WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy initiatives including

  1. Including policy and management in socio-hydrology models: initial conceptualizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Leon; Korbee, Dorien

    2017-04-01

    Socio-hydrology studies the interactions in coupled human-water systems. So far, the use of dynamic models that capture the direct feedback between societal and hydrological systems has been dominant. What has not yet been included with any particular emphasis, is the policy or management layer, which is a central element in for instance integrated water resources management (IWRM) or adaptive delta management (ADM). Studying the direct interactions between human-water systems generates knowledges that eventually helps influence these interactions in ways that may ensure better outcomes - for society and for the health and sustainability of water systems. This influence sometimes occurs through spontaneous emergence, uncoordinated by societal agents - private sector, citizens, consumers, water users. However, the term 'management' in IWRM and ADM also implies an additional coordinated attempt through various public actors. This contribution is a call to include the policy and management dimension more prominently into the research focus of the socio-hydrology field, and offers first conceptual variables that should be considered in attempts to include this policy or management layer in socio-hydrology models. This is done by drawing on existing frameworks to study policy processes throughout both planning and implementation phases. These include frameworks such as the advocacy coalition framework, collective learning and policy arrangements, which all emphasis longer-term dynamics and feedbacks between actor coalitions in strategic planning and implementation processes. A case about longter-term dynamics in the management of the Haringvliet in the Netherlands is used to illustrate the paper.

  2. Initiation devices, initiation systems including initiation devices and related methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniels, Michael A.; Condit, Reston A.; Rasmussen, Nikki; Wallace, Ronald S.

    2018-04-10

    Initiation devices may include at least one substrate, an initiation element positioned on a first side of the at least one substrate, and a spark gap electrically coupled to the initiation element and positioned on a second side of the at least one substrate. Initiation devices may include a plurality of substrates where at least one substrate of the plurality of substrates is electrically connected to at least one adjacent substrate of the plurality of substrates with at least one via extending through the at least one substrate. Initiation systems may include such initiation devices. Methods of igniting energetic materials include passing a current through a spark gap formed on at least one substrate of the initiation device, passing the current through at least one via formed through the at least one substrate, and passing the current through an explosive bridge wire of the initiation device.

  3. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    An overwhelming array of policies and programs can be used to help older people (and future older people) maintain healthy lifestyles. How can clinicians help ensure that their patients take advantage of these opportunities? How can these broad-scope policies, educational and information initiatives, and direct service programs be turned into tools to help older people maximize health and independence? First, physicians do not need to do it all themselves. They need to know where to send their patients. For example, case managers in local aging service organizations and social workers, nurses, and discharge planners in hospitals can help connect elderly patients to appropriate benefits and services. Physicians play a critical role in creating a bridge between patients and the array of programs and information that can help them change their individual patterns of behavior. A serious lack of integration exists between what is known about healthy behaviors and lifestyles and what is really happening and available to older people today. From the earlier articles in this issue we know that much can be done to prevent many types of age-related disease and disability. This article provides examples of mechanisms that can be used to broadly disseminate knowledge about effective behavior and treatment changes and create mechanisms to turn this knowledge into real and widespread client-level, practice-level, health system, and community-wide interventions. Second, physicians need to understand that they are not merely subject to these policies and initiatives. They can help formulate and shape them. This political involvement includes active participation in policy initiatives of professional associations, involvement in research and demonstration activities, keeping informed about policy proposals at the federal and state levels, and helping advance ideas for improving health behaviors by speaking up and working toward change. These changes go beyond health initiatives to

  4. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  5. Policy implications of the Strategic Defense Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    Specific topics include: the technological feasibility of proposed components and architectures; the compatibility of the proposed systems with existing and proposed arms control agreements, with special emphasis upon the ABM Treaty, Outer Space Treaty, the Defense and Space Treaty, and the START Treaty; the compatibility of proposed systems with classical warfare doctrine and the four modern strategic nuclear doctrines of Massive Retaliation, Assured Destruction, Countervailing and Flexible Response; the economics of strategic defense including an assessment of overall governmental spending, of the suballocation for defense, and of the feasibility of defensive systems which are cost-effective at the margin; and, in summary, an assessment of the New Strategic Concept which balances arms control, offensive forces, and defensive forces. This study falls within the realm of defense policy analysis in that it attempts to determine whether the administration's proposed Strategic Defense Initiative, as well as the long-term strategic defensive systems derived from SDI research, constitute efficient, desirable allocation of scarce government resources - especially in a period of seemingly relaxed superpower tensions and numerous demands upon those resources

  6. United States policy initiatives in promoting the RERTR program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, David G.

    1996-01-01

    The Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program has been successful in furthering efforts to reduce and eventually eliminate highly enriched uranium (HEU) from international commerce. Three key policy initiatives are underway to further promote the RERTR program. The first initiative is implementation of a new nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Under this policy, the United States will accept over the next 13 years research reactor spent fuel from 41 countries that have converted or plan to convert to use LEU fuels. The second initiative is to pursue cooperative efforts to expand the RERTR program to new regions of the globe, including Russia and China. The third initiative is to restart the advanced LEU fuels development program at the Argonne National Laboratory in order to increase the number of reactors that can convert to use LEU without significant detriment to their performance

  7. An Assessment of Current Policy Initiatives in Zambia's Cotton Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Zulu, Ballard; Tschirley, David L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper assesses three of these policy initiatives: input credit provision for smallholder producers of selected cash crops including cotton, the proposed creation of a Cotton Board, and the emergence in 2003 of District Council levies as a point of conflict between local governments and cotton companies. The purpose of the paper is to provide guidance to public and private decision makers regarding key modifications which may need to be made to these policies to ensure continued healthy d...

  8. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  9. JOICFP included in GII mission to Ghana. Global Issues Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Among countries in West Africa, Ghana is the main focus of the Global Issues Initiative (GII) on Population and AIDS and one of twelve priority countries selected for official development assistance (ODA) under the program. A ten-member project formulation mission sent to Ghana by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA) of Japan was in the country during January 10-18. This mission was the first of its kind to be sent to Africa. It was led by the director of the Third Project Formulation Study Division, Project Formulation Study Department, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and included representatives of MOFA, JICA, and the Ministry of Health and Welfare, and an observer from UNAIDS. The mission's chief objective was to explore possibilities for Japanese cooperation in the areas of population, child health, and HIV/AIDS in line with the Mid-Term Health Strategy (MTHS) formulated in 1995 by the government of Ghana. The mission also explored the possibility of collaboration with major donors, international organizations, international agencies, and NGOs. The mission met with representatives of NGOs from population, women, AIDS, and health-related areas on January 13, who were then briefed upon Japan's Grant Assistance for Grassroots Project for local NGOs. Views were exchanged upon NGO activities.

  10. Should tsunami simulations include a nonzero initial horizontal velocity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotto, Gabriel C.; Nava, Gabriel; Dunham, Eric M.

    2017-08-01

    Tsunami propagation in the open ocean is most commonly modeled by solving the shallow water wave equations. These equations require initial conditions on sea surface height and depth-averaged horizontal particle velocity or, equivalently, horizontal momentum. While most modelers assume that initial velocity is zero, Y.T. Song and collaborators have argued for nonzero initial velocity, claiming that horizontal displacement of a sloping seafloor imparts significant horizontal momentum to the ocean. They show examples in which this effect increases the resulting tsunami height by a factor of two or more relative to models in which initial velocity is zero. We test this claim with a "full-physics" integrated dynamic rupture and tsunami model that couples the elastic response of the Earth to the linearized acoustic-gravitational response of a compressible ocean with gravity; the model self-consistently accounts for seismic waves in the solid Earth, acoustic waves in the ocean, and tsunamis (with dispersion at short wavelengths). Full-physics simulations of subduction zone megathrust ruptures and tsunamis in geometries with a sloping seafloor confirm that substantial horizontal momentum is imparted to the ocean. However, almost all of that initial momentum is carried away by ocean acoustic waves, with negligible momentum imparted to the tsunami. We also compare tsunami propagation in each simulation to that predicted by an equivalent shallow water wave simulation with varying assumptions regarding initial velocity. We find that the initial horizontal velocity conditions proposed by Song and collaborators consistently overestimate the tsunami amplitude and predict an inconsistent wave profile. Finally, we determine tsunami initial conditions that are rigorously consistent with our full-physics simulations by isolating the tsunami waves from ocean acoustic and seismic waves at some final time, and backpropagating the tsunami waves to their initial state by solving the

  11. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based ... This project responds to the needs of TTI-funded institutions by launching the Policy ... highly engaged support and continual learning, the program will enable TTI ...

  12. Taking Leadership in Initiating a Comprehensive US International Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Kaetlyn

    2008-01-01

    A first step to ensuring that emerging school leaders possess the dispositions and skills necessary to be successful in a global community is for educational leaders to take initiative in moving toward a comprehensive Us International Education Policy. This article introduces possible steps to initiate such a policy.

  13. Included as Excluded and Excluded as Included: Minority Language Pupils in Norwegian Inclusion Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilt, Line Torbjørnsen

    2015-01-01

    This article offers an analysis of four Norwegian policy documents on inclusion of minority language pupils. The main concepts of this policy will be reconstructed and re-described, applying Niklas Luhmann's systems theory at different levels of the analysis. Luhmann's theory about society as a conglomerate of self-referential social systems…

  14. EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND INITIATIVES FOR IMPROVED PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia, CAIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available According to Gartner estimates, due to increased variety, speed and data volume, by 2015 there will be a global demand of 4.4 million professionals for real-time analysis of data from sources with different structures, but only one third of the demand will be met. The purpose of this research is to identify possible solutions for improved academic results in the IT domain, considering the time management policies, the content and the student motivations, as well as the business strategy tendencies. These proposals are targeted toward meeting the IT specialists demand. The research is composed of two parts: the first explores the Romanian IT labour market characteristics, while the second investigates the academic education policies that can help mitigate deficiencies and attain higher performance. The deficiencies are identified through a series of statistical research and analysis based on national level databases, adopting a quantitative approach. The policies proposed are supported by a flow model developed considering the students' activity, motivation, traits and results, measured and analysed quantitatively.

  15. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  16. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  17. Evaluating Tobacco Control Policies in 28 Countries (including 9 EU countries: The ITC Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Fong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its start in 2002, the ITC Project has been conducting evaluation studies of tobacco control policies via prospective cohort surveys of tobacco users in 28 countries, including 9 EU countries. This presentation will focus on the design of the ITC Project and how it differs from and complements existing evidence-gathering systems (monitoring and surveillance systems in measuring and understanding the impact of FCTC policies. The presentation will also describe the ITC Project's most recent initiatives: (1 the EUREST-PLUS study focusing on measuring the impact of the Tobacco Products Directive, and (2 a large-scale international cohort study of e-cigarettes starting in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia.

  18. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from District Policy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the California State Board of Education voted to require all students to enroll in algebra by 8th grade. This policy initiative, yet to be actually implemented, represents the culmination of a decades-long movement toward offering algebra instruction before the traditional high school years. Nationally, the proportion of 8th grade…

  19. Responses to Including Parents in Teacher Evaluation Policy: A Critical Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Erica; LeChasseur, Kimberly; Donaldson, Morgaen L.

    2018-01-01

    The intersection of development in family and school settings has been well established and education policies have begun to promote ways to bridge the two contexts (i.e. teacher evaluations). For this manuscript, authors focus on how teachers and principals used a state educator evaluation policy to position parents as authorities on education.…

  20. Policies and Initiatives for Carbon Neutrality in Nordic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Møller, Jakob Glarbo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the promotion of HPs (heat pumps) while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding EVs (electric vehicles). It is found...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality...... that the conversion to HPs in the Nordic region relies on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...

  1. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  2. Considerations When Including Students with Disabilities in Test Security Policies. NCEO Policy Directions. Number 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Sheryl; Thurlow, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Sound test security policies and procedures are needed to ensure test security and confidentiality, and to help prevent cheating. In this era when cheating on tests draws regular media attention, there is a need for thoughtful consideration of the ways in which possible test security measures may affect accessibility for some students with…

  3. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  4. The Philippine Regulatory Frameworks, Support Policies, And Initiatives Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    EDRALIN, Divina M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the Philippine regulatory frameworks, support policies, initiatives, and barriers to encouraging women entrepreneurship. Currently, women entrepreneurship seems to be nurtured with the right environment, including regulatory frameworks, financial resources and support programs for, as well as business practices and social attitudes in the country towards women entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship in general. However, though many SME-friendly laws and policies exist, their im...

  5. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Financial Literacy: A Review of Government Policy and Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Taylor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades there has been robust discussion by many governments and financial communityleaders generally, that financial security can only be achieved when a country’s population is considered to befinancially literate. Hence individuals need to be financially literate if they are to make informed decisionsabout savings, investments, debt and most importantly when considering retirement issues. No longer canthere be a reliance on social security in retirement due to the ever increasing ageing population and adeclining tax base worldwide.In both Australia and New Zealand, governments have put structures in place as a result of external evidencesuggesting both populations have questionable levels of financial literacy. Both governments have formulatedpolicies and embarked upon initiatives to address this issue. The strategies and structures used, whilst similar,encompassed some unique elements which makes a comparative investigation and discussion interesting.The outcomes of this research paper highlight that even with similar desired outcomes there can be multiplepathways.The rationale for this paper was the lack of any published academic literature in both Australia and NewZealand that reported on the stated government policies and there subsequent initiatives that related to theimprovement of financial literacy. Whilst structures to address government concerns have been put in place,the ability to assess the effectiveness of these initiatives has proven difficult, due to the sparse nature ofpublicly available information and the lack of access to the survey design, development and analysis. It shouldbe noted that this is an exploratory paper primarily to raise questions rather that provide a critical assessmentof either countries policies.While this research paper primarily seeks to describe and review both the policies and strategies implementedby the Australian and New Zealand governments in respect of financial literacy

  7. An Initial Look at the Quality of Life of Malaysian Families That Include Children with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M.; Brown, R.; Karrapaya, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: While there is a growing body of literature in the quality of life of families that include children with disabilities, the majority of research has been conducted in western countries. The present study provides an initial exploration of the quality of life of Malaysian families that include children with developmental/intellectual…

  8. Area-based initiatives - Engines of planning and policy innovation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Annika; Norvig Larsen, Jacob

    studies of local planning culture change are discussed. Main findings are that during the past two decades a general change in planning culture has developed gradually, triggered by urban regeneration full scale experimentation with place-based approaches. Second, planners as well as public administrators...... and development in planning culture turns out to be a more substantial result than the reduction of social exclusion and economic deprivation. The paper analyses all available official evaluation studies of Danish place-based urban policy initiatives from mid-1990s through 2010. In addition to this, recent...... attitude towards the involvement of local citizens and stakeholders is significantly transformed. While earlier, public participation in planning was mostly restricted to what was lawfully mandatory, the new turn in planning culture demonstrates a practice that goes much further in involving citizens...

  9. Public opinion on food-related obesity prevention policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Belinda; Martin, Jane; Niven, Philippa; Wakefield, Melanie

    2012-08-01

    The study was designed to determine public acceptability of various forms of regulation to support a healthy eating environment. Telephone interviews were undertaken in June-July 2010 with a random sample of adults in Australia who were the main grocery buyer for their household. Data were analysed for 1,511 adults. A clear majority of participants (80% or more) were in favour of traffic light and kilojoule menu labelling, reformulation to reduce the fat, salt and sugar content of processed foods, and regulation of broadcast and non-broadcast avenues used to market unhealthy food and drinks to children. Relatively less support (two-thirds or more), particularly among lower socioeconomic status participants, was shown for taxation policies and controls on food company sponsorship of sports and education programs. Despite the survey's focus on food marketing avenues and methods directed at children, for the most part non-parents were just as likely as parents to support restrictions. Overall, these findings indicate that there is strong public support for the introduction of policy initiatives aimed at creating a healthier food environment.

  10. Upgraded safety analysis document including operations policies, operational safety limits and policy changes. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, K.

    1996-03-01

    The National Synchrotron Light Source Safety Analysis Reports (1), (2), (3), BNL reports number-sign 51584, number-sign 52205 and number-sign 52205 (addendum) describe the basic Environmental Safety and Health issues associated with the department's operations. They include the operating envelope for the Storage Rings and also the rest of the facility. These documents contain the operational limits as perceived prior or during construction of the facility, much of which still are appropriate for current operations. However, as the machine has matured, the experimental program has grown in size, requiring more supervision in that area. Also, machine studies have either verified or modified knowledge of beam loss modes and/or radiation loss patterns around the facility. This document is written to allow for these changes in procedure or standards resulting from their current mode of operation and shall be used in conjunction with the above reports. These changes have been reviewed by NSLS and BNL ES and H committee and approved by BNL management

  11. UK policy initiatives and the effect on increasing organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bethany; Parkin, Matthew Sw

    Organ donation has developed since the Human Tissue Act 1961, and even since the Human Tissue Act 2004, which replaced it. Given the demand for organ transplants, there have been various attempts to increase the number of people on the Organ Donation Register, including awareness campaigns and celebrity endorsement. However, as the UK-wide strategy Taking Organ Transplantation to 2020 indicates, increasing the number of donations will require more than simply increasing the number of registered donors. This article reviews the changes in policies relating to organ donation and the associated issues.

  12. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER14-506-000] Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels...

  13. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2654-001] World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital...

  14. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2780-000] Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section...

  15. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2233-000] Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting...

  16. Biofuel initiatives in Japan: Strategies, policies, and future potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Naoko; Sano, Daisuke; Elder, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Japan has developed a variety of national strategies and plans related to biofuels which address four main policy objectives, including reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy security, rural development, and realisation of a recycle-based society. This paper reviews these national strategies and plans as well as associated implementing policies, and discusses the extent to which these objectives may be achieved. This paper found that the long-term potential of biofuels to contribute to GHG reduction goals will depend not only on the rates of technological development of the second generation biofuels but also on the development of other advanced vehicles. In the medium term, the potential contribution of biofuels to rural development and realising a recycle-based society could become significant depending on the progress of technology for both second generation biofuel production and the collection and transportation of their feedstocks. The potential contribution of biofuels to Japan's energy security is constrained by the availability of imports and the potential of domestic production. (author)

  17. Uganda cabinet approves policy initiated by IDRC grantee | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-28

    Jun 28, 2016 ... The Economic Policy Research Centre (EPRC), an IDRC grantee under the ... on May 4, 2016, with cabinet approval of their National Fertilizer Policy. ... that 20% of the country's population has some form of physical disability.

  18. Communication: importance sampling including path correlation in semiclassical initial value representation calculations for time correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Feng; Tao, Guohua

    2013-03-07

    Full semiclassical (SC) initial value representation (IVR) for time correlation functions involves a double phase space average over a set of two phase points, each of which evolves along a classical path. Conventionally, the two initial phase points are sampled independently for all degrees of freedom (DOF) in the Monte Carlo procedure. Here, we present an efficient importance sampling scheme by including the path correlation between the two initial phase points for the bath DOF, which greatly improves the performance of the SC-IVR calculations for large molecular systems. Satisfactory convergence in the study of quantum coherence in vibrational relaxation has been achieved for a benchmark system-bath model with up to 21 DOF.

  19. CERN’s Computing rules updated to include policy for control systems

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2008-01-01

    The use of CERN’s computing facilities is governed by rules defined in Operational Circular No. 5 and its subsidiary rules of use. These rules are available from the web site http://cern.ch/ComputingRules. Please note that the subsidiary rules for Internet/Network use have been updated to include a requirement that control systems comply with the CNIC(Computing and Network Infrastructure for Control) Security Policy. The security policy for control systems, which was approved earlier this year, can be accessed at https://edms.cern.ch/document/584092 IT Department

  20. A Review of Policies, Acts and Initiatives in Rice Innovation System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A review of rice policies, acts and initiatives in Nigeria is presented under ... World Bank, World Trade Organization, and International Monetary Fund (IMF) ... the desirable political will by government and sound agricultural rice policy are ...

  1. Design and Formative Evaluation of the Policy Liaison Initiative: A Long-Term Knowledge Translation Strategy to Encourage and Support the Use of Cochrane Systematic Reviews for Informing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Sue E.; Cumpston, Miranda; Misso, Marie L.; McDonald, Steve; Murphy, Matthew J.; Green, Sally E.

    2016-01-01

    The Policy Liaison Initiative (PLI) is a long-term knowledge translation initiative designed to support the use of Cochrane systematic reviews in health policy. A joint initiative between the Australasian Cochrane Centre and Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing, the PLI includes: 1) a community of practice for evidence-informed…

  2. Comprehensive National Cybersecurity Initiative: Legal Authorities and Policy Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-10

    Separation of Powers in National Security Matters....................................................................... 10 Congressional Constraints on Executive Action ........................................................................... 15 Policy Considerations and Congressional Options........................................................................ 17 Conclusion..................................................................................................................................... 18 Author Contact

  3. Ciclovía initiatives: engaging communities, partners, and policy makers along the route to success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieff, Susan G; Hipp, J Aaron; Eyler, Amy A; Kim, Mi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts to increase physical activity through changes to the built environment have led to strategies and programs that use existing public space, including bicycle lanes, temporary parks, and the ciclovia initiative (scheduled events in which streets are closed to motorized vehicles and opened for recreational activities) popularized in South America. This article describes and compares the processes and structures involved in developing and implementing a ciclovia-type program in 2 US urban contexts: San Francisco, California, and St Louis, Missouri. Considering the current growth of and interest in ciclovia initiatives, important outcomes, lessons learned are offered for application in other, similar settings. Primary sources from both initiatives and from published research on ciclovias constitute the body of evidence and include year-end reports, grant applications, meeting minutes, budgets, published ciclovia guidelines, evaluation studies and Web sites, media sources, and interviews and personal communication with the organizers. Primary source documents were reviewed and included in this analysis if they offered information on 3 grounded questions: What processes were used in developing the initiative? What are the current structures and practices used in implementation of initiatives? What are important lessons learned and best practices from initiatives for recommendations to stakeholders and policy makers in other contexts? Among the categories compared, the structures and processes for implementation regarding buy-in and city department collaboration, route selection, programming, partnerships, media promotion, community outreach, and merchant support were relatively similar among the 2 initiatives. The categories that differed included staffing and volunteer engagement and funding. Buy-in from community partners, merchants, residents, and city agencies is critical for a positive experience in developing and implementing ciclovia-type initiatives

  4. Community Policy Initiatives. In search of European Union added value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Rodriguez A.

    2004-01-01

    The European Commission's proposal, approved in early 2003, contains general requirements more of a political and juridical nature rather than a technical one, and is generally based on the IAEA's Safety Fundamentals and on the Joint Convention on the safety of spent fuel and on the safety of radioactive waste, already ratified by nearly all Member States of the European Union. In general terms, it can be said that the proposal aims at creating a common legal framework enabling the harmonization of policies and practices at Community level and, in particular, to motivate the decision-making processes in Member States with the objective to make real progress to implement permanent solutions for spent fuel and radioactive waste. Generally speaking, it can be said that implementing permanent solutions for radioactive waste depends, not only on the availability of technical solutions and economical resources, but also to a great extent on socio-political factors, which requires the development of complex decision-making processes involving concerned stakeholders. These processes are country specific and very difficult to be extrapolated from one country to another, because they largely depend on historical and cultural aspects as well as on the countries' legal and administrative systems. Nevertheless, there exist common elements, which are critical for the development of these processes. On the one hand, there is the need for political willingness to initiate its development and, on the other hand, there are the rules of the game necessary to guide the process. These two elements should conform the objective and driving force of the Directive for the development of national programmes. This is the context in which the Directive can contribute with a positive effect in national programmes and provide real added value on existing international framework. The proposed Directive should provide beneficial effects in national programmes if it keeps to the intentions and

  5. Policies for including disabled people in education. obstacles and facilitating factors for their implementation: Bucaramanga, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia P. Serrano R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to explore the factors enabling or hindering the implementation of inclusive education policies for the disabled population of Bucaramanga. Methodology: a descriptive study, involving representatives from governmental agencies (EG, members of the faculty boards of educational institutions (DIE and guardians of disabled individuals (APSD. Physical, social, and political obstacles and facilitating factors that could potentially determine the implementation of these policies were analyzed. Data was collected through interviews. Results: there was a total of 2, 32, and 34 participants from the EG, DIE, and APSD groups respectively. Identified obstacles included: lack of strategies to support educational institutions, poor or limited teacher training, high tuition fees, and negative attitude towards disability. The facilitating factors included: availability of places, inclusion of this issue in the political agenda, and desire of the disabled individuals’ families to provide them with education. Discussion: These findings provide useful information for further research on this issue and show how action has been taken, as well as how urgent it is to establish a direct relationship between academia and the public sector to propose strategies for assessing and modifying these policies.

  6. The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy Initiative: Findings From a Collaborative, Participatory Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Sheryl; D'Silva, Joanne; Hernandez, Carol; Villaluz, Nicole Toves; Martinez, Jaime; Matter, Chris

    2017-07-01

    While the reduction in the overall U.S. smoking prevalence has been declared one of the top 10 public health achievements of the past century, the growing disparity in smoking between American Indians and the general population is one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. Minnesota in particular has very high smoking rates among American Indians (59%). Tribal Nations in Minnesota share a past of attempted cultural genocide and a present of restoring the strength of their cultural teachings, including the prominence of traditional tobacco as a sacred "first medicine." The Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy initiative works to address this complex and challenging context. This article describes results of a participatory evaluation from 2010 to 2013 in four Minnesota Tribal Nations-three Ojibwe and one Dakota. Tribal Tobacco Education and Policy coordinators used their cultural knowledge to develop community-level strategies, identifying appropriate strategies from best practices on tobacco advocacy, while drawing on the strengths of their own sovereignty and sacred tobacco traditions. Tribal coordinators generated support for policy change by conducting culturally relevant education, engaging tribal members, and nurturing relationships. This approach resulted in norm changes, practices toward restoring traditional tobacco, informal policies, and tribal resolutions to advance smoke-free policies.

  7. 75 FR 28622 - FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-21

    ...] FDA Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U...: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: As part of the second phase of the Transparency... Transparency Initiative: Draft Proposals for Public Comment Regarding Disclosure Policies of the U.S. Food and...

  8. The Affordances and Constraints of Special Education Initial Teacher Licensure Policy for Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Linda P.; Boveda, Mildred; Munoz, Lorena R.; Pugach, Marleen C.

    2017-01-01

    Initial licensure polices in special education were examined to determine how these policies support or hinder reform efforts to develop teacher education programs that prepare graduates for the increasingly complex needs of diverse students. Initial special education licensure policies are described with an emphasis on the differences across…

  9. Clean Energy Policy Analysis: Impact Analysis of Potential Clean Energy Policy Options for the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Doris, E.; Braccio, R.; Lippert, D.; Finch, P.; O' Toole, D.; Fetter, J.

    2010-04-01

    This report provides detailed analyses of 21 clean energy policy options considered by the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative working groups for recommendation to the 2010 Hawaii State Legislature. The report considers the impact each policy may have on ratepayers, businesses, and the state in terms of energy saved, clean energy generated, and the financial costs and benefits. The analyses provide insight into the possible impacts, both qualitative and quantitative, that these policies may have in Hawaii based on the experience with these policies elsewhere. As much as possible, the analyses incorporate Hawaii-specific context to reflect the many unique aspects of energy use in the State of Hawaii.

  10. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking—neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures. PMID:26538806

  11. National Human Trafficking Initiatives: Dimensions of Policy Diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Eun-Hye; Boyle, Elizabeth Heger

    2015-01-01

    The implementation of criminal law involves formal law enforcement, education and public outreach aimed at preventing criminal activity, and providing services for victims. Historically, quantitative research on global trends has tended to focus on a single policy dimension, potentially masking the unique factors that affect the diffusion of each policy dimension independently. Using an ordered-probit model to analyze new human trafficking policy data on national prosecution, prevention, and victim-protection efforts, we find that global ties and domestic interest groups matter more in areas where international law is less defined. While prosecution, officially mandated by the Trafficking Protocol, was relatively impervious to global ties and domestic interest groups, both trafficking prevention and victim protection were associated with these factors. Our findings also suggest that fear of repercussions is not a major driver of state actions to combat trafficking-neither ratification of the Trafficking Protocol nor levels of United States aid were associated with greater implementation of anti-trafficking measures.

  12. Education Policy and Family Values: A Critical Analysis of Initiatives from the Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumashiro, Kevin K.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes current education policy initiatives from the political Right in the United States, focusing on initiatives at the federal level (standards and testing), the state level (funding), the local level (alternative certification), and the campus level (censorship). Each initiative has received wide bipartisan and public support,…

  13. Support for food policy initiatives is associated with knowledge of obesity-related cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Watson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate community support for government-led policy initiatives to positively influence the food environment, and to identify whether there is a relationship between support for food policy initiatives and awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle risk factors and cancer. Methods: An online survey of knowledge of cancer risk factors and attitudes to policy initiatives that influence the food environment was completed by 2474 adults from New South Wales, Australia. The proportion of participants in support of seven food policy initiatives was quantified in relation to awareness of the link between obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity with cancer and other health conditions. Results: Overall, policies that involved taxing unhealthy foods received the least support (41.5%. Support was highest for introducing a colour-coded food labelling system (85.9%, restricting claims being made about the health benefits of foods which are, overall, unhealthy (82.6%, displaying health warning labels on unhealthy foods (78.7% and banning unhealthy food advertising that targets children (72.6%. Participants who were aware that obesity-related lifestyle factors are related to cancer were significantly more likely to support food policy initiatives than those who were unaware. Only 17.5% of participants were aware that obesity, poor diet, insufficient fruit and vegetable consumption, and physical inactivity are linked to cancer. Conclusions: There is strong support for all policies related to food labelling and a policy banning unhealthy food advertising to children. Support for food policy initiatives that positively influence the food environment was higher among those who were aware of the link between cancer and obesity-related lifestyle factors than among those who were unaware of this link. Increasing awareness of the link between obesity-related lifestyle factors and cancer

  14. A Justified Initial Accounting Estimate as an Integral Part of the Enterprise Accounting Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Marenych Tetyana H

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the article is justification of the need to specify in the order on accounting policies not only the elements of the accounting policy itself but also the initial accounting estimates, which will increase the reliability of financial reporting and the development of proposals on improvement of the given administrative documents of the enterprise. It is noted that in recent years the importance of a high-quality accounting policy has increased significantly not onl...

  15. A policy model to initiate environmental negotiations: Three hydropower workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Berton Lee; Taylor, Jonathan G.; Burkardt, Nina; Ponds, Phadrea D.

    1998-01-01

    How do I get started in natural resource negotiations? Natural resource managers often face difficult negotiations when they implement laws and policies regulating such resources as water, wildlife, wetlands, endangered species, and recreation. As a result of these negotiations, managers must establish rules, grant permits, or create management plans. The Legal‐Institutional Analysis Model (LIAM) was designed to assist managers in systematically analyzing the parties in natural resource negotiations and using that analysis to prepare for bargaining. The LIAM relies on the theory that organizations consistently employ behavioral roles. The model uses those roles to predict likely negotiation behavior. One practical use of the LIAM is when all parties to a negotiation conduct a workshop as a way to open the bargaining on a note of trust and mutual understanding. The process and results of three LIAM workshops designed to guide hydroelectric power licensing negotiations are presented. Our experience with these workshops led us to conclude that the LIAM can be an effective tool to begin a negotiation and that trust built through the workshops can help create a successful result.

  16. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...

  17. An overview of clinical governance policies, practices and initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Travaglia, Joanne F

    2008-02-01

    To map the emergence of, and define, clinical governance; to discuss current best practices, and to explore the implications of these for boards of directors and executives wishing to promote a clinical governance approach in their health services. Review and analysis of the published and grey literature on clinical governance from 1966 to 2006. Medline and CINAHL databases, key journals and websites were systematically searched. Central issues were identified in the literature as key to effective clinical governance. These include: ensuring that links are made between health services' clinical and corporate governance; the use of clinical governance to promote quality and safety through a focus on quality assurance and continuous improvement; the creation of clinical governance structures to improve safety and quality and manage risk and performance; the development of strategies to ensure the effective exchange of data, knowledge and expertise; and the sponsoring of a patient-centred approach to service delivery. A comprehensive approach to clinical governance necessarily includes the active participation of boards and executives in sponsoring and promoting clinical governance as a quality and safety strategy. Although this is still a relatively recent development, the signs are promising.

  18. Including Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Policies in Electricity Demand Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find more information on how state and local air agencies can identify on-the-books EE/RE policies, develop a methodology for projecting a jurisdiction's energy demand, and estimate the change in power sector emissions.

  19. Women and tobacco: a call for including gender in tobacco control research, policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amos, Amanda; Greaves, Lorraine; Nichter, Mimi; Bloch, Michele

    2012-03-01

    Female smoking is predicted to double between 2005 and 2025. There have been numerous calls for action on women's tobacco use over the past two decades. In the present work, evidence about female tobacco use, progress, challenges and ways forward for developing gendered tobacco control is reviewed. Literature on girls, women and tobacco was reviewed to identify trends and determinants of tobacco use and exposure, the application of gender analysis, tobacco marketing, the impact of tobacco control on girls and women and ways to address these issues particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Global female tobacco use is increasingly complex, involving diverse products and factors including tobacco marketing, globalisation and changes in women's status. In high-income countries female smoking is declining but is increasingly concentrated among disadvantaged women. In low-income and middle-income countries the pattern is more complex; in several regions the gap between girls' and boys' smoking is narrow. Gendered analyses and approaches to tobacco control are uncommon, especially in low-income and middle-income countries. Tobacco control has remained largely gender blind, with little recognition of the importance of understanding the context and challenges of girl's and women's smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. There has been little integration of gender considerations in research, policy and programmes. The present work makes a case for gender and diversity analyses in tobacco control to reflect and identify intersecting factors affecting women's tobacco use. This will help animate the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control's concern for gender specificity and women's leadership, and reduce the impact of tobacco on women.

  20. 75 FR 76726 - San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2196-000] San Luis Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of San Luis [[Page 76727

  1. Impact of Advocacy Initiatives on Nurses' Motivation to Sustain Momentum in Public Policy Advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Melissa R S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elicit insight from the public policy leaders of 2 regional professional nursing organizations on key qualities of their current advocacy initiatives that motivate nurses to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy beyond a single episode. The goal is to inform quality improvement in the development of future advocacy initiatives to increase sustained engagement of nurses. Social cognitive theory was used as the rationale for this qualitative, descriptive study. A purposive convenience sample of executive leadership and board committee members from 2 regional professional nursing organizations were recruited to complete an initial Web-based electronic survey, followed by separate semistructured interview focus groups. One organization was composed primarily of advanced practice registered nurses, and the other group composed of diverse, multispecialty nursing members with varied educational levels. Nine themes emerged, categorized as facilitators or challenges to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation. Highlighting and marketing facilitators to the positive impact of advocacy initiatives on nurses' motivation to sustain momentum in public policy advocacy, while designing and testing new initiatives that address the challenges, may increase the number of nurses who sustain engagement in the policy advocacy process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A new approach for evaluating water hammer including the initial state of pressurization of the installation and fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kaless

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The water hammer phenomenon is well known since the 19th century, while its mathematical formulation, by means of differential equations, is due to works of researchers such us Allievi (1903 and others from the beginning of the 20th century. The equations found in the technical publications produce a strange water hammer when the initial condition is defined assuming an incompressible fluid and a rigid pipe. The correct solution requires solving the water hammer equations for the initial state. When the finite difference method is applied, the initial state is solved by means of a set of non-linear equations. A novel approach is proposed including the initial state of pressurization into the governing equations and hence simplifying the calculus of the initial conditions. Furthermore, a critical reading of the deduction of the equations is done pointing out conceptual inconsistencies and proposing corrections.

  3. Teacher-student relationship climate and school outcomes: implications for educational policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barile, John P; Donohue, Dana K; Anthony, Elizabeth R; Baker, Andrew M; Weaver, Scott R; Henrich, Christopher C

    2012-03-01

    In recent discussions regarding concerns about the academic achievement of US students, educational policy makers have suggested the implementation of certain teacher policies. To address the limited empirical research on the putative educational impact of such policies, this study used multilevel structural equation models to investigate the longitudinal associations between teacher evaluation and reward policies, and student mathematics achievement and dropout with a national sample of students (n = 7,779) attending one of 431 public high schools. The student sample included an equal number of boys and girls averaging 16 years of age, and included a White (53%) majority. This study examined whether associations between teacher policies and student achievement were mediated by the teacher-student relationship climate. Results of this study were threefold. First, teacher evaluation policies that allowed students to evaluate their teachers were associated with more positive student reports of the classroom teaching climate. Second, schools with teacher reward policies that included assigning higher performing teachers with higher performing students had a negative association with student perceptions of the teaching climate. Lastly, schools with better student perceptions of the teaching climate were associated with lower student dropout rates by students' senior year. These findings are discussed in light of their educational policy implications.

  4. Evaluation of energy policy. [Including proposal by American Inst. of Architects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windheim, L S

    1977-02-01

    It has been evident to some future-looking individuals for some time that both the availability of abundant cheap energy supplies and the exponential increasing use of unlimited amounts must change. However, official energy policy thinking in the U.S. either fails to believe that 'times have changed' or, if believing, is responding in a deleterious and counter-productive manner. This fantastically pervasive and interactive problem cannot be dealt with in the long run by any policy of 'normalizing', of trying to return to doing more with more. The more successful the U.S. is in maintaining or increasing its total energy consumption under conditions of declining net energy, or striving for simplistic first-law efficiencies without analyzing the second level or entropy effects or realizing that every energy exchange adds a minute but rapidly aggregating portion to the environmental pollution limit--doing more with more--the more rapidly inflation, unemployment, and general economic instability will increase. A small group of architectural professionals, the American Institute of Architects, has proposed an alternate energy strategy, essentially doing more with less which, if pursued, can provide more jobs, less inflation, less pollution, and the potential for better matching of energy task and source (entropy efficiency). This strategy exemplifies the characteristics of an appropriate technology response. It stresses capital and energy as well as labor productivity.

  5. A review of policy acts and initiatives in plantain and banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study concluded that stakeholder's cohesion and coordination of efforts is needed for increased production and commercialization. Also governmental intervention is needed in the areas of policy initiatives and acts that will go beyond the ad-hoc response which are usually triggered by natural disaster such as pest and ...

  6. Evolving Policy Initiatives for Effective Vocational Technical Education in North Central Zone, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombugus, Danjuma A.; Angbre, Francis Adams

    2015-01-01

    The study focused on evolving policy initiatives for effective Vocational Technical Education (VTE) on sustainable development. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design and was carried out in North Central Geopolitical Zone of Nigeria. The population for the study was 450 respondents (VTE teachers/lecturers, government officials,…

  7. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  8. Policy options to stimulate social innovation initiatives addressing food waste prevention and reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vittuari, Matteo; Gaiani, Silvia; Politano, Alessandro; Timmermans, A.J.M.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.

    2016-01-01

    The report builds on the knowledge created by the FUSIONS position paper “Stimulating social innovation through policy measures” that uses as key inputs the range of existing social innovation initiatives catalogued by FUSIONS WP4 in the inventory and draws on the outcomes of the WP3 Social Camp

  9. Public Policies and Private Initiatives in Transition: Evidence from the Polish Dairy Sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dries, L.K.E.; Falkowski, J.; Malak-Rawlikowska, A.; Milczarek-Andrzejewska, D.

    2011-01-01

    The drivers of institutional change in Central and Eastern Europe have changed considerably since 1989. Taking these changes into account, we identify three – partly overlapping – transition stages: public policy changes dominated the start of transition, private initiatives became crucial in a

  10. Policies and initiatives for carbon neutrality in nordic heating and transport systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Jakob Glarbo; Wu, Qiuwei; Ostergaard, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Policies and initiatives promoting carbon neutrality in the Nordic heating and transport systems are presented. The focus within heating systems is the propagation of heat pumps while the focus within transport systems is initiatives regarding electric vehicles (EVs). It is found that conversion...... to heat pumps in the Nordic region rely on both private economic and national economic incentives. Initiatives toward carbon neutrality in the transport system are mostly concentrated on research, development and demonstration for deployment of a large number of EVs. All Nordic countries have plans...... for the future heating and transport systems with the ambition of realizing carbon neutrality....

  11. 78 FR 8511 - RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-826-000] RPA Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of RPA Energy, Inc...

  12. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-33-000] Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  13. 77 FR 38048 - Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2068-000] Blue Sky East, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Blue Sky East...

  14. 77 FR 53884 - North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2444-000] North Sky River Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... North Sky River Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. 78 FR 66353 - EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-2349-000] EAM Nelson Holdings, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of EAM Nelson...

  16. 77 FR 67811 - Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-327-000] Porter-Walker LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Porter-Walker...

  17. 75 FR 10244 - TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-792-000] TC Energy Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of TC Energy Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. 75 FR 10245 - S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-735-000] S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of S.J. Energy Partners, Inc.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 77 FR 19010 - Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1301-000] Zone J Tolling Co., LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Zone J...

  20. 78 FR 34371 - Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1561-000] Centinela Solar Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Centinela Solar Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  1. 77 FR 57082 - Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2542-000] Prairie Rose Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Rose Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule...

  2. 75 FR 80486 - Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... proceeding of Sustainable Star, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2354-000] Sustainable Star, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  3. 75 FR 70742 - AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2036-000] AES Laurel Mountain, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of AES Laurel Mountain, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  4. 77 FR 36529 - Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4657-001] Apple Group LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Apple Group LLC...

  5. 78 FR 36768 - Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1667-000] Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Battery Utility of Ohio, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  6. 76 FR 37110 - ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3808-000] ORNI 39 LLC;Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of ORNI 39 LLC's application for...

  7. 76 FR 77815 - Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-543-000] Ethical Electric Benefit Co.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Ethical Electric Benefit Co.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 78 FR 36768 - Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1646-000] Electron Hydro, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Electron...

  9. 75 FR 27339 - Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1184-000] Blackstone Wind Farm II, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Blackstone Wind Farm, LLCs application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  10. 77 FR 66975 - Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-203-000] Black Bear SO, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Black Bear SO...

  11. 78 FR 2984 - Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-733-000] Silver Bear Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Silver Bear...

  12. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2374-000] Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear...

  13. 77 FR 30274 - Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-22

    ... Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Inupiat Energy Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  14. 78 FR 56691 - Sapphire Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Sapphire Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... submission of protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov...

  15. 75 FR 24941 - PBF Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of PBF Power Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... protests and interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To...

  16. 78 FR 28837 - Myotis Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  17. 77 FR 53197 - Raven Power Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... Marketing LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  18. 78 FR 20910 - Hess Energy Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Marketing, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Marketing, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting... interventions in lieu of paper, using the FERC Online links at http://www.ferc.gov . To facilitate electronic...

  19. 77 FR 36528 - K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1995-000] K Road Modesto Solar LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of K Road...

  20. 78 FR 34373 - Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1541-000] Campo Verde Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Campo Verde...

  1. 76 FR 43684 - Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4041-000] Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Verde Energy USA Trading, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  2. 76 FR 73619 - Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-458-000] Quantum Choctaw Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Quantum...

  3. 75 FR 76727 - Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2201-000] Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Evergreen Wind Power III, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  4. 78 FR 26771 - Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Wind Power Corporation's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1346-000] Mesa Wind Power Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

  5. 77 FR 62510 - Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... Wind Power, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-17-000] Niagara Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  6. 75 FR 52321 - Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ... proceeding, of Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1720-000] Dry Lake Wind Power II LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  7. 75 FR 42745 - Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1725-000] Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Hardscrabble Wind Power LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  8. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2166-000] Planet Energy (USA) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of Planet Energy (USA) Corp.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  9. 75 FR 61747 - Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... proceeding of Discount Energy Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2803-000] Discount Energy Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  10. 77 FR 53197 - Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2510-000] Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Brandon...

  11. 78 FR 34372 - TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1586-000] TGP Energy Management, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of TGP Energy...

  12. 76 FR 2368 - Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2331-000] Balance Power Systems, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Balance Power Systems, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  13. 75 FR 37430 - Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-1470-000] Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Plymouth Rock Energy, LLC.'s application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. 75 FR 57016 - Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2541-000] Maple Analytics, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Maple Analytics, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  15. 75 FR 71426 - North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2107-000] North Community Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding, of North Community Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  16. 77 FR 6109 - Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-896-000] Mariposa Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Mariposa...

  17. 76 FR 63614 - Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-21-000] Agua Caliente Solar, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Agua...

  18. 75 FR 68352 - Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-1893-000] Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Salmon Falls Wind Park, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  19. 77 FR 71189 - AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-442-000] AES Beaver Valley, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of AES Beaver...

  20. 76 FR 19351 - Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-3188-000] Stream Energy Maryland, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding Stream Energy...

  1. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER12-224-000] Stream Energy Columbia, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Stream...

  2. 77 FR 45349 - Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2301-000] Stream Energy New York, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Stream...

  3. 76 FR 69267 - Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-225-000] Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Stream Energy New Jersey, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  4. 77 FR 47625 - Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2311-000] Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Beebe Renewable Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  5. 76 FR 6614 - Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2765-000] Elk Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Elk Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  6. 77 FR 21555 - Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1400-000] Flat Ridge 2 Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  7. 77 FR 47625 - Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2313-000] Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request For... Laurel Hill Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  8. 77 FR 28594 - Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1739-000] Bethel Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Bethel Wind...

  9. 77 FR 28593 - Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1740-000] Rippey Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Rippey Wind...

  10. 77 FR 41400 - Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2200-000] Mehoopany Wind Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... Wind Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting...

  11. 75 FR 71425 - North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-23

    ... proceeding, of North Wind Turbines, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2108-000] North Wind Turbines, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  12. 76 FR 9346 - Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2857-000] Sun City Project LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Sun City...

  13. 75 FR 82381 - Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2436-000] Oracle Energy Services, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding of Oracle Energy Services, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  14. 75 FR 52528 - FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-2268-000] FC Landfill Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... proceeding, of FC Landfill Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying...

  15. 77 FR 24697 - Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-1566-000] Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Cooper Mountain Solar 2, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  16. 76 FR 44322 - Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-4055-000] Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  17. 76 FR 79169 - Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-605-000] Power Network New Mexico, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... Power Network New Mexico, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  18. 75 FR 70738 - Gulf Oil Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... Limited Partnership; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Gulf Oil Limited Partnership's application for market-based rate authority, with an... CFR Part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring to...

  19. 75 FR 70739 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  20. 75 FR 70738 - Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER11-2021-000] Domtar A.W. LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Domtar A.W. LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  1. 77 FR 42301 - W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER12-2219-000] W Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of W Power, LLC's application...

  2. 75 FR 359 - Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-468-000] Google Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section... of Google Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff...

  3. 78 FR 29131 - Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1442-000] Solar Star California XX, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Solar Star...

  4. 77 FR 66976 - Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [ Docket No. ER13-281-000] Star Energy Partners LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Star Energy...

  5. 78 FR 28834 - Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER13-1272-000] Salton Sea Power L.L.C.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Salton Sea...

  6. 75 FR 18202 - Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. ER10-956-000] Vantage Wind Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket... of Vantage Wind Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  7. Private initiatives and policy options: recent health system experience in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, B C

    2001-03-01

    In the recent past the impact of structural adjustment in the Indian health care sector has been felt in the reduction in central grants to States for public health and disease control programmes. This falling share of central grants has had a more pronounced impact on the poorer states, which have found it more difficult to raise local resources to compensate for this loss of revenue. With the continued pace of reforms, the likelihood of increasing State expenditure on the health care sector is limited in the future. As a result, a number of notable trends are appearing in the Indian health care sector. These include an increasing investment by non-resident Indians (NRIs) in the hospital industry, leading to a spurt in corporatization in the States of their original domicile and an increasing participation by multinational companies in diagnostics aiming to capture the potential of the Indian health insurance market. The policy responses to these private initiatives are reflected in measures comprising strategies to attract private sector participation and management inputs into primary health care centres (PHCs), privatization or semi-privatization of public health facilities such as non-clinical services in public hospitals, innovating ways to finance public health facilities through non-budgetary measures, and tax incentives by the State governments to encourage private sector investment in the health sector. Bearing in mind the vital importance of such market forces and policy responses in shaping the future health care scenario in India, this paper examines in detail both of these aspects and their implications for the Indian health care sector. The analysis indicates that despite the promising newly emerging atmosphere, there are limits to market forces; appropriate refinement in the role of government should be attempted to avoid undesirable consequences of rising costs, increasing inequity and consumer exploitation. This may require opening the health

  8. Struggle over energy transition in Berlin: How do grassroots initiatives affect local energy policy-making?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchet, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the growing role of grassroots initiatives in the governance of urban energy systems. In recent years, research has increasingly underlined the potential for sustainable innovation of community-led bottom-up actions but has at the same time underestimated their potential impact on the governance of energy systems. Based on a strategic action field framework (SAF), this paper analyses the conflicts over the remunicipalisation of Berlin's electricity grid and investigates the creation and strategic development of two grassroots initiatives as well as their interaction with the local government and the established grid operator. We argue that grassroots initiatives have an important impact on the local energy system, not just through their influence on the implementation of local energy policy but above all by their framing of a specific vision of a local energy transition. The paper discusses the scope and limits of such initiatives in an urban context. - Highlights: • Grassroots initiatives as actors with countervailing power in local energy policy. • They increase citizens' awareness and impact the action of the local government. • Grids as objects of struggle between competing visions of energy transition. • Urban context is both a resource and a constraint for grassroots initiatives action

  9. A Justified Initial Accounting Estimate as an Integral Part of the Enterprise Accounting Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marenych Tetyana H

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is justification of the need to specify in the order on accounting policies not only the elements of the accounting policy itself but also the initial accounting estimates, which will increase the reliability of financial reporting and the development of proposals on improvement of the given administrative documents of the enterprise. It is noted that in recent years the importance of a high-quality accounting policy has increased significantly not only for users of financial reports but also for achieving the purposes of determining the object of levying the profits tax. There revealed significant differences at reflecting in accounting the consequences of changes in the accounting policy and accounting estimate. There has been generalized the information in the order on the enterprise accounting policy with respect to accounting estimates. It is proposed to provide a separate section in the order, where there should be presented information about the list of accounting estimates taken, about how the company will make changes in the accounting policy, accounting estimate as well as correct errors

  10. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative: a wealth of information, but what is next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Willem

    2014-03-01

    Recently, the outcomes were published of the Global Opioid Policy Initiative, evaluating the availability, cost of opioid medicines and the regulatory barriers that are possibly impeding access for the management of cancer pain in developing countries. Other studies have shown that the vast majority of the world population has no access to opioid analgesics. This study shows by country which opioid medicines are available, what they cost to the patient, and investigates the presence of barriers for access to these medicines. Data from the project will be an important resource for those who advocate for improved access to opioid analgesics. Yet, like so often, many more aspects of inadequate opioid analgesic consumption require exploration and reporting, including legislative barriers. The last publication on the project is a "What's next?" that is over focusing on palliative care, forgetting that outside palliative care is also a huge need for opioid analgesics in moderate and severe pain. While promoting access to palliative care and pain management, their recognition as a human right by UN bodies would be of great help. Moreover, WHO's Access to Controlled Medicines Programme, could be an important programme to support the countries in making these improvements.

  11. Including Adulthood in Music Education Perspectives and Policy: A Lifespan View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, David E.

    2012-01-01

    Music learning among adults is witnessing rapid escalation as an important area of research and practice among music education professionals. In contrast to the years encompassed by childhood and adolescence, a significant challenge in teaching adults is that average life expectancies in developed countries include some 55 to 65 years beyond age…

  12. Broadband ICT policies in Southern Africa: Initiatives and dynamic spectrum regulation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, T

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available regulatory agencies. These ICT regulatory agencies had been established with the aim of liberalizing the telecommunications sector to ensure that governments are not the direct providers of telecom services, but the regulators [1]. Moreover, due to out... goals demand liberal and dynamic spectrum regulation policies designed at a country level and more importantly across a majority of countries in the same region. This paper highlights various initiatives aimed at formulating the all...

  13. Social determinants of health in Canada: Are healthy living initiatives there yet? A policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gore Dana

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Preventative strategies that focus on addressing the social determinants of health to improve healthy eating and physical activity have become an important strategy in British Columbia and Ontario for combating chronic diseases. What has not yet been examined is the extent to which healthy living initiatives implemented under these new policy frameworks successfully engage with and change the social determinants of health. Methods Initiatives active between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2011 were found using provincial policy documents, web searches, health organization and government websites, and databases of initiatives that attempted to influence to nutrition and physical activity in order to prevent chronic diseases or improve overall health. Initiatives were reviewed, analyzed and grouped using the descriptive codes: lifestyle-based, environment-based or structure-based. Initiatives were also classified according to the mechanism by which they were administered: as direct programs (e.g. directly delivered, blueprints (or frameworks to tailor developed programs, and building blocks (resources to develop programs. Results 60 initiatives were identified in Ontario and 61 were identified in British Columbia. In British Columbia, 11.5% of initiatives were structure-based. In Ontario, of 60 provincial initiatives identified, 15% were structure-based. Ontario had a higher proportion of direct interventions than British Columbia for all intervention types. However, in both provinces, as the intervention became more upstream and attempted to target the social determinants of health more directly, the level of direct support for the intervention lessened. Conclusions The paucity of initiatives in British Columbia and Ontario that address healthy eating and active living through action on the social determinants of health is problematic. In the context of Canada's increasingly neoliberal political and economic policy, the

  14. The Initial Purging Policies after the 1965 Incident at Lubang Buaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Djakababa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Lubang Buaya incident on 1 October 1965 in which six top Indonesian Army generals and a lieutenant were killed, the Army began to implement a nationwide purging campaign with the assistance of civilian anti-communist groups. Thousands of PKI members, supporters and pro-Sukarno groups/individuals immediately became the target of this purge. For organisational purposes, several purging policies were released and then strictly enforced. The official purging policies that are highlighted in this paper are a series of initial directives that were released within days of the generals’ executions. They do not explicitly translate into orders to kill, but are more of a guideline to help anti-communist officials classify and contain communists and other PKI followers. This article attempts to show how these initial directives evolved and also discusses competing purge policies from non-military sources. The co-existence and overlapping nature of the various directives indicate that a power struggle existed between the anti-communist group led by General Soeharto and the presidium of the Dwikora Cabinet who were loyal to President Soekarno.

  15. Brain death determination: the imperative for policy and legal initiatives in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru-Siika, Wangari; Clement, Meredith Edwards; Lukoko, Lilian; Nadel, Simon; Rosoff, Philip M; Naanyu, Violet; Kussin, Peter S

    2017-05-01

    The concept of brain death (BD), defined as irreversible loss of function of the brain including the brainstem, is accepted in the medical literature and in legislative policy worldwide. However, in most of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) there are no legal guidelines regarding BD. Hypothetical scenarios based on our collective experience are presented which underscore the consequences of the absence of BD policies in resource-limited countries (RLCs). Barriers to the development of BD laws exist in an RLC such as Kenya. Cultural, ethnic, and religious diversity creates a complex perspective about death challenging the development of uniform guidelines for BD. The history of the medical legal process in the USA provides a potential way forward. Uniform guidelines for legislation at the state level included special consideration for ethnic or religious preferences in specific states. In SSA, medical and social consensus on the definition of BD is a prerequisite for the development BD legislation. Legislative policy will (1) limit prolonged and futile interventions; (2) mitigate the suffering of families; (3) standardise clinical practice; and (4) facilitate better allocation of scarce critical care resources in RLCs. There is a clear-cut need for these policies, and previous successful policies can serve to guide these efforts.

  16. Nuclear safety policy working group recommendations on nuclear propulsion safety for the space exploration initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Lee, James H.; Mcculloch, William H.; Sawyer, J. Charles, Jr.; Bari, Robert A.; Cullingford, Hatice S.; Hardy, Alva C.; Niederauer, George F.; Remp, Kerry; Rice, John W.

    1993-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) nuclear propulsion program. These recommendations, which are contained in this report, should facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG has recommended a top-level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the SEI nuclear propulsion safety program. In addition, the NSPWG has reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top-level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. These recommendations should be useful for the development of the program's top-level requirements for safety functions (referred to as Safety Functional Requirements). The safety requirements and guidelines address the following topics: reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations.

  17. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in Nutrition Policies and Dietary Intake in Child Care Homes Participating in Healthy Eating and Active Living Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Kao, Janice; Kuo, Elena S; James, Paula; Lenhart, Kitty; Becker, Christina; Boyle, Kathryn; Williamson, Dana; Rauzon, Suzanne

    2018-05-01

    From 2012 to 2014, a total of 17 family child care homes participated in a multisector, community-wide initiative to prevent obesity. Strategies included staff workshops, materials, site visits, and technical assistance regarding development and implementation of nutrition policies. The purpose of the evaluation was to examine the impact of the initiative on family child care home nutrition-related policies and practices and child dietary intake. Pre- and post-intervention without control group. Measures taken at baseline and follow-up included structured observations and questionnaires regarding nutrition policies, practices, and environments; documentation of lunch foods served on 5 days; and lunch plate waste observations on 2 days. Paired t-tests were used to determine the significance of change over time. Seventeen family child care homes in a low-income diverse community in Northern California; children aged 2-5 years who attended the family child care homes. Change in nutrition-related policies and practices, lunch foods served and consumed. Data was collected at 17 sites for an average of 5.2 children aged 2-5 years per site per day at baseline and 4.6 at follow-up for a total of 333 plate waste observations. There were significant increases in staff training, parental involvement, and several of the targeted nutrition-related practices; prevalence of most other practices either improved or was maintained over time. There were significant increases in the number of sites meeting Child and Adult Care Food Program meal guidelines, variety of fruit and frequency of vegetables offered, and reductions in frequency of juice and high-fat processed meats offered. Adequate portions of all food groups were consumed at both time points with no significant change over time. A simple, policy-focused intervention by a child care resource and referral agency was successful at reinforcing and improving upon nutrition-related practices at family child care homes. Children

  19. Community Organizing for Healthier Communities: Environmental and Policy Outcomes of a National Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Grills, Cheryl T; Villanueva, Sandra; Douglas, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    Childhood obesity is disproportionately prevalent in communities of color, partially because of structural inequities in the social and built environment (e.g., poverty, food insecurity, pollution) that restrict healthy eating and active living. Community organizing is an underexamined, grassroots health promotion approach that empowers and mobilizes community residents to advocate for, and achieve, environmental and policy changes to rectify these structural inequities. This paper presents outcomes of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Communities Creating Healthy Environments initiative: the first national program to apply community organizing to combat childhood obesity-causing structural inequities in communities of color. Twenty-one community-based organizations and tribal nations (grantees) conducted 3-year community organizing-based interventions primarily designed to increase children's healthy food and safe recreational access. Grantees' policy wins (environmental and policy changes resulting from grantee interventions) were measured from 2009 to 2014 using semi-structured interviews conducted quarterly and 6 months post-grant, and independently coded and reviewed in 2015 by researchers and expert community organizers. The 21 grantees achieved 72 policy wins (mean=3.43, SD=1.78) across six domains: two directly addressed childhood obesity by enhancing children's healthy food (37.50%) and recreational access (33.33%), whereas four indirectly addressed obesity by promoting access to quality health care (8.33%); clean environments (9.73%); affordable housing (8.33%); and discrimination- and crime-free neighborhoods (2.78%). These findings provide compelling evidence that community organizing-based interventions designed and led by community stakeholders can achieve diverse environmental and policy solutions to the structural inequities that foment childhood obesity in communities of color. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published

  20. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwalajtys, Tina; Kaczorowski, Janusz

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.

  1. Area-based initiatives – engines of innovation in planning and policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig; Agger, Annika

    . Nevertheless, there is still considerable uncertainty as to the most important outcomes of place-based initiatives. Evaluations have mostly focussed on direct quantitative socio-economic indicators. These have often been quite insignificant, while other effects have been largely neglected. This paper proposes...... and development in planning culture turns out to be a more substantial result than the reduction of social exclusion and economic deprivation. The paper analyses all available official evaluation studies of Danish place-based urban policy initiatives from mid-1990s through 2010. In addition to this, recent...... studies of local planning culture change are discussed. Main findings are that during the past two decades a general change in planning culture has developed gradually, triggered by urban regeneration full scale experimentation with place-based approaches. Second, planners as well as public administrators...

  2. Merida Initiative and Effectiveness: An Analysis of Supply-Side Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    found in anti-narcotics efforts by the United States to combat “organizations [that] constitute a threat to regional security and to U.S. national...Agreement ( NAFTA ), as well as politically sensitive issues like immigration. The progression of these discussions eventually led to policy changes in... constitution of the MI, leading to its formal approval in 2007. Finally, the chapter provided an overview of the MI’s final structure, including its four

  3. Model of spur processes in aqueous radiation chemistry including spur overlap and a novel initial hydrated electron distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented from computer calculations based upon an improved diffusion-kinetic model of the spur which includes a novel initial distribution for the hydrated electron and an approximate mathematical treatment of the overlap of spurs in three dimensions. Experimental data for the decay of the hydrated electron and hydroxyl radical before one in electron-pulse-irradated, solute-free and air-free water are fit wihtin experimental uncertainty by adjustment of the initial spatial distributions of spur intermediates and the average energy deposited in the spur. Using the same values of these parameters, the hydrated electron decay is computed for times from 1 ps 10 μs after the radiatio pulse. The results of such calcuations for various conditions of pulse dose and concentrations of scavengers of individual primary chemical species in the spur are compared with corresponding experimental data obtained predominantly from water and aqueous solutions irradiated with 10 to 15 MeV electron pulses. Very good agreement between calculated and experimental hydrated electron decay in pure water is observed for the entire time range studied when a pulse dose of approximately 7900 rads is modeled, but the calcuated and experimental curves are observed to deviate for times greater than 10 ns nanoseconds when low pulse doses and low scavenger concentrations are considered. It is shown that this deviation is experimental and calculated hydrated electron decay cannot be explained by assuming the presence of a hydrated electron scavenging impurity nor by employing a distribution of nearest neighbor interspur distances to refine the overlap approximation

  4. Bending Priorities: a Study in Policy Framing. State of Michigan’s Brownfield Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HULA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the political process bywhich the state of Michigan successfully crafted andimplemented such a brownfield initiative. Althoughthe primary focus here is on the experience of asingle state, the lessons to be learned from thiscase have national and international implicationsbecause Michigan is a leader in brownfieldprograms. The paper begins with a review of thegeneral policy context in which state brownfieldpolicy is made. Particular attention is given tothe widespread dissatisfaction of a variety ofstakeholders with long dominant federal programsin the area of environmental cleanups. The secondsection outlines a number of fundamental legislativeand administrative changes that have beenimplemented in Michigan environmental policyover the past decade. Section three reviews thebroad literature on issue framing and considershow it might help identify the specific mechanismsby which the innovative brownfield program wasadopted. The final section provides an informal testof elements of the issue-framing model by exploringin some detail the convergence of public opinionwith key elements of the innovative policy, andwhether there was any significant shift in publicopinion over time.

  5. Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders: The Catalan public policy initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Carracedo, David; Carretero, Cristina; Conesa, Alfons

    2017-04-01

    The field of prevention of body image problems and eating disorders has made major advances in recent years, particularly in the development and evaluation of prevention programmes. However, few programmes achieve good long-term results because, among other reasons, the sociocultural influences affecting the development of these problems do not stop. Moreover, accelerating progress in this field is required, transferring their impact onto a larger scale. These reasons justify the need to progress in the development of public policy interventions. This paper describes a recent Catalan initiative in this sphere: the Roundtable on the Prevention of Eating Disorders, made up of different public and private sectors of Catalan society. It specifically details the main actions carried out, such as: media campaigns to reduce weight-related teasing and encouraging self-esteem, encouraging family meals and promoting help-seeking among those affected; the creation of a new informative website about these matters in the Department of Health; the production of a Decalogue of Best Practices for the promotion of self-esteem and positive body image in social media and advertising; and actions to prevent the promotion of eating disorders on the Internet. The Roundtable is the most comprehensive Catalan (and Spanish) public policy activity undertaken until now for the prevention of eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quarterly Data for Asian & Pacific Islander Languages, Supplemental Security Income Initial Claims (Aged) (FY 2016, including 53rd week)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides quarterly volumes of SSI Aged initial claims at the national level from federal fiscal year 2016 with quarter 4 shown two ways—we base one on a...

  7. Energy for sustainable road transportation in China: Challenges, initiatives and policy implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xiaojun; Chang, Shiyan; Li, Jingjie; Qin, Yining [Institute of Energy and Environmental Economics, Energy Science Building, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2010-11-15

    This paper presents an overview of the initiatives launched in energy supply and consumption and the challenges encountered in sustainable road transportation development in China. It analyzes the main energy challenges related to road transportation development arising in the context of economic development, rapid urbanization, and improvement in living standards. It also discusses technological- and policy initiatives needed to deal with these challenges, drawing comparisons with foreign experience: promoting the development and dissemination of alternative fuels and clean vehicles such as: LPG, CNG, EV, HEV, FCV, ethanol, methanol, DME, bio-diesel, and CTL, strengthening regulations relating to vehicle fuel economy and emission, improving traffic efficiency and facilitating public transport development, and strengthening management of the soaring motor vehicle population. If the current pattern continues, by the year 2030, the vehicle population in China will be 400 million and fuel demand will be 350 million tons. The potential energy saving capacity being 60%, the actual oil demand by 2030 from on-road vehicles might technically be kept at the current level by improving fuel economy, propagating use of HEV and diesel vehicles, improving supply of alternative fuels, and developing public transport. Several uncertainties are identified that could greatly influence the effect of the technical proposals: traffic efficiency, central government's resolve, and consumers' choice. (author)

  8. An integrated approach to preventing cardiovascular disease: community-based approaches, health system initiatives, and public health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Karwalajtys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tina Karwalajtys1, Janusz Kaczorowski2,31Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 2Primary Care & Community Research, Child & Family Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, CanadaAbstract: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is largely the product of interactions among modifiable risk factors that are common in developed nations and increasingly of concern in developing countries. Hypertension is an important precursor to the development of CVD, and although detection and treatment rates have improved in recent years in some jurisdictions, effective strategies and policies supporting a shift in distribution of risk factors at the population level remain paramount. Challenges in managing cardiovascular health more effectively include factors at the patient, provider, and system level. Strategies to reduce hypertension and CVD should be population based, incorporate multilevel, multicomponent, and socioenvironmental approaches, and integrate community resources with public health and clinical care. There is an urgent need to improve monitoring and management of risk factors through community-wide, primary care-linked initiatives, increase the evidence base for community-based prevention strategies, further develop and evaluate promising program components, and develop new approaches to support healthy lifestyle behaviors in diverse age, socioeconomic, and ethnocultural groups. Policy and system changes are critical to reduce risk in populations, including legislation and public education to reduce dietary sodium and trans-fatty acids, food pricing policies, and changes to health care delivery systems to explicitly support prevention and management of CVD.Keywords: risk factors, blood pressure determination, community health services, community health planning, public health practice

  9. Threat Assessment and Targeted Violence at Institutions of Higher Education: Implications for Policy and Practice Including Unique Considerations for Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Laura; Bates, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the research on targeted violence, including campus violence, and the implications for policy and practice at institutions of higher education. Unique challenges of threat assessment in the community college setting are explored, and an overview of an effective threat assessment policy and team at William…

  10. The Malaysian Fifth Fuel Policy: Re-strategising the Malaysian Renewable Energy Initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maulud, A.L.; Saidi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The power industry is the most crucial and strategic sector for any country to achieve its vision. Due to the fast depletion and high cost of fossil fuel, this is now a threat to sustainable growth. Attention is now focused on renewable energies as an alternative. In Malaysia, renewable energy was included in the 8th Malaysia Plan (2000–2005) with a target of 500 MW out of the 20,000 MW total generation capacity. However, for the first 10 years (2000–2010) only 41.5 MW planting up has been achieved. This paper recommends strategies, implementation mechanism, and financial framework to ensure success of the initiatives. Some of the recommendations were currently being implemented such as the Green Technology Fund and the Fit-In-Tariff. In addition, this paper proposes the incorporation of a Malaysian Renewable Energy Development Board with wide legislative and executive powers, that would be a strong champion of the RE initiatives. Its primary function would be, inter alia, cross-ministry coordination, tariff fixation, regulating utilization of renewable biomass waste, institute fiscal incentives such as investment incentives, tax holidays, removal of barriers, and initiate government funded Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) initiatives.

  11. A diaper bank and home visiting partnership: Initial exploration of research and policy questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Lois S; Condon, Eileen M; Deng, Shirley Z; Ordway, Monica Roosa; Marchesseault, Crista; Miller, Andrea; Alfano, Janet Stolfi; Weir, Alison M

    2018-03-01

    The cost of diapering an infant can place a significant financial strain on families living in poverty. Partnerships between diaper banks and home visiting programs for young families may offer an innovative solution to expanding the reach and impact of diaper banks in low-income communities. The purpose of this pilot study was to uncover preliminary information about the functions of diaper distribution through home visiting programs, and to inform future research and policy questions regarding diaper distribution to families in need. In this descriptive qualitative pilot study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 6 home visitors from Minding the Baby ® (MTB), a home visiting intervention for young parents. MTB clinicians routinely distribute diapers in partnership with The Diaper Bank in Connecticut. We used directed content analysis to code and analyze interview transcripts. These preliminary findings indicate that partnerships between home visiting programs and diaper banks may benefit families by improving diaper access, reducing stigma, and fostering trusting relationships with home visitors. Home visiting program benefits including engagement or re-engagement with families may need to be balanced with potential effects on clinical and therapeutic relationships. Recommendations for next steps in research and related policy questions are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Policy Debate | Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Initiative : What Can We Learn from its Failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L. Martin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Editor’s note: This paper is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy-makers and practioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, the initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from scholars and/or policy-makers.In her article ‘Pay to Preserve: The Global Politics of Ecuador’s Yasuní-ITT Proposal’, published in DevPol’s special issue on  Energy and Development in 2011, Pamela L. Martin, Associate Professor of Politics at the Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina, provided a favourable outlook on Ecuador’s innovative environmental governance mechanism. Accordingly, its unique potential lay in its objective of contributing towards sustainable development and social justice and in case of success, the author even predicted a possible replication in other developing countries. Despite its benefits, the initiative was abandoned in 2013. In this paper, Martin revisits the initiative and analyses the reasons for its failure, namely President Correa’s public pursuit of a Plan B, entering into negotiations with oil firms interested to explore the ITT reserves. Moreover, the initiative was in stark competition with the national REDD+ programme, the mainstream policy approach to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation against payments, which is being negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC.Pamela L. Martin’s article is followed by a response by Dr. Imme Scholz, Deputy Director of the German Development Institute/Deutsches Institut für Entwicklungspolitik (DIE. She examines why Germany, as the largest European donor, withdrew its support for the Yasuní-ITT Initiative.Readers who are intetested are invited to contribute to this policy debate on our blog .Download the whole

  13. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The African Capacity Building Initiative: Toward Improved Policy Analysis and Development Management in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    The objective of the African Capacity Building Initiative is to build and strengthen local capabilities for policy analysis and development management in Sub-Saharan Africa. This report examines the nature and magnitude of the problem, which basically consists of a shortage of development management skills combined with weakness in the area of…

  15. The National Nursing Assistant Survey: Improving the Evidence Base for Policy Initiatives to Strengthen the Certified Nursing Assistant Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squillace, Marie R.; Remsburg, Robin E.; Harris-Kojetin, Lauren D.; Bercovitz, Anita; Rosenoff, Emily; Han, Beth

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study introduces the first National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a major advance in the data available about certified nursing assistants (CNAs) and a rich resource for evidence-based policy, practice, and applied research initiatives. We highlight potential uses of this new survey using select population estimates as examples of…

  16. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  17. Newly Diagnosed Meniere's Disease: Clinical Course With Initiation of Noninvasive Treatment Including an Accounting of Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbeih, Firas; Christov, Florian; Gluth, Michael B

    2018-05-01

    To describe the course of Meniere's disease with noninvasive treatment during the first few years after initial diagnosis. A retrospective review of consecutive patients with newly diagnosed definite Meniere's disease between 2013 and 2016 and a minimum follow-up of 1 year. Patients received a written plan for low sodium, water therapy, and treatment with a diuretic and/or betahistine. Subjects were screened and treated for vestibular migraine as needed. Vertigo control and hearing status at most recent follow-up were assessed. Forty-four subjects had an average follow up of 24.3 months. Thirty-four percent had Meniere's disease and vestibular migraine, and 84% had unilateral Meniere's disease. Seventy-five percent had vertigo well controlled at most recent follow-up, with only noninvasive treatments. Age, gender, body mass index, presence of vestibular migraine, bilateral disease, and duration of follow-up did not predict noninvasive treatment failure. Worse hearing threshold at 250 Hz and lower pure tone average (PTA) at the time of diagnosis did predict failure. Fifty-two percent of ears had improved PTA at most recent visit, 20% had no change, and 28% were worse Conclusions: Encountering excellent vertigo control and stable hearing after a new diagnosis of Meniere's disease is possible with noninvasive treatments. Worse hearing status at diagnosis predicted treatment failure.

  18. The Initiative to extend Medicare into Mexico: a case study in changing U.S. Health Care Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Ibarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the geo-political activities of interest groups, governments and multinational corporations involved in an initiative to extend Medicare to U.S. retirees residing in Mexico.  If the initiative to change the current Medicare policy succeeds, the relocation of Medicare-eligible populations from the U.S. to Mexico is likely to increase; the U.S. is expected to gain cost-savings for taxpayers on Medicare; Mexico can develop senior-housing and options for long-term care it currently lacks; and foreign-led multinational corporations will increase their profits and dominance, fostering even more privatization in Mexico’s health care sector. By exploring new issues about retirement migration and health this study seeks to gain knowledge about the phenomena in a number of areas.  First, the retirement migration of North Americans to Latin America is an under-studied phenomenon in the fields of social gerontology, migration research, and health policy studies.  Second, the Medicare in Mexico initiative is even less well-known among health policy scholars than the retirement migration phenomenon into Mexico. Yet this initiative is inherently international in scope and involves a number of US-based institutions and interest groups actively promoting the project from within Mexico. Thus, the initiative has important geo-political and socio-economic implications for reforming health care systems in the U.S. and Mexico.

  19. The SPARK Tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in health policy and systems research: development and initial validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akl, Elie A; Fadlallah, Racha; Ghandour, Lilian; Kdouh, Ola; Langlois, Etienne; Lavis, John N; Schünemann, Holger; El-Jardali, Fadi

    2017-09-04

    Groups or institutions funding or conducting systematic reviews in health policy and systems research (HPSR) should prioritise topics according to the needs of policymakers and stakeholders. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR. We developed the tool following a four-step approach consisting of (1) the definition of the purpose and scope of tool, (2) item generation and reduction, (3) testing for content and face validity, (4) and pilot testing of the tool. The research team involved international experts in HPSR, systematic review methodology and tool development, led by the Center for Systematic Reviews on Health Policy and Systems Research (SPARK). We followed an inclusive approach in determining the final selection of items to allow customisation to the user's needs. The purpose of the SPARK tool was to prioritise questions in HPSR in order to address them in systematic reviews. In the item generation and reduction phase, an extensive literature search yielded 40 relevant articles, which were reviewed by the research team to create a preliminary list of 19 candidate items for inclusion in the tool. As part of testing for content and face validity, input from international experts led to the refining, changing, merging and addition of new items, and to organisation of the tool into two modules. Following pilot testing, we finalised the tool, with 22 items organised in two modules - the first module including 13 items to be rated by policymakers and stakeholders, and the second including 9 items to be rated by systematic review teams. Users can customise the tool to their needs, by omitting items that may not be applicable to their settings. We also developed a user manual that provides guidance on how to use the SPARK tool, along with signaling questions. We have developed and conducted initial validation of the SPARK tool to prioritise questions for systematic reviews in HPSR, along with

  20. Promoting Policy, Systems, and Environment Change to Prevent Chronic Disease: Lessons Learned From the King County Communities Putting Prevention to Work Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, Allen; Cromp, DeAnn; Krieger, James W; Chan, Nadine; McNees, Molly; Ross-Viles, Sarah; Kellogg, Ryan; Rahimian, Afsaneh; MacDougall, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Initiatives that convene community stakeholders to implement policy, systems, environment, and infrastructure (PSEI) change have become a standard approach for promoting community health. To assess the PSEI changes brought about by the King County, Washington, Communities Putting Prevention to Work initiative and describe how initiative structures and processes contributed to making changes. The impact evaluation used a logic model design, linking PSEI changes to longer-term behavioral impacts in healthy eating active living and tobacco use and exposure. Qualitative methods, including stakeholder interviews and surveys, were used to identify initiative success factors. Communities Putting Prevention to Work activities occurred throughout King County, with a focus on 7 low-income communities in South Seattle/King County. The focus communities had a combined population of 652 000, or 35% of the county total, with lower incomes and higher rates of physical inactivity, tobacco use, poor diet, and chronic disease. Twenty-four PSEI strategies were pursued by organizations in sectors including schools, local governments, and community organizations, supported by the public health department. There were 17 healthy eating active living strategies (eg, enhancements to school menus, city planning policies) and 7 tobacco strategies (eg, smoke-free policies in schools, housing, and hospitals). PSEI changes made and numbers of residents reached. Twenty-two of the 24 strategies achieved significant progress toward implementing PSEI changes. The most common success factor was a "dyad" consisting of a dedicated technical assistance provider-either an outside consultant or public health department staff-working closely with a champion from the participating organizations to bring about PSEI changes. An initiative structure that creates and supports external consultant/internal organizational champion dyads in key community sectors offers a promising approach that may be adopted by

  1. CORAL CONSERVATION BIOLOGY APPLIED TO POLICY DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT INITIATIVES. (R825158)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. A Utilitarian Perspective of Social and Medical Contributions to Three Illustrative Conditions, and Recent UK NHS Policy Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Hugh; Shaw, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Background: To date debate concerning the relative merits of social and medical sciences has been\\ud largely academic.\\ud Aims: To outline and critically appraise a utilitarian approach to mental health research that reflects a\\ud critical realist perspective.\\ud Method: Consideration of the relative utility of differing approaches to illustrative ‘‘psychiatric’’\\ud disorders, and recent policy initiatives.\\ud Results: Socially relevant outcomes of Bipolar Affective Disorder are determined by...

  3. Landscapes in transition: an analysis of sustainable policy initiatives and emerging corporate commitments in the palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Padfield, Rory; Drew, Simon; Syayuti, Khadijah; Page, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Campos-Arceiz, Ahimsa; Kangayatkarasu, Nagulendran; Sayok, Alex; Hansen, Sune; Schouten, Greetje; Maulidia, Martha; Papargyropoulou, Effie; Hou Tham, Mun

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe recent Southeast Asian haze crisis has generated intense public scrutiny over the rate, methods and types of landscape change in the tropics. Debate has centred on the environmental impacts of large-scale agricultural expansion, particularly the associated loss of high carbon stock forest and forests of high conservation value. Focusing on palm oil—a versatile food crop and source of bioenergy—this paper analyses national, international and corporate policy initiatives in ...

  4. Partnership in Knowledge Creation: Lessons Learned from a Researcher-Policy Actor Partnership to Co-Produce a Rapid Appraisal Case Study of South Australia's Social Inclusion Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Lareen; Biedrzycki, Kate; Patterson, Jan; Baum, Fran

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a partnership between researchers and policy actors that was developed within a short timeframe to produce a rapid appraisal case study of a government policy initiative--South Australia's "Social Inclusion Initiative"--for the Social Exclusion Knowledge Network of the international Commission on Social Determinants…

  5. Teacher Incentive Systems, Final Report. Policy Research Initiative: Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, Frances; Thiagarajan, Sivasailam

    Findings of a study that examined the implementation of a teacher incentives initiative in four countries--Haiti, Liberia, Somalia, and Yemen--are presented in this paper. The countries are participating in a 10-year initiative founded in 1984, Improving the Efficiency of Educational Systems (IEES). Methodology involved interviews with…

  6. Children and ICT European Initiatives and Policies on Protecting Children Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojniak, Justyna; Majorek, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the opportunities of use information and communication technologies for the education purposes. It presents key assumptions of the European Union policy concerning innovative methods of training and the prospects for their further development. As nowadays one can observe increasing activity of the children and young people in…

  7. Monitoring Antimicrobial Resistance in the Food Supply Chain and Its Implications for FDA Policy Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawack, Kelson; Li, Min; Booth, James G; Love, Will; Lanzas, Cristina; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2016-09-01

    In response to concerning increases in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has decided to increase veterinary oversight requirements for antimicrobials and restrict their use in growth promotion. Given the high stakes of this policy for the food supply, economy, and human and veterinary health, it is important to rigorously assess the effects of this policy. We have undertaken a detailed analysis of data provided by the National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System (NARMS). We examined the trends in both AMR proportion and MIC between 2004 and 2012 at slaughter and retail stages. We investigated the makeup of variation in these data and estimated the sample and effect size requirements necessary to distinguish an effect of the policy change. Finally, we applied our approach to take a detailed look at the 2005 withdrawal of approval for the fluoroquinolone enrofloxacin in poultry water. Slaughter and retail showed similar trends. Both AMR proportion and MIC were valuable in assessing AMR, capturing different information. Most variation was within years, not between years, and accounting for geographic location explained little additional variation. At current rates of data collection, a 1-fold change in MIC should be detectable in 5 years and a 6% decrease in percent resistance could be detected in 6 years following establishment of a new resistance rate. Analysis of the enrofloxacin policy change showed the complexities of the AMR policy with no statistically significant change in resistance of both Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli to ciprofloxacin, another second-generation fluoroquinolone. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. The potential of transnational language policy to promote social inclusion of immigrants: An analysis and evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-08-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the European level. Challenged by questions as to whether language learning should be prioritised as a human right or as human capital building, how host/mainstream language learning can be reinforced while respecting language diversity, and other problems, member countries still need to find solutions. Confronting these dilemmas, this study analyses the relationship and interactions between language learning and immigrants' social inclusion in different contexts. It explores the potential of enhancing the effectiveness of language policies via a dialogue between policies and practices in different national contexts and research studies in the field of language and social inclusion. The research data are derived from two databases created by a European policy for active social inclusion project called INCLUDE. This project ran from 2013 to 2016 under the EU's lifelong learning programme, with funding support from the European Commission. Through an analysis of these two project databases, the paper reviews recent national language policies and their effect on the social inclusion of migrants. In the second part of her article, the author interprets the process of language learning and social inclusion using poststructuralist theories of language and identity.

  9. Astronautics and aeronautics, 1973: Chronology of science, technology and policy. [including artificial satellites, space probes, and manned space flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A brief chronological account is presented of key events of the year in aerospace sciences. Dates, actions, hardware, persons, scientific discoveries are recorded along with plans, decisions, achievements and preliminary evaluations of results. Samples of public reaction and social impact are included. Sources are identified and an index is provided to aid in tracing related events through the year. The index also serves as a glossary of acronyms and abbreviations.

  10. Policy initiatives by the Government of India to accelerate growth of nuclear installed capacity in the coming years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    When examined from the point of view of the size of its population and economy, India is not well endowed with energy resources. Studies done by the Department of Atomic Energy indicate that even after exploiting full potential of every available source of energy including nuclear energy, India needs to continue to import energy resources. In this backdrop, an initiative was launched by Government of India to open up international civil nuclear commerce so as to enable India to access natural uranium from international market and to set up nuclear reactors in technical cooperation with other countries. International civil nuclear trade is governed by guidelines of Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) and its guidelines, as they were, required all nuclear materials and facilities in the recipient country, other than those identified as Nuclear Weapon States in the Treaty for Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, to be under Comprehensive Safeguards of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The civil nuclear initiative of the Government of India involved having a dialogue with several NSG members; negotiating agreements of cooperation in peaceful uses of nuclear energy with France, Russia and USA; formulating a plan separating certain nuclear facilities and a timetable for offering them, in a phased manner, to IAEA for implementation of safeguards; and negotiating an India-specific safeguards agreement with IAEA. As a result of all these steps, the guidelines for civil nuclear cooperation were modified by the NSG on 6th September 2008 to facilitate nuclear trade with India without the condition of Comprehensive Safeguards. India has since been able to import uranium and dialogue is ongoing with France, Russia and the USA to set up, with their technical cooperation, light water reactors at selected sites. To facilitate international civil nuclear trade, a policy resolution has also been issued and The Civil Nuclear Liability for Nuclear Damage Bill 2010 is under

  11. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  12. Policy initiatives for change and innovation in basic education programmes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaus Kadingdi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Using an historical perspective, the recent history of educational policy making in Ghana, as it relates to the provision of basic education, is examined. Three periods or phases are identified corresponding to the situation prior to Independence, the period between 1951 and 1986 and the reforms instituted in 1987 and the years that followed. Despite the willing cooperation of various donor agencies and the availability of resources, progress has been limited. The policy and contextual reasons for this comparative lack of progress are examined in turn. The paper concludes with what can be learnt from these attempts at reform and suggests that, whilst the issues involved are complex, greater attention needs to be focused on the training and support of teachers in their classroom role rather than focusing on the provision of resources. Helping teachers to understand the desired changes in their practice and the need to make pupils independent learners, coupled with reforms of teacher training and support, and the nature and quality of teacher continuing professional development, can all be seen as key ways in which further progress may be made

  13. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P Fernandez [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  14. Radioactive Waste Management - Community Policy and Research Initiatives. The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste - Euradwaste '04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsstroem, Hans [Research Directorate Energy, Nuclear Fission and Radiation Protection, European Commission, MO-75 5/37, 200 avenue de la Loi, B-1049 Brussels (Belgium); Ruiz, P. Fernandez (ed.) [DG Research, Energy, Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, C/ Justo Dorado, 11, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-07-01

    The sixth international conference on the management and disposal of radioactive waste organized be European Commission, held on 29-31 March 2004 in Luxembourg aimed to cover the following objectives: - To present EC policy in waste management, in particular the proposed 'Directive on the Management of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Radioactive Waste' and to discuss relating issues such as the effect on national programmes, site selection, EU added value, the case for EU safety standards, and various socio-political aspects; - To highlight the main results of the Fifth Framework Programme (FP5) of EURATOM for 'Nuclear Energy, Fission Research and Training Activities' in the field of waste in spent fuel management and disposal, and partitioning and transmutation; - To present examples of activities under FP5 and to discuss further research European integration through FP6. The program was divided into two main groups: 1. 'Community Policy and Socio-Political Aspects' which included sessions on community policy initiatives, disposal option, common safety standards and public involvement and acceptance; 2. 'Community Research Activities - FP5' which included sessions on partitioning and transmutation, geological disposal and research networking. There were 29 oral presentations and 36 poster presentations which, for the latter, allowed detailed presentations of the results of the EU-funded research projects. The conference was attended by some 240 participants from 27 countries.

  15. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  16. How do experts define relevance criteria when initiating Health Impact Assessments of national policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraemer, Stella Rj; Gulis, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to present how the Danish Disease Prevention Committee (DDPC) members and HIA-experts understand when HIA is "relevant", which in this context means when there is "presumed to be a direct and documented effect on the health and morbidity of citizens". Method: DDPC members...... were interviewed face-to-face; HIA experts participated in an e-survey. Results: Six DDPC members were interviewed and 100 HIA-experts participated in a survey. The DDPC members consider direct as the link between determinants and the related risk factors. The HIA experts consider direct as the link...... between policy and the related risk factors. Both groups favour the use of scientific evidence according to the traditional biomedical evidence hierarchy but HIA-experts also judge that there is value in using evidence that can be considered weak such as local community knowledge. Conclusions: It is clear...

  17. School-Based Sports Development and the Role of NSOs as 'Boundary Spanners': Benefits, Disbenefits and Unintended Consequences of the "Sporting Schools" Policy Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Anna; Stylianou, Michalis

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on "Sporting Schools", a $100 million policy initiative intended to increase children's sport participation in Australia. Our account seeks to proffer a critical analysis of this federal policy, and the way it functions as part of the new heterarchical or networked form of sports governance in Australia. Using…

  18. Energy justice and the contested petroleum politics of stranded assets: Policy insights from the Yasuní-ITT Initiative in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Scarpaci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Ecuador's progressive Yasuní-ITT Initiative, operational 2007 to 2013, would have left almost one billion barrels of crude oil locked in perpetuity beneath one of the most intact and diverse nature reserves on the planet. The project attempted to “strand” these oil assets in order to protect biodiversity, respect the territory of indigenous peoples, combat climate change, and encourage more sustainable economic development. The Yasuní-ITT proposal would have had the international community pay Ecuador $3.6 billion—roughly half the value of the oil found there—in exchange for not developing the Ishpingo Tambococha Tiputini (ITT) oilfields. Funds would have been placed into social and environmental development programs and the promotion of domestic renewable energy. Instead, the project collected only $13 million and succumbed to a series of challenges including limited financing, intense political pressure, a national commitment to oil, and carbon leakage. This article summarizes the history, benefits, and insurmountable obstacles facing the Yasuní-ITT Initiative and presents six broader lessons and implications for climate and energy analysts, practitioners, and policymakers. It questions the political viability of and serves as a stark warning against those promoting and advocating policies centered on carbon budgets, stranded assets, negative emissions, and carbon revenue streams. - Highlights: •Ecuador's progressive Yasuní-ITT Initiative attempted to “strand” oil assets worth billions of dollars. •The project failed and collected only $13 million. •This article summarizes the history, benefits, and insurmountable obstacles facing the Yasuní-ITT Initiative. •It argues that extreme caution must be utilized when looking at global stranded asset policies. •The international community is unlikely financially support communities seeking to strand local assets for global benefit.

  19. Using Collaborative Simulation Modeling to Develop a Web-Based Tool to Support Policy-Level Decision Making About Breast Cancer Screening Initiation Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth S. Burnside MD, MPH, MS

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no publicly available tools designed specifically to assist policy makers to make informed decisions about the optimal ages of breast cancer screening initiation for different populations of US women. Objective: To use three established simulation models to develop a web-based tool called Mammo OUTPuT. Methods: The simulation models use the 1970 US birth cohort and common parameters for incidence, digital screening performance, and treatment effects. Outcomes include breast cancers diagnosed, breast cancer deaths averted, breast cancer mortality reduction, false-positive mammograms, benign biopsies, and overdiagnosis. The Mammo OUTPuT tool displays these outcomes for combinations of age at screening initiation (every year from 40 to 49, annual versus biennial interval, lifetime versus 10-year horizon, and breast density, compared to waiting to start biennial screening at age 50 and continuing to 74. The tool was piloted by decision makers (n = 16 who completed surveys. Results: The tool demonstrates that benefits in the 40s increase linearly with earlier initiation age, without a specific threshold age. Likewise, the harms of screening increase monotonically with earlier ages of initiation in the 40s. The tool also shows users how the balance of benefits and harms varies with breast density. Surveys revealed that 100% of users (16/16 liked the appearance of the site; 94% (15/16 found the tool helpful; and 94% (15/16 would recommend the tool to a colleague. Conclusions: This tool synthesizes a representative subset of the most current CISNET (Cancer Intervention and Surveillance Modeling Network simulation model outcomes to provide policy makers with quantitative data on the benefits and harms of screening women in the 40s. Ultimate decisions will depend on program goals, the population served, and informed judgments about the weight of benefits and harms.

  20. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: Overview and Policy Context of UF6 Cylinder Tracking Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, Brian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whitaker, J. Michael [ORNL; White-Horton, Jessica L. [ORNL; Durbin, Karyn R. [NNSA

    2012-07-12

    Thousands of cylinders containing uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) move around the world from conversion plants to enrichment plants to fuel fabrication plants, and their contents could be very useful to a country intent on diverting uranium for clandestine use. Each of these large cylinders can contain close to a significant quantity of natural uranium (48Y cylinder) or low-enriched uranium (LEU) (30B cylinder) defined as 75 kg {sup 235}U which can be further clandestinely enriched to produce 1.5 to 2 significant quantities of high enriched uranium (HEU) within weeks or months depending on the scale of the clandestine facility. The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) kicked off a 5-year plan in April 2011 to investigate the concept of a unique identification system for UF{sub 6} cylinders and potentially to develop a cylinder tracking system that could be used by facility operators and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The goal is to design an integrated solution beneficial to both industry and inspectorates that would improve cylinder operations at the facilities and provide enhanced capabilities to deter and detect both diversion of low-enriched uranium and undeclared enriched uranium production. The 5-year plan consists of six separate incremental tasks: (1) define the problem and establish the requirements for a unique identification (UID) and monitoring system; (2) develop a concept of operations for the identification and monitoring system; (3) determine cylinder monitoring devices and technology; (4) develop a registry database to support proof-of-concept demonstration; (5) integrate that system for the demonstration; and (6) demonstrate proof-of-concept. Throughout NNSA's performance of the tasks outlined in this program, the multi-laboratory team emphasizes that extensive engagement with industry stakeholders, regulatory authorities and inspectorates is essential to its success.

  1. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994–2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  2. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hartmann

    Full Text Available The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader

  3. How Are Gender Equality and Human Rights Interventions Included in Sexual and Reproductive Health Programmes and Policies: A Systematic Review of Existing Research Foci and Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Miriam; Khosla, Rajat; Krishnan, Suneeta; George, Asha; Gruskin, Sofia; Amin, Avni

    2016-01-01

    The importance of promoting gender equality and human rights in sexual and reproductive health (SRH) programmes and policies has been affirmed in numerous international and regional agreements, most recently the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Given the critical role of research to determine what works, we aimed to identify research gaps as part of a broader priority setting exercise on integrating gender equality and human rights approaches in SRH programmes and policies. A systematic literature review of reviews was conducted to examine the question: what do we know about how research in the context of SRH programmes and policies has addressed gender equality and human rights and what are the current gaps in research. We searched three databases for reviews that addressed the research question, were published between 1994-2014, and met methodological standards for systematic reviews, qualitative meta-syntheses and other reviews of relevance to the research question. Additional grey literature was identified based on expert input. Articles were appraised by the primary author and examined by an expert panel. An abstraction and thematic analysis process was used to synthesize findings. Of the 3,073 abstracts identified, 56 articles were reviewed in full and 23 were included along with 10 from the grey literature. The majority focused on interventions addressing gender inequalities; very few reviews explicitly included human rights based interventions. Across both topics, weak study designs and use of intermediate outcome measures limited evidence quality. Further, there was limited evidence on interventions that addressed marginalized groups. Better quality studies, longer-term indicators, and measurement of unintended consequences are needed to better understand the impact of these types of interventions on SRH outcomes. Further efforts are needed to cover research on gender equality and human rights issues as they pertain to a broader set of SRH topics

  4. Specialty pharmaceuticals: policy initiatives to improve assessment, pricing, prescription, and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James C; Howell, Scott

    2014-10-01

    The value of "specialty pharmaceuticals" for cancer and other complex conditions depends not merely on their molecular structures but also on the manner in which the drugs are assessed, insured, priced, prescribed, and used. This article analyzes the five principal stages through which a specialty drug must pass on its journey from the laboratory to the bedside. These include regulatory approval by the Food and Drug Administration for market access, insurance coverage, pricing and payment, physician prescription, and patient engagement. If structured appropriately, each stage improves performance and supports continued research and development. If structured inappropriately, however, each stage adds to administrative burdens, distorts clinical decision making, and weakens incentives for innovation. Cautious optimism is in order, but neither the continued development of breakthrough products nor their use according to evidence-based guidelines can be taken for granted. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  5. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  6. Microstructure modeling and crystal plasticity simulations for the evaluation of fatigue crack initiation in α-iron specimen including an elliptic defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briffod, Fabien, E-mail: briffod@rme.mm.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Enoki, Manabu

    2017-05-17

    In this study, fatigue crack initiation in pure α-iron is investigated through a microstructure-sensitive framework. At first, synthetic microstructures are modeled based on an anisotropic tessellation that accounts for the information of the grains morphology extracted from electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analysis. Low-cycle fatigue experiments under strain-controlled conditions are conducted in order to calibrate a crystal plasticity model and a J{sub 2} model including isotropic and kinematic hardening. A critical plane fatigue indicator parameter (FIP) based on the Tanaka-Mura model is then presented to evaluate the location and quantify the driving force for the formation of a crack. The FIP is averaged over several potential crack paths within each grain defined by the intersection between a given slip plane and the plane of the model thus accounting for both the lattice orientation and morphology of the grain. Several fatigue simulations at various stress amplitudes are conducted using a sub-modeling technique for the attribution of boundary conditions on the polycrystalline aggregate models including an elliptic defect. The influence of the microstructure attributes and stress level on the location and amplitude of the FIP are then quantified and discussed.

  7. Incident AIDS or Death After Initiation of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Treatment Regimens Including Raltegravir or Efavirenz Among Adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stephen R; Edwards, Jessie K; Hall, H Irene; Brookhart, M Alan; Mathews, W Christopher; Moore, Richard D; Crane, Heidi M; Kitahata, Mari M; Mugavero, Michael J; Saag, Michael S; Eron, Joseph J

    2017-06-01

    The long-term effectiveness of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatments containing integrase inhibitors is unknown. We use observational data from the Centers for AIDS Research Network of Integrated Clinical Systems and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to estimate 4-year risk of AIDS and all-cause mortality among 415 patients starting a raltegravir regimen compared to 2646 starting an efavirenz regimen (both regimens include emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate). We account for confounding and selection bias as well as generalizability by standardization for measured variables, and present both observational intent-to-treat and per-protocol estimates. At treatment initiation, 12% of patients were female, 36% black, 13% Hispanic; median age was 37 years, CD4 count 321 cells/µL, and viral load 4.5 log10 copies/mL. Two hundred thirty-five patients incurred an AIDS-defining illness or died, and 741 patients left follow-up. After accounting for measured differences, the 4-year risk was similar among those starting both regimens (ie, intent-to treat hazard ratio [HR], 0.96 [95% confidence interval {CI}, .63-1.45]; risk difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -4.5 to 2.7]), as well as among those remaining on regimens (ie, per-protocol HR, 0.95 [95% CI, .59-1.54]; risk difference, -0.5 [95% CI, -3.8 to 2.9]). Raltegravir and efavirenz-based initial antiretroviral therapy have similar 4-year clinical effects. Vigilance regarding longer-term comparative effectiveness of HIV regimens using observational data is needed because large-scale experimental data are not forthcoming. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. RESPONSE OF NIGERIAN CASSAVA EXPANSION INITIATIVES TO CLIMATE CHANGES, ECONOMIC GROWTH AND SOME POLICY INSTRUMENT (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwumere Joseph

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study considered the limiting response of Nigeria cassava expansion initiative to climate changes, economic growth and some policy instruments. The presidential initiative to make cassava a foreign exchange earner as well as ensuring that national demand are satisfied has made cassava a significant economic crop and resource input of industrial and international status. Currently, its derivatives such as animal feed, starch, ethanol, cassava chip, cassava flour, cassava liquor etc are in high demand. Having gained international recognition some factors need be examined to ascertain the limiting response of this economic crop some exogenous factors. The specific objectives of interest were to ascertain the response of cassava output expansion to rainfall, temperature, imports, exports, credit allocation to agribusiness, exchange rate, nominal interest rate, inflation and GDP from 1970 – 2012. Also, it examined the short and long run effects of these variables to cassava output so as to know how much adjustment it makes to reach the equilibrium. Secondary data were used for this research work. The technique of data analysis was auto- regressive modeling regression. To capture the long run and short run dynamics of cassava output behavior, the error correction model (ECM using the Engle-Granger methodology was adopted. The result revealed a very high rate of adjustment to long run equilibrium and the variables are correlated which means that impact of each variable on cassava output behavior in the economy is inseparable. The Error correction coefficient of -0.975 measures the speed of adjustment towards long run equilibrium earned the expected negative sign and is statistically significant at 1% risk level. Thus, this study recommends that the emerging cassava economy of Nigeria would be adequately empowered for efficient productivity if the Government stipulate policies that will encourage domestic output expansion to meet the national and

  9. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  10. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C [Franciscan St Margaret Health, Hammond, IN (United States); Tien, C [Community Hospital, Munster, IN (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive.

  11. SU-E-T-138: Automated Chart Review Module Including Cross-Vendor Data Transfer Verification Developed for IHE-RO Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, M; Gordon, C; Tien, C

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To follow the Integrating Healthcare Enterprise - Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO) initiative of proper cross-vendor technology integration, an automated chart checker (ACC) was developed. ACC compares extracted data from an approved patient plan in the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) against data existing in the Mosaiq treatment management system (TMS). ACC automatically analyzes these parameters using built-in quality checklists to provide further aid in chart review. Methods: Eclipse TPS data are obtained using Eclipse scripting API (ESAPI) while Mosaiq TMS data are obtained from a radiotherapy-treatment-planning (RTP) file. Using this information, ACC identifies TPS-TMS discrepancies in 18 primary beam parameters including MU, energy, jaw positions, gantry angle, table angle, accessories, and bolus for up to 31 beams. Next, approximately 40 items from traditional quality checklists are evaluated such as prescription consistency, DRR graticule placement, plan approval status, global max dose, and dose tracking coefficients. Parameters were artificially modified to determine if ACC would detect an error in data transfer and to test each component of quality checklists. Results: Using ESAPI scripting and RTP file-processing, ACC was able to properly aggregate data from TPS and TMS for up to 31 beams. Errors were artificially introduced into each plan parameter, and ACC was able to successfully detect all of them within seconds. Next, ACC was able to successfully detect mistakes in the chart by identifying deviations with its quality checklists, within seconds. Conclusion: ACC effectively addresses the potential issue of faulty cross-vendor data transfer, as described by IHE-RO. In addition, ACC was also able to detect deviations from its built-in quality checklists. ACC is already an invaluable tool for efficient and standardized chart review and will continue to improve as its incorporated checklists become more comprehensive

  12. Point Climat no. 22 'Reform of the Common Agricultural Policy is laying the initial foundations for a European agricultural climate policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucherot, Claudine; Bellassen, Valentin

    2012-01-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Climate Briefs' presents, in a few pages, hot topics in climate change policy. This issue addresses the following points: The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has had a very small climate component since 1992. The recent inclusion of green payments and the climate risk management tools proposed for the CAP for the period beyond 2013 illustrate the European Commission's willingness to expand this climate component. Furthermore, there is little mention of the agricultural sector in the tools rolled out by the European climate policy, particularly those derived from the 2009 'Climate and Energy' Package. Therefore, even if this autumn's parliamentary debate results in the reform proposals being diluted, the post-2013 CAP could nevertheless become a principal tool for a common EU climate policy in the agricultural sector

  13. The Regular Education Initiative as Reagan-Bush Education Policy: A Trickle-Down Theory of Education of the Hard-To-Teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, James M.

    Proposals for restructuring and integration of special and general education, known as the regular education initiative (REI), represent a revolution in the basic concepts related to the education of handicapped students that have provided the foundation of special education for over a century. Education policy, as presented by Presidents Reagan…

  14. Whose Knowledge, Whose Values? The Contribution of Local Knowledge to Education Policy Processes: A Case Study of Research Development Initiatives in the Small State of Saint Lucia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Keith; Crossley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper draws upon a case study of education in the small Caribbean state of Saint Lucia (population 154,000) to examine how local knowledge and values can influence the education policy process. It is argued that recent research development initiatives have strengthened the ability of Saint Lucia to mediate international education agendas to…

  15. COPE-SMARTER - A decision support system for analysing the challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives: A case study of electric commercial vehicles market diffusion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Michael Bruhn; Kaplan, Sigal; Frenzel, Ina

    2016-01-01

    Stakeholder's strategies in encouraging wide-scale market penetration depend on their perceptions. This study focuses on perceptions of Danish practitioners in policy-making organizations regarding the perceived challenges, opportunities and policy initiatives for the majority-market adoption...... of electric commercial vehicles (ECVs) in commercial sector in Denmark. We propose a new four-step expert-based technique, named COPE-SMARTER, for evaluating the market diffusion of environmental friendly technologies by combining SWOT analysis and multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) techniques. We focus...... on the perceptions regarding: (i) the potential promotional strength of motivators for ECV market penetration, (ii) the severity of the technological, financial, physical and operational challenges, (iii) the efficiency of policy initiatives in encouraging the market diffusion of ECVs, (iv) the expected market...

  16. Exploration of an Optimal Policy for Water Resources Management Including the Introduction of Advanced Sewage Treatment Technologies in Zaozhuang City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gengyu He

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and water pollution are important factors restricting sustainable social and economic development. As a typical coal resource-exhausted city and a node city of the South-to-North Water Transfer East Route Project in China, Zaozhuang City’s water resources management faces multiple constraints such as transformation of economic development, restriction of groundwater exploitation, and improvement of water environment. In this paper, we develop a linear optimization model by input–output analysis to study water resources management with the introduction of three advanced sewage treatment technologies for pollutant treatment and reclaimed water production. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. The proportion of primary industry, secondary industry, and tertiary industry would be adjusted to 5.6%, 40.8%, and 53.6%, respectively. The amount of reclaimed water supply could be increased by 91% and groundwater supply could be decreased by 6%. Based on the simulation, this model proposes a scientific reference on water resources management policies, including water environment control, water supply plan, and financial subsidy, to realize the sustainable development of economy and water resources usage.

  17. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  18. Emission and costs up to and including 2030 for the current environmental policy. Background information for the National Environmental Outlook 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Wee, G.P.; Kuijpers-Linde, M.A.J.; Van Gerwen, O.J.

    2001-03-01

    Every four years the Dutch National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) publishes an Environmental Outlook in preparation for the National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP). The fifth National Environmental Outlook (NEOS) describes developments in the quality of the environment in the Netherlands for 2000-2030 against a background of developments on the European and global scales. The two macro-economic scenarios of the Netherlands Bureau for Economic and Policy Analysis (CPB) used are the European Coordination (EC) scenario and the Global Competition scenario (GC). Consequences for public health, nature and the human physical environment are also indicated. 'Fixed policy' scenarios are used in the Environmental Outlook for the Netherlands. In 'fixed policy' scenarios it is assumed that all policy measures agreed on by the year 2000 will be implemented, but no new measures taken. In this way the Outlook offers baseline scenarios that can be compared with targets and objectives to facilitate the development of new policy. The Fifth National Environmental Outlook was realised with the assistance of many other Dutch research institutes. This background document to NEOS presents estimated levels of energy use, emissions and costs of environmental measures for the 1995-2020 period. The main conclusions are: The environmental problems most difficult to tackle are climate change and noise nuisance. These problems are highly related to energy use and transportation; The policy as presented in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid', a document describing the Dutch Kyoto-related climate policy, results in a reduction of greenhouse gases of 15 Mton CO2 equivalents (GS scenario) with respect to the pre-Kyoto policy in 2010. To meet the Kyoto agreements a further reduction of approximately 45 Mton CO2 equivalents is needed. If policies in the 'Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatbeleid' are further instrumentalised and made concrete, an extra reduction of 10 Mton is possible

  19. ProVac Global Initiative: a vision shaped by ten years of supporting evidence-based policy decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui, Barbara; Janusz, Cara Bess; Clark, Andrew D; Sinha, Anushua; Garcia, Ana Gabriela Felix; Resch, Stephen; Toscano, Cristiana M; Sanderson, Colin; Andrus, Jon Kim

    2015-05-07

    The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) created the ProVac Initiative in 2004 with the goal of strengthening national technical capacity to make evidence-based decisions on new vaccine introduction, focusing on economic evaluations. In view of the 10th anniversary of the ProVac Initiative, this article describes its progress and reflects on lessons learned to guide the next phase. We quantified the output of the Initiative's capacity-building efforts and critically assess its progress toward achieving the milestones originally proposed in 2004. Additionally, we reviewed how country studies supported by ProVac have directly informed and strengthened the deliberations around new vaccine introduction. Since 2004, ProVac has conducted four regional workshops and supported 24 health economic analyses in 15 Latin American and Caribbean countries. Five Regional Centers of Excellence were funded, resulting in six operational research projects and nine publications. Twenty four decisions on new vaccine introductions were supported with ProVac studies. Enduring products include the TRIVAC and CERVIVAC cost-effectiveness models, the COSTVAC program costing model, methodological guides, workshop training materials and the OLIVES on-line data repository. Ten NITAGs were strengthened through ProVac activities. The evidence accumulated suggests that initiatives with emphasis on sustainable training and direct support for countries to generate evidence themselves, can help accelerate the introduction of the most valuable new vaccines. International and Regional Networks of Collaborators are necessary to provide technical support and tools to national teams conducting analyses. Timeliness, integration, quality and country ownership of the process are four necessary guiding principles for national economic evaluations to have an impact on policymaking. It would be an asset to have a model that offers different levels of complexity to choose from depending on the vaccine being

  20. Policy learning through strategic intelligence: the American small business innovation research program (SBIR) and British small business research initiative (SBRI)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Padilla, P.C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation policy involves using policy instruments to achieve societal goals. In order to learn from both past and foreign experiences, scholars and practitioners very often value sources of knowledge about these instruments. This dissertation deals with the role of Strategic Intelligence in both

  1. Family Planning Practices, Programmes and Policies in India Including Implants and Injectables with a Special Focus on Jharkhand, India: A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samal, Janmejaya; Dehury, Ranjit Kumar

    2015-11-01

    The National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-3 clearly delineates that the usage of contraceptive practices has increased considerably but is more inclined toward terminal methods of contraception especially the female sterilization. The fact is also evident from various studies carried out from time to time in different Indian states. Given the context we carried out a short review to understand the family planning practices, programs and policies in India including implants and injectable contraceptives with a special focus on the state of Jharkhand. We found that among the reversible methods IUCD (intra uterine contraceptive devices), OC (oral contraceptive) pills and condoms are the most commonly used methods. In this review, in addition to national picture, we specially focused on the state of Jharkhand owing to its very gloomy picture of family planning practices as per NFHS -3 reports. The current usage of any methods of contraception in Jharkhand is only 35.7% out of which terminal methods especially female sterilization accounts to 23.4% and male sterilization being only 0.4%. Similar picture is also reflected in the conventional methods such as; IUCD-0.6%, oral pill -3.8% and condom-2.7%. Compared to the national figure the unmet need for family planning in Jharkhand is also relatively high for the conventional reversible methods than that of terminal methods which is 11.9 and 11.3 respectively. Injectable contraceptives are available only through private or social marketing channels, because of which their use is limited. The studies carried out in different Indian states show improvement in contraceptive prevalence but the same needs further improvement.

  2. Environmental determinants of smoking behaviors: The role of policy and environmental interventions in preventing smoking initiation and supporting cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, William A; Krasny, Sarah E

    2013-12-01

    Tobacco control strategies have contributed to substantial declines in smoking in the United States. However, smoking still remains the single largest preventable cause of disease and premature deaths in the country. Despite the continuing challenges of implementing tobacco control strategies and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry to undermine such strategies, there are now unprecedented opportunities to prevent smoking initiation, facilitate cessation, and protect nonsmokers from secondhand smoke. In this paper, we briefly review the most recent literature discussing key strategies that have proven effective in tobacco control including regulations on sales and marketing of tobacco products, taxation, and smoke-free legislation. We focused on these three tobacco control strategies because of their potential to positively influence the environment of both minors and adults regardless of their smoking status. Although research has identified significant individual and social predictors of tobacco use, environmental influences are also important risk factors for tobacco use.

  3. An Analysis of Current Energy Policy Initiatives in New Mexico. What are the Potential Impacts to the State's Water Resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klise, G. T.; Hart, W. E.; Kobos, P. H.; Malczynski, L. A.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    Population in New Mexico is increasing rapidly with recent projections showing that the state will add more than 1 million people by 2035. This growth will create a demand for additional energy and water supplies that have yet to be developed. New Mexico currently exports about 50% of the energy generated within the state to neighboring states, and existing power plants predominately utilize traditional fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Because traditional electric generation technologies utilize large quantities of water, New Mexico can also be seen as exporting water for the benefit of electricity consumed in neighboring states. As it is, both surface water and groundwater supplies are stretched thin and these internal and external stresses stemming from population growth will have a substantial impact on the state's water resources. In 2004, the Governor laid out a plan to make New Mexico a "Clean Energy State" by implementing renewable portfolio standards, developing renewable energy transmission infrastructure, creating an alternative energy innovation fund and creating state specific tax credits for renewable energy production and manufacturing. Recent work in the National Energy-Water Roadmap has pointed out that certain renewable sources of energy utilize less water than traditional power plants, and technological fixes to existing power plants will result in less water consumption. If New Mexico carries out its energy initiative, what will be the impacts to the state's water resources? Will it be possible to meet competing demands for this water? These questions and others will be analyzed in a decision-support tool that can look at the connection between both the physical and economic systems to see what the tradeoffs might be as a result of specific policy decisions. The ability to plan for future energy needs and understanding potential impacts to the state's limited water resources will be an invaluable tool for decision-makers in New

  4. Progress and challenges in implementing HIV care and treatment policies in Latin America following the treatment 2.0 initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Freddy; Gomez, Bertha; Ravasi, Giovanni; Ghidinelli, Massimo

    2015-12-19

    The Pan American Health Organization provides technical cooperation to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean for the scale-up of HIV care and treatment based on the Treatment 2.0 initiative. Fourteen Joint Review Missions (JRMs) were conducted between March 2012 and October 2014. Evaluating the degree of implementation of the recommendations of the JRMs and their impact on health policies, would help countries identify their gaps and areas for priority interventions. A descriptive analysis of the JRM recommendations was conducted for eight countries. An in-depth cross-sectional retrospective analysis of the degree of implementation of these recommendations in Ecuador, Venezuela, Bolivia, and El Salvador was performed through a standardized self-administered questionnaire applied to key informants. A comparative quantitative analysis on the optimization of antiretroviral regimens 'before/after' JRMs was conducted in three of the latter four countries, using data reported in 2013 and 2014. The priority areas with most recommendations were the optimization of antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (n = 57), the rational and efficient use of resources (n = 27) and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools (n = 26), followed by community mobilization (n = 23), strategic information (n = 17) and the adaptation of delivery services (n = 15). The in-depth analysis in four countries showed that the two priority areas where most progress was observed were the rational and efficient use of resources (62%) and the optimization of ART regimens (60%). Adaptation of delivery services, community mobilization and strategic information were rated at 52% and the provision of point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring tools 38%. The quantitative analysis on optimization evidenced a 36% reduction in the number of first-line and second-line ART regimens, a 5.4% increase in the proportion of patients on WHO-recommended first-line regimens, a 19.4% increase in

  5. What impact do Global Health Initiatives have on human resources for antiretroviral treatment roll-out? A qualitative policy analysis of implementation processes in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanefeld Johanna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the beginning of the 21st century, development assistance for HIV/AIDS has increasingly been provided through Global Health Initiatives, specifically the United States Presidential Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the Global Fund to Fight HIV, TB and Malaria and the World Bank Multi-country AIDS Programme. Zambia, like many of the countries heavily affected by HIV/AIDS in southern Africa, also faces a shortage of human resources for health. The country receives significant amounts of funding from GHIs for the large-scale provision of antiretroviral treatment through the public and private sector. This paper examines the impact of GHIs on human resources for ART roll-out in Zambia, at national level, in one province and two districts. Methods It is a qualitative policy analysis relying on in-depth interviews with more than 90 policy-makers and implementers at all levels. Results Findings show that while GHIs do not provide significant funding for additional human resources, their interventions have significant impact on human resources for health at all levels. While GHIs successfully retrain a large number of health workers, evidence suggests that GHIs actively deplete the pool of skilled human resources for health by recruiting public sector staff to work for GHI-funded nongovernmental implementing agencies. The secondment of GHI staff into public sector facilities may help alleviate immediate staff shortages, but this practice risks undermining sustainability of programmes. GHI-supported programmes and initiatives add significantly to the workload of existing public sector staff at all levels, while incentives including salary top-ups and overtime payments mean that ART programmes are more popular among staff than services for non-focal diseases. Conclusion Research findings suggest that GHIs need to actively mediate against the potentially negative consequences of their funding on human resources for health. Evidence

  6. The Potential of Transnational Language Policy to Promote Social Inclusion of Immigrants: An Analysis and Evaluation of the European Union's INCLUDE Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Cui

    2017-01-01

    Language issues and social inclusion consistently remain two major concerns for member countries of the European Union (EU). Despite an increasing awareness of the importance of language learning in migrants' social inclusion, and the promotion of language policies at European and national levels, there is still a lack of common actions at the…

  7. Different types of stainless steel used in equipment in meat plants do not affect the initial microbial transfer, including pathogens, from pork skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larivière-Gauthier, Guillaume; Quessy, Sylvain; Fournaise, Sylvain; Letellier, Ann; Fravalo, Philippe

    2015-07-01

    This study describes and measures the impact of different compositions and finishes of stainless steel used in equipment in the meat industry on the transfer of natural flora and selected pathogens from artificially contaminated pork skin. It is known that the adhesion to surfaces of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella, 2 pathogens frequently found in contaminated pork meat, depends on the nature and roughness of the surface. Our results show no statistically significant differences in microbial transfer regardless of the types of stainless steel considered, with the highest measured transfer difference being 0.18 log colony-forming units (CFUs)/800 cm(2). Moreover, no differences in total microbial community were observed after transfer on the 5 types of stainless steel using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). It was concluded that the different characteristics of the stainless steel tested did not affect the initial bacterial transfer in this study.

  8. ASSOCIATION OF KNEE PAIN WITH A REDUCTION IN THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH – A CROSS-SECTIONAL ANALYSIS INCLUDING 4553 OSTEOARTHRITIS INITIATIVE PARTICIPANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    Objective To cross-sectionally determine the quantitative relationship of age-adjusted, sex-specific isometric knee extensor and flexor strength to patient-reported knee pain. Methods Difference of thigh muscle strength by age, and that of age-adjusted strength per unit increase on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) knee pain scale, was estimated from linear regression analysis of 4553 Osteoarthritis Initiative participants (58% women). Strata encompassing the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in knee pain were compared to evaluate a potentially non-linear relationship between WOMAC pain levels and muscle strength. Results In Osteoarthritis Initiative participants without pain, the age-related difference in isometric knee extensor strength was −9.0%/−8.2% (women/men) per decade, and that of flexor strength was −11%/−6.9%. Differences in age-adjusted strength values for each unit of WOMAC pain (1/20) amounted to −1.9%/−1.6% for extensor and −2.5%/−1.7% for flexor strength. Differences in torque/weight for each unit of WOMAC pain ranged from −3.3 to − 2.1%. There was no indication of a non-linear relationship between pain and strength across the range of observed WOMAC values, and similar results were observed in women and men. Conclusion Each increase by 1/20 units in WOMAC pain was associated with a ~2% lower age-adjusted isometric extensor and flexor strength in either sex. As a reduction in muscle strength is known to prospectively increase symptoms in knee osteoarthritis and as pain appears to reduce thigh muscle strength, adequate therapy of pain and muscle strength is required in knee osteoarthritis patients to avoid a vicious circle of self-sustaining clinical deterioration. PMID:27836675

  9. Initial colonization of Long Island, New York by the eastern coyote, Canis latrans (Carnivora, Canidae), including first record of breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy,Christopher; Weckel,Mark; Monzón,Javier; Duncan,Neil; Rosenthal,Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Coyotes (Canis latrans Say, 1823) have increased their range dramatically over the past century. Formerly restricted to western North America, they now roam across the continent, in many habitats including large cities. One of the last areas in North America without coyotes has been Long Island, NY, a 3629 km2 island in the New York metropolitan area. Here we summarize all verified accounts of coyotes on Long Island, including the first record of breeding. There are few coyotes on Long Islan...

  10. Policy initiatives, culture and the prevention and control of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, T Alafia; Guell, Cornelia; Legetic, Branka; Unwin, Nigel

    2012-01-01

    To explore interactions between disease burden, culture and the policy response to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) within the Caribbean, a region with some of the highest prevalence rates, morbidity and mortality from NCDs in the Americas. We undertook a wide ranging narrative review, drawing on a variety of peer reviewed, government and intergovernmental literature. Although the Caribbean is highly diverse, linguistically and ethnically, it is possible to show how 'culture' at the macro-level has been shaped by shared historic, economic and political experiences and ties. We suggest four broad groupings of countries: the English-speaking Caribbean Community (CARICOM); the small island states that are still colonies or departments of colonial powers; three large-Spanish speaking countries; and Haiti, which although part of CARICOM is culturally distinct. We explore how NCD health policies in the region stem from and are influenced by the broad characteristics of these groupings, albeit played out in varied ways in individual countries. For example, the Port of Spain declaration (2007) on NCDs can be understood as the product of the co-operative and collaborative relationships with CARICOM, which are based on a shared broad culture. We note, however, that studies investigating the relationships between the formation of NCD policy and culture (at any level) are scarce. Within the Caribbean region it is possible to discern relationships between culture at the macro-level and the formation of NCD policy. However, there is little work that directly assesses the interactions between culture and NCD policy formation. The Caribbean with its cultural diversity and high burden of NCDs provides an ideal environment within which to undertake further studies to better understand the interactions between culture and health policy formation.

  11. The pit and the pendulum: the impact on teen smokers of including a designated smoking area in school tobacco control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, L E; Lovato, C Y; Taylor, E; Rutherford, M B; Smith, M

    2008-12-01

    Thirty per cent of school districts in British Columbia do not ban smoking outright on school grounds, and in several instances, smoking is permitted in smoking pits, regardless of school district policy. While there is evidence to suggest that enforcing a tobacco-free environment for students does reduce adolescent smoking rates, the concomitant safety and discipline problems it creates for school staff and administration are demanding and complex, and may override concerns regarding student smoking. This study uses a qualitative approach to explore the meanings that students place on tobacco control policy and the impact that these meanings have on their own smoking behaviours. We found that students were surprised and concerned that smoking was permitted on school property and that it negatively impacted their own tobacco prevention/control/cessation attempts.

  12. Metrics, Dollars, and Systems Change: Learning from Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative to Design Effective Postsecondary Performance Funding Policies. A State Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Davis; Shulock, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The Student Achievement Initiative (SAI), adopted by the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges in 2007, is one of a growing number of performance funding programs that have been dubbed "performance funding 2.0." Unlike previous performance funding models, the SAI rewards colleges for students' intermediate…

  13. IT Policies for Development: Analysis and Recommendations of Free Libre Open Source Software Initiatives of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado Rangel, Edgar A.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the two concepts of economic development and technological advancement have become entwined so that they have, in many cases, come to mean the same thing. For countries seeking economic development through engagement with the Information Economy, policies supporting technological development claim privileged positions in national…

  14. Loss of Drosophila A-type lamin C initially causes tendon abnormality including disintegration of cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina in muscular defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Ryo; Nonaka, Yu-Ki; Horigome, Tuneyoshi; Sugiyama, Shin; Furukawa, Kazuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Lamins are the major components of nuclear envelope architecture, being required for both the structural and informational roles of the nuclei. Mutations of lamins cause a spectrum of diseases in humans, including muscular dystrophy. We report here that the loss of the A-type lamin gene, lamin C in Drosophila resulted in pupal metamorphic lethality caused by tendon defects, matching the characteristics of human A-type lamin revealed by Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD). In tendon cells lacking lamin C activity, overall cell morphology was affected and organization of the spectraplakin family cytoskeletal protein Shortstop which is prominently expressed in tendon cells gradually disintegrated, notably around the nucleus and in a manner correlating well with the degradation of musculature. Furthermore, lamin C null mutants were efficiently rescued by restoring lamin C expression to shortstop-expressing cells, which include tendon cells but exclude skeletal muscle cells. Thus the critical function of A-type lamin C proteins in Drosophila musculature is to maintain proper function and morphology of tendon cells. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Yu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available After proposing the “Deeming Rule” in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles–area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA’s soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014 and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015–2016. Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2 were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule. Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc. over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  16. A Descriptive Longitudinal Study of Changes in Vape Shop Characteristics and Store Policies in Anticipation of the 2016 FDA Regulations of Tobacco Products, Including E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sheila; Escobedo, Patricia; Garcia, Robert; Cruz, Tess Boley; Unger, Jennifer B; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Meza, Leah; Sussman, Steve

    2018-02-11

    After proposing the "Deeming Rule" in 2014, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began regulating the manufacturing, marketing, and sales of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) products as tobacco products in 2016. The current study conducted vape shop store observations and surveyed Los Angeles-area shop employees (assessing their beliefs, awareness, and perceptions of e-cigarettes and related FDA regulations) at two time points one year apart to better understand what vape shop retailers would do given FDA's soon-to-be-enacted Deeming Rule. The study also compared retailer beliefs/awareness/actions and store characteristics immediately after the Deeming Rule proposal versus a year after the Rule had been proposed, right before its enactment. Two data collection waves occurred before the Deeming Rule enactment, with Year 1 surveying 77 shops (2014) and Year 2 surveying 61 shops (2015-2016). Between the data collection points, 16 shops had closed. Among the shops that were open at both time points, the majority (95% in Year 1; 74% in Year 2) were aware of some FDA regulations or other policies applying to vape shops. However, overall awareness of FDA regulations and state/local policies governing e-cigarettes significantly decreased from Year 1 to Year 2. At both time points, all shops offered customers free puffs of nicotine-containing e-liquids (prohibited by the then upcoming Deeming Rule). Perceptions of e-cigarette safety also significantly decreased between the years. Exploring vape shop retailer perceptions and store policies (i.e., free puffs/samples displays, perceptions of e-cigarette safety, etc.) over time will help the FDA assess the needs of the vape shop community and develop more effective retailer education campaigns and materials targeted to increase compliance with the newly enacted regulations.

  17. Policy and system strategies in promoting child health information systems, including the role of Medicaid, the state children's health insurance program, and public financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacTaggart, Patricia; Bagley, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Government, through its unique roles as regulator, purchaser, provider, and facilitator, has an opportunity and an obligation to play a major role in accelerating the implementation of electronic health record systems and electronic health information exchange. Providers, who are expected to deliver appropriate care at designated locations at an appropriate cost, are dependent on health information technology for efficient effective health care. As state and federal governments move forward with health care purchasing reforms, they must take the opportunity to leverage policy and structure and to align incentives that enhance the potential for provider engagement in electronic health record adoption.

  18. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-01-01

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included

  19. Making Whole-Child Education the Norm: How Research and Policy Initiatives Can Make Social and Emotional Skills a Focal Point of Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emma; Weiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The importance of so-called noncognitive skills--which include abilities and traits such as critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social skills, persistence, creativity, and self-control--manifests itself in multiple ways throughout life. This policy brief, which focuses on a set of skills that can and should be taught in schools, is…

  20. Cotton in Zambia: An Assessment of its Organization, Performance, Current Policy Initiatives, and Challenges for the Future

    OpenAIRE

    Tschirley, David L.; Zulu, Ballard; Shaffer, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper grows out of earlier work on cotton by the Food Security Research Project. It is directed towards policy makers and private stakeholders in Zambia’s cotton sector, and has four main purposes: (a) To provide a detailed descriptive overview of the organization of the sector and of the behavior of key public and private participants in the sector; (b) To assess cotton’s role in smallholder livelihood strategies, and its competitiveness at the farm level with a key alternative crop–mai...

  1. An assessment of electric vehicles: technology, infrastructure requirements, greenhouse-gas emissions, petroleum use, material use, lifetime cost, consumer acceptance and policy initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delucchi, M A; Yang, C; Burke, A F; Ogden, J M; Kurani, K; Kessler, J; Sperling, D

    2014-01-13

    Concerns about climate change, urban air pollution and dependence on unstable and expensive supplies of foreign oil have led policy-makers and researchers to investigate alternatives to conventional petroleum-fuelled internal-combustion-engine vehicles in transportation. Because vehicles that get some or all of their power from an electric drivetrain can have low or even zero emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air pollutants, and can consume little or no petroleum, there is considerable interest in developing and evaluating advanced electric vehicles (EVs), including pure battery-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hydrogen fuel-cell electric vehicles. To help researchers and policy-makers assess the potential of EVs to mitigate climate change and reduce petroleum use, this paper discusses the technology of EVs, the infrastructure needed for their development, impacts on emissions of GHGs, petroleum use, materials use, lifetime costs, consumer acceptance and policy considerations.

  2. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald [eds.; Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the Japanese

  3. The British research evidence for recovery, papers published between 2006 and 2009 (inclusive). Part two: a review of the grey literature including book chapters and policy documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, T; Wright, N

    2011-05-01

    This paper is the second in a series of two which reviews the current UK evidence base for recovery in mental health. As outlined in the previous paper, over the last 4 years a vast amount has written about recovery in mental health (approximately 60% of all articles). Whereas the first review focused on the peer-reviewed evidence; this paper specifically focuses on the grey/non-peer-reviewed literature. In total, our search strategy yielded the following: 3 books, a further 11 book chapters, 12 papers, 6 policy documents and 3 publications from voluntary sector organizations. Each group of publications was analysed for content, and they are discursively presented by publication group. The findings are then presented as themes in the discussion section. The themes are: social, historical and political critique; philosophy of hope for the individual; individual identity and narrative; models and guidance for mental health practice. We conclude that there is a need for both empirical research into recovery and a clearer theoretical exposition of the concept. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Environmental and sustainability education policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The volume draws on a wide range of policy studies and syntheses to provide readers with insights into the international genealogy and priorities of ESE policy. Editors and contributors call for renewed attention to the possibilities for future directions in light of previously published work and......, ideological orthodoxy and critique, curriculum making and educational theory, globalisation and neoliberalism, climate change and environmental worldviews, and much more....... and innovations in scholarship. They also offer critical commentary on the evolution of research trends, approaches and findings. Including a wide range of examples of ESE policy and policy research, the book draws on studies of educational initiatives and legislation, policy making processes and rhetoric...

  5. Making sense of "consumer engagement" initiatives to improve health and health care: a conceptual framework to guide policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Martsolf, Grant R; Telenko, Shannon J; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2013-03-01

    Policymakers and practitioners continue to pursue initiatives designed to engage individuals in their health and health care despite discordant views and mixed evidence regarding the ability to cultivate greater individual engagement that improves Americans' health and well-being and helps manage health care costs. There is limited and mixed evidence regarding the value of different interventions. Based on our involvement in evaluating various community-based consumer engagement initiatives and a targeted literature review of models of behavior change, we identified the need for a framework to classify the universe of consumer engagement initiatives toward advancing policymakers' and practitioners' knowledge of their value and fit in various contexts. We developed a framework that expanded our conceptualization of consumer engagement, building on elements of two common models, the individually focused transtheoretical model of behavior and the broader, multilevel social ecological model. Finally, we applied this framework to one community's existing consumer engagement program. Consumer engagement in health and health care refers to the performance of specific behaviors ("engaged behaviors") and/or an individual's capacity and motivation to perform these behaviors ("activation"). These two dimensions are related but distinct and thus should be differentiated. The framework creates four classification schemas, by (1) targeted behavior types (self-management, health care encounter, shopping, and health behaviors) and by (2) individual, (3) group, and (4) community dimensions. Our example illustrates that the framework can systematically classify a variety of consumer engagement programs, and that this exercise and resulting characterization can provide a structured way to consider the program and how its components fit program goals both individually and collectively. Applying the framework could help advance the field by making policymakers and practitioners aware

  6. Doing the Right Thing for Women and Babies: Policy Initiatives to Improve Maternity Care Quality and Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corry, Maureen P; Jolivet, Rima

    2009-01-01

    When defined within the context of maternity care, the Institute of Medicine's six aims for health-care quality improvement provide a framework for Childbirth Connection's Maternity Quality Matters Initiative, a multipronged program agenda intended to foster a maternity care system that delivers care of the highest quality and value in order to achieve optimal health outcomes and experiences for mothers and babies. These aims also provide childbirth educators and others in the maternity care community with an ethical framework for efforts to serve childbearing women and families and ensure the best outcomes for women, babies, and families. PMID:19436596

  7. Increased Utilization of Primary Health Care Centers for Birthing Care in Tamil Nadu, India: A Visible Impact of Policies, Initiatives, and Innovations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, Jayanthi; Suresh, Saradha; Desikachari, B. R.; Padmanaban, P.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tamil Nadu has been showing an increasing trend in institutional deliveries since early 1990's and has now achieved near 100%. Among the institutional deliveries, a change was observed since 2006, wherein primary health centers (PHCs) showed a four-fold increase in deliveries, while other public and private health facilities showed a decline, despite equal access to all categories of health facilities. What led to this increased utilization of PHCs for birthing care? Material and Methods: Policies, documents, and published reports of the Government of Tamil Nadu (GoTN) were reviewed and interviews were conducted with the various stakeholders involved in providing birthing care in the PHCs. This study analyzes the impact of the policies and supply side initiatives and innovations which led to increase utilization of the PHCs for birthing care. Results: Scaling up of 24 × 7 services in all PHCs, upgrading PHCs with good infrastructure, human resources, and women friendly services have helped to boost the image of the PHCs. Pro-women policies like maternity benefit schemes, birth companionship, providing food, and compulsory stay for 48 h following delivery have attracted women towards PHC. Innovative strategies like maternity picnics and use of expected date of delivery (EDD) chart for follow-up have made women choose PHCs, while periodic reviews and support to staff has improved service delivery. Conclusion: Women centered policies, efficient managerial systems, quality care, and innovative marketing of services have together contributed to increased utilization of PHCs for birthing. Other states could explore the possibility of replicating this model to make optimal use the PHC facilities. PMID:26664836

  8. Public policy and risk financing strategies for global catastrophe risk management - the role of global risk initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSharry, Patrick; Mitchell, Andrew; Anderson, Rebecca

    2010-05-01

    Decision-makers in both public and private organisations depend on accurate data and scientific understanding to adequately address climate change and the impact of extreme events. The financial impacts of catastrophes on populations and infrastructure can be offset through effective risk transfer mechanisms, structured to reflect the specific perils and levels of exposure to be covered. Optimal strategies depend on the likely socio-econonomic impact, the institutional framework, the overall objectives of the covers placed and the level of both the frequency and severity of loss potential expected. The diversity of approaches across different countries has been documented by the Spanish "Consorcio de Compensación de Seguros". We discuss why international public/private partnerships are necessary for addressing the risk of natural catastrophes. International initiatives such as the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) and the World Forum of Catastrophe Programmes (WFCP) can provide effective guidelines for constructing natural catastrophe schemes. The World Bank has been instrumental in the creation of many of the existing schemes such as the Turkish Catastrophe Insurance Pool, the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility and the Mongolian Index-Based Livestock Insurance Program. We review existing schemes and report on best practice in relation to providing protection against natural catastrophe perils. The suitability of catastrophe modelling approaches to support schemes across the world are discussed and we identify opportunities to improve risk assessment for such schemes through transparent frameworks for quantifying, pricing, sharing and financing catastrophe risk on a local and global basis.

  9. Uganda; Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Payment Systems

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents findings of Uganda’s Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on Monetary and Financial Policy Transparency, Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, Insurance Regulation, Corporate Governance, and Payment Systems. The banking system in Uganda, which dominates the financial system, is fundamentally sound, more resilient than in the past, and currently poses no threat to macroeconomic stability. A major disruption ...

  10. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC`s or Commission`s) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC`s policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees` health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment.

  11. General statement of policy and procedures for NRC enforcement actions: Enforcement policy. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This document includes the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's or Commission's) revised General Statement of Policy and Procedure for Enforcement Actions (Enforcement Policy) as it was published in the Federal Register on May 13, 1998 (63 ER 26630). The Enforcement Policy is a general statement of policy explaining the NRC's policies and procedures in initiating enforcement actions, and of the presiding officers and the Commission in reviewing these actions. This policy statement is applicable to enforcement matters involving the radiological health and safety of the public, including employees' health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment

  12. Drop-In Alternative Jet Fuels: Status of DoDs RDT and E, Interagency Initiatives, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-25

    biodiesel , EVs, natural gas Drivers: Compliance and cost Market penetration: ᝺% of fuel use 3 INSTALLATIONS (COMPLIANCE) Military...including pure  biodiesel  (B100))1 – P‐Series.2 4 Why does DoD Care about “Drop‐in” Alternative Fuels for Operational Platforms? • Fuels for operations make...decades – Petroleum fuel‐technology systems dominate military and  transportation  sectors • Flexibility to procure any commercial type fuels  – Services

  13. A Policy Analysis on the Proactive Prevention of Chronic Disease: Learnings from the Initial Implementation of Integrated Measurement for Early Detection (MIDO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Tapia-Conyer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, like many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, faces an epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, specifically diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and lipid disorders. Many people with these NCDs may not be aware that they have a disease, pointing to the need for broader screening programs. The traditional prevention policy in Mexico was based on screening with a paper-based risk factor questionnaire. However, this was used to screen patients already seeking healthcare services at facilities, and screening goals were set as a function of the number of questionnaires applied, not number of individuals screened. Due to this, Fundación Carlos Slim developed Medición Integrada para la Detección Oportuna (MIDOTM, or Integrated Measurement for Early Detection, an NCD screening and proactive prevention policy. This document is a policy analysis based on early learnings from the initial implementation of MIDO in eight primary healthcare centers in two central Mexican states. MIDO was found to expand screening programs beyond clinic walls, systematize community screening strategies, emphasize the detection of pre-disease phases, incorporate lifestyle counseling, and propose screening goals based on population targets. In collaboration with the Mexican Ministry of Health, MIDO has successfully screened over 500 000 individuals—about 40% of whom would not have been screened under previous policies. Of these more than 500 000 screened individuals, 13.4% had pre-diabetes (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dL, and 5.8% had undiagnosed diabetes (defined as fasting glucose above 126 mg/dL or random glucose above 200 mg/dL. However, there is still room for improvement in linking positive results from screening with disease confirmation and with patient incorporation into disease management. The experience of implementing MIDO in Mexico suggests that primary and secondary prevention programs in other parts of the world should

  14. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  15. The Impact of Quality Assurance Initiatives and Workplace Policies and Procedures on HIV/AIDS-Related Stigma Experienced by Patients and Nurses in Regions with High Prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewko, Sarah J; Cummings, Greta G; Pietrosanu, Matthew; Edwards, Nancy

    2018-02-23

    Stigma is commonly experienced by people living with HIV/AIDS and by those providing care to HIV/AIDS patients. Few intervention studies have explored the impact of workplace policies and/or quality improvement on stigma. We examine the contribution of health care workplace policies, procedures and quality assurance initiatives, and self- and peer-assessed individual nurse practices, to nurse-reported HIV/AIDS-stigma practices toward patients living with HIV/AIDS and nurses in health care settings. Our sample of survey respondents (n = 1157) included managers (n = 392) and registered/enrolled nurses (n = 765) from 29 facilities in 4 countries (South Africa, Uganda, Jamaica, Kenya). This is one of the first studies in LMIC countries to use hierarchical linear modeling to examine the contributions of organizational and individual factors to HIV/AIDS stigma. Based on our results, we argue that organizational interventions explicitly targeting HIV/AIDS stigma are required to reduce the incidence, prevalence and morbidity of HIV/AIDS.

  16. Improving policy making through government-industry policy learning: The case of a novel Swedish policy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigson, Peter; Dotzauer, Erik; Yan Jinyue

    2009-01-01

    Climate change poses an unprecedented challenge for policy makers. This paper analyzes how industry sector policy expertise can contribute to improved policy making processes. Previous research has identified that policy making benefit by including non-governmental policy analysts in learning processes. Recent climate and energy policy developments, including amendments and the introduction of new initiatives, have rendered current policy regimes as novel to both governments and the industry. This increases business investment risk perceptions and may thus reduce the effectiveness and efficiency of the policy framework. In order to explore how government-industry policy learning can improve policy making in this context, this article studied the Swedish case. A literature survey analyzed how policy learning had been previously addressed, identifying that the current situation regarding novel policies had been overlooked. Interviews provided how industrial actors view Swedish policy implementation processes and participatory aspects thereof. The authors conclude that an increased involvement of the industry sector in policy design and management processes can be an important measure to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of climate and energy policies

  17. CMS Nonpayment Policy, Quality Improvement, and Hospital-Acquired Conditions: An Integrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    This integrative review synthesized evidence on the consequences of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) nonpayment policy on quality improvement initiatives and hospital-acquired conditions. Fourteen articles were included. This review presents strong evidence that the CMS policy has spurred quality improvement initiatives; however, the relationships between the CMS policy and hospital-acquired conditions are inconclusive. In future research, a comprehensive model of implementation of the CMS nonpayment policy would help us understand the effectiveness of this policy.

  18. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    This review paper examines the growing implications of China's engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China's significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment in quality care delivery, effective programs coverage and efficiency, preparedness and

  19. STS pricing policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. M.; Stone, B.

    1982-01-01

    In 1977 NASA published Shuttle Reimbursement Policies for Civil U.S. Government, DOD and Commercial and Foreign Users. These policies were based on the principle of total cost recovery over a period of time with a fixed flat price for initial period to time to enhance transition. This fixed period was to be followed with annual adjustments thereafter, NASA is establishing a new price for 1986 and beyond. In order to recover costs, that price must be higher than the initial fixed price through FY 1985. NASA intends to remain competitive. Competitive posture includes not only price, but other factors such as assured launch, reliability, and unique services. NASA's pricing policy considers all these factors.

  20. China-Africa Health Development Initiatives: Benefits and Implications for Shaping Innovative and Evidence-informed National Health Policies and Programs in Sub-saharan African Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Ernest; Ugwu, Chidiebere E.; Guan, Yayi; Wei, Ding; Xiao-Ning; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Background and Introduction: This review paper examines the growing implications of China’s engagement in shaping innovative national initiatives against infectious diseases and poverty control and elimination in African countries. It seeks to understand the factors and enhancers that can promote mutual and innovative health development initiatives, and those that are necessary in generating reliable and quality data for evidence-based contextual policy, priorities and programs. Methods: We examined the China-Africa health cooperation in supporting global health agenda on infectious diseases such as malaria, schistosomiasis, Ebola, TB, HIV/AIDS, neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prevention, control and elimination spanning a period of 10 years. We reviewed referenced publications, global support data, and extensive sources related to and other emerging epidemics and infectious diseases of poverty, programs and interventions, health systems development issues, challenges, opportunities and investments. Published literature in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Books and web-based peer-reviewed journal articles, government annual reports were assessed from the first Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) in November 2006 to December 2015 Third Ministerial conferences. Results: Our findings highlight current shared public health challenges and emphasize the need to nurture, develop and establish effective, functional and sustainable health systems capacity to detect and respond to all public health threats and epidemic burdens, evidence-based programs and quality care outcomes. China’s significant health diplomacy emphasizes the importance of health financing in establishing health development commitment and investment in improving the gains and opportunities, importantly efficiency and value health priorities and planning. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Strengthening China-Africa health development agenda towards collective commitment and investment

  1. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrester, J.W.

    1979-01-01

    The author places the energy problem in the context of world economy. The various obstacles encountered in the United States to spell out a viable national energy policy are cited. A certain number of practical proposals is given to lead to an 'effective policy' which would allow energy economy at the same time as energy development, that is, including nuclear energy [fr

  2. Modes of Governing and Policy of Local and Regional Governments Supporting Local Low-Carbon Energy Initiatives; Exploring the Cases of the Dutch Regions of Overijssel and Fryslân

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beau Warbroek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent scholarly attention shows increasing involvement of local low-carbon energy initiatives (LLCEIs in governance and policy, in particular in relation to innovations regarding low-carbon energy and energy efficiency. The future perspective of active citizenship in the production of locally generated low-carbon energy is largely dependent on the existing institutional and policy frameworks and settings. Subnational governments, in particular, can have a prominent role in this process by engaging in institutional adaptation and policy innovation. The central research question of this paper is: In what ways do local and regional governments innovate in governing to respond to the emergence of LLCEIs? The research question is answered by comparing two case studies: the Dutch regions of Overijssel and Fryslân. We have conceptualized a meta-governing approach of experimentation, characterizing the innovations in governing that emerge when governments respond to the emergence of LLCEIs. We specifically focus on two capacities that subnational governments can use to enhance their governing capacity vis-à-vis LLCEIs and which substantiate the experimental meta-governance mode: institutional adaptation and policy innovation. We then formulated hypotheses that specify the expected policy innovations and institutional adaptations employed vis-à-vis LLCEIs. Data collection involved in-depth interviews and use of secondary data. The results show that a balancing process of authoritative and enabling modes of governing particularly characterized the type of policy innovations that were developed and the institutional adaptations that took place. Both provinces govern LLCEIs at arm’s length and issue significant capacity-building strategies that vary in terms of their conditions. Municipalities, however, incline towards impromptu and opportunistic responses, some of them having lasting effects by patching up existing institutional settings, others

  3. The RCE Initiative as a Policy Instrument for Sustainable Development: Can It Match the World Heritage List and the Global Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Yoko

    2008-01-01

    Concerns have been expressed about the United Nations University's (UNU) Regional Centres of Expertise on education for sustainable development (RCE) initiative. While many have discussed RCE's contribution to the United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD), there has been no attempt to contextualise the RCE initiative in…

  4. U.S. Racial Ideology and Immigrant/Refugee Policy: Effects on Asian-American Identity, Community Formation and Refugee Education Initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeau, Mary T.

    Two papers explore racial ideology and policy toward immigrants and refugees in the United States. The first paper, "Race Theory Paradigms and Immigrant/Refugee Identity and Incorporation," asserts that the United States is a race-based society in which newcomers to the country have a racial identity imposed upon them. A review of the…

  5. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    During the past two decades Europe has experienced important changes and transformations in the way in which governments approach the issue of science, technology and innovation, and their relation to economic growth and competitiveness. This has to do with the European Union level as well...... as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  6. Intelligent policy making? Key actors' perspectives on the development and implementation of an early years' initiative in Scotland's public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deas, L; Mattu, L; Gnich, W

    2013-11-01

    Increased political enthusiasm for evidence-based policy and action has re-ignited interest in the use of evidence within political and practitioner networks. Theories of evidence-based policy making and practice are being re-considered in an attempt to better understand the processes through which knowledge translation occurs. Understanding how policy develops, and practice results, has the potential to facilitate effective evidence use. Further knowledge of the factors which shape healthcare delivery and their influence in different contexts is needed. This paper explores the processes involved in the development of a complex intervention in Scotland's National Health Service (NHS). It uses a national oral health programme for children (Childsmile) as a case study, drawing upon key actors' perceptions of the influence of different drivers (research evidence, practitioner knowledge and values, policy, and political and local context) to programme development. Framework analysis is used to analyse stakeholder accounts from in-depth interviews. Documentary review is also undertaken. Findings suggest that Childsmile can be described as an 'evidence-informed' intervention, blending available research evidence with knowledge from practitioner experience and continual learning through evaluation, to plan delivery. The importance of context was underscored, in terms of the need to align with prevailing political ideology and in the facilitative strength of networks within the relatively small public health community in Scotland. Respondents' perceptions support several existing theoretical models of translation, however no single theory offered a comprehensive framework covering all aspects of the complex processes reported. Childsmile's use of best available evidence and on-going contribution to knowledge suggest that the programme is an example of intelligent policy making with international relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Transforming Maternity Care Project: Goals, Methods, and Outcomes of a National Maternity Care Policy Initiative, With Construction of a Theoretical Model to Explain the Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    although typically unaccounted for in the calculus of risks of VBAC versus repeat cesarean, the literature documents heightened risk of many short and...cessation and other behav- ioral interventions, aI!d dental care. • Within hospitals and health sys\\ ems, use person- nel policies to remove incentives...Cruel calculus : why saving premature babies is better business than helping them thrive. Health Aff (Millwood), 29(11), 2114-2117. Lawrence, P. R

  8. Climate technology and energy efficiency. From ''best practice'' experiences to policy diffusion. Climate technology initiative capacity building seminar for CEE/FSU countries. Seminar proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tempel, Sybille; Moench, Harald (eds.); Mez, Lutz; Krug, Michael; Grashof, Katharina (comps.) [Free Univ. Berlin (DE). Environmental Policy Research Centre (FFU)

    2005-01-15

    The seminar proceedings cover the following contributions following the opening address: Germany's climate protection program - a step by step approach; the renewable energy act in Germany; CTI's activities for technology transfer on climate change; the climate protection programs of the Federal states: the example of Bavaria; UNECE energy efficiency market formation activities and investment project development to reduce GHG emissions in economies in transition; energy efficiency - policy designs and implementation in PEEREA countries; environmental fiscal reform in Germany; instruments to overcome existing barriers to energy efficiency projects in Bulgaria; proposal to establish a testing ground facility for JI projects in the Baltic sea region testing ground; the Baltic sea region joint implementation testing ground, the Estonian perspective; policy instrumentation; financing international market penetration of renewable energies: a report on the German export initiative; the Dutch ERUPT and CERUPT programs - lessons and outlook; co-operation between Austrian and Central and Eastern Europe in the field of energy efficiency and renewable energy; biomass and pellet market:: implementation strategies in Slovakia; results of monitoring of the German biomass ordinance; developing RES strategy for the Czech republic; building retrofit and renewable energy; energy conversion; between economics and environment - energy saving in German housing sector; implementation and performance contracting in Slovenia; sustainable institutional mechanisms of efficient energy use in Rostov oblast health care and educational facilities; towards sustainable housing management in Lithuania; emissions trading will accelerate the introduction of renewable energies into the markets; Energy efficiency in residential and public buildings; international climate protection policy; long-term perspectives for as sustainable energy future in Germany, the Danish program Energy 21; the

  9. Acquisition Management: Agencies Can Improve Training on New Initiatives. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Technology and Procurement Policy, Committee on Government Reform, House of Representatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    A study assessed strategies agencies use to ensure that their workforces are receiving the training necessary to implement acquisition initiatives. Focus was on the General Services Administration (GSA), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and Department of Defense (DOD). Findings indicated that the critical elements important to…

  10. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Technical Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Appendix discusses how researchers from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) conducted the five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005, and how they defined and…

  11. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  12. European Union dairy policy reform: impact and challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongeneel, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Recent Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reforms have affected dairy policy, including the milk quota system, and increased the market orientation of the sector. A modelling exercise, using the European Dairy Industry Model (EDIM), simulates an initial sharp decline in the EU milk price in response

  13. Improving Youth Employment Policies in Francophone Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Africa's persistent job crisis calls for more effective employment policies, including training programs and support for job searches. This project will address the crisis through recommendations that will improve employment policies in francophone Africa. Youth employment initiatives in Africa Over the last two decades, ...

  14. Childhood Diabesity: International Applications for Health Education and Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon-Perez, Helda; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne; Perez, Miguel A.

    2010-01-01

    Health policy has a direct impact on health education initiatives, health care delivery, resource allocation, and quality of life. Increasing rates in the epidemics of obesity and obesity-dependent diabetes mellitus (aka diabesity) suggest that health policy changes should be included in health education and disease prevention strategies. Health…

  15. Data Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Parsons

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The first purpose of data policy should be to serve the objectives of the organization or project sponsoring the collection of the data. With research data, data policy should also serve the broader goals of advancing scientific and scholarly inquiry and society at large. This is especially true with government-funded data, which likely comprise the vast majority of research data. Data policy should address multiple issues, depending on the nature and objectives of the data. These issues include data access requirements, data preservation and stewardship requirements, standards and compliance mechanisms, data security issues, privacy and ethical concerns, and potentially even specific collection protocols and defined data flows. The specifics of different policies can vary dramatically, but all data policies need to address data access and preservation. Research data gain value with use and must therefore be accessible and preserved for future access. This article focuses on data access. While policy might address multiple issues, at a first level it must address where the data stand on what Lyon (2009 calls the continuum of openness. Making data as openly accessible as possible provides the greatest societal benefit, and a central purpose of data policy is to work toward ethically open data access. An open data regime not only maximizes the benefit of the data, it also simplifies most of the other issues around effective research data stewardship and infrastructure development.

  16. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-06-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a continuum of less-to-more policy integration, going from intersectoral action (IA) to healthy public policy (HPP) to health in all policies (HiAP). Our case study included 34 municipal projects of the Dutch Gezonde Slagkracht Programme (2009-15), which supports the development and implementation of IPHP on overweight, alcohol and drug abuse, and smoking. Our content analysis of project application forms and interviews with all project leaders used a framework approach involving the policy strategies and the following policy variables: initiator, actors, policy goals, determinants and policy instruments. Most projects showed a combination of policy strategies. However, manifestations of IPHP in overweight projects predominantly involved IA. More policy integration was apparent in alcohol/drugs projects (HPP) and in all-theme projects (HiAP). More policy integration was related to broad goal definitions, which allowed for the involvement of actors representing several policy sectors. This enabled the implementation of a mix of policy instruments. Determinants of health were not explicitly used as a starting point of the policy process. If a policy problem justifies policy integration beyond IA, it might be helpful to start from the determinants of health (epidemiological reality), systematically transform them into policy (policy reality) and set broad policy goals, since this gives actors from other sectors the opportunity to participate. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Green Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Patrick Barry [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  18. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, P.; Molina, M.; Barcena, J.; Salas, E.; Sanchez, M.; Codee, H.; Deckers, J.

    2013-01-01

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  19. Co-operation in the development of a policy and strategy for the management of spent nuclear fuel (including provisions for its safe interim storage) and radioactive waste in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuloaga, P.; Molina, M.; Barcena, J.; Salas, E.; Sanchez, M.; Codee, H.; Deckers, J.

    2013-10-01

    The European Commission decided in 2010 to finance a project for providing technical support for the definition and establishment of a national policy and strategy for radioactive waste management in Mexico. the Project was in the framework of the Nuclear Safety Co-operation Instrument (NSCI), a European mechanism which finances measures to support a higher level of nuclear safety, radiation protection and the application of efficient and effective safeguards of nuclear materials in third countries. Eventually, the Project was a awarded to a Consortium made up by four Spanish companies, ENRESA, Empresarios Agrupados International SA, Iberdrola Ingenieria SAU, Westinghouse Spain SAU, and two foreign ones, COVRA NV and Belgoprocess NV. Both ENRESA and COVRA are waste management agencies, the first responsible of these activities in Spain, the second one in the Netherlands. ENRESA acts as the leader of the Consortium. The project started early in 2013 and will last until March 2015. All along this period, the Mexican system for spent fuel and radioactive waste management will be scrutinized and proposals made for its upgrading according to the best international and European standards of safety and performance. A Policy and Strategy document will be proposed, as well as significant improvements for the different institutional layers, practices and elements of the Mexican system. A total of 40 specialists are involved in the project of which 30 are Spaniards. (Author)

  20. Making Sense of “Consumer Engagement” Initiatives to Improve Health and Health Care: A Conceptual Framework to Guide Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittler, Jessica N; Martsolf, Grant R; Telenko, Shannon J; Scanlon, Dennis P

    2013-01-01

    Context Policymakers and practitioners continue to pursue initiatives designed to engage individuals in their health and health care despite discordant views and mixed evidence regarding the ability to cultivate greater individual engagement that improves Americans’ health and well-being and helps manage health care costs. There is limited and mixed evidence regarding the value of different interventions. Methods Based on our involvement in evaluating various community-based consumer engagement initiatives and a targeted literature review of models of behavior change, we identified the need for a framework to classify the universe of consumer engagement initiatives toward advancing policymakers' and practitioners' knowledge of their value and fit in various contexts. We developed a framework that expanded our conceptualization of consumer engagement, building on elements of two common models, the individually focused transtheoretical model of behavior and the broader, multilevel social ecological model. Finally, we applied this framework to one community's existing consumer engagement program. Findings Consumer engagement in health and health care refers to the performance of specific behaviors (“engaged behaviors”) and/or an individual's capacity and motivation to perform these behaviors (“activation”). These two dimensions are related but distinct and thus should be differentiated. The framework creates four classification schemas, by (1) targeted behavior types (self-management, health care encounter, shopping, and health behaviors) and by (2) individual, (3) group, and (4) community dimensions. Our example illustrates that the framework can systematically classify a variety of consumer engagement programs, and that this exercise and resulting characterization can provide a structured way to consider the program and how its components fit program goals both individually and collectively. Conclusions Applying the framework could help advance the field

  1. Changing organizational culture: using the CEO cancer gold standard policy initiatives to promote health and wellness at a school of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towne, Samuel D; Anderson, Kelsey E; Smith, Matthew Lee; Dahlke, Deborah Vollmer; Kellstedt, Debra; Purcell, Ninfa Pena; Ory, Marcia G

    2015-09-03

    Worksite wellness initiatives for health promotion and health education have demonstrated effectiveness in improving employee health and wellness. We examined the effects of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on organizational capacity to meet requirements to become CEO Cancer Gold Standard Accredited. We conducted an online survey to assess perceived organizational values and support for the five CEO Cancer Gold Standard Pillars for cancer prevention: tobacco cessation; physical activity; nutrition; cancer screening and early detection; and accessing information on cancer clinical trials. Baseline and follow-up surveys were sent 6-months apart to faculty, staff, and students at a school of public health to test the impact of a multifaceted health promotion campaign on perceived organizational change. Descriptive analyses were used to characterize percent improvement. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to control for participants' university status. The current organizational culture highly supported tobacco cessation at both time points. Significant improvements (p screening, and early detection of cancer' and 'accessing cancer treatment and clinical trials'. Health promotion and education efforts using multiple approaches were effective to improve perceived organizational values and support for cancer prevention and early detection, and increase access to information about cancer clinical trials. Future studies are needed to examine broader impacts of implementing worksite health promotion initiatives.

  2. Nurses' Perceptions of Barriers and Facilitators Affecting the Shaken Baby Syndrome Education Initiative: An Exploratory Study of a Massachusetts Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Leslie

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess nurses' perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of implementation of the shaken baby syndrome (SBS)/abusive head trauma (AHT) public policy. A legislative Act providing for the prevention of SBS/AHT was passed in Massachusetts in November 2006. A stipulation of this Act was the provision of a program to educate parents/guardians of newborns about SBS/AHT prevention. A quantitative, cross-sectional research design with a qualitative component was used for this study. Nurses in 13 Massachusetts birthing hospitals were surveyed using a Web-based questionnaire (hosted by Qualtrics, Provo, Utah). Hospital nurses' responses (N = ∼ 922; 155 responded) revealed barriers to and facilitators of SBS/AHT guideline implementation. The disadvantage of Web-based surveys as they relate to the challenges of enlisting cooperation and a lack of direct access to the nurses may have attributed to the low response rate (17%) for this study. The outcomes of logistic regression analyses and themes from the qualitative analysis revealed a lack of SBS/AHT brochures and an inability to provide SBS/AHT education for non-English-speaking parents/guardians as barriers to SBS/AHT education. An atmosphere of supportive leadership facilitated implementation of the SBS/AHT education guidelines by nurses. It is imperative that nurse leadership support be sustained so that nurses have SBS/AHT education resources, an understanding of the SBS/AHT education guidelines, and feedback about the impact of their SBS/AHT education interventions.

  3. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  4. A globally integrated climate policy for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, S.; Brunnee, J.; Duff, D.G.; Green, A.J.

    2008-01-01

    This book explored policy ideas and options from various perspectives, including science, law, political science, economics and sociology. The costs, opportunities and imperatives to participate in international diplomatic initiatives were considered along with the opportunities of regional global carbon markets. Canada's current policy on climate change negotiations have been focused on domestic regulation and incentives for technological responses and the setting of a domestic carbon price. The sense of urgency about global warming was discussed and the need for action to respond to the threat of global climate change was emphasized. The book also reviewed Canada's role in international climate policies and presented parameters and imperatives for global regime building in Canada. Domestic policy tools were also reviewed along with policy obstacles and opportunities. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  6. Student initiative: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovina Nada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the description and scientific consideration of the attitude of children and youth towards their education and development, the concept of student initiative has been gaining ground lately, and it is hence the subject of analysis in this paper. The analysis is important because of the discrepancy between the increased efforts of the key educational policy holders to promote the idea about the importance of the development of student initiative and rare acceptance of this idea among theoreticians, researchers and practitioners dealing with the education and development of children and youth. By concretising the features of initiative student behaviour, our aim was, on the one hand, to observe the structural determinants and scientific status of the very concept of an initiative student, and, on the other, to contribute to the understanding of the initiative behaviour in practice. In the first part of the paper we deal with different notions and concretisations of the features of initiative behaviour of children and youth, which includes the consideration of: basic student initiative, academic student initiative, individual student initiative, the capacity for initiative and personal development initiative. In the second part of the paper, we discuss the relations of the concept of student initiative with the similar general concepts (activity/passivity, proactivity, agency and the concepts immediately related to school environment (student involvement, student participation. The results of our analysis indicate that the concept of student initiative has: particular features that differentiate it from similar concepts; the potential to reach the status of a scientific concept, bearing in mind the initial empirical specifications and general empirical verifiability of the yet unverified determinants of the concept. In the concluding part of the paper, we discuss the implications of the conceptual analysis for further research, as well as for

  7. Science, Society and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  8. The Privacy Attitude Questionnaire (PAQ): Initial Development and Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Chignell, Mark H.; Quan-Haase, Anabel; Gwizdka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    Privacy has been identified as a key issue in a variety of domains, including electronic commerce and public policy. While there are many discussions of privacy issues from a legal and policy perspective, there is little information on the structure of privacy as a psychometric construct. Our goal is to develop a method for measuring attitudes towards privacy that can guide the design and personalization of services. This paper reports on the development of an initial version of the PAQ. Four...

  9. Moving communities toward policy change: APPEAL's 4-prong policy change model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K; Lew, Rod

    2013-09-01

    Policy change is recognized for underlying much of the success of tobacco control. However, there is little evidence and attention on how Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities may engage in policy change. Challenges for AA and NHPI communities include the racial/ethnic and geographic diversity, and tobacco data accurately representing the communities. Over the past decade, the Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL) has worked to develop and implement policy change for AA and NHPI communities. This article describes APPEAL's 4-prong policy change model, in the context of its overall strategic framework for policy change with communities that accounts for varying levels of readiness and leadership capacity, and targets four different levels of policy change (community, mainstream institution, legislative, and corporate). The health promotion implication of this framework for tobacco control policy engagement is for improving understanding of effective pathways to policy change, promoting innovative methods for policy analysis, and translating them into effective implementation and sustainability of policy initiatives. The APPEAL strategic framework can transcend into other communities and health topics that ultimately may contribute to the elimination of health disparities.

  10. Moving Communities Toward Policy Change: APPEAL’s 4-Prong Policy Change Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Elisa K.; Lew, Rod

    2014-01-01

    Policy change is recognized for underlying much of the success of tobacco control. However, there is little evidence and attention on how Asian American and Native Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (AA and NHPI) communities may engage in policy change. Challenges for AA and NHPI communities include the racial/ethnic and geographic diversity, and tobacco data accurately representing the communities. Over the past decade, the Asian Pacific Partners for Empowerment, Advocacy and Leadership (APPEAL) has worked to develop and implement policy change for AA and NHPI communities. This article describes APPEAL’s 4-prong policy change model, in the context of its overall strategic framework for policy change with communities that accounts for varying levels of readiness and leadership capacity, and targets four different levels of policy change (community, mainstream institution, legislative, and corporate). The health promotion implication of this framework for tobacco control policy engagement is for improving understanding of effective pathways to policy change, promoting innovative methods for policy analysis, and translating them into effective implementation and sustainability of policy initiatives. The APPEAL strategic framework can transcend into other communities and health topics that ultimately may contribute to the elimination of health disparities. PMID:23707962

  11. Informal alcohol in Malawi: stakeholder perceptions and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limaye, Rupali J; Rutkow, Lainie; Rimal, Rajiv N; Jernigan, David H

    2014-02-01

    Through the eyes of those involved in the alcohol policy-making process in Malawi, we explored the role of informal (non-commercial) alcohol in rural communities, its harmful effects, and implications for appropriate national policy. Harms included early drinking initiation, violence, and sexual risk exposure. Informants suggested that policy should address informal alcohol's content, selling times, and easy access. Because most informal alcohol producers are women who rely upon sales for subsistence, policies must avoid limiting women's economic opportunities while protecting community health.

  12. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  13. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  14. Cost benefit analysis of outsourcing initiatives/strategy at water utilities corporation (Botswana) / G Mogomotsi

    OpenAIRE

    Mogomotsi, G

    2016-01-01

    After the Water Utilities Corporation adopted outsourcing as a policy initiative and operational directive various non-core functions were outsourced. This raises obvious questions as to why the Corporation suddenly decided to do this. Does the Corporation indeed benefit in terms of value addition from outsourced functions? Some of the pertinent questions include: To what extent did policy guidelines and operational measures govern the said outsourcing initiatives? What are the...

  15. Federalism and health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a cyclical theory of U.S. federalism and social policy: Many social policy initiatives are tested and refined at the state level, especially during conservative periods, and later morph into national policies. The paper describes such federalism cycles and offers an interpretation of why and how they occur, focusing on Medicaid. State activism has preserved and expanded Medicaid through policy innovation and resistance to retrenchment, especially in conservative periods, by taking advantage of the flexibility the program provides. I conclude that Medicaid's incremental/partnership approach is appropriate and feasible to build on for a future expansion of health care coverage.

  16. Ecosystem Based Management in Transition: From Ocean Policy to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saumweber, W. J.; Goldman, E.

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystem-based management (EBM) has been proposed as a means to improve resource management and stewardship for more than two decades. Over this history, its exact goals and approaches have evolved in concert with advances in science and policy, including a greater understanding of ecosystem function, valuation, and thresholds for change, along with direct reference to EBM principles in statute, regulation, and other Executive Actions. Most recently, and explicitly, the Administration's National Ocean Policy (NOP) called for the development of a Federal EBM framework that would outline principles and guidelines for implementing EBM under existing authorities. This cross-agency framework has yet to be developed, but, the NOP, and related Administration initiatives, have resulted in the practical application of EBM principles in several issue-specific policy initiatives ranging from fisheries and marine protected area management to coastal adaptation and water resource infrastructure investment. In each case, the application of EBM principles uses apparently unique policy mechanisms (e.g. marine planning, ecosystem services assessment, adaptive management, dynamic ocean management, etc.). Despite differences in terminology and policy context, each of these policy initiatives is linked at its core to concepts of integrated and adaptive management that consider broad ecosystem function and services. This practical history of EBM implementation speaks to both the challenges and opportunities in broad incorporation of EBM across diverse policy initiatives and frameworks. We suggest that the continued growth of EBM as a practical policy concept will require a move away from broad frameworks, and towards the identification of specific resource management issues and accompanying policy levers with which to address those issues. In order to promote this progression, Federal policy should recognize and articulate the diverse set of policy mechanisms encompassed under the

  17. Energy policy, strategies for uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.L.; Surrey, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with in chapters, entitled: energy policy-objectives, strategies and policies; the 1967 fuel policy; problems of the optimising approach; the uncertain outlook; oil; coal; gas; electricity; the interdependence of the four fuel industries; energy policy for the future - the need for a long-term strategy; medium-term strategies and short-term policies; the organisational decisions of energy policy. Nuclear power is included in the subject matter. (U.K.)

  18. Introduction of male circumcision for HIV prevention in Uganda: analysis of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoch, Walter Denis; Kabali, Kenneth; Ankunda, Racheal; Zulu, Joseph Mumba; Tetui, Moses

    2015-06-20

    Health policy analysis is important for all health policies especially in fields with ever changing evidence-based interventions such as HIV prevention. However, there are few published reports of health policy analysis in sub-Saharan Africa in this field. This study explored the policy process of the introduction of male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention in Uganda in order to inform the development processes of similar health policies. Desk review of relevant documents was conducted between March and May 2012. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. Conceptual frameworks that demonstrate the interrelationship within the policy development processes and influence of actors in the policy development processes guided the analysis. Following the introduction of MC on the national policy agenda in 2007, negotiation and policy formulation preceded its communication and implementation. Policy proponents included academic researchers in the early 2000s and development partners around 2007. Favourable contextual factors that supported the development of the policy included the rising HIV prevalence, adoption of MC for HIV prevention in other sub-Saharan African countries, and expertise on MC. Additionally, the networking capability of proponents facilitated the change in position of non-supportive or neutral actors. Non-supportive and neutral actors in the initial stages of the policy development process included the Ministry of Health, traditional and Muslim leaders, and the Republican President. Using political authority, legitimacy, and charisma, actors who opposed the policy tried to block the policy development process. Researchers' initial disregard of the Ministry of Health in the research process of MC and the missing civil society advocacy arm contributed to delays in the policy development process. This study underscores the importance of securing top political leadership as well as key implementing partners' support in policy development processes

  19. Energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    Gasoline consumption by passenger cars and light trucks is a major source of air pollution. It also adds to the economy's dependence on petroleum and vulnerability to oil price shocks. Despite these environmental and other costs, called external cost, the price of gasoline, adjusted for inflation, has generally been declining since 1985, encouraging increased consumption. This paper reports that with these concerns in mind, the Chairman, Subcommittee on Environment, House Committee on Science, Space, and Technology, requested that GAO assess policy options for addressing the external costs of gasoline consumption. To do this, GAO identified six major policy options and evaluated whether they addressed several relevant objectives, including economic growth, environmental quality, equity, petroleum conservation, visibility of costs, energy security, traffic congestion, competitiveness, and administrative feasibility

  20. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  1. Space assets, technology and services in support of energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasko, C. A.; Adriaensen, M.; Bretel, A.; Duvaux-Bechon, I.; Giannopapa, C. G.

    2017-09-01

    Space can be used as a tool by decision and policy makers in developing, implementing and monitoring various policy areas including resource management, environment, transport, security and energy. This paper focuses on the role of space for the energy policy. Firstly, the paper summarizes the European Union's (EU) main objectives in energy policy enclosed in the Energy Strategy 2020-2030-2050 and demonstrates how space assets can contribute to achieving those objectives. Secondly, the paper addresses how the European Space Agency (ESA) has established multiple initiatives and programs that directly finance the development of space assets, technology and applications that deliver services in support of the EU energy policy and sector. These efforts should be continued and strengthened in order to overcome identified technological challenges. The use of space assets, technology and applications, can help achieve the energy policy objectives for the next decades.

  2. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    open innovation with SME entrepreneurs, business execs, academics and policymakers via an online crowdsourcing event with 150 participants. Through inductive analysis of 1,696 text comments, five policy domains are identified: creating awareness/skills; building networks; funding/investing; measuring......Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...

  3. Policies and strategies for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    (organizational, technical and legislative), and on future needs and waste arisings. The technical procedures proposed for the waste types in the country should be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable disposal option. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technological procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. Policies and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategy. The lead in making changes should be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy (waste management organization); but all relevant parties in the country should be involved and consulted in this process. (author)

  4. Options for including nitrogen management in climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.

    2010-12-01

    The outline of the presentation is as follows: Climate change and nitrogen; Nitrogen and climate interlinkages; Options for nitrogen management; Report, workshop and IPCC; and Conclusions. The concluding remarks are: Fertilizing the biosphere with reactive nitrogen compounds lead to ecosystem, health, water and climate impacts; Nitrogen deposition can lead to additional carbon sequestration and to impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services; Nitrogen addition to the biosphere might have a net cooling effect of 1 W/m 2 ; Life Cycle Analysis is needed to show the full impact; and Nitrogen management is essential for the environment and can have a positive effect on the net GHG exchange.

  5. The Role of Policy Advocacy in Assuring Comprehensive Family Life Education in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, Claire D.; Geierstanger, Sara P.; Faxio, Adrienne

    2009-01-01

    As part of their 10-year $60 million Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Initiative, The California Wellness Foundation funded 18 state and local organizations to conduct policy advocacy to strengthen teen pregnancy prevention policies. This article describes how some of these grantees accomplished noteworthy goals, including the passage of the…

  6. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  7. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toure, Kadidiatou; Sankore, Rotimi; Kuruvilla, Shyama; Scolaro, Elisa; Bustreo, Flavia; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2012-02-16

    With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010).This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and impact. AU policies related

  8. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  9. Why do policies change? Institutions, interests, ideas and networks in three cases of policy reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jessica C; Abelson, Julia; Kouyaté, Bocar; Lavis, John N; Walt, Gill

    2016-11-01

    Policy researchers have used various categories of variables to explain why policies change, including those related to institutions, interests and ideas. Recent research has paid growing attention to the role of policy networks-the actors involved in policy-making, their relationships with each other, and the structure formed by those relationships-in policy reform across settings and issues; however, this literature has largely ignored the theoretical integration of networks with other policy theories, including the '3Is' of institutions, interests and ideas. This article proposes a conceptual framework integrating these variables and tests it on three cases of policy change in Burkina Faso, addressing the need for theoretical integration with networks as well as the broader aim of theory-driven health policy analysis research in low- and middle-income countries. We use historical process tracing, a type of comparative case study, to interpret and compare documents and in-depth interview data within and between cases. We found that while network changes were indeed associated with policy reform, this relationship was mediated by one or more of institutions, interests and ideas. In a context of high donor dependency, new donor rules affected the composition and structure of actors in the networks, which enabled the entry and dissemination of new ideas and shifts in the overall balance of interest power ultimately leading to policy change. The case of strategic networking occurred in only one case, by civil society actors, suggesting that network change is rarely the spark that initiates the process towards policy change. This analysis highlights the important role of changes in institutions and ideas to drive policymaking, but hints that network change is a necessary intermediate step in these processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. All rights reserved. For

  10. Another countryside? Policy options for land and agrarian reform in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abel

    The focus on South Africa's land and agrarian policies is relevant at a time ... be coordinated at various policy levels, including macroeconomic policy, trade policy, agricultural policy and local economic development and planning for land.

  11. Energy policies of the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.K.

    1994-09-01

    This report takes stock of what has been achieved and where the European Community is going in terms of energy policy and also looks at the full extent of the Union's energy sector competances. The chapters deal with the European Commission's programme to create an internal energy market through implementing new Directives and by means of an approach through competition. A further two chapters concentrate on environmental policy with respect to emissions control and the greenhouse effect. Two broad policy areas - Community Initiative and trans-European networks - are examined in a consideration of the connections between energy and economic and social cohesion. Security of supply is the fourth and traditional pillar of energy policy to be considered. Three policy areas which do not fit into these first four categories are dealt with in individual chapters. These are: nuclear issues, research and development, and a wider Europe. A concluding chapter suggests that there is an urgent need for a new way of dealing with energy in the European Union which has a myriad of policies affecting energy but no energy policy. The appendices include a document summary for each of the main chapters and a glossary. (UK)

  12. New seismograph includes filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-11-02

    The new Nimbus ES-1210 multichannel signal enhancement seismograph from EG and G geometrics has recently been redesigned to include multimode signal fillers on each amplifier. The ES-1210F is a shallow exploration seismograph for near subsurface exploration such as in depth-to-bedrock, geological hazard location, mineral exploration, and landslide investigations.

  13. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  14. Evaluation Program initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide the Department of Energy's (DOE) safeguards and security community with some insights on an important management initiative by the Office of Security Evaluations (OSE). The paper will present the ''what, where, who, when, and why'' of a new Evaluation Program. The Evaluation Program will be comprised of a continuing series of regular and special evaluations of DOE safeguards and security programs and policies. The evaluations will be integrative and ''crosscutting,'' i.e. will extend across DOE organizational lines. Evaluations will be offered as positive advisories to DOE managers with safeguards and security responsibilities and will not be rated. They will complement the ongoing OSE Inspection Program of inspections conducted by OSE's Inspection Division. The purpose for the evaluations is to establish an accurate and current assessment of the effectiveness and status of safeguards and security programs and policies and to provide DOE managers with required information on program and policy effectiveness

  15. Analytic device including nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.; Fratalocchi, Andrea; Totero Gongora, Juan Sebastian; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cuda, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    A device for detecting an analyte in a sample comprising: an array including a plurality of pixels, each pixel including a nanochain comprising: a first nanostructure, a second nanostructure, and a third nanostructure, wherein size of the first nanostructure is larger than that of the second nanostructure, and size of the second nanostructure is larger than that of the third nanostructure, and wherein the first nanostructure, the second nanostructure, and the third nanostructure are positioned on a substrate such that when the nanochain is excited by an energy, an optical field between the second nanostructure and the third nanostructure is stronger than an optical field between the first nanostructure and the second nanostructure, wherein the array is configured to receive a sample; and a detector arranged to collect spectral data from a plurality of pixels of the array.

  16. Saskatchewan resources. [including uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The production of chemicals and minerals for the chemical industry in Saskatchewan are featured, with some discussion of resource taxation. The commodities mentioned include potash, fatty amines, uranium, heavy oil, sodium sulfate, chlorine, sodium hydroxide, sodium chlorate and bentonite. Following the successful outcome of the Cluff Lake inquiry, the uranium industry is booming. Some developments and production figures for Gulf Minerals, Amok, Cenex and Eldorado are mentioned.

  17. Agricultural policy, food policy, and communicable disease policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Wyn

    2012-12-01

    Food and agricultural policy is an essential element of a communicable disease policy. The European Union has developed a more systematic and broadly based interest in questions of food safety and animal health and welfare linked to modernization of the Common Agricultural Policy, reflected in a new treaty obligation on animal welfare. Following the bovine spongiform encephalopathy crisis, moves were made to create a European competency, but implementation and enforcement resources reside with the member states. The European Animal Health Strategy is meant to lead to an EU animal health law, but this has already been constrained by fiscal austerity. The development of such a law may lead to a lowest common denominator formula that does little to enhance consumer protection or improve animal welfare. This is an inherent risk with top-down forms of Europeanization; more attention should be paid to lessons to be learned from bottom-up initiatives of the type used to counteract the bovine diarrhea virus. There will always be a tension among what is good policy for reducing the incidence of communicable disease, policy that is popular with EU citizens, and policy that is acceptable to member states.

  18. Manufacturing Initiative

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) Project supports multiple activities within the Administration's National Manufacturing Initiative. A key component of...

  19. Innovation Policies of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    technology priorities and coordinates policies Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação, MCTI... Tecnologia e Inovação, MCTI) initiated the Greater IT policy to build and enhance the country’s information, communications, and technology...Technology Institute) MCMM Ministry of Communications and Mass Media MCTI Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Ministry of Science, Technology

  20. 42 CFR 403.205 - Medicare supplemental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Medicare. (b) The term policy includes both policy form and policy as specified in paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this section. (1) Policy form. Policy form is the form of health insurance contract that is... contract— (i) Issued under the policy form; and (ii) Held by the policy holder. (c) If the policy otherwise...

  1. Sustainability Policy and Environmental Policy

    OpenAIRE

    John C. V. Pezzey

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical, representative agent economy with a depletable resource stock, polluting emissions and productive capital is used to contrast environmental policy, which internalises externalised environmental values, with sustainability policy, which achieves some form of intergenerational equity. The obvious environmental policy comprises an emissions tax and a resource stock subsidy, each equal to the respective external cost or benefit. Sustainability policy comprises an incentive affectin...

  2. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Being Included and Excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korzenevica, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Following the civil war of 1996–2006, there was a dramatic increase in the labor mobility of young men and the inclusion of young women in formal education, which led to the transformation of the political landscape of rural Nepal. Mobility and schooling represent a level of prestige that rural...... politics. It analyzes how formal education and mobility either challenge or reinforce traditional gendered norms which dictate a lowly position for young married women in the household and their absence from community politics. The article concludes that women are simultaneously excluded and included from...... community politics. On the one hand, their mobility and decision-making powers decrease with the increase in the labor mobility of men and their newly gained education is politically devalued when compared to the informal education that men gain through mobility, but on the other hand, schooling strengthens...

  4. Macroprudential Policy: A Summary

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi Ebrahimi Kahou; Alfred Lehar

    2016-01-01

    The 2007 global financial crisis brought sharply into focus the need for macroprudential policy as a means of controlling systemic financial stability. This has become a focal point for policy-makers and numerous central banks, including the Bank of Canada, but it has its drawbacks, particularly here in Canada. As a counterbalance to microprudential policy, the idea of a macroprudential outlook reaches beyond the notion that as long as every banking institution is healthy, financial stability...

  5. Family and gender policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlung, Liera

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  6. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  7. 76 FR 47240 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Policy ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. Announcement Type: New Notice of Availability... Add Us In initiative is to identify and develop strategies to increase the capacity of small...

  8. The role of supply-chain initiatives in reducing deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambin, Eric F.; Gibbs, Holly K.; Heilmayr, Robert; Carlson, Kimberly M.; Fleck, Leonardo C.; Garrett, Rachael D.; le Polain de Waroux, Yann; McDermott, Constance L.; McLaughlin, David; Newton, Peter; Nolte, Christoph; Pacheco, Pablo; Rausch, Lisa L.; Streck, Charlotte; Thorlakson, Tannis; Walker, Nathalie F.

    2018-01-01

    A major reduction in global deforestation is needed to mitigate climate change and biodiversity loss. Recent private sector commitments aim to eliminate deforestation from a company's operations or supply chain, but they fall short on several fronts. Company pledges vary in the degree to which they include time-bound interventions with clear definitions and criteria to achieve verifiable outcomes. Zero-deforestation policies by companies may be insufficient to achieve broader impact on their own due to leakage, lack of transparency and traceability, selective adoption and smallholder marginalization. Public-private policy mixes are needed to increase the effectiveness of supply-chain initiatives that aim to reduce deforestation. We review current supply-chain initiatives, their effectiveness, and the challenges they face, and go on to identify knowledge gaps for complementary public-private policies.

  9. Unilateral initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports on arms control which is generally thought of in terms of formal negotiations with an opponent, with the resulting agreements embodied in a treaty. This is not surprising, since arms control discussions between opponents are both important and politically visible. There are, however, strong reasons for countries to consider and frequently take unilateral initiatives. To do so is entirely consistent with the established major precepts of arms control which state that arms control is designed to reduce the risk of war, the costs of preparing for war, and the death and destruction if war should come. Unilateral initiatives on what weapons are purchased, which ones are eliminated and how forces are deployed can all relate to these objectives. There are two main categories of motives for unilateral initiatives in arms control. In one category, internal national objectives are the dominant, often sole, driving force; the initiative is undertaken for our own good

  10. Ports Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Ports Initiative works in collaboration with the port industry, communities, and government to improve environmental performance and increase economic prosperity. This effort helps people near ports breath cleaner air and live better lives.

  11. NIGERIAN NATION-BUILDING AND PUBLIC POLICY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NGOZI

    Political phase, that is, acceptable formulation, meaning that the entertained ... term 'policy-making' for the entire process, 'policy formulation' for the initial part of ..... rule of argumentation is grounded in terms of the substance of the pragmatic ...

  12. Privacy Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home → NLM Privacy Policy URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/privacy.html NLM Privacy Policy To ... out of cookies in the most popular browsers, http://www.usa.gov/optout_instructions.shtml. Please note ...

  13. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  14. Trade Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Murray Gibbs

    2007-01-01

    In an otherwise insightful and thoughtful article, Sebastian Pfotenhauer (Trade Policy Is Science Policy,” Issues, Fall 2013) might better have entitled his contribution “Trade Policy Needs to Be Reconciled with Science Policy.” The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the agreements administered by the World Trade Organization, particularly the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT), were adopted to promote international trade and i...

  15. Applying Behavioral Economics to Public Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matjasko, Jennifer L.; Cawley, John H.; Baker-Goering, Madeleine M.; Yokum, David V.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral economics provides an empirically informed perspective on how individuals make decisions, including the important realization that even subtle features of the environment can have meaningful impacts on behavior. This commentary provides examples from the literature and recent government initiatives that incorporate concepts from behavioral economics in order to improve health, decision making, and government efficiency. The examples highlight the potential for behavioral economics to improve the effectiveness of public health policy at low cost. Although incorporating insights from behavioral economics into public health policy has the potential to improve population health, its integration into government public health programs and policies requires careful design and continual evaluation of such interventions. Limitations and drawbacks of the approach are discussed. PMID:27102853

  16. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-10-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative "Nanotechnologie erobert Märkte" (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society.

  17. German innovation initiative for nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieke, Volker; Bachmann, Gerd

    2004-01-01

    In many areas of nanotechnology, Germany can count on a good knowledge basis due to its diverse activities in nanosciences. This knowledge basis, when paired with the production and sales structures needed for implementation and the internationally renowned German talent for system integration, should consequently lead to success in the marketplace. And this is exactly the field of application for the innovation initiative 'Nanotechnologie erobert Maerkte' (nanotechnology conquers markets) and for the new BMBF strategy in support of nanotechnology. Until now, aspects of nanotechnology have been advanced within the confines of their respective technical subject areas. However, the primary aim of incorporating them into an overall national strategy is to build on Germany's well-developed and internationally competitive research in science and technology to tap the potential of Germany's important industrial sectors for the application of nanotechnology through joint research projects (leading-edge innovations) that strategically target the value-added chain. This development is to be supported by government education policy to remedy a threatening shortage of skilled professionals. To realize that goal, forward-looking political policymaking must become oriented to a uniform concept of innovation, one that takes into consideration all facets of new technological advances that can contribute to a new culture of innovation in Germany. And that includes education and research policy as well as a climate that encourages and supports innovation in science, business and society

  18. Federal radiation initiatives wane in Reagan administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linton, O.W.

    1981-01-01

    A series of administrative initiatives undertaken by the Carter Administration in response to public concerns about harmful effects of exposures to ionizing radiation in various settings has been abandoned by the Reagan Administration. The decision to discard the Radiation Policy Council, the coordinating agency established in 1980, leaves the federal government with no overall focus or overall budget for radiation research and protection activities. The line agencies with direct radiation responsibilities, including the Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Defense, Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Radiological health, and Department of Labor, continue with somewhat contradictory and uncoordinated programs

  19. Exploring Alcohol Policy Approaches to Prevent Sexual Violence Perpetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippy, Caroline; DeGue, Sarah

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence continues to be a significant public health problem worldwide with serious consequences for individuals and communities. The implementation of prevention strategies that address risk and protective factors for sexual violence at the community level are important components of a comprehensive approach, but few such strategies have been identified or evaluated. The current review explores one potential opportunity for preventing sexual violence perpetration at the community level: alcohol policy. Alcohol policy has the potential to impact sexual violence perpetration through the direct effects of excessive alcohol consumption on behavior or through the impact of alcohol and alcohol outlets on social organization within communities. Policies affecting alcohol pricing, sale time, outlet density, drinking environment, marketing, and college environment are reviewed to identify existing evidence of impact on rates of sexual violence or related outcomes, including risk factors and related health behaviors. Several policy areas with initial evidence of an association with sexual violence outcomes were identified, including policies affecting alcohol pricing, alcohol outlet density, barroom management, sexist content in alcohol marketing, and policies banning alcohol on campus and in substance-free dorms. We identify other policy areas with evidence of an impact on related outcomes and risk factors that may also hold potential as a preventative approach for sexual violence perpetration. Evidence from the current review suggests that alcohol policy may represent one promising avenue for the prevention of sexual violence perpetration at the community level, but additional research is needed to directly examine effects on sexual violence outcomes. PMID:25403447

  20. Brazilian obesity prevention and control initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, P C; da Silva, A C F; Gentil, P C; Claro, R M; Monteiro, C A

    2013-11-01

    Obesity prevalence in the Brazilian adult population is 12.5% among men and 16.9% among women. Obesity control has been a subject of concern in Brazilian health policies since the publication of the National Food and Nutrition Policy in 1999. The initiatives include a comprehensive national intersectorial plan for obesity prevention and control focused on confronting its social and environmental causes, development of a food and nutrition education framework aimed at intersectorial public policies in the food and nutritional security field, promotion and provision of healthy food in school environments (linked to family farming), structuring nutrition actions in primary healthcare in the national healthcare system, promoting community physical activity, food regulation and control, and encouragement of public participation and food control. We conclude that several initiatives have been developed in Brazil to deal with the challenge of implementing an intergovernmental, intersectorial response to reverse the rising overweight and obesity rates. The success of this response will depend on a governance model that promotes joint and integrated action by different sectors and active participation of society to consolidate the actions, places and laws that protect health and promote healthy lifestyles. © 2013 The Authors. Obesity Reviews published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the International Association for the Study of Obesity.

  1. Corporate Policy Conferences and Events

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    2015-10-15

    Oct 15, 2015 ... Hospitality as defined in the Corporate Hospitality Policy; ... awards and recognition ceremonies; social events and any other ... The Convenor is the person who initiates an event and takes responsibility for its conduct.

  2. Omega report: energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The Adam Smith Institute's Omega Project was conceived to fill a significant gap in the field of public policy research. Administrations entering office in democratic societies are often aware of the problems which they face, but lack a well-developed range of policy options. The Omega Project was designed to create and develop new policy initiatives, to research and analyze these new ideas, and to bring them forward for public discussion in ways which overcame the conventional shortcomings. The organization of the Project is described. The results are presented in sections entitled: energy supplies and policy; the gas industry; North Sea oil; the coal industry; the electricity industry; nuclear energy; renewable and alternative fuel sources; energy conservation. (U.K.)

  3. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  4. Solar energy policy review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-17

    A number of memoranda and reports are collected which deal with evaluations of solar energy policy options, including direct and indirect labor impacts and costs of different options and consumer protection. (LEW)

  5. About the RAS Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RAS Initiative, a "hub and spoke" model, connects researchers to better understand and target the more than 30% of cancers driven by mutations in RAS genes. Includes oversight and contact information.

  6. Initial Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    increased. In the initial study presented here, the time it takes to pass an intersection is studied in details. Two major signal-controlled four-way intersections in the center of the city Aalborg are studied in details to estimate the congestion levels in these intersections, based on the time it takes...

  7. Policy and Strategies for Environmental Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    out in the policy statement. For its formulation, detailed information is needed on the current situation in the country (organizational, technical and legislative). The technical solutions proposed for the remediation of sites in the country need to be politically, technically and economically feasible. When selecting a set of technological procedures, an appropriate end point must be identified, usually a suitable end state. The steps in formulating and implementing the strategy include selecting the technical procedures, allocating the responsibility for implementing the identified procedures, establishing supervisory mechanisms and developing implementation plans. The policy and strategies may need to be updated because of new national circumstances (legislative changes, plans for new nuclear facilities), new international agreements and/or experience obtained with the original policy and strategies. The lead in making changes is to be taken by the body responsible for the initial formulation of the policy (government) and strategy, but all relevant parties in the country are to be involved and consulted in this process

  8. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  9. Worker flag. Independent Electrical Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahen, D.

    2000-01-01

    This work analyses the initiative of privatization of the Mexican Electric Industry and also it is showed the incoherence of this mistaken proposal. Along the same line is analysed tthe situation of the National Electric Sector and the working process for the distinct types of electric generation just as the syndical and labor situations. In consequence it is proposed an Independent Electrical Policy, which includes the integration of the Nationalized Electric Industry, the syndical union and the Unique Collective Contract. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the success of the electrical and nuclear struggle always maintaining in rising position the red flag of the proletariat. The author considers that the privatization means mercantilization of the human necessities. The privatization is not inevitable at condition of to exercise consequently the political actions necessary through alternatives includes: the worker control of production, research, and the National Electric strike. (Author)

  10. Student initiative: A conceptual analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Polovina Nada

    2014-01-01

    In the description and scientific consideration of the attitude of children and youth towards their education and development, the concept of student initiative has been gaining ground lately, and it is hence the subject of analysis in this paper. The analysis is important because of the discrepancy between the increased efforts of the key educational policy holders to promote the idea about the importance of the development of student initiative and rare a...

  11. Public policy processes and getting physical activity into Alberta's urban schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwin, Catherine P; Church, John; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-01-01

    Public policies impact the amount of physical activity (PA) that children receive at school. These policies are of interest because overweight and obesity among Canadian children have grown at significant rates, and increasing PA among children is one way to reverse this trend. This research investigates the public policy processes that have resulted in Alberta's education system adopting in-school daily physical activity (DPA) and not supporting walk-to-school (WTS) initiatives. Using the policy process described by Kingdon and others as a conceptual framework, this research reviews literature and documents on public policy relating to PA in schools and interviews key individuals (N = 20) to identify the policy-related facilitators and barriers in Alberta, Canada to increasing PA in school-aged children. DPA was mandated because Kingdon's three policy streams (problem, solution and politics) became joined or linked. DPA was the most viable solution because literature supports and teachers believe in the educational benefits of PA. As well, a physician with personal beliefs about the benefits of PA became the minister of education and coupled the solution with the political stream through his ministerial power. Reasons that WTS programs have not become school or health policy include advocacy led by politically weak organizations, lack of a supportive policy entrepreneur and poor saliency among educators. This research illuminates the inner workings of the policy process shaping PA in schools, identifying the unseen forces of the policy process that move issues forward. The findings provide valuable insight for building other healthy public policies.

  12. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  13. THE ROLE OF FARMERS IN MANAGING WATER Dr Tony Colman Professor Tony Allan Farmers manage about 92% of the water consumed by society which needs to recognise that farming practices and the decisions made by those who operate food supply chains - including corporates and those making public policy - determine how water is stewarded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    Title Food-water and society Dr. Tony Colman and Professor Tony Allan Abstract The purpose of the paper is to highlight some key relationships between water resources and society. First, water is an very important resource for society in that it provides an essential input to society's food supply chains. Secondly, it is an essential input to farmer livelihoods. About half of the families of the world still work in agriculture - albeit a declining proportion. Thirdly, farmers manage about 92% of the water consumed by society - including the blue water (surface and groundwater) for irrigation and the green water (effective rainfall) consumed on rainfed farms. They also account for about 66% of society's impacts on biodiversity and about 25% of emissions. Finally it will be argued that those who analyse allocation and management of water must recognise that farming practices and the decisions made by those who operate food supply chains - including corporates and those making public policy - must recognise that it is farmers and food consumers who determine how water is stewarded. It will be suggested that we need to understand that well informed consumers could be the regulators.

  14. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance.......; and specifics including organized dentistry's efforts to create global policy to restrict environmental contamination by mercury. Dentistry must participate in interprofessional collaborations and build on such experiences to be optimally placed for ongoing interprofessional policy development. Current areas...

  15. Canada's nuclear export policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, R W; Wonder, E F [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology.

  16. Reagan outlines nonproliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Reagan Administration wants to shift from efforts to impose direct control over the fuel cycle and nuclear technology to a framework based on cooperation and initiatives for greater political stability. A nuclear-free zone for the Middle East is one area to explore. Congress responded to this announced plan with a counter move to tighten non-proliferation strategies. Reagan's policy will be to restore the US as an aggressive, but reliable nuclear trading partner operating under adequate safeguards. Critics find this approach dangerous and contradictory. The policy is still too general to answer specific questions about bilateral arrangements, generic permits, plutonium recycling, and other matters

  17. Canada's nuclear export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.; Wonder, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The factors influencing the evolution of Canada's nuclear export policy are examined. Initially, nuclear technology was exported to establish an industry in Canada and to share the technology with other countries. After 1974 an increasingly broad range of political and social factors were taken into account and safeguards became the dominant factor. The indirect impacts of the new policy fall into two groups. One consists of the effects of Canada's leadership in taking a tough stand on safeguards. The second group of effects involve the concern of other countries about access to secure energy supplies and advanced technology. (O.T.)

  18. ENERGY POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Avrupa Topluluğu Enstitüsü, Marmara Üniversitesi

    2015-01-01

    John Mitchell considers EU policies on energy supply security; Tera Allas on energy security of supply in the UK: the way forward; Peter Odell assesses public/private partnerships on the UKCS; Olivier Appert provides an overview of French energy policy.

  19. 75 FR 67149 - Request for Public Comment on the Draft 2010 National Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... Nanotechnology Initiative Strategic Plan AGENCY: White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. ACTION... Technology Policy and the Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology [[Page 67150

  20. Toward a comprehensive long term nicotine policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, N; Henningfield, J E; Benowitz, N L; Connolly, G N; Dresler, C; Fagerstrom, K; Jarvis, M J; Boyle, P

    2005-06-01

    Global tobacco deaths are high and rising. Tobacco use is primarily driven by nicotine addiction. Overall tobacco control policy is relatively well agreed upon but a long term nicotine policy has been less well considered and requires further debate. Reaching consensus is important because a nicotine policy is integral to the target of reducing tobacco caused disease, and the contentious issues need to be resolved before the necessary political changes can be sought. A long term and comprehensive nicotine policy is proposed here. It envisages both reducing the attractiveness and addictiveness of existing tobacco based nicotine delivery systems as well as providing alternative sources of acceptable clean nicotine as competition for tobacco. Clean nicotine is defined as nicotine free enough of tobacco toxicants to pass regulatory approval. A three phase policy is proposed. The initial phase requires regulatory capture of cigarette and smoke constituents liberalising the market for clean nicotine; regulating all nicotine sources from the same agency; and research into nicotine absorption and the role of tobacco additives in this process. The second phase anticipates clean nicotine overtaking tobacco as the primary source of the drug (facilitated by use of regulatory and taxation measures); simplification of tobacco products by limitation of additives which make tobacco attractive and easier to smoke (but tobacco would still be able to provide a satisfying dose of nicotine). The third phase includes a progressive reduction in the nicotine content of cigarettes, with clean nicotine freely available to take the place of tobacco as society's main nicotine source.

  1. Acquisition Policy and Procedures Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This Instruction establishes policies, responsibilities, and procedures for the procurement of goods and services to include supplies, equipment, publications, furniture, and information technology...

  2. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  3. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  4. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  5. A Collaboratively-Derived Science-Policy Research Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, William J.; Bellingan, Laura; Bellingham, Jim R.; Blackstock, Jason J.; Bloomfield, Robert M.; Bravo, Michael; Cadman, Victoria M.; Cleevely, David D.; Clements, Andy; Cohen, Anthony S.; Cope, David R.; Daemmrich, Arthur A.; Devecchi, Cristina; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Denegri, Simon; Doubleday, Robert; Dusic, Nicholas R.; Evans, Robert J.; Feng, Wai Y.; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Harris, Paul; Hartley, Sue E.; Hester, Alison J.; Holmes, John; Hughes, Alan; Hulme, Mike; Irwin, Colin; Jennings, Richard C.; Kass, Gary S.; Littlejohns, Peter; Marteau, Theresa M.; McKee, Glenn; Millstone, Erik P.; Nuttall, William J.; Owens, Susan; Parker, Miles M.; Pearson, Sarah; Petts, Judith; Ploszek, Richard; Pullin, Andrew S.; Reid, Graeme; Richards, Keith S.; Robinson, John G.; Shaxson, Louise; Sierra, Leonor; Smith, Beck G.; Spiegelhalter, David J.; Stilgoe, Jack; Stirling, Andy; Tyler, Christopher P.; Winickoff, David E.; Zimmern, Ron L.

    2012-01-01

    The need for policy makers to understand science and for scientists to understand policy processes is widely recognised. However, the science-policy relationship is sometimes difficult and occasionally dysfunctional; it is also increasingly visible, because it must deal with contentious issues, or itself becomes a matter of public controversy, or both. We suggest that identifying key unanswered questions on the relationship between science and policy will catalyse and focus research in this field. To identify these questions, a collaborative procedure was employed with 52 participants selected to cover a wide range of experience in both science and policy, including people from government, non-governmental organisations, academia and industry. These participants consulted with colleagues and submitted 239 questions. An initial round of voting was followed by a workshop in which 40 of the most important questions were identified by further discussion and voting. The resulting list includes questions about the effectiveness of science-based decision-making structures; the nature and legitimacy of expertise; the consequences of changes such as increasing transparency; choices among different sources of evidence; the implications of new means of characterising and representing uncertainties; and ways in which policy and political processes affect what counts as authoritative evidence. We expect this exercise to identify important theoretical questions and to help improve the mutual understanding and effectiveness of those working at the interface of science and policy. PMID:22427809

  6. Choosing greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demerse, C.; Bramley, M.; Craig, L.

    2008-10-01

    There is a growing consensus in Canada that climate change needs to be addressed through concrete actions. The implementation of specific policies have been impeded by concerns over economic costs. However, uncertainty over the course of policy creates a cost since businesses have little idea how to factor future environmental policies into their planning. This report examined the policy tools that federal and provincial governments have at their disposal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, including carbon pricing (through cap-and-trade systems or carbon taxes), regulated standards, subsidies, infrastructure spending, research and development, and voluntary initiatives. In order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of these policy options, the study assessed them against a set of criteria that included environmental effectiveness, economic efficiency, fairness and cost-effectiveness. The report also reviewed the real-world experience with the implementation of these policy options in Canada and internationally. In particular, the report examined carbon pricing mechanisms in detail and explored the best ways to use revenues raised through carbon pricing, and the best options to mitigate any reduced international competitiveness that Canadian industries may encounter. The report concluded with a discussion of areas for further research. It was concluded that climate policy in Canada raises a host of jurisdictional questions that would benefit from further research. 7 tabs., 2 appendices

  7. Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learning Initiatives for Network Economies in Asia (LIRNEasia) : Building Capacity in ICT Policy ... LIRNEasia seeks to build capacity for evidence-based interventions in the public policy process by persons attuned to the ... Project status.

  8. Allergies And Asthma : Employing Principles Of Social Justice As A Guide In Public Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Behrmann

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The growing epidemic of allergy and allergy-induced asthma poses a significant challenge to population health. This article, written for a target audience of policy-makers in public health, aims to contribute to the development of policies to counter allergy morbidities by demonstrat- ing how principles of social justice can guide public health initiatives in reducing allergy and asthma triggers. Following a discussion of why theories of social justice have utility in analyzing allergy, a step-wise policy assessment protocol formulated on Rawlsian principles of social jus- tice is presented. This protocol can serve as a tool to aid in prioritizing public health initiatives and identifying ethically problematic policies that necessitate reform. Criteria for policy assess- ment include: 1 whether a tentative public health intervention would provide equal health ben- efit to a range of allergy and asthma sufferers, 2 whether targeting initiatives towards particu- lar societal groups is merited based on the notion of ‘worst-off status’ of certain population seg- ments, and 3 whether targeted policies have the potential for stigmatization. The article con- cludes by analyzing three examples of policies used in reducing allergy and asthma triggers in order to convey the general thought process underlying the use of the assessment protocol, which public health officials could replicate as a guide in actual, region-specific policy development.

  9. Local authorities in the context of energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comodi, Gabriele; Cioccolanti, Luca; Polonara, Fabio; Brandoni, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Several measures to boost the energy system towards a low-carbon future can be planned and implemented by local authorities, such as energy-saving initiatives in public buildings and lighting, information campaigns, and renewable energy pilot projects. This work analyzes the public administration's role in energy and climate policies by assessing carbon-lowering measures for properties and services managed directly by local governments in central Italy. Both short- and long-term schemes were considered in the analysis of local authority energy strategies. The MARKAL-TIMES energy model was applied to long-term energy planning to assess the effect of low-carbon initiatives on public-sector energy consumption up to 2030. Two energy scenarios were built, i.e. a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on current or soon-to-be-adopted national policies, and an Exemplary Public Scenario (EPS) including some further virtuous local policies suggested by local authorities. Our results show that a 20% primary energy reduction can be achieved with respect to the baseline year by means of short-term energy policies (5-year time span), while a primary energy saving of about 30% can be reached with longer-term energy policies (25-year time span), even after taking the increase in energy demand into account. This work goes to show the part that local governments can play in energy policy and their contribution to the achievement of climate goals. - Highlights: ► Assessment of Local Administration (LA) role in energy and climate policy. ► Analysis of both short-term and long-term carbon lowering measures. ► Use of MARKAL-TIMES model generator for long-term energy analysis. ► 20% primary energy reduction can be reached with short-term energy policies. ► 30% primary energy reduction can be reached with longer-term energy policies.

  10. Strategies and Policies for Space - Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, K.; Sridhara Murthy, K. R.; Sundararmiah, V.; Rao, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    Indian Space Program, which was established as government effort about three decades ago has become a major force in providing vital services for social and economic sectors in India in the fields of satellite telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological services and remote sensing of natural resources. Capabilities have been developed over the years, following a step-by-step process to develop and operate space infrastructure in India, including state-of-the-art satellites and satellite launch vehicles. In carrying out these developments, Indian Space Research Organisation, which is the national agency responsible for space activities under Government of India, develop policies and programs, which promoted industrial participation in variety of space activities including manufacture of space hardware, conduct of value added activities and provision of services involving space systems. Policy initiatives have also been taken recently to promote private sector participation in the establishment of Indian Satellite Systems for telecommunications. Strategic alliances have also been developed with international space industries for marketing of services such as remote sensing data. The paper traces evaluation of the policies towards development of industrial participation in space and future transition into commercial space enterprise. Policy issues concerning the national requirements vis-à-vis the international environment will also be discussed to analyze the strategies for international cooperation.

  11. Energy policy in Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidegaard, M.

    2012-12-15

    Denmark has a long tradition of active energy policy, initiated by the first oil crisis in 1973. Over the years, numerous actions have been taken on the basis of a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament - both in order to reduce the energy consumption and in order to increase the share of renewable energy. Now, the cornerstones for the Danish energy future have also been laid. The Danish Government has set the long-term goal to abandon fossil fuels by 2050. An important milestone was reached in March 2012 with an Energy Agreement for the period 2012-2020 - again based on a broad consensus in the Danish Parliament. This Agreement contains a wide range of ambitious initiatives, bringing Denmark a good step closer to the target of 100% renewable energy. In the present publication, a selection of past and present Danish energy policies is presented, together with the results achieved in terms of energy savings, use of renewables etc. (LN)

  12. Openness initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: open-quotes Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?close quotes To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts

  13. Openness initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, S.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Although antinuclear campaigns seem to be effective, public communication and education efforts on low-level radioactive waste have mixed results. Attempts at public information programs on low-level radioactive waste still focus on influencing public opinion. A question then is: {open_quotes}Is it preferable to have a program focus on public education that will empower individuals to make informed decisions rather than trying to influence them in their decisions?{close_quotes} To address this question, a case study with both quantitative and qualitative data will be used. The Ohio Low-Level Radioactive Waste Education Program has a goal to provide people with information they want/need to make their own decisions. The program initiated its efforts by conducting a statewide survey to determine information needed by people and where they turned for that information. This presentation reports data from the survey and then explores the program development process in which programs were designed and presented using the information. Pre and post data from the programs reveal attitude and knowledge shifts.

  14. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2004-01-01

    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...

  15. Moldova: Background and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2005-01-01

    .... policy makers, including trafficking in persons and weapons. This short report provides information and analysis on Moldova, including its political and economic situation, foreign policy, and on U.S...

  16. Think Tank Initiative - Hewlett Foundation | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation are collaborating on the Think Tank Initiative, a new program to strengthen independent think tanks and policy research centres in the developing world. These organizations provide critical input for the creation of effective public policy to promote growth and reduce ...

  17. 76 FR 49508 - ``Add Us In'' Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Disability Employment Program ``Add Us In'' Initiative AGENCY: Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor. ACTION: Correction to the Funding Opportunity Number and Closing Date. SUMMARY: The Office of Disability Employment Policy, Department of Labor...

  18. Initiative hard coal; Initiative Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonhardt, J.

    2007-08-02

    In order to decrease the import dependence of hard coal in the European Union, the author has submitted suggestions to the director of conventional sources of energy (directorate general for energy and transport) of the European community, which found a positive resonance. These suggestions are summarized in an elaboration 'Initiative Hard Coal'. After clarifying the starting situation and defining the target the presupposition for a better use of hard coal deposits as raw material in the European Union are pointed out. On that basis concrete suggestions for measures are made. Apart from the conditions of the deposits it concerns thereby also new mining techniques and mining-economical developments, connected with tasks for the mining-machine industry. (orig.)

  19. Mobile Health Initiatives in Vietnam: Scoping Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jeffrey A; Dang, Linh Thuy; Phan, Ngoc Tran; Trinh, Hue Thi; Vu, Nguyen Cong; Nguyen, Cuong Kieu

    2018-04-24

    Mobile health (mHealth) offers a promising solution to the multitude of challenges the Vietnamese health system faces, but there is a scarcity of published information on mHealth in Vietnam. The objectives of this scoping study were (1) to summarize the extent, range, and nature of mHealth initiatives in Vietnam and (2) to examine the opportunities and threats of mHealth utilization in the Vietnamese context. This scoping study systematically identified and extracted relevant information from 20 past and current mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. The study includes multimodal information sources, including published literature, gray literature (ie, government reports and unpublished literature), conference presentations, Web-based documents, and key informant interviews. We extracted information from 27 records from the electronic search and conducted 14 key informant interviews, allowing us to identify 20 mHealth initiatives in Vietnam. Most of the initiatives were primarily funded by external donors (n=15), while other initiatives were government funded (n=1) or self-funded (n=4). A majority of the initiatives targeted vulnerable and hard-to-reach populations (n=11), aimed to prevent the occurrence of disease (n=12), and used text messaging (short message service, SMS) as part of their intervention (n=14). The study revealed that Vietnamese mHealth implementation has been challenged by factors including features unique to the Vietnamese language (n=4) and sociocultural factors (n=3). The largest threats to the popularity of mHealth initiatives are the absence of government policy, lack of government interest, heavy dependence on foreign funding, and lack of technological infrastructure. Finally, while current mHealth initiatives have already demonstrated promising opportunities for alternative models of funding, such as social entrepreneurship or private business models, sustainable mHealth initiatives outside of those funded by external donors have not yet been

  20. Lifelong Learning Policy in Two National Contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    in different life phases. In this paper I discuss the state of lifelong learning policy in two European societies with different educational contexts, histories, system models and development issues, Denmark and Portugal. As part of the paper will give a brief overview of EU policies and initiatives...... in the area of lifelong learning and discuss how national policies in the two contexts are influenced by EU policies and funding....

  1. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K. Langenhan

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  2. The Urban Leaders Adaptation Initiative: Climate Resilient Local Governments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, J. G.

    2008-12-01

    Adaptation Initiative will equip CCAP partners with the knowledge and tools to get started on planning and implementing adaptation measures. Drawing on the best and brightest state, local and national policy experts, it will recommend a comprehensive set of actions that will enable the federal government to support local resiliency efforts. Toward that end, CCAP has identified three core principles for national climate adaptation policy: 1. National climate policy should support state and local adaptation planning and implementation, such as through use of cap-and-trade allowance auction proceeds; 2. Federal agencies should provide adaptation assistance to state and local governments, including regional impact assessments, downscaled climate model data, updated flood maps, planning tools, drought early warning, and implementation guidance; and 3. A national climate service and extension network needs to be established to aid local governments implementing resilience measures in collaboration with universities, companies and technical experts around the country.

  3. Teacher Leadership: Federal Policy Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Jackie; Young, Margaret; Broin, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief was developed specifically for federal policymakers, and builds upon the policy recommendations included in "Leading from Every Seat: Empowering Principals to Cultivate Teacher Leadership for School Improvement." The recommendations in this report include the following: (1) Uncover New Leadership Ideas and Seed…

  4. A microeconomic perspective on the role of efficiency and equity criteria in designing natural resource policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Kaine

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Deliberating on policy design to manage natural resources with clarity and precision is a difficult task, even for professional and highly experienced policy practitioners. These difficulties are exacerbated by confounding the crafting of policy instruments to change resource use (a behavioral matter related to resource management with the consequential issue of who bears the cost of changing resource use (an equity matter. The confounding of behavioral and equity issues is not surprising because equity is commonly suggested as a criterion in the literature on policy instrument choice, and inequity in access to resources may also be one of the initial drivers of policy intervention. Here, we restate the microeconomic analysis of "open access" resources and highlight the fundamental difference between efficiency (including allocative inefficiency and equity that emerges from that analysis. We then discuss the implications of this difference for the choice of policy instruments to resolve problems in natural resource management, at least for instruments that entail changing the behavior of primary producers. This discussion is centered on three key decisions for formulating policy: (1 choosing the preferred portfolio of uses for a natural resource, (2 choosing a policy instrument to change that portfolio, and (3 choosing a mechanism to distribute the costs of change fairly. To illustrate how these decisions may play out in a real-world example, we apply the decisions to a freshwater policy process in New Zealand. By articulating the distinction, microeconomics draws distinctions between efficiency and equity as policy objectives. Linking that distinction with the Tinbergen's principle regarding the matching of instruments to objectives, we aim to reduce the conflation of the decision-making criteria employed in policy formulation decisions. In doing so, we hope to assist policy makers to avoid policy failure by reducing the potential for the

  5. 14 CFR 1213.102 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INFORMATION MEDIA § 1213.102 Policy. (a) NASA, a scientific and technical Agency, is committed to a culture of... culture of openness, NASA employees may, consistent with this policy, speak to the press and the public... Policy Directives). Examples of information not releasable under this policy include, without limitation...

  6. National Policies for cleaning up contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, S.A.; Jörgens, H.; Lenschow, A.; Liefferink, D.

    2014-01-01

    Policies for the remediation of contaminated sites emerged relatively late as a subfield of environmental protection. The policy area is adjacent to other policies, such as waste policy, which often includes provisions on how to deal with waste dumps, as well as soil and groundwater protection

  7. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  8. Application of a calibrated/validated Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender model to assess sediment and nutrient delivery from the Wildcat Creek Mississippi River Basin Initiative – Cooperative Conservation Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Wildcat Creek, a tributary to the Wabash River was identified by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) as a priority watershed for its high sediment and nutrient loading contributions to the Mississippi River. As part of the Mississippi River Basin Initiative (MRBI), the incorpo...

  9. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  10. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background: The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP). The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods: A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = "grossly inadequate," 4 = "very adequate" was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A one-day evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results: The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF]) and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research evidence synthesis by each

  11. The argument for pharmaceutical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-02-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how pharmaceutical policy is made; pharmaceutical policy as a dynamic process; and the new public health as a global issue. The article ends with a short description of the remaining five articles in the series which will deal with important aspects of pharmaceutical policy. The topics include: economic pressures on health care systems; drug utilization from the clinical viewpoint (rational use of medicines); the impact of pharmaceutical policy on patients and the patient impact on pharmaceutical policy; the professional perspective; and finally the last article which deals with studying and evaluating pharmaceutical policy.

  12. Proposed purchasing, employment and training policies for northern projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    Manitoba Hydro is about to embark on a major construction project in the northern part of the province. Important considerations involved in this project include purchasing the necessary materials, products, and services, and employing a suitable work force. An outline is presented of draft policies being considered by Manitoba Hydro to enhance northern-aboriginal and northern participation in its future development projects in northern Manitoba. The policies are presented in four sections: purchasing for northern construction and operation activities; training and employment for construction of a generation station and expansion of a converter station; training and employment for construction of a major north-south transmission line; and training and employment for northern operations and maintenance work at existing facilities. Aspects of these policies include giving preference in purchasing to northern and aboriginal businesses, training initiatives and employee counselling for aboriginal employees, and hiring preferences directed toward northern aboriginals and northern residents

  13. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    This article uses Arctic Winter 2016 as an exploration site of values and futures in Greenland. By taking a valuation approach where the creation and interpretation of event values are seen as an ongoing and taxing accomplishment, we firstly expand the understanding of events beyond their actual...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...... planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...

  14. Underrepresented communities: including the Portuguese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research article emanates from a doctoral study which investigated the potential inclusion of the records generated by South African Portuguese community-based organisations into a workable archival collecting initiative of the community. The specific purpose of this article is to report on the current status of ...

  15. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  16. CEP energy policy : Policy 917

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-10-01

    Some of the environmental challenges facing the world in the twenty-first century are energy and global warming. Vital human needs such as warmth, light and transportation require energy, which is also required in the production of goods. Absent from the debate concerning the energy industry and its efforts to stop climate change is the voice of energy workers. Previous policies from the Communications, Energy and Paperworkers Union of Canada (CEP) were replaced by this policy document. After providing a brief introduction, the document tackled global challenge: climate change. The following section dealt with global challenge: corporate rule. Canada's energy industries were examined from the workers' perspective, and the state of Canada's energy reserves was discussed. From national policies to national betrayal was the title of the following section of the document. Energy de-regulation and privatization was discussed, and an argument was made for a Canadian energy policy. The industrial policy was explored, as was the environment. A transition to sustainability was examined. refs

  17. Integrated community case management for childhood illnesses: explaining policy resistance in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juma, Pamela A; Owuor, Karen; Bennett, Sara

    2015-12-01

    There has been a re-emphasis recently on community health workers to provide child health care services including integrated community case management for childhood illness (iCCM). This research analysed iCCM policy development in Kenya and in particular the types of decision-making criteria used by Kenyan policy-makers in considering whether to advance iCCM policy. Data were collected through document reviews (n = 41) and semi-structured interviews (n = 19) with key stakeholders in iCCM policy including government officials, development partners, bilateral donors, and civil society organizations. Initial analysis was guided by the policy triangle with further analysis of factors affecting policy decision-making drawing upon a simple framework developed by Grindle and Thomas (Policy makers, policy choices and policy outcomes: the political economy of reform in developing countries. 1989; Policy Sci 22: :213-48.). Policy development for iCCM has been slow in Kenya, compared with other Sub-Saharan African countries. At the time of the study, the Government had just completed the Community Health Training Manual which incorporated iCCM as a module, but this was the only formal expression of iCCM in Kenya. We found technical considerations, notably concerns about community health workers dispensing antibiotics to be a key factor slowing iCCM policy development, but this also overlapped with bureaucratic considerations, such as how the development of community health worker cadres may affect clinicians, as well as initial concerns about how an integrated approach might affect vertically oriented programs. International actors through agreements such as the Millennium Development Goals helped to get child survival onto the national policy agenda and such actors were active promoters of iCCM policy change. However international funders had not committed funding to scale-up iCCM policy, and this probably constrained their influence over iCCM policy debate. Kenyan actors

  18. Climate policy: Bucket or drainer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, Vlasis; Patel, Martin; Worrell, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide, industry is responsible for about 40% of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, making it an important target for climate policy. Energy-intensive industries may be particularly vulnerable to higher energy costs caused by climate policy. If companies cannot offset rising energy costs and would face increased competition from countries without climate policy, they may decide to relocate their industrial production to the countries without climate policy. The resulting net effect of climate policy on GHG emissions in foreign countries is typically referred to as 'carbon leakage'. Carbon leakage may lead to higher global GHG emissions due to the use of less advanced technology in less developed countries. Based on a literature review of climate policy, earlier environmental policy and analyses of historical trends, this paper assesses the carbon leakage effects of climate policy for energy-intensive industries. Reviews of past trends in production location of energy-intensive industries show an increased global production share of Non-Annex 1 countries. However, from empirical analyses we conclude that the trend is primarily driven by regional demand growth. In contrast, climate policy models show a strong carbon leakage. Even though future climate policy may have a more profound impact than environmental policies in the past, the modelling results are doubtful. Leakage generally seems to be overestimated in current models, especially as potential positive spillovers are often not included in the models. The ambiguity of the empirical analyses and the modelling results warrants further research in the importance of production factors for relocation

  19. Smart roadside initiative : user manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document provides the user instructions for the Smart Roadside Initiative (SRI) applications including mobile and web-based SRI applications. These applications include smartphone-enabled information exchange and notification, and software compo...

  20. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  1. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH CENTRE. Informed ... more evidence-based policy on social ... Community involvement is key to the success of CBMS in reducing poverty. IDRC ... nationwide network of “telecentres” that ... and holidays for young people to use for ... National Conference on Youth led to the.

  2. Vaccination Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, M.F.

    2013-01-01

    Vaccination involves priming the immune system with an antigenic agent that mimics a virus or bacterium, which results in immunity against the “real” microorganism. Collective vaccination policies have played an important role in the control of infectious disease worldwide. They can serve the

  3. Security and policy driven computing

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Lei

    2010-01-01

    Security and Policy Driven Computing covers recent advances in security, storage, parallelization, and computing as well as applications. The author incorporates a wealth of analysis, including studies on intrusion detection and key management, computer storage policy, and transactional management.The book first describes multiple variables and index structure derivation for high dimensional data distribution and applies numeric methods to proposed search methods. It also focuses on discovering relations, logic, and knowledge for policy management. To manage performance, the text discusses con

  4. New Cyber Policy Centres for the Global South | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-04-13

    Apr 13, 2018 ... The Cyber Policy Centres initiative was established in 2017 to strengthen independent policy research institutions in sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America by providing support and mentorship to build research and policy capacity in the key areas of digital rights, cybersecurity, and innovation policy.

  5. Perspective on renewable fuels policy April 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) has initiated a constructive dialogue on its ethanol policy, and the Canadian Petroleum Products Institute (CPPI) is supportive of the government's efforts in that regard and encourages this dialogue to continue. CPPI believes that it is important to provide sound information to policy makers. Before policy decisions are made, all stakeholders must be fully involved in the process and aware of the implications of the various options open for discussion. In this document, it is stated that significant additional government intervention in the form of higher subsidies and/or mandate is required to increase Canadian demand and push market penetration of fuel ethanol. One of the benefits from the utilization of ethanol fuel resides in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. However, the cost effectiveness of ethanol in terms of greenhouse gas emissions reductions indicates that other strategies are less expensive. It was mentioned that ethanol production technology requires a thorough evaluation. The situation in the United States is reviewed. Negotiations recently took place that produced a comprehensive proposal on renewable fuels, and includes: a renewable fuels mandate, funding for leaking underground storage tanks programs, maintenance of the toxic air pollution reductions, and a study of harmonization of Federal, state and local fuel requirements, among others. It was indicated that the Canadian situation is not reflected in this proposal, since most of the policy drivers for the American proposal are not relevant to the Canadian situation. The considerations for Canadian policy makers include two options: investment in production facilities that are widely distributed throughout the country, or transporting ethanol across vast distances at a higher cost. The conclusion calls for further federal and provincial intervention

  6. Real Estate Bubble Bursts and Government Policy during Crisis: Examples of Estonia, Ireland and Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmas Varblane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of current article is to view previous experience with real estate crises and taking into account such experience find suitable policy reactions to overcome the current Estonian crisis as smoothly as possible. Beside overall theoretical guidelines for overcoming the crisis, examples of Sweden and Ireland are viewed. The policy issues suggested for Estonia include some changes in tax laws, avoiding expansionary fiscal policy, making lending stricter and borrower responsible to higher extent, cooperation of different authorities to tackle problem of bad loans, initiating wage and price cut, paying more attention to exporting sector

  7. Background document for climate change policy options in Northern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents an initial compilation of background material in support of the development of climate change policy options for the jurisdictions of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut in Northern Canada. While Northern Canada contributes only a small fraction of the world's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, scientists forecast changes in average annual temperatures to be among the highest in the world. The Northern Climate Exchange at Yukon College was created in March 2001 to address this issue and to help guide northerners in what they can do now and in the future. This paper includes an annotated bibliography of a total of 75 international, national, and territorial policy documents and major reference documents relevant to climate change issues. It is meant to be a resource for researchers, policy analysts and government officials developing policy options and implementing programs for Northern Canada. While each of the three northern territories are at a different stage in the evolution of their climate change activities, they are all striving to develop strategies and action plans and to initiate the implementation of those plans. It is recognized that many long-standing programs and initiatives, particularly in the areas of energy efficiency and alternate energy, will help northern jurisdictions address their climate change objectives. The three territories are cooperating to deliver their message to the federal government. 75 refs., 4 figs

  8. How to deliver better policy integration?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Several challenges and possible ways forward in reconciling the delivery of energy policy goals including security and affordability are presented, based on the recent analyses by the International Energy Agency (IEA). This article addresses five topics: multiple challenging policy goals of the IEA’s 3 E’s (energy security, economic growth, and environmental sustainability); needs in the transformation to low carbon societies in the energy sectors; major policies and measures for energy sector transformation; multiple related policy goals and multiple benefits of energy efficiency policy; and realising climate and energy policy integration. Overall, this article explores how to better deliver climate and energy policy integration in the real world.

  9. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  10. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherny, N I; Cleary, J; Scholten, W; Radbruch, L; Torode, J

    2013-12-01

    Opioid analgesics are critical to the effective relief of cancer pain. Effective treatment is predicated on sound assessments, individually tailored analgesic therapy, and the availability and accessibility of the required medications. In some countries, pain relief is hampered by the lack of availability or barriers to the accessibility of opioid analgesics. As the follow-up to a successful project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids and regulatory barriers in Europe, the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) undertook to expand their research to those parts of the world where data were lacking regarding these aspects of care, in particular Africa, Asia, the Middle East, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the states of India. This project has been undertaken in collaboration with the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC), the Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) of the University of Wisconsin, and the World Health Organization (WHO), together with a consortium of 17 international oncology and palliative care societies. This article describes the study methodology.

  11. Alcohol industry corporate social responsibility initiatives and harmful drinking: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mialon, Melissa; McCambridge, Jim

    2018-04-25

    There is growing awareness of the detrimental effects of alcohol industry commercial activities, and concern about possible adverse impacts of its corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, on public health. The aims of this systematic review were to summarize and examine what is known about CSR initiatives undertaken by alcohol industry actors in respect of harmful drinking globally. We searched for peer-reviewed studies published since 1980 of alcohol industry CSR initiatives in seven electronic databases. The basic search strategy was organized around the three constructs of 'alcohol', 'industry' and 'corporate social responsibility'. We performed the searches on 21 July 2017. Data from included studies were analyzed inductively, according to the extent to which they addressed specified research objectives. A total of 21 studies were included. We identified five types of CSR initiatives relevant to the reduction of harmful drinking: alcohol information and education provision; drink driving prevention; research involvement; policy involvement and the creation of social aspects organizations. Individual companies appear to undertake different CSR initiatives than do industry-funded social aspects organizations. There is no robust evidence that alcohol industry CSR initiatives reduce harmful drinking. There is good evidence, however, that CSR initiatives are used to influence the framing of the nature of alcohol-related issues in line with industry interests. This research literature is at an early stage of development. Alcohol policy measures to reduce harmful drinking are needed, and the alcohol industry CSR initiatives studied so far do not contribute to the attainment of this goal.

  12. Sustainability Statement and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Education for Sustainable Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents nine resources that focus on environmental education and sustainability. These include: (1) "Sustainability Statement and Policy," Dalhousie University, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2009, which is available at http://office.sustainability.dal.ca/Governance; (2) "Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate…

  13. White House announces “big data” initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-04-01

    The world is now generating zetabytes—which is 10 to the 21st power, or a billion trillion bytess—of information every year, according to John Holdren, director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. With data volumes growing exponentially from a variety of sources such as computers running large-scale models, scientific instruments including telescopes and particle accelerators, and even online retail transactions, a key challenge is to better manage and utilize the data. The Big Data Research and Development Initiative, launched by the White House at a 29 March briefing, initially includes six federal departments and agencies providing more than $200 million in new commitments to improve tools and techniques for better accessing, organizing, and using data for scientific advances. The agencies and departments include the National Science Foundation (NSF), Department of Energy, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Department of Defense, and Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.

  14. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  15. International EUREKA: Initialization Segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    The Initialization Segment creates the starting description of the uranium market. The starting description includes the international boundaries of trade, the geologic provinces, resources, reserves, production, uranium demand forecasts, and existing market transactions. The Initialization Segment is designed to accept information of various degrees of detail, depending on what is known about each region. It must transform this information into a specific data structure required by the Market Segment of the model, filling in gaps in the information through a predetermined sequence of defaults and built in assumptions. A principal function of the Initialization Segment is to create diagnostic messages indicating any inconsistencies in data and explaining which assumptions were used to organize the data base. This permits the user to manipulate the data base until such time the user is satisfied that all the assumptions used are reasonable and that any inconsistencies are resolved in a satisfactory manner

  16. Projecting the effects of tobacco control policies in the USA through microsimulation: a study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Jeon, Jihyoun; Clarke, John; Gilkeson, Scott; Hall, Tim; Holford, Theodore R; Meza, Rafael

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death in the USA but can be reduced through policy interventions. Computational models of smoking can provide estimates of the projected impact of tobacco control policies and can be used to inform public health decision making. We outline a protocol for simulating the effects of tobacco policies on population health outcomes. Methods and analysis We extend the Smoking History Generator (SHG), a microsimulation model based on data from the National Health Interview Surveys, to evaluate the effects of tobacco control policies on projections of smoking prevalence and mortality in the USA. The SHG simulates individual life trajectories including smoking initiation, cessation and mortality. We illustrate the application of the SHG policy module for four types of tobacco control policies at the national and state levels: smoke-free air laws, cigarette taxes, increasing tobacco control programme expenditures and raising the minimum age of legal access to tobacco. Smoking initiation and cessation rates are modified by age, birth cohort, gender and years since policy implementation. Initiation and cessation rate modifiers are adjusted for differences across age groups and the level of existing policy coverage. Smoking prevalence, the number of population deaths avoided, and life-years gained are calculated for each policy scenario at the national and state levels. The model only considers direct individual benefits through reduced smoking and does not consider benefits through reduced exposure to secondhand smoke. Ethics and dissemination A web-based interface is being developed to integrate the results of the simulations into a format that allows the user to explore the projected effects of tobacco control policies in the USA. Usability testing is being conducted in which experts provide feedback on the interface. Development of this tool is under way, and a publicly accessible website is available at http

  17. Generic policy in Bulgaria: a policy of failure or success?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assena Stoimenova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Generic medicines play a key role in managing the financial resources for pharmaceuticals in every country. This study analysed the generic policy legislative framework in Bulgaria with the aim to identify whether the policy implementation can be considered successful in the light of an international review of such policies introduced in other countries, or on the contrary, it has failed to deliver the main benefits. Legislative analysis, desktop study and macroeconomic overview of the Bulgarian pharmaceutical market were included. The study showed that only 3 out of 11 important policy elements are implemented in the country. Bulgaria has one of the highest shares of generics, an average of 81.39% (volume, for the studied period (2006–2014. However, further research is needed to evaluate the success of the existing generic policy in Bulgaria, as the market share of generic drugs is not the only measure of the policy efficiency.

  18. Policy Capturing with Local Models: The Application of the AID technique in Modeling Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    or coding phases have upon the derived policy modelo . Particularly important aspects of these subtasks include: 1) Initial identification and coding of...in o c building pJha~sed a.ird the 1 50 a ~pli- atuls f the cr osi - vuljdatiof po[pulationl. Th.is iiicreasv iii aitr ilvatabl to Lxo ba sic fa ctu r

  19. Madagascar's future climate change intensified actions and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... actions and policy reforms: fostering local initiatives or business as usual? ... policies in Madagascar, and suggest that there may be fundamental flaws in ... However, World Bank statistics show that, in current terms, Madagascar was ...

  20. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  1. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  2. Environmental policy in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, Pamela M.; Barnes, Ian G.

    2000-09-01

    The development of environmental policy, including the policy making process, is analysed from an historical perspective. The authors then examine implementation and enforcement and present a critical appraisal of the impact of environment policy throughout Europe. Key issues discussed include: trade and the environment, environmental protection and the maintenance of industrial competitiveness, agriculture and the environment, energy and environmental policy, transport and the environment, tourism and the environment. (Author)

  3. The European Federation of Organisations for Medical Physics. Policy Statement No. 7.1: The roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist including the criteria for the staffing levels in a Medical Physics Department approved by EFOMP Council on 5th February 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephen; Christofides, Stelios; Brambilla, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This EFOMP Policy Statement is an amalgamation and an update of the EFOMP Policy Statements No. 2, 4 and 7. It presents guidelines for the roles, responsibilities and status of the medical physicist together with recommended minimum staffing levels. These recommendations take into account the ever-increasing demands for competence, patient safety, specialisation and cost effectiveness of modern healthcare services, the requirements of the European Union Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom laying down the basic safety standards for protection against the dangers arising from exposure to ionising radiation, the European Commission's Radiation Protection Report No. 174: "Guidelines on medical physics expert", as well as the relevant publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The provided recommendations on minimum staffing levels are in very good agreement with those provided by both the European Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Brazilian Biodiesel Policy: Social and environmental considerations of sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcez, Catherine Aliana Gucciardi; Vianna, Joao Nildo de Souza

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze the Brazilian Biodiesel Policy (PNPB) and to identify the social and environmental aspects of sustainability that are present or absent within it. Biofuels, namely alcohol and biodiesel, have been increasing in popularity on a global scale due to their potential as alternative and renewable energy sources. Brazil, a vast country blessed with abundant natural resources and agricultural land, has emerged as a global leader in the production of biofuels. This article includes a brief analysis of the concept of sustainable development, which served as a basis to evaluate the Policy documents. Although PNPB's implementation, which began in 2004, is still within its initial stage, it was possible to identify and elaborate on the environmental and social aspects of the Policy, namely: the social inclusion of family farmers; regional development; food security; influencing the carbon and energy balance of biodiesel; promoting sustainable agricultural practices and a diversity of feedstock. (author)

  5. Russian Initiatives in Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Sergeevich Shirin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research of Russian initiatives concerning its participation in international system of Internet governance. In the research, conceptual and theoretic basis for participation of state governments in Internet governance is given, academic discourse of this issue is assessed, the review of main Russian initiatives made from 2005 (since the second stage of the World Summit on Information Society till the present day is carried out. The conclusion is made that the most successful Internet governance initiative of Russia is the implementation of cyrillic top level domains. Much less successful are Russian attempts to reconstruct existing organizational structure of Internet governance. Russian policy is assessed as a policy of preferring loud statements and PR rather than real influence on development of Internet technologies. Russia consideres Internet as political resource and tries to increase its influence on decision making process on a political, not operational level of Internet governance. The author states that federal government of the United States of America has fully lost the control on the domain name systems. These functions are going to be given to the private sector, while ICANN, which was established according to the Memorandum of Understanding/Joint Project Agreement with U.S. Department of Commerce, is becoming a truly independent international organization. Considering this, the author comes to the conclusion that political transformations for the sake of Russia are already made. He also forecast that next initiatives of Russia will be directed to the segmentation of the Internet.

  6. From policy to reality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Kia; Reventlow, Susanne; Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores the structural barriers to preventive interventions targeting childhood obesity in the Danish health care system. Based on interviews with relevant health care professionals, the paper reports on the problems which are experienced by general practitioners and health......, and lack of resources together make it difficult for health care professionals to initiate interventions and reach the children in need of support. By analyzing the policy implementation process in a theoretical framework that discloses the discursive allocation of responsibilities, the study is able...

  7. Atomic energy policy of Japan, especially plutonium utilization policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriguchi, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The necessity of plutonium use in Japan is discussed. Basic policy regarding plutonium use and future plutonium utilization programme is described including such an aspect as management of plutonium from dismantled nuclear weapons

  8. POPULATION POLICY OR SOCIAL POLICY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREI STANOIU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available After 1989, the demographic situation of Romania population experienced a dramatic, very concerning and dangerous evolution trend. One of the first measures of the new political power was to abolish the very restrictive, anti-human and abusive legal regulation adopted in 1966 by the communist regime concerning abortion and the whole old demographic policy. As a result of this measure and of the worsening economic and social situation of the great majority of Romanian population, the birth rate declined sharply and, from 1992, the natural demographic growth rate became a negative one. The absolute number of Romanian population decreased more and more and, if nothing changes, in the next few decades it will be no bigger than 15 million people. At the same time, the process of demographic ageing of population will accentuate, generating serious problems from demographic and social-economic point of view, Taking into account the present demographic situation and, especially, the foreseen trend of evolution, it is more than clear that there should be taken some urgent, coherent and consistent measures in order to stop this dangerous demographic evolution, until it is not too late, and to avoid, as much as possible, a potential demographic disaster. The problem is: what kind of measures should be taken and what kind of policy should be adopted? Some social scientists believe that a new population policy should be adopted; some others believe that rather a social policy should be adopted. The purpose of my paper is to analyze this different opinions and to show that, behind the dispute on the terminology, should be taken consistent measures, at governmental level, in order to assure a substantial improvement of demographic situation, not only from a quantitative, but from a qualitative point of view as well, and to identify some of these kind of measures.

  9. Policy analysis: palliative care in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Larkin, P

    2014-03-01

    Palliative care for patients with advanced illness is a subject of growing importance in health services, policy and research. In 2001 Ireland became one of the first nations to publish a dedicated national palliative care policy. This paper uses the \\'policy analysis triangle\\' as a framework to examine what the policy entailed, where the key ideas originated, why the policy process was activated, who were the key actors, and what were the main consequences. Although palliative care provision expanded following publication, priorities that were unaddressed or not fully embraced on the national policy agenda are identified. The factors underlying areas of non-fulfilment of policy are then discussed. In particular, the analysis highlights that policy initiatives in a relatively new field of healthcare face a trade-off between ambition and feasibility. Key policy goals could not be realised given the large resource commitments required; the competition for resources from other, better-established healthcare sectors; and challenges in expanding workforce and capacity. Additionally, the inherently cross-sectoral nature of palliative care complicated the co-ordination of support for the policy. Policy initiatives in emerging fields such as palliative care should address carefully feasibility and support in their conception and implementation.

  10. Towards Agents for Policy Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The process of introducing new public policies is a complex one in the sense that the behavior of society at the macro-level depends directly on the individual behavior of the people in that society and ongoing dynamics of the environment. It is at the micro-level that change is initiated, that

  11. Review of energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-11-01

    Following the accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986, the 1986 Annual Delegate Conference of the Institution of Professional Civil Servants set up a Working Party to review the Institution's energy policy, including safety and environmental factors. The review is presented in two volumes as the basis for discussion by the members. Volume I is the main report. Section A, the introduction, includes a summary of the detailed conclusions and recommendations of the Working Party. Section B (chapters 4-12) concerns all aspects of nuclear power including fuel reprocessing and waste management. Section C (chapters 13-16) considers the alternatives to nuclear power and Section D (chapters 17-24) looks at the economic and social aspects of energy policy. The appendices, which contain the detailed technical and source information used by the Working Party in reaching its conclusions, are printed separately in Volume II. (UK)

  12. A national public health programme on gambling policy development in New Zealand: insights from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandai-Matchett, Komathi; Landon, Jason; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2018-03-06

    In New Zealand, a public health programme on gambling policy development is part of a national gambling harm reduction and prevention strategy mandated by the Gambling Act 2003. Funded by the Ministry of Health, the programme directs workplace/organisational gambling policies, non-gambling fundraising policies, and local council policies on electronic gaming machines (EGMs). We carried out a process evaluation of this programme to identify practical information (e.g. advocacy approaches; challenges and ameliorating strategies) that can be used by programme planners and implementers to reinforce programme effectiveness and serve to guide similar policy-focused public health initiatives elsewhere. Evaluation criteria, based on the programme's official service specifications, guided our evaluation questions, analysis and reporting. To identify informative aspects of programme delivery, we thematically analysed over 100 six-monthly implementer progress reports (representing 3 years of programme delivery) and transcript of a focus group with public health staff. Identified output-related themes included purposeful awareness raising to build understanding about gambling harms and the need for harm-reduction policies and stakeholder relationship development. Outcome-related themes included enhanced community awareness about gambling harms, community involvement in policy development, some workplace/organisational policy development, and some influences on council EGM policies. Non-gambling fundraising policy development was not common. The programme offers an unprecedented gambling harm reduction approach. Although complex (due to its three distinct policy focus areas targeting different sectors) and challenging (due to the extensive time and resources needed to develop relationships and overcome counteractive views), the programme resulted in some policy development. Encouraging workplace/organisational policy development requires increased awareness of costs to

  13. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2013-01-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these i...

  14. Legitimizing policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Martin Bak

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-)European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting......, upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social...

  15. Zero Tolerance Policy in Schools: Rationale, Consequences, and Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    Discusses theory/policies supporting zero tolerance policy in schools, including rational choice theory in criminology and national crime policies based on deterrence. Potential consequences of zero tolerance policy implementation are described and shown to involve outcomes similar to those identified by researchers studying national crime policy.…

  16. The Audit Logic: Policy Compliance in Distributed Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cederquist, J.G.; Corin, R.J.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele

    2006-01-01

    We present a distributed framework where agents can share data along with usage policies. We use an expressive policy language including conditions, obligations and delegation. Our framework also supports the possibility to refine policies. Policies are not enforced a-priori. Instead policy

  17. Public Procurement of Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolfstam, Max; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, Danish policy interest in public procurement has mainly been driven by efficiency and cost-effectiveness concerns. Public-procurement policies have in general focused on the utilisation of economies of scale as a Means of achieving lower prices on goods and services. Attempts...... to develop mandatory procurement systems have also been gradually developing, while the focus on innovation has been relatively modest in Danish procurement policies until recently. This picture is currently changing, as several initiatives emphasising public procurement as a means of stimulating innovation...... have been launched. Whether this gradual change of focus in Danish procurement policies will make a deep and lasting impact on the role of public procurement as a driver for innovationis, however, yet an open question....

  18. Benchmarking and Sustainable Transport Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Wyatt, Andrew; Gordon, Lucy

    2004-01-01

    Order to learn from the best. In 2000 the European Commission initiated research to explore benchmarking as a tool to promote policies for ‘sustainable transport’. This paper reports findings and recommendations on how to address this challenge. The findings suggest that benchmarking is a valuable...... tool that may indeed help to move forward the transport policy agenda. However, there are major conditions and limitations. First of all it is not always so straightforward to delimit, measure and compare transport services in order to establish a clear benchmark. Secondly ‘sustainable transport......’ evokes a broad range of concerns that are hard to address fully at the level of specific practices. Thirdly policies are not directly comparable across space and context. For these reasons attempting to benchmark ‘sustainable transport policies’ against one another would be a highly complex task, which...

  19. Evaluating Nigeria Cashless Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kket Eko Ewa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Central Bank of Nigeria introduced cashless policy initiative to accomplish two main macro-socio-economic policy objectives of increased convenience and greater financial inclusion in Nigeria. This study evaluates Nigeria cashless policy implementation using a four point Likert scale questionnaire administered to six hundred respondents. The results of the study show that the twin policy objectives investigated were partially achieved. Also the study reveals that social infrastructures in power and telecommunications need improvement and expansion and the need to create more awareness to encourage the unbanked to embrace banking culture. This study recommends vigorous investments on cyber security, strengthening of internet protocol and controls in the banks and enactment of relevant legislative laws to curb cybercrimes.

  20. OWNERSHIP POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Branovitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the ownership policy in Ukraine. It makes a survey of the following: the current situation at state-run enterprises and their efficiency; the key criteria of the classification of state-run enterprises for the privatization for the period of 2017-2020. The article evaluates the institutional changes coming from a new law on the privatization of state-owned property in Ukraine. It reveals the stages of making the ownership policy as a state strategy. It describes the measures meant to raise efficiency in the area of the public property management. The article assesses the state of play of the stock market in Ukraine as a mechanism to attract money to the real economy. It recommends attracting foreign investment to the public sector of economy following the restructuring process via IPO or sale to a strategic investor (Private equity. It considers the positive aspects in the completion of active privatization and the scope of the main privatization risks.

  1. 7 CFR 966.50 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 966.50 Section 966.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Regulation § 966.50 Marketing policy. Prior to or at the same time as initial...

  2. Policy, Protectionism and the Competent Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyness, Michael G.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the way recent childhood policy initiatives in Britain have generated contradictory models of child competence and adults' role, and attempts to locate policy within broader understandings of social change. Draws from case material on two dominant child care issues: child sex abuse and school deviance. (BGC)

  3. Girls' Education: The Power of Policy Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monkman, Karen; Hoffman, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Girls' education has been a focus of international development policy for several decades. The discursive framing of international organizations' policy initiatives relating to girls' education, however, limits the potential for discussing complex gender issues that affect the possibilities for gender equity. Because discourse shapes our…

  4. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  5. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  6. (including travel dates) Proposed itinerary

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok

    31 July to 22 August 2012 (including travel dates). Proposed itinerary: Arrival in Bangalore on 1 August. 1-5 August: Bangalore, Karnataka. Suggested institutions: Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. St Johns Medical College & Hospital, Bangalore. Jawaharlal Nehru Centre, Bangalore. 6-8 August: Chennai, TN.

  7. Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Gerlier Forest

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the many reasons that may limit the adoption of promising reform ideas, policy capacity is the least recognized. The concept itself is not widely understood. Although policy capacity is concerned with the gathering of information and the formulation of options for public action in the initial phases of policy consultation and development, it also touches on all stages of the policy process, from the strategic identification of a problem to the actual development of the policy, its formal adoption, its implementation, and even further, its evaluation and continuation or modification. Expertise in the form of policy advice is already widely available in and to public administrations, to well-established professional organizations like medical societies and, of course, to large private-sector organizations with commercial or financial interests in the health sector. We need more health actors to join the fray and move from their traditional position of advocacy to a fuller commitment to the development of policy capacity, with all that it entails in terms of leadership and social responsibility

  8. Oceanic implications for climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Ben I.

    2006-01-01

    Under the United Nations convention on the law of the sea (1982), each participating country maintains exclusive economic and environmental rights within the oceanic region extending 200 nm from its territorial sea, known as the exclusive economic zone (EEZ). Although the ocean within each EEZ is undoubtedly an anthropogenic CO 2 sink, it has been over-looked within international climate policy. In this paper I use an area-weighted scaling argument to show that the inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink within national carbon accounts would have significant implications in tracking national greenhouse commitments to any future climate change policy initiative. The advantages and disadvantages for inclusion of the EEZ CO 2 sink into global climate change policy are also explored. The most compelling argument for including the EEZ CO 2 sink is that it would enhance the equity and resources among coastal nations to combat and adapt against future climate change that will inherently impact coastal nations more so than land locked nations. If included, the funds raised could be used for either monitoring or adaptive coastal infrastructure among the most vulnerable nations. On the other hand, the EEZ anthropogenic CO 2 sink cannot be directly controlled by human activities and could be used as a disincentive for some developed nations to reduce fossil-fuel related greenhouse gas emissions. This may therefore dampen efforts to ultimately reduce atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. In consideration of these arguments it is therefore suggested that an 'EEZ clause' be added to Kyoto and any future international climate policy that explicitly excludes its use within national carbon accounts under these international climate frameworks

  9. Theory including future not excluded

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagao, K.; Nielsen, H.B.

    2013-01-01

    We study a complex action theory (CAT) whose path runs over not only past but also future. We show that, if we regard a matrix element defined in terms of the future state at time T and the past state at time TA as an expectation value in the CAT, then we are allowed to have the Heisenberg equation......, Ehrenfest's theorem, and the conserved probability current density. In addition,we showthat the expectation value at the present time t of a future-included theory for large T - t and large t - T corresponds to that of a future-not-included theory with a proper inner product for large t - T. Hence, the CAT...

  10. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative: 2010 and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitney, J.M.; LaMontagne, S.; Sunshine, A.; Lockwood, D.; Peranteau, D.; Dupuy, G.

    2010-01-01

    Strengthening the international safeguards system is a key element of the U.S. non-proliferation policy agenda as evidenced by President Obama's call for more 'resources and authority to strengthen international inspections' in his April 2009 Prague speech. Through programs such as the recently-launched Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the long standing U.S. Program of Technical Assistance to IAEA Safeguards, the United States is working to implement this vision. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration launched NGSI in 2008 to develop the policies, concepts, technologies, expertise, and international safeguards infrastructure necessary to strengthen and sustain the international safeguards system as it evolves to meet new challenges. Following a successful 2009, NGSI has made significant progress toward these goals in 2010. NGSI has recently completed a number of policy studies on advanced safeguards concepts and sponsored several workshops, including a second international meeting on Harmonization of International Safeguards Infrastructure Development in Vienna. The program is also continuing multi-year projects to investigate advanced non-destructive assay techniques, enhance recruitment and training efforts, and strengthen international cooperation on safeguards. In December 2010, NGSI will host the Third Annual International Meeting on International Safeguards in Washington, DC, which will draw together key stakeholders from government, the nuclear industry, and the IAEA to further develop and promote a common understanding of Safeguards by Design principles and goals, and to identify opportunities for practical application of the concept. This paper presents a review of NGSI program activities in 2010 and previews plans for upcoming activities. (author)

  11. Policy Actors: Doing Policy Work in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Stephen J.; Maguire, Meg; Braun, Annette; Hoskins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the "policy work" of teacher actors in schools. It focuses on the "problem of meaning" and offers a typology of roles and positions through which teachers engage with policy and with which policies get "enacted". It argues that "policy work" is made up of a set of complex and…

  12. NESDIS OSPO Data Access Policy and CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, M. G.; Donoho, N. A.; McNamara, D.; Paquette, J.; Renkevens, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Office of Satellite and Product Operations (OSPO) is the NESDIS office responsible for satellite operations, product generation, and product distribution. Access to and distribution of OSPO data was formally established in a Data Access Policy dated February, 2011. An extension of the data access policy is the OSPO Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Database, which has been in development since 2008 and is reaching a critical level of maturity. This presentation will provide a summary of the data access policy and standard operating procedure (SOP) for handling data access requests. The tangential CRM database will be highlighted including the incident tracking system, reporting and notification capabilities, and the first comprehensive portfolio of NESDIS satellites, instruments, servers, applications, products, user organizations, and user contacts. Select examples of CRM data exploitation will show how OSPO is utilizing the CRM database to more closely satisfy the user community's satellite data needs with new product promotions, as well as new data and imagery distribution methods in OSPO's Environmental Satellite Processing Center (ESPC). In addition, user services and outreach initiatives from the Satellite Products and Services Division will be highlighted.

  13. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  14. Environment, sustainability, and education policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, Marcia; Rickinson, Mark; Bengtssen, Stefan

    Introduction: This session is a two part symposium on the topic of environment and sustainability in relation to educational policy development, enactment, and analysis. This format is modeled on similar formats used in other international conferences, such as the Association of American...... and methodological approaches to policy and policy research. Some key questions to be addressed include:- What kinds of understandings of policy and policy research are informing work in environmental and sustainability education?- Are there interdisiplinary approaches to policy research that can be useful...... for furthering critical education policy analysis?- What are the relationships between policy development and its enactment or implementation? - To what extent has the environmental education field researched policy development and/or enactment?- What might environmental education research have to offer...

  15. Initial management of breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinusas, K; Gagliardi, A

    2001-09-15

    Breast milk is widely accepted as the ideal source of nutrition for infants. In order to ensure success in breastfeeding, it is important that it be initiated as early as possible during the neonatal period. This is facilitated by skin-to-skin contact between the mother and infant immediately following birth. When possible, the infant should be allowed to root and latch on spontaneously within the first hour of life. Many common nursery routines such as weighing the infant, administration of vitamin K and application of ocular antibiotics can be safely delayed until after the initial breastfeeding. Postpartum care practices that improve breastfeeding rates include rooming-in, anticipatory guidance about breastfeeding problems and the avoidance of formula supplementation and pacifiers.

  16. Nuclear policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, G.R.

    1976-01-01

    Then-President Gerald Ford outlines the potential benefits of nuclear power as opposed to the danger of proliferation. He points out that not all nations have the same interest or views toward nuclear energy; but also he says that if a choice must be made, nonproliferation objectives must take precedence over economic and energy benefits. It is pointed out that the management of nuclear energy can be only partial and temporary by technical measures, and that full management can result only if nations realistically face the task prepared to forego preconceived short-term advantages in favor of long-term gains. Coordination of the policies of all nations toward the common goal of nonproliferation is predicted to lead to success

  17. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-11-17

    equipment, including information technology , includes, but is not limited to, personal computers and related peripheral equipment and software, office...classified or Sensitive Unclassified Information through the Internet unless the Designated Approving Authority has approved the method of transmission in...writing. 2. Government office equipment, including Information Technology (IT), shall only be used for official purposes, except as specifically

  18. Towards a comparable carbon footprint for local initiatives: The FP7 project TESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    TESS (Towards European Societal Sustainability -- www.tess-transition.eu) is a three-year, European-wide research project. It aims to reach an understanding of the potential for community-led initiatives to help deliver a truly sustainable, low-carbon future. Transitions to low-carbon societies take place at multiple and complementary scales. Transition processes are highly dependent on the innovative potential of community-based initiatives and their articulation with appropriate institutional architecture. Community-based initiatives are potentially more adaptable and less constrained by current structural circumstances than top-down policies and can give impetus to large-scale and technology driven changes. TESS will provide an understanding on the upscaling possibilities of such high-potential community-based initiatives by addressing two main questions: What is the impact of community-based initiatives in terms of carbon reduction potential and economic effect? What institutional structures (values, policies and mechanisms) support these initiatives in persisting beyond the initial phase and moving into an acceleration phase, spreading desired impacts? Answers will be provided through (1) a novel measuring, reporting and verification (MRV) framework for benchmarking community-based initiatives. This will enable quantifiable, comparable and standardised evaluation, and (2) the identification of success factors for the emergence, persistence and diffusion of promising initiatives, including online initiatives. We will identify these initiatives through case studies across regions and sectors and produce a systemic understanding of their impact on societal transitions towards sustainability. Our research will be integrated and transdisciplinary, with the unique opportunity to bring together social and natural scientists to foster a transition towards European societal sustainability. Our work will feed into and extend the Climate Adapt database to facilitate

  19. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Vosick

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  20. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  1. Information management for global environmental change, including the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoss, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center

    1994-06-01

    The issue of global change is international in scope. A body of international organizations oversees the worldwide coordination of research and policy initiatives. In the US the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC) was established in November of 1993 to provide coordination of science, space, and technology policies throughout the federal government. NSTC is organized into nine proposed committees. The Committee on Environmental and Natural Resources (CERN) oversees the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program (USGCRP). As part of the USGCRP, the US Department of Energy`s Global Change Research Program aims to improve the understanding of Earth systems and to strengthen the scientific basis for the evaluation of policy and government action in response to potential global environmental changes. This paper examines the information and data management roles of several international and national programs, including Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s (ORNL`s) global change information programs. An emphasis will be placed on the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC), which also serves as the World Data Center-A for Atmospheric Trace Gases.

  2. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  3. State policies and internal migration in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberai, A S

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this discussion is to identify policies and programs in Asia that are explicitly or implicitly designed to influence migration, to investigate why they were adopted and how far they have actually been implemented, and to assess their direct and indirect consequences. For study purposes, policies and programs are classified according to whether they prohibit or reverse migration, redirect or channel migration to specific rural or urban locations, reduce the total volume of migration, or encourage or discourage urban in-migration. Discussion of each type of policy is accompanied by a description of its rationale and implementation mechanism, examples of countries in Asia that have recourse to it, and its intended or actual effect on migration. Several countries in Asia have taken direct measures to reverse the flow of migration and to stop or discourage migration to urban areas. These measures have included administrative and legal controls, police registration, and direct "rustication" programs to remove urban inhabitants to the countryside. The availability of public land has prompted many Asian countries to adopt schemes that have been labeled resettlement, transmigration, colonization, or land development. These schemes have been designed to realize 1 or more of the following objectives: to provide land and income to the landless; increase agricultural production; correct spatial imbalances in the distribution of population; or exploit frontier lands for reasons of national security. 1 of the basic goals of decentralized industrialization and regional development policies has been the reduction of interregional disparities and the redirection of migrations from large metropolitan areas to smaller and medium sized towns. To encourage industry to move to small urban locations initial infrastructure investments, tax benefits, and other incentives have been offered. Policies to reduce the overall volume of migration have frequently included rural

  4. A critical analysis of national policies, systems, and structures of patient empowerment in England and Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudioni, Markella; McLaren, Susan; Lister, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Comparison of patient empowerment (PE) policies in European countries can provide evidence for improvement and reform across different health systems. It may also influence patient and public involvement, patient experience, preference, and adherence. The objective of this study was to compare PE within national policies, systems, and structures in England and Greece for achieving integrated people-centered health services. We performed a critical search and review of policy and legislation papers in English and Greek languages. This included 1) general health policy and systems papers, 2) PE, patient and/or public involvement or patients' rights policy and legislation (1990-2015), and 3) comparative or discussion papers for England and/or Greece. A total of 102 papers on PE policies, systems, and structures were identified initially; 80 papers were included, in which 46 were policy, legislative, and discussion papers about England, 21 were policy, legislation, and discussion papers about Greece, and 13 were comparative or discussion papers including both the countries. In England, National Health Service policies emphasized patient-centered services, involvement, and empowerment, with recent focus on patients' rights; while in Greece, they emphasized patients' rights and quality of services, with recent mentions on empowerment. The health ombudsman is a very important organization across countries; however, it may be more powerful in Greece, because of the nonexistence of local mediating bodies. Micro-structures at trusts/hospitals are comparable, but legislation gives more power to the local structures in Greece. PE policies and systems have been developed and expressed differently in these countries. However, PE similarities, comparable dimensions and mechanisms, were identified. For both the countries, comparative research and these findings could be beneficial in building connections and relationships, contributing to wider European and international

  5. Policies for biosimilar uptake in Europe: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vulto, Arnold G.; Huys, Isabelle; Dylst, Pieter; Godman, Brian; Keuerleber, Simon; Claus, Barbara; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Slabý, Juraj; Šebesta, Robin; Laius, Ott; Karr, Allan; Beck, Morgane; Martikainen, Jaana E.; Selke, Gisbert W.; Spillane, Susan; McCullagh, Laura; Trifirò, Gianluca; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Mack, Asbjørn; Fogele, Antra; Viksna, Anita; Władysiuk, Magdalena; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Meshkov, Dmitry; Kalaba, Marija; Mencej Bedrač, Simona; Fürst, Jurij; Zara, Corrine; Skiöld, Peter; Magnússon, Einar; Simoens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background Across European countries, differences exist in biosimilar policies, leading to variations in uptake of biosimilars and divergences in savings all over Europe. Objectives The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different initiatives and policies that may influence the uptake of biosimilars in different European countries. Recommendations will be formulated on how to create sustainable uptake. Methods An overview of policies on biosimilars was obtained via a questionnaire, supplemented with relevant articles. Topics were organized in five themes: availability, pricing, reimbursement, demand-side policies, and recommendations to enhance uptake. Results In all countries studied, biological medicines are available. Restrictions are mainly dependent on local organization of the healthcare system. Countries are willing to include biosimilars for reimbursement, but for commercial reasons they are not always marketed. In two thirds of countries, originator and biosimilar products may be subjected to internal reference pricing systems. Few countries have implemented specific incentives targeting physicians. Several countries are implementing pharmacist substitution; however, the scope and rules governing such substitution tend to vary between these countries. Reported educational policies tend to target primarily physicians, whereas fewer initiatives were reported for patients. Recommendations as proposed by the different country experts ranged from the need for information and communication on biosimilars to competitive pricing, more support for switching and guidance on substitution. Conclusions Most countries have put in place specific supply-side policies for promoting access to biosimilars. To supplement these measures, we propose that investments should be made to clearly communicate on biosimilars and educate stakeholders. Especially physicians need to be informed on the entry and use of biosimilars in order to create trust. When physicians

  6. Policies for biosimilar uptake in Europe: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorkens, Evelien; Vulto, Arnold G; Huys, Isabelle; Dylst, Pieter; Godman, Brian; Keuerleber, Simon; Claus, Barbara; Dimitrova, Maria; Petrova, Guenka; Sović-Brkičić, Ljiljana; Slabý, Juraj; Šebesta, Robin; Laius, Ott; Karr, Allan; Beck, Morgane; Martikainen, Jaana E; Selke, Gisbert W; Spillane, Susan; McCullagh, Laura; Trifirò, Gianluca; Vella Bonanno, Patricia; Mack, Asbjørn; Fogele, Antra; Viksna, Anita; Władysiuk, Magdalena; Mota-Filipe, Helder; Meshkov, Dmitry; Kalaba, Marija; Mencej Bedrač, Simona; Fürst, Jurij; Zara, Corrine; Skiöld, Peter; Magnússon, Einar; Simoens, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Across European countries, differences exist in biosimilar policies, leading to variations in uptake of biosimilars and divergences in savings all over Europe. The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different initiatives and policies that may influence the uptake of biosimilars in different European countries. Recommendations will be formulated on how to create sustainable uptake. An overview of policies on biosimilars was obtained via a questionnaire, supplemented with relevant articles. Topics were organized in five themes: availability, pricing, reimbursement, demand-side policies, and recommendations to enhance uptake. In all countries studied, biological medicines are available. Restrictions are mainly dependent on local organization of the healthcare system. Countries are willing to include biosimilars for reimbursement, but for commercial reasons they are not always marketed. In two thirds of countries, originator and biosimilar products may be subjected to internal reference pricing systems. Few countries have implemented specific incentives targeting physicians. Several countries are implementing pharmacist substitution; however, the scope and rules governing such substitution tend to vary between these countries. Reported educational policies tend to target primarily physicians, whereas fewer initiatives were reported for patients. Recommendations as proposed by the different country experts ranged from the need for information and communication on biosimilars to competitive pricing, more support for switching and guidance on substitution. Most countries have put in place specific supply-side policies for promoting access to biosimilars. To supplement these measures, we propose that investments should be made to clearly communicate on biosimilars and educate stakeholders. Especially physicians need to be informed on the entry and use of biosimilars in order to create trust. When physicians are well-informed on the treatment options, further

  7. Policies for biosimilar uptake in Europe: An overview.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelien Moorkens

    Full Text Available Across European countries, differences exist in biosimilar policies, leading to variations in uptake of biosimilars and divergences in savings all over Europe.The aim of this article is to provide an overview of different initiatives and policies that may influence the uptake of biosimilars in different European countries. Recommendations will be formulated on how to create sustainable uptake.An overview of policies on biosimilars was obtained via a questionnaire, supplemented with relevant articles. Topics were organized in five themes: availability, pricing, reimbursement, demand-side policies, and recommendations to enhance uptake.In all countries studied, biological medicines are available. Restrictions are mainly dependent on local organization of the healthcare system. Countries are willing to include biosimilars for reimbursement, but for commercial reasons they are not always marketed. In two thirds of countries, originator and biosimilar products may be subjected to internal reference pricing systems. Few countries have implemented specific incentives targeting physicians. Several countries are implementing pharmacist substitution; however, the scope and rules governing such substitution tend to vary between these countries. Reported educational policies tend to target primarily physicians, whereas fewer initiatives were reported for patients. Recommendations as proposed by the different country experts ranged from the need for information and communication on biosimilars to competitive pricing, more support for switching and guidance on substitution.Most countries have put in place specific supply-side policies for promoting access to biosimilars. To supplement these measures, we propose that investments should be made to clearly communicate on biosimilars and educate stakeholders. Especially physicians need to be informed on the entry and use of biosimilars in order to create trust. When physicians are well-informed on the treatment

  8. Device including a contact detector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    arms (12) may extend from the supporting body in co-planar relationship with the first surface. The plurality of cantilever arms (12) may extend substantially parallel to each other and each of the plurality of cantilever arms (12) may include an electrical conductive tip for contacting the area......The present invention relates to a probe for determining an electrical property of an area of a surface of a test sample, the probe is intended to be in a specific orientation relative to the test sample. The probe may comprise a supporting body defining a first surface. A plurality of cantilever...... of the test sample by movement of the probe relative to the surface of the test sample into the specific orientation.; The probe may further comprise a contact detector (14) extending from the supporting body arranged so as to contact the surface of the test sample prior to any one of the plurality...

  9. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  10. The social policies of Lula's administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the initiatives taken by the Lula administration regarding social policies. To begin with, we describe the social reform process implemented by the governments that followed the redemocratization of Brazil. Then, we examine some indices showing the evolution of social conditions due to social policies practiced during the democratic period. Finally, we analyze the views about the social question predominant in the PT government, as well as the most appropriate policies to tackle such a question. We also discuss the present government's proposals and initiatives regarding the social area.

  11. Combat Wound Initiative program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojadinovic, Alexander; Elster, Eric; Potter, Benjamin K; Davis, Thomas A; Tadaki, Doug K; Brown, Trevor S; Ahlers, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher E; Andersen, Romney C; Burris, David; Centeno, Jose; Champion, Hunter; Crumbley, David R; Denobile, John; Duga, Michael; Dunne, James R; Eberhardt, John; Ennis, William J; Forsberg, Jonathan A; Hawksworth, Jason; Helling, Thomas S; Lazarus, Gerald S; Milner, Stephen M; Mullick, Florabel G; Owner, Christopher R; Pasquina, Paul F; Patel, Chirag R; Peoples, George E; Nissan, Aviram; Ring, Michael; Sandberg, Glenn D; Schaden, Wolfgang; Schultz, Gregory S; Scofield, Tom; Shawen, Scott B; Sheppard, Forest R; Stannard, James P; Weina, Peter J; Zenilman, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    The Combat Wound Initiative (CWI) program is a collaborative, multidisciplinary, and interservice public-private partnership that provides personalized, state-of-the-art, and complex wound care via targeted clinical and translational research. The CWI uses a bench-to-bedside approach to translational research, including the rapid development of a human extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) study in complex wounds after establishing the potential efficacy, biologic mechanisms, and safety of this treatment modality in a murine model. Additional clinical trials include the prospective use of clinical data, serum and wound biomarkers, and wound gene expression profiles to predict wound healing/failure and additional clinical patient outcomes following combat-related trauma. These clinical research data are analyzed using machine-based learning algorithms to develop predictive treatment models to guide clinical decision-making. Future CWI directions include additional clinical trials and study centers and the refinement and deployment of our genetically driven, personalized medicine initiative to provide patient-specific care across multiple medical disciplines, with an emphasis on combat casualty care.

  12. 42 CFR 405.803 - Initial determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initial determination. 405.803 Section 405.803....803 Initial determination. (a) Carriers make initial determinations regarding claims for benefits under Medicare Part B. (b) An initial determination for purposes of this subpart includes determinations...

  13. ACHP | Summary of the Preserve America Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Initiative Preserve America: Explore and Enjoy Our Heritage (logo) Summary of the Preserve America Initiative Preserve America is a White House initiative that encourages and supports community efforts to preserve and enjoy our priceless cultural and natural heritage. The goals of the initiative include a greater shared

  14. Initiating statistical maintenance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E. Kevin; Tuomi, Vesa; Rowley, Ian

    2007-01-01

    Since the 1980 s maintenance optimization has been centered around various formulations of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). Several such optimization techniques have been implemented at the Bruce Nuclear Station. Further cost refinement of the Station preventive maintenance strategy includes evaluation of statistical optimization techniques. A review of successful pilot efforts in this direction is provided as well as initial work with graphical analysis. The present situation reguarding data sourcing, the principle impediment to use of stochastic methods in previous years, is discussed. The use of Crowe/AMSAA (Army Materials Systems Analysis Activity) plots is demonstrated from the point of view of justifying expenditures in optimization efforts. (author)

  15. Energy policy and public administration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daneke, G.A.; Lagassa, G.K. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of both the centralized hard path and the decentralized soft path of renewable resources are discussed in terms of the relative effectiveness of energy policy initiatives in order to clarify a discussion that has tended to become polarized. The basic issues necessary for a balanced policy are examined and realistic strategies are suggested that will ensure the best possible energy future. The contributors to the 19 chapters examine possible energy sources and their relevant institutional and political constraints and opportunities. 6 figures, 8 tables, 330 references. (DCK)

  16. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  17. The New Federalism: State Policies Regarding Embryonic Stem Cell Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Nefi D; Golub, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    Stem cell policy in the United States is an amalgam of federal and state policies. The scientific development of human pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) triggered a contentious national stem cell policy debate during the administration of President George W. Bush. The Bush "compromise" that allowed federal funding to study only a very limited number of ESC derived cell lines did not satisfy either the researchers or the patient advocates who saw great medical potential being stifled. Neither more restrictive legislation nor expansion of federal funding proved politically possible and the federal impasse opened the door for a variety of state-based experiments. In 2004, California became the largest and most influential state venture into stem cell research by passing "Prop 71," a voter initiative that created a new stem cell agency and funded it with $3 billion. Several states followed suit with similar programs to protect the right of investigators to do stem cell research and in some cases to invest state funding in such projects. Other states devised legislation to restrict stem cell research and in five states, criminal penalties were included. Thus, the US stem cell policy is a patchwork of multiple, often conflicting, state and federal policies. © 2016 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics.

  18. Policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.

    1990-01-01

    The obstacles to bringing about consumer response to environmental dangers are particularly challenging for global problems like ozone depletion and the greenhouse effect. In this situation, there is the danger of what is commonly termed the tragedy of the commons, the ecological destruction that can occur from uncontrolled use of shared resources like the atmosphere. There is probably no country for which reductions in global warming provide an adequate economic incentive to reduce greenhouse gas emissions unilaterally, even though such action could yield substantial global benefits. From any one country's viewpoint, the costs of controlling emissions may exceed the benefits since, without international agreement, reductions achieved by one nation may be offset by another. Therefore, even though the entire world may be better off as a result of efforts to lower emissions, new economic incentives are necessary to lead the market to a socially efficient outcome. This paper describes the range of domestic and international policies that could be adopted to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and also discusses the results of modeling analyses of government actions that could reduce or increase such emissions

  19. STD Prevention Policies in the United States: Evidence and Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Leichliter, Jami S.; Seiler, Naomi; Wohlfeiler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Policies are an important part of public health interventions, including in the area of STD prevention. Similar to other tools used in public health, policies are often evaluated to determine their usefulness. Therefore, we conducted a non-systematic review of policy evidence for sexually transmitted disease prevention. Our review considers assessments or evaluations of STD prevention-specific policies, health care system policies, and other, broader policies that have the potential to impact...

  20. The policies of supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moher, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the nuclear non-proliferation element of the policies of supplier nations. These policies include economic, commercial, resource management, financial and technological aspects. The evolution of the nuclear export policies of supplier nations is considered. The challenges facing the non-proliferation regime are looked at. Finally, the progress made is reviewed. Although this has been considerable, further work is necessary and this is mentioned. The postscript assesses the situation following the successful Third NPT Review Conference held in 1985. (U.K.)

  1. Technology and international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-01-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  2. Technology and international climate policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Leon; Calvin, Kate; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Page; Wise, Marshall

    2009-05-01

    Both the nature of international climate policy architectures and the development and diffusion of new energy technologies could dramatically influence future costs of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper explores the implications of interactions between technology availability and performance and international policy architectures for technology choice and the social cost of limiting atmospheric CO2 concentrations to 500 ppm by the year 2095. Key issues explored in the paper include the role of bioenergy production with CO2 capture and storage (CCS), overshoot concentration pathways, and the sensitivity of mitigation costs to policy and technology.

  3. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  4. Management Matters. Selection Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important policy documents for a school library media center is the selection policy or the collection development policy. A well-developed selection policy provides a rationale for the selection decisions made by the school library media specialist. A selection policy represents the criteria against which a challenged book is…

  5. Research for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, Erica

    2010-01-01

    ... Explicit, implicit, and pragmatic dimensions of policy-maker's needs and context 31 Constraints on policy-makers 32 Deciphering trade-offs 33 The policy-problem: deciphering uncertainty and the problem of innovation 34 A tool for deciphering policy problems 35 The different components of the policy problem 37 Recommended reading 38 Case studies in...

  6. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Results: Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research ...

  7. Initiatives to Address Teacher Shortage. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonsdale, Michele; Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2003-01-01

    This paper is in response to an invitation from the Victorian Department of Education and Training to undertake a targeted review of effective teaching recruitment strategies. The paper provides a "snapshot" of what is happening in other States and Territories and in selected countries overseas. The main focus of the review is on the…

  8. Regional Opportunities and Policy Initiatives for New Venture Creation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); M.A. Carree (Martin); E. Santarelli (Enrico)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis paper investigates the determinants of new venture creation across industries and locations for 103 Italian provinces between 1997 and 2003. We allow for differences in regional opportunities across industries and investigate the impact of a range of factors on entrepreneurship in

  9. Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IWRA/IDRC webinar on climate change and adaptive water management. International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”... View moreIWRA/IDRC webinar on climate ...

  10. PROSPECTS OF THE REGIONAL INTEGRATION POLICY BASED ON CLUSTER FORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tsepilova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to develop the theoretical foundations of regional integration policy and to determine its prospects on the basis of cluster formation. The authors use such research methods as systematization, comparative and complex analysis, synthesis, statistical method. Within the framework of the research, the concept of regional integration policy is specified, and its integration core – cluster – is allocated. The authors work out an algorithm of regional clustering, which will ensure the growth of economy and tax income. Measures have been proposed to optimize the organizational mechanism of interaction between the participants of the territorial cluster and the authorities that allow to ensure the effective functioning of clusters, including taxation clusters. Based on the results of studying the existing methods for assessing the effectiveness of cluster policy, the authors propose their own approach to evaluating the consequences of implementing the regional integration policy, according to which the list of quantitative and qualitative indicators is defined. The present article systematizes the experience and results of the cluster policy of certain European countries, that made it possible to determine the prospects and synergetic effect from the development of clusters as an integration foundation of regional policy in the Russian Federation. The authors carry out the analysis of activity of cluster formations using the example of the Rostov region – a leader in the formation of conditions for the cluster policy development in the Southern Federal District. 11 clusters and cluster initiatives are developing in this region. As a result, the authors propose measures for support of the already existing clusters and creation of the new ones.

  11. Science policy up close

    CERN Document Server

    Marburger, John H

    2015-01-01

    In a career that included tenures as president of Stony Brook University, director of Brookhaven National Laboratory, and science advisor to President George W. Bush, John Marburger (1941 2011) found himself on the front line of battles that pulled science ever deeper into the political arena. From nuclear power to global warming and stem cell research, science controversies, he discovered, are never just about science. Science Policy Up Close" presents Marburger s reflections on the challenges science administrators face in the twenty-first century. In each phase of public service Marburger came into contact with a new dimension of science policy. The Shoreham Commission exposed him to the problem of handling a volatile public controversy over nuclear power. The Superconducting Super Collider episode gave him insights into the collision between government requirements and scientists expectations and feelings of entitlement. The Directorship of Brookhaven taught him how to talk to the public about the risks ...

  12. Policies for a renewable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter identifies changes needed in policies regarding the utilization of renewable energy sources. The topics of the chapter include financial and legal incentives, information needs, long range energy and economic policy, environmental issues as an impetus to commercialization of renewable energy sources, taxing use of fossil fuels, encouraging renewable energy use by electric utilities through least-cost planning, educating the public and providing technical assistance, research and development, and environmental regulation and monitoring

  13. Role for Occupational Therapy in Community Mental Health: Using Policy to Advance Scholarship of Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Lisa; Burson, Kathrine A; Januszewski, Celeste; Pitts, Deborah B; Preissner, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Occupational therapists must be aware of professional and policy trends. More importantly, occupational therapists must be involved in efforts to influence policy both for the profession and for the people they serve (Bonder, 1987). Using the state of Illinois as an example, this article reviews the policies and initiatives that impact service decisions for persons with psychiatric disabilities as well as the rationale for including occupational therapy in community mental health service provision. Despite challenges in building a workforce of occupational therapists in the mental health system, this article makes the argument that the current climate of emerging policy and litigation combined with the supporting evidence provides the impetus to strengthen mental health as a primary area of practice. Implications for scholarship of practice related to occupational therapy services in community mental health programs for individuals with psychiatric disability are discussed.

  14. Examining Practice Across International Policy Contexts: Organizational Roles and Distributed Leadership in the US and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornskov, Søren; Bjerg, Helle; Kelley, Carolyn

    nations (Lingard et al., 2016). The similarities in policy content include an increased focus on accountability for school teachers and leaders, augmented testing programs for students, and changes to the working or professional culture for teachers, leaders and other professions often achieved through...... are having on their respective contexts. In Denmark, the Ministry of Education introduced a major school reform in Fall 2014. The reform was the latest initiative in more than a decade of national educational policy marked by the increased focus on accountability, international ranking systems...... the policies that the Ministry of Education has recently issued, and promoting the necessary changes in their school. This policy-driven focus on school leadership aims to realize a scenario in which school principals are expected not only to work closely within the team of formally designated leaders...

  15. An interagency space nuclear propulsion safety policy for SEI - Issues and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A. C.; Sawyer, J. C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    An interagency Nuclear Safety Policy Working Group (NSPWG) was chartered to recommend nuclear safety policy, requirements, and guidelines for the Space Exploration Initiative nuclear propulsion program to facilitate the implementation of mission planning and conceptual design studies. The NSPWG developed a top level policy to provide the guiding principles for the development and implementation of the nuclear propulsion safety program and the development of Safety Functional Requirements. In addition, the NSPWG reviewed safety issues for nuclear propulsion and recommended top level safety requirements and guidelines to address these issues. Safety topics include reactor start-up, inadvertent criticality, radiological release and exposure, disposal, entry, safeguards, risk/reliability, operational safety, ground testing, and other considerations. In this paper the emphasis is placed on the safety policy and the issues and considerations that are addressed by the NSPWG recommendations.

  16. Childhood obesity policy: implications for African American girls and a nursing ecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique

    2013-01-01

    In the United States there is a prevalence of obesity among ethnic groups, especially African American girls. The author in this column examines through an ecological lens selected American federal, state, and city policies and program interventions aimed at reducing obesity. Specifically, the eating behavior of African American girls is discussed as a population subset for which significant gaps are present in current obesity policy and implementation. Policy recommendations should include parents as research has shown a significant relationship in the eating behaviors of African American girls and their parents. Opportunities for nurses in practice and research to test the effectiveness of family and community level policy and program initiatives that address the ecological perspectives of the adolescent environment are discussed.

  17. DOE`s radioactively - contaminated metal recycling: The policy and its implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, S.; Rizkalla, E.

    1997-02-01

    In 1994, the Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Restoration initiated development of a recycling policy to minimize the amount of radioactively-contaminated metal being disposed of as waste. During the following two years, stakeholders (including DOE and contractor personnel, regulators, members of the public, and representatives of labor and industry) were invited to identify key issues of concern, and to provide input on the final policy. As a result of this process, a demonstration policy for recycling radioactively-contaminated carbon steel resulting from decommissioning activities within the Environmental Management program was signed on September 20, 1996. It specifically recognizes that the Office of Environmental Management has a tremendous opportunity to minimize the disposal of metals as waste by the use of disposal containers fabricated from contaminated steel. The policy further recognizes the program`s demand for disposal containers, and it`s role as the major generator of radioactively-contaminated steel.

  18. Risk Implications of Energy Policy Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitzing, Lena

    papers and a working paper), based on a combination of micro-economic and policy analysis. Financial theory is used for the quantitative analysis of investment problems under uncertainty, including mean-variance portfolio theory, real option analysis, Monte Carlo simulations and time series analysis...... show, both qualitatively and quantitatively, that policy makers cannot neglect risk implications when designing RES support instruments without compromising either on effectiveness or cost-efficiency of energy policy. The central research questions are: how can risk implications of RES policy...... instruments be integrated into policy design, so that the policies provide adequate investment incentives? And can the consideration of such risk implications in policy design make overall energy policy more successful? These questions are answered in seven research papers (four journal papers, two conference...

  19. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  20. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non