and retaining single parents...

  8. The economic power of energy and the need to integrate it with energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kümmel, Reiner; Lindenberger, Dietmar; Weiser, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Drastic oil price changes, the associated economic perturbations, the coupling of energy conversion to entropy production in the form of emissions, and the problems of climate change call for a reappraisal of energy in economic theory. We review econometric growth analyses that do not weigh the production factors capital, labor, and energy by their cost shares. Their reproduction of economic growth in Germany, Japan, and the USA during the second half of 20th century is good. According to these analyses, energy's output elasticity, which measures its economic power, is much larger than energy's share in total factor cost, while for labor's output elasticity and cost share the opposite is true. This is consistent with profit and welfare optimization, if hitherto ignored technological constraints are taken into account. Computing the motion of the German industrial sector in its cost mountain, employing empirical data on factor quantities and prices, supports these results. The pivotal role of energy in economic growth provides leverage to energy policies that care about social well being and climate stability. - Highlights: • The article indicates the importance of thermodynamics for economics. • Due to technological constraints output elasticities deviate from factor cost shares. • We point out energy policy implications from the high output elasticities of energy.

  9. In the absence of fiscal union, the Eurozone needs a more flexible monetary policy: A reply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The authors (A&F reply to Andrea Terzi’s comment on their previous paper, published in the December 2015 issue of this Review. Andrea Terzi’s two main objections to A&F analysis are: that diverging current-account (CA balances enhanced the fragility of the member countries of the euroarea, but were not the cause of the liquidity crisis that occurred between 2010 and 2012; and that A&F’s quantity-theoretic view of monetary policy implementation is not applicable to a floating currency like the euro, or to the Target2 payment system. To these objections, the authors reply that the policy prescription for targeting current-account balances is based on the proposition that relevant underlying factors such as losses of competitiveness, sticky real exchange rates, persistent trade deficits, sudden stops in capital flows, and vanishing liquidity can account for a liquidity crisis independent of fiscal irresponsibility; and that their original model simply shows that, in the aftermath of the financial crisis, the size of the balance sheets of major central banks has exploded. Considering the high correlation between the size of central banks’ balance sheets and the monetary base, the obvious question is: if the quantity of the monetary base is not a useful concept, why are we having an indigestion of quantitative easing? JEL: E42, E52, E58.

  10. In the absence of fiscal union, the Eurozone needs a more flexible monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Alessandrini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper makes three points. The first is that external imbalances between Member States are relevant for the performance of a monetary union when the latter is not backed by a strong political commitment and a solid political framework. Eurozone policymakers have ignored these inter-member imbalances and have instead concentrated on union-wide imbalances, so much so that statistical data on the former phenomenon still remain largely incomplete. There are signs that a correction is in the making, which we hope will lead to a comprehensive quantitative knowledge of intra-EMU imbalances. The second objective of the paper is to design specific policies aimed at reducing inter-member external disequilibria, for example by fixing targets on current-account imbalances symmetrically applied to both deficit and surplus countries. The contrast between the keen attention of the EZ policymakers on national fiscal imbalances and the belated and lukewarm attention given to external imbalances is striking. The third aim of the paper is to propose a more flexible monetary policy aimed at controlling the distribution of liquidity among Member States, resulting from inter-member external imbalances. Our proposal is that National Central Banks should add a risk premium cost to official interest rates on banks that accumulate “excessive” borrowings or deposits to compensate, respectively, for outflows and inflows of the monetary base due to the effect of external imbalances. JEL classification: E42, E52, E58

  11. In the absence of fiscal union, the Eurozone needs a more flexible monetary policy: A comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Terzi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is a comment on Alessandrini and Fratianni (2015 (A&F, on how can the euro area cope with inter-regional differences in the absence of fiscal union. A&F develop a model to support their proposals, against which twomain remarks are raised here. First, diverging current account imbalances shaped the eurozone countries’ vulnerability, but were not a cause of the euroarea 2010-2012 liquidity crisis. Second, A&F’s quantity-theoretic view of monetary policy implementation is inapplicable to a floating currency like the euro, or to the Target2 payment system. A&F’s proposal of adding a current account constraint to the existing fiscal constraint for EA countries could have a positive impact if a country running a large current account balance and having fiscal room, as defined by the EU rules, were pressed to engage in expansionary fiscal policy. The problem with such a double constraint, however, is that the stronger the impact on the other EA countries, the sooner fiscal room would be exhausted. This criticism however does not imply that in the absence of fiscal union there is no stable solution; a coordinated pro-quota fiscal expansion would provide such stable solution. JEL: E42, E52, E58

  12. Scientific knowledge and environmental policy. Why science needs values. Environmental essay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carolan, M.S. [Department of Sociology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins (United States)

    2006-12-15

    While the term 'science' is evoked with immense frequency in the political arena, it continues to be misunderstood. Perhaps the most repeated example of this - particularly when dealing with environmental policy and regulatory issues - is when science is called upon to provide the unattainable: namely, proof. What is scientific knowledge and, more importantly, what is it capable of providing us? These questions must be answered - by policymakers, politicians, the public, and scientists themselves - if we hope to ever resolve today's environmental controversies in a just and equitable way. This paper begins by critically examining the concepts of uncertainty and proof as they apply to science. Discussion then turns to the issue of values in science. This is to speak of the normative decisions that are made routinely in the environmental sciences (but often without them being recognized as such). To conclude, insights are gleaned from the preceding sections to help us understand how science should be utilized and conducted, particularly as it applies to environmental policy.

  13. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  14. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  15. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. WEC Assessment of Energy and Climate Policy 2009. The Need for New Thinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, R. N.

    2009-01-01

    The complex interactions between the global economy, energy systems, social priorities, and the environment are little appreciated, much less understood. Arguably, in trying to deal with just one of these systems, the situation is often made worse for all. Energy is in fact the glue that holds the entire system together; yet, it is usually treated as a response, not as an integral part. A new dynamic is called for involving unprecedented levels of cooperation and integration between governments, between businesses, and between both-demanding energy policies that hasten the achievement of social, economic, environmental, and national security goals. The energy resources are available, but do we have the collective will to make the necessary changes in thinking? The answer must be positive, international, loud, and spoken soon. The WEC Assessment aims to accelerate the achievement of this new dynamic by assisting countries in sharing information and practices.(author).

  17. Policy statement--emergency information forms and emergency preparedness for children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Children with chronic medical conditions rely on complex management plans for problems that cause them to be at increased risk for suboptimal outcomes in emergency situations. The emergency information form (EIF) is a medical summary that describes medical condition(s), medications, and special health care needs to inform health care providers of a child's special health conditions and needs so that optimal emergency medical care can be provided. This statement describes updates to EIFs, including computerization of the EIF, expanding the potential benefits of the EIF, quality-improvement programs using the EIF, the EIF as a central repository, and facilitating emergency preparedness in disaster management and drills by using the EIF.

  18. Policy Brief: Enhancing water-use efficiency of thermal power plants in India: need for mandatory water audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, R.K. (ed.)

    2012-12-15

    This policy brief discusses the challenges of water availability and opportunity to improve the water use efficiency in industries specially the thermal power plants. It presents TERI’s experience from comprehensive water audits conducted for thermal power plants in India. The findings indicate that there is a significant scope for saving water in the waste water discharge, cooling towers, ash handling systems, and the township water supply. Interventions like recycling wastewater, curbing leakages, increasing CoC (Cycles of concentration) in cooling towers, using dry ash handling etc., can significantly reduce the specific water consumption in power plants. However, the first step towards this is undertaking regular water audits. The policy brief highlights the need of mandatory water audits necessary to understand the current water use and losses as well as identify opportunities for water conservation, reduction in specific water consumption, and an overall improvement in water use efficiency in industries.

  19. Why do we need nuclear power? Energy policy in the light of history of civilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Susumu.

    1996-01-01

    With the population explosion as a background, economic growth needs massive consumption of energy and resources. This massive consumption of energy and resources will deteriorate the global environment. It is a complicated chain of causes and effects. The problems of economic growth, resources and energy, and environment must be solved at the same time. Here the so-called ''Trilemma'' problem emerges. To overcome the Trilemma and assure a sustainable development of the whole world, approaches and actions are needed from various viewpoints including technology, socio-economic system and civilization. From the viewpoint of energy, it will be necessary to introduce all energy technologies which will not deteriorate the global environment. Energy conservation and efficiency are an important part of this process. It is also important to introduce renewable energy as much as possible. Even with these efforts, the energy needed by mankind in the 21st century will be tremendous. An energy source is needed which is adequate in terms of quantity, price, and environment. It is nuclear energy that meets these requirements. Several problems must be solved before the fundamental important merit of nuclear power can be realized. These issues are discussed here. They are divided into the following categories: economic issues; technical issues; social issues; political issues; and the issues in Asia

  20. Implementation of School Choice Policy: Interpretation and Response by Parents of Students with Special Educational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Carl; Woods, Philip A.; Woods, Glenys

    2001-01-01

    Provides empirically based insights into preferences, perceptions, and responses of parents of students with special education needs to the 1990s restructured school system in England. Uses analyses of quantitative/qualitative data generated by a large-scale research study on school choice. Reveals depth and range of problems encountered by these…

  1. Merida Initiative and Effectiveness: An Analysis of Supply-Side Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    found in anti-narcotics efforts by the United States to combat “organizations [that] constitute a threat to regional security and to U.S. national...Agreement ( NAFTA ), as well as politically sensitive issues like immigration. The progression of these discussions eventually led to policy changes in... constitution of the MI, leading to its formal approval in 2007. Finally, the chapter provided an overview of the MI’s final structure, including its four

  2. Enhancing patient engagement in chronic disease self-management support initiatives in Australia: the need for an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Joanne E; Briggs, Andrew M; Brand, Caroline A; Osborne, Richard H

    2008-11-17

    Although emphasis on the prevention of chronic disease is important, governments in Australia need to balance this with continued assistance to the 77% of Australians reported to have at least one long-term medical condition. Self-management support is provided by health care and community services to enhance patients' ability to care for their chronic conditions in a cooperative framework. In Australia, there is a range of self-management support initiatives that have targeted patients (most notably, chronic disease self-management education programs) and health professionals (financial incentives, education and training). To date, there has been little coordination or integration of these self-management initiatives to enhance the patient-health professional clinical encounter. If self-management support is to work, there is a need to better understand the infrastructure, systems and training that are required to engage the key stakeholders - patients, carers, health professionals, and health care organisations. A coordinated approach is required in implementing these elements within existing and new health service models to enhance uptake and sustainability.

  3. Urgent need for new approach to energy policy: The case of Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkila, Noora; Saari, Arto

    2010-01-01

    The process of climate change is already under way and is a serious threat facing the planet. Our response to this threat will irrevocably transform the energy sector and the priorities within it. The trend in emissions over the next decade will largely determine whether the process of climate change can be kept at a moderate level. This literature-based study focuses on Finland as an example case. Oil price fluctuations, economic development and changes in consumer values and attitudes are key forces that will drive change in the energy sector. A greater diversity of energy sources is vital if we are to avoid a catastrophic warming of the climate. The use of renewable energy sources must be increased, and the efficiency of producing, transmitting and distributing energy must be improved. The energy sector must also exploit the potential of nuclear energy, wind, solar and hydro power, afforestation measures, biomass resources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and the nano-bio sector. National policies and measures must be set out in detail and global cooperation enhanced. The presence and impact of factors that impede the work to curb climate change must also be taken into account in energy strategies if these strategies are to be successful. (author)

  4. [Depression: state of the art and the need for public policy and action plans in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenzon, Shoshana; Lara, María Asunción; Robles, Rebeca; Medina-Mora, María Elena

    2013-01-01

    Depression is an important public health problem. It is the fourth cause of disease in the world in terms of lost years of healthy life. In Mexico, it ranks first in terms disability for women and ninth for men. There is a high comorbidity between depression and other mental disorders such as anxiety and substance abuse, as well as other serious and chronic physical conditions (e.g. diabetes, and heart disease). Despite the impact of depressive disorders in the quality of life of the population, there is a large proportion of people who don't get treatment, delaying seeking help and thus don't receive adequate assistance. The aim of this paper is to present an analysis of depression status in the Mexican population from a public health perspective; it includes prevalence and associated factors, gaps in care, characteristics of the use of services and treatments available. The paper concludes with a presentation of the implications for research and mental health policy in Mexico.

  5. SURROGACY POLICY IN INDIA AND NEED OF ACTS TO REGULATE COMMERCIAL SURROGACY

    OpenAIRE

    Chaturvedi; Garg; Abha; Vidya; Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Surrogacy is an arrangement by which a woman, called as surrogate, carries and delivers the offspring of the commissioning parents and it has been recognized in India under the ART treatment. For commercial surrogacy, there is no any uniform law in India or there is no law that binds or regulates this industry. In this paper, we have focused our attention on the present existing laws or guidelines regulating surrogacy with emphasis on need for stringent laws to regulate co...

  6. We need an EEG 2.0. A law for the success of the energy policy turnaround

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmaier, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The contribution is discussing the development of renewable energies as a consequence of the energy policy turnaround in Germany. In the long term the cost of renewable will be lower than that of conventional energy sources. The challenges and chances of new technologies based on renewable energy and energy saving are identified, the new technologies could induce a new industrial revolution. The author clarifies the need for an advanced renewable energy law (EEG 2.0), including the necessity of a national consensus for an adequate extension of the national grid. The contribution includes recommendations with respect to the electricity prices and the requirement of a political framework.

  7. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  8. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  9. Drug policy in Nicaragua, between need-oriented activities and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, J R; Tognoni, G

    1985-01-01

    In this case study from Nicaragua, an account is given of how the Essential Drugs Program developed in a context which relectss exceptional political, economic and military pressures. The overall picture could provide a useful guide to the issues behind such an apparently simple concept as the essential drugs list. The criteria for including drugs in the National Formulary were those of the WHO report on essential drugs: proven efficacy, acceptable risks associated with their use, favorable cost, and need. A proposal of the basic list of drugs, classified in therapeutic groups and according to their priority and level of use, was prepared by a central Committee for the National Drug Formulary. An annotated Formulary was prepared to ensure consistency with rigorous scientific standards and to meet the needs of daily practice. The annotated therapeutic formulary has been distributed to all physicians, other health workers responsible for peripheral health centers, pharmacists, and medical students. It has been adopted as the main reference textbook for teaching clinical pharmacology and therapeutics to medical students. A training program in clinical pharmacology has been started at the University Autonoma de Barcelona. It pays particular attention to drug evaluation, drug epidemiology methods, and retrieval and preparation of drug information for health workers.

  10. The Malaysian Fifth Fuel Policy: Re-strategising the Malaysian Renewable Energy Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulud, A.L.; Saidi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The power industry is the most crucial and strategic sector for any country to achieve its vision. Due to the fast depletion and high cost of fossil fuel, this is now a threat to sustainable growth. Attention is now focused on renewable energies as an alternative. In Malaysia, renewable energy was included in the 8th Malaysia Plan (2000–2005) with a target of 500 MW out of the 20,000 MW total generation capacity. However, for the first 10 years (2000–2010) only 41.5 MW planting up has been achieved. This paper recommends strategies, implementation mechanism, and financial framework to ensure success of the initiatives. Some of the recommendations were currently being implemented such as the Green Technology Fund and the Fit-In-Tariff. In addition, this paper proposes the incorporation of a Malaysian Renewable Energy Development Board with wide legislative and executive powers, that would be a strong champion of the RE initiatives. Its primary function would be, inter alia, cross-ministry coordination, tariff fixation, regulating utilization of renewable biomass waste, institute fiscal incentives such as investment incentives, tax holidays, removal of barriers, and initiate government funded Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) initiatives.

  11. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  12. Energy information needs for U. S. state-level policy making: Minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. What energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. The authors find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments.

  13. Energy-information needs for US state-level policy making: minimal data requirements during normal and emergency periods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkenbus, J.N.; Leff, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Since the oil embargo of 1973, state governments have increased their efforts to track and understand energy flows within their boundaries. There is a commonly perceived need to comprehend the status of present and expected future energy availability, demand, and price and to be prepared to exercise responsible and effective management during energy emergencies. This responsibility has brought with it new needs for accurate and timely state-level information on energy transactions and the external parameters that effect energy availability and disposition. Hence, we ask: what energy data are needed by a state, regardless of its idiosyncracies, during both normal and energy emergency periods, and to what extent are these data available now. We find that needed ongoing (core) data are only partially available at present, and that emergency data can be obtained only with a carefully planned monitoring program that can be fitted to specific emergency conditions. Overall, this paper provides a realistic assessment of the state-level energy data needed to provide state policy makers with sufficient information to make considered judgments. 7 references, 6 tables.

  14. Needed but not liked - The impact of labor market policies on natives' opinions about immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Careja, Romana; Andreß, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    in a multilevel design the impact that regulations in the EU member states concerning immigrants' access to domestic labor markets have on threat perceptions and on opinions about immigrants' economic role. It finds that labor market regulations have a positive effect on opinions about immigrants' economic role...... and reduce the negative relationships between precarious labor market status and opinions about the economic role. However, a robust effect of labor market regulations on threat perceptions was not found. Our results imply that labor market incorporation rules need to be accompanied by other measures......This article builds on the notion that immigrants' integration into the labor market benefits migrants and shapes natives' opinions about immigrants. Using insights from the newest literature on labor immigration and drawing upon the literature on attitudes toward immigrants, the article explores...

  15. The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research - an initiative to meet the strategic research needs for sustainable mining rehabilitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, L.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Australian Centre for Minesite Rehabilitation Research (ACMRR) was established through a mining industry initiative to meet the need of industry governments and the community for sustainable systems for land affected by exploration, mining and mineral processing activities. The Centre, which is a consortium of the major groups associated with mining rehabilitation research in Australia, has a focus on both strategic research and technology transfer and combines a wide range of multidisciplinary skills covering engineering and the physical and biological sciences. The paper briefly describes the goals, structure, expertise and research and technology transfer activities of the Centre. The major research program areas of waste rock dump and final void stability, acid mine drainage, tailings disposal and remediation of ecosystem reconstruction are described in the context of national priorities. 3 refs., 1 fig

  16. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  17. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... were interviewed face-to-face; HIA experts participated in an e-survey. Results: Six DDPC members were interviewed and 100 HIA-experts participated in a survey. The DDPC members consider direct as the link between determinants and the related risk factors. The HIA experts consider direct as the link...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...

  18. Initial psycho-oncological counselling in neuro-oncology: analysis of topics and needs of brain tumour patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipmann, Stephanie; Suero Molina, Eric; Frasch, Anna; Stummer, Walter; Wiewrodt, Dorothee

    2018-02-01

    Diagnosis of a brain tumour is associated with a tremendous disruption of emotional, physical and social well-being. Due to the complexity of the disease and the affection of the central organ, the brain, brain tumour patients differ from other cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the concerns and burdens presented by brain tumour patients during their initial psycho-oncological consultation. We performed a retrospective analysis of 53 patients with the diagnosis of either benign or malignant brain tumour, seeking counsel by a neurosurgeon specialised in psycho-oncology. We performed a thematic analysis of the interviews at first consultation identifying themes and patterns and created thematic categories. The main concerns of the patients presented during the first consultations were psychological problems, reported by 40 patients (75.5%). Death and dying was mentioned by more than half of the patients (n = 30, 56.6%). In addition, 62.3% of the patients (n = 33) asked for information regarding the medical treatment and diagnosis. With our study, we created greater awareness of the psychological needs of brain tumour patients in order to define treatment strategies for this important aspect of disease. We showed that there is a need for patients to talk about death even during the initial consultation. Psycho-oncologist in a neuro-oncological setting should be prepared for topics like that and should have a neurosurgical background or collaborate with members of the surgical team in order to provide the patients with medical details and to better understand the impact of the disease.

  19. Almajiri education: Policy and practice to meet the learning needs of the nomadic population in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaniran, Sunday Olawale

    2018-02-01

    This article explores the provision of education opportunities to a disadvantaged group in Nigeria known as Almajiris. The word Almajiri derives from the Arabic word Almuhajirun, meaning emigrant. The nomadic pastoralists of northern Nigeria constitute a major socio-economic group. According to a recent report released by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), Almajiris own more than 90 per cent of Nigeria's estimated 15.3 million heads of cattle. Beef from their herds constitutes over 45 per cent of the animal protein consumed by Nigerians. However, despite the Almajiris' immense contributions to the economy of Nigeria, these nomads are highly disadvantaged in terms of access to education. To respond to the educational needs of this group, the Nigerian government established the National Commission for Nomadic Education (NCNE) in 1989 to coordinate programmes aimed at improving the lives and livelihood of the Almajiris. This article examines the strategies employed by the NCNE towards making education accessible to nomads. It also highlights some of the challenges facing the Almajiris, and suggests remedies to prioritise education for this and other disadvantaged groups.

  20. Iran's sustainable development and the need to a reform in energy consumption policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortazavi, S.M.J.; Hashemi, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran has always paid a lot of attention to the concept of sustainable development since the article fifty of its constitution forbids any activity that results in pollution or in the irremediable destruction of the environment. According to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the consumption of electricity is practically synonymous with modern life in the industrialized world. From this point of view, the optimization of production and consumption of energy are among the main strategies in both developed and developing countries. Considering a report published by the World Bank in 2004, over 96% of electricity production in Iran in 2001 came from fossil sources (74.9% from gas and 21.2% from oil) and the insignificant remaining part (3.9%) was based on hydroelectric sources. Although Iran's export of crude oil currently runs about 2.3 million barrels per day, total refining capacity of the country (1.5 million barrels per day) is insufficient to meet the country's domestic need. If the current rate of oil and gasoline consumption continues in Iran, the country will lose its oil export revenues by 2015. Combustion of fossil fuels in Iran produces large amounts of CO 2 (the biggest contributor to global warming), noxious gases, and many toxic pollutants. Analysis of carbon dioxide production in Iran clearly confirms the necessity of the use of emission-free alternative energy resources such as hydroelectric and nuclear power. It should be also noted that Iran's rich fossil resources can be used in many industrial fields such as petrochemistry, while currently the only practical application of uranium is energy production. It can be concluded that due to Iran's rapidly increasing energy demand, optimal use of fossil resources and using combination of proper resources such as hydro-nuclear energy as effective alternatives seem to be inevitable in the upcoming years of 21. century

  1. Current systematic carbon-cycle observations and the need for implementing a policy-relevant carbon observing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciais, P.; Peregon, A.; Chevallier, F.; Bopp, L.; Breon, F.M.; Broquet, G.; Luyssaert, S.; Moulin, C.; Paris, J.D.; Poulter, B.; Rivier, L.; Wang, R.

    2014-01-01

    A globally integrated carbon observation and analysis system is needed to improve the fundamental understanding of the global carbon cycle, to improve our ability to project future changes, and to verify the effectiveness of policies aiming to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase carbon sequestration. Building an integrated carbon observation system requires transformational advances from the existing sparse, exploratory framework towards a dense, robust, and sustained system in all components: anthropogenic emissions, the atmosphere, the ocean, and the terrestrial biosphere. The paper is addressed to scientists, policy makers, and funding agencies who need to have a global picture of the current state of the (diverse) carbon observations. We identify the current state of carbon observations, and the needs and notional requirements for a global integrated carbon observation system that can be built in the next decade. A key conclusion is the substantial expansion of the ground-based observation networks required to reach the high spatial resolution for CO 2 and CH 4 fluxes, and for carbon stocks for addressing policy-relevant objectives, and attributing flux changes to underlying processes in each region. In order to establish flux and stock diagnostics over areas such as the southern oceans, tropical forests, and the Arctic, in situ observations will have to be complemented with remote-sensing measurements. Remote sensing offers the advantage of dense spatial coverage and frequent revisit. A key challenge is to bring remote-sensing measurements to a level of long-term consistency and accuracy so that they can be efficiently combined in models to reduce uncertainties, in synergy with ground based data. Bringing tight observational constraints on fossil fuel and land use change emissions will be the biggest challenge for deployment of a policy-relevant integrated carbon observation system. This will require in situ and remotely sensed data at much higher

  2. Translating Policy into Practice for Community-Based Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Targeting Professional Development Needs among Physiotherapists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fary, Robyn E; Slater, Helen; Chua, Jason; Briggs, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Contemporary health policy promotes delivery of community-based health services to people with musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This emphasis requires a skilled workforce to deliver safe, effective care. We aimed to explore physiotherapy workforce readiness to co-manage consumers with RA by determining the RA-specific professional development (PD) needs in relation to work and educational characteristics of physiotherapists in Western Australia (WA). Methods. An e-survey was sent to physiotherapists regarding their confidence in co-managing people with RA and their PD needs. Data including years of clinical experience, current RA clinical caseload, professional qualifications, and primary clinical area of practice were collected. Results. 273 physiotherapists completed the survey. Overall confidence in managing people with RA was low (22.7-58.2%) and need for PD was high (45.1-95.2%). Physiotherapists with greater years of clinical experience, a caseload of consumers with RA, postgraduate qualifications in musculoskeletal physiotherapy, or who worked in the musculoskeletal area were more confident in managing people with RA and less likely to need PD. Online and face-to-face formats were preferred modes of PD delivery. Discussion. To enable community-based RA service delivery to be effectively established, subgroups within the current physiotherapy workforce require upskilling in the evidence-based management of consumers with RA.

  3. Translating Policy into Practice for Community-Based Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Targeting Professional Development Needs among Physiotherapists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn E. Fary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Contemporary health policy promotes delivery of community-based health services to people with musculoskeletal conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA. This emphasis requires a skilled workforce to deliver safe, effective care. We aimed to explore physiotherapy workforce readiness to co-manage consumers with RA by determining the RA-specific professional development (PD needs in relation to work and educational characteristics of physiotherapists in Western Australia (WA. Methods. An e-survey was sent to physiotherapists regarding their confidence in co-managing people with RA and their PD needs. Data including years of clinical experience, current RA clinical caseload, professional qualifications, and primary clinical area of practice were collected. Results. 273 physiotherapists completed the survey. Overall confidence in managing people with RA was low (22.7–58.2% and need for PD was high (45.1–95.2%. Physiotherapists with greater years of clinical experience, a caseload of consumers with RA, postgraduate qualifications in musculoskeletal physiotherapy, or who worked in the musculoskeletal area were more confident in managing people with RA and less likely to need PD. Online and face-to-face formats were preferred modes of PD delivery. Discussion. To enable community-based RA service delivery to be effectively established, subgroups within the current physiotherapy workforce require upskilling in the evidence-based management of consumers with RA.

  4. School-Based Sports Development and the Role of NSOs as 'Boundary Spanners': Benefits, Disbenefits and Unintended Consequences of the "Sporting Schools" Policy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anna; Stylianou, Michalis

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on "Sporting Schools", a $100 million policy initiative intended to increase children's sport participation in Australia. Our account seeks to proffer a critical analysis of this federal policy, and the way it functions as part of the new heterarchical or networked form of sports governance in Australia. Using…

  5. Development and initial validation of the Three-Levels-of-Needs Questionnaire for self-assessment of palliative needs in patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anna Thit; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Pedersen, Lise

    2011-01-01

    To improve palliative care, it is important that questionnaires accurately assess the needs of the patients. No questionnaire existed that combined three different and important approaches to needs assessment. We developed such a questionnaire, called the Three-Levels-of-Needs Questionnaire (3LNQ......), based on literature searches. The 3LNQ measures 12 important needs with three different approaches when used as a supplement to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30): problem intensity, problem burden, and felt need....

  6. Inclusion of Students with Special Education Needs in French as a Second Language Programs: A Review of Canadian Policy and Resource Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhling, Stefanie; Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a document analysis of policy and resource documents pertaining to inclusion of students with special education needs (SSEN) in Canadian French as a Second Language (FSL) programs. By recognizing gaps and acknowledging advancements, we aim to inform current implementation and future development of inclusive policy. Document…

  7. Holidays for Children and Families in Need: An Exploration of the Research and Policy Context for Social Tourism in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Neal

    2005-01-01

    Although provision of holidays for families in need has been mainstreamed within the social care policies of many countries in the rest of Europe, "social tourism" has yet to be adopted in the United Kingdom. This article reports on a scoping study of research and policy in this area. While there is limited robust research on the impact…

  8. The Geography of Diabetes in London, Canada: The Need for Local Level Policy for Prevention and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Jordan W.; Luginaah, Isaac N.; Booth, Gillian L.; Harris, Stewart B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reports aimed at improving diabetes care in socially disadvantaged populations suggest that interventions must be tailored to meet the unique needs of the local community—specifically, the community’s geography. We have examined the spatial distribution of diabetes in the context of socioeconomic determinants of health in London (Ontario, Canada) to characterize neighbourhoods in an effort to target these neighbourhoods for local level community-based program planning and intervention. Multivariate spatial-statistical techniques and geographic information systems were used to examine diabetes rates and socioeconomic variables aggregated at the census tract level. Creation of a deprivation index facilitated investigation across multiple determinants of health. Findings from our research identified ‘at risk’ neighbourhoods in London with socioeconomic disadvantage and high diabetes. Future endeavours must continue to identify local level trends in order to support policy development, resource planning and care for improved health outcomes and improved equity in access to care across geographic regions. PMID:20623032

  9. Control systems, personnel policies and management initiatives to limit pollution incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    After the regulatory requirements are met, an important collateral step in the continuing Hazardous Waste/Environmental Management cycle of activities is to minimize the possibility of a pollution incident, spill, contamination, mislabeling, mishandling or exposure, since this minimizes a major contingent liability of the company. Human failure accounts for 88% of accidents, 10% occur from mechanical failure and only 2% are unpreventable force majeure. This implies that fully 98% of all accidents can be prevented or minimized. Good engineering, production, management and educational practices can be formulated to minimize the occurrence and effects of accidental pollution incidents. Hazardous Material/Environmental Management tends to focus on technical and regulatory objectives, a reactionary mode caused in part by the rapidly changing regulatory environment and the need to continually adapt to these changes. Management functions such as personnel management and situational management get shortchanged in research and in practice. What is needed is a system that incorporates change readily, adapts personnel to change easily and mobilizes all the human resources of a company in meeting environmental and regulatory goals in the same way other goals of the company are met. Feedback Loop/Control System concepts have been applied to management practice in the popular Management By Objectives School as well as other schools of management practice. An Environmental Management program is proposed which incorporates feedback loop/ control systems to facilitate operations and training objectives and requirements. By incorporating Environmental and Hazardous Waste goals with other management goals in a system involving all levels of management and workers on the same team, the proposed system will reduce the probability of accidental pollution incidents and thus the contingent liability of a spill or other incident

  10. Policy Needs for Social Security in the Process of Citizenization of the Peri-urban Farmers:A Case Study of Hefei City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Jiang-lin; CHEN Rui; NI Wen-cong

    2012-01-01

    We conduct a survey of transformational towns and villages in High-tech Development District, Yaohai District and Shushan District, Hefei City. Using data, we analyze the "sideline effect" and inherent contradiction of transformational cities, research the policy needs for social security and its trend in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers. On this basis, we construct the social security policy system that can adapt to the accelerated process of urbanization. Finally, we put forth the following recommendations for the social security policy in the citizenization process of the peri-urban farmers: distinguishing different groups’ policy needs for social security; attaching importance to people’s dynamic policy needs for social security in urbanization; focusing on the adaptability of social security policy transformation in urbanization; attaching importance to the social psychosocial environment of social security policy transformation in urbanization; achieving the trinity of non-farm conversion, urbanization and citizenization in the process of urbanization; strengthening the government’s dominant position in the building of social security policy system.

  11. Tradução e adaptação cultural do global appraisal of individual needs - initial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Garcia Claro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou traduzir e adaptar culturalmente o instrumento Global Appraisal of Individual Needs - Initial e calcular seu Índice de Validade de Conteúdo. Trata-se de estudo metodológico, de adaptação cultural do instrumento. O instrumento foi traduzido para o português em duas versões que deram origem à síntese das traduções, submetida à avaliação de quatro juízes experts na área de álcool e outras drogas. Após modificações, foi retraduzido e ressubmetido aos juízes e autores do instrumento original, resultando na versão final do instrumento, Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial O Índice de Validade de Conteúdo do instrumento foi de 0,91, considerado válido pela literatura. O instrumento Avaliação Global das Necessidades Individuais - Inicial é um instrumento adaptado culturalmente para o português falado no Brasil; entretanto, não foi submetido a testes com a população-alvo, o que sugere que sejam realizados estudos que testem sua confiabilidade e validade.

  12. Rapid screening test for gestational diabetes: public health need, market requirement, initial product design, and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigl, Bernhard H.; Zwisler, Greg; Peck, Roger; Abu-Haydar, Elizabeth

    2013-03-01

    Gestational diabetes is a global epidemic where many urban areas in Southeast Asia have found prevalence rates as high as 20%, exceeding the highest prevalence rates in the developed world. It can have serious and life-threatening consequences for mothers and babies. We are developing two variants of a new, simple, low-cost rapid test for screening for gestational diabetes mellitus for use primarily in low-resource settings. The pair of assays, both semiquantitative rapid diagnostic strip tests for glycated albumin, require neither fasting nor an oral glucose challenge test. One variant is an extremely simple strip test to estimate the level of total glycated albumin in blood. The other, which is slightly more complex and expensive, is a test that determines the ratio of glycated albumin to total albumin. The screening results can be used to refer women to receive additional care during delivery to avoid birth complications as well as counseling on diet and exercise during and after pregnancy. Results with the latter test may also be used to start treatment with glucose-lowering drugs. Both assays will be read visually. We present initial results of a preliminary cost-performance comparison model evaluating the proposed test versus existing alternatives. We also evaluated user needs and schematic paper microfluidics-based designs aimed at overcoming the challenge of visualizing relatively narrow differences between normal and elevated levels of glycated albumin in blood.

  13. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, J. Michael [ORNL; White-Horton, Jessica L. [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [NNSA

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  14. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tapia-Conyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM, or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL. However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should

  15. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  16. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  17. Is There a Need for a European-Wide Initiative on Comprehensive Sexuality Education? Reflections from Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štulhofer, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Since the late 1990s, Aleksandar Štulhofer has been involved in debates over school-based sexuality education in his country. Introduced to this sensitive and often divisive topic by several research studies on sexual risk taking in youth, he recently participated in two education-policy processes dealing with school-based health and sexuality…

  18. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and

  19. Identifying and predicting subgroups of information needs among cancer patients: an initial study using latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Melanie; Wirtz, Markus; Ernstmann, Nicole; Ommen, Oliver; Längler, Alfred; Edelhäuser, Friedrich; Scheffer, Christian; Tauschel, Diethard; Pfaff, Holger

    2011-08-01

    Understanding how the information needs of cancer patients (CaPts) vary is important because met information needs affect health outcomes and CaPts' satisfaction. The goals of the study were to identify subgroups of CaPts based on self-reported cancer- and treatment-related information needs and to determine whether subgroups could be predicted on the basis of selected sociodemographic, clinical and clinician-patient relationship variables. Three hundred twenty-three CaPts participated in a survey using the "Cancer Patients Information Needs" scale, which is a new tool for measuring cancer-related information needs. The number of information need subgroups and need profiles within each subgroup was identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Multinomial logistic regression was applied to predict class membership. LCA identified a model of five subgroups exhibiting differences in type and extent of CaPts' unmet information needs: a subgroup with "no unmet needs" (31.4% of the sample), two subgroups with "high level of psychosocial unmet information needs" (27.0% and 12.0%), a subgroup with "high level of purely medical unmet information needs" (16.0%) and a subgroup with "high level of medical and psychosocial unmet information needs" (13.6%). An assessment of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics revealed that younger CaPts and CaPts' requiring psychological support seem to belong to subgroups with a higher level of unmet information needs. However, the most significant predictor for the subgroups with unmet information needs is a good clinician-patient relationship, i.e. subjective perception of high level of trust in and caring attention from nurses together with high degree of physician empathy seems to be predictive for inclusion in the subgroup with no unmet information needs. The results of our study can be used by oncology nurses and physicians to increase their awareness of the complexity and heterogeneity of information needs among CaPts and of

  20. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  1. Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…

  2. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  3. The juggling act: Do student nurses who care for dependants need an adapted course? An applied policy research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Matthew D; Proud, Carole; Jackson, Sue

    2015-11-01

    In line with many countries worldwide, the Department of Health mandate to Health Education England seeks to promote the diversity of applicants by widening participation in nurse education. A number of studies have explored the experience of non-traditional students undertaking nursing courses. This study aimed to explore and understand the experiences of student nurses undertaking their nurse education whilst caring for dependant family. The study used an applied qualitative research approached based on methods developed for applied social policy research. The study was undertaken in an institution of higher education in the North East of England. The study population consisted of a convenience sample of 14 respondents, 13 female and 1 male. Ten respondents lived with partners and 3 had disabled dependants within the family. The age range of dependent children ranged from 3months to 19years. Data was collected through focus groups and telephone interviews using a semi-structured interview schedule. Framework analysis was used to analyse the data. Three superordinate themes were identified, Altruism and Commitment, Maturity and Family and Social Mobility, that best encapsulate the characteristics that enable this group to function well and complete their nurse education. Analysis identified a highly motivated group of students who's individual accounts showed that their lives, whilst in nurse education, were a constant series of compromises and 'juggling' between the demands of the course and the demands of their families. This group of students do not need an adapted course, but instead wish for a realistic nursing course where expectations are managed in an honest way. Basic common sense and good management of nursing courses will help ensure that this motivated group of people achieve their goals with minimum hardship or difficulties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. iRESM INITIATIVE UNDERSTANDING DECISION SUPPORT NEEDS FOR CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION AND ADAPTATION --US Midwest Region—

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, Jennie S.; Runci, Paul J.; Moss, Richard H.; Anderson, Kate L.

    2010-10-01

    The impacts of climate change are already affecting human and environmental systems worldwide, yet many uncertainties persist in the prediction of future climate changes and impacts due to limitations in scientific understanding of relevant causal factors. In particular, there is mounting urgency to efforts to improve models of human and environmental systems at the regional scale, and to integrate climate, ecosystem and energy-economic models to support policy, investment, and risk management decisions related to climate change mitigation (i.e., reducing greenhouse gas emissions) and adaptation (i.e., responding to climate change impacts). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a modeling framework, the integrated Regional Earth System Model (iRESM), to address regional human-environmental system interactions in response to climate change and the uncertainties therein. The framework will consist of a suite of integrated models representing regional climate change, regional climate policy, and the regional economy, with a focus on simulating the mitigation and adaptation decisions made over time in the energy, transportation, agriculture, and natural resource management sectors.

  5. After initial treatment for primary breast cancer: information needs, health literacy, and the role of health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Anna; Ernstmann, Nicole; Wesselmann, Simone; Pfaff, Holger; Wirtz, Markus; Kowalski, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    After a short hospital stay of just some days follows long-term outpatient care for breast cancer patients. The aim of the study is to describe the information needs of breast cancer outpatients and to get in touch with aspects of health literacy, as well as contact various health care workers. In a multicenter study, patients were asked about their information needs 10 weeks after surgery. The analysis on hand includes data about 1248 female patients. In addition to descriptive analyses identifying the most prevalent information needs, logistic regression analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with these. The results show that information needs of breast cancer outpatients are mainly in "follow-up after acute treatment", "coping with long-term side effects", and "heredity of breast cancer". In addition to sociodemographic patient characteristics, perceived helpful contacts with various health care workers as well as a satisfactory patient's level of health literacy reduced the probability of unmet information needs. Breast cancer outpatients have numerous information needs. In addition to provide information at the right time regarding a specific disease phase, it is important that health professionals' support affected breast cancer patients in coping with the new situation.

  6. Point Climat no. 22 'Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is laying the initial foundations for a European agricultural climate policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has had a very small climate component since 1992. The recent inclusion of green payments and the climate risk management tools proposed for the CAP for the period beyond 2013 illustrate the European Commission's willingness to expand this climate component. Furthermore, there is little mention of the agricultural sector in the tools rolled out by the European climate policy, particularly those derived from the 2009 'Climate and Energy' Package. Therefore, even if this autumn's parliamentary debate results in the reform proposals being diluted, the post-2013 CAP could nevertheless become a principal tool for a common EU climate policy in the agricultural sector

  7. Making sense of "consumer engagement" initiatives to improve health and health care: a conceptual framework to guide policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Martsolf, Grant R; Telenko, Shannon J; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2013-03-01

    Policymakers and practitioners continue to pursue initiatives designed to engage individuals in their health and health care despite discordant views and mixed evidence regarding the ability to cultivate greater individual engagement that improves Americans' health and well-being and helps manage health care costs. There is limited and mixed evidence regarding the value of different interventions. Based on our involvement in evaluating various community-based consumer engagement initiatives and a targeted literature review of models of behavior change, we identified the need for a framework to classify the universe of consumer engagement initiatives toward advancing policymakers' and practitioners' knowledge of their value and fit in various contexts. We developed a framework that expanded our conceptualization of consumer engagement, building on elements of two common models, the individually focused transtheoretical model of behavior and the broader, multilevel social ecological model. Finally, we applied this framework to one community's existing consumer engagement program. Consumer engagement in health and health care refers to the performance of specific behaviors ("engaged behaviors") and/or an individual's capacity and motivation to perform these behaviors ("activation"). These two dimensions are related but distinct and thus should be differentiated. The framework creates four classification schemas, by (1) targeted behavior types (self-management, health care encounter, shopping, and health behaviors) and by (2) individual, (3) group, and (4) community dimensions. Our example illustrates that the framework can systematically classify a variety of consumer engagement programs, and that this exercise and resulting characterization can provide a structured way to consider the program and how its components fit program goals both individually and collectively. Applying the framework could help advance the field by making policymakers and practitioners aware

  8. The Regular Education Initiative as Reagan-Bush Education Policy: A Trickle-Down Theory of Education of the Hard-To-Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    Proposals for restructuring and integration of special and general education, known as the regular education initiative (REI), represent a revolution in the basic concepts related to the education of handicapped students that have provided the foundation of special education for over a century. Education policy, as presented by Presidents Reagan…

  9. Whose Knowledge, Whose Values? The Contribution of Local Knowledge to Education Policy Processes: A Case Study of Research Development Initiatives in the Small State of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Keith; Crossley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon a case study of education in the small Caribbean state of Saint Lucia (population 154,000) to examine how local knowledge and values can influence the education policy process. It is argued that recent research development initiatives have strengthened the ability of Saint Lucia to mediate international education agendas to…

  10. COPE-SMARTER - A decision support system for analysing the challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives: A case study of electric commercial vehicles market diffusion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Kaplan, Sigal; Frenzel, Ina

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder's strategies in encouraging wide-scale market penetration depend on their perceptions. This study focuses on perceptions of Danish practitioners in policy-making organizations regarding the perceived challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives for the majority-market adoption...... of electric commercial vehicles (ECVs) in commercial sector in Denmark. We propose a new four-step expert-based technique, named COPE-SMARTER, for evaluating the market diffusion of environmental friendly technologies by combining SWOT analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. We focus...... on the perceptions regarding: (i) the potential promotional strength of motivators for ECV market penetration, (ii) the severity of the technological, financial, physical and operational challenges, (iii) the efficiency of policy initiatives in encouraging the market diffusion of ECVs, (iv) the expected market...

  11. Report: EPA Needs Policies and Procedures to Manage Public Pesticide Petitions in a Transparent and Efficient Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0019, October 27, 2015. OPP’s lack of policies and procedures to manage public pesticide petitions in a transparent and efficient manner can result in unreasonable delay lawsuits costing the agency time and resources.

  12. Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI): Future Perspectives and Need for a New Generation of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    VASHISHTHA, Vipin; NAVEEN, Thacker

    2010-01-01

    More than two decade-old Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has finally tasted success and wild poliovirus is now on the verge of eradication. The pre-eradication era was full of challenges and a great learning experience for all those involved with this tedious process. Many new phenomena emerged and new information about poliovirus learned during this campaign. Many new developments such as vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs) were not anticipated and resulted in serious thinking re...

  13. Defining climate modeling user needs: which data are actually required to support impact analysis and adaptation policy development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, R. J.; Pagé, C.

    2010-12-01

    Until recently, the policy applications of Earth System Models in general and climate models in particular were focusing mainly on the potential future changes in the global and regional climate and attribution of observed changes to anthropogenic activities. Is climate change real? And if so, why do we have to worry about it? Following the broad acceptance of the reality of the risks by the majority of governments, particularly after the publication of IPCC’s 4th Assessment Report and the increasing number of observations of changes in ecological and socio-economic systems that are consistent with the observed climatic changes, governments, companies and other societal groups have started to evaluate their own vulnerability in more detail and to develop adaptation and mitigation strategies. After an early focus on the most vulnerable developing countries, recently, an increasing number of industrialized countries have embarked on the design of adaptation and mitigation plans, or on studies to evaluate the level of climate resilience of their development plans and projects. Which climate data are actually required to effectively support these activities? This paper reports on the efforts of the IS-ENES project, the infrastructure project of the European Network for Earth System Modeling, to address this question. How do we define user needs and can the existing gap between the climate modeling and impact research communities be bridged in support of the ENES long-term strategy? In contrast from the climate modeling community, which has a relatively long history of collaboration facilitated by a relatively uniform subject matter, commonly agreed definitions of key terminology and some level of harmonization of methods, the climate change impacts research community is very diverse and fragmented, using a wide variety of data sources, methods and tools. An additional complicating factor is that researchers working on adaptation usually closely collaborate with non

  14. Supporting Employers in the Reserve Operational Forces Era: Are Changes Needed to Reservists’ Employment Rights Legislation, Policies, or Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Universal Numbering System EN Employer Notification EP Employer Partnership of the Armed Services EPF Employment Policy Foundation ESGR Employer Support of...on Employers 33 lished in 2005 by the Employment Policy Foundation ( EPF ). According to that report, about half of FMLA leave-takers do not give...Magazine (Bates, 2005), summarizes the findings of a report published in 2005 by EPF ; the original report could not be located because EPF has closed. 4

  15. Influence of Special Needs Education Policy on Access to Secondary School Education by Learners with Hearing Impairments in Nandi County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhombe, Joseph Andrew; Rop, Naftali K.; Ogola, Fredrick O.; Wesonga, Justus Nyongesa

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to examine influence of Special Needs Education Policy on access to secondary school education by learners with hearing impairments in Nandi County, Kenya. The study was informed by the Multiple Intelligences theory and the Dewey theory of Progressivism. The findings showed that majority of the respondents were aware of the…

  16. Factors Influencing the Efficacy of Free Primary Education Policy in Relation to the Enrolment of Children with Special Needs Education in West Pokot County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeris, Raymond; Koross, Benjamin Towett

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of Free Primary Education (FPE) policy in 2003 was aimed at enhancing the enrolment of all school going-age children in Kenya indiscriminately. However, significant concerns have been raised by scholars and the public over the low enrolment of children with Special Needs Education (SNE). The main objective of this study was to…

  17. Information Needs Perceived as Important by Leaders in Advanced Technological Education: Alignment with Community College Program Improvement Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badway, Norena Norton; Somerville, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze what leaders of Advanced Technological Education (ATE) programs funded by the National Science Foundation believe are their most important needs for research information. Data was collected through a Delphi process, and results were analyzed through frameworks associated with program improvement initiatives…

  18. Policy learning through strategic intelligence: the American small business innovation research program (SBIR) and British small business research initiative (SBRI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padilla, P.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation policy involves using policy instruments to achieve societal goals. In order to learn from both past and foreign experiences, scholars and practitioners very often value sources of knowledge about these instruments. This dissertation deals with the role of Strategic Intelligence in both

  19. Meeting the needs of a community: teaching evidence-based youth violence prevention initiatives to members of strategic communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffolo, Daria C; Andresen, Pamela A; Winn, Keith L

    2013-01-01

    Youth violence is among the most serious health threats in the nation today. Violence disproportionately affects young people and people of color. Although the national rates of violent injury and homicide have shown a decline in most regions of the United States over the past 15 years, the rates of violence and related injuries among youth remain unacceptably high. The prevention of youth violence has been a priority of health departments nationwide, including the Cook County Department of Public Health. The goal of this project was to provide key community leaders, social service workers, and nurses within suburban Cook County with educational sessions on Blueprints for Violence Prevention, an initiative to promote evidence-based youth violence prevention programs.

  20. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Initial Actions to Enhance Data Sharing to Meet Societal Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adang, T.

    2006-05-01

    Over 60 nations and 50 participating organizations are working to make the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) a reality. The U.S. contribution to GEOSS is the Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), with a vision of enabling a healthy public, economy and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system. The international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations have developed strategic plans for both GEOSS and IEOS, respectively, and are now working the first phases of implementation. Many of these initial actions are data architecture related and are being addressed by architecture and data working groups from both organizations - the GEO Architecture and Data Committee and the USGEO Architecture and Data Management Working Group. NOAA has actively participated in both architecture groups and has taken internal action to better support GEOSS and IEOS implementation by establishing the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO IDE). GEO IDE provides a "system of systems" framework for effective and efficient integration of NOAA's many quasi-independent systems, which individually address diverse mandates in such areas resource management, weather forecasting, safe navigation, disaster response, and coastal mapping among others. GEO IDE will have a services oriented architecture, allowing NOAA Line Offices to retain a high level of independence in many of their data management decisions, and encouraging innovation in pursuit of their missions. Through GEO IDE, NOAA partners (both internal and external) will participate in a well-ordered, standards-based data and information infrastructure that will allow users to easily locate, acquire, integrate and utilize NOAA data and information. This paper describes the initial progress being made by GEO and USGEO architecture and data working groups, a status report on GEO IDE development within NOAA, and an assessment of

  1. Society of Behavioral Medicine's (SBM) position on emerging policy issues regarding electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS): A need for regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojewski, Alana M; Coleman, Nortorious; Toll, Benjamin A

    2016-09-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), commonly known as electronic cigarettes (or e-cigarettes), are widely available in the USA, yet almost entirely unregulated on a national level. Researchers are currently gathering data to understand the individual and public health effects of ENDS, as well as the role that ENDS may play in tobacco treatment. Given these uncertainties, regulatory efforts should be aimed at understanding and minimizing any potential harms of ENDS. The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) supports stronger regulation of ENDS, incorporation of ENDS into clean air policies, and special consideration of safety standards to protect vulnerable populations. SBM also supports research on ENDS to guide policy decisions.

  2. Identification of human capital needs, for the development of a production initiative for cocoa in Caqueta, 2019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parcival Peña Torres

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available At present to rely on productive sectors that stir the departmental economies into action it becomes necessary to advance efforts tending to strengthen those chains with international projection and that are better structured so that it allows them to answer to the requirements of the globalized market that join to the different agreements of free trade, they represent an opportunity to improve their market shares and to contribute in an increase of the regional GDP. It is a labor that must be accompanied of efforts of the different actors of the economy, but especially the productive chains must worry to improve their infrastructure, technologies, human talent, financial resources and internal processes, increasing their efficiency, with the intention to be productive and then, to be to the level of a market that have a highly competitive trend. But this competitive position is not achieved alone, needs a synergy that is structured from the management and administration of the resources that arranges the productive chain, is the human talent the responsible for generating this synergy, for which has selected the productive chain of international projection and that possess a greater degree of coordination and organization as it is the Cacao chain, identifying the needs of the qualified personnel for the development of the chains in 2019.

  3. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  4. Progress and challenges in implementing HIV care and treatment policies in Latin America following the treatment 2.0 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Freddy; Gomez, Bertha; Ravasi, Giovanni; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2015-12-19

    The Pan American Health Organization provides technical cooperation to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean for the scale-up of HIV care and treatment based on the Treatment 2.0 initiative. Fourteen Joint Review Missions (JRMs) were conducted between March 2012 and October 2014. Evaluating the degree of implementation of the recommendations of the JRMs and their impact on health policies, would help countries identify their gaps and areas for priority interventions. A descriptive analysis of the JRM recommendations was conducted for eight countries. An in-depth cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the degree of implementation of these recommendations in Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, and El Salvador was performed through a standardized self-administered questionnaire applied to key informants. A comparative quantitative analysis on the optimization of antiretroviral regimens 'before/after' JRMs was conducted in three of the latter four countries, using data reported in 2013 and 2014. The priority areas with most recommendations were the optimization of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (n = 57), the rational and efficient use of resources (n = 27) and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools (n = 26), followed by community mobilization (n = 23), strategic information (n = 17) and the adaptation of delivery services (n = 15). The in-depth analysis in four countries showed that the two priority areas where most progress was observed were the rational and efficient use of resources (62%) and the optimization of ART regimens (60%). Adaptation of delivery services, community mobilization and strategic information were rated at 52% and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools 38%. The quantitative analysis on optimization evidenced a 36% reduction in the number of first-line and second-line ART regimens, a 5.4% increase in the proportion of patients on WHO-recommended first-line regimens, a 19.4% increase in

  5. How Variations in State Policies and Practices Impact Student Outcomes: What Principals and Professors Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owings, William; Kaplan, Leslie S.; Myran, Steve; Doyle, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    American high school graduates' readiness for higher education or employment in the global economy may depend on the state where they live. Since the 10th Amendment to the United States Constitution makes education a state function, the 50 states and the District of Columbia vary significantly in their policies and practices for (a) preschool…

  6. Responding to the Needs of Young People Leaving State Care: Law, Practice, and Policy in England and Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, John; Stein, Mike

    1995-01-01

    Notes that the challenge for state child welfare services when young people leave care is to prepare them to cope with pressures surrounding this transition. Reviews existing research to explore current practice in England and Northern Ireland, and considers whether recent legislative reform in the two jurisdictions will help develop policy and…

  7. CAN INITIAL βHCG VALUES PREDICT THE NEED FOR SECOND DOSE OF METHOTREXATE IN MEDICAL MANAGEMENT OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Narayanan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Prediction of requirement of second dose of methotrexate in patients treated with single dose would help in guiding treatment and counseling. The aim of this study is to determine whether pretreatment beta HCG values can predict the need for second dose of methotrexate in medically managed ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS 46 women with ectopic pregnancies who were managed medically were included. The median of beta HCG titres on day 1, day 4 and day 7 was assessed in patients who responded to single dose methotrexate and those who required a second dose. RESULTS Out of the 46 patients studied, 41 responded to medical treatment (success 91%. 14 out of 41 required second dose of methotrexate (34%. Two patients required third dose of methotrexate. Five patients required surgery. DISCUSSION The median of day 1 and day 4 beta HCG values were not statistically different between those who responded to single dose methotrexate and those who required a second dose. Only day 7 values were found to be different. CONCLUSION The beta-hCG titre on day 1 and day 4 is not a predictor of requirement of second dose of methotrexate.

  8. A Quality Improvement Initiative to Reduce the Need for Mechanical Ventilation in Extremely Low Gestational Age Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templin, Ludivine; Grosse, Camille; Andres, Virginie; Robert, Clotilde Des; Fayol, Laurence; Simeoni, Umberto; Boubred, Farid

    2017-07-01

    Objective  Limiting early intubation and mechanical ventilation in extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGAN) may decrease neonatal morbidity and mortality. The aim of our study was to demonstrate the feasibility, efficacy, and tolerability of a delivery room respiratory management protocol, including delayed umbilical cord clamping (DUCC) in combination with optimized nCPAP with high PEEP levels and less invasive surfactant administration (LISA). Study Design  This cohort quality improvement study analyzed the respiratory and neonatal outcomes of all consecutive infants born between 24 +0 and 26 +6 weeks' gestation before (period 1, n  = 40) and after (period 2, n  = 52) implementing the new protocol. Results  Compared with the period 1 infants, the period 2 infants had a lower rate of intubation in the delivery room (31 vs. 90%, p  = 0.001) and were less likely to need mechanical ventilation on day 3 (28 vs. 62%, p  = 0.002) and during the hospital stay (75 vs. 92.5%, p  < 0.05). The two groups did not differ in terms of mortality or neonatal morbidity. Conclusion  A delivery room respiratory management protocol based on DUCC, optimized nCPAP with high PEEP levels, and LISA procedure is both feasible and safe, and improved ELGAN respiratory outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. Without true leadership and ownership, alternative energies will not succeed : the need for policy creation and renewal at the federal, provincial and municipal level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, V. [St. Lawrence College, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2003-08-01

    Most of the power generated in Eastern Ontario comes from the fossil-fired Lennox Generating Station, plus nuclear power from the Darlington plant near Toronto. Limited local power generation is provided by small hydro plants on the Rideau River system. Ontario provincial policy has favoured the expansion of nuclear power, to the detriment of all other sources. This has resulted in billions of dollars invested in the Greater Toronto Area and western Ontario. Investors are now gaining interest in cost-competitive renewable energy sources as energy industries face greater competition and increased environmental regulation. However, investment in renewable energy sources is not happening because of slow implementation and poorly thought-out processes. The author emphasized that the success of future alternative energy policies lies in partnerships where interested parties can work mutually to effect policy and political change. The International Energy Agency has stated that in the past 5 years, prices for renewable energies have become cost competitive with fossil technologies, but a long-term strategy and policy framework is needed to ensure that the full potential of renewable energy is not bypassed. The changes that are underway within the energy sector should be led by new policies that reflect social, economic and environmental priorities. It was suggested that Canada should follow the example of the European Union and require that a specific percentage of generation must come from renewable energy sources. 4 refs.

  10. How social policies can improve financial accessibility of healthcare: a multi-level analysis of unmet medical need in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Sabine

    2016-03-05

    The article explores in how far financial accessibility of healthcare (FAH) is restricted for low-income groups and identifies social protection policies that can supplement health policies in guaranteeing universal access to healthcare. The article is aimed to advance the literature on comparative European social epidemiology by focussing on income-related barriers of healthcare take-up. The research is carried out on the basis of multi-level cross-sectional analyses using 2012 EU-SILC data for 30 European countries. The social policy data stems from EU-SILC beneficiary information. It is argued that unmet medical needs are a reality for many individuals within Europe - not only due to direct user fees but also due to indirect costs such as waiting time, travel costs, time not spent working. Moreover, low FAH affects not only the lowest income quintile but also the lower middle income class. The study observes that social allowance increases the purchasing power of both household types, thereby helping them to overcome financial barriers to healthcare uptake. Alongside healthcare system reform aimed at improving the pro-poor availability of healthcare facilities and financing, policies directed at improving FAH should aim at providing a minimum income base to the low-income quintile. Moreover, categorical policies should address households exposed to debt which form the key vulnerable group within the low-income classes.

  11. A European multi-language initiative to make the general population aware of independent clinical research: the European Communication on Research Awareness Need project

    OpenAIRE

    Mosconi, Paola; Antes, Gerd; Barbareschi, Giorgio; Burls, Amanda; Demotes-Mainard, Jacques; Chalmers, Iain; Colombo, Cinzia; Garattini, Silvio; Gluud, Christian; Gyte, Gill; Mcllwain, Catherine; Penfold, Matt; Post, Nils; Satolli, Roberto; Valetto, Maria Rosa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ECRAN (European Communication on Research Awareness Needs) project was initiated in 2012, with support from the European Commission, to improve public knowledge about the importance of independent, multinational, clinical trials in Europe. \\ud \\ud METHODS: Participants in the ECRAN consortium included clinicians and methodologists directly involved in clinical trials; researchers working in partnership with the public and patients; representatives of patients; and experts in s...

  12. Vermont Biofuels Initiative: Local Production for Local Use to Supply a Portion of Vermont's Energy Needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawyer, Scott; Kahler, Ellen

    2009-05-31

    The Vermont Biofuels initiative (VBI) is the Vermont Sustainable Jobs Fund's (VSJF) biomass-to-biofuels market development program. Vermont is a small state with a large petroleum dependency for transportation (18th in per capita petroleum consumption) and home heating (55% of all households use petroleum for heating). The VBI marks the first strategic effort to reduce Vermont's dependency on petroleum through the development of homegrown alternatives. As such, it supports the four key priorities of the U.S. Department of Energy's Multi-year Biomass Plan: 1.) Dramatically reduce dependence on foreign oil; 2.) Promote the use of diverse, domestic and sustainable energy resources; 3.) Reduce carbon emissions from energy production and consumption; 4.) Establish a domestic bioindustry. In 2005 VSJF was awarded with a $496,000 Congressionally directed award from U.S. Senator Patrick Leahy. This award was administered through the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FG36- 05GO85017, hereafter referred to as DOE FY05) with $396,000 to be used by VSJF for biodiesel development and $100,000 to be used by the Vermont Department of Public Service for methane biodigester projects. The intent and strategic focus of the VBI is similar to another DOE funded organization-the Biofuels Center of North Carolina-in that it is a nonprofit driven, statewide biofuels market development effort. DOE FY05 funds were expensed from 2006 through 2008 for seven projects: 1) a feedstock production, logistics, and biomass conversion research project conducted by the University of Vermont Extension; 2) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of State Line Biofuels existing biodiesel production facility; 3) technical assistance in the form of a safety review and engineering study of Borderview Farm's proposed biodiesel production facility; 4) technology and infrastructure purchases for capacity expansion at Green Technologies, LLC, a waste vegetable

  13. Policy initiatives, culture and the prevention and control of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, T Alafia; Guell, Cornelia; Legetic, Branka; Unwin, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    To explore interactions between disease burden, culture and the policy response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) within the Caribbean, a region with some of the highest prevalence rates, morbidity and mortality from NCDs in the Americas. We undertook a wide ranging narrative review, drawing on a variety of peer reviewed, government and intergovernmental literature. Although the Caribbean is highly diverse, linguistically and ethnically, it is possible to show how 'culture' at the macro-level has been shaped by shared historic, economic and political experiences and ties. We suggest four broad groupings of countries: the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM); the small island states that are still colonies or departments of colonial powers; three large-Spanish speaking countries; and Haiti, which although part of CARICOM is culturally distinct. We explore how NCD health policies in the region stem from and are influenced by the broad characteristics of these groupings, albeit played out in varied ways in individual countries. For example, the Port of Spain declaration (2007) on NCDs can be understood as the product of the co-operative and collaborative relationships with CARICOM, which are based on a shared broad culture. We note, however, that studies investigating the relationships between the formation of NCD policy and culture (at any level) are scarce. Within the Caribbean region it is possible to discern relationships between culture at the macro-level and the formation of NCD policy. However, there is little work that directly assesses the interactions between culture and NCD policy formation. The Caribbean with its cultural diversity and high burden of NCDs provides an ideal environment within which to undertake further studies to better understand the interactions between culture and health policy formation.

  14. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  15. Promoting Policy, Systems, and Environment Change to Prevent Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned From the King County Communities Putting Prevention to Work Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by

  16. How federal government and university policies need to change to achieve more and better research and education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieman, Carl

    2011-04-01

    The Obama administration has repeatedly emphasized that the economic future of the country will depend heavily on the future success of both its scientific research and its science education. Research universities play a vital role in both of these activities. Unfortunately, universities are facing increasing difficulties in maintaining and enhancing the quality of their research and educational activities. There are some particularly notable unmet opportunities for improving science education. I will offer some ideas for how federal and university policies on research funding and education might be modified in tandem to enhance both research and educational outputs.

  17. Development and initial validation of the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire (PaPEQu)--an instrument to assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Karin; Cignacco, Eva; Eskola, Katri; Engberg, Sandra; Ramelet, Anne-Sylvie; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Bergstraesser, Eva

    2015-12-01

    To develop and test the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire, an instrument to retrospectively assess parental experiences and needs during their child's end-of-life care. To offer appropriate care for dying children, healthcare professionals need to understand the illness experience from the family perspective. A questionnaire specific to the end-of-life experiences and needs of parents losing a child is needed to evaluate the perceived quality of paediatric end-of-life care. This is an instrument development study applying mixed methods based on recommendations for questionnaire design and validation. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire was developed in four phases between August 2012-March 2014: phase 1: item generation; phase 2: validity testing; phase 3: translation; phase 4: pilot testing. Psychometric properties were assessed after applying the Parental PELICAN Questionnaire in a sample of 224 bereaved parents in April 2014. Validity testing covered the evidence based on tests of content, internal structure and relations to other variables. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire consists of approximately 90 items in four slightly different versions accounting for particularities of the four diagnostic groups. The questionnaire's items were structured according to six quality domains described in the literature. Evidence of initial validity and reliability could be demonstrated with the involvement of healthcare professionals and bereaved parents. The Parental PELICAN Questionnaire holds promise as a measure to assess parental experiences and needs and is applicable to a broad range of paediatric specialties and settings. Future validation is needed to evaluate its suitability in different cultures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  19. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  20. The Need for Formal Evidence Synthesis in Food Policy: A Case Study of Willingness-to-Pay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Clark

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analysis is increasingly utilised in the understanding of consumer behaviour, including in relation to farm animal welfare. However, the issue of publication bias has received little attention. As willingness-to-pay (WTP is widely used in policy, it is important to explore publication bias. This research aimed to evaluate publication bias in WTP, specifically public WTP for farm animal welfare. A systematic review of four databases yielded 54 studies for random effects meta-analysis. Publication bias was assessed by the Egger test, rank test, contour-enhanced funnel plots, and the Vevea and Hedges weight-function model. Results consistently indicated the presence of publication bias, highlighting an overestimation of WTP for farm animal welfare. Stakeholders should be wary of WTP estimates that have not been critically evaluated for publication bias.

  1. Type 2 diabetes patient education in Reunion Island: perceptions and needs of professionals in advance of the initiation of a primary care management network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcou-Debussche, M; Debussche, X

    2008-09-01

    This study focused on issues in the education of type 2 diabetes patients in primary care on Reunion Island which, in a medical context, is broadly similar to metropolitan France, but with a much greater prevalence of diabetes. The aim was to assess the perceptions, training, reported practices and needs of health care providers in the field of patient education in advance of the initiation of a health care management network for diabetic patients. A total of 74 physicians and 63 nurses completed a detailed questionnaire comprising 52 items divided into six parts: professional activity, initial and postgraduate training, educational practices, objectives of patient education, perceived barriers and prospects for optimization. Educational activities for patients are almost nonexistent. Information and explanations given during a face-to-face encounter with the physician or nurse that combine technical and caring approaches are the main reasons reported for patient education. The obstacles reported by professionals that need to be overcome are limited available time, patient passivity and inadequate staff training. Practitioners and nurses are poorly taught as regards patient education and self-management of chronic diseases. The suggested improvements include professional acknowledgement, more convenient and available tools and improved postgraduate training. Patient education in primary care is still mostly an illusion, with many gaps that hinder education for both patients and professionals. The training of health professionals needs to meet the challenge of chronic diseases by integrating aspects from the fields of education and the social sciences.

  2. Lay Patient Navigators' Perspectives of Barriers, Facilitators and Training Needs in Initiating Advance Care Planning Conversations With Older Patients With Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjan, Soumya J; Huang, Chao-Hui S; Dionne-Odom, J Nicholas; Halilova, Karina I; Pisu, Maria; Drentea, Patricia; Kvale, Elizabeth A; Bevis, Kerri S; Butler, Thomas W; Partridge, Edward E; Rocque, Gabrielle B

    2018-04-01

    Respecting Choices is an evidence-based model of facilitating advance care planning (ACP) conversations between health-care professionals and patients. However, the effectiveness of whether lay patient navigators can successfully initiate Respecting Choices ACP conversations is unknown. As part of a large demonstration project (Patient Care Connect [PCC]), a cohort of lay patient navigators underwent Respecting Choices training and were tasked to initiate ACP conversations with Medicare beneficiaries diagnosed with cancer. This article explores PCC lay navigators' perceived barriers and facilitators in initiating Respecting Choices ACP conversations with older patients with cancer in order to inform implementation enhancements to lay navigator-facilitated ACP. Twenty-six lay navigators from 11 PCC cancer centers in 4 states (Alabama, George, Tennessee, and Florida) completed in-depth, one-on-one semistructured interviews between June 2015 and August 2015. Data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. This evaluation identifies 3 levels-patient, lay navigator, and organizational factors in addition to training needs that influence ACP implementation. Key facilitators included physician buy-in, patient readiness, and navigators' prior experience with end-of-life decision-making. Lay navigators' perceived challenges to initiating ACP conversations included timing of the conversation and social and personal taboos about discussing dying. Our results suggest that further training and health system support are needed for lay navigators playing a vital role in improving the implementation of ACP among older patients with cancer. The lived expertise of lay navigators along with flexible longitudinal relationships with patients and caregivers may uniquely position this workforce to promote ACP.

  3. When a policy decision meets practice realities: The case of cancer survivorship care and rehabilitation needs assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Maribo, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    To analyze and describe health professionals' attitudes and perspectives on the complexities of cancer survivorship and rehabilitation needs assessment in a shared cancer care context. The design and methodology for this study was Interpretive Description and the analysis was informed by Symbolic Interactionism as the theoretical framework. Between April and December 2015 an ethnographic fieldwork was carried out by the first author in haematological wards at two Danish hospitals and in two primary care settings conducting cancer survivorship care programs. Participants were 41 health professionals working with needs assessment. The findings revealed an understanding of the health professionals' attitudes and perspectives and were distinguishable in relation to three structural conditions associated with the dimensions of survivorship care: Patient Context, Workplace Priorities and Practice Culture. Despite shared beliefs that needs assessment was essential to ensure survivorship care, the differential conditions surrounding the hospital and the primary care settting impeded the wider idea of formalized needs assessment, creating barriers to a seamless link between the sectors. Meaningful resolution of these disjunctures will require broad solutions, recognizing that the organization of healthcare into disconnected systems, with their different conditions, history, habits and traditions, will certainly plague the "transition" problems in healthcare unless a wider perspective is taken. Thoughtful and informed clinicians working with decision makers and those who know the evidence and can interpret systems in context can certainly bring better options to light in order to develop high quality survivorship care that will support patients throughout their cancer trajectory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Cotton in Zambia: An Assessment of its Organization, Performance, Current Policy Initiatives, and Challenges for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; Zulu, Ballard; Shaffer, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper grows out of earlier work on cotton by the Food Security Research Project. It is directed towards policy makers and private stakeholders in Zambia’s cotton sector, and has four main purposes: (a) To provide a detailed descriptive overview of the organization of the sector and of the behavior of key public and private participants in the sector; (b) To assess cotton’s role in smallholder livelihood strategies, and its competitiveness at the farm level with a key alternative crop–mai...

  6. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care. PMID:26340498

  7. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald [eds.; Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the Japanese

  8. Clinical outcomes of radiotherapy as initial local therapy for Graves’ ophthalmopathy and predictors of the need for post-radiotherapy decompressive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prabhu, Roshan S; Liebman, Lang; Wojno, Ted; Hayek, Brent; Hall, William A; Crocker, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The optimal initial local treatment for patients with Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO) is not fully characterized. The purpose of this retrospective study is to describe the clinical outcomes of RT as initial local therapy for GO and define predictors of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompressive surgery. 91 patients with active GO and without prior surgery were treated with RT as initial local therapy between 01/1999 and 12/2010, with a median follow-up period of 18.3 months (range 3.7 - 142 months). RT dose was 24 Gy in 12 fractions. 44 patients (48.4%) had prior use of steroids, with 31 (34.1%) being on steroids at the initiation of RT. The most common presenting symptoms were diplopia (79%), proptosis (71%) and soft tissue signs (62%). 84 patients (92.3%) experienced stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms. 58 patients (64%) experienced improvement in their symptoms. 19 patients (20.9%) underwent salvage post-RT bony decompressive surgery. Smoking status and total symptom score at 4 months were independent predictors of post-RT bony decompression with odds ratios of 3.23 (95% CI 1.03 – 10.2) and 1.59 (95% CI 1.06 – 2.4), respectively. Persistent objective vision loss at 4 months post-RT was the most important symptom type in predicting salvage decompression. Chronic dry eye occurred in 9 patients (9.9%) and cataracts developed in 4 patients (4.4%). RT is effective and well tolerated as initial local therapy for active GO, with only 21% of patients requiring decompressive surgery post RT. Most patients experience stabilization or improvement of GO symptoms, but moderate to significant response occurs in the minority of patients. Smoking status and total symptom severity at 4 months, primarily persistent objective vision loss, are the primary determinants of the need for post-RT salvage bony decompression. Patients who smoke or present with predominantly vision loss symptoms should be advised as to their lower likelihood of symptomatic response to RT

  9. The need for consistent policy, education and social change in the pursuit of greenhouse gas emission reductions. Paper no. IGEC-1-111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharoah, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    As a society we are urgently seeking technical solutions to increase energy efficiency, and to reduce green house gas emissions, while at the same time our energy policy is silent on several many issues that are clearly at odds with this. For example, 'drive-thrus' which encourage unnecessary idling, are a staple of an increasing number of businesses, automatic vehicle starter units whose sole function is to increase vehicle idling times are increasing in popularity and becoming standard on some vehicles, and our urban designs increasingly demand ever more personal vehicle use. While technology may provide some solutions, the problem is essentially a sociological one and cannot be solved by technology alone. This paper quantitatively investigates GHG emission reductions possible from relatively simple social changes, and suggests avenues wherein proactive planning will lead to even larger gains. A blind reliance on technology to provide the solutions, while the public is continually presented with new and harmful products is not only presenting engineers with an impossible task, it is doomed to failure. There is a strong need for consistent energy policy, strong government involvement and a concerted and long term effort to educate the public on the implications of their energy choices. This type of policy not only has a direct and immediate impact, it also presents a consistent message that we are all part of the problem and we must all be part of the solution. Technology alone cannot provide a path to sustainability. (author)

  10. An exploration of barriers to insulin initiation for physicians in Japan: findings from the Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes And Needs (DAWN JAPAN study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ishii

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Insulin is recommended as an appropriate treatment in type 2 diabetes patients with suboptimal glycemic control; however, its initiation is often delayed. We therefore conducted the DAWN (Diabetes Attitudes, Wishes and Needs JAPAN study in an attempt to identify specific patient- and physician-related factors which contribute to delay of insulin initiation among Japanese patients with diabetes. In this report, we explored barriers for physicians which prevent timely insulin initiation. METHODS: The DAWN JAPAN study is a multicenter, questionnaire-based survey, conducted between 2004 and 2005. Participating physicians were categorized as follows based on their expertise: Japan Diabetes Society (JDS certified specialists (n = 77, JDS-affiliated physicians (n = 30, and non-JDS-affiliated physicians (n = 27. To assess physician barriers to insulin initiation, we have used a newly developed 27- item questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of patients (n = 11,656 treated by participating physicians was 64.1 years. The mean duration of diabetes was 121.6 months, and their mean HbA1c was 7.5%. Insulin was used in 27.4% of total patients. With regard to physician barriers to insulin initiation, the biggest differences in concerns expressed by JDS-certified specialists and non-JDS-affiliated physicians were observed in the following items with statistical significance: "I do not have staff (nurse, pharmacists who can assist with explanations" (1.3% vs 55.5%, respectively, "I have concerns about the use of insulin therapy in elderly patients" (38.1% vs 81.5%, and "It is difficult to provide guidance and education on insulin injection to patients" (16.9% vs 55.5%. The mean HbA1c at which physicians responded they would recommend insulin to their patients was 8.7%; however, they would reduce this level to 8.2% if they themselves required insulin. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that physicians have concerns about insulin use, and suggested that

  11. Energy justice and the contested petroleum politics of stranded assets: Policy insights from the Yasuní-ITT Initiative in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Scarpaci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ecuador's progressive Yasuní-ITT Initiative, operational 2007 to 2013, would have left almost one billion barrels of crude oil locked in perpetuity beneath one of the most intact and diverse nature reserves on the planet. The project attempted to “strand” these oil assets in order to protect biodiversity, respect the territory of indigenous peoples, combat climate change, and encourage more sustainable economic development. The Yasuní-ITT proposal would have had the international community pay Ecuador $3.6 billion—roughly half the value of the oil found there—in exchange for not developing the Ishpingo Tambococha Tiputini (ITT) oilfields. Funds would have been placed into social and environmental development programs and the promotion of domestic renewable energy. Instead, the project collected only $13 million and succumbed to a series of challenges including limited financing, intense political pressure, a national commitment to oil, and carbon leakage. This article summarizes the history, benefits, and insurmountable obstacles facing the Yasuní-ITT Initiative and presents six broader lessons and implications for climate and energy analysts, practitioners, and policymakers. It questions the political viability of and serves as a stark warning against those promoting and advocating policies centered on carbon budgets, stranded assets, negative emissions, and carbon revenue streams. - Highlights: •Ecuador's progressive Yasuní-ITT Initiative attempted to “strand” oil assets worth billions of dollars. •The project failed and collected only $13 million. •This article summarizes the history, benefits, and insurmountable obstacles facing the Yasuní-ITT Initiative. •It argues that extreme caution must be utilized when looking at global stranded asset policies. •The international community is unlikely financially support communities seeking to strand local assets for global benefit.

  12. Using Collaborative Simulation Modeling to Develop a Web-Based Tool to Support Policy-Level Decision Making About Breast Cancer Screening Initiation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Burnside MD, MPH, MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no publicly available tools designed specifically to assist policy makers to make informed decisions about the optimal ages of breast cancer screening initiation for different populations of US women. Objective: To use three established simulation models to develop a web-based tool called Mammo OUTPuT. Methods: The simulation models use the 1970 US birth cohort and common parameters for incidence, digital screening performance, and treatment effects. Outcomes include breast cancers diagnosed, breast cancer deaths averted, breast cancer mortality reduction, false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis. The Mammo OUTPuT tool displays these outcomes for combinations of age at screening initiation (every year from 40 to 49, annual versus biennial interval, lifetime versus 10-year horizon, and breast density, compared to waiting to start biennial screening at age 50 and continuing to 74. The tool was piloted by decision makers (n = 16 who completed surveys. Results: The tool demonstrates that benefits in the 40s increase linearly with earlier initiation age, without a specific threshold age. Likewise, the harms of screening increase monotonically with earlier ages of initiation in the 40s. The tool also shows users how the balance of benefits and harms varies with breast density. Surveys revealed that 100% of users (16/16 liked the appearance of the site; 94% (15/16 found the tool helpful; and 94% (15/16 would recommend the tool to a colleague. Conclusions: This tool synthesizes a representative subset of the most current CISNET (Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model outcomes to provide policy makers with quantitative data on the benefits and harms of screening women in the 40s. Ultimate decisions will depend on program goals, the population served, and informed judgments about the weight of benefits and harms.

  13. 'Men don't need to know everything': a field trial of a discreet, female-initiated, contraceptive barrier method (FemCap™) among Haitian-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Erica L; Cyrus, Elena; Dévieux, Jessy G; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Neptune, Sandra; Pelletier, Valerie; Michel, Hulda; Sévère, Marie; Pierre, Laurinus

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, women report the need for safe, non-hormonal, woman-initiated methods of family planning. Cervical barriers provide such technology but are under-researched and under-promoted. In the USA, there are few studies of cervical barriers among women at high unmet need for contraception. A feasibility study of the FemCap™ was conducted among US women of Haitian origin. Participants were heterosexual and seeking to avoid pregnancy. At first visit, participants completed baseline assessments, underwent group counselling and were fitted with FemCap™. Women were asked to insert or use the cap at home. The second visit (2-3 weeks) included an interviewer-administered questionnaire and a focus-group discussion. Participants (n  =  20) were Haitian-born (70%), married (55%) and parous (85%). Their mean age was 32.6 years. Seventy percent reported recent unprotected sex. All women inserted the device at home and 9 women used it during intercourse, including 5 without prior partner negotiation. Of 20 women, 11 liked FemCap™ very much or somewhat; 7 considered it 'OK'; 2 disliked it. Best-liked attributes were comfort, discreet wear and reusability. Difficulties with removal abated over time. Qualitative data revealed a high value placed on lack of systemic side effects. Use of FemCap™ was feasible and acceptable, supporting expansion of research, particularly among relevant populations with unmet need.

  14. ProVac Global Initiative: a vision shaped by ten years of supporting evidence-based policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew D; Sinha, Anushua; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Resch, Stephen; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanderson, Colin; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) created the ProVac Initiative in 2004 with the goal of strengthening national technical capacity to make evidence-based decisions on new vaccine introduction, focusing on economic evaluations. In view of the 10th anniversary of the ProVac Initiative, this article describes its progress and reflects on lessons learned to guide the next phase. We quantified the output of the Initiative's capacity-building efforts and critically assess its progress toward achieving the milestones originally proposed in 2004. Additionally, we reviewed how country studies supported by ProVac have directly informed and strengthened the deliberations around new vaccine introduction. Since 2004, ProVac has conducted four regional workshops and supported 24 health economic analyses in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Five Regional Centers of Excellence were funded, resulting in six operational research projects and nine publications. Twenty four decisions on new vaccine introductions were supported with ProVac studies. Enduring products include the TRIVAC and CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness models, the COSTVAC program costing model, methodological guides, workshop training materials and the OLIVES on-line data repository. Ten NITAGs were strengthened through ProVac activities. The evidence accumulated suggests that initiatives with emphasis on sustainable training and direct support for countries to generate evidence themselves, can help accelerate the introduction of the most valuable new vaccines. International and Regional Networks of Collaborators are necessary to provide technical support and tools to national teams conducting analyses. Timeliness, integration, quality and country ownership of the process are four necessary guiding principles for national economic evaluations to have an impact on policymaking. It would be an asset to have a model that offers different levels of complexity to choose from depending on the vaccine being

  15. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  16. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  17. Tobacco packaging and labeling policies under the U.S. Tobacco Control Act: research needs and priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2012-01-01

    The Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (the "Act"), enacted in June 2009, gave the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products. The current paper reviews the provisions for packaging and labeling, including the existing evidence and research priorities. Narrative review using electronic literature search of published and unpublished sources in 3 primary areas: health warnings, constituent labeling, and prohibitions on the promotional elements of packaging. The Act requires 9 pictorial health warnings covering half of cigarette packages and 4 text warnings covering 30% of smokeless tobacco packages. The Act also prohibits potentially misleading information on packaging, including the terms "light" and "mild," and provides a mandate to require disclosure of chemical constituents on packages. Many of the specific regulatory provisions are based on the extent to which they promote "greater public understanding of the risks of tobacco." As a result, research on consumer perceptions has the potential to shape the design and renewal of health warnings and to determine what, if any, information on product constituents should appear on packages. Research on consumer perceptions of existing and novel tobacco products will also be critical to help identify potentially misleading information that should be restricted under the Act. Packaging and labeling regulations required under the Act will bring the United States in line with international standards. There is an immediate need for research to evaluate these measures to guide future regulatory action.

  18. Environmental policies to protect pollinators: attributes and actions needed to avert climate borne crisis of oil seed agriculture in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Burhan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on oil seed crop is getting more and more pronounced with each passing day, resulting in reduced crop yields in Pakistan. Agriculture is the mainstay of Pakistan’s economy, however it is subjected to severe climatic vulnerabilities like floods, droughts, and changing rainfall patterns. Climate change has a marked influence on the population and distribution of pollinators. Extreme weather events can further aggravate the situation by causing high overwintering losses. Less roving pollinators, such as small beetles and ground nesting bees, may be among the most severely affected by flooding and gusts. Extreme conditions not only can disrupt the livelihoods of individual insects, but can also negatively impact entire colonies or local populations. It is recommended to take offensive measures to address these issues, otherwise the area under oil seed crops may decrease resulting in poor market stability index. Moreover, in this regard, there is desperate need to aggressively explore opportunities of capacity building and institutional strengthening to address the climate change issues in Pakistan. Through this review, it is hoped that a proactive risk assessment approach to climate change can assist the Government in making strategies against the losses of pollinator services in Pakistan.

  19. Doing the Right Thing for Women and Babies: Policy Initiatives to Improve Maternity Care Quality and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Maureen P; Jolivet, Rima

    2009-01-01

    When defined within the context of maternity care, the Institute of Medicine's six aims for health-care quality improvement provide a framework for Childbirth Connection's Maternity Quality Matters Initiative, a multipronged program agenda intended to foster a maternity care system that delivers care of the highest quality and value in order to achieve optimal health outcomes and experiences for mothers and babies. These aims also provide childbirth educators and others in the maternity care community with an ethical framework for efforts to serve childbearing women and families and ensure the best outcomes for women, babies, and families. PMID:19436596

  20. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  1. Report of the Inaugural Meeting of the TFOS i(2) = initiating innovation Series: Targeting the Unmet Need for Dry Eye Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wendy; Belmonte, Carlos; Benitez Del Castillo, José M; Bron, Anthony J; Dua, Harminder S; Nichols, Kelly K; Novack, Gary D; Schrader, Stefan; Willcox, Mark D; Wolffsohn, James S; Sullivan, David A

    2016-04-01

    On March 21, 2015, a meeting was held in London, United Kingdom, to address the progress in targeting the unmet need for dry eye disease (DED) treatment. The meeting, which launched the i(2) = initiating innovation series, was sponsored by the Tear Film & Ocular Surface Society (TFOS; www.TearFilm.org) and supported by Dompé. The TFOS i(2) meeting was designed to review advances in the understanding of DED since publication of the 2007 TFOS International Dry Eye WorkShop (DEWS) report, and to help launch the highly anticipated sequel, DEWS II. The meeting was structured to discuss the scope of the DED problem, to review the clinical challenges of DED, and to consider the treatment challenges of DED. This article provides a synopsis of the presentations of this TFOS i(2) meeting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased Utilization of Primary Health Care Centers for Birthing Care in Tamil Nadu, India: A Visible Impact of Policies, Initiatives, and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Jayanthi; Suresh, Saradha; Desikachari, B. R.; Padmanaban, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tamil Nadu has been showing an increasing trend in institutional deliveries since early 1990's and has now achieved near 100%. Among the institutional deliveries, a change was observed since 2006, wherein primary health centers (PHCs) showed a four-fold increase in deliveries, while other public and private health facilities showed a decline, despite equal access to all categories of health facilities. What led to this increased utilization of PHCs for birthing care? Material and Methods: Policies, documents, and published reports of the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) were reviewed and interviews were conducted with the various stakeholders involved in providing birthing care in the PHCs. This study analyzes the impact of the policies and supply side initiatives and innovations which led to increase utilization of the PHCs for birthing care. Results: Scaling up of 24 × 7 services in all PHCs, upgrading PHCs with good infrastructure, human resources, and women friendly services have helped to boost the image of the PHCs. Pro-women policies like maternity benefit schemes, birth companionship, providing food, and compulsory stay for 48 h following delivery have attracted women towards PHC. Innovative strategies like maternity picnics and use of expected date of delivery (EDD) chart for follow-up have made women choose PHCs, while periodic reviews and support to staff has improved service delivery. Conclusion: Women centered policies, efficient managerial systems, quality care, and innovative marketing of services have together contributed to increased utilization of PHCs for birthing. Other states could explore the possibility of replicating this model to make optimal use the PHC facilities. PMID:26664836

  3. Effects of Age and Initial Risk Perception on Balloon Analogue Risk Task: The Mediating Role of Processing Speed and Need for Cognitive Closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej eKoscielniak

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the dual-process theoretical perspective adopted in the presented research, the efficiency of deliberative processes in decision making declines with age, but experiential processes are relatively well-preserved. The age-related differences in deliberative and experiential processes in risky decision-making were examined in this research by applying the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART. We analyzed the influence of age on risk acceptance and decision-making performance in two age groups of female participants (younger adults, n = 81; older adults, n = 76, with additional experimental manipulation of initial risk perception. We predicted and confirmed that aging significantly worsens performance on the behavioral BART measures due to age-related decline in deliberative processes. Older participants were found to exhibit significantly higher risk aversion and lower BART performance, and the effect of age was mediated by cognitive (processing speed and motivational (need for cognitive closure mechanisms. Moreover, older adults adapt to the initial failure (vs. success similarly as younger adults due to preserved efficiency of experiential processes. These results suggest future directions for minimizing negative effects of aging in risky decision-making and indicate compensatory processes, which are preserved during aging.

  4. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A; Krasny, Sarah E

    2013-12-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use.

  5. Nurses Need Training and Policies to Address Barriers to Use of Mobile Devices and Apps for Direct Patient Care in Hospital Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelley Wadson

    2018-03-01

    or infection control as concerns as in Phase I; (2 patient acceptance and non-acceptance: education and familiarity with mobile devices were noted as positive influential factors; (3 information need, accessibility, and convenience: nurses reported needing easy-to-use apps, particularly Lexicomp, and appreciated improved access to information; and (4 nurse behaviour and attitude: participants reported more time would be needed for changes to occur in these areas. Conclusion – The study found that although most nurses own mobile devices and express strong interest in using them for patient care, there are significant barriers including lack of clarity about institutional policies and concerns about infection control, risk of damage to personal devices, costs, lack of experience with the technology, distraction, and negative patient perceptions. To address these concerns, the authors recommend that hospital librarians and educators work together to offer training and advocate for improved communication and policies regarding use of mobile devices in hospital settings. Moreover, the study affirmed the benefits of using mobile devices and apps to support evidence-based practice, for example by providing access to reliable drug information. The authors conclude that additional research is needed to inform policy and develop strategies that hospital librarians and nurse educators can use to promote the most effective application of mobile technologies for patient care.

  6. [The social marketing models and policy advices for HIV rapid testing initiated by non-govermental organization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cai, L P; Xue, H; Zhao, Y; Wu, D; Zhang, D P; Yin, W Y; Sun, J P

    2016-10-06

    Currently, a growing number of community-based organizations are providing rapid HIV testing service in various forms, some people with specific needs also purchase HIV rapid test papers through online sales channels, those imply that the demand of HIV self-test is in increasing year by year.In this paper, aims to understand the current situation of HIV rapid test led by CBOs and the approach, strategies and results of social marketing by means of expert interviews and site visits. Hope to illustrate the current situation, and make recommendations for future work.

  7. Public Acceptance on Nuclear Power: A Strategic Need to Shift to 5Ps (Politicians, Policy Makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Acceptance on Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dato Syed Ahmad Idid, S.N. K. A.-I.

    2015-01-01

    Business should not be as usual in formulating strategies and plans to enhance awareness regarding the benefits of nuclear power as an option for energy mix. Although, presently 435 nuclear power reactors in operation in 30 countries are delivering cost competitive electricity to consumers, creating significant job, investment and business opportunities, supporting enterprises, contributing significantly to these nations economic growth, however these positive impacts and benefits have not be sufficiently transmitted to the various stakeholders and population, who have until recently only received unbalanced views and news from an uninformed press. Negative and generally unbalanced press coverage of isolated nuclear incidents and accidents such as TMI, Chernobyl and most recently Fukushima has resulted in public protests to nuclear power, contributing to several nuclear power programmes being delayed or not able to take off. This situation is further exacerbated by uninformed politicians and policy makers who have the influence but were not able to harness their positions to assure the public due to lack of knowledge regarding the economic and social benefits of nuclear power. As the challenges to the nuclear industry presently also include ageing nuclear professionals, lack of updates regarding business and financing opportunities to business and financing professionals, thus the benefits of career, business and financing opportunities must also be disseminated to these Professionals. This paper aims to highlight the fundamental need to expand present Public Awareness Programme to become the 5Ps (Politicians, Policy makers, Professionals, Public and Press) Awareness Programme on Nuclear Power. (author)

  8. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  9. Conflicts about water: a case study about conflict and contest in Dutch rural policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, W.J.; Frouws, J.

    2005-01-01

    The Dutch countryside forms the scene for pressing problems of management and allocation of land and water. These problems underscore the need for comprehensive rural policies. For that purpose, area-based rural policy has been initiated. This new policy is part of a larger policy shift, labelled in

  10. Energy policy objectives scenarios 2050. Reactions on the need for expansion of wind energy and photovoltaics; Energiepolitische Zielszenarien 2050. Rueckwirkungen auf den Ausbaubedarf von Windenergie und Photovoltaik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, Matthias [Agora Energiewende, Berlin (Germany); Gerhardt, Norman; Sandau, Fabian [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Windenergie und Energiesystemtechnik (IWES), Kassel (Germany). Gruppe Energiewirtschaft und Systemanalyse

    2015-12-15

    The energy policy debate about renewable energies in Germany is currently focused almost exclusively on expansion targets of the power sector. Imost cases it remains an open question how much current is needed in the long term. A comparison of four cross-sectoral target scenarios shows that electricity consumption in 2050 in many cases could be much higher, depending on the assumptions and interpretation of climate targets than previously thought. [German] Die energiepolitische Diskussion um erneuerbare Energien in Deutschland konzentriert sich zurzeit fast ausschliesslich auf die Ausbauziele im Stromsektor. Dabei bleibt zumeist die Frage offen, wie viel Strom langfristig benoetigt wird. Ein Vergleich von vier sektoruebergreifenden Zielszenarien zeigt, dass der Stromverbrauch im Jahr 2050 je nach Annahmen und Interpretation der Klimaziele weitaus hoeher liegen koennte als bisher vielfach angenommen.

  11. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  12. Partisan Politics or Public-Health Need? An empirical analysis of state choice during initial implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Martin; Kenter, Robert; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    States' policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 have often been explained as predominantly, if not solely, partisan. Might rival explanations also apply? Using a cross-sectional 50-state regression model, we studied standard political variables coupled with public-health indicators. This work differs from existing research by employing a dependent variable of five additive measures of ACA support, examining the impact of both political and socioeconomic indicators on state policy decisions. Expanding on recent empirical studies with our more nuanced additive index of support measures, we found that same-party control of a state's executive and legislative branches was indeed by far the single best predictor of policy decisions. Public-health indicators, overwhelmed by partisan effect, did not sufficiently explain state policy choice. This result does not allay the concerns that health policy has become synonymous with health politics and that health politics now has little to do with health itself.

  13. The Iowa K-12 Climate Science Education Initiative: a comprehensive approach to meeting in-service teachers' stated needs for teaching climate literacy with NGSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanier, C. O.; Spak, S.; Neal, T. A.; Herder, S.; Malek, A.; Miller, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The Iowa Board of Education voted unanimously in 2015 to adopt NGSS performance standards. The CGRER - College of Education Iowa K-12 Climate Science Education Initiative was established in 2016 to work directly with Iowa inservice teachers to provide what teachers need most to teach climate literacy and climate science content through investigational learning aligned with NGSS. Here we present teachers' requests for teaching climate with NGSS, and an approach to provide resources for place-based authentic inquiry on climate, developed, tested, and refined in partnership with inservice and preservice teachers. A survey of inservice middle school and high school science teachers was conducted at the 2016 Iowa Council of Teachers of Mathematics/Iowa Academy of Sciences - Iowa Science Teaching Section Fall Conference and online in fall 2016. Participants (n=383) were asked about their prior experience and education, the resources they use and need, their level of comfort in teaching climate science, perceived barriers, and how they address potential controversy. Teachers indicated preference for professional development on climate content and complete curricula packaged with lessons and interactive models aligned to Iowa standards, as well as training on instructional strategies to enhance students' ability to interpret scientific evidence. We identify trends in responses by teaching experience, climate content knowledge and its source, grade level, and urban and rural districts. Less than 20% of respondents reported controversy or negativity in teaching climate to date, and a majority were comfortable teaching climate science and climate change, with equal confidence in teaching climate and other STEM content through investigational activities. We present an approach and materials to meet these stated needs, created and tested in collaboration with Iowa teachers. We combine professional development and modular curricula with bundled standards, concepts, models, data

  14. Prioritizing molecular markers to test for in the initial workup of advanced non-small cell lung cancer: wants versus needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Howard

    2017-09-01

    The current standard of care for molecular marker testing in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been evolving over several years and is a product of the quality of the evidence supporting a targeted therapy for a specific molecular marker, the pre-test probability of that marker in the population, and the magnitude of benefit seen with that treatment. Among the markers that have one or more matched targeted therapies, only a few are in the subset for which they should be considered as most clearly worthy of prioritizing to detect in the first line setting in order to have them supplant other first line alternatives, and in only a subset of patients, as defined currently by NSCLC histology. Specifically, this currently includes testing for an activating epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) mutation or an anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) or ROS1 rearrangement. This article reviews the history and data supporting the prioritization of these markers in patients with non-squamous NSCLC, a histologically selected population in whom the probability of these markers combined with the anticipated efficacy of targeted therapies against them is high enough to favor these treatments in the first line setting. In reviewing the evidence supporting this very limited core subset of most valuable molecular markers to detect in the initial workup of such patients, we can also see the criteria by which other actionable markers need to reach in order to be widely recognized as reliably valuable enough to warrant prioritization to detect in the initial workup of advanced NSCLC as well.

  15. Quality in-training initiative--a solution to the need for education in quality improvement: results from a survey of program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelz, Rachel R; Sellers, Morgan M; Reinke, Caroline E; Medbery, Rachel L; Morris, Jon; Ko, Clifford

    2013-12-01

    The Next Accreditation System and the Clinical Learning Environment Review Program will emphasize practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice. We present the results of a survey of general surgery program directors to characterize the current state of quality improvement in graduate surgical education and introduce the Quality In-Training Initiative (QITI). In 2012, a 20-item survey was distributed to 118 surgical residency program directors from ACS NSQIP-affiliated hospitals. The survey content was developed in collaboration with the QITI to identify program director opinions regarding education in practice-based learning and improvement and systems-based practice, to investigate the status of quality improvement education in their respective programs, and to quantify the extent of resident participation in quality improvement. There was a 57% response rate. Eighty-five percent of program directors (n = 57) reported that education in quality improvement is essential to future professional work in the field of surgery. Only 28% (n = 18) of programs reported that at least 50% of their residents track and analyze their patient outcomes, compare them with norms/benchmarks/published standards, and identify opportunities to make practice improvements. Program directors recognize the importance of quality improvement efforts in surgical practice. Subpar participation in basic practice-based learning and improvement activities at the resident level reflects the need for support of these educational goals. The QITI will facilitate programmatic compliance with goals for quality improvement education. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. All rights reserved.

  16. Paradigm Shift in Transboundary Water Management Policy: Linking Water Environment Energy and Food (weef) to Catchment Hydropolitics - Needs, Scope and Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAI, S.; Wolf, A.; Sharma, N.; Tiwari, H.

    2015-12-01

    The incessant use of water due to rapid growth of population, enhanced agricultural and industrial activities, degraded environment and ecology will in the coming decades constrain the socioeconomic development of humans. To add on to the precarious situation, political boundaries rarely embrace hydrological boundaries of lakes, rivers, aquifers etc. Hydropolitics relate to the ability of geopolitical institutions to manage shared water resources in a politically sustainable manner, i.e., without tensions or conflict between political entities. Riparian hydropolitics caters to differing objectives, needs and requirements of states making it difficult to administer the catchment. The diverse riparian objectives can be merged to form a holistic catchment objective of sustainable water resources development and management. It can be proposed to make a paradigm shift in the present-day transboundary water policy from riparian hydropolitics (in which the focal point of water resources use is hinged on state's need) to catchment hydropolitics (in which the interest of the basin inhabitants are accorded primacy holistically over state interests) and specifically wherein the water, environment, energy and food (WEEF) demands of the catchment are a priority and not of the states in particular. The demands of the basin pertaining to water, food and energy have to be fulfilled, keeping the environment and ecology healthy in a cooperative political framework; the need for which is overwhelming. In the present scenario, the policy for water resources development of a basin is segmented into independent uncoordinated parts controlled by various riparians; whereas in catchment hydropolitics the whole basin should be considered as a unit. The riparians should compromise a part of national interest and work in collaboration on a joint objective which works on the principle of the whole as against the part. Catchment hydropolitics may find greater interest in the more than 250

  17. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  18. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  19. Interorganizational Care needs Horizontal Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Spierenburg, Monique; van de Schoot, Rian

    2016-01-01

    Interorganizational Governance isn’t a theme for research yet. Because of the complexity of problems of (new) clients there is an urgent need to cooperate in networks of welfare, care, initiatives of citizens, general practitioners and others. And because of the policy of the (local) government, the transition of the healthcare systems, with the vision to help people close by. In these practice we see new ideas and forms of governance.What’s the problem? Decentralization, integration and pers...

  20. Evaluating the experiences and support needs of people living with chronic cancer: development and initial validation of the Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Clare; Pini, Simon; Kenyon, Lucille; Daffu-O'Reilly, Amrit; Velikova, Galina

    2016-08-10

    Many advanced cancers are managed as chronic diseases, yet there are currently no international guidelines for the support of patients living with chronic cancer. It is important to understand whether care and service arrangements meet the needs of this rapidly growing patient group. This study aimed to develop and validate a questionnaire to capture patients' experiences of living with chronic cancer and their views of clinical and support services. The research was carried out between 1 July 2010 and 21 February 2013. A conceptual framework and initial item bank were derived from prior interviews with 56 patients with chronic cancer. Items were reviewed by 4 oncologists and 1 clinical nurse specialist and during 2 focus groups with 9 patients. Pilot questionnaires were completed by 416 patients across 5 cancer units. Item selection and scale reliability was explored using descriptive data, exploratory factor analysis, internal consistency analyses, multitrait scaling analyses and known-groups comparisons. The final Chronic Cancer Experiences Questionnaire (CCEQ) includes 75 items. 62 items contribute to 14 subscales with internal consistency between α 0·68-0·88 and minimal scaling errors. Known-groups comparisons confirmed subscale utility in distinguishing between patient groups. Subscales were labelled: managing appointments, coordination of care, general practitioner involvement, clinical trials, information and questions, making treatment decisions, symptom non-reporting, key worker, limitations, sustaining normality, financial advice, worries and anxieties, sharing feelings with others, and accessing support. 13 items assessing symptom experiences were retained as single items. The CCEQ has the potential to be used as a clinical instrument to assess patient experiences of chronic cancer or to screen for patient needs. It may also be used as an outcome measure for evaluating programmes and models of care and may identify areas for service development that

  1. A narrative review of the empirical evidence on public attitudes on brain death and vital organ transplantation: the need for better data to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Seema K; Kasper, Kenneth; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-04-01

    Vital organ transplantation is premised on 'the dead donor rule': donors must be declared dead according to medical and legal criteria prior to donation. However, it is controversial whether individuals diagnosed as 'brain dead' are really dead in accordance with the established biological conception of death-the irreversible cessation of the functioning of the organism as a whole. A basic understanding of brain death is also relevant for giving valid, informed consent to serve as an organ donor. There is therefore a need for reliable empirical data on public understanding of brain death and vital organ transplantation. We conducted a review of the empirical literature that identified 43 articles with approximately 18,603 study participants. These data demonstrate that participants generally do not understand three key issues: (1) uncontested biological facts about brain death, (2) the legal status of brain death and (3) that organs are procured from brain dead patients while their hearts are still beating and before their removal from ventilators. These data suggest that, despite scholarly claims of widespread public support for organ donation from brain dead patients, the existing data on public attitudes regarding brain death and organ transplantation reflect substantial public confusion. Our review raises questions about the validity of consent for vital organ transplantation and suggests that existing data are of little assistance in developing policy proposals for organ transplantation from brain dead patients. New approaches to rigorous empirical research with educational components and evaluations of understanding are urgently needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Chemical and Biological Defense: DOD Needs Consistent Policies and Clear Processes to Address the Survivability of Weapon Systems Against Chemical and Biological Threats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2006-01-01

    DOD, joint, and military service weapon system acquisition policies inconsistently address and do not establish a clear process for considering and testing system chemical and biological survivability...

  4. FORCE STRUCTURE: Better Management Controls Are Needed to Oversee the Army's Modular Force and Expansion Initiatives and Improve Accountability for Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    .... For this report, GAO assessed to what extent the Army has accomplished the following: (1) implemented and established management controls for its modular force and force expansion initiatives, and (2...

  5. Will improved access to capital dampen the need for more agricultural land? A CGE analysis of agricultural capital markets and world-wide biofuel policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banse, M.; Rothe, A.; Tabeau, A.A.; Meijl, van J.C.M.; Woltjer, G.B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the consequences of enhanced biofuel production in regions and countries of the world that have announced plans to implement or expand on biofuel policies. The analysis considers biofuel policies implemented as binding blending targets for transportation fuels. The chosen

  6. Evaluating Nigeria Cashless Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kket Eko Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced cashless policy initiative to accomplish two main macro-socio-economic policy objectives of increased convenience and greater financial inclusion in Nigeria. This study evaluates Nigeria cashless policy implementation using a four point Likert scale questionnaire administered to six hundred respondents. The results of the study show that the twin policy objectives investigated were partially achieved. Also the study reveals that social infrastructures in power and telecommunications need improvement and expansion and the need to create more awareness to encourage the unbanked to embrace banking culture. This study recommends vigorous investments on cyber security, strengthening of internet protocol and controls in the banks and enactment of relevant legislative laws to curb cybercrimes.

  7. Making Sense of “Consumer Engagement” Initiatives to Improve Health and Health Care: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Martsolf, Grant R; Telenko, Shannon J; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2013-01-01

    Context Policymakers and practitioners continue to pursue initiatives designed to engage individuals in their health and health care despite discordant views and mixed evidence regarding the ability to cultivate greater individual engagement that improves Americans’ health and well-being and helps manage health care costs. There is limited and mixed evidence regarding the value of different interventions. Methods Based on our involvement in evaluating various community-based consumer engagement initiatives and a targeted literature review of models of behavior change, we identified the need for a framework to classify the universe of consumer engagement initiatives toward advancing policymakers' and practitioners' knowledge of their value and fit in various contexts. We developed a framework that expanded our conceptualization of consumer engagement, building on elements of two common models, the individually focused transtheoretical model of behavior and the broader, multilevel social ecological model. Finally, we applied this framework to one community's existing consumer engagement program. Findings Consumer engagement in health and health care refers to the performance of specific behaviors (“engaged behaviors”) and/or an individual's capacity and motivation to perform these behaviors (“activation”). These two dimensions are related but distinct and thus should be differentiated. The framework creates four classification schemas, by (1) targeted behavior types (self-management, health care encounter, shopping, and health behaviors) and by (2) individual, (3) group, and (4) community dimensions. Our example illustrates that the framework can systematically classify a variety of consumer engagement programs, and that this exercise and resulting characterization can provide a structured way to consider the program and how its components fit program goals both individually and collectively. Conclusions Applying the framework could help advance the field

  8. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p screening, and early detection of cancer' and 'accessing cancer treatment and clinical trials'. Health promotion and education efforts using multiple approaches were effective to improve perceived organizational values and support for cancer prevention and early detection, and increase access to information about cancer clinical trials. Future studies are needed to examine broader impacts of implementing worksite health promotion initiatives.

  9. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  10. Brief Report: Is Cognitive Rehabilitation Needed in Verbal Adults with Autism? Insights from Initial Enrollment in a Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M.; Bahorik, Amber L.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Greenwald, Deborah P.; Litschge, Maralee Y.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive rehabilitation is an emerging set of potentially effective interventions for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder, yet the applicability of these approaches for "high functioning" adults who have normative levels of intelligence remains unexplored. This study examined the initial cognitive performance characteristics of 40…

  11. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations to children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulations Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. In this second part of a two-part article, the activities of the various groups that constitute the Pediatric Formulations Initiative are discussed, in addition the Initiative's future activities and plans are outlined.

  12. The role of public policy in stimulating radical environmental impact reduction in the automotive sector: The need to focus on product-service system innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Ceschin, F; Vezzoli, C

    2010-01-01

    This is the post-print version of the Article. The official published version can be accessed from the link below - Copyright @ 2010 Inderscience Product-service system (PSS) innovation is a promising approach to address sustainability challenges in the automotive industry. Starting form this assumption, this paper presents and discusses the potential contribution that policy measures can have in fostering the automotive sector in innovating on a PSS level. A set of policy instruments (gen...

  13. Respecting the Rights of Others in a Violent Society: A Public Policy Perspective. The Need for a Concerted Effort To Teach Children Respect for People and Property. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Val J.

    This Boys' Town publication for parents presents guidelines for a parental and societal response to purse-snatching, shoplifting, and other kinds of stealing that are a part of violence. The guide maintains that a comprehensive public policy approach is needed, one that is based on an appreciation of the development of learning respect for the…

  14. Why We Need to Have Broad-Based Societal Discussions of the Governance of Geoengineering, at national and international levels, starting with scientists and increasingly with policy makers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbar, A. D.; Rowan, L. R.; Field, L. A.; Keith, D.; Robock, A.; Anbar, A. D.; van der Pluijm, B.; Pasztor, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Paris Agreement aims to limit the global temperature rise to 1.5 to 2°C above preindustrial temperature, but achieving this goal requires much higher levels of mitigation than currently planned. This challenge has focused greater attention on climate geoengineering approaches, as part of an overall response starting with radical mitigation. Geoengineering cannot address climate change on its own, but some scientists say that it could delay or reduce the overshoot. In so doing, we may expose the world to other serious risks. There is , however, no comprehensive international framework for governing these emerging technologies. Carbon dioxide removal technologies can have serious environmental, social and economic impacts, which need to be addressed. The largest immediate risk, however, could be the unilateral deployment of solar engineering by one country, a small group of countries, or a wealthy individual. The real or perceived impacts of deployment, including geopolitical reactions, could further destabilize a world already going through rapid change. Effective global governance frameworks could reduce this risk. SRM research is in its infancy. The real challenges are not technical, but pertain to ethics and governance. Should there be a strategic research programme, coupled with a global agreement to prohibit deployment unless and until certain risks and governance questions are adequately addressed? How would the world's governments determine if the potential global benefit of geoengineering is worth the risks to certain regions? How should trans-border and trans-generational issues be addressed? How would governance frameworks withstand geopolitical changes over decades or more of deployment? How might such technologies be developed and deployed without undermining political will to cut emissions? The world is heading to an increasingly risky future and is unprepared to address the institutional and governance challenges posed by these technologies

  15. Need for appropriate formulations for children: the national institute of child health and human development-pediatric formulations initiative, part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoia, George P; Taylor-Zapata, Perdita; Mattison, Donald

    2007-01-01

    The development and compounding of pharmacotherapeutic formulations that are suitable for infants and young children can be a challenging problem. This problem results from the lack of knowledge on the acceptability of different dosage forms and formulations in children in relation to age and developmental status, as well as the lack of reliable documentation of formulations used in pediatric clinical trials. As part of its mandate under the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act to improve pediatric therapeutics, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development has sponsored the Pediatric Formulation Initiative. The goal of this ongoing initiative is to address the issues and concnerns associated with pediatric therapeutics by convening groups of researchers and experts in pediatric formulations from academia, pharmaceutical companies, the National Institutes of Health, and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  16. An Evaluation Framework for Obesity Prevention Policy Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Janice; Vu, Maihan; Jernigan, Jan; Payne, Gayle; Thompson, Diane; Heiser, Claire; Farris, Rosanne; Ammerman, Alice

    2012-01-01

    As the emphasis on preventing obesity has grown, so have calls for interventions that extend beyond individual behaviors and address changes in environments and policies. Despite the need for policy action, little is known about policy approaches that are most effective at preventing obesity. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and others are funding the implementation and evaluation of new obesity prevention policies, presenting a distinct opportunity to learn from these practice-based initiatives and build the body of evidence-based approaches. However, contributions from this policy activity are limited by the incomplete and inconsistent evaluation data collected on policy processes and outcomes. We present a framework developed by the CDC-funded Center of Excellence for Training and Research Translation that public health practitioners can use to evaluate policy interventions and identify the practice-based evidence needed to fill the gaps in effective policy approaches to obesity prevention. PMID:22742594

  17. Do We Need to Clamp the Renal Hilum Liberally during the Initial Phase of the Learning Curve of Robot-Assisted Nephron-Sparing Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Acar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We aimed to compare the results of our initial robot-assisted nephron-sparing surgeries (RANSS performed with or without hilar clamping. Material and Method. Charts of the initial RANSSs (n=44, which were performed by a single surgeon, were retrospectively reviewed. R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry system, modified Clavien classification, and M.D.R.D. equation were used to record tumoral complexity, complications, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, respectively. Outcomes of the clamped (group 1, n=14 versus off-clamp (group 2, n=30 RANSSs were compared. Results. The difference between the two groups was insignificant regarding mean patient age, mean tumor size, and mean R.E.N.A.L. nephrometry score. Mean operative time, mean estimated blood loss amount, and mean length of hospitalization were similar between groups. A total of 4 patients in each group suffered 11 Clavien grade ≥2 complications early postoperatively. Open conversion rates were similar. The difference between the 2 groups in terms of the mean postoperative change in eGFR was insignificant. We did not encounter any local recurrence after a mean follow-up of 18.9 months. Conclusions. Creating warm-ischemic conditions during RANSS should not be a liberal decision, even in the initial phases of the learning curve for a highly experienced open surgeon.

  18. Facilitators and barriers to implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation for participative assessment of children in need and for coordination of services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Sarah; Lessard, Danielle; Chamberland, Claire

    2014-12-01

    As part of an implementation evaluation, this study aims to identify the conditions of practice that facilitated or hindered implementation of the AIDES initiative, a social innovation to support collaboration between partners involved with vulnerable children. Evaluators conducted qualitative telephone interviews with 36 respondents (19 practitioners and 17 managers) who participated in the AIDES initiative trial. Respondents were chosen to include all participating organisations (child protection services, prevention social services). Participants' comments were submitted to descriptive content analysis. Conditions facilitating or hindering implementation of the initiative included the following dimensions: (1) implementation quality; (2) organisational elements (organisational functioning, cooperation between organisations); (3) socio-political issues; and (4) personal and professional characteristics. The study highlights critical elements to consider in implementing and maintaining significant changes in practice in organisations providing assistance to vulnerable children and their families. Social innovations that do not consider such elements are likely to compromise their implementation and sustainability. We must prevent promising social changes from being considered unrealistic or inappropriate due to contextual barriers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Development and Initial Validation of a Questionnaire of Inclusive Teachers' Competency for Meeting Special Educational Needs in Regular Classrooms in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Meng; Wang, Sisi; Guan, Wenjun; Wang, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an instrument of inclusive teachers' competencies for teaching students with special educational needs in China. Data were obtained from a preliminary and large-scale investigation in Beijing. The primary analyses included exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The findings…

  20. It is a marathon rather than a sprint: an initial exploration of unmet needs and support preferences of caregivers of children with SCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryerson Espino, Susan L; Kelly, Erin H; Rivelli, Anne; Zebracki, Kathy; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2018-03-01

    Focus group study. Explore unmet needs and support preferences of caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury (SCI). One pediatric specialty rehabilitation hospital system in the United States. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 26 caregivers who were primarily mothers (96%) and married (65%), and had at least some college education (85%). Children living with SCI were on average 12.8 years old (SD = 3.3, 8-18). The average age of injury was 4.7 years (SD = 4.4, 0-16.2); mean injury duration was 8.2 years (SD = 3.9, 2-16); 77% had paraplegia; and 58% were male. Focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded using thematic analysis and NVivo. Qualitative data highlighted caregiver perspectives on unmet needs relating to two phases of care: acute and rehabilitation vs. current life with SCI, and two kinds of stressors: those associated with SCI and care vs. those related to other areas of the caregivers' lives, especially their families. Caregivers described stressful interactions with care systems and community services, articulated several concerns regarding well-being of family members, and noted that both they and their children with SCI experienced isolation. Caregivers articulated preferences for additional support from professionals and peers. Data suggest the need for ongoing caregiver interventions and strengthened family-centered care systems, including professional assistance navigating health systems and peer support. Intervention development would benefit from further qualitative data collection with additional caregivers of youth with SCI, including multiple family members, and families from more diverse care settings.

  1. Strengthening political leadership and policy innovation through the expansion of collaborative forms of governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torfing, Jacob; Ansell, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how political leadership and policy innovation can be enhanced through collaborative governance. The main findings are that while wicked and unruly problems create an urgent need for policy innovation, politicians are badly positioned to initiate, drive and lead...... this innovation. They are either locked into a dependency on policy advice from senior civil servants or locked out of more inclusive policy networks. In either case, they are insulated from fresh ideas and ultimately reduced to ‘policy-takers’ with limited engagement in policy innovation. Collaborative policy...

  2. INL Initial Input to the Mission Need for Advanced Post-Irradiation Examination Capability A Non-Major System Acquisition Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonc, Vince

    2010-01-01

    Consolidated and comprehensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) capabilities will enable the science and engineering understanding needed to develop the innovative nuclear fuels and materials that are critical to the success of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) programs. Existing PIE capabilities at DOE Laboratories, universities, and in the private sector are widely distributed, largely antiquated, and insufficient to support the long-range mission needs. In addition, DOE's aging nuclear infrastructure was not designed to accommodate modern, state-of-the-art equipment and instrumentation. Currently, the U.S. does not have the capability to make use of state-of-the-art technology in a remote, hot cell environment to characterize irradiated fuels and materials on the micro, nano, and atomic scale. This 'advanced PIE capability' to make use of state-of-the-art scientific instruments in a consolidated nuclear operating environment will enable comprehensive characterization and investigation that is essential for effectively implementing the nuclear fuels and materials development programs in support of achieving the U.S. DOE-NE Mission.

  3. Climate change, water security and the need for integrated policy development: the case of on-farm infrastructure investment in the Australian irrigation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraseni, T N; Mushtaq, S; Reardon-Smith, K

    2012-01-01

    The Australian Government is currently addressing the challenge of increasing water scarcity through significant on-farm infrastructure investment to facilitate the adoption of new water-efficient pressurized irrigation systems. However, it is highly likely that conversion to these systems will increase on-farm energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, suggesting potential conflicts in terms of mitigation and adaptation policies. This study explored the trade-offs associated with the adoption of more water efficient but energy-intensive irrigation technologies by developing an integrated assessment framework. Integrated analysis of five case studies revealed trade-offs between water security and environmental security when conversion to pressurized irrigation systems was evaluated in terms of fuel and energy-related emissions, except in cases where older hand-shift sprinkler irrigation systems were replaced. These results suggest that priority should be given, in implementing on-farm infrastructure investment policy, to replacing inefficient and energy-intensive sprinkler irrigation systems such as hand-shift and roll-line. The results indicated that associated changes in the use of agricultural machinery and agrochemicals may also be important. The findings of this study support the use of an integrated approach to avoid possible conflicts in designing national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, both of which are being developed in Australia. (letter)

  4. Modes of Governing and Policy of Local and Regional Governments Supporting Local Low-Carbon Energy Initiatives; Exploring the Cases of the Dutch Regions of Overijssel and Fryslân

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beau Warbroek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarly attention shows increasing involvement of local low-carbon energy initiatives (LLCEIs in governance and policy, in particular in relation to innovations regarding low-carbon energy and energy efficiency. The future perspective of active citizenship in the production of locally generated low-carbon energy is largely dependent on the existing institutional and policy frameworks and settings. Subnational governments, in particular, can have a prominent role in this process by engaging in institutional adaptation and policy innovation. The central research question of this paper is: In what ways do local and regional governments innovate in governing to respond to the emergence of LLCEIs? The research question is answered by comparing two case studies: the Dutch regions of Overijssel and Fryslân. We have conceptualized a meta-governing approach of experimentation, characterizing the innovations in governing that emerge when governments respond to the emergence of LLCEIs. We specifically focus on two capacities that subnational governments can use to enhance their governing capacity vis-à-vis LLCEIs and which substantiate the experimental meta-governance mode: institutional adaptation and policy innovation. We then formulated hypotheses that specify the expected policy innovations and institutional adaptations employed vis-à-vis LLCEIs. Data collection involved in-depth interviews and use of secondary data. The results show that a balancing process of authoritative and enabling modes of governing particularly characterized the type of policy innovations that were developed and the institutional adaptations that took place. Both provinces govern LLCEIs at arm’s length and issue significant capacity-building strategies that vary in terms of their conditions. Municipalities, however, incline towards impromptu and opportunistic responses, some of them having lasting effects by patching up existing institutional settings, others

  5. From policy to reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia; Reventlow, Susanne; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the structural barriers to preventive interventions targeting childhood obesity in the Danish health care system. Based on interviews with relevant health care professionals, the paper reports on the problems which are experienced by general practitioners and health......, and lack of resources together make it difficult for health care professionals to initiate interventions and reach the children in need of support. By analyzing the policy implementation process in a theoretical framework that discloses the discursive allocation of responsibilities, the study is able...

  6. Surfactant Need by Gestation for Very Preterm Babies Initiated on Early Nasal CPAP: A Danish Observational Multicentre Study of 6,628 Infants Born 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiingreen, Rikke; Greisen, Gorm; Ebbesen, Finn; Petersen, Jesper Padkær; Zachariassen, Gitte; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Mølholm Hansen, Bo

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) as respiratory support for preterm infants is being advocated as an alternative to prophylactic surfactant and treatment with mechanical ventilation. A number of infants treated with early nCPAP do not need treatment with surfactant, but few studies provide data on this. Since the 1990s, the first approach to respiratory support to preterm infants in Denmark has been early nCPAP combined with surfactant administration by the INSURE method by which the infant is intubated and surfactant administration is followed by rapid extubation to nCPAP if possible. To investigate how often surfactant was administered in preterm infants with a gestational age below 34 weeks treated with early nCPAP as a first approach to respiratory support. An observational multicentre study including all inborn infants with a gestational age below 34 weeks admitted to 1 of the 4 level 3 neonatal intensive care units in Denmark in the period from 2000 to 2013. A total of 6,628 infants were included in this study. We found that surfactant was administered in 1,056 of 1,799 (59%; 95% CI: 57-61%), in 821 of 2,864 (29%; 95% CI: 27-31%), and in 132 of 1,796 (7%; 95% CI: 6-8%) of the infants with a gestational age from 24 to 27, 28 to 31, and 32 to 33 weeks and 6 days, respectively. A large proportion of preterm infants treated with early nCPAP as the first approach to respiratory support was never treated with surfactant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  8. The RCE Initiative as a Policy Instrument for Sustainable Development: Can It Match the World Heritage List and the Global Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the United Nations University's (UNU) Regional Centres of Expertise on education for sustainable development (RCE) initiative. While many have discussed RCE's contribution to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), there has been no attempt to contextualise the RCE initiative in…

  9. Making Whole-Child Education the Norm: How Research and Policy Initiatives Can Make Social and Emotional Skills a Focal Point of Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emma; Weiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The importance of so-called noncognitive skills--which include abilities and traits such as critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social skills, persistence, creativity, and self-control--manifests itself in multiple ways throughout life. This policy brief, which focuses on a set of skills that can and should be taught in schools, is…

  10. U.S. Racial Ideology and Immigrant/Refugee Policy: Effects on Asian-American Identity, Community Formation and Refugee Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Mary T.

    Two papers explore racial ideology and policy toward immigrants and refugees in the United States. The first paper, "Race Theory Paradigms and Immigrant/Refugee Identity and Incorporation," asserts that the United States is a race-based society in which newcomers to the country have a racial identity imposed upon them. A review of the…

  11. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  12. A Consideration of What Educational Faculty Need to Know and Be Able to Do: Federal and State Policies and Best Practices for Collaborative Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenot-Scheyer, Marquita; Coots, Jennifer J.; Bishop-Smith, Kathryn

    2004-01-01

    This article addresses how teacher preparation programs can best respond to the broad, complex calls for reform in ways that are locally meaningful and honor academic integrity, but that are also true to the intent of the reform mandates. The authors begin with an overview of some of the federal and state initiatives that are presenting challenges…

  13. Evaluating the need for economic support policies in promoting greenhouse gas emission reduction measures in the building sector: The case of Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgopoulou, E.; Sarafidis, Y.; Mirasgedis, S.; Balaras, C.A.; Gaglia, A.; Lalas, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade the CO 2 emissions from the residential and tertiary sectors have been rising continuously. This is cause for concern but also an area to be targeted for emission reduction measures in national action plans. This paper proposes a methodological framework, using the Greek building sector (characterized by an aging building stock constructed mostly in the period before 1980) as a case study for the examination of the economic attractiveness of possible measures, which incorporates crucial parameters such as local climate, use of buildings, age of building stock, etc. that affect the energy conservation potential and consequently the economic performance of available measures. Utilizing this framework, the approach is able to classify measures into three categories, namely 'win-win' cases (i.e. where the implementation of emission reduction measures presents a net economic benefit for end-users), measures that require the implementation of appropriate economic support policies in order to make them economically attractive for end-users, and measures that have excessive cost. The results indicate that the emissions reduction potential of 'win-win' cases is significant. They also demonstrate how individual measures can provide significant reductions if carefully targeted economic support policies are applied. Finally, sensitivity analyses performed with respect to the discount rate applied indicate that it has a substantial impact on the economic performance of some measures and consequently on the magnitude of the 'win-win' potential associated to emissions reduction

  14. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  15. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  16. The Transforming Maternity Care Project: Goals, Methods, and Outcomes of a National Maternity Care Policy Initiative, With Construction of a Theoretical Model to Explain the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    although typically unaccounted for in the calculus of risks of VBAC versus repeat cesarean, the literature documents heightened risk of many short and...cessation and other behav- ioral interventions, aI!d dental care. • Within hospitals and health sys\\ ems, use person- nel policies to remove incentives...Cruel calculus : why saving premature babies is better business than helping them thrive. Health Aff (Millwood), 29(11), 2114-2117. Lawrence, P. R

  17. We Can Do Better: Sharing Responsibility to Better Meet the Needs of Dual-Status Youth. WisKids Count Policy Brief, Spring 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Emily

    2014-01-01

    While only a minority of children who have been abused or neglected engage in delinquent behavior, they are at a significantly higher risk. When youth do become involved in both the child welfare and juvenile justice systems, they present unique needs that require collaboration between the numerous systems and people involved in their lives. The…

  18. Examining the sources of public support for wildland fire policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.D. Absher; J.J. Vaske

    2007-01-01

    Recent severe wildfires have reinforced the need for successful mitigation strategies to be coordinated across all levels of government that address the needs and concerns of homeowners who live in the wildland/urban interface (WUI). Despite the growing body of social science literature on agency-initiated wildland fire policies and homeowner mitigation strategies,...

  19. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Vosick

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  20. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, systems of care. An urgent need for policies to co-ordinate care in order to decrease in-hospital mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ali Osama; Abela, Oliver; Allenback, Gayle; Devabhaktuni, Subodh; Lui, Calvin; Singh, Aditi; Diep, Jimmy; Yamashita, Takashi; Yoo, Ji Won; Malhotra, Sanjay; Ahsan, Chowdhury

    2017-08-01

    Regional trends for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treatment is not known in the state of Nevada. Great disparity exists for treatment for STEMI in different geographical areas of Nevada. There is a great potential to improve treatment and outcomes of STEMI patients in the State of Nevada. Admissions to non-federal hospitals in the state of Nevada, using 2011 to 2013 discharge data from the Nevada State Inpatient Data Base (acquired from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality), were analyzed. Outpatient-onset STEMI patients were identified. The state of Nevada was divided into three divisions based on population densities, defined as population per square mile. Division A included counties with population density of 200 per square mile. Trends in use of STEMI-related therapies and the impact on in-hospital mortality rates were compared. Almost 20% of the patients with outpatient-onset STEMI do not get any STEMI-related therapy and have significantly higher mortality rate. Patients from Division A do not have direct access to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) centers. These patients receive less STEMI-related therapies. Low-volume PCI centers had equivalent mortality rates for STEMI patients who got PCI, compared to high-volume PCI centers. Policies must be created and processes streamlined so all STEMI patients in Nevada receive appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Seeing beyond statistics: Examining the potential for disjuncture between legislation, policy and practice in meeting the needs of highly able Scottish students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niamh Stack

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The question of how best to identify and provide for gifted students has a long and contentious history internationally. In contrast to other countries where there are specialist programmes and in some cases specialist teachers for gifted pupils, Scotland has chosen to adopt an inclusive approach to provision for these students and has created a legislative and curricular framework that in theory provides a strong structure for meeting their educational and developmental needs. While there are significant benefits to this approach, care must be taken to ensure that within the space between intention and practice the needs of these learners have been explicitly identified, considered and met. Each year the Scottish Government conducts a census to collect data from all publically funded schools in Scotland. In accordance with Scottish legislation as part of this process it gathers data pertaining to pupils identified as requiring additional support for their learning, including highly able pupils. However there are anomalies within this data, for example, there are unusual and unexplained discrepancies between the proportions of pupils identified as being highly able in different geographical contexts. The purpose of the present study was therefore to examine the potential causes for these anomalies and to assess the implications for the identification of, and provision for, highly able pupils in Scotland. Thirteen structured telephone interviews were conducted with Local Education Authority personnel across Scotland. These interviews aimed to get behind the statistics and examine how highly able pupils are identified, and provided for, in practice. Several interesting issues emerged from the interviews that may begin to help to explain the anomalies and to help us better understand everyday practice. The results, while encouraging, suggest that there is a need for teachers, educational psychologists, schools and authorities to ensure that the

  2. A globally integrated climate policy for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Brunnee, J.; Duff, D.G.; Green, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book explored policy ideas and options from various perspectives, including science, law, political science, economics and sociology. The costs, opportunities and imperatives to participate in international diplomatic initiatives were considered along with the opportunities of regional global carbon markets. Canada's current policy on climate change negotiations have been focused on domestic regulation and incentives for technological responses and the setting of a domestic carbon price. The sense of urgency about global warming was discussed and the need for action to respond to the threat of global climate change was emphasized. The book also reviewed Canada's role in international climate policies and presented parameters and imperatives for global regime building in Canada. Domestic policy tools were also reviewed along with policy obstacles and opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the

  4. Acquisition Management: Agencies Can Improve Training on New Initiatives. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    A study assessed strategies agencies use to ensure that their workforces are receiving the training necessary to implement acquisition initiatives. Focus was on the General Services Administration (GSA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD). Findings indicated that the critical elements important to…

  5. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Technical Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Appendix discusses how researchers from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) conducted the five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005, and how they defined and…

  6. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  7. Why the Critics of Poor Health Service Delivery Are the Causes of Poor Service Delivery: A Need to Train the Policy-makers; Comment on “Why and How Is Compassion Necessary to Provide Good Quality Healthcare?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Harding

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This comment on Professor Fotaki’s Editorial agrees with her arguments that training health professionals in more compassionate, caring and ethically sound care will have little value unless the system in which they work changes. It argues that for system change to occur, senior management, government members and civil servants themselves need training so that they learn to understand the effects that their policies have on health professionals. It argues that these people are complicit in the delivery of unethical care, because they impose requirements that contradict health professionals’ desire to deliver compassionate and ethical forms of care.

  8. We need an EEG 2.0. A law for the success of the energy policy turnaround; Wir brauchen ein EEG 2.0. Ein Gesetz fuer den Erfolg der Energiewende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmaier, Peter [Bundeskanzleramt, Berlin (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The contribution is discussing the development of renewable energies as a consequence of the energy policy turnaround in Germany. In the long term the cost of renewable will be lower than that of conventional energy sources. The challenges and chances of new technologies based on renewable energy and energy saving are identified, the new technologies could induce a new industrial revolution. The author clarifies the need for an advanced renewable energy law (EEG 2.0), including the necessity of a national consensus for an adequate extension of the national grid. The contribution includes recommendations with respect to the electricity prices and the requirement of a political framework.

  9. Military and Veteran Families and Children: Policies and Programs for Health Maintenance and Positive Development. Social Policy Report. Volume 28, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozza, Stephen J.; Lerner, Richard M.; Haskins, Ron

    2014-01-01

    This "Social Policy Report" summarizes what is currently known about our nation's military children and families and presents ideas and proposals pertinent to the formulation of new programs and the policies that would create and sustain these initiatives. We emphasize the need for future rigorous developmental research about military…

  10. Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Kheya Melo; Kar, Anita

    2014-04-01

    There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5%) of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre). Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.

  11. Initialized Fractional Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Hartley, Tom T.

    2000-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the need for a nonconstant initialization for the fractional calculus and establishes a basic definition set for the initialized fractional differintegral. This definition set allows the formalization of an initialized fractional calculus. Two basis calculi are considered; the Riemann-Liouville and the Grunwald fractional calculi. Two forms of initialization, terminal and side are developed.

  12. Policy needs and options for a common approach towards modelling and simulation of human physiology and diseases with a focus on the virtual physiological human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viceconti, Marco; McCulloch, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    Life is the result of an intricate systemic interaction between many processes occurring at radically different spatial and temporal scales. Every day, worldwide biomedical research and clinical practice produce a huge amount of information on such processes. However, this information being highly fragmented, its integration is largely left to the human actors who find this task increasingly and ever more demanding in a context where the information available continues to increase exponentially. Investments in the Virtual Physiological Human (VPH) research are largely motivated by the need for integration in healthcare. As all health information becomes digital, the complexity of health care will continue to evolve, translating into an ever increasing pressure which will result from a growing demand in parallel to limited budgets. Hence, the best way to achieve the dream of personalised, preventive, and participative medicine at sustainable costs will be through the integration of all available data, information and knowledge.

  13. Think Tank Initiative Phase 2: Strengthening Research Capacity ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Public policies work best when local actors design and implement them. ... that can do the ongoing research and analysis needed to effect improvements over time. ... to enable think tanks to improve organizational performance, research quality, and ... New initiative to further global sustainable development goals in health.

  14. Presentation and Persuasion: The Meaning of Evidence in Irish Green Infrastructure Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mick

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how meaning making influences the content and currency of the evidence used to shape and support policy proposals. It does this by answering three linked questions: (1) How does context influence the forms of evidence employed in policy advocacy? (2) What practices are initiated by reference to the perceived need for evidence…

  15. Nurses' Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators Affecting the Shaken Baby Syndrome Education Initiative: An Exploratory Study of a Massachusetts Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess nurses' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the shaken baby syndrome (SBS)/abusive head trauma (AHT) public policy. A legislative Act providing for the prevention of SBS/AHT was passed in Massachusetts in November 2006. A stipulation of this Act was the provision of a program to educate parents/guardians of newborns about SBS/AHT prevention. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design with a qualitative component was used for this study. Nurses in 13 Massachusetts birthing hospitals were surveyed using a Web-based questionnaire (hosted by Qualtrics, Provo, Utah). Hospital nurses' responses (N = ∼ 922; 155 responded) revealed barriers to and facilitators of SBS/AHT guideline implementation. The disadvantage of Web-based surveys as they relate to the challenges of enlisting cooperation and a lack of direct access to the nurses may have attributed to the low response rate (17%) for this study. The outcomes of logistic regression analyses and themes from the qualitative analysis revealed a lack of SBS/AHT brochures and an inability to provide SBS/AHT education for non-English-speaking parents/guardians as barriers to SBS/AHT education. An atmosphere of supportive leadership facilitated implementation of the SBS/AHT education guidelines by nurses. It is imperative that nurse leadership support be sustained so that nurses have SBS/AHT education resources, an understanding of the SBS/AHT education guidelines, and feedback about the impact of their SBS/AHT education interventions.

  16. WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelaar, Arie H.; Cawthorne, Amy; Angulo, Fred

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundThe public health impact of foodborne diseases globally is unknown. The WHO Initiative to Estimate the Global Burden of Foodborne Diseases was launched out of the need to fill this data gap. It is anticipated that this effort will enable policy makers and other stakeholders to set...... appropriate, evidence-informed priorities in the area of food safety. MethodsThe Initiative aims to provide estimates on the global burden of foodborne diseases by age, sex, and region; strengthen country capacity for conducting burden of foodborne disease assessments in parallel with food safety policy...

  17. The evidence of mother to child transmission of hepatitis B virus infection in Pakistan and the need for hepatitis B immunization policy change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, H.; Javaid, N.; Alam, S.E.

    2014-01-01

    with pentavalent vaccine, but despite vaccination 33 (2.6%) became surface antigen positive. No vaccination was received by 320 (19.9%) children and out of these 16 (5%) became surface antigen positive. Moreover, the vaccinated and unvaccinated children born to surface antigen positive mothers were nine and 11 times respectively more likely to be exposed to the risk of hepatitis B virus transmission relative to vaccinated children born to surface antigen negative mothers. Conclusions: Hepatitis B vaccination given at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of birth is not sufficiently protective, indicating a strong need for the introduction of birth dose into the national immunisation system. (author)

  18. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  19. Conflicting demands in prison education and the need for context-specific, specialist training for prison educators: an account of the work of the Initial Teacher Training project for teachers and instructors in London prisons and offender learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanes, Julia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prison Education is regulated by legislative and institutional requirements as are other kinds of Learning and Skill provision, but it is also fundamentally affected by the custodial requirements of the British Legal system. This, together with the relative isolation that teaching staff face within an organisational culture which is peculiar to each prison, produces a learning culture that is very different from that of general Further Education. This paper discusses initial findings of the LONCETT Prison Education Research Project (2008, which aims to identify the specific professional training needs of prison educators in London. Findings from five of the eight prisons in London highlighted two main pedagogic issues that emerged as key aspects of prison education practice which require both specialist training input and further research: the fragmentation which characterises the learner experience; and the emotional stress produced in this environment, which impacts both upon prisoner-learners and teaching staff.

  20. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  1. Corporate Language Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a review of literature dealing with language policies in general and corporate language policies in particular. Based on a discussion of various definitions of these concepts within two research traditions, i.e. sociolinguistics and international management, a three......-level definition of corporate language policies is presented, emphasising that a corporate language policy is a context-specific policy about language use. The three-level definition is based on the argument that in order to acquire a complete understanding of what corporate language policies involve, one needs...... to consider three progressive questions; 1) what is a policy? 2) what is a language policy?, and ultimately, 3) what is a corporate language policy?...

  2. The role of supply-chain initiatives in reducing deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin, Eric F.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Heilmayr, Robert; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fleck, Leonardo C.; Garrett, Rachael D.; le Polain de Waroux, Yann; McDermott, Constance L.; McLaughlin, David; Newton, Peter; Nolte, Christoph; Pacheco, Pablo; Rausch, Lisa L.; Streck, Charlotte; Thorlakson, Tannis; Walker, Nathalie F.

    2018-01-01

    A major reduction in global deforestation is needed to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss. Recent private sector commitments aim to eliminate deforestation from a company's operations or supply chain, but they fall short on several fronts. Company pledges vary in the degree to which they include time-bound interventions with clear definitions and criteria to achieve verifiable outcomes. Zero-deforestation policies by companies may be insufficient to achieve broader impact on their own due to leakage, lack of transparency and traceability, selective adoption and smallholder marginalization. Public-private policy mixes are needed to increase the effectiveness of supply-chain initiatives that aim to reduce deforestation. We review current supply-chain initiatives, their effectiveness, and the challenges they face, and go on to identify knowledge gaps for complementary public-private policies.

  3. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateau, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    The author first discusses the various concepts and definitions associated with energy needs, and then the difference between actual needs and energy needs by distinguishing personal needs, needs of the productive sector, energetic needs and services. In the next part, he discusses how energy needs are assessed. He discusses the relationship between energy needs and energy consumption, how energy consumptions can be analysed and interpreted. He comments how energy needs can be assessed and analysed in time and in space. He notices and explains why economy and climate are the main causes of spatial differences for energy needs per habitant, and comments the evolution of energy consumption over long periods

  4. Energy policy, strategies for uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.L.; Surrey, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: energy policy-objectives, strategies and policies; the 1967 fuel policy; problems of the optimising approach; the uncertain outlook; oil; coal; gas; electricity; the interdependence of the four fuel industries; energy policy for the future - the need for a long-term strategy; medium-term strategies and short-term policies; the organisational decisions of energy policy. Nuclear power is included in the subject matter. (U.K.)

  5. Newborn bloodspot screening policy framework for Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O'Leary

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of newborn bloodspot screening (NBS is to identify rare genetic and non-genetic conditions in children soon after birth in order to commence therapies that prevent the development of progressive, serious, and irreversible disabilities. Universal NBS programmes have been implemented in most countries, with minor adaptations to target conditions most relevant to the local healthcare environment. Aims In this article, we describe the initiatives of international and Australian governments to develop policies to address the expansion of NBS in their healthcare systems. Methods We have reviewed published public policies and literature to formulate recommendations based on clinical, social, legal, and ethical principles to inform a national governance and policy framework for Australia. Results Australian policy makers have been slow to develop a coordinated plan. While the experience from other governments can guide our national policy, there are specific areas that require further consideration by Australian health experts. Key reforms involve the separation of policy and operational activities, multidisciplinary decision-making and oversight by the Australian Health Ministers’ Advisory Council for policy direction. Conclusion A formal national policy framework will guide the coordination of NBS services that can adapt to the needs of Australian children and families.

  6. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  7. Comparative analysis of aging policy reforms in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Esteban; Berho, Maureen; Roqué, Mónica; Amaro, Juan Sebastián; Morales, Fernando; Rivera, Emiliana; Gutiérrez Robledo, Luis Miguel F; López, Elizabeth Caro; Canals, Bernardita; Kornfeld, Rosa

    2018-04-16

    This investigation uses case studies and comparative analysis to review and analyze aging policy in Argentina, Chile, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and uncovers similarities and relevant trends in the substance of historical and current aging policy across countries. Initial charity-based approaches to poverty and illness have been gradually replaced by a rights-based approach considering broader notions of well-being, and recent reforms emphasize the need for national, intersectoral, evidence-based policy. The results of this study have implications for understanding aging policy in Latin America from a welfare regime and policymakers' perspective, identifying priorities for intervention, and informing policy reforms in developing countries worldwide.

  8. The Impact of Quality Assurance Initiatives and Workplace Policies and Procedures on HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Experienced by Patients and Nurses in Regions with High Prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G; Pietrosanu, Matthew; Edwards, Nancy

    2018-02-23

    Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya). This is one of the first studies in LMIC countries to use hierarchical linear modeling to examine the contributions of organizational and individual factors to HIV/AIDS stigma. Based on our results, we argue that organizational interventions explicitly targeting HIV/AIDS stigma are required to reduce the incidence, prevalence and morbidity of HIV/AIDS.

  9. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    (organizational, technical and legislative), and on future needs and waste arisings. The technical procedures proposed for the waste types in the country should be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable disposal option. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technological procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. Policies and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategy. The lead in making changes should be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy (waste management organization); but all relevant parties in the country should be involved and consulted in this process. (author)

  10. Does Estonia need foreign policy? / Alexander Astrov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Astrov, Alexander

    2003-01-01

    Autori arvates vajab Eesti kindlaksmääratud poliitikasuundade asemel rohkem välispoliitikat laiemas mõttes, vajalik oleks loobuda viimase aastakümne eesmärgikesksest ratsionaalsusest enam kontekstitundliku tegutsemis- ja mõtlemisviisi kasuks

  11. Does Europe Need a Comprehensive Energy Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, R.S.J.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear meltdown in Fukushima has given renewed momentum to the anti-nuclear power movement across Europe. However, the degree of momentum varies greatly from country to country, and considering the geographically widespread consequences of a nuclear accident, it hardly appears optimal for one

  12. Does Europe need a comprehensive energy policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Egenhofer, Christian; Behrens, Arno; Tol, Richard S. J.; Berthélemy, Michel; Lévêque, François; Jansen, Jaap C.

    2011-01-01

    The nuclear meltdown in Fukushima has given renewed momentum to the anti-nuclear power movement across Europe. However, the degree of momentum varies greatly from country to country, and considering the geographically widespread consequences of a nuclear accident, it hardly appears optimal for one country to ban nuclear power while multiple nuclear power plants are still active in neighbouring countries. Even beyond the nuclear power dilemma, the economic and political externalities associate...

  13. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  14. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  15. Evidence-based policy: implications for nursing and policy involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair

    2008-11-01

    Evidence-based policy making is espoused as a central feature of government in the United Kingdom. However, an expectation that this will improve the quality of policy produced and provide a path to increased involvement of nurses in the policy process is misplaced. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that the emphasis on evidence-based policy is problematic and cannot be regarded as a "new model" of policy making. Also, it could deflect attention from more practical approaches to policy involvement on the part of nurses. Policy development activities, acquisition of skills in policy analysis, and other forms of involvement are needed if nurses are to move along the continuum from policy literacy, through policy acumen, to policy competence. This involves taking a critical stance on the notion of evidence-based policy.

  16. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  17. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  18. Health needs assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A Bani

    2008-01-01

    The findings of the assessment of the health needs of Jazan presented in this review could be utilized as a baseline and reference information for policy formulation, subsequent planning and cost effective intervention programs. It could also be utilized for the curriculum development or review for a community oriented medical schools.

  19. HEALTH NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivera Radulovic

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Human needs are of great interest to different scientific fields: sociology, anthropology, psychology, medicine, economy… Malinowski, Maslow, Adler and From have largely contributed to studying the needs. While trying to define the need concept, not only one definition is acceptable. In psychology, need is defined as a lack or disorder, i.e. the necessity to dislodge this lack. It was Maslow who gave the fullest classification and explanation of human needs. If we start from the fact that need represents the lack or deficit of something, in this context health needs would indicate the lack of health, and the measurement of health needs would be the same as the measurement of health. Therefore, almost all human needs can be enumerated as health needs, i.e. those which, after being satisfied, can lead to physical, psychical and social welfare. According to WHO, health needs can be defined as scientifically settled evasions from health which require preventive, curative and probably regulative and eradicative measurements. According to the medical method used by the health service while regarding the needs, the emphasis is on morbidity, mortality, incidence, prevalence, inability, etc. Usually, when we have very low level of health culture, and the responsibility for personal health is in most of the cases unacceptable, for the health service user the curative services will have priority over preventive ones. The measurement of health needs is a complex task. The needs can be regarded through medical documentation and by perception of the needs by people in the community.

  20. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  1. The online Prescriptive Index platform for the assessment of managerial competencies and coaching needs: development and initial validation of the experience sampling Mood Wheel and the Manager-Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David, O.A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Prescriptive Index platform is dedicated to the appraisal and development of managerial competencies, and it is comprised of such measures as the multi-rater Freeman-Gavita Prescriptive Executive Coaching (PEC Assessment for assessing core managerial skills, and the multi-rater Managerial Coaching Assessment System (MCAS for the evaluation of coaching competencies in managers. The aim of this research was to present the development and psychometric properties of new tools, part of the Prescriptive Index platform, for the assessment of managerial emotional competencies: the web and mobile based Mood Wheel measure using experience sampling procedures, for the assessment of current/previous distress and positive emotions; and the self-report Manager Rational and Irrational Beliefs Scale (M-RIBS for the assessment of managerial attitudes involved in emotion-regulation processes. Results obtained show that both instruments integrated in the Prescriptive Index platform have adequate initial psychometric support and predictive validity. Practical implications of our findings are discussed in the light of the importance of enabling organizations to accurately identify managerial competencies and coaching needs.

  2. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  3. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  4. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  5. Emerging strategic corporate social responsibility partnership initiatives in agribusiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pötz, Katharina Anna; Haas, Rainer; Balzarova, Michaela

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has gained momentum in business practices and strategies. In the agribusiness sector, the need for CSR integration has recently triggered a number of private sector led initiatives that should contribute to sustainable...... we analyse the Sustainable Agriculture Initiative (SAI) platform and its principles. We conclude that over the past 5 years agribusiness corporations have become more pro-active in addressing sustainability concerns, and mainstream initiatives start to compete with the traditional niche markets...... development, we advise scholars, policy makers, and managers to not only address questions about legitimacy and stakeholder involvement, but also take strategic objectives into account....

  6. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  7. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  8. Resolving the paradox for protein aggregation diseases: a common mechanism for aggregated proteins to initially attack membranes without needing aggregates [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/221

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haina Qin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Paradoxically, aggregation of specific proteins is characteristic of many human diseases and aging, yet aggregates have been found to be unnecessary for initiating pathogenesis. Here we determined the NMR topology and dynamics of a helical mutant in a membrane environment transformed from the 125-residue cytosolic all-β MSP by the ALS-causing P56S mutation. Unexpectedly, despite its low hydrophobicity, the P56S major sperm protein (MSP domain becomes largely embedded in the membrane environment with high backbone rigidity. Furthermore it is composed of five helices with amphiphilicity comparable to those of the partly-soluble membrane toxin mellitin and α-synuclein causing Parkinson's disease. Consequently, the mechanism underlying this chameleon transformation becomes clear: by disrupting the specific tertiary interaction network stabilizing the native all-β MSP fold to release previously-locked amphiphilic segments, the P56S mutation acts to convert the classic MSP fold into a membrane-active protein that is fundamentally indistinguishable from mellitin and α-synuclein which are disordered in aqueous solution but spontaneously partition into membrane interfaces driven by hydrogen-bond energetics gained from forming α-helix in the membrane environments. As segments with high amphiphilicity exist in all proteins, our study successfully resolves the paradox by deciphering that the proteins with a higher tendency to aggregate have a stronger potential to partition into membranes through the same mechanism as α-synuclein to initially attack membranes to trigger pathogenesis without needing aggregates. This might represent the common first step for various kinds of aggregated proteins to trigger familiar, sporadic and aging diseases. Therefore the homeostasis of aggregated proteins in vivo is the central factor responsible for a variety of human diseases including aging. The number and degree of the membrane attacks by aggregated proteins may

  9. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  10. Macroprudential Policy: A Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou; Alfred Lehar

    2016-01-01

    The 2007 global financial crisis brought sharply into focus the need for macroprudential policy as a means of controlling systemic financial stability. This has become a focal point for policy-makers and numerous central banks, including the Bank of Canada, but it has its drawbacks, particularly here in Canada. As a counterbalance to microprudential policy, the idea of a macroprudential outlook reaches beyond the notion that as long as every banking institution is healthy, financial stability...

  11. Policies for Renewable Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    This paper builds on IEA publications, Deploying Renewables, Principles for Effective Policies and Deploying Renewables, Best and Future Policy Practice, that discuss the 'integrated policy approach,' whereby renewable energy technologies require different support policies at different stages of their maturity pathways. The paper discusses how the integrated policy approach applies to renewable heat. It attempts to provide guidance for policy-makers on renewable heat throughout the different phases of the policy lifecycle, allowing for the specific challenges of renewable heat and needs of the many stakeholders involved. Stimulating a market for heat involves challenges that are different and, often, more difficult to overcome than in the electricity and transport sectors.

  12. An Evaluation of Urban Renewal Policies of Shenzhen, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiwen Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban renewal is a pragmatic approach in the sustainable urban development of urban areas, and has now become an essential strategy for most metropolises in China. The question of how urban renewal can best be realized has gained the attention of urban planning researchers looking to formulate practical evidence-based urban renewal policies through policy instruments. This paper analyzes the urban renewal policies of Shenzhen, a pioneer city in China in the promulgation of urban renewal legislation. In doing so, an analytical framework is established by focusing on three main policy instruments, along with several sub-instruments within them. Shenzhen’s five main urban renewal policies, issued between 2009 and 2016, are analyzed through this framework. Content analysis and pattern-matching is used in the review and analysis of the data. The results show that “Environment” side policies tend to be the most widely applied by the Shenzhen municipal government. Additionally, “Regulation Control” and “Goal-planning” policies are the two instruments most frequently adopted as sub-instruments. Moreover, it is found that the application of “Supply” side polices and “Demand” side polices needs be strengthened. These findings identify the types of urban renewal policies currently employed in China and provide a clear understanding of the current policy priorities, with suggestions and insight into further urban renewal policy initiatives for Shenzhen and beyond.

  13. Information Needs/Relevance

    OpenAIRE

    Wildemuth, Barbara M.

    2009-01-01

    A user's interaction with a DL is often initiated as the result of the user experiencing an information need of some kind. Aspects of that experience and how it might affect the user's interactions with the DL are discussed in this module. In addition, users continuously make decisions about and evaluations of the materials retrieved from a DL, relative to their information needs. Relevance judgments, and their relationship to the user's information needs, are discussed in this module. Draft

  14. Modern contraceptive use, unmet need, and demand satisfied among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the Family Planning 2020 initiative: a systematic analysis using the Family Planning Estimation Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Niamh; Sonneveldt, Emily; Stover, John; Weinberger, Michelle; Williamson, Jessica; Wei, Chuchu; Brown, Win; Alkema, Leontine

    2018-03-03

    The London Summit on Family Planning in 2012 inspired the Family Planning 2020 (FP2020) initiative and the 120×20 goal of having an additional 120 million women and adolescent girls become users of modern contraceptives in 69 of the world's poorest countries by the year 2020. Working towards achieving 120 × 20 is crucial for ultimately achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of universal access and satisfying demand for reproductive health. Thus, a performance assessment is required to determine countries' progress. An updated version of the Family Planning Estimation Tool (FPET) was used to construct estimates and projections of the modern contraceptive prevalence rate (mCPR), unmet need for, and demand satisfied with modern methods of contraception among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the focus countries of the FP2020 initiative. We assessed current levels of family planning indicators and changes between 2012 and 2017. A counterfactual analysis was used to assess if recent levels of mCPR exceeded pre-FP2020 expectations. In 2017, the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union in the FP2020 focus countries was 45·7% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 42·4-49·1), unmet need for modern methods was 21·6% (19·7-23·9), and the demand satisfied with modern methods was 67·9% (64·4-71·1). Between 2012 and 2017 the number of women of reproductive age who are married or in a union who use modern methods increased by 28·8 million (95% UI 5·8-52·5). At the regional level, Asia has seen the mCPR among women of reproductive age who are married or in a union grow from 51·0% (95% UI 48·5-53·4) to 51·8% (47·3-56·5) between 2012 and 2017, which is slow growth, particularly when compared with a change from 23·9% (22·9-25·0) to 28·5% (26·8-30·2) across Africa. At the country level, based on a counterfactual analysis, we found that 61% of the countries that have made a commitment to FP2020 exceeded pre

  15. Las políticas sociales en el caso de la satisfacción de necesidades alimentarias: Algunos elementos conceptuales para su determinación Social Policies and nutritional needs: Some conceptual elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernán Santarsiero

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se intentan articular diferentes miradas sobre las políticas sociales y las necesidades alimentarias a fin de rescatar el contexto en que fueron surgiendo en la matriz estatal la atención del problema alimentario tomando algunos casos de la región y centralmente de nuestro país. Para ello se caracterizarán las diferentes modalidades por las que fueron pasando los programas de asistencia alimentaria en la atención de poblaciones vulnerables y la respuesta del Estado a las garantías y derechos sociales con respecto al acceso al alimento.The aime of this article is describe differents perspectives on social policies and the food needs to rescue the context in which they were emerging in the the state matrix by taking some regional examples, centrally in Argentina. This will characterize the different modalities for which they were passing the food assistance programs in the care of vulnerable populations and the state's response to security and social rights with respect to access to food.

  16. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  17. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  18. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  19. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  20. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  1. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  2. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country (organizational, technical and legislative). The technical solutions proposed for the remediation of sites in the country need to be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable end state. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technical procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. The policy and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategies. The lead in making changes is to be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy, but all relevant parties in the country are to be involved and consulted in this process

  3. Toward Technology-Sensitive Catching-Up Policies: Insights from Renewable Energy in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binz, Christian; Gosens, Jorrit; Hansen, Teis

    2017-01-01

    , but were of limited importance in the early solar PV industry, and resulted only in a limited period of rapid growth in the biomass power plant industry. The relative progress achieved in these three industries is not related to top-down policy guidance alone, but also to private sector initiative......, international interdependencies, and flexibility in adapting policy mixes to each industry's technological characteristics. These results suggest that policy makers in newly industrializing countries (NICs) should avoid drafting generic sector plans, but should tailor plans to individual industries, and respond...... to changing policy support needs as technological capacities and global competitiveness develop....

  4. The struggle of ideas in Danish primary school policy in the wake of PISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustafsson, Line

    change came as liberals contested the existing policies based on the ideas of progressive education as cause of the policy failure illuminated by the PISA investigations. As proponents of competitive education they pointed to the lack of accountability and argued for the need of measurable targets...... policy by investigating how the policy of national tests was adopted by focusing on the main actors the parties of Venstre and the Social democrats. The research question this paper seeks to answer is the following: what caused primary school policy to change? Extending over a decade or more, Danish...... and tests to monitor development. However, before policies of national tests were adopted a battle of problem definition and subsequently battles of policy solutions were fought with the social democrats which initially adhered to the ideas of progressive education. It is argued that only by knowing...

  5. Need for and feasibility of monitored retrievable storage: a preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to complete a study of the need for, and the fesibility of, monitored retrievable storage (MRS). This study will form part of the basis for the Secretary's recommendation to Congress with regard to an MRS facility. This paper is the DOE's initial analysis of this important topic. 8 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Educating Leaders for Social Justice: The Case of Special Educational Needs Co-Ordinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia; Svensson, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    In the light of policy imperatives to initiate and maintain inclusive education reforms, the role of special educational needs co-ordinators (SENCOs) in England and Wales should be reconceptualised with a view to their leading school reforms commensurate with the principles of an inclusive discourse. The article concentrates on the social justice…

  7. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  8. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  9. Research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Research needs were identified during working sessions for several potential separation options. These options include sequestering agents, solvent extraction, membranes, solid sorbents, novel approaches, organic separation and destruction methods, and radiation and chemical stability of separation materials

  10. Evaluation Program initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Department of Energy's (DOE) safeguards and security community with some insights on an important management initiative by the Office of Security Evaluations (OSE). The paper will present the ''what, where, who, when, and why'' of a new Evaluation Program. The Evaluation Program will be comprised of a continuing series of regular and special evaluations of DOE safeguards and security programs and policies. The evaluations will be integrative and ''crosscutting,'' i.e. will extend across DOE organizational lines. Evaluations will be offered as positive advisories to DOE managers with safeguards and security responsibilities and will not be rated. They will complement the ongoing OSE Inspection Program of inspections conducted by OSE's Inspection Division. The purpose for the evaluations is to establish an accurate and current assessment of the effectiveness and status of safeguards and security programs and policies and to provide DOE managers with required information on program and policy effectiveness

  11. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  12. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  13. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    technology priorities and coordinates policies Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, MCTI... Tecnologia e Inovação, MCTI) initiated the Greater IT policy to build and enhance the country’s information, communications, and technology...Technology Institute) MCMM Ministry of Communications and Mass Media MCTI Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Ministry of Science, Technology

  14. Güvenilirlik İhtiyacı ve Gelişmekte Olan Ülkelerde Enflasyon Hedeflemesi Politikaları(The Need of Credibility and Inflation Targeting Policies in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep KARAÇOR

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the early years of 1990, new frameworks and the economical preferences change has made countries approach inflation targeting adoptation. In this essay, besides the results and reasons of inflationary targeting, the time incompetency of monetary policies and the problem of reliabilty has been discussed. That the inflationary targeting is only effective policy provided that adopted with determined, willing and consistent monetary policy appears as a result coming from recent countries cases. Therefore, new frameworks and changes seen in economical preferences are found out to be usefull strategic tool for countries.

  15. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  16. Energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxey, M.N.

    1982-06-01

    There seems to be a trend towards expecting energy conservation to be a panacea for the world's ills. In fact, a global perspective on energy needs shows that more, not less, energy is needed and technological innovation in energy sources is essential in order to meet the needs of more than just the developed countries. Energy-intensive technology is the amplification of our natural resources rather than their depletion. A fundamental bioethical principle must be established if we are to analyze and organize scientific evidence about hazards from currently feasible energy resources, and separate genuine from counterfeit claims to credibility. In particular, public fears about radiation hazards and radioactive waste disposal are influenced too much by rhetorical cleverness and forensic skills of a vociferous minority. Potential hazard management is ethically equitable only if it is proportioned to actual basic harm that can be identified and reduced by expenditures of human effort, time and money

  17. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Local governments, the first responders to public health, safety and environmental hazards, must act now to lessen vulnerabilities to climate change. They must plan for and invest in "adapting" to inevitable impacts such as flood, fire, and draught that will occur notwithstanding best efforts to mitigate climate change. CCAP's Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative is developing a framework for informed decision making on climate adaptation. Looking ahead to projected climate impacts and 'back casting' can identify what is needed now to both reduce greenhouse gas emissions and build local resiliency to climate change. CCAP's partnership with King County (WA), Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami-Dade County (FL), Milwaukee, Nassau County (NY), Phoenix, San Francisco, and Toronto is advancing policy discussions to ensure that state and local governments consider climate change when making decisions about infrastructure, transportation, land use, and resource management. Through the Initiative, local leaders will incorporate climate change into daily urban management and planning activities, proactively engage city and county managers and the public in developing solutions, and build community resilience. One goal is to change both institutional and public attitudes and behaviors. Determining appropriate adaptation strategies for each jurisdiction requires Asking the Climate Question: "How does what we are doing increase our resilience to climate change?" Over the next three years, the Initiative will design and implement specific adaptation plans, policies and 'catalytic' projects, collect and disseminate "best practices," and participate in framing national climate policy discussions. In the coming years, policy-makers will have to consider climate change in major infrastructure development decisions. If they are to be successful and have the resources they need, national climate change policy and emerging legislation will have to support these communities. The Urban Leaders

  18. EQUALIZATION OF RESULTS ACCOUNTING POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina MOISESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the effect that different accounting policies have on the outcome of an enterprise, this effect being represented either earnings growth or diminishing it. Deprecation policy, the policy related to inventory, policy provisions and related policy borrowing costs are some of the many other possibilities which affect the content of financial statements. Because national and international accounting standards give businesses the flexibility to choose between different policies, managers take advantage of existing loopholes and draw on creative accounting , so that it answers to the needs of the management team.

  19. Need theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Need theory of happiness is linked to affect theory, which holds that happiness is a reflection of how well we feel generally. In this view, we do not "calculate" happiness but rather "infer" it, the typical heuristic being "I feel good most of the time, hence

  20. Sovremennaja vneshnjaja politika Litvy: korrektirovki tradicionnogo kursa [Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substant

  1. Energy security and national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.F.

    1987-01-01

    To achieve an energy secure future, energy cannot be viewed as an isolated concern. It is part and parcel of a nation's economic, social, and political context. In the past important implications for the economy and national security have been ignored. Crash programs to deal with oil shortages in the seventies, crashed. In the eighties, oil surplus has been enjoyed. The energy situation could be quite different in the nineties. Statistics on energy supply and consumption of oil, coal, natural gas and electricity from nuclear power show that much progress has been made worldwide. However, about half of the world's oil will come from the Persian Gulf by 1995. Continued low oil prices could raise US imports to 60% of consumption by 1995. Persian Gulf tensions serve as reminders of the link between energy policy and national security policy. Energy policy must be based on market forces and concerns for national security. Strategic oil reserves will expand along with the availability of domestic oil and gas resources. Increased attention to conservation, diversification of energy resources, and use of alternative fuels can help reduce imports. Continued high-risk long term research and development is needed. Improved technology can reduce environmental impacts. Global markets need global cooperation. Energy has emerged as an important aspect of East-West relations. Europeans need to diversify their sources of energy. The soviets have proposed expanded collaboration in magnetic fusion science. A series of initiatives are proposed that together will ensure that economies will not become overly dependent on a single source of energy

  2. 76 FR 47240 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability... Add Us In initiative is to identify and develop strategies to increase the capacity of small...

  3. Parenting, Pressures and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Graham W.

    2000-01-01

    In the 1990s, parenting became a difficult effort to balance work demands with children's needs. However, Canadian and U.S. government policies have not met changing family needs for child care, other services, paid parental leave, and work flexibility. Canada's long-awaited National Children's Agenda has the potential to modernize family policy…

  4. Framing obesity in UK policy from the Blair years, 1997-2015: the persistence of individualistic approaches despite overwhelming evidence of societal and economic factors, and the need for collective responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulijaszek, Stanley J; McLennan, Amy K

    2016-05-01

    Since 1997, and despite several political changes, obesity policy in the UK has overwhelmingly framed obesity as a problem of individual responsibility. Reports, policies and interventions have emphasized that it is the responsibility of individual consumers to make personal changes to reduce obesity. The Foresight Report 'Tackling Obesities: Future Choices' (2007) attempted to reframe obesity as a complex problem that required multiple sites of intervention well beyond the range of personal responsibility. This framing formed the basis for policy and coincided with increasing acknowledgement of the complex nature of obesity in obesity research. Yet policy and interventions developed following Foresight, such as the Change4Life social marketing campaign, targeted individual consumer behaviour. With the Conservative-Liberal Democrat government of 2011, intervention shifted to corporate and individual responsibility, making corporations voluntarily responsible for motivating individual consumers to change. This article examines shifts in the framing of obesity from a problem of individual responsibility, towards collective responsibility, and back to the individual in UK government reports, policies and interventions between 1997 and 2015. We show that UK obesity policies reflect the landscape of policymakers, advisors, political pressures and values, as much as, if not more than, the landscape of evidence. The view that the individual should be the central site for obesity prevention and intervention has remained central to the political framing of population-level obesity, despite strong evidence contrary to this. Power dynamics in obesity governance processes have remained unchallenged by the UK government, and individualistic framing of obesity policy continues to offer the path of least resistance. © 2016 World Obesity.

  5. The nursing profession in Sri Lanka: time for policy changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwihare-Samaranayake, D; Ogilvie, L; Cummings, G G; Gellatly, Ian R

    2017-09-01

    We address issues and challenges in nursing in Sri Lanka with the aim of identifying where and how policy changes need to be made. Increased global interconnectivity calls for professional leadership, research, education, and policy reform in nursing as these are identified as enhancing health workforce performance and professionalization, thereby improving health systems. We draw on first-hand knowledge of health care and nursing in Sri Lanka and a recent survey of nurses at a large urban government hospital in Sri Lanka, followed by discussion and proposed action on themes identified through analysis of published and unpublished literature about the nursing profession. Policy and action are needed to: (a) establish mandatory nurse licensure in the public and private healthcare sectors; (b) implement realistic policies to further develop nursing education; (c) develop a professionalization process to support nursing autonomy and voice; and (d) promote systematic processes for educational accreditation, curriculum revision, continuing professional development, evidence-based practice, research, leadership, and information systems. There is a policy vacuum that requires careful analysis and strategic planning by formal nurse leaders. Implementing change will require political and professional power and strategic, innovative, and evolutionary policy initiatives as well as organizational infrastructure modifications best achieved through committed multidisciplinary collaboration, augmented research capacity, bolstered nursing leadership, and promotion of partnerships with policy makers. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  6. The Need for Standardization in SMEs Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Mijatovic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Many SMEs networking initiatives failed because of the absence of trust among companies and between companies and government, leadership and management approaches as well as absence of entrepreneurial skills in managing business networks. Even though local governments or regional agencies have a capacity to mobilize actors from the public and private sectors, generic public initiatives are proved not to be enough. The private sector should also be supported in gathering around joint interests and solving their mutual problems, thus improving business and competitiveness. Research, management and policy instruments to support SMEs will need to have some other directions. Can standardization be one of the directions? The main objective of this paper is to present some aspects of need for standardization in SMEs networking initiatives. The solution to actual or potential matching problems (intended and expected to be used repeatedly or continuously, during a certain period, by a substantial number of parties for whom they are meant can be formalized as standard. The standard development process can serve as basis for building connections and trust among cluster members. Even though some researche emphasizes the role of ad hoc de facto standards as well as standardization in the contexts of achievement of the optimum degree of order in SMEs networks, specific experience is evident in all cases, but experience in design of ad hoc de facto standards and standardization management are still missing.

  7. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  8. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  9. Green electricity in the market place: the policy challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The paper explores the implications of the liberalization of electricity markets in Europe and North America for policy means and mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewables. Applying a (co-) evolutionary approach, the argument highlights the need for policy intervention to help producers and consumers move out of technological trajectories favoring non-renewable electricity. On the production side, energy generation is locked into the central power station system deriving from more than a hundred years of technological developments along a specific system trajectory. On the consumption side, the locked-in effect results from a similarly long experience with electricity provision by monopoly suppliers and the associated lack of consumer choice and responsibility for product differentiation. As the analysis shows, policy strategies targeting both the production and consumption sides of the electricity market are needed for effective intervention. Furthermore, policy strategies should draw on a clear analysis of the inertia and dynamism underlying the production and consumption of electricity. In the light of such evolutionary dynamics, the analysis demonstrates the insufficiency of the policy approaches currently employed to foster the market share of renewables based electricity. Instead, the authors suggest a reflexive policy approach to initiate and support a reorientation towards green electricity, emphasizing the need for learning and communication between and among societal sectors. (author)

  10. Green electricity in the market place: the policy challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, D.A. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany). Faculty of International Relations; Arentsen, M.J. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2002-05-01

    The paper explores the implications of the liberalization of electricity markets in Europe and North America for policy means and mechanisms to enhance the market penetration of renewables. Applying a (co-) evolutionary approach, the argument highlights the need for policy intervention to help producers and consumers move out of technological trajectories favoring non-renewable electricity. On the production side, energy generation is locked into the central power station system deriving from more than a hundred years of technological developments along a specific system trajectory. On the consumption side, the locked-in effect results from a similarly long experience with electricity provision by monopoly suppliers and the associated lack of consumer choice and responsibility for product differentiation. As the analysis shows, policy strategies targeting both the production and consumption sides of the electricity market are needed for effective intervention. Furthermore, policy strategies should draw on a clear analysis of the inertia and dynamism underlying the production and consumption of electricity. In the light of such evolutionary dynamics, the analysis demonstrates the insufficiency of the policy approaches currently employed to foster the market share of renewables based electricity. Instead, the authors suggest a reflexive policy approach to initiate and support a reorientation towards green electricity, emphasizing the need for learning and communication between and among societal sectors. (author)

  11. NIGERIAN NATION-BUILDING AND PUBLIC POLICY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Political phase, that is, acceptable formulation, meaning that the entertained ... term 'policy-making' for the entire process, 'policy formulation' for the initial part of ..... rule of argumentation is grounded in terms of the substance of the pragmatic ...

  12. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  13. Environmental and sustainability education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The volume draws on a wide range of policy studies and syntheses to provide readers with insights into the international genealogy and priorities of ESE policy. Editors and contributors call for renewed attention to the possibilities for future directions in light of previously published work and......, ideological orthodoxy and critique, curriculum making and educational theory, globalisation and neoliberalism, climate change and environmental worldviews, and much more....... and innovations in scholarship. They also offer critical commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches and findings. Including a wide range of examples of ESE policy and policy research, the book draws on studies of educational initiatives and legislation, policy making processes and rhetoric...

  14. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  15. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K. Langenhan

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  16. Good Tourism Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Tourism policy matters in cultural tourism. The starting point of this paper is the observation that many tourism policy studies draw three inter-related conclusions. One, tourism policy must be inclusive and require the support of different stakeholders (Baker 2009; Bernhard Jørgensen and Munar...... 2009). Two, a balanced approach to tourism policy is needed to harness the benefits of tourism while mitigating negative effects (Budeanu 2009; Chang 1997; Jenkins 1997; Leheny 1995, Newby 1994; Teo and Yeoh, 1997). Three, tourism policies should accentuate and maintain the cultural uniqueness...... and authenticity of the destination (Morgan et al. 2011). It seems that many tourism authorities are ignorant of local interests, unaware of the touristification of local cultures and uninterested in promoting local cultures. But local cultures and communities are what that constitute cultural tourism....

  17. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  18. The french energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This book describes french energy policy from 1973 oil crisis till 1992. In a first part, energy consumption, domestic primary energy production, trend of independence energy ratio and costs of petroleum imports in France are presented. In a second part, long-term energy prospects and new axis of energy policy are given: trends of french energy needs, progressive substitution of fossil fuels by nuclear energy and hydroelectric power, energy policy in Common Market and cooperation with eastern Europe. In a third part, energy demand and supply are studied: energy conservation policy in housing, transport and industrial sector is developed. Power generation policy is focused on two main stakes: the choice of investments and nuclear power plants programming, the quality of electric power and the development of efficient uses and exports. A diversification between coal petroleum and natural gas is led. After the fall of petroleum prices in 1986, renewable energies have lost their competitiveness, fire wood occupies a significant place

  19. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Care for Your Child With Special Needs Special Education: Getting Help for Your Child Words to Know (Special Needs Glossary) View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy ...

  20. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447