WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy information spring

  1. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  2. Arab Spring vs. Zero Problems Policy Impact of the Arab Spring on Trade Expansion of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although Turkey has historically concentrated its trade with the European Union (EU it has diversified its trade markets with the neighbouring regions and different group of countries during the last decade. Among them, Arab countries have come into prominence. Especially, following the “zero problems with neighbours” policy (ZPN, pursued by Turkey since 2002, the trade volume with the Middle Eastern neighbours has increased faster than that with its traditional partners. Nevertheless so called “Arab Spring” has started to manifest its effects on this trend. It deteriorates not only the economies of the concerned countries but also Turkey’s trade expansion. This paper aims: (i to test through a gravity model the positive impacts of the ZPN policy and the negative impact of the Arab Spring on the trade expansion with the Spring Countries; and (ii to reveal the positive impact of the policy change and the negative impact of the uprising movements on the realization of trade potential by Turkey in the Spring Countries.

  3. Building Land Information Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2004-01-01

    of measurement science, spatial information, management, and land management. (2) To establish national professional associations which accommodate a modern interdisciplinary profile. (3) To assess the capacity needs in land administration and to develop the capacity needed at societal, institutional......The paper presents a conceptual understanding in the areas of Cadastre, Land Administration, and Land Management as a basis for building adequate land information policies. To develop this understanding the paper looks at each area as a system or an infrastructure designed for handling specific...... and judicial setting of the individual country. However, in spite of the different origins, the systems seem to merge into a global model serving some basic societal needs. The paper presents an outline of this development towards a global model for sustainable land administration infrastructures...

  4. Arab Spring vs. Zero Problems Policy Impact of the Arab Spring on the Trade Expansion of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Sorhun

    2016-01-01

    Spring” has started to manifest its effects on this trend. It deteriorates not only the economies of the concerned countries but also Turkey’s trade expansion. This paper aims: (i to test through a gravity model the positive impacts of the ZPN policy and the negative impact of the Arab Spring on the trade expansion with the Spring Countries; and (ii to reveal the positive impact of the policy change and the negative impact of the uprising movements on the realization of trade potential by Turkey in the Spring Countries.

  5. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2014-01-01

    by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation’s policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control systems or policies. We provide case studies showing how mechanical verification tools, i.e. modelchecking with MCMAS and interactive theorem proving...

  6. Nuclear deception: soviet information policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of the accident at the Chernobyl Unit 4 Reactor on information policies in the USSR is examined. The lack of an agreed-upon information policy and intraparty disagreement over domestic and foreign policy help to explain the delay in disclosure of the accident and conflicting statements concerning long-term health effects. A modest change in policy since Chernobyl has been noted: the willingness of Soviet spokespersons to discuss and debate issues with foreign correspondents, to publish sharply critical letters from citizens and a few foreign officials, and to provide many details about the nature and consequences of the accident

  7. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  8. Invalidating Policies using Structural Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammuller, Florian; Probst, Christian W.

    2013-01-01

    Insider threats are a major threat to many organisations. Even worse, insider attacks are usually hard to detect, especially if an attack is based on actions that the attacker has the right to perform. In this paper we present a step towards detecting the risk for this kind of attacks by invalida...... on these examples, the organisation can identify real attack vectors that might result in an insider attack. This information can be used to refine access control system or policies....... by invalidating policies using structural information of the organisational model. Based on this structural information and a description of the organisation's policies, our approach invalidates the policies and identifies exemplary sequences of actions that lead to a violation of the policy in question. Based...

  9. Economic Effects of Lifting the Spring Load Restriction Policy in Minnesota

    OpenAIRE

    Smalkoski, Brian; Li, Ning; Levinson, David

    2006-01-01

    Spring load restrictions (SLR) regulate the weight per axle carried by heavy trucks during the spring thaw period. This policy aims to reduce pavement damage caused by heavy vehicles and extend the useful life of roads, but it also imposes costs on the trucking industry due to detouring or increased number of truckloads. Although the policies have been implemented for many years, their resulting economic effect has been unclear. The Minnesota Local Road Research Board (LRRB) and the Minnesota...

  10. Staffing Policy for Solving the Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Tolstoy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Determining staffing policy implementation of information security tasks is given. The basic requirements that must be taken into account when developing policies are defined. The policy framework is determined and recommendations for the design of such policies are formulated. Requirements for the implementation of the policy are defined.

  11. Sources and Chronology of Nitrate Contamination of Spring Waters: Integrating Science and Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, B. G.; Stevenson, J. A.

    2002-12-01

    Human health and ecological concerns have arisen regarding spring waters in Florida as a steady increase in nitrate concentrations has been observed during the past 30 years. The extensive aesthetic, cultural, and recreational value of these springs, which also supply water for human consumption and support critical ecological habitats, could be threatened by the presence of nitrate. As part of the response to these concerns by the State of Florida, several research studies have used various chemical and isotopic tracers to determine sources of nitrate contamination and age of ground water discharging from springs. Since 1997, 60 water samples have been collected from 44 springs and analyzed for isotopic (15N, 3H/3He, 18O, 2H, 13C) and other chemical tracers (CFCs, major ions, dissolved gases, SF6). Delta 15N values of nitrate ranged from 2.6 to 12.9 per mil (median = 5.8 per mil) and indicated that nitrate in most spring waters originated from synthetic fertilizers. CFCs, 3H/3He, and SF6, used to estimate the residence time of ground water discharging from springs, indicated that spring-water ages ranged from 5 to 39 years. Concentrations of these multiple transient tracers are consistent with a two-component hydrologic model with mixtures of varying proportions of young water (less than 8 years) from the shallow part of the aquifer system and older water (20-50 years) from the deeper part of the flow system. Given residence times of 20-40 years for ground water discharging from most springs, it could take decades for nitrate concentrations to decrease to near background levels, even with immediate reductions in nitrogen inputs to the land surface. These research results are being used by the State of Florida to inform elected officials, water-resource mangers, and planners that decisions about land use today will affect the quality of ground water in springs for decades.

  12. Credibility of Policy Announcements Under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    1999-01-01

    In a simple macro-economic model, where the monetary authorities process superior information about a real shocks, the scope for an active stabilization policy is shown to depend on the credibility of the policy maker. Lack of credibility increases the need for an active stabilization policy...

  13. Do Economic Theories Inform Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    Adopting the (institutionalist) premise that ideas and the economic theories within which they are embedded influence policy, the dissertation investigates the influence of the Chicago School of antitrust analysis on the competition policy of the European Union (EU). The dissertation encapsulates...... three articles. The first article employs qualitative content analysis to assess whether and the extent to which the European Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition policy. It does so on the basis of current Commission Guidelines, Notices, and Block Exemption Regulations...... the Harvard School, the Freiburg School, and considerations for Single Market integration underpin EU merger control, in addition to the influence of the Chicago School. The analysis presented in the articles suggests that the Chicago School has exerted considerable influence over EU competition policy...

  14. State Policy Against Information War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shibaev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The most recent and effective method to resolve aconflict between countries is information war. Information warfare, i.e. propaganda, information sabotage, blackmail, could be more damaging than the effects of the traditional methods of war. The government must be prepared to prevent and counteract the bleeding-edge techniques of warfare that is to work out measures, to oppose enemy’s information weapons , to gain information superiority , to develop a society thatis immune to disinformation, to elaborate a concept of information warfare counteraction.The authors have examined both foreign and Russian sources of law which define the requirements for the government activities to oppose information warfare. They also refer to the opinions of foreign and Russian researchers, politicians and public figures who have commented on the concept and features of such political and legal constructs as information warfare and information weapons. The problem of information warfare must be identified as a profoundly serious and damaging threat. This paper provides the features of information warfare and the methods to resist it as well as the proposals to amend the domestic legislation to create conditions for an accurate understanding of this political and legal phenomenon. In addition, it points out that the amendment of the Information Security Doctrine is not sufficient to counterbalance the threat of information warfare. In a certain document it is necessary to recount all notions, requirements and methods for the government actions aimed to gradually change the situation, particularly, the development of sectoral (information security legislation, specialists training to be able to deal with informational and psychological aggression forming public opinion through the government-run mass media, etc.

  15. Information Sharing and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tsakiris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

  16. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  17. Information frictions and monetary policy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějka, Filip

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2012), s. 7-24 ISSN 1802-792X Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : nominal rigidity * information frictions * monetary economics Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.vsfs.cz/periodika/acta-2012-01.pdf

  18. Many-to-Many Information Flow Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldan, Paolo; Beggiato, Alessandro; Lluch Lafuente, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    of security levels, thus allowing to capture coordinated flows of information. The flow of information is expressed in terms of causal dependencies and the satisfaction of a policy is defined with respect to an event structure that is assumed to capture the causal structure of system computations. We suggest...

  19. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  20. 78 FR 7784 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Nomination Letters.... SUMMARY: The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee (Health IT Policy Committee) and gave the Comptroller General responsibility for...

  1. 78 FR 24749 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Appointment AGENCY... Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy Committee to make recommendations on the implementation of a nationwide health information technology...

  2. 78 FR 42945 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy... its 20 members. ARRA requires that one member have expertise in health information privacy and...

  3. Scientific Information Policy Board 90th Meeting

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2051371

    2017-01-01

    Gigi Rolandi, sitting in the middle, chairing his last meeting of the Scientific Information Policy Board before his retirement. Rolandi was the chairman of the board from March 2006 until April 2017, a period that has seen lots of dynamics within the field of authoring, publishing and librarianship - both at CERN and beyond. In the first row from left to right: Eckhard Elsen (Director of Research), Jens Vigen (Head Librarian) Gigi Rolandi (SIPB Chair), Anita Hollier (Archivist) and Urs Wiedemann (Theory). In the second row from left to right: Nikos Kasioumis (Invited speaker), Alexander Kohls (Invited speaker), Stella Christodoulaki (Invited speaker), Nick Ellis (Chair CREB), Clara Troncon (ACCU), Annette Holtkamp (Scientific Information Service), Tim Smith (IT) Brigitte Bloch-Devaux (non-LHC experiments), Constantinos Loizides (ALICE), Thierry Stora (Engineering), John Jowett (Beams), Arjan Verweij (Technology), Anne Gentil-Beccot (Scientific Information Service), Fergus Wilson (LHCb), Ludmila Marian (Invit...

  4. Climate policy, asymmetric information and firm survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagem, C.

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the effect of different domestic climate policy instruments under asymmetric information when the regulator wants to secure the survival of a specific firm. It is a well-known result from economic theory that emission taxes lead to a cost-effective distribution of abatement across polluters. However, if the regulator wants to ensure the survival of a specific firm, it may need to design policy instruments that reduce the firm's cost of complying with an emission tax regime. The climate policy instruments considered in this paper are tradable emission permits with distribution of free permits, emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy, and two types of voluntary agreements. It demonstrates first that if distributing free tradable permits shall have a preventing effect, the allocation of permits has to be made contingent on production. It further shows that a voluntary agreement where a specific abatement target is set by the regulator can prevent a shutdown but leads to lower welfare than the use of emission taxes in combination with a fixed subsidy. And finally it illustrates that a voluntary agreement designed as a menu of abatement contracts increases social welfare compared to an emission tax regime

  5. Innovation in information society policy : Rationale, policy mix and impact in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to explore how innovation has become more important in information society policy and what the implications are for policy design, policy coordination and policy evaluation. Design/methodology/approach - Against the background of European information society

  6. 78 FR 13301 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Spring Viremia of Carp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Collection; Spring Viremia of Carp; Import Restrictions on Certain Live Fish, Fertilized Eggs, and Gametes...: Spring Viremia of Carp; Import Restrictions on Certain Live Fish, Fertilized Eggs, and Gametes. OMB... an information collection associated with the regulations for the importation of live fish...

  7. Information Policy in the European Community: Balancing Protection and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillince, J. A. A.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses European Community policy relating to information technology and the information industry. Topics addressed include the information services industry; transborder information flow, including electronic mail, data owner responsibility, and software piracy; digital data networks; electronic data interchange; telecommunications; information…

  8. Information security policies and procedures a practitioner's reference

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2004-01-01

    INFORMATION SECURITY POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Introduction Corporate Policies Organizationwide (Tier 1) Policies Organizationwide Policy Document Legal Requirements Duty of Loyalty Duty of Care Other Laws and Regulations Business Requirements Where to Begin? Summary Why Manage This Process as a Project? Introduction First Things First: Identify the Sponsor Defining the Scope of Work Time Management Cost Management Planning for Quality Managing Human Resources Creating a Communications Plan Summary Planning and Preparation Introduction Objectives of Policies, Stand

  9. Informing climate policy given incommensurable benefits estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    2003-01-01

    Underlying individual positions in debates over climate policy are assessments of benefit and costs - sometimes explicit, but more often implicit. What should we be willing to pay in the near term to reduce human emissions, given our understanding of the value of climate impacts avoided? What actions are justified now to ease adaptation to change that may come in any event? Such assessments may reflect the viewpoint of one nation, a group like Annex B, or the sum of all nations. They may incorporate uncertainty in different ways, and include different assumptions about future behavior as it influences the marginal benefit of action today. But, however done, any recommendation of a limit on human influence in the long term, or of the level of current effort, implies a weighing-up of the benefits expected, for comparison with the costs to be borne. An ability to communicate about perceived benefits thus is essential for authorities seeking a common response to the threat of human-caused change. They need some shared conception of what is at stake in the choice of one level of effort or another, and a common terminology for incorporating these considerations into international negotiations and domestic decision-making. The frustration of OECD governments with the current state of benefit information is revealed in the ambitious set of objectives set for this benefits project (OECD, 2002). They seek recommendations on how to develop a framework to assess not only the costs but the benefits of climate strategies, to improve the accounting for benefits to facilitate goal-setting for international policies. Besides this focus on global benefits, the OECD also looks for results that are relevant to national policy-making and to the development of adaptation strategies. Particular attention is asked to problems of accounting for non-market benefits, along with the intersection of climate policy with developing country issues. It is appropriate that the OECD seeks a

  10. Anarchism & Educational Policy Studies; A Marxist View of Joel Spring's "The Sorting Machine."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlowitz, Marvin J.

    A critical analysis and interpretation of "The Sorting Machine" by Joel H. Spring is presented. The book, which uses a historical revisionist approach to trace the development and impact of the corporate-government-foundation network on the ideological orientation of the American educational system, makes its greatest contribution by…

  11. INFORMED POLICIES Sound policies foster progress The starting ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-26

    Oct 26, 2010 ... The value of the research IDRC has supported since 1970 is how it improves lives – by changing laws and attitudes, for instance, giving voice to the poor, increasing financial resources, making education more accessible. Sound policies are at the heart of that progress.

  12. 77 FR 27774 - Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Health Information Technology Policy Committee Vacancy AGENCY... American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) established the Health Information Technology Policy.... ADDRESSES: GAO: [email protected] . GAO: 441 G Street NW., Washington, DC 20548. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  13. Information systems security policies: a survey in Portuguese public administration

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Isabel Maria; Sá-Soares, Filipe de

    2010-01-01

    Information Systems Security is a relevant factor for present organizations. Among the security measures, policies assume a central role in literature. However, there is a reduced number of empirical studies about the adoption of information systems security policies. This paper contributes to mitigate this flaw by presenting the results of a survey in the adoption of Information System Security Policies in Local Public Administration in Portugal. The results are discussed in light of literat...

  14. Physical and Hydrological Meaning of the Spectral Information from Hydrodynamic Signals at Karst Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufoyer, A.; Lecoq, N.; Massei, N.; Marechal, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    Physics-based modeling of karst systems remains almost impossible without enough accurate information about the inner physical characteristics. Usually, the only available hydrodynamic information is the flow rate at the karst outlet. Numerous works in the past decades have used and proven the usefulness of time-series analysis and spectral techniques applied to spring flow, precipitations or even physico-chemical parameters, for interpreting karst hydrological functioning. However, identifying or interpreting the karst systems physical features that control statistical or spectral characteristics of spring flow variations is still challenging, not to say sometimes controversial. The main objective of this work is to determine how the statistical and spectral characteristics of the hydrodynamic signal at karst springs can be related to inner physical and hydraulic properties. In order to address this issue, we undertake an empirical approach based on the use of both distributed and physics-based models, and on synthetic systems responses. The first step of the research is to conduct a sensitivity analysis of time-series/spectral methods to karst hydraulic and physical properties. For this purpose, forward modeling of flow through several simple, constrained and synthetic cases in response to precipitations is undertaken. It allows us to quantify how the statistical and spectral characteristics of flow at the outlet are sensitive to changes (i) in conduit geometries, and (ii) in hydraulic parameters of the system (matrix/conduit exchange rate, matrix hydraulic conductivity and storativity). The flow differential equations resolved by MARTHE, a computer code developed by the BRGM, allows karst conduits modeling. From signal processing on simulated spring responses, we hope to determine if specific frequencies are always modified, thanks to Fourier series and multi-resolution analysis. We also hope to quantify which parameters are the most variable with auto

  15. European Union (EU Information Security Policies Türkay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkay Henkoğlu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of the European economy is strongly related to the use of Information andcommunication technologies (ICT and the transformation process of information society. However, because of the risks of ICT, people are anxious about using technology, which in turn retards the economic growth of countries all around the world. Therefore, especially in the last twenty years, information security issues have begun to gain importance in European Community (EC information policies, and many suggestions have been made related to these issues. The purpose of this study is to examine the main issues in EC information policies, the aims and the effects of these policies, and how they are implemented. The importance and scope of these policies were examined based on the McCumber information security model, which is a comprehensive and multidimensional information security model. In order to draw attention to the importance of information security issues in EC policies, a wide range of information sources are reviewed, including EC directives and agreements related to information security, the EC organizations responsible for making information security policies, and the literature concerning these issues. The findings of the study show that EC information security policies are seen as a vital part of economy and information societypolicies. In addition, the study shows that data protection directives have been updated regularly since 1995, which makes them suitable for the needs of today’s world.

  16. RCRA Programmatic Information Policy and Guidance

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes program policy and guidance documents that are used by the EPA regions, states, tribes and private parties to implement the hazardous waste...

  17. Policy, Procedures and Standards for Enterprise Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This policy establishes a standard approach for managing information produced by, funded by, or received per regulated reporting and/or federal-wide requirements and subsequently held or cataloged in information management systems by EPA.

  18. Information System Security: Army Web Site Administration, Policies, and Practices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Policy requires heads of DoD Components to establish a process to identify appropriate information for posting to Web sites and to review all information placed on publicly accessible Web sites...

  19. Sharing Remote and Local Information for Tracking Spring Breakup in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Whalen, D.; Fraser, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is the second largest on the Arctic Ocean, covering 13 000 km2. The annual flood regime in the delta is dominated by the spring snowmelt freshet and associated ice breakup, as water from the south arrives in the ice-covered delta and spreads over bottomfast and adjacent floating sea ice at the delta front. The complex processes of water-ice interaction, flow partitioning, and overbank flooding to replenish waters in 43 000 delta lakes threaten community, transportation, subsistence, and energy infrastructure in the delta. The annual breakup season is a time of rejuvenation, excitement, and anxiety for delta residents and stakeholders. To track the progress of breakup and meet the need for knowledge dissemination to the local communities, a Mackenzie-Beaufort breakup newsletter has been produced by Natural Resources Canada on a quasi-daily basis during the May-June spring flood season for 10 years, and distributed to an e-mail list that grew to over 300 subscribers. This provides near real-time tracking of water levels and breakup using on-line gauges (Environment Canada), daily MODIS satellite imagery (NASA), Landsat imagery (USGS) and intermittent radar imagery (various sources). In earlier years, information was also supplied from field programs operating in the delta during breakup, but changing priorities and funding have reduced the number of outside researchers present during these critical weeks. Meanwhile the number of local contributors has grown, providing observations and photographs to share with the local, regional and global readership. In this way the newsletter evolved into a two-way communication tool and community portal. The newsletter is a chronicle of each breakup season and a key resource for territorial and municipal managers, subsistence organizations, and emergency response agencies, with routine requests for specific imagery in areas of concern. With the completion of 10 years under the present model, we are exploring

  20. Public sector information access policies in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle Donker, F.M.

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age geo-information has become embedded in our daily lives, such as navigation systems, community platforms, real estate information and weather forecasts. Everybody uses geo-information for their day-to-day decision making. Therefore, access to geo-information is of vital importance

  1. Developing geographic information infrastructure : The role of information policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Loenen, B.

    2006-01-01

    Within information societies, information availability is a key issue affecting societyâs well being. The infrastructure underlying the foundation of the information society may be referred to as the information infrastructure. A geographic information infrastructure (GII) supports the information

  2. An efficient biological pathway layout algorithm combining grid-layout and spring embedder for complicated cellular location information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kaname; Nagasaki, Masao; Miyano, Satoru

    2010-06-18

    Graph drawing is one of the important techniques for understanding biological regulations in a cell or among cells at the pathway level. Among many available layout algorithms, the spring embedder algorithm is widely used not only for pathway drawing but also for circuit placement and www visualization and so on because of the harmonized appearance of its results. For pathway drawing, location information is essential for its comprehension. However, complex shapes need to be taken into account when torus-shaped location information such as nuclear inner membrane, nuclear outer membrane, and plasma membrane is considered. Unfortunately, the spring embedder algorithm cannot easily handle such information. In addition, crossings between edges and nodes are usually not considered explicitly. We proposed a new grid-layout algorithm based on the spring embedder algorithm that can handle location information and provide layouts with harmonized appearance. In grid-layout algorithms, the mapping of nodes to grid points that minimizes a cost function is searched. By imposing positional constraints on grid points, location information including complex shapes can be easily considered. Our layout algorithm includes the spring embedder cost as a component of the cost function. We further extend the layout algorithm to enable dynamic update of the positions and sizes of compartments at each step. The new spring embedder-based grid-layout algorithm and a spring embedder algorithm are applied to three biological pathways; endothelial cell model, Fas-induced apoptosis model, and C. elegans cell fate simulation model. From the positional constraints, all the results of our algorithm satisfy location information, and hence, more comprehensible layouts are obtained as compared to the spring embedder algorithm. From the comparison of the number of crossings, the results of the grid-layout-based algorithm tend to contain more crossings than those of the spring embedder algorithm due to

  3. Information centres: hyper-qualitative tool of Cogema's communication policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadeyron, P.

    1993-01-01

    The information centres are an indispensable link in the chain of Cogema's communication policy. They enable a complete adaptation to each visitor's different level of understanding and thus improve the quality of the transmission of information to a reduced, but totally sensitive, target. The information centres therefore represent ''quality'' tools which are complementary to other means of communication. Moreover, they emphasize Cogema's resolution to communicate and formalize its communication policy. (author)

  4. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  5. Information resources management for policy formulation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses the findings of a study conducted on the state of information resources management (IRM) in government ministries in Tanzania. The purpose of the study was to investigate and establish the extent to which the information resources management in the ministries reflect and support the process of ...

  6. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  7. Features of information policy in the Nordic countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Strunin

    2014-06-01

    A result of research features implementation of information policy in the Nordic countries it is possible to identify common characteristics of all the countries: access to information; create a national information potential; use of information resources in the national interest; create a common health information; promote international cooperation in the field of communication and information; warranty information sovereignty of the state; development of information infrastructure; development of e­government; enhance information literacy; use of ICT in all spheres of society – the economy, education, medicine and so on.

  8. Emergent information technologies and enabling policies for counter-terrorism

    CERN Document Server

    Popp, R

    2006-01-01

    Explores both counter-terrorism and enabling policy dimensions of emerging information technologies in national security After the September 11th attacks, "connecting the dots" has become the watchword for using information and intelligence to protect the United States from future terrorist attacks. Advanced and emerging information technologies offer key assets in confronting a secretive, asymmetric, and networked enemy. Yet, in a free and open society, policies must ensure that these powerful technologies are used responsibly, and that privacy and civil liberties remain protected. Emergent Information Technologies and Enabling Policies for Counter-Terrorism provides a unique, integrated treatment of cutting-edge counter-terrorism technologies and their corresponding policy options. Featuring contributions from nationally recognized authorities and experts, this book brings together a diverse knowledge base for those charged with protecting our nation from terrorist attacks while preserving our civil liberti...

  9. Information Sharing Policies for Coalition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Fundamenta Informaticae , 48(2,3):129–163, 2001. 8. R. Chisholm. Contrary-to-duty imperatives and deontic logic. Analysis, 24:33–36, 1963. 9. L. Cholvy...échange d’informations dans une coalition Contexte : coalitions et COP But d’un COP (Common Operational Picture) • représentation unique de la ...situation pour prise de décisions, à partir d’informations sur la situation corrélées, fusionnées puis enrichies Collecte et génération des

  10. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  11. Information communication technology policy and public primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to correlate Information Communication Technology with public primary schools' efficiency in Rwanda. The study employed the descriptive survey and descriptive co-relational design. One hundred and forty-four primary teachers participated in the study. The level of ICT was poor (M ...

  12. Three Essays on Information Security Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yubao

    2011-01-01

    Information security breaches pose a significant and increasing threat to national security and economic well-being. In the Symantec Internet Security Threat Report (2003), companies surveyed experienced an average of about 30 attacks per week. Anecdotal evidence suggests that losses from cyber-attacks can run into millions of dollars. The CSI-FBI…

  13. An Integrative Behavioral Model of Information Security Policy Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hoon Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members’ compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members’ attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1 the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members’ compliance with the information security policy, (2 the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3 the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training

  14. An integrative behavioral model of information security policy compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Yang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Sunyoung

    2014-01-01

    The authors found the behavioral factors that influence the organization members' compliance with the information security policy in organizations on the basis of neutralization theory, Theory of planned behavior, and protection motivation theory. Depending on the theory of planned behavior, members' attitudes towards compliance, as well as normative belief and self-efficacy, were believed to determine the intention to comply with the information security policy. Neutralization theory, a prominent theory in criminology, could be expected to provide the explanation for information system security policy violations. Based on the protection motivation theory, it was inferred that the expected efficacy could have an impact on intentions of compliance. By the above logical reasoning, the integrative behavioral model and eight hypotheses could be derived. Data were collected by conducting a survey; 194 out of 207 questionnaires were available. The test of the causal model was conducted by PLS. The reliability, validity, and model fit were found to be statistically significant. The results of the hypotheses tests showed that seven of the eight hypotheses were acceptable. The theoretical implications of this study are as follows: (1) the study is expected to play a role of the baseline for future research about organization members' compliance with the information security policy, (2) the study attempted an interdisciplinary approach by combining psychology and information system security research, and (3) the study suggested concrete operational definitions of influencing factors for information security policy compliance through a comprehensive theoretical review. Also, the study has some practical implications. First, it can provide the guideline to support the successful execution of the strategic establishment for the implement of information system security policies in organizations. Second, it proves that the need of education and training programs suppressing

  15. The Economic Value of Personal Information and Policy Implication

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jiin; Nam, Changi; Kim, Seongcheol

    2015-01-01

    Personal information is essential in an information-oriented society for societal development and as a valuable business resource. However, because of poor management and a lack of proper protection, leakage of personal information can take place over time, and the standard for compensation is not well established. In order to establish appropriate policies for its protection, we need to know the economic value of personal information. Using conjoint analysis, we analyze the potential value o...

  16. Informing versus nudging in environmental policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ölander, Folke; Thøgersen, John

    2014-01-01

    for the desired behaviour. The authors present three studies demonstrating how mental shortcuts, based on subtle cues in the context, unconsciously influence human decision-making, with important consequences for the environment. Two of our own studies illustrate the behavioural impacts of (a) anchoring (the......Information has not been proven a very successful means to promote voluntary behaviour change to protect the environment. On this backcloth, there is currently increasing interest in recommendations from behavioural economics focusing on making the choice architecture more facilitating...

  17. Empoderamiento juvenil y control policial informal

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Gerardo Gabaldón

    2015-01-01

    El artículo discute la aplicación de mecanismos altamentecoactivos de control social informal sobre la población juvenilpercibida como desviada o incluso rebelde, utilizando comomarco referencial la noción de vulnerabilidad vinculada acarencias asociadas a la indefinición de identidades, laatenuación de controles informales benignos, la insuficiencia oineficacia del control social formal, las debilidadessocioeconómicas y la exclusión social. Los datos empíricosprovienen, fundamentalmente, de ...

  18. Empoderamiento juvenil y control policial informal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gerardo Gabaldón

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo discute la aplicación de mecanismos altamentecoactivos de control social informal sobre la población juvenilpercibida como desviada o incluso rebelde, utilizando comomarco referencial la noción de vulnerabilidad vinculada acarencias asociadas a la indefinición de identidades, laatenuación de controles informales benignos, la insuficiencia oineficacia del control social formal, las debilidadessocioeconómicas y la exclusión social. Los datos empíricosprovienen, fundamentalmente, de estudios y diagnósticosvenezolanos de las últimas dos décadas, contextualizadosdentro de la perspectiva internacional sobre la vulnerabilidadjuvenil. Se sugieren mecanismos para reducir la aplicación de lacoacción informal con base en el empoderamiento juvenilasociado al incremento de la respetabilidad y reconocimientode identidades legítimas, particularmente frente a la policía que,como agencia de control social con amplias facultades deintervención situacional, estaría mayormente propensa a aplicarmedidas informales altamente coactivas para lograr suafirmación frente al desafío y obtener sometimiento.

  19. Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) for Better Health ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Research results have no value unless they are made available for due consideration by practitioners and policymakers. Scientific articles are not enough. There is need to package research results for a wider audience and to insure that the flow of information goes both ways, resulting in evidence-informed policy and ...

  20. Informality as a stepping stone: A search-theoretical assessment of informal sector and government policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Tümen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a model of sequential job search to understand the factors determining the effect of tax and enforcement policies on the size (i.e., employment share of informal sector. The focus is on the role of informal sector as a stepping stone to formal jobs. I argue that the stepping-stone role of informal jobs is an important concept determining how strongly government policies affect the size of informal sector. I measure the extent of the stepping-stone role with the intensity of skill accumulation in the informal sector. If informal jobs help workers acquire skills, gain expertise, and build professional networks for boosting the chances to switch to a formal job, then the size of informal sector is less sensitive to government policy. In this case, the option value of a job in informal sector will be high and a worker with an informal job will not rush to switch to a formal job when a policy encouraging formal employment is in effect. If, on the other hand, informal sector does not provide satisfactory training opportunities, then the size of informal sector becomes more sensitive to government policy. Calibrating the model to the Brazilian data, I perform numerical exercises confirming that the effect of government policy on the size of informal sector is a decreasing function of the intensity of skill acquisition in the informal sector.

  1. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  2. Uncertainty as Information: Narrowing the Science-policy Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Bradshaw

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Conflict and indecision are hallmarks of environmental policy formulation. Some argue that the requisite information and certainty fall short of scientific standards for decision making; others argue that science is not the issue and that indecisiveness reflects a lack of political willpower. One of the most difficult aspects of translating science into policy is scientific uncertainty. Whereas scientists are familiar with uncertainty and complexity, the public and policy makers often seek certainty and deterministic solutions. We assert that environmental policy is most effective if scientific uncertainty is incorporated into a rigorous decision-theoretic framework as knowledge, not ignorance. The policies that best utilize scientific findings are defined here as those that accommodate the full scope of scientifically based predictions.

  3. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    KAUST Repository

    Mahdavifar, Hessam

    2015-12-15

    It is known that global games with noisy sharing of information do not admit a certain type of threshold policies [1]. Motivated by this result, we investigate the existence of threshold-type policies on global games with noisy sharing of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a solution to a fixed point equation. Then, we show that for a sufficiently noisy environment, the functional fixed point equation leads to a contraction mapping, and hence, its iterations converge to a unique continuous threshold policy.

  4. Dynamics of evidence-informed health policy making in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Zaeem; Hafeez, Assad; Zafar, Shamsa; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-12-01

    Incorporating evidence is fundamental to maintaining the general acceptance and efficiency in public policies. In Pakistan, different actors-local and global-strive to facilitate the development of evidence-informed health policies. Effective involvement however, requires knowledge of the country-context, i.e. knowing the intricacies of how policies are formulated in Pakistan. Obtaining this knowledge is one of the key steps to making interventions impactful. We carried out a qualitative study to explore the environment of evidence-informed health policy in Pakistan. The study involved 89 participants and comprised three phases including: (1) literature review followed by a consultative meeting with key informants to explore the broad contours of policy formulation, (2) in-depth interviews with participants belonging to various levels of health system to discuss these contours and (3) a roundtable with experts to share and solidify the findings. Policy development is a slow, non-linear process with variable room for incorporation of evidence. Political actors dominate decisions that impact all aspects of policy, i.e. context, process and content. Research contributions are mostly influenced by the priorities of donor agencies-the usual proponents and sponsors of the generation of evidence. Since the devolution of health system in 2012, Pakistan's provinces continue to follow the same processes as before 2012, with little capacity to generate evidence and incorporate it into health policy. This study highlights the non-systematic, nearly ad hoc way of developing health policy in the country, overly dominated by political actors. Health advocates need to understand the policy process and the actors involved if they are to identify points of impact where their interaction with policy brings the maximum leverage. Moreover, an environment is needed where generation of data gains the importance it deserves and where capacities are enhanced for communicating and

  5. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  6. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up till today, eight years after the policy formulation, rural communities in Nigeria are yet to feel the impact of the implementation. Nothing has changed; neither a single infrastructure was deployed to rural communities nor the IT infrastructures. The information, digital and development gap that exists within rural and urban ...

  7. Government Policy in the Formal and Informal Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prado, Mauricio

    2011-01-01

    The paper quantitatively investigates, in general equilibrium, the interaction between the firms' choice to operate in the formal or the informal sector and government policy on taxation and enforcement, given a level of regulation. A static version of Ghironi and Melitz's (2005) industry model...

  8. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  9. Translanguaging in Self-Access Language Advising: Informing Language Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Fujimoto-Adamson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates language advising in a self-access center (SAC with the purpose of informing language policy. This center is located in a new Japanese university and has shifted from an initially teacher-imposed ‘English-only’ language policy into one which encourages “translanguaging” (Blackledge & Creese, 2010, p. 105 between the students’ and center advisors’ (termed as mentors in this center L1 (Japanese and their L2 (English. Data from audio-recordings of interaction with advisors and students and between students themselves, interviews with mentors, and student questionnaires all reveal how translanguaging occurs in practice and how it helps to create a learning space in which the “local, pragmatic coping tactics” (Lin, 2005, p. 46 of code-switching offer a more viable approach for learning than under its initial monolingual policy. Mentor interviews and student questionnaires indicate generally positive attitudes towards translanguaging; however, some students still favor an ‘English-only’ policy. Conclusions reveal that a looser language policy in the center is emerging in which mentors now guide students towards their own individualized language policies. It is argued in this paper that this “code choice” (Levine, 2011 in language use is therefore aligned more closely to the principles of student-direction in self-access use.

  10. Fair Information Principles of Brazilian Companies online privacy policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Zeni Marchiori

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to present the Fair Information Principles in the privacy policies of the websites of major Brazilian companies (according to the 2014 Forbes Magazine list. The check and analysis were supported by a checklist compiled from documents issued by the Federal Trade Commission and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and development. The study selected fourteen companies from a universe of twenty-five, considering the immediacy criterion of access to the privacy policy on their websites. The security (safeguards principle is the most widespread foundation at the privacy policies of the companies selected (existing in eight of the fourteen analyzed policies; and the principle of responsibility receives less adhesion due to the fact that it is not covered in any of the examined online privacy policies. The Sabesp Company presents the most complete privacy policy, considering the compliance with the Fair Information Principles when compared to the others perused, while WEG does not present any of the principles identified in the documental survey. As for e-commerce, the number of companies that assume some of the Principles is further reduced. For the selected universe the adherence to the Fair information Principles is still incipient, althought its use is not mandatory. An open discussion of the proposed Brazilian law about personal data protection should play an important role in creating further guidance on the subject. Additional studies in this subject should involve the perception of users, as well as a cutout of companies which target e-commerce, considering that an effective alignment with these principles and other guidelines are required in order to protect the user’s privacy and personal data in the web environment.

  11. The Impact of the Introduction of Web Information Systems (WIS) on Information Policies: An Analysis of the Canadian Federal Government Policies Related to WIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, Christine; Bergeron, Pierette

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis of the Canadian federal government information policies that govern its Web information systems (WIS) that was conducted to better understand how the government has adapted its information policies to the WIS. Discusses results that indicate new policies have been crafted to take into account the WIS context.…

  12. For a cyberspace information policy: advances, perspectives and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Amparo Villota Enríquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to describe and analyze the policies of information in cyberspace, both global and regionally, in different directions: programs, resolutions, and projects from the information sector. Likewise, an overview of the same is presented in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Through documentary analysis of the literature related to the topic, the article is based on a review of literature raised from scientific materials such as: books, thesis papers, dissertations, texts on internet sites and articles, resolutions, projects and decrees dealing with the same topic. As a result, cyberspace is conceptualized and its elements, dimensions, strategies and variations are characterized, by analyzing the information from cyberspace policy, based on the global stage to relate it, finally, to the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, with the idea of better addressing the problems. The cyberspace information policy experience a minor and slow process in the field of cyber war; resulting from the obstacle of international cooperation defined by the disparate ambitions of the State or region.

  13. Indigenous participation in an informal national indigenous health policy network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Mark J; Thomas, David P; Anderson, Ian P; Pattison, Philippa

    2011-08-01

    OBJECTIVE; To determine and describe the features of Indigenous participation in an informal national Indigenous health policy network. A questionnaire was administered during 2003-04. Through a snowball nomination process a total of 227 influential persons were identified. Of these, 173 received surveys of which 44 were returned, a return rate of 25%. These data were analysed to detect the existence of network groups; measure the degree of group interconnectivity; and measure the characteristics of bonds between influential persons. Demographic information was used to characterise the network and its groups. Indigenous people were integral to the network due to their high representation, their distribution throughout the 16 groups, and the interconnections between the groups. The network was demographically diverse and multiple relational variables were needed to characterise it. Indigenous and non-Indigenous people had strong ties in this network. Social network methods made visible an informal network where Indigenous and non-Indigenous people relate in a complex socio-political environment to influence national Indigenous health policy. What is known about the topic? The participation of Indigenous people is acknowledged as important in health, but there is criticism of the lack of real opportunities for Indigenous people to participate in national Indigenous health policy processes.

  14. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  15. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S.; Lentini, Pia E.; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M.; Burns, Emma L.; Driscoll, Don A.; Guja, Lydia K.; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L.

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  16. Guidelines for Using Movement Science to Inform Biodiversity Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Philip S; Lentini, Pia E; Alacs, Erika; Bau, Sana; Buckley, Yvonne M; Burns, Emma L; Driscoll, Don A; Guja, Lydia K; Kujala, Heini; Lahoz-Monfort, José J; Mortelliti, Alessio; Nathan, Ran; Rowe, Ross; Smith, Annabel L

    2015-10-01

    Substantial advances have been made in our understanding of the movement of species, including processes such as dispersal and migration. This knowledge has the potential to improve decisions about biodiversity policy and management, but it can be difficult for decision makers to readily access and integrate the growing body of movement science. This is, in part, due to a lack of synthesis of information that is sufficiently contextualized for a policy audience. Here, we identify key species movement concepts, including mechanisms, types, and moderators of movement, and review their relevance to (1) national biodiversity policies and strategies, (2) reserve planning and management, (3) threatened species protection and recovery, (4) impact and risk assessments, and (5) the prioritization of restoration actions. Based on the review, and considering recent developments in movement ecology, we provide a new framework that draws links between aspects of movement knowledge that are likely the most relevant to each biodiversity policy category. Our framework also shows that there is substantial opportunity for collaboration between researchers and government decision makers in the use of movement science to promote positive biodiversity outcomes.

  17. Ministry of health on facebook: an information policy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Moraes Moreira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growth of social networks on the internet is visible. Everywhere people use these tools on various places, either via desktop, laptop, tablet or smartphone. In Brazil, the most prominent network in recent years is Facebook, which reached 76 million users in June 2013, an unprecedented number in the country. The growth allowed governments to perceive this virtual space as a potential place to present their work and communicate with society. Objectives: The study goal is to observe how information has been publicized by the Ministry of Health through Facebook since 2010 (year of creation of the page until October 2013, taking as an analytical category the implemented information policy, in order to propose a discussion about democratization of access to health information. Methodology: case study; Non-participant observation, data collection and documental analysis. Results: The main issues addressed by the Ministry of Health on Facebook are organizational actions and government programs instead of posts with guidance for a healthy living style. Also noteworthy is the low interaction of the Ministry page moderators with the users profile. The study showed most of the questions and comments made by the public are not answered by the institutional body. Conclusions: Need of strengthening the mediaton process of the information policies from the Ministry of Health on Facebook.

  18. The Limits and Possibilities of International Large-Scale Assessments. Education Policy Brief. Volume 9, Number 2, Spring 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, David J.; Prusinski, Ellen L.

    2011-01-01

    The staff of the Center for Evaluation & Education Policy (CEEP) at Indiana University is often asked about how international large-scale assessments influence U.S. educational policy. This policy brief is designed to provide answers to some of the most frequently asked questions encountered by CEEP researchers concerning the three most popular…

  19. The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Parker, John R.

    2005-01-01

    of ?The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas?. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance......As a result of a resolution at the Seventh United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCCA) held in January 2001 in New York, a Special Forum was hosted by the Government of Mexico through INEGI at their headquarters in Aguascalientes on 26 and 27 October 2004 with a theme...... of developing land policies that effectively and efficiently incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures, including an understanding of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. This paper presents an overview...

  20. Integrating Information and Communication Technology for Health Information System Strengthening: A Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuki, Nuraidah; Ismail, Saimy; Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Ehsan, Fauziah Z; Chan, Chee-Khoon; Ng, Chiu-Wan

    2015-11-01

    Despite the high costs involved and the lack of definitive evidence of sustained effectiveness, many low- and middle-income countries had begun to strengthen their health information system using information and communication technology in the past few decades. Following this international trend, the Malaysian Ministry of Health had been incorporating Telehealth (National Telehealth initiatives) into national health policies since the 1990s. Employing qualitative approaches, including key informant interviews and document review, this study examines the agenda-setting processes of the Telehealth policy using Kingdon's framework. The findings suggested that Telehealth policies emerged through actions of policy entrepreneurs within the Ministry of Health, who took advantage of several simultaneously occurring opportunities--official recognition of problems within the existing health information system, availability of information and communication technology to strengthen health information system and political interests surrounding the national Multimedia Super Corridor initiative being developed at the time. The last was achieved by the inclusion of Telehealth as a component of the Multimedia Super Corridor. © 2015 APJPH.

  1. LCA as a decision support tool in policy making: the case study of Danish spring barley production in a changed climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niero, Monia; Ingvordsen, Cathrine Heinz; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2015-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) can support policy makers in the choice of the most effective measures to adapt to climate change in crop production. A case study involving spring barley cultivation in Denmark under changed climate conditions has been performed using primary data from future climate...... scenarios. We developed and applied a 3-step procedure based on combined contribution, scenario and uncertainty analyses. This approach can be useful to deal with uncertainty in scenario analysis for LCA of crop production in a changed climate, when the goal of the study is to suggest strategies...... for adaptation of crop cultivation practices towards low environmental impacts....

  2. European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network Representatives' Conceptions of the Role of Information and Communication Technologies Related to National Guidance Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Jaana; Vuorinen, Raimo; Ruusuvirta, Outi

    2016-01-01

    This article reports findings from a phenomenographic investigation into European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network representatives' conceptions of the role of information and communication technologies (ICT) related to national lifelong guidance policies. The role of ICT in relation to national lifelong guidance policies was conceived as (1)…

  3. Linking international trademark databases to inform IP research and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, P.

    2016-07-01

    Researchers and policy makers are concerned with many international issues regarding trademarks, such as trademark squatting, cluttering, and dilution. Trademark application data can provide an evidence base to inform government policy regarding these issues, and can also produce quantitative insights into economic trends and brand dynamics. Currently, national trademark databases can provide insight into economic and brand dynamics at the national level, but gaining such insight at an international level is more difficult due to a lack of internationally linked trademark data. We are in the process of building a harmonised international trademark database (the “Patstat of trademarks”), in which equivalent trademarks have been identified across national offices. We have developed a pilot database that incorporates 6.4 million U.S., 1.3 million Australian, and 0.5 million New Zealand trademark applications, spanning over 100 years. The database will be extended to incorporate trademark data from other participating intellectual property (IP) offices as they join the project. Confirmed partners include the United Kingdom, WIPO, and OHIM. We will continue to expand the scope of the project, and intend to include many more IP offices from around the world. In addition to building the pilot database, we have developed a linking algorithm that identifies equivalent trademarks (TMs) across the three jurisdictions. The algorithm can currently be applied to all applications that contain TM text; i.e. around 96% of all applications. In its current state, the algorithm successfully identifies ~ 97% of equivalent TMs that are known to be linked a priori, as they have shared international registration number through the Madrid protocol. When complete, the internationally linked trademark database will be a valuable resource for researchers and policy-makers in fields such as econometrics, intellectual property rights, and brand policy. (Author)

  4. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for enabling advanced traveler information services (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents policy considerations for Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Services, or EnableATIS. : EnableATIS is the traveler information element of the Dynamic Mobility Applications program, and it provides a framework to : develop mu...

  5. Spring in the Arab Spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, G.J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Column Gert Borg | Spring in the Arab Spring door dr. Gert Borg, onderzoeker bij Islam en Arabisch aan de Radboud Universiteit Nijmegen en voormalig directeur van het Nederlands-Vlaams Instituut Caïro Spring If, in Google, you type "Arab Spring" and hit the button, you get more than

  6. Land policy reform in Rwanda: A Catalyst for Land Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Step in geo-ICT application for data handling was achieved, despite a big gap in technical and skills capabilities. Since new land policy coincided with decentralization policy, we recommend research on parallel implementation of policies with some similar dimensions. Keywords: Land policy reform, organizational change, ...

  7. 28 CFR 20.35 - Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. (a) There is established a CJIS Advisory Policy Board, the purpose of which is to recommend to the FBI Director general policy with respect to the philosophy... Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE...

  8. Information Security Policy Modeling for Network Security Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Sergeevich Chernyavskiy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy management for network security systems (NSSs is one of the most topical issues of network security management. Incorrect configurations of NSSs lead to system outages and appearance of vulnerabilities. Moreover, policy management process is a time-consuming task, which includes significant amount of manual work. These factors reduce efficiency of NSSs’ utilization. The paper discusses peculiarities of policy management process and existing approaches to policy modeling, presents a model aimed to formalize policies for NSSs independently on NSSs’ platforms and select the most effective NSSs for implementation of the policies.

  9. SPRING 2016

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinberger, Jessica; Unknown, [Unknown

    SPRING 2016, 11th edition of the SPRING series, is a single-track event that was sponsored by the special interest group Security – Intrusion Detection and Response (SIDAR) of the German Informatics Society (GI). The purpose of SPRING is to provide young researchers the opportunity to discuss their

  10. Pro Spring Integration

    CERN Document Server

    Lui, M; Chan, Andy; Long, Josh

    2011-01-01

    Pro Spring Integration is an authoritative book from the experts that guides you through the vast world of enterprise application integration (EAI) and application of the Spring Integration framework towards solving integration problems. The book is:. * An introduction to the concepts of enterprise application integration * A reference on building event-driven applications using Spring Integration * A guide to solving common integration problems using Spring Integration What makes this book unique is its coverage of contemporary technologies and real-world information, with a focus on common p

  11. Framework Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Bobkov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to introduce reader to the Spring framework and describe it as a convenient tool for rapid application development and launching projects. It is necessary to grab the Spring issue in a broader context. That's why thesis is trying to note all the relevant technologies that are closely related to Spring, or which is Spring based on. The first step to understanding Spring is a basic knowledge of Java EE. Thesis presents the architecture of Java EE while arguing its flaws...

  12. Preservation of biological information in thermal spring deposits - Developing a strategy for the search for fossil life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M. R.; Des Marais, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Paleobiological experience on earth is used here to develop a search strategy for fossil life on Mars. In particular, the exploration of thermal spring deposits is proposed as a way to maximize the chance of finding fossil life on Mars. As a basis for this suggestion, the characteristics of thermal springs are discussed in some detail.

  13. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  14. Characterizing Volumetric Strain at Brady Hot Springs, Nevada, USA Using Geodetic Data, Numerical Models, and Prior Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinisch, E. C.; Feigl, K. L.; Cardiff, M. A.; Morency, C.; Kreemer, C.; Akerley, J.

    2017-12-01

    Time-dependent deformation has been observed at Brady Hot Springs using data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) [e.g., Ali et al. 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2016.01.008]. We seek to determine the geophysical process governing the observed subsidence. As two end-member hypotheses, we consider thermal contraction and a decrease in pore fluid pressure. A decrease in temperature would cause contraction in the subsurface and subsidence at the surface. A decrease in pore fluid pressure would allow the volume of pores to shrink and also produce subsidence. To simulate these processes, we use a dislocation model that assumes uniform elastic properties in a half space [Okada, 1985]. The parameterization consists of many cubic volume elements (voxels), each of which contracts by closing its three mutually orthogonal bisecting square surfaces. Then we use linear inversion to solve for volumetric strain in each voxel given a measurement of range change. To differentiate between the two possible hypotheses, we use a Bayesian framework with geostatistical prior information. We perform inversion using each prior to decide if one leads to a more geophysically reasonable interpretation than the other. This work is part of a project entitled "Poroelastic Tomography by Adjoint Inverse Modeling of Data from Seismology, Geodesy, and Hydrology" and is supported by the Geothermal Technology Office of the U.S. Department of Energy [DE-EE0006760].

  15. Expanding Protection Motivation Theory: The Role of Individual Experience in Information Security Policy Compliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Leigh Ann

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to make contributions to the area of behavioral information security in the field of Information Systems and to assist in the improved development of Information Security Policy instructional programs to increase the policy compliance of individuals. The role of an individual's experience in the context of…

  16. Spring Tire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Vivake M.; Benzing, Jim; Kish, Jim C.

    2011-01-01

    The spring tire is made from helical springs, requires no air or rubber, and consumes nearly zero energy. The tire design provides greater traction in sandy and/or rocky soil, can operate in microgravity and under harsh conditions (vastly varying temperatures), and is non-pneumatic. Like any tire, the spring tire is approximately a toroidal-shaped object intended to be mounted on a transportation wheel. Its basic function is also similar to a traditional tire, in that the spring tire contours to the surface on which it is driven to facilitate traction, and to reduce the transmission of vibration to the vehicle. The essential difference between other tires and the spring tire is the use of helical springs to support and/or distribute load. They are coiled wires that deform elastically under load with little energy loss.

  17. Analytical Technique of Selection of Constructive Parameters Pneumatichydraulic Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Tsipilev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article "Technique for Analytical Selection of Design Parameters of Pneumatichydraulic Springs concerns the ride smoothness of high-speed vehicles. Author of article Tsipilev A.A. is an assistant at chair "Multi-purpose Tracked Vehicles and Mobile Robots" of BMSTU. The article represents a synthesis of known information on the springing systems and an analysis of relation between spring design data and running gear. It describes standard units of running gear of vehicle in the context of springing systems. Classification of springing systems is considered. Modernization general policy for existing suspensions and prospects for creation of new ones are given. The article considers a design of various pneumatic-hydraulic springs to be set on domestic tracked vehicles. A developed technique allows us to have elastic characteristics of pneumatic-hydraulic springs of various types using these design data and kinematics of the running gear. The article provides recommendations to calculate characteristics of springing systems. The adequacy analysis of the given technique based on the comparison of real and rated characteristics of the existing suspension is conducted. This article can be useful to the experts dealing with springing systems of wheel and tracked vehicles.

  18. Just Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Konda, Madhusudhan

    2011-01-01

    Get a concise introduction to Spring, the increasingly popular open source framework for building lightweight enterprise applications on the Java platform. This example-driven book for Java developers delves into the framework's basic features, as well as advanced concepts such as containers. You'll learn how Spring makes Java Messaging Service easier to work with, and how its support for Hibernate helps you work with data persistence and retrieval. Throughout Just Spring, you'll get your hands deep into sample code, beginning with a problem that illustrates dependency injection, Spring's co

  19. Beginning Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Caliskan, Mert

    2015-01-01

    Get up to speed quickly with this comprehensive guide toSpring Beginning Spring is the complete beginner's guide toJava's most popular framework. Written with an eye towardreal-world enterprises, the book covers all aspects of applicationdevelopment within the Spring Framework. Extensive samples withineach chapter allow developers to get up to speed quickly byproviding concrete references for experimentation, building askillset that drives successful application development byexploiting the full capabilities of Java's latest advances. Spring provides the exact toolset required to build anent

  20. Interim policy on establishment and operation of internet open, anonymous information servers and services

    OpenAIRE

    Acting Dean of Computer and Information Services

    1995-01-01

    Purpose. To establish interim NPS general policy regarding establishment and operation of Open, Anonymous Information Servers and Services, such as World Wide Web (http), Gopher, Anonymous FTP, etc...

  1. The Encryption Export Policy Controversy: Searching for Balance in the Information Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Marcus S

    2000-01-01

    .... The federal government s encryption export policy highlights a complex information age issue involving seemingly insurmountable conflicts between national security, law enforcement, privacy, and business interests...

  2. Informing the Australian government on AT policies: ARATA's experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Emma L; Walker, Lloyd; Layton, Natasha; Astbrink, Gunela; Summers, Michael; De Jonge, Desleigh

    2015-05-01

    This article describes the development and dissemination of an evidence-based Policy Statement and Background Papers by the Australian Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology Association (ARATA). An experienced project team was engaged to conduct literature reviews and member consultations, develop resources and implement a targeted advocacy strategy that included a policy launch and meetings with government officials. The Policy Statement and Background Papers have enabled ARATA to represent the views of Assistive Technology (AT) Practitioners in consultations around the National Disability Insurance Scheme and other AT-related inquiries. In ARATA's experience, developing a policy statement and disseminating it through a targeted advocacy strategy is an effective way for a not-for-profit professional organisation to influence government policy. AT practitioners must consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. To be effective at a systemic level, AT practitioners must develop political awareness and an understanding of the drivers of policy. This case study provides a blueprint for AT practitioners and organisations in tackling policy change.

  3. Using Research Evidence to Inform Public Policy Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Charles; Kleinert, Harold; Sheppard-Jones, Kathleen; Hall, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The application of scientific data in the development and implementation of sound public policy is a well-established practice, but there appears to be less consensus on the nature of the strategies that can and should be used to incorporate research data into policy decisions. This paper describes the promise and the challenges of using research…

  4. How can land-use modelling tools inform bioenergy policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah C.; House, Joanna I.; Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.; Molnar, Andras; Valin, Hugo; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2011-01-01

    Targets for bioenergy have been set worldwide to mitigate climate change. Although feedstock sources are often ambiguous, pledges in European nations, the United States and Brazil amount to more than 100 Mtoe of biorenewable fuel production by 2020. As a consequence, the biofuel sector is developing rapidly, and it is increasingly important to distinguish bioenergy options that can address energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation from those that cannot. This paper evaluates how bioenergy production affects land-use change (LUC), and to what extent land-use modelling can inform sound decision-making. We identified local and global internalities and externalities of biofuel development scenarios, reviewed relevant data sources and modelling approaches, identified sources of controversy about indirect LUC (iLUC) and then suggested a framework for comprehensive assessments of bioenergy. Ultimately, plant biomass must be managed to produce energy in a way that is consistent with the management of food, feed, fibre, timber and environmental services. Bioenergy production provides opportunities for improved energy security, climate mitigation and rural development, but the environmental and social consequences depend on feedstock choices and geographical location. The most desirable solutions for bioenergy production will include policies that incentivize regionally integrated management of diverse resources with low inputs, high yields, co-products, multiple benefits and minimal risks of iLUC. Many integrated assessment models include energy resources, trade, technological development and regional environmental conditions, but do not account for biodiversity and lack detailed data on the location of degraded and underproductive lands that would be ideal for bioenergy production. Specific practices that would maximize the benefits of bioenergy production regionally need to be identified before a global analysis of bioenergy-related LUC can be accomplished. PMID

  5. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  6. 75 FR 10507 - Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; National Industrial Security Program Policy Advisory Committee (NISPPAC) AGENCY: National Archives and Records... individuals planning to attend must be submitted to the Information Security Oversight Office (ISOO) no later...

  7. 48 CFR 1552.211-79 - Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Policies for Information Resources Management. 1552.211-79 Section 1552.211-79 Federal Acquisition... Information Resources Management (OCT 2000) (a) Definition. Information Resources Management (IRM) is defined... includes both information itself, and the management of information and related resources such as personnel...

  8. Journal of Information and Knowledge Management: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Information Impact: Journal of Information and Knowledge Management (IIJIKM) is a Journal of Library and Information Science published in Nigeria. IIJIKM is a peer review journal for librarians, information scientists, information specialist, library educators and other related practitioners to report their ...

  9. A District's Use of Data and Research to Inform Policy Formation and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Andrew; Madura, John P.; Cox, Joshua; Carey, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study of a change initiative by the Syracuse (NY) City School District informs the question, "How do school boards and districts better use research and data to inform policy decisions?" Researchers used interviews and artifacts to describe how the district developed and implemented a new discipline policy, the Syracuse…

  10. Political rhetoric from Canada can inform healthy public policy argumentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Patrick B; McIntyre, Lynn; Anderson, Laura C; Mah, Catherine L

    2017-10-01

    Household food insecurity (HFI), insufficient income to obtain adequate food, is a growing problem in Canada and other Organisation of economic cooperation and development (OECD) countries. Government political orientations impact health policies and outcomes. We critically examined Canadian political rhetoric around HFI from 1995 to 2012 as a means to support effective healthy public policy argumentation. We analysed a data set comprised of Hansard extracts on HFI from the legislative debates of the Canadian federal and three provincial governments, using thematic coding guided by interpretivist theories of policy. Extracts were examined for content, jurisdiction, the political affiliation of the legislator speaking and governing status. Members of non-governing, or 'opposition' parties, dominated the rhetoric. A central hunger-as-poverty theme was used by legislators across the political spectrum, both in government and in opposition. Legislators differed in terms of policy approach around how income should flow to citizens facing HFI: income intervention on the left, pragmatism in the centre, reliance on markets on the right. This analysis is a case-example from Canada and caution must be exercised in terms of the generalizability of findings across jurisdictions. Despite this limitation, our findings can help healthy public policy advocates in designing and communicating HFI policy interventions in OECD countries with a similar left-right spectrum. First, even with a divisive health policy issue such as actions to address HFI, core themes around poverty are widely understood. Secondly, the non-polarizing centrist, pragmatist, approach may be strategically valuable. Thirdly, it is important to treat the rhetoric of opposition members differently from that of government members. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. An Exponential Increase in Regional Health Information Exchange With Collaborative Policies and Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, N Lance; Lane, Steven; Eisenberg, Mathew; Sharp, Christopher; Palma, Jonathan; Longhurst, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, the ability to securely exchange health information between organization has been limited by technical interoperability, patient identity matching, and variable institutional policies. Here, we examine the regional experience in a national health information exchange network by examining clinical data sharing between eleven Northern California organizations using the same health information exchange (HIE) platform between 2013-2014. We identify key policies and technologies that have led to a dramatic increase in health information exchange.

  12. Cryptography, Information Operations and the Industrial Base: A Policy Dilemma

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Horner, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    .... The explosive force of information technology places the Global Information Infrastructure, the worldwide industrial base and the various world governments in both mutually supporting and somewhat adversarial positions...

  13. A Study of the Effect of Information Security Policies on Information Security Breaches in Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, Stanie Adolphus

    2013-01-01

    Many articles within the literature point to the information security policy as one of the most important elements of an effective information security program. Even though this belief is continually referred to in many information security scholarly articles, very few research studies have been performed to corroborate this sentiment. Doherty and…

  14. Policy Issues in Meeting Rice Farmers Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Major constraints include lack of funds to acquire information (54.3%) and language barrier (50.5%). The result of the study also indicates a significant relationship between information type and preferred information package ( X2 = 27.96; p < 0.05), readiness to pay for information package (X2 =67.45;p < 05 ) and constraint ...

  15. Internationalisation of information services for publishers' open access policies: the DINI multilingual integration layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholze, Frank

    2008-01-01

    It is essential for the strategy of open access self-archiving that scientific authors are given comprehensive information on publisher copyright policies. DINI, the German Initiative for Networked Information, has developed a German (and potentially multilingual) interface to the English SHERPA/RoMEO service to provide additional information on German publishers' open access policies. As a next step, this interface was enhanced to an integration layer combining different sources on publisher copyright policies. This integration layer can be used in many different contexts. Together with the SHERPA/RoMEO team, DINI aims to build an international support structure for open access information. PMID:18662383

  16. Mathematical modelling informs HIV prevention policy in China ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-27

    Apr 27, 2016 ... IDRC-funded research is using mathematical modelling to influence local and national policies in China to reduce HIV transmission. Treatment as prevention Earlier research conducted under Modelling and controlling infectious diseases project showed that providing antiretroviral therapy (ART) to ...

  17. Informed policies for Europe’s health workforce of tomorrow.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batenburg, R.

    2010-01-01

    Although it is widely acknowledged that health workforce planning is critical for health care systems, it is probably one of the least strategically planned resources. One could argue that there are good reasons for this: demand and supply of the health labour market are in constant flux, and policy

  18. Think Tank Initiative to host African Evidence Informed Policy Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Location: Radisson Blu Hotel. Elgon Road, Upper Hill. Nairobi,. Kenya. There is extensive evidence demonstrating that development research, when done effectively, can improve public policy and accelerate development progress. However, experience also indicates that in many African countries, data, ...

  19. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  20. An Object-Oriented Information Model for Policy-based Management of Distributed Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diaz, G.; Gay, V.C.J.; Horlait, E.; Hamza, M.H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents an object-oriented information model to support a policy-based management for distributed multimedia applications. The information base contains application-level information about the users, the applications, and their profile. Our Information model is described in details and

  1. Evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation: a comparative case study of two national policies for improving health and social care in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlenert, H; Richter-Sundberg, L; Nyström, M E; Hasson, H

    2015-12-08

    Evidence has come to play a central role in health policymaking. However, policymakers tend to use other types of information besides research evidence. Most prior studies on evidence-informed policy have focused on the policy formulation phase without a systematic analysis of its implementation. It has been suggested that in order to fully understand the policy process, the analysis should include both policy formulation and implementation. The purpose of the study was to explore and compare two policies aiming to improve health and social care in Sweden and to empirically test a new conceptual model for evidence-informed policy formulation and implementation. Two concurrent national policies were studied during the entire policy process using a longitudinal, comparative case study approach. Data was collected through interviews, observations, and documents. A Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was developed based on prior frameworks for evidence-informed policymaking and policy dissemination and implementation. The conceptual model was used to organize and analyze the data. The policies differed regarding the use of evidence in the policy formulation and the extent to which the policy formulation and implementation phases overlapped. Similarities between the cases were an emphasis on capacity assessment, modified activities based on the assessment, and a highly active implementation approach relying on networks of stakeholders. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was empirically useful to organize the data. The policy actors' roles and functions were found to have a great influence on the choices of strategies and collaborators in all policy phases. The Conceptual Model for Evidence-Informed Policy Formulation and Implementation was found to be useful. However, it provided insufficient guidance for analyzing actors involved in the policy process, capacity-building strategies

  2. 78 FR 25521 - Notice for Data and Information Distribution Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... allow external users to connect (physically/logically) to authoritative sources of data/information. FAA... authoritative sources. (e.g. Aircraft Situation Display to Industry (ASDI), National Airspace System Status Information (NASSI)) Authoritative Source: The origin or creation of data or information that is recognized by...

  3. Policy Issues in Meeting Rice Farmers Agricultural Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    The study aimed at assessing rice farmers agricultural information needs ... especially in an information dependent sector like agriculture where there are new and rather complex problems facing farmers every day. The information .... to the fact that e-mail and internet are just beginning to make their make in rural areas.

  4. Finding electronic information for health policy advocacy: a guide to improving search results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsan, Tobie H; Bianchi, Carolanne; White, Pamela; Glessner, Theresa; Mapstone, Pamela L

    2011-12-01

    The success of advanced practice registered nurses' (APRNs') health policy advocacy depends on staying well informed about key issues. Searching for high-quality health policy information, however, can be frustrating and time consuming. Busy clinicians need strategies and tips to reduce information overload and to access synthesized research for evidence-based health policy. This article therefore offers APRNs practical guidelines and resources for searching electronic health policy information. Scholarly databases and Internet sites. Electronic health policy information is generated by a wide variety of public and private organizations and disseminated in hundreds of journals and Web pages. Specialty search tools are needed to retrieve the unindexed gray literature, which includes government documents, agency reports, fact sheets, standards, and statistics not produced by commercial publishers. Further, Internet users need to examine search results with a critical eye for information quality. Expertise in searching electronic health policy information is a prerequisite for developing APRNs' leadership in political arenas to influence health policy and the delivery of healthcare services. ©2011 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2011 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  5. Understanding and Informing the Policy Environment: State-Level Renewable Fuels Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, E.; Cory, K.; Arent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Renewable fuels standard (RFS) policies are becoming a popular public policy mechanism for developing the market for renewable fuels in the transportation sector. During the past decade, U.S. states and several countries began implementing these more market-based (less command and control) policies to support increased biofuels production and use. This paper presents an overview of current and proposed U.S. state-level policies, as well as selected electric sector policies and international fuel standard policies. Current U.S. state-level renewable fuel policies list drivers including an improved economy and environment, as well as fuel self-sufficiency. Best practices and experience from an evaluation of renewable portfolio standards (RPS) in the United States and international RFS policies can inform U.S. state-level policy by illustrating the importance of policy flexibility, binding targets, effective cost caps, and tradable permits. Understanding and building on the experiences from these previous policies can improve the policy mechanism and further develop a market for renewable fuels to meet the goals of improved economy, environment, and fuel self-sufficiency.

  6. Spring performance tester for miniature extension springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzbrenner, Bradley; Boyce, Brad

    2017-05-16

    A spring performance tester and method of testing a spring are disclosed that has improved accuracy and precision over prior art spring testers. The tester can perform static and cyclic testing. The spring tester can provide validation for product acceptance as well as test for cyclic degradation of springs, such as the change in the spring rate and fatigue failure.

  7. Accomplishing Water Strategy Policies in Hospitals: The Role of Management Information Systems and Managerial Styles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Naranjo-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Hospitals are using more sophisticated and comprehensive management information systems to implement multiple strategic policies towards water cost saving and water quality enhancement. However, they do not always achieve the intended strategic goals. This paper analyzes how managerial styles interact with sophisticated management information systems to achieve different water strategic priorities. How proactive vs. reactive managerial styles moderate the effects of management information systems on water cost saving and water quality enhancement is analyzed. Relationships are explored using data collected from 122 general services directors in Spanish public hospitals. The findings show a positive effect of sophisticated management information systems on the achievement of water policies focused on cost saving and quality enhancement. Results also show a different moderated effect of managerial styles; thus, sophisticated management information systems with a proactive managerial style facilitate managers to achieve better water quality policies rather than water cost saving policies.

  8. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical work and empirical research have examined science policy-informing "dialogue events," dialogue events that do not seek to inform public policy are under-theorized and under-researched, even though they are common and growing in popularity in the UK. We describe how, from...... a critical perspective, it may initially appear that such events cannot be justified without returning to the deficit model. But with this paper, we seek to open up a discussion about these non policy-informing events by arguing that there are in fact further ways to understand and frame them. We...

  9. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  10. Policy implications in developing a land use management information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landini, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The current land use map for the city of Los Angeles was developed by the guesstimation process and provides single stage information for each level in the critical geographical hierarchy for land use planning management. Processing and incorporation of LANDSAT data in the land use information system requires special funding; however, computergraphic maps are able to provide a viable information system for city planning and management.

  11. How to decide on the scope, priorities and coordination of information society policy? Analytical framework and three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, M.; Kool, L.; Giessen, A. van der

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: ICT is everywhere, but information society policy cannot address all the sectors and policy issues in which ICT plays a role. This paper's aim is to develop an analytical framework to assist policy makers in deciding on the priorities and coordination of information society policy.

  12. National Information Policies: A Review of the Situation in Seventeen Industrialised Countries, with Particular Reference to Scientific and Technical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Michael W., Comp.

    This report reviews the information policies that are concerned with, or relevant to, the scientific and technical information of 17 industrialized countries: Australia, Austria, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany (Federal Republic), Hungary, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom, the United…

  13. Key Informant Views of a Free Delivery and Caesarean Policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    informants who had technical and administrative or political responsibility for the policy at national, regional, district and health post level. These were carried out from November 2006 to January 2007. The evaluation findings emphasise the importance of careful planning and communication before a major national policy is ...

  14. 75 FR 27857 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... issues, and international market access issues. Members of the public may submit suggestions and comments... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6973] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  15. 75 FR 881 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... generation communications technology issues, international market access, Internet governance, ICT... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 6846] Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy The Department of State's Advisory Committee on International...

  16. Interim Policy to Preserve Separated Personnel’s Electronically Stored Information Subject to Litigation Holds

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Interim Policy is designed to ensure the preservation of electronically stored information (ESI), created or received by EPA employees, contractors or grantees with user and email accounts on EPA networks, who have ended their employment with EPA.

  17. 75 FR 18940 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State has renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  18. 77 FR 24758 - Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... Committee on International Communications and Information Policy; Notice of Committee Renewal The Department of State renewed the Charter of the Advisory Committee on International Communications and... solely advisory capacity regarding current issues and concerns affecting international communications and...

  19. Information, public policy analysis and sustainable development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    scale secrecy in government business, inadequate incentives to statisticians and grand corruption in many, if not all, public organizations in Nigeria. They promote negative effects, including unreliable data and information, inadequate public ...

  20. Monitoring Information Systems to Enforce Computer Security Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graham, Scott

    1999-01-01

    .... However, too much leeway allows users, without a need to access many of the network functions, the ability to execute functions that might cause harm to the system or provide access to information...

  1. Information security policies for governmental organisations, the minimum criteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngobeni, SJ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent technology advancement has resulted in an era where many organisations become more and more comfortable to use computer systems to process their information. Intruders are making it their mission to break into these computer systems...

  2. Child injury surveillance capabilities in NSW: informing policy and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Injury is one of the most common reasons why a child is hospitalised. Information gained from injury surveillance activities provides an estimate of the injury burden, describes injury event circumstances, can be used to monitor injury trends over time, and is used to design and evaluate injury prevention activities. This perspective article provides an overview of child injury surveillance capabilities within New South Wales (NSW, Australia, following a stocktake of population-based injury-related data collections using the Evaluation Framework for Injury Surveillance Systems. Information about childhood injury in NSW is obtained from multiple administrative data collections that were not specifically designed to conduct injury surveillance. Obtaining good information for child injury surveillance in NSW will involve better coordination of information from agencies that record information about childhood injury. Regular reporting about childhood injury to provide a comprehensive profile of injuries of children and young people in the state should be considered, along with the provision and/or linkage of child injury information from multiple data collections. This could support the development of a suite of injury performance indicators to monitor childhood injury reduction strategies across NSW.

  3. From DTCA-PD to patient information to health information: the complex politics and semantics of EU health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Eleanor; Geyer, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Between 2001 and 2011 the pharmaceutical industry, supported by DG Enterprise, was engaged in an ongoing campaign to repeal/amend the European Union (EU) ban on direct-to-consumer advertising of prescription drugs (DTCA-PD). As it became increasingly clear that the ban would not be repealed, DTCA-PD supporters tried to shift the debate away from advertising and towards the provision of 'patient information' and the rights of patients to access such information. Meanwhile, a variety of national and European health organizations, supported by DG SANCO, sought to maintain the ban and oppose the industry-supported 'patient information' campaign. Instead, they promoted a concept of 'health information' that included all aspects of citizens' health, not just pharmaceuticals. This article aims to analyse the transition from DTCA-PD to patient information to health information and examine its implications for EU health policy as a complex policy space. The article examines the emergence and development of EU health policy and the evolution of the DTCA-PD debate through the lens of complexity theory. It analyses the nature of the semantic, political and policy transition and asks why it occurred, what it tells us about EU health policy and future EU health legislation and how it may be understood from a complexity perspective. The article concludes that the complexity framework is ideally suited for the field of public health and, in particular, the DTCA-PD debate. Having successfully shifted the policy-focus of the debate to patients' rights and health information, opponents of the legislation are likely to face their next battle in the realm of cyberspace, where regulatory issues change the nature of advertising. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Information Flow and Health Policy Literacy: The Role of the Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophya Yumakulov

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available People increasingly can and want to obtain and generate health information themselves. With the increasing do-it-yourself sentiment comes also the desire to be more involved in one’s health care decisions. Patient driven health-care and health research models are emerging; terms such as participatory medicine and quantified-self are visible increasingly. Given the health consumer’s desire to be more involved in health data generation and health care decision making processes the authors submit that it is important to be health policy literate, to understanding how health policies are developed, what themes are discussed among health policy researchers and policy makers, to understand how ones demands would be discussed within health policy discourses. The public increasingly obtains their knowledge through the internet by searching web browsers for keywords. Question is whether the “health consumer” to come has knowledge of key terms defining key health policy discourses which would enable them to perform targeted searches for health policy literature relevant to their situation. The authors found that key health policy terms are virtually absent from printed and online news media which begs the question how the “health consumer” might learn about key health policy terms needed for web based searches that would allow the “health consumer” to access health policy discourses relevant to them.

  5. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996–2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of the total water ...

  6. Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Mission Lagos Journal of Library and Information Science aims to be a world class professional and scholarship journal. Vision To serve as a vehicle for the dissemination of research results. To provide a credible platform for scholarly communication. To promote intellectual discourse among library, ...

  7. Towards a theoretically informed policy against a rakghoul plague outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontopoulos, Dimitrios-Georgios; Kontopoulou, Theano; Ho, Hsi-Cheng; García-Carreras, Bernardo

    2017-12-11

    A long time ago in a galaxy far, far away, the Sith Lord Karness Muur engineered the rakghoul plague, a disease that transformed infected humans into near-mindless predatory rakghouls. At its peak, the disease infected millions of individuals, giving rise to armies of rakghouls on a number of planets. Whether rakghoul populations have persisted until this day is not known, making a rakghoul invasion on Earth not completely improbable. Further, a strategy for defence against an outbreak of the disease on Earth has not yet been proposed. To fill this glaring gap, we developed the first mathematical model of the population dynamics of humans and rakghouls during a rakghoul plague outbreak. Using New South Wales as a model site, we then obtained ensembles of model predictions for the outcome of the rakghoul plague in two different disease control strategy scenarios (population evacuation and military intervention), and in the absence thereof. Finally, based on these predictions, we propose a set of policy guidelines for successfully controlling and eliminating outbreaks of the rakghoul plague in Australian states.

  8. Health information exchange, biosurveillance efforts, and emergency department crowding during the spring 2009 H1N1 outbreak in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Jason S; Genes, Nicholas; Kuperman, Gilad; Chason, Kevin; Richardson, Lynne D

    2010-03-01

    Novel H1N1 influenza spread rapidly around the world in spring 2009. Few places were as widely affected as the New York metropolitan area. Emergency departments (EDs) in the region experienced daily visit increases in 2 distinct temporal peaks, with means of 36.8% and 60.7% over baseline in April and May, respectively, and became, in a sense, the "canary in the coal mine" for the rest of the country as we braced ourselves for resurgent spread in the fall. Biosurveillance efforts by public health agencies can lead to earlier detection, potentially forestalling spread of outbreaks and leading to better situational awareness by frontline medical staff and public health workers as they respond to a crisis, but biosurveillance has traditionally relied on manual reporting by hospital administrators when they are least able: in the midst of a public health crisis. This article explores the use of health information exchange networks, which enable the secure flow of clinical data among otherwise unaffiliated providers across entire regions for the purposes of clinical care, as a tool for automated biosurveillance reporting. Additionally, this article uses a health information exchange to assess H1N1's effect on ED visit rates and discusses preparedness recommendations and lessons learned from the spring 2009 H1N1 experience across 11 geographically distinct EDs in New York City that participate in the health information exchange. Copyright (c) 2009 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Liquid Spheres on Smartphones: The Personal Information Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Serrano Tellería

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data collected from the profiles and the digital identities has become a valuable currency for the mobile ecosystem, especially between users and providers. Services that required them are also described as the ground floor in direct linked with the infrastructures and as intermediate layers between networks, platforms and applications. The frontier debate between innovation and protection of privacy is shown off undefined and unstable. Therefore, a comparative analysis between ‘Privacy Terms and Conditions’ as well as the interrelation between operative systems (Apple iOS, Android, Blackberry and Windows Phone, social media platforms (Facebook, LinkedIn, Twitter and Google + and applications (Instagram, WhatsApp, Line and Vine have been carried out focusing on Privacy issues. Two main tendencies were appreciated in relation with the two principal operative systems: Apple iOS closed environment and Google Android open source. They reconfigure the functional structure and design of platforms and applications in different ways. The liquid spheres observed varied from the first approach that tried to control every action and personal information from the binomial operative system-device and the second one that allowed the user actions and information to be more susceptible to interact with any kind of applications and platforms while the system is linked to information aggregation services to collect the data. Prominent aspects were the various stages of synchronization between the different levels of personal information (contacts, profile, digital identity and localization. Focusing on the case of Portugal, other complementary conclusions obtained from focus group and surveys showed a strong circumstantial pattern behaviour and a concern about privacy issues taking care of some actions while admitted checking if they had the terms and conditions involved - which are too ambiguous - but not reading them. Described also by other international

  10. Assessing the impact of information and framing on support for climate policy action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatfield-Dodds, Steve

    2007-01-01

    Full text: A significant share of the public appears mislead by the way the economic impacts of emissions reductions are traditionally communicated. This misunderstanding is associated with reduced support for policy action, and risks long term climate impacts that would be avoided if results were communicated properly. Correct this basis appears likely to have a larger effect on attitudes than new research and information on the impacts of climate change. Government action to achieve deep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions - like other major policy changes -depends on public support, which in turn depends on perceptions of policy impacts. This paper reports research exploring the effect of three factors on support for policy action: the way that policy impacts are described; the magnitude of these impacts, and additional information on climate change impacts, provided internally through the surveys and externally through the release of An Inconvenient Truth and media coverage of the Stern Report (2006). The research used split sample phone and internet surveys (n = 4264) conducted in Australia and New Zealand in four waves from April to December 2006. The study gives rise to four major findings: Support for policy action is sensitive to the magnitude of expected economic impacts, with predicted support varying from 27% to 84% across the different levels of policy impact presented; Current approaches to communicating policy impacts are associated with public support for policy action being 8-10% lower than it would be if policy impacts were well communicated. This bias may be corrected by describing policy impacts in terms of changes relative to current levels - stating that incomes continue to rise - as well as describing impacts relative to the base case; The reduction in support associated with these biases is much larger than the increase in support associated with providing credible additional information on the impacts of climate change; Significantly more than

  11. Cognitive enhancement kept within contexts: neuroethics and informed public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, John R; Galvagni, Lucia; Giordano, James

    2014-01-01

    Neurothics has far greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements arriving from novel brain-centered biotechnologies and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize the best cognitive and neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could possibly count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely "cognitive" enhancement. Where cognitive processing and the mental life is concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what has actually been cognitively improved. And what can concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by the classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. Additionally, where the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements, we mustn't presume that public approval towards enhancers will somehow automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of any nuanced appreciation for the control which performance contexts and public contexts exert over what "cognitive" enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can all too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as surely good for us and for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of oft-heard observations about serious hurdles for reliable enhancement from neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications to those hurdles for a sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and a wise policy review over cognitive enhancement. We offer some crucial recommendations for undertaking such investigations, so that cognitive enhancers

  12. Cognitive Enhancement Kept within Contexts: Neuroethics and Informed Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eShook

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroethics has greater responsibilities than merely noting potential human enhancements ascribed to brain science, and tracking their implications for ethics and civic life. Neuroethics must utilize current neuroscientific knowledge to shape incisive discussions about what could count as enhancement in the first place, and what should count as genuinely ‘cognitive’ enhancement. Where cognitive processing and mental life are concerned, the lived context of psychological performance is paramount. Starting with an enhancement to the mental abilities of an individual, only performances on real-world exercises can determine what is actually cognitively improved. And, what concretely counts as some specific sort of cognitive improvement is largely determined by classificatory frameworks of cultures, not brain scans or laboratory experiments. As well, the public must ultimately evaluate and judge the worthiness of individual performance enhancements; we mustn’t presume that public approval towards enhancers will automatically arrive without due regard to civic ideals such as the common good or social justice. In the absence of a nuanced appreciation for the control which performance and public contexts exert over what ‘cognitive’ enhancements could actually be, enthusiastic promoters of cognitive enhancement can too easily depict safe and effective brain modifications as good for society. These enthusiasts are not unaware of hurdles for reliable enhancement through neurophysiological modifications. Yet those observations are far more common than penetrating investigations into the implications of such hurdles for both sound public understanding of cognitive enhancement, and development of policy to guide cognitive enhancement. In this essay, we seek to more accurately define and contextualize cognitive performance enhancement, and offer recommendations to ensure that cognitive enhancers that truly deserve public approval can be better

  13. Risk informed decisions and regulations - STUK's policy and current practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julin, A.; Niemalae, I.; Virolainen, R.

    2001-01-01

    Consideration of severe accidents beyond the traditional design basis, including full core melt accidents, has become an important ingredient of regulatory process in Finland. Accordingly, plant-specific level-1 and level-2 PSA studies are a regulatory requirement. These studies are being used in a living fashion both at the utilities and STUK. Plant specific living PSAs have been completed for all operating Finnish plants, including internal initiators, fires, flooding, harsh weather conditions seismic events for operation mode and internal events for low power mode. Many specific applications of the Living PSA have already been introduced but some are still waiting for further development such as Risk Informed ISI, IST and Tech Specs. Examples of safety issues, for which the PSA insights give an improved basis for decisions, are approvals of plant modifications and resolution of testing, inspection and maintenance strategies. PSA insights are also of value in assessing meaningfulness of requirements which are based on traditional engineering judgement but do not form an essential part of defence-in-depth concept. Examples of such requirements are details of safety classification and many Technical Specification requirements. STUK has recently conducted a pilot study on risk-informed ISI. The aim of the study was to explore how the plant specific PSAs could best be used for assessment of the ISI programmes. This paper discusses the findings obtained during the pilot study on risk-informed ISI of pipings. The study produced essential insights of the applied method. Furthermore, the study gave guidance to extract items for further development. Based on these results and overall experience the general suitability of the method for further application is evaluated. (author)

  14. Transportation and information trends in technology and policy

    CERN Document Server

    Piyushimita

    2013-01-01

    Transformations in wireless connectivity and location-aware technologies hold the promise of bringing a sea-change in the way transportation information is generated and used in the future. Sensors in the transportation system, when integrated with those in other sectors (for example, energy, utility and health) have the potential to foster novel new ways of improving livability and sustainability.The end-result of these developments has been somewhat contradictory. Although automation in the transportation environment has become increasingly widespread, the level of involvement and active par

  15. Decentralization Policies for Supply Chain Investments under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Supply chains need specific investments for improved performance in terms of lead-time, cost, and quality. We study the contractual choice of a coordinator to either centralize or delegate the investment decision in a three-stage chain. The analysis derives closed-form results for the economic...... performance of three decentralized contracting schemes under asymmetric information on investment cost, as well as the optimal full revelation results. The results show that the observed practice of tier-1 delegated investments leads to relatively poor performance because of underinvestment. We illustrate...

  16. NRC Information No. 89-86: Type HK circuit breakers missing close latch anti-shock springs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    During the recent refueling outage at Fermi Unit 2, the licensee inspected both safety-related and non-safety-related Type HK circuit breakers. The close latch anti-shock springs were observed to be missing in approximately 40 safety-related Type HK circuit breakers that had been manufactured outside of the previously identified timeframes. (The identified circuit breakers were manufactured in 1974.) Thus, the timeframes previously identified by the manufacturer (prior to 1973 and from June 1975 to June 1977) may not be totally inclusive. In addition, because of changes in corporate name, mergers, etc., Type HK circuit breakers may indicate manufacture by ITE, ITE Imperial, Gould, Brown Boveri, or a combination thereof. The current name of the manufacturer is ASEA Brown Boveri. Recipients may need to be cognizant of this when determining whether they utilize potentially affected equipment

  17. Melanoma screening: Informing public health policy with quantitative modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gilmore

    1982 has resulted in greater diagnostic incidence and reduced mortality, but the reduced mortality carried a significant cost per life saved. I implement the model out to 2028 and demonstrate that the enhanced secondary prevention that began in 1982 becomes increasingly cost-effective over the period 2013-2028. On the other hand, I show that reductions in mortality achieved by significantly enhancing secondary prevention beyond 2013 levels are comparable with those achieved by only modest improvements in late-stage disease survival. Given the ballooning costs of increased melanoma surveillance, I suggest the process of public health policy decision-making-particularly with respect to the public funding of melanoma screening and discretionary mole removal-would be better served by incorporating the results of quantitative modelling.

  18. Impact of Asymmetric Carbon Information on Supply Chain Decisions under Low-Carbon Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the establishment of the leading manufacturer Stackelberg game model under asymmetric carbon information, this paper investigates the misreporting behaviors of the supply chain members and their influences on supply chain performance. Based on “Benchmarking” allocation mechanism, three policies are considered: carbon emission trading, carbon tax, and a new policy which combined carbon quota and carbon tax mechanism. The results show that, in the three models, the leader in the supply chain, even if he has advantages of carbon information, will not lie about his information. That is because the manufacturer’s misreporting behavior has no effect on supply chain members’ performance. But the retailer will lie about the information when he has carbon information advantage. The high-carbon-emission retailers under the carbon trading policy, all the retailers under the carbon tax policy, and the high-carbon-emission retailers under combined quotas and tax policy would like to understate their carbon emissions. Coordination of revenue sharing contract is studied in supply chain to induce the retailer to declare his real carbon information. Optimal contractual parameters are deduced in the three models, under which the profit of the supply chain can be maximized.

  19. A Framework for a Future Swedish Policy for Research and Development in Information Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofstrom, Mats; And Others

    Prepared to stimulate discussion on how to design a Swedish policy in information science and technology, this report presents the state-of-the-art of this field as it pertains to the dissemination of scientific information and outlines a program for future research and development. The review portion examines systems for current information…

  20. Respecting Young People's Informal Learning: Circumventing Strategic Policy Evasions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jocey

    2018-01-01

    This paper explores experiences at the interface of research and policy through the lens of informal learning. The paper contends that in order to further social justice it is essential to value the informal learning that takes place outside the confines of educational institutions. However, it also demonstrates the difficulties in getting…

  1. Canada in Context: An Overview of Information Policies in Four Industrialized Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Cheryl Cowan

    1995-01-01

    Provides an overview and comparison of the historical trends in information policy-making and recent proposals for the information infrastructure in the United States, the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, and Canada. The role of the private sector, including transnational corporations, is also considered. (MES)

  2. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2014-09-01

    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Diffusing information to promote population policies based on N'Djamena's Plan of Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, M

    1990-03-01

    From November 28-30, 1989, the Centre D'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement (CERPOD) sponsored the Selingue Retreat (SR), outside of Bamako, Mali to discuss the role of population policy development among the 9 Sahelian countries following the adoption of the N'Djamena Program of Action (PAN) the year before. The key questions discussed were: 1) state of the art regarding implementation of population policy development among Sahelian countries; 2) strategies of technical assistance to support CERPOD for population policy development; 3) organizational matters; and 4) evaluation strategies to evaluate population policy development and CERPOD's programs. The SR recommended that due to the lack of an adequate information base for population policy development that collaboration continue between CERPOD and the Futures Group. The new project will begin with a detailed plan of action for Mali and Guinee-Bissau, followed by Niger and Burkina Faso.

  4. Adoption of an information systems security policy in small and medium sized enterprises.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Lopes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Information Systems Security (ISS is a relevant fact for current organizations. This paper focuses on Small and Medium Sized Enterprises (SMEs. This article aims to constitute an empirical study on the applicability of the Action Research (AR method in information systems, more specifically by assessing the adoption of an ISS policy in six SMEs, and identifying the critical success factors in adopting an ISS policy. The research question we intend to answer is to what extent this research method is adequate to reach the proposed goal. The results of the study suggest that AR is a promising means for the evaluation of ISS policies adoption. It can both act as a research method that improves the understanding about the reasons why the policy has been abandoned, and as a change method, assisting practitioners to overcome barriers and suggesting measures to be implemented.

  5. Chain-computerisation for interorganisational public policy implementation : A new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve public policy implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In two articles the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures requires a new approach,

  6. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa...

  7. The qualitative characteristics of financial information, and managers’ accounting decisions:evidence from IFRS policy changes

    OpenAIRE

    Nobes, Christopher; Stadler, Christian

    2015-01-01

    This is the first empirical study that uses publicly available data to provide direct evidence about the role of the qualitative characteristics (QCs) of financial information in managements’ accounting decisions. Based on 40,895 hand-collected IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) policy choices on 16 topics made by 514 large firms of 10 jurisdictions in the period 2005–2011, we identify 204 reasons for policy changes. The majority of these refer to QCs from the conceptual frame...

  8. Information security in academic libraries: the role of the librarian in planning and introducing institutional policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Soares Lima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a short discussion about the role of the librarian as a mediator at planning, developing and implementing an Information Security Policy in Academic Libraries, by working together with professionals in the field of Information Technology. It also discusses the main virtual threats and some risks that are prone to infect computers in libraries. Based on the current legislation and on some normative documents about information security, it is confirmed the importance of the librarian take part in the main decision-making related to information security, such as planning a consistent Information Security Policy which be able to see the specific needs of Academic Libraries as institutions prone to cyberattacks. The main topics and guidelines to carry out an Information Security Policy are presented based on the results that were obtained through an action research, by visiting libraries to fill in application forms and to compose reports whose content was analyzed. Finally, the study concludes that Information Security Policy must be validated by managers of sectors or departments which the Academic Library is hierarchically subordinate to.

  9. Implementation of information security policies in public organizations : Top management as a success factor

    OpenAIRE

    Kamariza, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate potential success factors related to the implementation of an information security in organizations, with a specific focus on the role of top management in implementing information security policies in organizations. The following are the research questions: What are the factors related to the implementation of an information security in organization according to the literature and what is the organization’s view of these factors? What is the role ...

  10. The Peruvian Congress: Public Policies and Informal Influence over the Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Patriau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Peruvian Constitution grants presidents the power to participate in the policy making process. At the same time, the Peruvian Congress is considered to lack the technical and professional ability to fully participate in such a process. However, such analysis neglects the influence that the Congress can exert through informal politics. Based on 31 interviews with legislators, political authorities, officials and experts in public administration this paper shows that the Peruvian legislature participates in the policy making process albeit through informal channels of influence over the bureaucracy.

  11. Heterogeneity among informal microenterprises in Mexico: empirical evidence and some policy implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Rivera Huerta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike traditional theories of development, new schools of thinking consider nonfarm informal micro-enterprises as a dynamic sector. Nevertheless, social researchers from both streams recognize the necessity of policies to formalize and increase the productivity of such kind of enterprises. Using Mexican data from 2008 and cluster analysis techniques, this work proposes that informal micro-enterprises constitute a very heterogeneous group and that such heterogeneity deserves a diversified strategy of development: while some entrepreneurs would benefit from productivity policies, some others would require an assistance approach.

  12. Systems Thinking and Simulation Modeling to Inform Childhood Obesity Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kenneth E; Kibbe, Debra L; Ferencik, Rachel; Soderquist, Chris; Phillips, Mary Ann; Vall, Emily Anne; Minyard, Karen J

    In 2007, 31.7% of Georgia adolescents in grades 9-12 were overweight or obese. Understanding the impact of policies and interventions on obesity prevalence among young people can help determine statewide public health and policy strategies. This article describes a systems model, originally launched in 2008 and updated in 2014, that simulates the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. In 2008, using information from peer-reviewed reports and quantitative estimates by experts in childhood obesity, physical activity, nutrition, and health economics and policy, a group of legislators, legislative staff members, and experts trained in systems thinking and system dynamics modeling constructed a model simulating the impact of policy interventions on the prevalence of childhood obesity in Georgia through 2034. Use of the 2008 model contributed to passage of a bill requiring annual fitness testing of schoolchildren and stricter enforcement of physical education requirements. We updated the model in 2014. With no policy change, the updated model projects that the prevalence of obesity among children and adolescents aged ≤18 in Georgia would hold at 18% from 2014 through 2034. Mandating daily school physical education (which would reduce prevalence to 12%) and integrating moderate to vigorous physical activity into elementary classrooms (which would reduce prevalence to 10%) would have the largest projected impact. Enacting all policies simultaneously would lower the prevalence of childhood obesity from 18% to 3%. Systems thinking, especially with simulation models, facilitates understanding of complex health policy problems. Using a simulation model to educate legislators, educators, and health experts about the policies that have the greatest short- and long-term impact should encourage strategic investment in low-cost, high-return policies.

  13. HIV policy implementation in two health and demographic surveillance sites in Uganda: findings from a national policy review, health facility surveys and key informant interviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRobie, Ellen; Wringe, Alison; Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica; Kiweewa, Francis; Lutalo, Tom; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Todd, Jim; Eaton, Jeffrey William; Zaba, Basia; Church, Kathryn

    2017-04-05

    Successful HIV testing, care and treatment policy implementation is essential for realising the reductions in morbidity and mortality those policies are designed to target. While adoption of new HIV policies is rapid, less is known about the facility-level implementation of new policies and the factors influencing this. We assessed implementation of national policies about HIV testing, treatment and retention at health facilities serving two health and demographic surveillance sites (HDSS) (10 in Kyamulibwa, 14 in Rakai). Ugandan Ministry of Health HIV policy documents were reviewed in 2013, and pre-determined indicators were extracted relating to the content and nature of guidance on HIV service provision. Facility-level policy implementation was assessed via a structured questionnaire administered to in-charge staff from each health facility. Implementation of policies was classified as wide (≥75% facilities), partial (26-74% facilities) or minimal (≤25% facilities). Semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants (policy-makers, implementers, researchers) to identify factors influencing implementation; data were analysed using the Framework Method of thematic analysis. Most policies were widely implemented in both HDSS (free testing, free antiretroviral treatment (ART), WHO first-line regimen as standard, Option B+). Both had notable implementation gaps for policies relating to retention on treatment (availability of nutritional supplements, support groups or isoniazid preventive therapy). Rakai implemented more policies relating to provision of antiretroviral treatment than Kyamulibwa and performed better on quality of care indicators, such as frequency of stock-outs. Factors facilitating implementation were donor investment and support, strong scientific evidence, low policy complexity, phased implementation and effective planning. Limited human resources, infrastructure and health management information systems were perceived as major

  14. Enhancing the Capacity of Policy-Makers to Develop Evidence-Informed Policy Brief on Infectious Diseases of Poverty in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chigozie Jesse Uneke

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The lack of effective use of research evidence in policy-making is a major challenge in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. There is need to package research data into effective policy tools that will help policy-makers to make evidence-informed policy regarding infectious diseases of poverty (IDP. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of training workshops and mentoring to enhance the capacity of Nigerian health policy-makers to develop evidence-informed policy brief on the control of IDP. Methods A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point Likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = “grossly inadequate,” 4 = “very adequate” was employed. The main parameter measured was participants’ perceptions of their own knowledge/understanding. This study was conducted at subnational level and the participants were the career health policy-makers drawn from Ebonyi State in the South-Eastern Nigeria. A oneday evidence-to-policy workshop was organized to enhance the participants’ capacity to develop evidence-informed policy brief on IDP in Ebonyi State. Topics covered included collaborative initiative; preparation and use of policy briefs; policy dialogue; ethics in health policy-making; and health policy and politics. Results The preworkshop mean of knowledge and capacity ranged from 2.49-3.03, while the postworkshop mean ranged from 3.42–3.78 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 20.10%–45%. Participants were divided into 3 IDP mentorship groups (malaria, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis [LF] and were mentored to identify potential policy options/recommendations for control of the diseases for the policy briefs. These policy options were subjected to research

  15. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 57; US Scientific and Technical Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1996-01-01

    In fiscal year 1994, the United States government spent about $68 billion for science and technology. Although there is general agreement among policy makers that the results of this expenditure can be used to enhance technological innovation and improve economic competitiveness, there is no coherent scientific and technical information (STI) policy. The absence of a cohesive policy and STI policy framework means that the transfer and utilization of STI goes uncoordinated. This chapter examines the U.S. government's role in funding science and technology, reviews Federal STI activities and involvement in the transfer and use of STI resulting from federally-funded science and technology, presents issues surrounding the use of federally-funded STI, and offers recommendations for improving the transfer and use of STI.

  16. Information visualisation for science and policy: engaging users and avoiding bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerny, Greg J; Chen, Min; Freeman, Robin; Gavaghan, David; Meyer, Miriah; Rowland, Francis; Spiegelhalter, David J; Stefaner, Moritz; Tessarolo, Geizi; Hortal, Joaquin

    2014-03-01

    Visualisations and graphics are fundamental to studying complex subject matter. However, beyond acknowledging this value, scientists and science-policy programmes rarely consider how visualisations can enable discovery, create engaging and robust reporting, or support online resources. Producing accessible and unbiased visualisations from complicated, uncertain data requires expertise and knowledge from science, policy, computing, and design. However, visualisation is rarely found in our scientific training, organisations, or collaborations. As new policy programmes develop [e.g., the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES)], we need information visualisation to permeate increasingly both the work of scientists and science policy. The alternative is increased potential for missed discoveries, miscommunications, and, at worst, creating a bias towards the research that is easiest to display. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  18. Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D; Gipson, Cassandra D; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Harrell, Paul T; Rees, Vaughan W; Gould, Thomas J; Oliver, Jason; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad; Schmidt, Heath D; Duncan, Alexander; De Biasi, Mariella

    2017-08-03

    Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the scientific findings that have impacted regulatory policy and discuss considerations for further translation of science into policy decisions. We propose that open, bidirectional communication between scientists and policy makers is essential to develop transformative preventive- and intervention-focused policies and programs to reduce appeal, abuse liability, and toxicity of the products. Through these types of interactions, collaborative efforts to inform and modify policy have the potential to significantly decrease the use of tobacco and alternative nicotine products and thus enhance health outcomes for individuals. This work addresses current topics in the nicotine and tobacco research field to emphasize the importance of basic science research and provide examples of how it can be utilized to inform public policy. In addition to relaying current thoughts on the topic from experts in the field, the article encourages continued efforts and communication between basic scientists and policy officials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Consumer information or direct product experience? Alternative information policies and their effects on consumer acceptance of GM foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim

    The early and mid-1990s saw a heated public debate about the introduction of GM foods in Europe. The question about the "right way" of communicating risks and benefits to consumers was especially cumbersome, and normative positions (rather than empirical consumer research) determined the approach...... that was finally adopted. In the late 1990s, transparency and the precautionary principle became official standards to which consumer policy in the European Union had to conform. There seems to be shared expectation now among stakeholders that this policy will restore consumers' trust in the European food system....... Scholderer et al. (1999) investigated the assumptions on which this consensus was based. A majority of the stakeholder representatives they interviewed believed that negative consumer attitudes resulted from a lack of information. Lack of information was thought to cause uncertainty about risks and benefits...

  20. Recontextualizing Information and Communication Technologies: The Discourse of Educational Policies in Brazil (1995-2007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Raquel Goulart

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Information and Communication Technologies (henceforth ICT) have been recontextualized in Brazilian educational policies, between 1995 and 2007, from a discourse analytical perspective, focusing on the dialectic relations between structures and strategies, especially as far as teacher education is concerned. It is divided…

  1. Information Warfare: Legal, Regulatory, Policy and Organizational Considerations for Assurance. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-04

    2-19 2-2-1 State Com puter Crim e Statutes ....................................................................... 2-44...2-2-2 Com puter Crim e Jurisdiction .......................................................................... 2-45 2-4-1 Information Warfare Policy...infrastructures from physical and cyber threats. * Propose statutory and regulatory changes. The Infrastructure Protection Task Force (IPTF): * Increase

  2. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Robert C.

    2011-01-01

    The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization,…

  3. 75 FR 12496 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; DOC National Environmental Policy Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ...; DOC National Environmental Policy Act Environmental Questionnaire and Checklist AGENCY: Office of the...., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for... Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230 (or via the Internet at [email protected]doc.gov ). SUPPLEMENTARY...

  4. 75 FR 56540 - Office of Governmentwide Policy: Submission for OMB Review; Information Collection, Real Property...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... a standard format for reporting real property status under financial assistance awards. This rule... information, the standard reporting form will replace any agency unique forms currently in use. Background The... Report, Standard Form (SF- XXXX) AGENCY: Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services Administration...

  5. 78 FR 64389 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...: For additional information about the Policy, contact Will Wade-Gery, Division of Research, Markets and... ``facilitate access and innovation'' in the ``markets for consumer financial products and services.'' In line.... The Bureau also recognizes that in-market testing, involving companies and consumers in real world...

  6. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  7. Examining the Feasibility and Impact of a Graduate Public Administration Course in Evidence-Informed Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouimet, Mathieu; Lapointe, Luc; Léon, Grégory

    2015-01-01

    A pilot controlled before-and-after design was used to assess the impact of a new master-level course in evidence-informed policy making on students' basic knowledge in evidence-based practice. The primary outcome variable was the mean percentage of pre-post improvement on the knowledge test. In the treatment group, the mean percentage of pre-post…

  8. Lending policies of informal, formal and semiformal lenders - Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Thi Thu Tra; Lensink, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  9. Lending Policies of Informal, Formal, and Semi-formal Lenders: Evidence from Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.; Pham, T.T.T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares lending policies of formal, informal and semiformal lenders with respect to household lending in Vietnam. The analysis suggests that the probability of using formal or semiformal credit increases if borrowers provide collateral, a guarantor and/or borrow for business-related

  10. Demographic Information Sources and Utilization as Determinants of Educational Policy Making in South Western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Belau Olatunde

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines demographic information sources and utilization as determinants of educational policy making in South West Nigeria. Using validated and structured questionnaire, the study population of 398 officers in the ministries of education in the affected states were enumerated. The study establishes population census, vital registration,…

  11. Local is not always better: the impact of climate information on values, behavior and policy support

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenefeld, Jonas J.; McCauley, Michelle R.

    2016-01-01

    In the current research, we experimentally examined the effect of providing local or global information about the impacts of climate change on individuals’ perceived importance of climate change and on their willingness to take action to address it, including policy support. We examined these relationships in the context of individuals’ general value orientations. Our findings, from 99 US residents, suggest that different kinds of climate information (local, global, or none) interact with val...

  12. HEALTH INSURANCE INFORMATION-SEEKING BEHAVIORS AMONG INTERNET USERS: AN EXPLORATORY ANALYSIS TO INFORM POLICIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlyana, Erlyana; Acosta-Deprez, Veronica; O'Lawrence, Henry; Sinay, Tony; Ramirez, Jeremy; Jacot, Emmanuel C; Shim, Kyuyoung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore characteristics of Internet users who seek health insurance information online, as well as factors affecting their behaviors in seeking health insurance information. Secondary data analysis was conducted using data from the 2012 Pew Internet Health Tracking Survey. Of 2,305 Internet user adults, only 29% were seeking health insurance information online. Bivariate analyses were conducted to test differences in characteristics of those who seek health insurance information online and those who do not. A logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of health insurance information-seeking behavior online. Findings suggested that factors such as being a single parent, having a high school education or less, and being uninsured were significant and those individuals were less likely to seek health insurance information online. Being a family caregiver of an adult and those who bought private health insurance or were entitled to Medicare were more likely to seek health insurance information online than non-caregivers and the uninsured. The findings suggested the need to provide quality health insurance information online is critical for both the insured and uninsured population.

  13. What defines 'enough' information? How policy workers make judgements and decisions during information seeking: preliminary results from an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Berryman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Reports findings from research in progress investigating judgment and decision making during information seeking in the workplace, in particular, the assessment of enough information. Characteristics of this judgment and the role of context in shaping it are framed against theories of human judgment and decision making. Method. Thirty-three semi-structured interviews were conducted with public sector policy workers in Australia. Two interviews were carried out, the first with individual participants and the second, a joint interview with two participants. Interviews were taped and transcribed and inductive data analysis carried out. Findings. Findings discussed in this paper focus on contextual factors that frame policy workers' judgment and decision making while information seeking, factors including ill-structured problems, shifting goals, time stress and action-feedback loops. Also revealed was the importance of developing a framework, against which the judgment of enough information can be made, and the fluid and iterative nature of these judgments. Conclusion. The contextual factors reported show similarities with those identified by naturalistic decision making researchers, suggesting this new field of decision theory has much to offer researchers into information seeking in context.

  14. Research translation to inform national health policies: learning from multiple perspectives in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glass Nancy

    2011-03-01

    . Conclusions This study shows that effective translation of PMTCT and SMC research results demanded a “360 degree” approach to assembling additional evidence to inform the implementation feasibility for these two HIV prevention interventions. MakCHS and similar institutions should prioritize implementation research to guide the policy processes about the feasibility of implementing new and effective innovations (e.g. PMTCT or SMC at a large scale in contexts that may be different from the research environments.

  15. Networked Authoritarianism and the Geopolitics of Information: Understanding Russian Internet Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Maréchal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the 2016 U.S. election, researchers, policymakers and the general public are grappling with the notion that the 45th president of the United States may very well owe his electoral victory to a sophisticated propaganda effort masterminded by the Kremlin. This article synthesizes existing research on Russia’s domestic information controls, its internet policy at the global level (notably via internet governance processes, and the country’s resurgence as a major geopolitical player to argue that policymakers as well as the general public should consider these themes holistically, particularly as they formulate responses to what many see as the Russian threat to Western liberal democracy. Russia may have lost the Cold War, but it is now waging information warfare against the liberal democracies of Europe and North America in a sophisticated bid to win the next round. Russia does not view internet governance, cybersecurity, and media policy as separate domains. Rather, all the areas covered by those disciplines fall under “information security” for Russian foreign policy. The paper begins by tracing the history of information controls within what is now the Russian Federation before discussing the role of information and internet policy in Russian foreign policy, drawing connections between the Russian government’s control and manipulation of information—including its internet policy—in the domestic and international arenas. Next, it discusses the spread of networked authoritarianism and suggests that a “geopolitics of information” will become increasingly necessary in the coming years. Just as networked authoritarianism establishes strategic infrastructures to control the message domestically and intervene in global media systems, liberal democracies need to rethink media and communication infrastructures to ensure they foster pluralist, rights-respecting societies that are resilient to authoritarianism and

  16. Informing principal policy reforms in South Africa through data-based evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Wills

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past decade there has been a notable shift in South African education policy that raises the value of school leadership as a lever for learning improvements. Despite a growing discourse on school leadership, there has been a lack of empirical based evidence on principals to inform, validate or debate the efficacy of proposed policies in raising the calibre of school principals. Drawing on findings from a larger study to understand the labour market for school principals in South Africa, this paper highlights four overarching characteristics of this market with implications for informing principal policy reforms. The paper notes that improving the design and implementation of policies guiding the appointment process for principals is a matter of urgency. A substantial and increasing number of principal replacements are taking place across South African schools given a rising age profile of school principals. In a context of low levels of principal mobility and high tenure, the leadership trajectory of the average school is established for nearly a decade with each principal replacement. Evidence-based policy making has a strong role to play in getting this right.

  17. 77 FR 70181 - Request for Information on Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Adopting Smoke-Free Policies in Public Housing Agencies (PHAs) and Multifamily Housing: Reopening of Public... smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. HUD was seeking information from... implementing smoke-free policies for both public housing and multifamily housing. In the October 4, 2012 notice...

  18. Transforming healthcare with information technology in Japan: a review of policy, people, and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Chon; Nishihara, Eitaro; Akiyama, Miki

    2011-03-01

    Healthcare reform as part of the economic recovery plan in Japan is placing emphasis on the use of healthcare information technology (HIT). This research mainly focuses on the HIT efforts in Japan with reference to the US for context. The purpose is to: (a) provide detail on governmental policy impacting promotion of HIT adoption to provide services to the people of Japan, (b) describe the outcomes of past and present policy impacting progress based on a case study of HIT use in the Kyoto Yamashina area, and (c) discuss issues for refinement of current policy. The method is case study, and data collection techniques include: (a) interviews of people involved in policy making for HIT in Japan (Japanese healthcare professionals, government officials, and academics involved in HIT research in Japan) and use in the medical community of HIT in the Kyoto Yamashina area, (b) archived document analysis of reports regarding government policy for HIT policy and user assessment for HIT mainly in the case study site, and (c) the literature review about HIT progression and effectiveness assessments to explore and describe issues concerning the transformation with HIT in Japan. This study reveals the aspects of governmental policy that have been effective in promoting successful HIT initiatives as well as some that have been detriments in Japan to help solve pressing social issues regarding healthcare delivery. For example, Japan has stipulated some standardized protocols and formats for HIT but does not mandate exactly how to engage in inter-organizational or intra-organizational health information exchange. This provides some desired autonomy for healthcare organizations and or governments in medical communities and allows for more advanced organizations to leverage current resources while providing a basis for lesser equipped organizations to use in planning the initiative. The insights gained from the Kyoto Yamashina area initiative reflect the success of past governmental

  19. Beyond the security paradox: Ten criteria for a socially informed security policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavone, Vincenzo; Ball, Kirstie; Degli Esposti, Sara; Dibb, Sally; Santiago-Gómez, Elvira

    2017-04-01

    This article investigates the normative and procedural criteria adopted by European citizens to assess the acceptability of surveillance-oriented security technologies. It draws on qualitative data gathered at 12 citizen summits in nine European countries. The analysis identifies 10 criteria, generated by citizens themselves, for a socially informed security policy. These criteria not only reveal the conditions, purposes and operation rules that would make current European security policies and technologies more consistent with citizens' priorities. They also cast light on an interesting paradox: although people feel safe in their daily lives, they believe security could, and should, be improved.

  20. Use of an integrated Atlas of Mental Health Care for evidence informed policy in Catalonia (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Salinas-Perez, J A; Gutierrez-Colosia, M R; Prat-Pubill, B; Serrano-Blanco, A; Molina, C; Jorda, E; Garcia-Alonso, C R; Salvador-Carulla, L

    2015-12-01

    This paper aims to present the Integrated Atlas of Mental Health of Catalonia (2010) focusing on: (a) the importance of using a taxonomy-based coding and standard system of data collection when assessing health services; and (b) its relevance as a tool for evidence-informed policy. This study maps all the care-related services for people with mental disorders available in Catalonia in 2010, using the 'Description and Evaluation of Services and Directories in Europe for long-term care' (DESDE-LTC). The unit of analysis is the Basic Stable Input of Care (BSIC), which is the minimal organisation unit composed by a set of inputs with temporal stability. We presented data on: (a) availability of BSICs and their capacity; (b) the adequacy of the provision of care, taking into account availability and accessibility; (c) the evolution of BSCIs from 2002 to 2010; and (d) the perceived relevance of Atlas of Mental Health as a tool for evidence-informed policy. We identified a total of 639 BSICs. A lack of Health services was detected in highly rural areas, although there was moderate availability of Social Services. Overall, more than 80% of the small mental health areas in Catalonia had an adequate core mental health service. Since 2002 the availability of mental health services has increased. Decision makers found the Atlas a useful and relevant tool for evidence informed policy. Policy makers can use Atlases to detect gaps and inequities in the provision of care for people with mental health needs.

  1. Base Stock Policy in a Join-Type Production Line with Advanced Demand Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Mikihiko; Tsubouchi, Satoshi; Nakade, Koichi

    Production control such as the base stock policy, the kanban policy and the constant work-in-process policy in a serial production line has been studied by many researchers. Production lines, however, usually have fork-type, join-type or network-type figures. In addition, in most previous studies on production control, a finished product is required at the same time as arrival of demand at the system. Demand information is, however, informed before due date in practice. In this paper a join-type (assembly) production line under base stock control with advanced demand information in discrete time is analyzed. The recursive equations for the work-in-process are derived. The heuristic algorithm for finding appropriate base stock levels of all machines at short time is proposed and the effect of advanced demand information is examined by simulation with the proposed algorithm. It is shown that the inventory cost can decreases with little backlogs by using the appropriate amount of demand information and setting appropriate base stock levels.

  2. Numeracy and the Persuasive Effect of Policy Information and Party Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mérola, Vittorio; Hitt, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Numeric political appeals represent a prevalent but overlooked domain of public opinion research. When can quantitative information change political attitudes, and is this change trumped by partisan effects? We analyze how numeracy—or individual differences in citizens’ ability to process and apply numeric policy information—moderates the effectiveness of numeric political appeals on a moderately salient policy issue. Results show that those low in numeracy exhibit a strong party-cue effect, treating numeric information in a superficial and heuristic fashion. Conversely, those high in numeracy are persuaded by numeric information, even when it is sponsored by the opposing party, overcoming the party-cue effect. Our results make clear that overlooking numeric ability when analyzing quantitative political appeals can mask significant persuasion effects, and we build on recent work advancing the understanding of individual differences in public opinion. PMID:27274578

  3. Conveying campus sexual misconduct policy information to college and university students: Results from a 7-campus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S J; Edwards, K M; Banyard, V L; Stapleton, J G; Demers, J M; Moynihan, M M

    2016-01-01

    To examine the efficacy of different methods (ie, in-class policy reading; in-class policy reading and discussion; no reading or discussion) to deliver campus sexual misconduct policy information to students on 7 campuses. A total of 1,195 participants at 7 colleges and universities participated in the study from August to October 2014. Participants were randomly assigned at the class level and completed pretest and posttest surveys assessing knowledge of campus policy and resources and confidence to seek help for sexual assault. Students exposed to a larger dosage of material (in-class policy reading plus discussion) showed greater positive changes in attitudes and knowledge than students who did not receive information or were only read the policy. However, on some indices, students who were only read the policy showed positive outcomes compared with students receiving no intervention. Colleges and universities must use engaging methods to disseminate campus sexual misconduct policies to students.

  4. New institutional mechanisms to bridge the information gap between climate science and public policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, W.; Gulledge, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    Many decision makers lack actionable scientific information needed to prepare for future challenges associated with climate change. Although the scope and quality of available scientific information has increased dramatically in recent years, this information does not always reach - or is not presented in a form that is useful to - decision makers who need it. The producer (i.e. scientists) community tends to be stovepiped, even though consumers (i.e. decision makers) often need interdisciplinary science and analysis. Consumers, who may also be stovepiped in various agencies or subject areas, may lack familiarity with or access to these separate communities, as well as the tools or time to navigate scientific information and disciplines. Closing the communication gap between these communities could be facilitated by institutionalizing processes designed for this purpose. We recommend a variety of mainstreaming policies within the consumer community, as well as mechanisms to generate a strong demand signal that will resonate more strongly with the producer community. We also recommend institutional reforms and methods of incentivizing policy-oriented scientific analysis within the producer community. Our recommendations focus on improving information flow to national security and foreign policy decision makers, but many are relevant to public policy writ large. Recommendations for Producers 1. The scientific community should formally encourage collaborations between natural and social scientists and reward publications in interdisciplinary outlets Incentives could include research funding and honorary awards recognizing service to public policy. 2. Academic merit review should reward research grants and publications targeted at interdisciplinary and/or policy-oriented audiences. Reforms of merit review may require new policies and engaged institutional leadership. Recommendations for Consumers 1. Congress should amend Title VI of the National Defense Education Act

  5. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  6. [eHealth in Peru: implementation of policies to strengthen health information systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioso, Walter H

    2014-01-01

    Health information systems play a key role in enabling high quality, complete health information to be available in a timely fashion for operational and strategic decision-making that makes it possible to save lives and improve the health and quality of life of the population. In many countries, health information systems are weak, incomplete, and fragmented. However, there is broad consensus in the literature of the need to strengthen health information systems in countries around the world. The objective of this paper is to present the essential components of the conceptual framework to strengthen health information systems in Peru. It describes the principal actions and strategies of the Ministry of Health of Peru during the process of strengthening health information systems. These systems make it possible to orient policies for appropriate decision-making in public health.

  7. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  8. The state and the development of an information society: Greek policy and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucas, Dimitris

    2017-09-01

    The paper looks into the dynamics of information society policy and its implementation in the Greek context. It argues that information society development is a contested process, influenced by pre-existing state, economy and society relations. Based on this, it looks into the different aspects of the idiosyncratic path which the evolution of the Greek information society has followed, particularly after 2000. Using Bob Jessop's strategic-relational approach (SRA) to the state as an analytical framework and drawing on a number of in-depth interviews with relevant political actors, it provides insights into policy implementation by examining: the public management of information technology projects, how such projects were received in bureaucratic structures and practices, as well as the relationship between the state and the information and communication technology (ICT) sector in public procurement processes. The emphasis is on the period 2000-2008, during which a major operational programme on the information society in Greece was put into effect. The paper also touches upon the post-2008 experience, suggesting that information society developments might include dynamics operating independently and even in contradiction to the state agenda. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  9. Structural analysis of health-relevant policy-making information exchange networks in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Benoît, François; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Carrier, Annie; Carter, Nancy; Deber, Raisa; Duhoux, Arnaud; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Larouche, Catherine; Leclerc, Bernard-Simon; Levy, Adrian; Martin-Misener, Ruth; Maximova, Katerina; McGrail, Kimberlyn; Nykiforuk, Candace; Roos, Noralou; Schwartz, Robert; Valente, Thomas W; Wong, Sabrina; Lindquist, Evert; Pullen, Carolyn; Lardeux, Anne; Perroux, Melanie

    2017-09-20

    Health systems worldwide struggle to identify, adopt, and implement in a timely and system-wide manner the best-evidence-informed-policy-level practices. Yet, there is still only limited evidence about individual and institutional best practices for fostering the use of scientific evidence in policy-making processes The present project is the first national-level attempt to (1) map and structurally analyze-quantitatively-health-relevant policy-making networks that connect evidence production, synthesis, interpretation, and use; (2) qualitatively investigate the interaction patterns of a subsample of actors with high centrality metrics within these networks to develop an in-depth understanding of evidence circulation processes; and (3) combine these findings in order to assess a policy network's "absorptive capacity" regarding scientific evidence and integrate them into a conceptually sound and empirically grounded framework. The project is divided into two research components. The first component is based on quantitative analysis of ties (relationships) that link nodes (participants) in a network. Network data will be collected through a multi-step snowball sampling strategy. Data will be analyzed structurally using social network mapping and analysis methods. The second component is based on qualitative interviews with a subsample of the Web survey participants having central, bridging, or atypical positions in the network. Interviews will focus on the process through which evidence circulates and enters practice. Results from both components will then be integrated through an assessment of the network's and subnetwork's effectiveness in identifying, capturing, interpreting, sharing, reframing, and recodifying scientific evidence in policy-making processes. Knowledge developed from this project has the potential both to strengthen the scientific understanding of how policy-level knowledge transfer and exchange functions and to provide significantly improved advice

  10. Leadership development in the English National Health Service: A counter narrative to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Alistair; Morrell, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    To examine the current approach to leadership development in the English National Health Service (NHS) and consider its implications for nursing. To stimulate debate about the nature of leadership development in a range of health care settings. Good leadership is central to the provision of high quality nursing care. This has focussed attention on the leadership development of nurses and other health care staff. It has been a key policy concern in the English NHS of late and fostered the growth of leadership development programmes founded on competency based approaches. This is a policy review informed by the concept of episteme. Relevant policy documents and related literature. Using Foucault's concept of episteme, leadership development policy is examined in context and a 'counter narrative' developed to demonstrate that current approaches are rooted in competency based accounts which constitute a limited, yet dominant narrative. Leadership takes many forms and varies hugely according to task and context. Acknowledging this in the form of a counter narrative offers a contribution to more constructive policy development in the English NHS and more widely. A more nuanced debate about leadership development and greater diversity in the provision of development programmes and activities is required. Leadership development has been advocated as being crucial to the advancement of nursing. Detailed analysis of its nature and function is essential if it is to meet the needs of nurse leaders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Case study of information product for strategy research, planning research, and policy research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Yujun; Zou Lin; Liu Qun; Wang Yongping

    2010-01-01

    Soft science research is significant and can directly support the decision-making and development. The strategy research, planning research, and policy research each play an important role in soft science research. As the National Strategy of Informatization being implemented and advanced, some progress are made and some special information tools are produced in the process of strengthening the development research with information technologies. At first, the article introduced some cases of information products application, such as the domestic and overseas information products for energy strategy research and planning research and policy research, the governmental management information system for planning and investment, examination and approval and permission system for the planning of the land for construction, China agriculture decision support system and so on, and also gave a brief analysis on the theories and methods, main functions and application status. And then, with a analysis on the features of the works of development planning of China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) development, this article gave some suggestions on how to strengthen the development of information system for the development planning of the CNNC. (authors)

  12. A new public policy to ensure access to scientific information resources: the case of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soledad Bravo-Marchant

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of public policies to grant access to scientific information is now a marked trend among numerous countries of Latin America. The creation of specific instruments, the allocation of an ongoing budget and the accumulation of experience in negotiation and contracting of national licences have all been clear signs of the achievements resulting from recent initiatives in these countries. This article reviews the experience of the Consorcio para el Acceso a la Información Cientifíca Electrónica (CINCEL Corporation, a Chilean consortium created in 2002, the public policy that made it possible and the evaluation experience of its main programme, the Electronic Library of Scientific Information (BEIC.

  13. [An overview of the definition and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Ricardo Bezerra; Kerr-Pinheiro, Marta Macedo; Guimarães, Eliete Albano de Azevedo; Miranda, Richardson Machado

    2015-05-01

    The This qualitative study aimed to analyze the development and implementation of the Brazilian National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology (NPIIH). We analyzed documents and applied an online questionnaire to the experts involved in developing the policy. The data were submitted to content analysis using the categorical thematic modality. The PNIIS is the target of debate and proposals at various levels. Provisions have appeared in parallel to regulate measures on health data and information technology. Community participation in developing this policy and the convergence of laws, standards, resolutions, and policy-making levels in a common and broadly acknowledged and enforced policy are challenges, in addition to linking the public and private sectors. The study concludes that the National Policy on Health Data and Information Technology is making gradual progress, predominantly in theoretical debates, revisions, and updates. There are numerous challenges for its implementation and a prevailing need for legitimation.

  14. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored. Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework. Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics. Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram. Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  15. Informal public transport driver behaviour and regulatory policy linkage: An expose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smart Dumba

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Literature on the negative socio-economic and environmental externalities generated by informal public transport (IPT in developing countries is vast, vibrant and growing fast. These externalities include but are not limited to noise, air and land pollution, accidents and, more importantly, a source of congestion (human and vehicular because of poor driver behaviour. In this article, the research does not seek to reinstate these, but rather, it argues that poor driver behaviour is a dependent variable to some regulatory policy stimuli. Yet, an extensive literature survey has shown that the driver behaviour and urban transport regulation linkage remain little explored.Objective: The purpose of this article was to unpack the relationship between informal public transport driver behaviour and the prevailing regulatory framework.Method: Based on a case study of Harare, Zimbabwe, the researcher adopted a mixed-methods paradigm and interrogated the prevailing urban public transport regulatory regimes and applied professional judgement, oral interviews backed by some quantitative data and relate these to obtaining IPT driver behavioural characteristics.Results: Poor driver behaviour exhibited by IPT were generated, exacerbated and or eased by the prevailing regulatory policy. This is well depicted through an IPT driver behaviour and regulation loop reinforcing diagram.Conclusion: Following this argument, the article cautions policy makers and urban managers alike that direct approaches and interventions when trying to regulate IPT poor driver behaviour and its secondary negative effects will be futile as long as the regulatory policy remains the same. Failure to recognise and connect the dots between IPT driver behaviour and policy partly explains why globally, the IPT sector has proved difficult in prohibiting, restructuring or even formalising it.

  16. Bilgi Politikalari Açısından Kapitalist Ekonomik Sistemde Bilgi Toplumu Olgusu / Information Policies of Information Societies in the Realm of Capitalistic Type of Economic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Fenerci

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Information society which is a contemporary fact, represents a new economic, social and political era where information and information technologies are primary instruments of production. Actually this fact flourishes and disseminates in the capitalist system. Both capitalist system and information society offer oppurtunities and consist challenges especially for developing countries. In order to get benefit from oppurtunities and reduce risks, the information policies should be formulated rationally. However the information policies should not be asserted only as a problem of implementing infrastructure.

  17. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  18. U.S. International Agricultural Trade Policy: Interests, Institutions and Information in the Corn Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laís Forti Thomaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the U.S. international agricultural trade policy by focusing on instruments and institutional arrangements. Policy decision-making is analyzed by means of three variables: 1 how interests are mobilized; 2 how information is disseminated; and 3 how spaces are occupied in deliberation arenas. The study refers to the corn sector and observes how the National Corn Growers Association operated to ensure subsidies and incentives for this supply chain along the elaboration of the 2002 and 2008 Farm Bills, as well as from other laws pertaining to agricultural and energy incentives. This paper provides evidences in favor of four arguments: first, empirical studies on the formulation and implementation of foreign trade policy, especially when it comes to agricultural issues, would greatly benefit with a greater attention on understanding the role domestic actors play in the decision-making processes; second, interest groups play a key role in this decision-making process; third, they provide the rationale for the formulation and implementation of the U.S. international agricultural trade policy; and, fourth, when the economic sector coordinates complex and relevant supply chains in the U.S. economy, it is hardly possible to revert the U.S. protectionist position in the Legislative branch.

  19. The role of information and communication policies in the governance of the healthcare sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barileé B. Baridam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT is today an indispensable tool in the development of countries and economies, driving growth in many other sectors, including the health sector. The effective governance of the health sector demands enabling ICT policies. Healthcare is a key area in the development and growth of nations. A country that neglects this sector will definitely witness a decline in socio-economic development. Application of ICT in this sector is non-negotiable and an imperative. However, with diversities in policy ICT’s impact is not felt in many communities, and linking ICT and other business strategies is a big challenge. Availability of resources upon which ICT itself thrives is another factor limiting its impact upon the lives of the populations of most developing nations. Cultural diversity and technology problems seem to stand prominent among challenges impeding the impact of ICT on developing nations. Against this backdrop, this paper takes a critical look at the implementation and efficiency of ICT in healthcare delivery within the Nigerian context. The purpose is to assist those bodies responsible for ICT policy and implementation to enable the benefits of ICT to trickle through to the populace. We are also of the opinion that the adequate implementation of ICT policy in the health sector in the most populous black nation (Nigeria will go a long way to influence its implementation in neighbouring nations

  20. Mexican Americans' Educational Barriers and Progress: Is the Magic Key within Reach? PERSPECTIVAS: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice. Issue No. 5, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief is based on the edited book "The Magic Key: The Educational Journey of Mexican Americans from K-12 to College and Beyond" (Zambrana & Hurtado, 2015a), which focuses on the experiences of Mexican Americans in education. Drawing from an interdisciplinary corpus of work, the authors move beyond the rhetoric of progress…

  1. Consumer access to health information on the internet: health policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W Guy; Scott, Helen M; Auld, Terry S

    2005-06-28

    internet health information (greater than the average general practitioner fee) and the fact that some of the information found may be unreliable or even unsafe a valuable public health policy initiative would be to provide an improved New Zealand health information website containing information on how to evaluate data sourced from the world-wide-web and links to a range of useful and trustworthy health information sites.

  2. Information Acquisition and Excessive Risk: Impact of Policy Rate and Market Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volha Audzei

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive risk-taking of financial agents drew a lot of attention in the aftermath of the financial crisis. Low interest rates and subdued market volatility during the Great Moderation are sometimes blamed for stimulating risk-taking and leading to the recent financial crisis. In recent years, with many central banks around the world conducting the policy of low interest rates and mitigating market risks, it has been debatable whether this policy contributes to the building up of another credit boom. This paper addresses this issue by focusing on information acquisition by the financial agents. We build a theoretical model which captures excessive risk taking in response to changes in policy rate and market volatility. This excessive risk takes the form of an increased risk appetite of the agents, but also of decreased incentives to acquire information about risky assets. As a result, with market risk being reduced, agents tend to acquire more risk in their portfolios then they would with the higher market risk. The same forces increase portfolio risk when the safe interest rate is falling. The robustness of the results is considered with different learning rules.

  3. The influence of formal and informal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation: A mixed-methods analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMartino, Lisa D; Birken, Sarah A; Hanson, Laura C; Trogdon, Justin G; Clary, Alecia S; Weinberger, Morris; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine; Weiner, Bryan J

    2018-03-12

    The implementation science literature has contributed important insights regarding the influence of formal policies and practices on health care innovation implementation, whereas informal implementation policies and practices have garnered little attention. The broader literature suggests that informal implementation policies and practices could also influence innovation use. We used the Organizational Theory of Innovation Implementation to further understand the role of formal and informal implementation policies and practices as determinants of implementation effectiveness. We examined their role within the context of initiatives to increase palliative care consultation in inpatient oncology. We used a case study design in two organizational settings within one academic medical center: medical and gynecologic oncology. We completed semistructured interviews with medical (n = 12) and gynecologic (n = 10) oncology clinicians using questions based on organizational theory. Quantitative data assessed implementation effectiveness, defined as aggregated palliative care consult rates within oncology services from 2010 to 2016. Four palliative care clinicians were interviewed to gain additional implementation context insights. Medical oncology employed multiple formal policies and practices including training and clinician prompting to support palliative care consultation and a top-down approach, yet most clinicians were unaware of the policies and practices, contributing to a weak implementation climate. In contrast, gynecologic oncology employed one formal policy (written guideline of criteria for initiating a consult) but also relied on informal policies and practices, such as spontaneous feedback and communication; they adopted a bottom-up approach, contributing to broader clinician awareness and strong implementation climate. Both services exhibited variable, increasing consult rates over time. Informal policies and practices may compensate or substitute for formal

  4. An evaluation of the quality of evidence available to inform current bone conducting hearing device national policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandavia, R; Carter, A W; Haram, N; Mossialos, E; Schilder, A G M

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, NHS England published the commissioning policy on Bone Conducting Hearing Devices (BCHDs). This policy was informed by updated evidence on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of BCHDs as well as by the 2013 Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) policy. Commissioning policies set the criteria for service delivery and therefore have a major impact on the care received by patients. It is important that stakeholders have a good appreciation of the available evidence informing policy, as this will promote engagement both with the policy and with future research leading on from the policy. In this article, we provide stakeholders with a transparent and pragmatic assessment of the quality of the body of evidence available to inform current BCHD national policy. (i) A systematic review of the literature on BCHDs published since the development of the 2013 policy was performed in September 2016, adhering to PRISMA recommendations. The search terms used were as follows bone conduction; bone conducting; bone anchor; BAHA; Bone Anchored Hearing Aid; Bone Conducting Hearing Device; BCHD; Bone Conducting Hearing Implant; BCHI; Sophono; Bonebridge; Soundbite; Ponto; Hearing aid; implant; device; hearing device. Publications that could inform current BCHD policy were included. The quality of included articles was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. (ii) The quality of evidence referenced by the 2013 BAHA policy was assessed using the GRADE system. (i) Of the 2576 publications on BCHDs identified by the systematic search, 39 met the inclusion criteria for further analysis. Using the GRADE criteria, the quality of evidence was classified as of 'very low quality'. (ii) The 2013 BAHA policy was informed by 14 references. The GRADE system classifies the quality of evidence that informed the policy as of 'very low quality'. The GRADE system defines the body of evidence available to inform current national BCHD policy

  5. Top 40 priorities for science to inform conservation and management policy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford D.; Fiske, Shirley J.; Gosnell, Hannah; Haney, J. Christopher; Hutchins, Michael; Klein, Mary L.; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Noon, Barry R.; Nordgren, John R.; Orbuch, Paul M.; Powell, Jimmie; Quarles, Steven P.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Stein, Bruce A.; Webster, Michael S.; Vedder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To maximize the utility of research to decisionmaking, especially given limited financial resources, scientists must set priorities for their efforts. We present a list of the top 40 high-priority, multidisciplinary research questions directed toward informing some of the most important current and future decisions about management of species, communities, and ecological processes in the United States. The questions were generated by an open, inclusive process that included personal interviews with decisionmakers, broad solicitation of research needs from scientists and policymakers, and an intensive workshop that included scientifically oriented individuals responsible for managing and developing policy related to natural resources. The process differed from previous efforts to set priorities for conservation research in its focus on the engagement of decisionmakers in addition to researchers. The research priorities emphasized the importance of addressing societal context and exploration of trade-offs among alternative policies and actions, as well as more traditional questions related to ecological processes and functions.

  6. Applying Science: Opportunities to Inform Disease Management Policy with Cooperative Research within a One Health Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Jason K; Kracalik, Ian T; Fair, Jeanne Marie

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa and the current saiga antelope die off in Kazakhstan each represent very real and difficult to manage public or veterinary health crises. They also illustrate the importance of stable and funded surveillance and sound policy for intervention or disease control. While these two events highlight extreme cases of infectious disease (Ebola) or (possible) environmental exposure (saiga), diseases such as anthrax, brucellosis, tularemia, and plague are all zoonoses that pose risks and present surveillance challenges at the wildlife-livestock-human interfaces. These four diseases are also considered important actors in the threat of biological terror activities and have a long history as legacy biowarfare pathogens. This paper reviews recent studies done cooperatively between American and institutions within nations of the Former Soviet Union (FSU) focused on spatiotemporal, epidemiological, and ecological patterns of these four zoonoses. We examine recent studies and discuss the possible ways in which techniques, including ecological niche modeling, disease risk modeling, and spatiotemporal cluster analysis, can inform disease surveillance, control efforts, and impact policy. Our focus is to posit ways to apply science to disease management policy and actual management or mitigation practices. Across these examples, we illustrate the value of cooperative studies that bring together modern geospatial and epidemiological analyses to improve our understanding of the distribution of pathogens and diseases in livestock, wildlife, and humans. For example, ecological niche modeling can provide national level maps of pathogen distributions for surveillance planning, while space-time models can identify the timing and location of significant outbreak events for defining active control strategies. We advocate for the need to bring the results and the researchers from cooperative studies into the meeting rooms where policy is negotiated and

  7. Tracking Invasive Alien Species (TrIAS: Building a data-driven framework to inform policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vanderhoeven

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Imagine a future where dynamically, from year to year, we can track the progression of alien species (AS, identify emerging problem species, assess their current and future risk and timely inform policy in a seamless data-driven workflow. One that is built on open science and open data infrastructures. By using international biodiversity standards and facilities, we would ensure interoperability, repeatability and sustainability. This would make the process adaptable to future requirements in an evolving AS policy landscape both locally and internationally. In recent years, Belgium has developed decision support tools to inform invasive alien species (IAS policy, including information systems, early warning initiatives and risk assessment protocols. However, the current workflows from biodiversity observations to IAS science and policy are slow, not easily repeatable, and their scope is often taxonomically, spatially and temporally limited. This is mainly caused by the diversity of actors involved and the closed, fragmented nature of the sources of these biodiversity data, which leads to considerable knowledge gaps for IAS research and policy. We will leverage expertise and knowledge from nine former and current BELSPO projects and initiatives: Alien Alert, Invaxen, Diars, INPLANBEL, Alien Impact, Ensis, CORDEX.be, Speedy and the Belgian Biodiversity Platform. The project will be built on two components: 1 The establishment of a data mobilization framework for AS data from diverse data sources and 2 the development of data-driven procedures for risk evaluation based on risk modelling, risk mapping and risk assessment. We will use facilities from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF, standards from the Biodiversity Information Standards organization (TDWG and expertise from Lifewatch to create and facilitate a systematic workflow. Alien species data will be gathered from a large set of regional, national and international

  8. Technology and Policy Challenges in the Adoption and Operation of Health Information Exchange Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hyerim; Yoo, Sooyoung; Heo, Eun-Young; Hwang, Hee; Kim, Jeong-Whun

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to identify problems and issues that arise with the implementation of online health information exchange (HIE) systems in a medical environment and to identify solutions to facilitate the successful operation of future HIE systems in primary care clinics and hospitals. In this study, the issues that arose during the establishment and operation of an HIE system in a hospital were identified so that they could be addressed to enable the successful establishment and operation of a standard-based HIE system. After the issues were identified, they were reviewed and categorized by a group of experts that included medical information system experts, doctors, medical information standard experts, and HIE researchers. Then, solutions for the identified problems were derived based on the system development, operation, and improvement carried out during this work. Twenty-one issues were identified during the implementation and operation of an online HIE system. These issues were then divided into four categories: system architecture and standards, documents and data items, consent of HIE, and usability. We offer technical and policy recommendations for various stakeholders based on the experiences of operating and improving the online HIE system in the medical field. The issues and solutions identified in this study regarding the implementation and operate of an online HIE system can provide valuable insight for planners to enable them to successfully design and operate such systems at a national level in the future. In addition, policy support from governments is needed.

  9. Science, information, technology, and the changing character of public policy in non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, John L.; Corwin, Dennis L.

    Information technologies are already delivering important new capabilities for scientists working on non-point source (NPS) pollution in the vadose zone, and more are expected. This paper focuses on the special contributions of modeling and network communications for enhancing the effectiveness of scientists in the realm of policy debates regarding NPS pollution mitigation and abatement. The discussion examines a fundamental shift from a strict regulatory strategy of pollution control characterized by a bureaucratic/technical alliance during the period through the 1970's and early 1980's, to a more recently evolving paradigm of pluralistic environmental management. The role of science and scientists in this shift is explored, with special attention to the challenges facing scientists working in NPS pollution in the vadose zone. These scientists labor under a special handicap in the evolving model because their scientific tools are often times incapable of linking NPS pollution with individuals responsible for causing it. Information can facilitate the effectiveness of these scientists in policy debates, but not under the usual assumptions in which scientific truth prevails. Instead, information technology's key role is in helping scientists shape the evolving discussion of trade-offs and in bringing citizens and policymakers closer to the routine work of scientists.

  10. Immunization Information Systems: A Decade of Progress in Law and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Daniel W.; Lowery, N. Elaine; Brand, Bill; Gold, Rebecca; Horlick, Gail

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study of laws, regulations, and policies governing Immunization Information Systems (IIS, also known as “immunization registries”) in states and selected urban areas of the United States. The study included a search of relevant statutes, administrative codes and published attorney general opinions/findings, an online questionnaire completed by immunization program managers and/or their staff, and follow-up telephone interviews. The legal/regulatory framework for IIS has changed considerably since 2000, largely in ways that improve IIS’ ability to perform their public health functions while continuing to maintain strict confidentiality and privacy controls. Nevertheless, the exchange of immunization data and other health information between care providers and public health and between entities in different jurisdictions remains difficult due in part to ongoing regulatory diversity. To continue to be leaders in health information exchange and facilitate immunization of children and adults, IIS will need to address the challenges presented by the interplay of federal and state legislation, regulations, and policies and continue to move toward standardized data collection and sharing necessary for interoperable systems. PMID:24402434

  11. Informal Payments in the Health Care System - Research, Media and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Cherecheş

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Informal payments in the health system refer to any payment made outside the legal funding framework. The existence of the phenomenon in Central and Eastern European countries relates to the characteristics of the health systems in the communist period. The analysis is based on three types of data: a set of data gathered from literature review; a second set of data gathered from online media; and a third set of data collected from legislative and public policy. The analysis was pursued using the key words such as informal payment, under-the-table payment, out-of-pocket payment, envelope payment, healthcare corruption, under-the-counter payment. As reflected in the media reports and even publicly recognized by the officials of the Ministry of Health, informal payments are a serious problem of the Romanian healthcare system. Nevertheless, the studies pursued by local researchers are inconsistent with the actual magnitude of the problem. Besides that, there is a serious gap between the findings in this area and the policies intended to reduce the phenomenon.

  12. Current References and Information Services for Policy Decision-Making in State and Local Government Labor Relations: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labor Management Services Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Div. of Public Employee Labor Relations.

    Designed to document problems and issues concerning public employee labor relations, this bibliography should identify information useful in the development of equitable labor relations policies. The 550 listings are arranged into sections on: (1) Background References, Current Assessments and Policy Alternatives in Public Sector Labor Relations,…

  13. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A.; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R.; de Boer, Michiel R.; Kunst, Anton E.

    2016-01-01

    Background The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  14. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands : A Google Trends Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the

  15. News Coverage and Access to Contextual Policy Information in the Case of Recreational Water Rights in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Deserai Anderson

    2011-01-01

    Local news media help shape the agendas from which new policies emerge. Furthermore, local media help determine public understanding of complex issues. Media should inform citizens and policymakers on important policy issues. This study uses a content analysis of 11 newspapers to understand the manner in which reporters covered a specific…

  16. Thermal springs of Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breckenridge, R.M.; Hinckley, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    This bulletin attempts, first, to provide a comprehensive inventory of the thermal springs of Wyoming; second, to explore the geologic and hydrologic factors producing these springs; and, third, to analyze the springs collectively as an indicator of the geothermal resources of the state. A general discussion of the state's geology and the mechanisms of thermal spring production, along with a brief comparison of Wyoming's springs with worldwide thermal features are included. A discussion of geothermal energy resources, a guide for visitors, and an analysis of the flora of Wyoming's springs follow the spring inventory. The listing and analysis of Wyoming's thermal springs are arranged alphabetically by county. Tabulated data are given on elevation, ownership, access, water temperature, and flow rate. Each spring system is described and its history, general characteristics and uses, geology, hydrology, and chemistry are discussed. (MHR)

  17. Information and communication technology (ICT) and eHealth policy in Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of national policies and assessment of socioeconomic context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Marroquin, Maria Carolina; Deber, Raisa; Jadad, Alejandro R

    2014-01-01

    To examine the availability of national information and communication technology (ICT) or eHealth policies produced by countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), and to determine the influence of a country's socioeconomic context on the existence of these policies. Documents describing a national ICT or eHealth policy in any of the 33 countries belonging to the LAC region as listed by the United Nations were identified from three data sources: academic databases; the Google search engine; and government agencies and representatives. The relationship between the existence of a policy and national socioeconomic indicators was also investigated. There has been some progress in the establishment of ICT and eHealth policies in the LAC region. The most useful methods for identifying the policies were 1) use of the Google search engine and 2) contact with Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) country representatives. The countries that have developed a national ICT policy seem to be more likely to have a national eHealth policy in place. There was no statistical significant association between the existence of a policy and a country's socioeconomic context. Governments need to make stronger efforts to raise awareness about existing and planned ICT and eHealth policies, not only to facilitate ease of use and communication with their stakeholders, but also to promote collaborative international efforts. In addition, a better understanding of the effect of economic variables on the role that ICTs play in health sector reform efforts will help shape the vision of what can be achieved.

  18. Analyzing Market Economies from the Perspective of Information Production, Policy, and Self-Organized Equilibrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C-Rene DOMINIQUE

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A modern market economy is an exceedingly complex, infinite-dimensional, stochastic dynamical system. The failure of mainstream economists to characterize its dynamics may well be due to its intractability. This paper argues that the characterization of its dynamics becomes almost trivial when it is analyzed from the perspective of information production. Whether its Jacobian matrix is specifiable or not, a Lyapunov spectrum can be constructed from which the potential Kolmogorov-Sinai or Shannon entropy can be assessed. However, a self-organized equilibrium must first obtain, and for that a suitable policy must be operational.

  19. Are Foreign IT Workers Cheaper? U.S. Visa Policies and Compensation of Information Technology Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Mithas; Henry C. Lucas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The use of H-1B and other work visas to hire foreign information technology (IT) professionals in the United States has attracted significant controversy and policy debates. On one hand, hiring high-skill foreign IT professionals on work visas can be advantageous for U.S. firms and the overall economy. On the other hand, high-skill immigration can adversely impact the wages of foreign and American IT professionals. This study uses data on skills and compensation of more than 50,000 IT profess...

  20. Ethically informed pragmatic conditions for organ donation after cardiocirculatory death: could they assist in policy development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    The modern practice of organ donation after cardiocirculatory death (DCD) emerged in the 1990s as a response to the alarmingly wide gap between the number of transplantable organs available through organ donation after neurological death and the urgent organ transplantation needs of persons in end-organ failure. Various important ethical dimensions of DCD have been considered and debated by prominent organ donation/transplantation theorists and clinicians. In this article, consideration of some of these ethical elements provides a foundation for a proposed set of ethically informed, pragmatic conditions that could assist in the development of health policies to guide the practice of organ donation after cardiocirculatory death.

  1. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A., E-mail: info@uniprorad.com.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares / CNEN, Av. Lineu Prestes 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  2. Web based concept project for information and communication of monitoring policy and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, D. S.; Sordi, G. M. A. A.

    2014-08-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is growing in Brazil and worldwide. The servers processing power added to the technology of relational databases allow to integrate information from different sources, enabling complex queries with reduced response time. We believe that the use of information technology for the radiological protection programs for human activities shall help greatly the radioactive facility that requires such use. Therefore, this project aims the informatization of the monitoring policy and techniques in Portuguese, providing Brazilian radioactive facilities a complete repository for research, consultation and information in a quick, integrated and efficient way. In order to meet national and international standards, the development of this project includes concepts, definitions and theory about monitoring procedures in order to interrelate information, currently scattered in several publications and documents, in a consistent and appropriate manner. The Web platform tools and functionalities were developed according to our target public needs, regarding new possibilities of media, like mobile access, feeds of content and information sharing. Moreover, taking into account this is a pioneer project with the prospect of long-term use, our challenge involves the combination of multiple computer technologies that allows a robust, effective, and flexible system, which can be easily adapted according to future technological innovations. This pioneer project shell help greatly both radioactive facilities and researchers, and it is our target to make it an international reference for Portuguese Spoken countries. (Author)

  3. Gender, citizenship and dementia care: a scoping review of studies to inform policy and future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth; Gjernes, Trude; Lotherington, Ann-Therese; Obstefelder, Aud

    2018-01-01

    Gender is a neglected dimension in public discourse related to people with dementia. Those living with this condition are typically portrayed in policies and strategies in gender neutral terms as 'people with dementia' and 'family carers' as if gender does not matter, when clearly it does. The purpose of this scoping review was to take stock of knowledge about gender differences in relation to dementia care to inform policy and future research. The work is grounded in a feminist perspective to citizenship, as this provide a lens with which to expose and examine gendered assumptions within dementia studies. A search of four databases, including CINAHL, Web of Science, Medline and Cochrane was conducted using systematic techniques between May and July 2014. A repeat search was conducted in February 2015. We found a significant amount of valuable research concerned with gender differences in relation to dementia care published from 1990 to 2014; the majority of which lacks a feminist citizenship perspective. Moreover, a disproportionate number of studies focused solely on caregivers rather than citizens with dementia. As such, questions about gender equality are not being raised and the voices of men and women with dementia are silent. Thus we argue for increased gender-sensitivity in policy making and recommend that social scientists inject a feminist citizenship perspective into their work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Leveraging school-based research to inform bullying prevention and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espelage, Dorothy L

    2016-11-01

    School-based bullying and other forms of school violence have been the topic of over 40 years of research in the U.S. and internationally. Within the last 2 decades, research has increasingly informed bullying prevention, policy, and legislative efforts. The purpose of this article is to highlight several critical research areas on bullying and other forms of school violence that have shaped prevention efforts and policy over the last 2 decades. As the recipient of the 2016 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Research in Public Policy , the discussion here will focus largely on research findings from The Espelage Lab and collaborators, but these studies and findings will be situated in the larger literature. Topics covered include conceptualization of bullying from a social-ecological framework, developmental considerations of bullying and associated forms of aggression, identification of populations at heightened risk for bullying, and efficacy of bullying prevention programs. Recommendations are provided for the next generation of scholars, practitioners, and policymakers focused on bullying prevention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Son preference and sex-selective abortion in China: informing policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi; Wang, Xiao Lei; Zhou, Xu Dong; Hesketh, Therese

    2012-06-01

    There is growing evidence in China that son preference is on the decline, but the sex ratio at birth is still the highest in the world at around 120 male births to 100 females. The aim of the study was to explore attitudes towards gender preference among people of reproductive age, to determine the reasons why the sex ratio is persistently high, and to inform policy options. We conducted in-depth interviews with 212 individuals who aged from 18 to 39 in rural and urban areas of three provinces: Yunnan, Guizhou and Zhejiang. We show that while son preference has weakened considerably, it has not disappeared. The sex ratio remains high, because of this small minority of individuals, who still choose sex-selective abortion to ensure male offsprings. Intensive local policy interventions have been successful in reducing the sex ratio in some areas and these should be disseminated widely. In addition, the law forbidding sex selection should be actively enforced, and the One Child Policy should be relaxed in some areas, to reduce the disproportionately high sex ratio in the second order births.

  6. Instant Spring Tool Suite

    CERN Document Server

    Chiang, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    Filled with practical, step-by-step instructions and clear explanations for the most important and useful tasks. A tutorial guide that walks you through how to use the features of Spring Tool Suite using well defined sections for the different parts of Spring.Instant Spring Tool Suite is for novice to intermediate Java developers looking to get a head-start in enterprise application development using Spring Tool Suite and the Spring framework. If you are looking for a guide for effective application development using Spring Tool Suite, then this book is for you.

  7. Designing Observation and Modeling Systems to Inform Decisions and Policies on Freshwater Objectives in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, W. T.; Ellis, T.; Rissman, C.; Moore, C.; Matthews, A.

    2016-12-01

    Declines in New Zealand's freshwater quality have led to legislation - the 2014 National Policy Statement on Freshwater Management (NPS-FM) - which requires regional governments to set "objectives" and design policies accordingly. In most regions, increases in freshwater contaminants are derived largely from intensifying agriculture and come as nitrogen, phosphorous or sediment, or a combination thereof. Here, the development and application of N and O isotopes as natural tracers for nitrate is examined as a case study, in the context of a wider hierarchy of observations such as N concentrations, flow and broader hydrochemistry used for NPS-FM implementation. The analysis of N and O isotopes in nitrate provides specific information on sources and removal processes that cannot be obtained by other measurements. Yet, despite considerable development of the technical methodology and environment-specific interpretation, application of measurements has faced barriers. Many may be typical of science in a small advanced nation with a population of 4.5 million, but others are unique due to New Zealand's limited rural population base and large diversity in physical geography, as well as a unique economic reliance on highly productive pastoral agricultural systems. Seventeen different regional governments are empowered to regulate in ways consistent with local consultation and democracy within their catchment boundaries, but with limited resources to align highly technical observational data to policies and decisions, as well as supporting models. The resulting gaps in communication and technical capability combine with a diversity of approaches to pose both challenges and opportunities for development and application of hierarchical observation systems. Success appears to lie in ensuring decision frameworks can be `mapped', so that different frameworks can be compared, and the benefits of sophisticated observations understood directly in relation to influence on regional

  8. Information and Communication Technologies in International Education: A Canadian Policy Analysi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Aucoin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric surrounding the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs in international education speaks of providing education access for all. However, an examination of actual policies reveals an emphasis not on creating an educated population, but on improving economic opportunities using discourses such as globalization, knowledge economy, and knowledge society. This emphasis creates an imbalance in opportunities for using ICTs in education and presents challenges for international educators. This paper discusses the Canadian International Development Agency’s report, CIDA’s Strategy on Knowledge for Development through Information and Communication Technologies, as an example of how rhetoric does not always meet reality. The paper concludes with four simple recommendations for good ICT practice in developing contexts.

  9. SDP Policy Iteration-Based Energy Management Strategy Using Traffic Information for Commuter Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Jiao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates an energy management method using traffic information for commuter hybrid electric vehicles. A control strategy based on stochastic dynamic programming (SDP is developed, which minimizes on average the equivalent fuel consumption, while satisfying the battery charge-sustaining constraints and the overall vehicle power demand for drivability. First, according to the sample information of the traffic speed profiles, the regular route is divided into several segments and the statistic characteristics in the different segments are constructed from gathered data on the averaged vehicle speeds. And then, the energy management problem is formulated as a stochastic nonlinear and constrained optimal control problem and a modified policy iteration algorithm is utilized to generate a time-invariant state-dependent power split strategy. Finally, simulation results over some driving cycles are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy.

  10. Russia In The Foreign Policy Priorities Of The Council Of Cooperation Of The Arabian Gulf States After Events Of The «Arab Spring»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Melkumyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proposed article focuses on the change in the approach of the regional organization of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC to Russia’s role in the Middle East region and the efforts of its members to establish fruitful cooperation with it. A new approach followed the events of the “Arab Spring”, among which the outcome was a complication of the regional situation and the emergence of a series of crises that forced the members of the GCC to expand the number of allies among the world’s leading powers. Russia’s active participation in resolving crisis situations in the Middle East, primarily in Syria, influenced the change in the GCC policy towards Russia, which realized its increased interest in establishing strong ties with the countries of this region. The article compares the relations that existed between Russia and the GCC states in the Soviet period and the initial period of the Russian Federation’s existence, and those relations that began to develop after 2011 amid growing instability in the Middle East region. A new stage in bilateral relations was caused by the coincidence of their interests in the fight against the increased terrorist threat. The parties were also interested in conducting political consultations to resolve regional crisis situations. The coincidence of points of view between Russia and the GCC on the Middle East settlement has always been a reliable basis for building mutual understanding between the parties. At the same time, the contradictions that arose between them on the issue of ways out of the Syrian crisis led to a cooling in their relations. The authors conclude that the place of Russia in the foreign policy priorities of the GCC is going to grow. The mutual interest of the parties in political interaction is reinforced by the need to coordinate policy in the energy market, the largest suppliers of which are both Russia and the GCC states. In addition, both sides are striving to expand economic

  11. Informal care and the self-management partnership: implications for Australian health policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essue, Beverley M; Jowsey, Tanisha; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Mirzaei, Masoud; Pearce-Brown, Carmen L; Aspin, Clive; Usherwood, Tim P

    2010-11-01

    The Serious and Continuing Illness Policy and Practice Study (SCIPPS) aims to improve the care and support for patients with chronic illness and their family carers. Here we describe the carers' contribution to the self-management partnership and discuss the policy and practice implications that are relevant to improving the support available for informal care in Australia. A secondary analysis of SCIPPS data. Fourteen carers of patients between 45 and 85 years with chronic heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes were conveniently sampled from western Sydney and the Australian Capital Territory. Semi-structured interviews were conducted. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Key roles that carers perform in the self-management partnership included: home helper; lifestyle coach; advocate; technical care manager; and health information interpreter. Two negative consequences of juggling these roles included: self-neglect and conflict. Rigid eligibility criteria limit carers' access to essential support programs which underestimates and undervalues their contributions to the self-management partnership. Support services should focus on the development of practical skills to perform the caregiving roles. In addition, health professionals require support to work more effectively with carers to minimise the conflict that can overshadow the care and self-management partnership.

  12. Mapping local knowledge of hazards to inform research, practice and policy in the Americas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coles, Ashley; Eosco, Gina; Norton, Todd; Ruiz, Jorge; Tate, Eric; Weathers, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Hazards are fundamentally understood and experienced spatially; therefore, it is not surprising that hazards research, management, communication, and policy have relied heavily on spatial representations using geomatics tools such as remote sensing and geographic information systems (GIS). As powerful and useful as these tools have been, they tend to privilege the collection and utilization of quantifiable data at the expense of qualitative data (e.g., experiential local knowledge). Local knowledge has been increasingly used both to challenge and to supplement mapping strategies, although less so in the realm of hazards than in other areas such as natural resource management. In this paper, we propose a unique framework for taking these approaches one-step further through the development of a knowledge management system that integrates local knowledge of hazards with spatial visualization tools. First, we discuss relevant literature related to current tools and practices for visualizing hazard information. Next we propose a methodology for mapping mental models of individuals. Finally, we discuss the potential applications of such a framework for hazards research, practice, and policy, as well as discuss the challenges associated with this framework.

  13. Indirect effect of management support on users' compliance behaviour towards information security policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humaidi, Norshima; Balakrishnan, Vimala

    2018-01-01

    Health information systems are innovative products designed to improve the delivery of effective healthcare, but they are also vulnerable to breaches of information security, including unauthorised access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification or destruction, and duplication of passwords. Greater openness and multi-connectedness between heterogeneous stakeholders within health networks increase the security risk. The focus of this research was on the indirect effects of management support (MS) on user compliance behaviour (UCB) towards information security policies (ISPs) among health professionals in selected Malaysian public hospitals. The aim was to identify significant factors and provide a clearer understanding of the nature of compliance behaviour in the health sector environment. Using a survey design and stratified random sampling method, self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 454 healthcare professionals in three hospitals. Drawing on theories of planned behaviour, perceived behavioural control (self-efficacy (SE) and MS components) and the trust factor, an information system security policies compliance model was developed to test three related constructs (MS, SE and perceived trust (PT)) and their relationship to UCB towards ISPs. Results showed a 52.8% variation in UCB through significant factors. Partial least squares structural equation modelling demonstrated that all factors were significant and that MS had an indirect effect on UCB through both PT and SE among respondents to this study. The research model based on the theory of planned behaviour in combination with other human and organisational factors has made a useful contribution towards explaining compliance behaviour in relation to organisational ISPs, with trust being the most significant factor. In adopting a multidimensional approach to management-user interactions via multidisciplinary concepts and theories to evaluate the association between the integrated management

  14. Domestic Violence and Welfare Policy: Research Findings That Can Inform Policies on Marriage and Child Well-Being. Research Forum on Children, Families, and the New Federalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Sharmila

    Asserting that the welfare reform proposals of the mid-1990s drew attention to the problem of domestic violence among individuals receiving public assistance who are among the poorest of the poor, this report examines what is known from past research on domestic violence that may inform policies related to marriage and child well-being. In…

  15. Water Treatment Technology - Springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on springs provides instructional materials for two competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on spring basin construction and spring protection. For each competency, student…

  16. Census-derived migration data as a tool for informing malaria elimination policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Bhavnani, Darlene; Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bengtsson, Linus; Carter, Keith H; Córdoba, Roberto C; Le Menach, Arnaud; Lu, Xin; Wetter, Erik; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-05-11

    Numerous countries around the world are approaching malaria elimination. Until global eradication is achieved, countries that successfully eliminate the disease will contend with parasite reintroduction through international movement of infected people. Human-mediated parasite mobility is also important within countries near elimination, as it drives parasite flows that affect disease transmission on a subnational scale. Movement patterns exhibited in census-based migration data are compared with patterns exhibited in a mobile phone data set from Haiti to quantify how well migration data predict short-term movement patterns. Because short-term movement data were unavailable for Mesoamerica, a logistic regression model fit to migration data from three countries in Mesoamerica is used to predict flows of infected people between subnational administrative units throughout the region. Population flows predicted using census-based migration data correlated strongly with mobile phone-derived movements when used as a measure of relative connectivity. Relative population flows are therefore predicted using census data across Mesoamerica, informing the areas that are likely exporters and importers of infected people. Relative population flows are used to identify community structure, useful for coordinating interventions and elimination efforts to minimize importation risk. Finally, the ability of census microdata inform future intervention planning is discussed in a country-specific setting using Costa Rica as an example. These results show long-term migration data can effectively predict the relative flows of infected people to direct malaria elimination policy, a particularly relevant result because migration data are generally easier to obtain than short-term movement data such as mobile phone records. Further, predicted relative flows highlight policy-relevant population dynamics, such as major exporters across the region, and Nicaragua and Costa Rica's strong

  17. Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability

  18. Fossilization Processes in Thermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Cady, Sherry; Desmarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    To create a comparative framework for the study of ancient examples, we have been carrying out parallel studies of the microbial biosedimentology, taphonomy and geochemistry of modem and sub-Recent thermal spring deposits. One goal of the research is the development of integrated litho- and taphofacies models for siliceous and travertline sinters. Thermal springs are regarded as important environments for the origin and early evolution of life on Earth, and we seek to utilize information from the fossil record to reconstruct the evolution of high temperature ecosystems. Microbial contributions to the fabric of thermal spring sinters occur when population growth rates keep pace with, or exceed rates of inorganic precipitation, allowing for the development of continuous biofilms or mats. In siliceous thermal springs, microorganisms are typically entombed while viable. Modes of preservation reflect the balance between rates of organic matter degradation, silica precipitation and secondary infilling. Subaerial sinters are initially quite porous and permeable and at temperatures higher than about 20 C, organic materials are usually degraded prior to secondary infilling of sinter frameworks. Thus, organically-preserved microfossils are rare and fossil information consists of characteristic biofabrics formed by the encrustation and underplating of microbial mat surfaces. This probably accounts for the typically low total organic carbon values observed in thermal spring deposits. In mid-temperature, (approx. 35 - 59 C) ponds and outflows, the surface morphology of tufted Phormidium mats is preserved through mat underplating by thin siliceous: crusts. Microbial taxes lead to clumping of ceils and/or preferred filament orientations that together define higher order composite fabrics in thermal spring stromatolites (e.g. network, coniform, and palisade). At lower temperatures (less than 35 C), Calothrix mats cover shallow terracette pools forming flat carpets or pustular

  19. Modeling and Recognizing Policy Conflicts with Resource Access Requests on Protected Health Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raik Kuhlisch

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses potential clashes between different types of security policies that regulate resource access requests on clinical patient data in hospitals by employees. Attribute-based Access Control (ABAC is proposed as a proper means for such regulation. A proper representation of ABAC policies must include a handling of policy attributes among different policy types. In this article, we propose a semantic policy model with predefined policy conflict categories. A conformance verification function detects erroneous, clashing or mutually susceptible rules early during the policy planning phase. The model and conflicts are used in a conceptual application environment and evaluated in a technical experiment during an interoperability test event.

  20. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included

  1. Public consultation in public policy information: a state-of-the-art report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A.B.; McKee, M.; Hansen, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the National Waste Terminal Storage (NWTS) Program is to site, construct and operate nuclear waste repositories at several locations. Recent experience indicates that the public is aware of the problems of nuclear waste disposal, and correspondingly there is public concern about how and where to dispose of nuclear wastes. The selection of sites involves a wide range of considerations including geological, technical and environmental feasibility. In addition to these, it is important that societal acceptance of repository options also be taken into account in moving foward with the NWTS Program. Such an incorporation of social considerations and preferences correspondingly implies the need for public consultation in the site selection process. In exploring the concept and state-or-the-art of public involvement in public policy decision, a number of important questions are relevant: (1) What are the basic objectives of public participation in policy formation and program decisions. (2) Who are the ''publics'' that should be involved and how can they be identified. (3) What information should be communicated between the agency and the publics. (4) What techniques are available to elicit public participation and involvement and what are their capabilities. At the outset, it should be noted that the purpose of this paper in addressing these questions is not to design public participation procedures for the NWTS program. Rather, the above are questions that provide a broad framework for developing an understanding of citizen participation in public policy decisions, such as nuclear waste disposal. In this sense, the following discussion is to provide a context and guidance for approaching the problem of organizing and structuring involvement in the NWTS program. Annotated bibliography of 95 references is included.

  2. Pro Spring Batch

    CERN Document Server

    Minella, Michael T

    2011-01-01

    Since its release, Spring Framework has transformed virtually every aspect of Java development including web applications, security, aspect-oriented programming, persistence, and messaging. Spring Batch, one of its newer additions, now brings the same familiar Spring idioms to batch processing. Spring Batch addresses the needs of any batch process, from the complex calculations performed in the biggest financial institutions to simple data migrations that occur with many software development projects. Pro Spring Batch is intended to answer three questions: *What? What is batch processing? What

  3. Capital Account Policy in South Korea: The Informal Residues of the Developmental State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf J. Leiteritz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the political dynamics of capital account policy in South Korea. The first part is devoted to the historical evolution of capital account policy from the 1960s to the present day. It highlights the path of substantial financial opening that began in the early 1990s with two distinct waves of capital account liberalization before and after the Asian financial crisis of 1997-1998. The second part of the paper aims to detect the political origins of why capital account liberalization has not been complete and sustained. It locates them at the level of domestic informal institutions: first, the ideational legacy of the previous developmental state model – economic nationalism – that was predicated upon substantial barriers to international capital movements. Second, the political power of the export-oriented sector, namely of large conglomerates, that prefer exchange-rate stability and thus restrictions on capital inflows. This paper offers a heuristic argument based on a single case study which needs to be subjected to further empirical testing.

  4. Health at the center of health systems reform: how philosophy can inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Moes, Mark M

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary views hold that health and disease can be defined as objective states and thus should determine the design and delivery of health services. Yet health concepts are elusive and contestable. Health is neither an individual construction, a reflection of societal expectations, nor only the absence of pathologies. Based on philosophical and sociological theory, empirical evidence, and clinical experience, we argue that health has simultaneously objective and subjective features that converge into a dynamic complex-adaptive health model. Health (or its dysfunction, illness) is a dynamic state representing complex patterns of adaptation to body, mind, social, and environmental challenges, resulting in bodily homeostasis and personal internal coherence. The "balance of health" model-emergent, self-organizing, dynamic, and adaptive-underpins the very essence of medicine. This model should be the foundation for health systems design and also should inform therapeutic approaches, policy decision-making, and the development of emerging health service models. A complex adaptive health system focused on achieving the best possible "personal" health outcomes must provide the broad policy frameworks and resources required to implement people-centered health care. People-centered health systems are emergent in nature, resulting in locally different but mutually compatible solutions across the whole health system.

  5. The Unexpected Negotiator at the Table: How the European Commission’s Expertise Informs Intergovernmental EU Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Chou

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available How, if at all, does the Commission’s expertise inform intergovernmental decision-making within the EU? In this article, we aim to capture the relationship between the Commission’s expertise and its influence within intergovernmental policy-areas through a study of Commission influence in two least likely sectors: security and defence policies (military mission Atalanta and EU Maritime Security Strategy and external migration (EU mobility partnerships with third countries. In these cases we observe that the Commission strongly informs policy developments even though it has only limited formal competences. To explore whether and, if so, how this influence is linked to its expertise, we develop and consider two hypotheses: The expert authority hypothesis and the expert arguments hypothesis. To identify possible additional channels of influence, we also consider the relevance of two alternative hypotheses: The strategic coalition hypothesis and the institutional circumvention hypothesis. We find that the Commission’s use of its expertise is indeed key to understanding its de facto influence within policy-areas where its formal competences remain limited. Our findings add to the existing literature by revealing how expertise matters. Specifically, our cases show that the Commission informs intergovernmental decision-making by successfully linking discussions to policy-areas where it holds expert authority. However, the Commission also informs EU policies by circumventing the formal lines of intergovernmental decision-making, and by cooperating with member states that share its preference for further integration.

  6. Extending coverage to informal sector populations in Kenya: design preferences and implications for financing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okungu, Vincent; Chuma, Jane; Mulupi, Stephen; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-09

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group. The objective of the study was to document the views of informal sector workers regarding different prepayment mechanisms, and critically analyze key design features of a future health system and the policy implications of financing UHC in Kenya. This was part of larger study which involved a mixed-methods approach. The following tools were used to collect data from informal sector workers: focus group discussions [N = 16 (rural = 7; urban = 9)], individual in-depth interviews [N = 26 (rural = 14; urban = 12)] and a questionnaire survey [N = 455(rural = 129; urban = 326)]. Thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data while Stata v.11 involving mainly descriptive analysis was used in quantitative data. The tools mentioned were used to collect data to meet various objectives of a larger study and what is presented here constitutes a small section of the data generated by these tools. The findings show that informal sector workers in rural and urban areas prefer different prepayment systems for financing UHC. Preference for a non-contributory system of financing UHC was particularly strong in the urban study site (58%). Over 70% in the rural area preferred a contributory mechanism in financing UHC. The main concern for informal sector workers regardless of

  7. Proposed plan for remedial action for the Groundwater Operable Unit at the Chemical Plant Area of the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This Proposed Plan addresses the remediation of groundwater contamination at the chemical plant area of the Weldon Spring site in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The site is located approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis in St. Charles County . Remedial activities at the site will be conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the U.S. Department of the Army (DA), conducted a joint remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) to allow for a comprehensive evaluation of groundwater conditions at the Weldon Spring chemical plant area and the Weldon Spring ordnance works area, which is an Army site adjacent to the chemical plant area. Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. That is, the analysis conducted and presented in the RVFS reports included an evaluation of environmental impacts that is comparable to that performed under NEPA. This Proposed Plan summarizes information about chemical plant area groundwater that is presented in the following documents: (1) The Remedial Investigation (RI), which presents information on the nature and extent of contamination; (2) The Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA), which evaluates impacts to human health and the environment that could occur if no cleanup action of the groundwater were taken (DOE and DA 1997a); and (3) The Feasibility Study (FS) and the Supplemental FS, which develop and evaluate remedial action alternatives for groundwater remediation

  8. 41 CFR 105-64.106 - What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information accuracy in a system of records? 105-64.106 Section 105-64.106 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.106 What is GSA's policy on information accuracy in a system of records? System managers...

  9. 41 CFR 105-64.102 - What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosure of information in a system of records? 105-64.102 Section 105-64.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Responsibilities § 105-64.102 What is GSA's policy on disclosure of information in a system of records? No...

  10. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  11. Contentious terrain in EU information society policies: Media pluralism and freedom of expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyase Christensen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In an EU context, the benefits attributed to new communication technologies are many: the creation of employment and economic growth; the enrichment of cultural/political dialogue and civic engagement; and, the permeation of a sense of European identity across the region. However, in the face of an increased emphasis on economic competitiveness both globally and at the EU policy level, there exists an unmistakable convergent approach to audiovisual/communications, cultural and competition policies. Parallel to this is an upsurge of concern—voiced by, for example, the European Parliament—over media pluralism and freedom of expression. Although the virtues of safeguarding “media pluralism” and “freedom of speech” in a healthy democracy are axiomatic, in the face of current dynamics, their meaning is widely contested. The purpose of this article is to offer an analysis of recent EU Information Society (IS policies in relation to media pluralism and freedom of speech. Mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed: Et omstridt felt inden for EU-informationssamfundspolitikker I en EU-kontekst er der mange fordele, som tilskrives nye kommunikationsteknologier: Skabelsen af beskæftigelse og økonomisk vækst; berigelsen af kulturel/politisk dialog og borgerengagement; og udbredelsen af en fornemmelse af europæisk identitet på tværs af regionerne. Men i lyset af en øget vægtning af økonomisk konkurrence, såvel globalt som i relation til EU's politikker, eksisterer der en umiskendelig sammensat tilgang til politikker for audiovisuel kommunikation, kultur og konkurrence. Parallelt med dette findes en pludselig stigning i interessen omkring mediepluralisme og ytringsfrihed. Skønt værdien af at beskytte ”mediepluralisme” og ”ytringsfrihed” i lyset af aktuelle dynamikker er aksiomatisk i et sundt demokrati, udfordres betydningen af dette i udstrakt grad. Formålet med denne artikel er at give en analyse af nyere EU

  12. The use of discrete choice experiments to inform health workforce policy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, Kate L; Lagarde, Mylene; Hanson, Kara

    2014-09-01

    Discrete choice experiments have become a popular study design to study the labour market preferences of health workers. Discrete choice experiments in health, however, have been criticised for lagging behind best practice and there are specific methodological considerations for those focused on job choices. We performed a systematic review of the application of discrete choice experiments to inform health workforce policy. We searched for discrete choice experiments that examined the labour market preferences of health workers, including doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, mid-level and community health workers. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health, other databases and grey literature repositories with no limits on date or language and contacted 44 experts. Features of choice task and experimental design, conduct and analysis of included studies were assessed against best practice. An assessment of validity was undertaken for all studies, with a comparison of results from those with low risk of bias and a similar objective and context. Twenty-seven studies were included, with over half set in low- and middle-income countries. There were more studies published in the last four years than the previous ten years. Doctors or medical students were the most studied cadre. Studies frequently pooled results from heterogeneous subgroups or extrapolated these results to the general population. Only one third of studies included an opt-out option, despite all health workers having the option to exit the labour market. Just five studies combined results with cost data to assess the cost effectiveness of various policy options. Comparison of results from similar studies broadly showed the importance of bonus payments and postgraduate training opportunities and the unpopularity of time commitments for the uptake of rural posts. This is the first systematic review of discrete choice experiments in human resources for health. We identified specific issues relating

  13. Spring joint with overstrain sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Peter M. (Inventor); Gaither, Bryan W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible joint may include a conductive compression spring and a pair of non-conductive spring cages disposed at opposite ends of the compression spring to support the compression spring. A conductive member disposed inside the compression spring may extend between the pair of spring cages. One end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with one of the spring cages and another end of the conductive member may be fixed for movement with the other of the spring cages.

  14. IE Information Notice No. 85-93: Westinghouse Type DS circuit breakers, potential failure of electric closing feature because of broken spring release latch lever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    On April 14, 1985, the Westinghouse Nuclear Services Integration Division (NSID) issued Technical Bulletin No. NSID-TB-85-17 advising their customers of a potential malfunction in Westinghouse Type DS Class 1E circuit breakers because of broken spring release latch levers. These electrically operated type DS breakers will not close electrically when the spring release latch lever has been broken off. Twenty-five broken levers have been reported and evaluated. This evaluation shows concentrations of incidents traceable to manufacturing in the following periods of time: early 1975, April 1976, and early 1978. This circuit breaker failure, as discussed, adversely affects the safety function (closing on demand) when the circuit breaker is used in the Engineered Safety Features Systems. However, this failure mode will not affect the safety trip function when it is used in the reactor protection system

  15. Spring 5 & reactive streams

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Clozel, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Spring is a framework widely used by the world-wide Java community, and it is also extensively used at CERN. The accelerator control system is constituted of 10 million lines of Java code, spread across more than 1000 projects (jars) developed by 160 software engineers. Around half of this (all server-side Java code) is based on the Spring framework. Warning: the speakers will assume that people attending the seminar are familiar with Java and Spring’s basic concepts. Spring 5.0 and Spring Boot 2.0 updates (45 min) This talk will cover the big ticket items in the 5.0 release of Spring (including Kotlin support, @Nullable and JDK9) and provide an update on Spring Boot 2.0, which is scheduled for the end of the year. Reactive Spring (1h) Spring Framework 5.0 has been released - and it now supports reactive applications in the Spring ecosystem. During this presentation, we'll talk about the reactive foundations of Spring Framework with the Reactor project and the reactive streams specification. We'll al...

  16. Strategy of the Romanian Public Information Policy in the Nuclear Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiopol, Mihaela; Manole, Felicia; Paunescu, Aurelia; Petran, Catalina; Chiper, Livia

    1998-01-01

    In the framework the Romania's nuclear power program the first Romanian NPP has been built at Cernavoda and the Unit 1, based on a CANDU type reactor, was commissioned on December 2, 1996. The start of the entire nuclear program in Romania, some 20 years ago, was a high level government decision with no public hearing or acceptance, either, but obviously based on economic and political considerations. After 1990 favorable and unfavorable articles in the mass media, most of them lacking of technical background, had led to distorted and false perception of information. The strategy of public information policy in the nuclear field should be guided by the following facts: a) the public perception of the nuclear energy problems in general, and of nuclear power, in particular, is deeply deformed by the ignorance in the domain; b) first of all the public fears for its health menaced by radiation and radioactive wastes; c) the public due not know the actual dimension and potential of the Romanian industry in this field, the qualitative progress brought about by the implementation of the nuclear program in the Romania's economy; d) the public vulnerability when exposed to the mass media which, owing to its rush towards sensational or due to the lack of knowledge in the field, rather often have launched simple, unfounded speculations. The paper presents the basic principles which are underlying the public information program and lists suggestions for the future activity concerning: A - the educational programs addressed to young people; B - development of computer-assisted educational programs; C - the relationship with mass media; D - accomplishing an adequate information through publications; E - organizing and/or participating in exhibitions displaying nuclear power development; F - advertising actions related to promotion of Unit 2 - 5 project at Cernavoda NPP

  17. Informing body checking policy in youth ice hockey in Canada: a discussion meeting with researchers and community stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Carly D; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Emery, Carolyn A

    2014-11-05

    Body checking is a significant risk factor for injury, including concussion, in youth ice hockey. Recent evidence regarding injury rates in youth leagues prompted USA Hockey to institute a national policy change in 2011 that increased the age of body checking introduction from 11-12 years old (Pee Wee) to 13-14 years old (Bantam). Body checking policy was more controversial in Canada, and research evidence alone was insufficient to drive change. The purpose of this paper is to provide an example of one of the knowledge exchange processes that occurred between researchers and community stakeholders, leading up to a national policy change in 2013. There were 28 stakeholder attendees, representing the research community, youth hockey organizations, and child health advocacy groups. A one-day meeting held in Whistler, British Columbia, in April 2013. Researchers and stakeholders presented current perspectives on evidence and policy change, and discussion focused on an a priori set of questions designed to elicit facilitators and barriers to policy change. Three major factors that can drive policy change in the sport safety context were identified: the need for decision-making leadership, the importance of knowledge translation, and the role of sport culture as a barrier to change. There is a critical need for researcher and stakeholder partnership in facilitating ongoing policy discussion and informing evidence-based policy change in sport and recreation injury prevention.

  18. [NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18:] Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  19. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 18: Scientific and Technical Information (STI) policy and the competitive position of the US aerospace industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernon, Peter; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    1992-01-01

    With its contribution to trade, its coupling with national security, and its symbolism of U.S. technological strength, the U.S. aerospace industry holds a unique position in the Nation's industrial structure. Federal science and technology policy and Federal scientific and technical information (STI) policy loom important as strategic contributions to the U.S. aerospace industry's leading competitive position. However, three fundamental policy problems exist. First, the United States lacks a coherent STI policy and a unified approach to the development of such a policy. Second, policymakers fail to understand the relationship of STI to science and technology policy. Third, STI is treated as a part of general information policy, without any recognition of its uniqueness. This paper provides an overview of the Federal information policy structure as it relates to STI and frames the policy issues that require resolution.

  20. 76 FR 26235 - EPAAR Clause for Compliance with EPA Policies for Information Resources Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    ... Protection Agency (EPA) amends the EPA Acquisition Regulation (EPAAR) to update policy, procedures, and... under this contract in accordance with the IRM policies, standards, and procedures set forth on the... Agency's IRM policies, standards, and procedures. (c) Section 508 Requirements. Contract deliverables are...

  1. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    sustainability of agriculture production, which is at the center of Water-Energy-Food nexus, but also provide timely information to help guide evolving national policies regarding agriculture, trade, environment, and national security.

  2. Framework Spring MVC

    OpenAIRE

    Jindráček, Petr

    2011-01-01

    The topic of this bachelor thesis is the web application framework Spring MVC which is an integral part of the Spring platform. That means it offers many options of adjustment and support of other significant technologies. The aim is to introduce basic principles of this framework on a theoretical level and subsequently examine them on a real example of application. The thesis is divided into three main parts. The first part is focused on Spring framework in general to introduce basic princip...

  3. Spring integration essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Chandan

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who are either already involved with enterprise integration or planning to venture into the domain. Basic knowledge of Java and Spring is expected. For newer users, this book can be used to understand an integration scenario, what the challenges are, and how Spring Integration can be used to solve it. Prior experience of Spring Integration is not expected as this book will walk you through all the code examples.

  4. Coil spring venting arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCugh, R.M.

    1975-01-01

    A simple venting device for trapped gas pockets in hydraulic systems is inserted through a small access passages, operated remotely, and removed completely. The device comprises a small diameter, closely wound coil spring which is pushed through a guide temporarily inserted in the access passage. The guide has a central passageway which directs the coil spring radially upward into the pocket, so that, with the guide properly positioned for depth and properly oriented, the coil spring can be pushed up into the top of the pocket to vent it. By positioning a seal around the free end of the guide, the spring and guide are removed and the passage is sealed

  5. From Access to Documents to Consumption of Information: The European Commission Transparency Policy for the TTIP Negotiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Coremans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available To increase transparency of the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP negotiations, the European Commission has reformed existing information sharing systems for trade policy. The Commission has moved from a strategy of providing transparency in the form of access to documents to one of access to information, geared specifically towards enhancing consumption of the available information. In both public and institutional transparency policy, the width of the target audience and the depth of the information have increased, and the manner of provision has shifted from reactive to proactive provision of information. As a result, the TTIP is now being coined as the most transparent trade negotiation ever in the EU’s history and a pilot project for transparency policy in future trade negotiations. The article adopts a supply-centred perspective to explain a transparency policy that goes beyond the legal minimum imposed by formal requirements. It relies on interview data of the changes brought about in inter-institutional relations since 2014, basic quantitative and qualitative analysis of document material, and a five-month participatory observation by the author in the secretariat of the European Parliament’s Committee on International Trade.

  6. Health information technology implementation - impacts and policy considerations: a comparison between Israel and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catan, Gabriel; Espanha, Rita; Mendes, Rita Veloso; Toren, Orly; Chinitz, David

    2015-01-01

    and disadvantages. Government involvement in earlier stages could provide benefit in terms of interoperability of systems between different healthcare organizations. However, innovation could be slowed down due to government bureaucracy or lack of leadership. The work provides information in order to understand and improve ICT services. Additionally, it provides input regarding impact of ICT on the physician/patient relationship and national policies in the area.

  7. High-resolution Behavioral Economic Analysis of Cigarette Demand to Inform Tax Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, James; Few, Lauren R.; Murphy, James G.; Wier, Lauren M.; Acker, John; Murphy, Cara; Stojek, Monika; Carrigan, Maureen; Chaloupka, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Aims Novel methods in behavioral economics permit the systematic assessment of the relationship between cigarette consumption and price. Toward informing tax policy, the goals of this study were to conduct a high-resolution analysis of cigarette demand in a large sample of adult smokers and to use the data to estimate the effects of tax increases in ten U.S. States. Design In-person descriptive survey assessment. Setting Academic departments at three universities. Participants Adult daily smokers (i.e., 5+ cigarettes/day; 18+ years old; ≥8th grade education); N = 1056. Measurements Estimated cigarette demand, demographics, expired carbon monoxide. Findings The cigarette demand curve exhibited highly variable levels of price sensitivity, especially in the form of ‘left-digit effects’ (i.e., very high price sensitivity as pack prices transitioned from one whole number to the next; e.g., $5.80-$6/pack). A $1 tax increase in the ten states was projected to reduce the economic burden of smoking by an average of $531M (range: $93.6M-$976.5M) and increase gross tax revenue by an average of 162% (range: 114%- 247%). Conclusions Tobacco price sensitivity is nonlinear across the demand curve and in particular for pack-level left-digit price transitions. Tax increases in U.S. states with similar price and tax rates to the sample are projected to result in substantial decreases in smoking-related costs and substantial increases in tax revenues. PMID:22845784

  8. CEOS contributions to informing energy management and policy decision making using space-based Earth observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckman, Richard S.; Stackhouse, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the “space arm” for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. We discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  9. Assimilation of tourism satellite accounts and applied general equilibrium models to inform tourism policy analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rossouw, Riaan; Saayman, Melville

    2011-01-01

    Historically, tourism policy analysis in South Africa has posed challenges to accurate measurement. The primary reason for this is that tourism is not designated as an 'industry' in standard economic accounts. This paper therefore demonstrates the relevance and need for applied general equilibrium (AGE) models to be completed and extended through an integration with tourism satellite accounts (TSAs) as a tool for policy makers (especially tourism policy makers) in South Africa. The paper sets...

  10. The spirit of democracy in the implementation of public information policy at the provincial government of West Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjoraida, D. F.; Asmawi, A.; Anwar, R. K.

    2018-03-01

    This article analyses the implementation of Law Number 14/2008 on Public Information Disclosure on the Provincial Government of West Java. This descriptive-qualitative study presents a discussion of the spirit of democracy in the implementation of the abovem-entioned policy in West Java Province. With the theory of policy implementation and democratization, data obtains that the element of democratic spirit in the implementation of public information policy in the government of West Java is quite thick. Therefore, there must be a massification of the implementation of the law in West Java, especially its socialization to districts/cities and society in general. It was found that the democratization of the West Java Provincial Government in implementing the Act has been well received in the community. However, the lack of publicity about this Law can reduce the strength of moral messages that exist in the law to the public.

  11. Mockito for Spring

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    If you are an application developer with some experience in software testing and want to learn more about testing frameworks, then this technology and book is for you. Mockito for Spring will be perfect as your next step towards becoming a competent software tester with Spring and Mockito.

  12. Spring A Developer's Notebook

    CERN Document Server

    Tate, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    This no-nonsense book quickly gets you up to speed on the new Spring open source framework. Favoring examples and practical application over theory, Spring: A Developer's Notebook features 10 code-intensive labs that'll reveal the many assets of this revolutionary, lightweight architecture. In the end, you'll understand how to produce simple, clean, and effective applications.

  13. TANTAMOUNT TO FRAUD?: EXPLORING NON-DISCLOSURE OF GENETIC INFORMATION IN LIFE INSURANCE APPLICATIONS AS GROUNDS FOR POLICY RESCISSION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Anya E R

    2016-01-01

    Many genetic counselors recommend that individuals secure desired insurance policies, such as life insurance, prior to undergoing predictive genetic testing. It has been argued, however, that this practice is "tantamount to fraud" and that failure to disclose genetic test results, or conspiring to secure a policy before testing, opens an individual up to legal recourse. This debate traps affected individuals in a Catch-22. If they apply for life insurance and disclose a genetic test result, they may be denied. If they apply without disclosing the information, they may have committed fraud. The consequences of life insurance fraud are significant: If fraud is found on an application, a life insurer can rescind the policy, in some cases even after the individual has passed away. Such a rescission could leave family members or beneficiaries without the benefits of the life insurance policy payment after the individual's death and place them in in economic difficulty. Although it is clear that lying in response to a direct question about genetic testing would be tantamount to fraud, few, if any, life insurance applications currently include broad questions about genetic testing. This paper investigates whether non-disclosure of unasked for genetic information constitutes fraud and explores varying types of insurance questions that could conceivably be interpreted as seeking genetic information. Life insurance applicants generally have no duty to disclose unasked for information, including genetic information, on an application. However, given the complexities of genetic information, individuals may be exposed to fraud and rescission of their life insurance policy despite honest attempts to truthfully and completely answer all application questions.

  14. Kenya's health workforce information system: a model of impact on strategic human resources policy, planning and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Keith P; Zuber, Alexandra; Willy, Rankesh M; Kiriinya, Rose N; Waudo, Agnes N; Oluoch, Tom; Kimani, Francis M; Riley, Patricia L

    2013-09-01

    Countries worldwide are challenged by health worker shortages, skill mix imbalances, and maldistribution. Human resources information systems (HRIS) are used to monitor and address these health workforce issues, but global understanding of such systems is minimal and baseline information regarding their scope and capability is practically non-existent. The Kenya Health Workforce Information System (KHWIS) has been identified as a promising example of a functioning HRIS. The objective of this paper is to document the impact of KHWIS data on human resources policy, planning and management. Sources for this study included semi-structured interviews with senior officials at Kenya's Ministry of Medical Services (MOMS), Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation (MOPHS), the Department of Nursing within MOMS, the Nursing Council of Kenya, Kenya Medical Practitioners and Dentists Board, Kenya's Clinical Officers Council, and Kenya Medical Laboratory Technicians and Technologists Board. Additionally, quantitative data were extracted from KHWIS databases to supplement the interviews. Health sector policy documents were retrieved from MOMS and MOPHS websites, and reviewed to assess whether they documented any changes to policy and practice as having been impacted by KHWIS data. Interviews with Kenyan government and regulatory officials cited health workforce data provided by KHWIS influenced policy, regulation, and management. Policy changes include extension of Kenya's age of mandatory civil service retirement from 55 to 60 years. Data retrieved from KHWIS document increased relicensing of professional nurses, midwives, medical practitioners and dentists, and interviewees reported this improved compliance raised professional regulatory body revenues. The review of Government records revealed few references to KHWIS; however, documentation specifically cited the KHWIS as having improved the availability of human resources for health information regarding workforce planning

  15. Masters of the springs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    led to a number of insights into the social organization of the mound cemeteries that will be presented in the paper. It is obvious that there existed a close spatial relation between freshwater springs and the compact mounds cemeteries that emerged c.2050 BC. The mound cemeteries appear to have been...... flanked by villages that relied on these water recourses for agricultural production. The springs emerged in the zone separating the cemeteries from the settlements. The freshwater springs were actively incorporated into the religious landscape of the dead, by consistently erecting mounds of a particular...... high status type right above the head of each spring. These tombs of the masters of the springs are distinguished by their larger size and vertical shaft entrance. It is argued that this particular strategy of power was employed after population growth had intensified conflicts over the rights...

  16. How Can School Leaders Establish Evidence-Informed Schools: An Analysis of the Effectiveness of Potential School Policy Levers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Chris; Zhang, Dell

    2017-01-01

    This article has three aims: first, it examines the notion of evidence-informed practice and its benefits, as well as recent educational policy designed to promote schools' use of evidence. Second, it examines four distinct but overlapping and interdependent factors that school leaders need to consider if they wish to establish evidence-informed…

  17. Asimetrik Bilgi ve Para Politikasının Etkinliği(Asymmetric Information And Effectiveness Of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan KARAHAN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been indicated in the recent economic literature that the accountability of monetary policies is the most significant variable determining the effectiveness of applications. Accordingly, transparency in monetary policy becomes the most important factor for Central Banks. Thus, asymmetric distribution of information between Central Bank and other economic units becomes a significant problem requiring to be solved in order to reach the efficient monetary policy. From this starting point, the study aims to analyze the basic resource of asymmetric information problems. We deal with the asymmetric information between Central Bank and other economic units in the framework of three resources. These are the deficiencies of information concerning the aim of policy, the transmission mechanism of policy and the data sets realized in process of policy application. Also, we will evaluate the policies of Central Bank in Turkey, determining the solutions for problems indicated in this study, in the framework of strategy towards Inflation Targeting

  18. сисOptimization of the state information policy of Ukraine in the conditions of contemporary modernization processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Romanenko

    2014-10-01

    Today in Ukraine is a strategic document that at the national level to govern the main priorities, directions, principles, principles and ways of realization of the State policy on implementing its information and communication functions. Moreover the communicative component state is not clearly separated from the information, and therefore does not have the proper conceptual, technological and functional software, also destablzacjno affects the livelihoods of its public sector.

  19. Environmental Audit, Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Baseline Audit of DOE's Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP), located in St. Charles, Missouri. The purpose of the Environmental Baseline Audit is to provide the Secretary of Energy with concise information pertaining to the following issues: (1) compliance status with applicable environmental regulations (with the exception of National Environmental Policy Act [NEPA] requirements); (2) adherence to best management and accepted industry practices; (3) DOE vulnerabilities and liabilities associated with compliance status, environmental conditions, and management practices; (4) root causes of compliance findings (CF) and best management practice (BMP) findings; (5) adequacy of environmental management programs and organizations; and (6) noteworthy practices. This information will assist DOE in determining patterns and trends in environmental compliance, BMPs, and root causes, and will provide the information necessary for line management to take appropriate corrective actions. 6 figs., 11 tabs

  20. A Quantitative Study on the Relationship of Information Security Policy Awareness, Enforcement, and Maintenance to Information Security Program Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Today's organizations rely heavily on information technology to conduct their daily activities. Therefore, their information security systems are an area of heightened security concern. As a result, organizations implement information security programs to address and mitigate that concern. However, even with the emphasis on information security,…

  1. A Cost-Effectiveness Tool for Informing Policies on Zika Virus Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Alfaro-Murillo

    2016-05-01

    updated estimates on cost-effectiveness of interventions and inform policy decisions in country-specific settings.

  2. Servicio de Información: políticas de información en un entorno de cambios Information Services: information policies in a changing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbert J. Sánchez Vanderkast

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Las políticas de información en el área de los servicios de información atraviesan por un período de obsolescencia acelerada debido a los cambios que se efectúan en el entorno informativo. Dicho entorno se ve afectado en dos niveles, intra-social y extra-social, por elementos de índole social, tecnológica, económica, ecosistémica y política. Se propone la metodología 'STEEP' para realizar un análisis de los elementos mencionados con el fin de conocer las tendencias de cada uno de ellos en ambos niveles. Esto nos llevaría a un ejercicio de evaluación de las políticas de información existentes en el área de los servicios de información, en general, para proponer otras políticas y conformar un estudio de prospección, para establecer una agenda con las propuestas de nuevas políticas de información en esa área en particular, tomando siempre en cuenta los valores sociales e institucionales.Information policies in the field of information services are going through an accelerated obsolescence period due to changes carried out in the information environment. Such environment becomes affected in two levels, intra and extra-social, by elements of social, technological, economic, ecological, and political kind. The 'STEEP' methodology is proposed to analyze the elements mentioned, so the trends of each are known in both levels. This would take us to an evaluation exercise of existing information policies in the field of information services, in general, to propose other policies and generate a prospective study, to establish an agenda with the proposals of new information policies in that field particularly, always taking into consideration social and institutional values.

  3. Mobile Phone Use in a Pennsylvania Public High School: Does Policy Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackara, Susan Tomchak

    2014-01-01

    Though many American educators embrace technology in classrooms, administrators can create policies that inhibit technology such as mobile phone use in classrooms or on district property. These policies range from restrictive with no mobile phone use permitted, to liberal in which unrestricted use of mobile phones is allowed. The purpose of this…

  4. Key Informant Views of a Free Delivery and Caesarean Policy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the findings of one component of an evaluation of the national policy for free deliveries and caesareans in Senegal. The policy was introduced in 2005 in five more deprived regions of the country. It aimed to reduce the financial barriers to using maternity services and to increase the number of ...

  5. Prospective policy analysis: how an epistemic community informed policymaking on intentional self poisoning in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Zwi B

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Policy analysis is often retrospective and not well suited to helping policy makers decide what to do; in contrast prospective policy analysis seeks to assist in formulating responses to challenging public policy questions. Suicide in Sri Lanka is a major public health problem, with ingestion of pesticides being the primary method. Previous policy interventions have been associated with reduced mortality through restricting access to the most toxic pesticides. Additional means of reducing access are still needed. Methods The prospective policy analysis comprised two stages. The first used a consensus activity within a well defined policy community to generate and frame policy options. The second broadened the analysis to include other stakeholders. We report the consensus activity with seven actors from agriculture, health, and academia. Policy options were identified through two rounds of discussion along with ratings by each participant on their degree of support for each option. Data were analysed quantitatively and discussions analysed with Nvivo 8 to code prominent and recurrent themes. Results The main finding was the strong support and consensus for two proposals: further regulation of pesticides and the novel idea of repackaging pesticides into non-lethal doses. Participants identified several factors that were supportive of future policy change including a strong legislative framework, good links between agriculture, health and academia, and a collaborative relationship with industry. Identified barriers and potential threats to policy change included political interference, difficulties of intersectoral collaboration, acceptability of options to the community, difficulty of implementation in rural communities and the challenge of reducing mortality. Conclusions The development and consideration of policy options within this epistemic community reflected an appreciation and understanding of many of the factors that

  6. Information and Communications Technologies Health Projects in Panama: A Systematic Review and their Relation with Public Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Gema Anabel Castillo; Berbey, Aranzazu; de la Torre-Díez, Isabel; López-Coronado, Miguel

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a review about Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) health projects in Panama. The main contribution is to provide a vision of the situation in Panama, allowing an understanding of the dynamics of health policies and how they have affected the implementation of ICT's Projects to improve the health of Panamanians. We analyze the projects found with ICT's in health of Panama, which allow us to see a perspective of projects information is obtained from 2000 to 2016, however it is important to highlight that there may be other projects that we do not know because we did not find enough information or evidence of the same. That is why this review has interviews with key personnel, who have guided us with the search for information. 56% of technology projects are concentrated in the capital city and only 16% in the province of Chiriquí. 64% of these projects are focused on the development of information systems, mainly focused on electronic patient registration. And 60% refers to projects related to primary health care. The MINSA and CSS both with a 20% participation in ICT project, in addition we can notice the dispersion of projects for hospitals, where each one is developing programs per their needs or priorities. The national information about ICT projects of Health, it has been notorious the state of dispersion and segmented of public health information. We consider that it is a natural consequence of Policy in Panamanian Health System. This situation limits the information retrieval and knowledge of ICT in Health of Panama. To stakeholders, this information is directed so that health policies are designed towards a more effective and integral management, administering the ICT's as tools for the well-being of most the Panamanian population, including indigenous group.

  7. Can sense-making tools inform adaptation policy? A practitioner's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla M. G. Milne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As governments struggle to find solutions to complex problems like climate change, policy makers look for tools that can capture complexity and elicit insight. I explored the application of one such tool, known as "SenseMaker," in helping Canadian policy makers understand the factors that enable or hinder climate change adaptation in Canada. I have reflected on the usefulness of SenseMaker and of a multiperspective, multimethod approach to investigating perceptions and experiences of adaptation. The challenges and advantages of applying this analysis in government were explored, and data findings assessed for their impact on policy. Findings showed that although the approach has promise, further work and testing are needed before sense-making approaches support adaptation policy.

  8. A Way to Operationalize the DOD's Critical Infrastructure Protection Program Using Information Assurance Policies and Technologies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Arthur R

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) Defense Critical Infrastructure Protection Program has recently reorganized under the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Homeland Defense under the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy...

  9. Learning Spring application development

    CERN Document Server

    Soni, Ravi Kant

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who are interested in learning the core features of the Spring Framework. Prior knowledge of Java programming and web development concepts with basic XML knowledge is expected.

  10. Cyanobacteria in ambient springs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cantonati, M.; Komárek, Jiří; Montejano, G.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 4 (2015), s. 865-888 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Springs * Cyanoprokaryotes * Radiation * Nitrogen Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.258, year: 2015

  11. Spring Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Spring Bottom Trawl Survey was initiated in 1968 and covered an area from Cape Hatteras, NC, to Nova Scotia, Canada, at depths >27m....

  12. 'With the best of reasons': cervical cancer prevention policy and the suppression of sexual risk factor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V; Gavey, N

    1999-05-01

    Cervical cancer is a very common but largely preventable cancer. Despite considerable medical knowledge of risk and even causal factors, possible social-behavioural strategies for the primary prevention of cervical cancer have rarely been explored as a viable addition to cervical screening. We examine key policy documents and interview 18 key informants on cervical cancer prevention in New Zealand. Using a discourse analytic approach we identify and discuss two discourses (which we have labelled 'protectionism' and 'right to know') which inform positions on whether or not women should be provided with information regarding sexual risk factors for cervical cancer. Cervical cancer prevention policy in New Zealand, which largely reflects a protectionist discourse, suppresses sexual risk factor information and focuses exclusively on cervical screening. The right to know discourse informs an alternative position, which contends that women have a right to be informed about risk factors. We discuss these positions in relation to questions about women's rights, the principle of informed choice, and attempts to judge what is in women's 'best interests.'

  13. Informing public health policy through deliberative public engagement: perceived impact on participants and citizen-government relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molster, Caron; Potts, Ayla; McNamara, Beverley; Youngs, Leanne; Maxwell, Susannah; Dawkins, Hugh; O'Leary, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Deliberative public engagement has been proposed for policy development, where issues are complex and there are diverse public perspectives and low awareness of competing issues. Scholars suggest a range of potential outcomes for citizens and government agencies from involvement in such processes. Few studies have examined outcomes from the perspective of citizen participants in deliberative processes. To examine participant perceptions of their involvement in and outcomes of a deliberative engagement exercise. A case study using semistructured interviews was conducted with participants following a deliberative forum on biobanking. From their involvement in the deliberative exercise, participants described transformations in their knowledge and beliefs about the policy issues. They reported being more informed to the extent of having confidence to educate others and effectively contribute to public policy development. They had developed greater trust in government policymakers who they believed would take reasonable account of their recommendations. We conclude that the participants were satisfied with the outcomes of the deliberative public engagement process and viewed it as an effective means of citizen involvement in public policy development. Particularly for citizens who participate in deliberative processes, such processes may promote active citizenship, empower citizens to undertake representative and educative roles, and improve relations between citizens and government agencies. Actions taken by policymakers subsequent to the deliberative exercise, whereby the majority of citizen recommendations were incorporated in the policy developed, may have contributed to participants holding sustained levels of trust in the commissioning government agency.

  14. Unofficial policy: access to housing, housing information and social services among homeless drug users in Hartford, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corbett A Michelle

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much research has shown that the homeless have higher rates of substance abuse problems than housed populations and that substance abuse increases individuals' vulnerability to homelessness. However, the effects of housing policies on drug users' access to housing have been understudied to date. This paper will look at the "unofficial" housing policies that affect drug users' access to housing. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 65 active users of heroin and cocaine at baseline, 3 and 6 months. Participants were purposively sampled to reflect a variety of housing statuses including homeless on the streets, in shelters, "doubled-up" with family or friends, or permanently housed in subsidized, unsubsidized or supportive housing. Key informant interviews and two focus group interviews were conducted with 15 housing caseworkers. Data were analyzed to explore the processes by which drug users receive information about different housing subsidies and welfare benefits, and their experiences in applying for these. Results A number of unofficial policy mechanisms limit drug users' access to housing, information and services, including limited outreach to non-shelter using homeless regarding housing programs, service provider priorities, and service provider discretion in processing applications and providing services. Conclusion Unofficial policy, i.e. the mechanisms used by caseworkers to ration scarce housing resources, is as important as official housing policies in limiting drug users' access to housing. Drug users' descriptions of their experiences working with caseworkers to obtain permanent, affordable housing, provide insights as to how access to supportive and subsidized housing can be improved for this population.

  15. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the 'Sheffield model'). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders' views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the 'real life' world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  16. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-01-01

    Background: Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the ‘Sheffield model’). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders’ views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. Methods: In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Results: Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the ‘real life’ world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Conclusion: Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. PMID:24367068

  17. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavis, John N; Boyko, Jennifer A; Oxman, Andrew D; Lewin, Simon; Fretheim, Atle

    2009-12-16

    This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recognition of the need for locally contextualised 'decision support' for policymakers and other stakeholders 2. The recognition that research evidence is only one input into the decision-making processes of policymakers and other stakeholders 3. The recognition that many stakeholders can add significant value to these processes, and 4. The recognition that many stakeholders can take action to address high-priority issues, and not just policymakers. In this article, we suggest questions to guide those organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking. These are: 1. Does the dialogue address a high-priority issue? 2. Does the dialogue provide opportunities to discuss the problem, options to address the problem, and key implementation considerations? 3. Is the dialogue informed by a pre-circulated policy brief and by a discussion about the full range of factors that can influence the policymaking process? 4. Does the dialogue ensure fair representation among those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions related to the issue? 5. Does the dialogue engage a facilitator, follow a rule about not attributing comments to individuals, and not aim for consensus? 6. Are outputs produced and follow-up activities undertaken to support action?

  18. U.S. Air Force Information Resources Management: An Exploratory Study of Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Munoz, Brian

    1998-01-01

    .... Information Resources Management (IRM) was established within the Department of Defense (DoD) in 1983 as a tool for better managing its information in the wake of automated information processing and sharing...

  19. 28 CFR 2.37 - Disclosure of information concerning parolees; Statement of policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) pursuant to a request under 18 U.S.C. 4203(e). (c) Information deemed to be “public sector” information may be disclosed to third parties without the consent of the file subject. Public sector information...

  20. 77 FR 76076 - Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local, Tribal, and Private Sector Policy Advisory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION Information Security Oversight Office; State, Local... Administration, Information Security Oversight Office. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with the... Committee. To discuss the matters relating to the Classified National Security Information Program for State...

  1. The first CERN Spring Campus

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Bulletin

    2014-01-01

    From 14 to 16 April, the first edition of the CERN Spring Campus took place in Spain. Taking place over three intensive days, this event brought experts from CERN together at the University of Oviedo, where they met the engineers and scientists of the future in a programme of scientific and technological dissemination and cultural exchange.   The young participants of the first CERN Spring Campus and their instructors show their enthusiasm after the intensive three-day course. “This three-day school focuses on preparing young engineers for the job market, with a particular emphasis on computing,” explains Derek Mathieson, Advanced Information Systems Group Leader in the GS Department and Head of the CERN Spring Campus organising committee. “We organised talks on entrepreneurship and IT, as well as on job interviews and CV writing. It was also an important opportunity for the participants to meet CERN computing engineers to find out what it is like to work in I...

  2. Patient dumping, outlier payments, and optimal healthcare payment policy under asymmetric information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Tsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    We analyze a rationale for official authorization of patient dumping in the prospective payment policy framework. We show that when the insurer designs the healthcare payment policy to let hospitals dump high-cost patients, there is a trade-off between the disutility of dumped patients (changes in hospitals' rent extraction due to low-severity patients) and the shift in the level of cost reduction efforts for high-severity patients. We also clarify the welfare-improving conditions by allowing hospitals to dump high-severity patients. Finally, we show that if the efficiency of the cost reduction efforts varies extensively and the healthcare payment cost is substantial, or if there are many private hospitals, the patient dumping policy can improve social welfare in a wider environment.

  3. Risk, science and policy: definitional struggles, information management, the media and BSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D

    1999-11-01

    This article examines the role of definitional struggles in the science policy interface using the example of the cattle disease bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or mad cow disease in the UK. A central contention is that an explicit focus on definition illuminates the processes by which scientific judgements are made, promoted, communicated, assessed and judged and gives an improved picture of policy making. Neglected areas such as the role of secrecy, public relations and the mass media in the science-policy interface are brought into sharper focus as an intrinsic part of the wider operation of definitional struggles. The focus on definitional struggles also sheds light on some current work on risk in social theory. It is argued that the neglect of questions of agency which are central to definitional struggles has led to some theorists presenting risks as inevitable concomitants of technological and cultural developments leaving them in the grip of political quietism.

  4. A Policy-Based Framework for Preserving Confidentiality in BYOD Environments: A Review of Information Security Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Vorakulpipat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many organizations allow their employees to bring their own smartphones or tablets to work and to access the corporate network, which is known as a bring your own device (BYOD. However, many such companies overlook potential security risks concerning privacy and confidentiality. This paper provides a review of existing literature concerning the preservation of privacy and confidentiality, with a focus on recent trends in the use of BYOD. This review spans a large spectrum of information security research, ranging from management (risk and policy to technical aspects of privacy and confidentiality in BYOD. Furthermore, this study proposes a policy-based framework for preserving data confidentiality in BYOD. This framework considers a number of aspects of information security and corresponding techniques, such as policy, location privacy, centralized control, cryptography, and operating system level security, which have been omitted in previous studies. The main contribution is to investigate recent trends concerning the preservation of confidentiality in BYOD from the perspective of information security and to analyze the critical and comprehensive factors needed to strengthen data privacy in BYOD. Finally, this paper provides a foundation for developing the concept of preserving confidentiality in BYOD and describes the key technical and organizational challenges faced by BYOD-friendly organizations.

  5. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  6. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkies, Mitchell N; Bowles, Kelly-Ann; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Haas, Romi; Lane, Haylee; Haines, Terry P

    2017-11-14

    It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles) met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles) were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A unidirectional, hierarchal flow was described from (1

  7. The effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell N. Sarkies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is widely acknowledged that health policy and management decisions rarely reflect research evidence. Therefore, it is important to determine how to improve evidence-informed decision-making. The primary aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of research implementation strategies for promoting evidence-informed policy and management decisions in healthcare. The secondary aim of the review was to describe factors perceived to be associated with effective strategies and the inter-relationship between these factors. Methods An electronic search was developed to identify studies published between January 01, 2000, and February 02, 2016. This was supplemented by checking the reference list of included articles, systematic reviews, and hand-searching publication lists from prominent authors. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality, and extracted data. Results After duplicate removal, the search strategy identified 3830 titles. Following title and abstract screening, 96 full-text articles were reviewed, of which 19 studies (21 articles met all inclusion criteria. Three studies were included in the narrative synthesis, finding policy briefs including expert opinion might affect intended actions, and intentions persisting to actions for public health policy in developing nations. Workshops, ongoing technical assistance, and distribution of instructional digital materials may improve knowledge and skills around evidence-informed decision-making in US public health departments. Tailored, targeted messages were more effective in increasing public health policies and programs in Canadian public health departments compared to messages and a knowledge broker. Sixteen studies (18 articles were included in the thematic synthesis, leading to a conceptualisation of inter-relating factors perceived to be associated with effective research implementation strategies. A

  8. 12 CFR 1101.4 - Disclosure of information, policies, and records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... copying; indices. Under 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(1), the Council publishes general rules, policies and... Council, including instructions to Council staff affecting members of the public, and an index to the same... assess fees for time spent searching and reviewing, even if it fails to locate the records or if records...

  9. Is the U.S. Fed voting record informative about future monetary policy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horváth, R.; Šmídková, K.; Zápal, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2012), s. 478-484 ISSN 0015-1920 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : monetary policy * voting record * transparency Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.340, year: 2012 http:// journal .fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1259_478-484_---horvath.pdf

  10. Workforce Information: A Critical Component of Coordinated State Early Care and Education Data Systems. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Fran; Whitebook, Marcy

    2011-01-01

    The Center for the Study of Child Care Employment (CSCCE) receives support from the Birth to Five Policy Alliance and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation to assist states with early care and education (ECE) workforce systems development. Their efforts include membership in the Early Childhood Data Collaborative (ECDC), and their participation…

  11. An Interdisciplinary Model of School Absenteeism in Youth to Inform Professional Practice and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.

    2008-01-01

    Problematic school absenteeism in youth has long been a complex and vexatious issue for psychologists, educators, and researchers from other disciplines. An examination of problematic school absenteeism from different perspectives over many decades has led to poor comparability across publications, policies, and assessment and intervention…

  12. Health Professions and Nursing Student Loan and Scholarship Programs. Manual of Information, Policies, and Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Institutes of Health (DHEW), Bethesda, MD. Bureau of Health Manpower Education.

    This manual covers basic policies and procedures governing four student loan and scholarship programs administered within the Bureau of Health Manpower, National Institutes of Health. An introductory chapter provides definitions, procedures, and reporting common to all programs, and this is followed by chapters describing: (1) The Health…

  13. Children's Language Production: How Cognitive Neuroscience and Industrial Engineering Can Inform Public Education Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Little of 150 years of research in Cognitive Neurosciences, Human Factors, and the mathematics of Production Management have found their way into educational policy and certainly not into the classroom or in the production of educational materials in any meaningful or practical fashion. Whilst more mundane concepts of timing, sequencing, spatial…

  14. Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Lodge; Paul W. Simonin; Stanley W. Burgiel; Reuben P. Keller; Jonathan M. Bossenbroek; Christopher L. Jerde; Andrew M. Kramer; Edward S. Rutherford; Matthew A. Barnes; Marion E. Wittmann; W. Lindsay Chadderton; Jenny L. Apriesnig; Dmitry Beletsky; Roger M. Cooke; John M. Drake; Scott P. Egan; David C. Finnoff; Crysta A. Gantz; Erin K. Grey; Michael H. Hoff; Jennifer G. Howeth; Richard A. Jensen; Eric R. Larson; Nicholas E. Mandrak; Doran M. Mason; Felix A. Martinez; Tammy J. Newcomb; John D. Rothlisberger; Andrew J. Tucker; Travis W. Warziniack; Hongyan. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Risk analysis of species invasions links biology and economics, is increasingly mandated by international and national policies, and enables improved management of invasive species. Biological invasions proceed through a series of transition probabilities (i.e., introduction, establishment, spread, and impact), and each of these presents opportunities for...

  15. Rapid Evidence Assessments of Research to Inform Social Policy: Taking Stock and Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, James; Newman, Mark; Oliver, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    There is a tension between conducting comprehensive systematic reviews and completing them in time to meet policy-making deadlines. The "rapid evidence assessment" has been proposed as a solution to this; offering rigorous reviews in a condensed timescale. While used frequently in healthcare, this mode of reviewing presents considerable…

  16. 77 FR 56634 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-13

    ..., Evaluation and Policy Development; Annual Mandatory Collection of Elementary and Secondary Education Data... records. Title of Collection: Annual Mandatory Collection of Elementary and Secondary Education Data... Paperwork Reduction Act to collect the elementary and secondary education data from state education agencies...

  17. Igniting the Policy Conversation: Bringing a Trauma-Informed Approach to Early Childhood System Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Julie; Oser, Cindy; Quigley, Kelsey

    2013-01-01

    The issue of early childhood trauma is becoming more prominent in early childhood policy discussions, driven by a growing recognition of the potentially devastating impacts of trauma and violence on infants, toddlers, and families. This article provides facts about the impacts of trauma and other adverse early experiences on child health and…

  18. Captive Students: Education and Training in America's Prisons. Policy Information Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Paul E.; Coley, Richard J.

    The United States has a history of vacillating between rehabilitation and punishment for prisoners. The current mood is to devote resources to building more prisons and to strengthen law enforcement and sentencing policies. Within the last 15 years, the U.S. prison population has tripled, with minority groups being overrepresented in prisons.…

  19. 75 FR 16126 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ..., from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m./Eastern Time. Location: The Omni Shoreham Hotel, 2500 Calvert Street, NW., Washington, DC. The hotel telephone number is 202-234-0700. Contact Person: Judy Sparrow, Office of the.../Adoption Workgroup, the NHIN Workgroup, the Privacy & Security Policy Workgroup, and the Strategic Plan...

  20. 75 FR 151 - Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology; HIT Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-04

    ..., 2010, from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m./Eastern Time. Location: The Park Hyatt Hotel, 24th and M Streets, NW., Washington, DC. The hotel telephone is 202-789-1234. Contact Person: Judy Sparrow, Office of the National..., the Privacy & Security Policy Workgroup, and the Strategic Plan Workgroup. ONC intends to make...

  1. The Family Impact Lens: A Family-Focused, Evidence-Informed Approach to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenschneider, Karen; Little, Olivia M.; Ooms, Theodora; Benning, Sara; Cadigan, Karen; Corbett, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Families have long been recognized for the contributions they make to their members and to society. Yet families are seldom substantively incorporated into the normal course of policy and program development, implementation, and evaluation. We propose the family impact lens as one way to shift the rhetoric from appreciating families to…

  2. A Case Study of Culturally Informed Disability-Inclusive Education Policy Development in the Solomon Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Suzanne; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Duke, Jennifer; Esibaea, Benedict; Malefoasi, Ambrose; Fa'asala, Casper Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Inclusive education in general, and disability-inclusive education in particular, is a high-level priority for development work in aid-supported countries. This paper presents a bottom-up process of developing disability-inclusive education policy in one country--the Solomon Islands. It is well understood that the promotion of quality in…

  3. Getting started with Spring Framework a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, J

    2016-01-01

    Getting started with Spring Framework is a hands-on guide to begin developing applications using Spring Framework. The examples (consisting of 74 sample projects) that accompany this book are based on Spring 4.3 and Java 8. You can download the examples described in this book from the following GitHub project:github.com/getting-started-with-spring/3rdEdition This book is meant for Java developers with little or no knowledge of Spring Framework. Getting started with Spring Framework, Third Edition has been updated to reflect changes in Spring 4.3 and also includes new chapters on Java-based configuration and Spring Data (covers Spring Data JPA and Spring Data MongoDB projects). The existing chapters have been revised to include information on Java-based configuration. The book also includes some new information on bean definition profiles, importing application context XML files, lazy autowiring, creating custom qualifier annotations, JSR 349 annotations, spring-messaging module, Java 8's Optional type, and s...

  4. Effect of Tobacco Control Policies on Information Seeking for Smoking Cessation in the Netherlands: A Google Trends Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troelstra, Sigrid A; Bosdriesz, Jizzo R; de Boer, Michiel R; Kunst, Anton E

    2016-01-01

    The impact of tobacco control policies on measures of smoking cessation behaviour has often been studied, yet there is little information on their precise magnitude and duration. This study aims to measure the magnitude and timing of the impact of Dutch tobacco control policies on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, using Google Trends search query data. An interrupted time series analysis was used to examine the effect of two types of policies (smoke-free legislation and reimbursement of smoking cessation support (SCS)) on Google searches for 'quit smoking'. Google Trends data were seasonally adjusted and analysed using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) modelling. Multiple effect periods were modelled as dummy variables and analysed simultaneously to examine the magnitude and duration of the effect of each intervention. The same analysis was repeated with Belgian search query data as a control group, since Belgium is the country most comparable to the Netherlands in terms of geography, language, history and culture. A significant increase in relative search volume (RSV) was found from one to four weeks (21-41%) after the introduction of the smoking ban in restaurants and bars in the Netherlands in 2008. The introduction of SCS reimbursement in 2011 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (16-22%) in the Netherlands after 3 to 52 weeks. The reintroduction of SCS in 2013 was associated with a significant increase of RSV (9-21%) in the Netherlands from 3 to 32 weeks after the intervention. No effects were found in the Belgian control group for the smoking ban and the reintroduction of SCS in 2013, but there was a significant increase in RSV shortly before and after the introduction of SCS in 2011. These findings suggest that these tobacco control policies have short-term or medium-term effects on the rate of searching for information on smoking cessation, and therefore potentially on smoking cessation rates.

  5. Sediment Budgets and Sources Inform a Novel Valley Bottom Restoration Practice Impacted by Legacy Sediment: The Big Spring Run, PA, Restoration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, R. C.; Merritts, D.; Rahnis, M. A.; Gellis, A.; Hartranft, J.; Mayer, P. M.; Langland, M.; Forshay, K.; Weitzman, J. N.; Schwarz, E.; Bai, Y.; Blair, A.; Carter, A.; Daniels, S. S.; Lewis, E.; Ohlson, E.; Peck, E. K.; Schulte, K.; Smith, D.; Stein, Z.; Verna, D.; Wilson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Big Spring Run (BSR), a small agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania, is located in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, which has the highest nutrient and sediment yields in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. To effectively reduce nutrient and sediment loading it is important to monitor the effect of management practices on pollutant reduction. Here we present results of an ongoing study, begun in 2008, to understand the impact of a new valley bottom restoration strategy for reducing surface water sediment and nutrient loads. We test the hypotheses that removing legacy sediments will reduce sediment and phosphorus loads, and that restoring eco-hydrological functions of a buried Holocene wetland (Walter & Merritts 2008) will improve surface and groundwater quality by creating accommodation space to trap sediment and process nutrients. Comparisons of pre- and post-restoration gage data show that restoration lowered the annual sediment load by at least 118 t yr-1, or >75%, from the 1000 m-long restoration reach, with the entire reduction accounted for by legacy sediment removal. Repeat RTK-GPS surveys of pre-restoration stream banks verified that >90 t yr-1 of suspended sediment was from bank erosion within the restoration reach. Mass balance calculations of 137Cs data indicate 85-100% of both the pre-restoration and post-restoration suspended sediment storm load was from stream bank sources. This is consistent with trace element data which show that 80-90 % of the pre-restoration outgoing suspended sediment load at BSR was from bank erosion. Meanwhile, an inventory of fallout 137Cs activity from two hill slope transects adjacent to BSR yields average modern upland erosion rates of 2.7 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.1 t ha-1 yr-1, showing modest erosion on slopes and deposition at toe of slopes. We conclude that upland farm slopes contribute little soil to the suspended sediment supply within this study area, and removal of historic valley bottom sediment effectively

  6. Using the New Scenarios Framework to Inform Climate Change Adaptation Policy in Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    In 2005, Finland was among the first countries in the world to develop a national climate change adaptation strategy (Marttila et al., 2005). This included a characterization of future changes in climate and socioeconomic conditions using scenarios based on the IPCC Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES - IPCC, 2000). Following a government evaluation of the strategy, completion of a national adaptation research programme, and in light of the recent European Union adaptation strategy, the Finnish strategy is now under revision. As part of this revision process, the New Scenario Framework (Moss et al., 2010) is being used to guide the mapping of future conditions in Finland out to the end of the 21st century. Future Finnish climate is being analysed using the CMIP5 climate model simulations (Taylor et al., 2012), including downscaled information based on regional climate model projections in the EURO-CORDEX project (Vautard et al., 2013). All projections are forced by the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs - van Vuuren et al., 2011). Socioeconomic scenarios are also being developed by outlining alternative pathways that reflect national social, economic, environmental and planning goals. These are designed according to the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway (SSP) framework of challenges to adaptation and mitigation (Kriegler et al., 2012). Work is in progress to characterize these pathways, mainly qualitatively, for different sectors in Finland. Preliminary results of the conceptual scenario development phase will be presented in this session. These initial ideas will be exchanged with representatives of ministries, regional government and key stakeholder groups. The eventual form and number of scenarios that appear in the revised strategy will be determined following a formal review of the draft document to be prepared in 2014. Future work could include quantification of scenarios, possibly mapping them onto the specific SSP worlds. This would then provide

  7. Executive summary: Weldon Spring Site Environmental Report for calendar year 1992. Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    This report has been prepared to provide information about the public safety and environmental protection programs conducted by the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project. The Weldon Spring site is located in southern St. Charles County, Missouri, approximately 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis. The site consists of two main areas, the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant and raffinate pits and the Weldon Spring Quarry. The objectives of the Site Environmental Report are to present a summary of data from the environmental monitoring program, to characterize trends and environmental conditions at the site, and to confirm compliance with environmental and health protection standards and requirements. The report also presents the status of remedial activities and the results of monitoring these activities to assess their impacts on the public and environment. The scope of the environmental monitoring program at the Weldon Spring site has changed since it was initiated. Previously, the program focused on investigations of the extent and level of contaminants in the groundwater, surface waters, buildings, and air at the site. In 1992, the level of remedial activities required monitoring for potential impacts of those activities, particularly on surface water runoff and airborne effluents. This report includes monitoring data from routine radiological and nonradiological sampling activities. These data include estimates of dose to the public from the Weldon Spring site; estimates of effluent releases; and trends in groundwater contaminant levels. Also, applicable compliance requirements, quality assurance programs, and special studies conducted in 1992 to support environmental protection programs are reviewed.

  8. Spring of women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Castillo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Terms such as “Islamic feminism” and “women’s movement” refer to those social movements of women that seek to assert their rights in Islamic societies. This brief study focuses on theses social movements of women and will presentan overview of the role and participation of women in the Arab Spring by examining news, events, press articles and opinions in order to contextualize the participation of women and feminists in the Arab Spring from a perspective of the social networking phenomenon as apparent drivers of the revolution.

  9. Pro Spring security

    CERN Document Server

    Scarioni, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Security is a key element in the development of any non-trivial application. The Spring Security Framework provides a comprehensive set of functionalities to implement industry-standard authentication and authorization mechanisms for Java applications. Pro Spring Security will be a reference and advanced tutorial that will do the following: Guides you through the implementation of the security features for a Java web application by presenting consistent examples built from the ground-up. Demonstrates the different authentication and authorization methods to secure enterprise-level applications

  10. Instant Spring security starter

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. A concise guide written in an easy-to-follow format following the Starter guide approach.This book is for people who have not used Spring Security before and want to learn how to use it effectively in a short amount of time. It is assumed that readers know both Java and HTTP protocol at the level of basic web programming. The reader should also be familiar with Inversion-of-Control/Dependency Injection, preferably with the Spring framework itsel

  11. 12 CFR Appendix C to Part 1720 - Policy Guidance; Safety and Soundness Standards for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... system modifications are consistent with the Enterprise's information security program; v. Dual control... security program; and c. Regularly test the key controls, systems and procedures of the information... appropriate, the information security program in light of any relevant changes in technology, the sensitivity...

  12. 24 CFR 15.108 - What are HUD's policies concerning designating confidential commercial or financial information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designating confidential commercial or financial information under Exemption 4 of the FOIA and responding to... financial information. Except as provided in this section or otherwise required by law, HUD officers and employees may not disclose business information which is considered as confidential commercial or financial...

  13. 75 FR 11207 - Policy Statement on Obtaining and Retaining Beneficial Ownership Information for Anti-Money...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Retaining Beneficial Ownership Information for Anti-Money Laundering Purposes AGENCY: Securities and...-money laundering purposes. DATES: Effective Date: March 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... retaining beneficial ownership information for anti-money laundering purposes. This guidance is being issued...

  14. Challenges to generating evidence-informed policy and the role of systematic reviews and (perceived) conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apollonio, Dorie E; Bero, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Multiple efforts to generate evidence-informed policy have attempted to teach policymakers how to understand and apply scientific research findings in their decision-making. These efforts have had limited success, because policymakers generally do not understand scientific methods. We piloted efforts to teach policy intermediaries - specifically consumer advocacy groups - how to understand and apply health research, anticipating that they might offer such evidence to policymakers in more accessible forms. Four workshops focusing on research design and methods were conducted with consumer advocacy groups in 2010. We coded and analyzed participant responses regarding their confidence in interpreting research findings and assessments of research credibility, and the extent to which their knowledge about research findings changed after completing the workshops. Our findings suggest that although participants expressed strong interest in understanding scientific research, their ability to develop confidence about scientific research methods was limited. However, like policymakers, consumer advocacy group members intuited that financial conflicts of interest could compromise scientific findings, although they initially underestimated their effects on research results. After training, consumer advocates also saw the value of using systematic reviews rather than individual studies. Our findings suggest that although advocates may not feel confident in their understanding of scientific research, they found it easier to understand the value of systematic reviews and the risks of conflicts of interest than other statistical concepts and terminology. Focusing on making these types of information available may offer a useful way for policymakers and consumer advocates to interpret the validity of policy-relevant scientific research.

  15. Applying spatial analysis techniques to assess the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Cheng-Shin; Huang, Han-Chen

    2017-07-01

    The Jiaosi Hot Spring Region is one of the most famous tourism destinations in Taiwan. The spring water is processed for various uses, including irrigation, aquaculture, swimming, bathing, foot spas, and recreational tourism. Moreover, the multipurpose uses of spring water can be dictated by the temperature of the water. To evaluate the suitability of spring water for these various uses, this study spatially characterized the spring water temperatures of the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region by integrating ordinary kriging (OK), sequential Gaussian simulation (SGS), and Geographic information system (GIS). First, variogram analyses were used to determine the spatial variability of spring water temperatures. Next, OK and SGS were adopted to model the spatial uncertainty and distributions of the spring water temperatures. Finally, the land use (i.e., agriculture, dwelling, public land, and recreation) was determined using GIS and combined with the estimated distributions of the spring water temperatures. A suitable development strategy for the multipurpose uses of spring water is proposed according to the integration of the land use and spring water temperatures. The study results indicate that the integration of OK, SGS, and GIS is capable of characterizing spring water temperatures and the suitability of multipurpose uses of spring water. SGS realizations are more robust than OK estimates for characterizing spring water temperatures compared to observed data. Furthermore, current land use is almost ideal in the Jiaosi Hot Spring Region according to the estimated spatial pattern of spring water temperatures.

  16. Ageing and Learning in Australia: Arguing an Evidence Base for Informed and Equitable Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthill, Michael; Buys, Laurie; Wilson, Bruce; Kimberley, Helen; Reghenzani, Denise; Kearns, Peter; Thompson, Sally; Golding, Barry; Root, Jo; Weston, Rhonda

    2016-01-01

    Given Australia's population ageing and predicted impacts related to health, productivity, equity and enhancing quality of life outcomes for senior Australians, lifelong learning has been identified as a pathway for addressing the risks associated with an ageing population. To date Australian governments have paid little attention to addressing these needs and thus, there is an urgent need for policy development for lifelong learning as a national priority. The purpose of this article is to explore the current lifelong learning context in Australia and to propose a set of factors that are most likely to impact learning in later years. Evidence based policy that understands and incorporates learning opportunities for all citizens is required to meet emerging global challenges. Providing appropriate learning opportunities to seniors is one clear pathway for achieving diverse health, social and economic outcomes.

  17. How landscape ecology informs global land-change science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrey L. Mayer; Brian Buma; Am??lie Davis; Sara A. Gagn??; E. Louise Loudermilk; Robert M. Scheller; Fiona K.A. Schmiegelow; Yolanda F. Wiersma; Janet Franklin

    2016-01-01

    Landscape ecology is a discipline that explicitly considers the influence of time and space on the environmental patterns we observe and the processes that create them. Although many of the topics studied in landscape ecology have public policy implications, three are of particular concern: climate change; land use–land cover change (LULCC); and a particular type of...

  18. Economically and environmentally informed policy for road resurfacing: tradeoffs between costs and greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Darren; Madanat, Samer; Horvath, Arpad

    2014-10-01

    As road conditions worsen, users experience an increase in fuel consumption and vehicle wear and tear. This increases the costs incurred by the drivers, and also increases the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that vehicles emit. Pavement condition can be improved through rehabilitation activities (resurfacing) to reduce the effects on users, but these activities also have significant cost and GHG emission impacts. The objective of pavement management is to minimize total societal (user and agency) costs. However, the environmental impacts associated with the cost-minimizing policy are not currently accounted for. We show that there exists a range of potentially optimal decisions, known as the Pareto frontier, in which it is not possible to decrease total emissions without increasing total costs and vice versa. This research explores these tradeoffs for a system of pavement segments. For a case study, a network was created from a subset of California’s highways using available traffic data. It was shown that the current resurfacing strategy used by the state’s transportation agency, Caltrans, does not fall on the Pareto frontier, meaning that significant savings in both total costs and total emissions can be achieved by switching to one of the optimal policies. The methods presented in this paper also allow the decision maker to evaluate the impact of other policies, such as reduced vehicle kilometers traveled or better construction standards.

  19. Psychological Science and Innovative Strategies for Informing Health Care Redesign: A Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Stancin, Terry; Lochman, John E.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Miranda, Jeanne M.; Wysocki, Tim; Portwood, Sharon G.; Piacentini, John; Tynan, Douglas; Atkins, Marc; Kazak, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent health care legislation and shifting health care financing strategies are transforming health and behavioral health (a broad term referring to mental health, substance use, and health behavior) care in the United States. Advances in knowledge regarding effective treatment and services coupled with incentives for innovation in health and behavioral health care delivery systems make this a unique time for mobilizing our science to enhance the success of health and behavioral health care redesign. To optimize the potential of our current health care environment, a team was formed composed of leaders from the Societies of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, Pediatric Psychology, and Child and Family Policy and Practice (Divisions 53, 54, and 37 of the American Psychological Association). This team was charged with reviewing the scientific and policy literature with a focus on five major issues: (a) improving access to care and reducing health disparities, (b) integrating behavioral health care within primary care, (c) preventive services, (d) enhancing quality and outcomes of care, and (e) training and workforce development. The products of that work are summarized here, including recommendations for future research, clinical, training, and policy directions. We conclude that the current emphasis on accountable care and evaluation of the outcomes of care offer numerous opportunities for psychologists to integrate science and practice for the benefit of our children, families, and nation. The dramatic changes that are occurring in psychological and behavioral health care services and payment systems also require evolution in our practice and training models. PMID:26430948

  20. Improving Nigerian health policymakers' capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers' ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop.

  1. Improving Nigerian health policymakers’ capacity to access and utilize policy relevant evidence: outcome of information and communication technology training workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) tools are known to facilitate communication and processing of information and sharing of knowledge by electronic means. In Nigeria, the lack of adequate capacity on the use of ICT by health sector policymakers constitutes a major impediment to the uptake of research evidence into the policymaking process. The objective of this study was to improve the knowledge and capacity of policymakers to access and utilize policy relevant evidence. A modified “before and after” intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on the target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. A 4-point likert scale according to the degree of adequacy; 1 = grossly inadequate, 4 = very adequate was employed. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and the participants were career health policy makers. A two-day intensive ICT training workshop was organized for policymakers who had 52 participants in attendance. Topics covered included: (i). intersectoral partnership/collaboration; (ii). Engaging ICT in evidence-informed policy making; use of ICT for evidence synthesis; (iv) capacity development on the use of computer, internet and other ICT. The pre-workshop mean of knowledge and capacity for use of ICT ranged from 2.19-3.05, while the post-workshop mean ranged from 2.67-3.67 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in mean of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 8.3%-39.1%. Findings of this study suggest that policymakers’ ICT competence relevant to evidence-informed policymaking can be enhanced through training workshop. PMID:26448807

  2. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A

    2018-02-01

    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  4. Planar torsion spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Parsons, Adam H. (Inventor); Mehling, Joshua S. (Inventor); Griffith, Bryan Kristian (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A torsion spring comprises an inner mounting segment. An outer mounting segment is located concentrically around the inner mounting segment. A plurality of splines extends from the inner mounting segment to the outer mounting segment. At least a portion of each spline extends generally annularly around the inner mounting segment.

  5. Editors' Spring Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2011

    2011-01-01

    While they do not represent the rainbow of reading tastes American public libraries accommodate, Book Review editors are a wildly eclectic bunch. One look at their bedside tables and ereaders would reveal very little crossover. This article highlights an eclectic array of spring offerings ranging from print books to an audiobook to ebook apps. It…

  6. Energy Matters - Spring 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2002-03-01

    Quarterly newsletter from DOE's Industrial Technologies Program to promote the use of energy-efficient industrial systems. The focus of the Spring 2002 Issue of Energy Matters focuses on premium energy efficiency systems, with articles on new gas technologies, steam efficiency, the Augusta Newsprint Showcase, and more.

  7. A Quadratic Spring Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Temple H.

    2010-01-01

    Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…

  8. Spring batch essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, P Raja Malleswara

    2015-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with basic knowledge of Spring and some experience in the development of enterprise applications, and want to learn about batch application development in detail, then this book is ideal for you. This book will be perfect as your next step towards building simple yet powerful batch applications on a Java-based platform.

  9. Informing child welfare policy and practice: using knowledge discovery and data mining technology via a dynamic Web site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dean F; Kum, Hye-Chung; Weigensberg, Elizabeth Caplick; Flair, Kimberly A; Stewart, C Joy

    2008-11-01

    Proper management and implementation of an effective child welfare agency requires the constant use of information about the experiences and outcomes of children involved in the system, emphasizing the need for comprehensive, timely, and accurate data. In the past 20 years, there have been many advances in technology that can maximize the potential of administrative data to promote better evaluation and management in the field of child welfare. Specifically, this article discusses the use of knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD), which makes it possible to create longitudinal data files from administrative data sources, extract valuable knowledge, and make the information available via a user-friendly public Web site. This article demonstrates a successful project in North Carolina where knowledge discovery and data mining technology was used to develop a comprehensive set of child welfare outcomes available through a public Web site to facilitate information sharing of child welfare data to improve policy and practice.

  10. STATIC ANALYSIS OF LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    E VENUGOPAL GOUD; G HARINATH GOWD

    2012-01-01

    Leaf springs are special kind of springs used in automobile suspension systems. The advantage of leaf spring over helical spring is that the ends of the spring may be guided along a definite path as it deflects to act as a structural member in addition to energy absorbing device. The main function of leaf spring is not only tosupport vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. Static analysis determines the ...

  11. Research and innovation in sustainable forestry: lessons learnt to inform the policy making community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérard Buttoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available From an already rich experience of cooperation between scientists and policy makers in the framework of international research institutions such as the International union of forest research organizations (IUFRO, the Center for international forest research (CIFOR and the European Forest Institute (EFI, as well as through the promotion and development of EU research projects and programs, some lessons can be drawn considering the possible role of scientists at the science-policy interface. Today, on the example of the global change - and especially the climatic changes that policy makers are demanding about-, most of the researches to be carried out have to answer social questions the solutions of which require the support of science. This is especially the case in the forestry field, which is characterized by the particularly long term of cycles and the great number of stakeholders interested in. Whilst decision making processes are complex systems, science is not the only source of knowledge useful for taking decisions, so that in a democratic context, research results have to be confronted to other lessons learnt (for instance from technical expertise, or from traditional knowledge in order to get accountability in terms of instrumentation. In scientific terms, it should certainly lead to multi-disciplinary approaches of the multifunctionality of forest and related techniques to be implemented. But this does not mean that research activities have to be assessed only against their instrumentality. However, research and public decision-making are very contrasting spheres, where the principles and professional types of behavior are basically different. This situation calls for a need for a clear separation of the respective roles. In addition, all scientific developments should not be driven from practical needs of decision-makers, since theoretical questions may indirectly build up the future reality. 

  12. Hard-rock aquifers in tropical regions: using science to inform development and management policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    An overview of progress during the past 30 years in the hydrogeologic understanding of groundwater in hard-rock aquifers of tropical regions is presented. Geographically, the paper concentrates upon and contrasts Tropical Africa and Peninsular India, where very extensive areas of weathered hard-rock aquifers occur, but its conclusions are more widely applicable. This scientific understanding forms the basis for a critical discussion of key policy issues for the development and management of the water resources of these aquifers, given their major importance for economical and sustainable water-supply provision, in the context of efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goals for rural drinking water and improved livelihoods.

  13. Incorporating teleconnection information into reservoir operating policies using Stochastic Dynamic Programming and a Hidden Markov Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sean; Galelli, Stefano; Wilcox, Karen

    2015-04-01

    Water reservoir systems are often affected by recurring large-scale ocean-atmospheric anomalies, known as teleconnections, that cause prolonged periods of climatological drought. Accurate forecasts of these events -- at lead times in the order of weeks and months -- may enable reservoir operators to take more effective release decisions to improve the performance of their systems. In practice this might mean a more reliable water supply system, a more profitable hydropower plant or a more sustainable environmental release policy. To this end, climate indices, which represent the oscillation of the ocean-atmospheric system, might be gainfully employed within reservoir operating models that adapt the reservoir operation as a function of the climate condition. This study develops a Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) approach that can incorporate climate indices using a Hidden Markov Model. The model simulates the climatic regime as a hidden state following a Markov chain, with the state transitions driven by variation in climatic indices, such as the Southern Oscillation Index. Time series analysis of recorded streamflow data reveals the parameters of separate autoregressive models that describe the inflow to the reservoir under three representative climate states ("normal", "wet", "dry"). These models then define inflow transition probabilities for use in a classic SDP approach. The key advantage of the Hidden Markov Model is that it allows conditioning the operating policy not only on the reservoir storage and the antecedent inflow, but also on the climate condition, thus potentially allowing adaptability to a broader range of climate conditions. In practice, the reservoir operator would effect a water release tailored to a specific climate state based on available teleconnection data and forecasts. The approach is demonstrated on the operation of a realistic, stylised water reservoir with carry-over capacity in South-East Australia. Here teleconnections relating

  14. Informed Markets as Policy Instrument for Environmental Governance of Buffer Zones around Protected Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik

    ”. In contrast, the human economic sphere is a space where “the market” rules. Buffer zones exist to help separate and shield “nature” from the human economy and yet establish a link or corridor between society and nature. Therefore buffer zones are expected to combine, embody and fulfill policy objectives...... of National Parks in Scandinavia (Denmark), this paper sets out to explore the theoretical rationale and record of using market based environmental governance in the form of Geographical Indications (GI´s) and organic agriculture certification (OAC), respectively, in buffer zones, to potentially serve...

  15. Strategic risk appraisal. Comparing expert- and literature-informed consequence assessments for environmental policy risks receiving national attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagonneau, Jérôme; Rocks, Sophie A; Prpich, George; Garnett, Kenisha; Black, Edgar; Pollard, Simon J T

    2017-10-01

    Strategic risk appraisal (SRA) has been applied to compare diverse policy level risks to and from the environment in England and Wales. Its application has relied on expert-informed assessments of the potential consequences from residual risks that attract policy attention at the national scale. Here we compare consequence assessments, across environmental, economic and social impact categories that draw on 'expert'- and 'literature-based' analyses of the evidence for 12 public risks appraised by Government. For environmental consequences there is reasonable agreement between the two sources of assessment, with expert-informed assessments providing a narrower dispersion of impact severity and with median values similar in scale to those produced by an analysis of the literature. The situation is more complex for economic consequences, with a greater spread in the median values, less consistency between the two assessment types and a shift toward higher severity values across the risk portfolio. For social consequences, the spread of severity values is greater still, with no consistent trend between the severities of impact expressed by the two types of assessment. For the latter, the findings suggest the need for a fuller representation of socioeconomic expertise in SRA and the workshops that inform SRA output. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Reform of investment policy in the function of sustainable development with special emphasis on investment in information technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragičević-Radičević Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Global economy still records a decline in FDI. The main causes are increased economic instability and geopolitical risks. Given the continued negative trend, it is clear that it is necessary to reform the investment policies at the national, regional, bilateral, multilateral and international level, to ensure sustainable economic development. Key elements of the reforms are: to provide instruments to reduce risks, create mechanisms of responsible investment, improve the structural coherence and promote regional investments. Refer to the current dates of the sectors investments (according to the report of UNCTAD from 2015th shows that the services sector recorded double growth compared to the investment in the manufacturing sector in 2012. Also, if we take into consideration the fact that investment in IT sector investment involves three aspects: transactional (minimizing costs, strategic (innovation technologies, achieving competitiveness and information (improving access to information and communications, it may be assumed that the reforms in the investment policies should be directly correlated with investments in information technology.

  17. 77 FR 5227 - Information Collection Request; Debt Settlement Policies and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Farm Service Agency Commodity Credit Corporation Information Collection Request... should be sent to the Desk Officer for Agriculture, Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office... collection forms and formats have been successfully used for the past several years and have become familiar...

  18. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy. NBER Working Paper No. 17811

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and…

  19. Reflections on Beijing Rural Energy Policies and New Rural Construction ——Using Digital Information Means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Wang

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the Beijing construction in accordance with the philosophy of environmental protection, solid depth to carry out a series of policies and measures, such as rural energy structure optimization and adjustment; rural residential seismic energy-saving; village green landscaping. If displaying and recording movement states and regulars of the beautiful countryside construction through this information process, It will greatly strengthen regulation of the relationship between new rural people, to realize system optimization, make urban and rural become conducive to human survival and sustainable development of space.

  20. Physician shortages in rural Vietnam: using a labor market approach to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujicic, Marko; Shengelia, Bakhuti; Alfano, Marco; Thu, Ha Bui

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates labor market dynamics for physicians in Vietnam, paying particular attention to geographic distribution and dual job holding. The analysis is based on a survey of a random sample of physicians in 3 regions in 2009-10. We found that the labor market for physicians in Vietnam is characterized by very little movement among both facility levels and geographic areas. Dual practice is also prominent, with over one-third of physicians holding a second job. After taking account of the various sources of income for physicians and controlling for key factors, there is a significant wage premium associated with locating in an urban area. This premium is driven by much higher earnings from dual job holding rather than official earnings in the primary job. There are important policy implications that emerge. With such low job turnover rates, policies to increase the number of physicians in rural areas could focus on initial recruitment. Once in place, physicians tend to remain in their jobs for a very long time. Lastly, findings from an innovative discrete choice experiment suggest that providing long-term education and improving equipment are the most effective instruments to recruit physicians to work in rural areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the growing adoption and acceptance of social networking, there are increased concerns about the violation of the users’ legitimate rights such as privacy, confidentiality, trust, security, safety, content ownership, content accuracy, integrity, access and accessibility to computer and digital networks amongst others.Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS.Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively.Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate.Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  2. Policy gaps and technological deficiencies in social networking environments: Implications for information sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Mutula

    2013-06-01

    Objectives: The study sought to investigate the following research objectives to: (1 describe the types of social networks, (2 examine global penetration of the social networks, (3 outline the users’ legitimate rights that must be protected in the social networking sites (SNS, (4 determine the methods employed by SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights and (5 identify the policy gaps and technological deficiencies in the protection of the users’ legitimate rights in the SNS. Method: A literature survey and content analysis of the SNS user policies were used to address objective four and objective five respectively. Results: The most actively used sites were Facebook and Twitter. Asian markets were leading in participation and in creating content than any other region. Business, education, politics and governance sectors were actively using social networking sites. Social networking sites relied upon user trust and internet security features which however, were inefficient and inadequate. Conclusion: Whilst SNS were impacting people of varying ages and of various professional persuasions, there were increased concerns about the violation and infringement of the users’ legitimate rights. Reliance on user trust and technological security features SNS to protect the users’ legitimate rights seemed ineffectual and inadequate.

  3. Leaf spring, and electromagnetic actuator provided with a leaf spring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhoff, Arthur P.; Lemmen, Remco Louis Christiaan

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to a leaf spring for an electromagnetic actuator and to such an electromagnetic actuator. The leaf spring is formed as a whole from a disc of plate-shaped, resilient material. The leaf spring comprises a central fastening part, an outer fastening part extending therearound and

  4. Studying Springs in Series Using a Single Spring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna, Juan D.; Joshi, Amitabh

    2011-01-01

    Springs are used for a wide range of applications in physics and engineering. Possibly, one of their most common uses is to study the nature of restoring forces in oscillatory systems. While experiments that verify Hooke's law using springs are abundant in the physics literature, those that explore the combination of several springs together are…

  5. Improving the effectiveness of nutritional information policies: assessment of unconscious pleasure mechanisms involved in food-choice decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquier, Caroline; Bonthoux, Françoise; Baciu, Monica; Ruffieux, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    The rise in obesity in many countries has led to the emergence of nutritional information policies that aim to change people's diets. Changing an individual's diet is an ambitious goal, since numerous factors influence a person's food-choice decisions, many of which are made unconsciously. These frequently subconscious processes should not be underestimated in food-choice behavior, as they play a major role in food diet composition. In this review, research in cognitive experimental psychology and neuroscience provides the basis for a critical analysis of the role of pleasure in eating behaviors. An assessment of the main characteristics of nutritional policies is provided, followed by recent findings showing that food choices are guided primarily by automatic emotional processes. Neuroimaging and behavioral studies, which provide new insights into the relationships between emotions and food both in lean persons and in persons with eating disorders, are reported as well. Lastly, the argument is presented that future nutritional policies can be more effective if they associate healthy food with eating pleasure. © 2012 International Life Sciences Institute.

  6. But What Do the Data Say? Lessons in Integrating Science and Policy to Inform International and Domestic Water Management Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.

    2015-12-01

    As scientists we are often encouraged to describe our research in terms of its "broader impacts" - to link our results to a tangible action or change outside of our scientific discipline. Although writing these goals in a proposal is simple, actually executing the proposed "broader impacts" is often more complicated. This presentation will briefly describe several international and domestic experiences that sought to utilize scientific research to inform pressing policy decisions related to water management. The lessons draw from ongoing efforts to improve transboundary groundwater collaboration in the Middle East, mitigate the impact of glacial lake outburst floods in high mountain regions, and prompt a political response to the California drought and groundwater depletion. As current initiatives at the science-policy interface, key challenges and ideas for improvement will be discussed, particularly: effective, concise communication of scientific data, awareness of broader political/economic contexts, and long-term trust building with decision-makers. Finally, this presentation will highlight several opportunities and suggestions to promote graduate students' involvement in these activities and to build skills at the science-policy interface.

  7. Secondary Uses of Personal Identity Information: Policies, Technologies and Regulatory Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Joseph K.; Olesen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Although personal identity information must primarily be used for protecting and promoting the physical needs of individuals, it has also become central to the business models of the digital age due to its use for other secondary purposes, resulting in various innovative identity management (Id......, credential issuers and other stakeholders by addressing core issues relating to secondary use of personal information. The results of a stakeholder workshop in Ghana on secondary use of personal information are presented by stating the core issues and recommendations. We propose the adaptation...

  8. Media Choice in Environmental Information Dissemination for Solid Waste Management among Policy Formulators and Implementors: A Case Study of Oyo State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akintola, B. A.; Temowo, O. O.; Ajiboye, J. O.

    2009-01-01

    Environmental information has been described as central to the issues of solid waste management and disposal. This study investigated the availability and accessibility of environmental information to the solid waste policy formulators and implementors with regard to the media/channels used for disseminating environmental information to the…

  9. Prioritizing Congenital Syphilis Control in South China: A Decision Analytic Model to Inform Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Nicholas X.; Rydzak, Chara; Yang, Li-Gang; Vickerman, Peter; Yang, Bin; Peeling, Rosanna W.; Hawkes, Sarah; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Tucker, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Syphilis is a major public health problem in many regions of China, with increases in congenital syphilis (CS) cases causing concern. The Chinese Ministry of Health recently announced a comprehensive 10-y national syphilis control plan focusing on averting CS. The decision analytic model presented here quantifies the impact of the planned strategies to determine whether they are likely to meet the goals laid out in the control plan. Methods and Findings Our model incorporated data on age-stratified fertility, female adult syphilis cases, and empirical syphilis transmission rates to estimate the number of CS cases associated with prenatal syphilis infection on a yearly basis. Guangdong Province was the focus of this analysis because of the availability of high-quality demographic and public health data. Each model outcome was simulated 1,000 times to incorporate uncertainty in model inputs. The model was validated using data from a CS intervention program among 477,656 women in China. Sensitivity analyses were performed to identify which variables are likely to be most influential in achieving Chinese and international policy goals. Increasing prenatal screening coverage was the single most effective strategy for reducing CS cases. An incremental increase in prenatal screening from the base case of 57% coverage to 95% coverage was associated with 106 (95% CI: 101, 111) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (58% decrease). The policy strategies laid out in the national plan led to an outcome that fell short of the target, while a four-pronged comprehensive syphilis control strategy consisting of increased prenatal screening coverage, increased treatment completion, earlier prenatal screening, and improved syphilis test characteristics was associated with 157 (95% CI: 154, 160) CS cases averted per 100,000 live births (85% decrease). Conclusions The Chinese national plan provides a strong foundation for syphilis control, but more comprehensive measures

  10. Information sources for obesity prevention policy research: a review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanneke, Rosie; Young, Sabrina K

    2017-08-08

    Systematic identification of evidence in health policy can be time-consuming and challenging. This study examines three questions pertaining to systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy, in order to identify the most efficient search methods: (1) What percentage of the primary studies selected for inclusion in the reviews originated in scholarly as opposed to gray literature? (2) How much of the primary scholarly literature in this topic area is indexed in PubMed/MEDLINE? (3) Which databases index the greatest number of primary studies not indexed in PubMed, and are these databases searched consistently across systematic reviews? We identified systematic reviews on obesity prevention policy and explored their search methods and citations. We determined the percentage of scholarly vs. gray literature cited, the most frequently cited journals, and whether each primary study was indexed in PubMed. We searched 21 databases for all primary study articles not indexed in PubMed to determine which database(s) indexed the highest number of these relevant articles. In total, 21 systematic reviews were identified. Ten of the 21 systematic reviews reported searching gray literature, and 12 reviews ultimately included gray literature in their analyses. Scholarly articles accounted for 577 of the 649 total primary study papers. Of these, 495 (76%) were indexed in PubMed. Google Scholar retrieved the highest number of the remaining 82 non-PubMed scholarly articles, followed by Scopus and EconLit. The Journal of the American Dietetic Association was the most-cited journal. Researchers can maximize search efficiency by searching a small yet targeted selection of both scholarly and gray literature resources. A highly sensitive search of PubMed and those databases that index the greatest number of relevant articles not indexed in PubMed, namely multidisciplinary and economics databases, could save considerable time and effort. When combined with a gray literature search and

  11. Informational Element of Power: The Role of Public Diplomacy in United States-Cuba Policy Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andujar, Roberto C

    2005-01-01

    ...: The Castro Regime has a monopoly on all media and information in Cuba which permits the regime to control what the Cuban people see and believe about the outside world and indeed their own country...

  12. Cybersecurity via Intermediaries : Analyzing Security Measurements to Understand Intermediary Incentives and Inform Public Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asghari, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research in the field of information security economics has clarified how attacker and defender incentives affect cybersecurity. It has also highlighted the role of intermediaries in strengthening cybersecurity. Intermediaries are organizations and firms that provide the Internet’s infrastructure

  13. Public policy, reporting and disclosure of employment and labour information by multinational enterprises (MNEs)

    OpenAIRE

    Urminsky, Michael D

    2005-01-01

    Analyses the role of information in gaining a better understanding of the labour and employment effects of foreign direct investment (FDI). Outlines features of voluntary corporate reporting and of national reporting requirements in Belgium, France, and the United States.

  14. 77 FR 28655 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... the information and communications technology (ICT) aspects of international disaster response; recent... of the meeting room. All visitors for this meeting must use the main entrance and show a valid ID to...

  15. Report of Policy Laboratory Session on Uncertainty Information in the Dutch Environmental Balance 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloprogge, P.; Van der Sluijs, J.P.

    2005-06-01

    In 2003 recommendations were formulated how to deal with uncertainties in scientific studies. Currently a so-called 'Styleguide for Uncertainty Communication' is under development to report on information about uncertainties. The guide is based on literature survey and knowledge from experts in the field. Also a few communication experiments were carried out in a laboratory environment, focusing on the uncertainties in the information, presented in the Dutch Environmental Balance 2005 study [nl

  16. Experiences of a newspaper journalist with the official information policy of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koppelstaetter, H.

    1988-01-01

    One of the biggest problems for a newspaper journalist is to communicate highly specialist statements about technical matters to the reader in comprehensible form. This calls for total confidence in the information at the nuclear facility, i.e. the press spokesman. A number of impressions of experiences as a newspaper editor attempting to obtain information following an accident, i.e. the extent and background of Chernobyl, are outlined. (DG)

  17. Information-educational Portal MEPHIST: a Security Policy at Access Differentiation to Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Guseva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to working out of an information-educational portal for National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, executed within the limits of realization “Innovative programs of engineering-physical education for a new stage of development of a nuclear science and the industry”of the priority national project “Education”. The basic attention is given to requirements of information safety.

  18. The Food Marketing Defense Model: Integrating Psychological Research to Protect Youth and Inform Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Bargh, John A.

    2009-01-01

    Marketing practices that promote calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods directly to children and adolescents present significant public health risk. Worldwide, calls for government action and industry change to protect young people from the negative effects of food marketing have increased. Current proposals focus on restricting television advertising to children under 12 years old, but current psychological models suggest that much more is required. All forms of marketing pose considerable risk; adolescents are also highly vulnerable; and food marketing may produce far-reaching negative health outcomes. We propose a food marketing defense model that posits four necessary conditions to effectively counter harmful food marketing practices: awareness, understanding, ability and motivation to resist. A new generation of psychological research is needed to examine each of these processes, including the psychological mechanisms through which food marketing affects young people, to identify public policy that will effectively protect them from harmful influence. PMID:20182647

  19. Consumers' Response to an On-Shelf Nutrition Labelling System in Supermarkets: Evidence to Inform Policy and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; Bollinger, Bryan; Sacco, Jocelyn; Liebman, Eli; Vanderlee, Lana; Zuo, Fei; Rosella, Laura; L'abbe, Mary; Manson, Heather; Hammond, David

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: On-shelf nutrition labelling systems in supermarkets, such as the Guiding Stars system, are intended to provide consumers with simple, standardized nutrition information to support more informed and healthier food choices. Policies that support the provision of simplified nutrition labelling systems may encourage consumers to make positive shifts in food-purchasing behaviors. The shifts in consumer food-purchasing patterns observed in our study after the introduction of the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets translated into measurable nutritional benefits, including more items purchased with slightly less trans fat and sugar and more fiber and omega-3 fatty acids. This study is one of the first to report the positive impact of an on-shelf nutrition labelling system on supermarket sales and revenues-key information that was specifically requested by the US National Academies, as such labelling interventions may be more sustainable if they lead to higher revenues. Providing a nutrition rating system on the front of food packages or on retail shelf tags has been proposed as a policy strategy for supporting healthier food choices. Guiding Stars is an on-shelf nutrition labelling system that scores foods in a supermarket based on nutritional quality; scores are then translated into ratings of 0 to 3 stars. It is consistent with evidence-informed recommendations for well-designed labels, except for not labelling 0-star products. The largest supermarket retailer in Canada rolled out the Guiding Stars system in supermarkets across Ontario, Canada. The aim of our study was to examine the extent to which consumers respond to an on-shelf nutrition labelling system in supermarkets to inform current and future nutrition labelling policies and practices. Capitalizing on a natural experiment, we conducted a quasi-experimental study across 3 supermarket banners (or "chains") in Ontario, one of which implemented the Guiding Stars system in 2012. We used aggregated

  20. Preventing sexual violence: can examination of offense location inform sex crime policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombino, Nicole; Mercado, Cynthia Calkins; Levenson, Jill; Jeglic, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Recently, legislative initiatives to prevent sex crime recidivism include the passage of child safety zones (also called loitering zones) that prohibit sex offenders from lingering near places where children congregate. The ability of policies such as these or residence restrictions to curb sexual recidivism depends on the empirical reality of sex offender perpetration patterns. As such, the current study sought to examine locations where sex offenders first come into contact with their victims and whether sex crime locations differ among those who perpetrate offenses against children as compared to those who perpetrate offenses against adults. Further, this study examined actuarial risk scores and recidivism rates among offenders who met victims in child-dense public locations to determine if these offenders are more at risk of re-offense. Descriptive analyses, based on archival sex offender file review (N=1557), revealed that offenders primarily cultivated their offenses in private residential locations (67.0%); relatively few offenders (4.4%) met their victims in child-dense public locations. Further, offenders who perpetrated crimes against children were more likely to meet victims within a residence, while those who perpetrate crimes against adults were more likely to encounter victims in a more public type of location (e.g., bar, workplace). Though only 3.7% of all offenders in this sample sexually recidivated, those who recidivated were more likely to have met their victim in a child-dense public location than those who did not recidivate. Current sex crime policies that focus only on where offenders live may fail to focus on where offenders go and, further, may misdirect efforts away from the place where sex crimes most often occur, namely, in the home. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioinspired spring origami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A.; Arrieta, Andres F.; Studart, André R.

    2018-03-01

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional–printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities.

  2. The joys of spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Leigh M

    2013-01-01

    This study used Vivaldi's Four Seasons, an extraordinary example of program music, to explore the consequence of music exposure on cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs). Seventeen participants performed a three-stimulus visual odd-ball task while ERPs were recorded. Participants were required to differentiate between a rare target stimulus (to elicit a memory updating component; P3b), a rare novel stimulus (to elicit a novelty attention component; P3a), and a frequent nontarget stimulus. During task performance participants listened to the four concertos: Spring, Summer, Autumn, and Winter in comparison to a silent control condition. Additionally, the three movements of each concerto have a fast, slow, fast structure that enabled examination of the impact of tempo. The data revealed that "Spring," particularly the well-recognized, vibrant, emotive, and uplifting first movement, had the ability to enhance mental alertness and brain measures of attention and memory.

  3. Bioinspired spring origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Jakob A; Arrieta, Andres F; Studart, André R

    2018-03-23

    Origami enables folding of objects into a variety of shapes in arts, engineering, and biological systems. In contrast to well-known paper-folded objects, the wing of the earwig has an exquisite natural folding system that cannot be sufficiently described by current origami models. Such an unusual biological system displays incompatible folding patterns, remains open by a bistable locking mechanism during flight, and self-folds rapidly without muscular actuation. We show that these notable functionalities arise from the protein-rich joints of the earwig wing, which work as extensional and rotational springs between facets. Inspired by this biological wing, we establish a spring origami model that broadens the folding design space of traditional origami and allows for the fabrication of precisely tunable, four-dimensional-printed objects with programmable bioinspired morphing functionalities. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  4. Library and Information Sciences in the Environment of the Information Disciplines: Towards Integrative Models of Disciplines, Professional Community and Information and Communication Public Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabelli, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The presentation seeks to investigate the facilitators and obstacles to convergence between library and information science theory and practice in an information disciplines context. The starting point consists of a review of "inward" and "outward" fragmentations existing in our discipline: between academia and…

  5. The Resource, Spring 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    High- Energy Compounds • HPCMP Users Advocacy Group • Cpusets on the Origin 3800 • User Disk Striping on the T3E • HPCMP Users Group Conference 2002...Spring 2002 Cpusets on the Origin 3800 By Dr. Jeff Hensley The Origin 3800 (O3K) series machine (Ruby) at the ERDC MSRC recently underwent a...configuration change designed to enhance the overall efficiency of the system. In February 2002, Ruby was configured to use cpusets , a method of logically

  6. Delay Tolerant Networking with Data Triage Method based on Emergent User Policies for Disaster Information Network System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriki Uchida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available When Disaster Information Network System is considered in local areas that were heavy damaged by the East Japan Great Earthquake in 2011, the resiliency of the network system is one of significant subjects for the restoration of the areas. DTN (Delay Tolerant Network has been focused for the effective methods for such inoperable network circumstances. However, when DTN is applied for the local areas, there are some problems such as message delivery rate and latency because there are fewer roads, cars, and pedestrians than in urban areas. In this paper, we propose the Enhanced Media Coordinate System for its architecture, and Data Triage method by emergent user policies is introduced to improve the QoS in Disaster Information Network System in local areas. In the proposed method, every message is tagged with the priority levels by data types with considering emergent user policies, and the high priority messages are firstly duplicated to transmittable nodes. Then, the experimental results by the GIS map of a Japanese coastal town and the future studies are discussed.

  7. International variation in policies and practices related to informed consent in acute cardiovascular research: Results from a 44 country survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Belle, Gerald; Mentzelopoulos, Spyros D; Aufderheide, Tom; May, Susanne; Nichol, Graham

    2015-06-01

    Research in an emergency setting such as that with an acute cardiovascular event is challenging because the window of opportunity to treat may be short and may preclude time to obtain informed consent from the patient or their representative. Some perceive that requiring informed consent in emergency situations has limited improvements in care. Vulnerable populations including minorities or residents of low-income countries are at greatest risk of need for resuscitation. Lack of enrollment of such patients would increase uncertainties in treatment benefit or harm in those at greater risk of need for resuscitation. We sought to assess international variation in policies and procedures related to exception from informed consent (EFIC) or deferred consent for emergency research. A brief survey instrument was developed and modified by consensus among the investigators. Included were multiple choice and open-ended responses. The survey included an illustrative example of a hypothetical randomized study. Elicited information included the possibility of conducting such a study in the respondent's country, as well as approvals required to conduct the study. The population of interest was emergency physicians or other practitioners of acute cardiovascular event research. Usable responses were obtained from 44 countries (76% of surveyed). Community opposition to EFIC was noted in 6 (14%) countries. Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers in 8 (20%) countries were judged unable or unwilling to participate. A majority of countries (36, 82%) required approval by a Research Ethics Committee or similar. Government approval was required in 25 (57%) countries. There is international variation in practices and policies related to consent for emergency research. There is an ongoing need to converge regulations based on the usefulness of multinational emergency research to benefit both affluent and disadvantaged populations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 26: The relationship between technology policy and scientific and technical information within the US and Japanese aerospace industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1993-01-01

    Government technology policy has nurtured the growth of the aerospace industry which is vital to both the U.S. and Japanese economies. Japanese technology policy differs significantly from U.S. technology policy, however, particularly with respect to the production, transfer, and use of scientific and technical information (STI). In this paper, we discuss the unique position of the aerospace industry in the U.S. and Japan, U.S. and Japanese aerospace policy, and the role of STI in the process of aerospace innovation. The information-seeking behaviors of U.S. and Japanese aerospace engineers and scientists are compared. The authors advocate the development of innovation-adoption technology and STI policy goals for U.S. aerospace and the inclusion of an aerospace knowledge diffusion transfer system with an 'active' component for scanning and acquiring foreign aerospace technology and STI.

  9. Information and Communication Technology Policy in European Cities: A Comparative Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, G.; Nijkamp, P.

    2002-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) is widely accepted as a potentially favourable set of instruments, which may improve the welfare and competitiveness of nations and cities. Nowadays, both public and private actors aim to exploit the expected benefits of ICT developments. The authors

  10. Who's Who in Internet Politics: A Taxonomy of Information Technology Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, before the tech boom collapsed and the digital economy bubble burst, it seemed to some that issues surrounding information technology (IT) might be central to the politics of the early 21st century. But after September 11, 2001, with so much else on everyone's minds, "digital politics" seemed a boring sideshow. Technocrats,…

  11. Mapping out the Transition toward Information Societies: Social Nature, Growth, and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This research thesis sheds lights on different aspects of the transition toward information societies. It consists of a collection of interrelated studies that analyze in more rigorous terms three main and complementary aspects of the transition (see Figure below). After and "introductory" CHAPTER ONE, the consecutive CHAPTER TWO of this…

  12. Using TIMSS and PISA Results to Inform Educational Policy: A Study of Russia and Its Neighbours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnoy, Martin; Khavenson, Tatiana; Ivanova, Alina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a multi-level comparative approach to analyse Trends in International Mathematics and Science Survey (TIMSS) and Programme of International Student Achievement (PISA) mathematics results for a country, Russia, where the two tests provide contradictory information about students' relative performance. Russian students do…

  13. Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) for Youth in MENA : Policies to Promote Employment Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Cava, Gloria La; Rossotto, Carlo Maria; Paradi-Guilford, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    On January 18, 2011, the Arab Development Summit Youth Forum met in Sharm-el-Sheikh, Egypt, aiming to provide young Arab leaders and Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) entrepreneurs with the opportunity for dialogue with Arab decision makers, providing recommendations on how to empower youth in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) through ICT. Tunisia's Jasmine revolution and...

  14. Non-Informed Consent Cultures: Privacy policies and app contracts on Facebook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechmann, Anja

    2014-01-01

    of consent practices on Facebook, the article argues that with the growing importance and use of these services the consent culture of the internet has turned into a blind non-informed consent culture, heavily relying on social incentives and group dynamics in decision-making that are not adequately...

  15. Evaluating Factors of Security Policy on Information Security Effectiveness in Developing Nations: A Case of Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okolo, Nkiru Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Information systems of today face more potential security infringement than ever before. The regular susceptibility of data to breaches is a function of systems users' disinclination to follow appropriate security measures. A well-secured system maintains integrity, confidentiality, and availability, while providing appropriate and consistent…

  16. 77 FR 32084 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... achievement gaps, and holding schools, local educational agencies, and SEAs accountable for improving the... rates as well as performance against the annual measurable objectives. This collection will be... ``Download Attachments'' to view. Written requests for information should be addressed to U.S. Department of...

  17. U.S. Information Policy and Cultural Diplomacy. Headline Series No. 308.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninkovich, Frank

    This booklet examines U.S. involvement with cultural diplomacy, emphasizing exchanges of persons and ideas that have lasting effects on relatively small numbers of people and information programs using the mass media to influence large numbers of people. Whereas the cultural exchange programs are internationalist in nature, promoting mutual and…

  18. A Visit to the Wasteland of Federal Scientific and Technical Information Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aines, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    Outlines retreat from overall planning and management of federal scientific and technical information which began during the Nixon administration in early 1970s. Participation of the Office of Science and Technology and committees of Federal Council for Science and Technology and National Academy of Sciences-National Academy of Engineering is…

  19. Issues with Access to Acquisition Data and Information in the Department of Defense: Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Trusted Systems and Networks ( TSN ) 11/5/2012 DoDI 8510.01 DoD Information Assurance Certification and Accreditation Process (DIACAP) Revised: Risk...Protection of Mission Critical Functions to Achieve Trusted Systems and Networks ( TSN ), November 5, 2012. Bibliography 73 U.S. Department of Defense

  20. Exchange of information between nuclear safety authorities: Policy of the French regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asty, Michel

    2000-01-01

    Full text: The decree setting up the Nuclear Safety Authority in 1973 entrusted it with international assignments whose objectives are still valid: - develop exchanges of information with foreign counterparts on regulatory systems and practices, on problems encountered in the nuclear safety field and on provisions made, with a view to enhancing its approach, and - becoming better acquainted with the actual operating practice of these Safety Authorities from which lessons could be learned for its own working procedures; - improving its position in the technical discussions with the French operators, since its arguments would be strengthened by practical knowledge of conditions abroad; - make known and explain the French approach and practices in the nuclear safety field and provide information on measures taken to deal with the problems encountered. This approach has several objectives: - promote the circulation of information on French positions on certain issues, such as very low level waste, for instance; - assist some countries wishing to create or modify their Nuclear Safety Authority, such as countries of the former USSR, the Central and Eastern European countries, and emerging countries on other continents; - help, when requested, foreign Safety Authorities required to issue permits for nuclear equipment of French origin; - provide the countries concerned with all relevant information on French nuclear installations located near their frontiers. Examples are given on the way the French Nuclear Safety Authority implements these objectives. (author)

  1. Water footprint assessment to inform water management and policy making in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pahlow, Markus; Snowball, J.; Fraser, G.

    2015-01-01

    One method to inform decisions with respect to sustainable, efficient and equitable water allocation and use is water footprint assessment (WFA). This paper presents a preliminary WFA of South Africa (SA) based on data for the period 1996–2005. Crop production was found to contribute about 75% of

  2. DoDs Policies, Procedures, and Practices for Information Security Management of Covered Systems (REDACTED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-15

    19 Use of Computer -Processed Data...practices for covered systems. The Act describes covered systems as national security systems2 and Federal computer systems that provide access to...capabilities are designed to detect and prevent the unauthorized use and transmission of national security systems information. 8 Forensics is the

  3. The Duality of Information Policy Debates: The Case of the Internet Governance Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dmitry

    2012-01-01

    This project focuses on the dynamics of the Internet Governance Forum (IGF) as a non-binding multistakeholder debate about information policymaking. Using the theory of structuration and critical discourse analysis, I explore how the nation-state-centric and the internet-community-centric perceptions of authority and approaches to decision-making…

  4. 76 FR 28843 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on International Communications and Information Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... information and communications technology (ICT) and international development, and recent private sector efforts focused on the ICT aspects of international disaster response. Members of the public may submit...-7407 or email [email protected] . All visitors for this meeting must use the 23rd Street entrance. The...

  5. 77 FR 35665 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection Requests; Office of Planning, Evaluation and Policy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... ``Download Attachments'' to view. Written requests for information should be addressed to U.S. Department of... high-quality data can indicate whether a funded project is meeting its goals and taking place as... positive student outcomes were attained, or whether a particular educational intervention actually caused...

  6. The Construct of Media and Information Literacy in Singapore Education System: Global Trends and Local Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Bin; Mokhtar, Intan Azura; Wang, Li-Yi

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the representation of information literacy and media literacy in the Singapore education discourse as part of its twenty-first century competencies framework. Through examining the conceptual definitions, purposes/aims, and means of these two significant twenty-first century competencies in the global context and the Singapore…

  7. Infographics And Public Policy: Using Data Visualization To Convey Complex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otten, Jennifer J; Cheng, Karen; Drewnowski, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Data visualization combines principles from psychology, usability, graphic design, and statistics to highlight important data in accessible and appealing formats. Doing so helps bridge knowledge producers with knowledge users, who are often inundated with information and increasingly pressed for time. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  8. Informing effective smokefree policies in Argentina: air quality monitoring study in 15 cities (2007-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoj, Verónica; Sebrié, Ernesto M; Pizarro, María Elizabeth; Hyland, Andrew; Travers, Mark J

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate indoor air pollution in hospitality venues in Argentina. PM₂.₅ levels were measured in a convenience sample of venues in 15 cities with different legislative contexts following a protocol developed by Roswell Park Cancer Institute. 554 samples were collected. Across all 5 smoke free cities the mean PM₂.₅ level was lower during daytime vs. evening hours, 24 vs. 98 PM₂.₅ respectively (p=.012). In the three cities evaluated before and after legislation, PM₂.₅ levels decreased dramatically (pcities with no legislation vs. smoke free cities (pcities with designated smoking areas, PM₂.₅ levels were not statistically different between smoking and non-smoking areas (p=0.272). Non-smoking areas had significantly higher PM₂.₅ levels compared to 100% smoke free venues in the same city (twofold higher) (p=0.017). Most of the participating cities in this study had significantly lower PM₂.₅ levels after the implementation of 100% smoke free legislation. Hence, it represents a useful tool to promote 100% smoke free policies in Argentina.

  9. Monitoring the Carbon Cycle: Improving Our Ability to Proved Policy Relevant Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhwiler, L.

    2017-12-01

    Humans have altered the energy balance of the climate system mainly by producing and consuming fossil fuels, but also by emissions from food production. Manufacture and use of halocarbons, many of which are also strong greenhouse gases (GHGs) have added to anthropogenic radiative forcing. In response, the global atmosphere has warmed over the last half century at a rate of 0.17°C. The largest contribution to radiative forcing is due to CO2, and at present, about half of all anthropogenic CO2 emissions have been taken up by the oceans and terrestrial biosphere. The size of this "carbon emission discount" may change in the future as more carbon accumulates in the oceans, as human alter landscapes, and as climate changes. Efforts to limit global average temperature increases to 2°C and avoid the most catastrophic consequences of climate change depend on keeping track of both human emissions of greenhouse gases and changes in natural fluxes of carbon and nitrogen that occur in response to human activities and changing climate. Global in situ network observations provide information about changes in global GHG abundances over recent decades, as well as changing distributions between hemispheres. This information gives insight into changes in global and hemispheric sources and sinks of GHGs. It is, however, currently difficult to obtain robust information about regional sources and to discriminate between natural and anthropogenic fluxes. Information about regional sources is needed for GHG policymaking, while discrimination of natural sources is necessary for detection of trends in GHG fluxes and evaluation of coupled carbon cycle climate models. Although column average GHG abundances from space-based remote sensing data could provide considerable constraints on GHG budgets, there are still technical challenges to be overcome. Possible strategies for making progress involve greater increased observational coverage and more international collaboration, as well as

  10. Policies for the development of the information society in the new member states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Feijóo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Cet article décrit les plans relatifs à la société de l’information lancés en Europe centrale et orientale ; il s’intéresse plus particulièrement à la Lettonie où des progrès ont été réalisés ces dernières années.

  11. The impact of medical tourism on Thai private hospital management: informing hospital policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Paul T J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualize the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand's health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology.

  12. Informing National Food and Water Security Policy through Water Footprint Assessment: the Case of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Karandish

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iran’s focus on food self-sufficiency has led to an emphasis on increasing water volumes available for irrigation with little attention to water use efficiency, and no attention at all to the role of consumption and trade. To better understand the development of water consumption in relation to food production, consumption, and trade, we carried out the first comprehensive water footprint assessment (WFA for Iran, for the period 1980–2010, and estimated the water saving per province associated with interprovincial and international crop trade. Based on the AquaCrop model, we estimated the green and blue water footprint (WF related to both the production and consumption of 26 crops, per year and on a daily basis, for 30 provinces of Iran. We find that, in the period 1980–2010, crop production increased by 175%, the total WF of crop production by 122%, and the blue WF by 20%. The national population grew by 92%, and the crop consumption per capita by 20%, resulting in a 130% increase in total food consumption and a 110% increase in the total WF of national crop consumption. In 2010, 26% of the total water consumption in the semi-arid region served the production of crops for export to other regions within Iran (mainly cereals or abroad (mainly fruits and nuts. Iran’s interprovincial virtual water trade grew by a factor of 1.6, which was mainly due to increased interprovincial trade in cereals, nuts, and fruits. Current Iranian food and water policy could be enriched by reducing the WFs of crop production to certain benchmark levels per crop and climatic region and aligning cropping patterns to spatial differences in water availability and productivities, and by paying due attention to the increasing food consumption per capita in Iran.

  13. Health Information Exchange (HIE): A literature review, assimilation pattern and a proposed classification for a new policy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilzadeh, Pouyan; Sambasivan, Murali

    2016-12-01

    Literature shows existence of barriers to Healthcare Information Exchange (HIE) assimilation process. A number of studies have considered assimilation of HIE as a whole phenomenon without regard to its multifaceted nature. Thus, the pattern of HIE assimilation in healthcare providers has not been clearly studied due to the effects of contingency factors on different assimilation phases. This study is aimed at defining HIE assimilation phases, recognizing assimilation pattern, and proposing a classification to highlight unique issues associated with HIE assimilation. A literature review of existing studies related to HIE efforts from 2005 was undertaken. Four electronic research databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Academic Search Premiere) were searched for articles addressing different phases of HIE assimilation process. Two hundred and fifty-four articles were initially selected. Out of 254, 44 studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The assimilation of HIE is a complicated and a multi-staged process. Our findings indicated that HIE assimilation process consisted of four main phases: initiation, organizational adoption decision, implementation and institutionalization. The data helped us recognize the assimilation pattern of HIE in healthcare organizations. The results provide useful theoretical implications for research by defining HIE assimilation pattern. The findings of the study also have practical implications for policy makers. The findings show the importance of raising national awareness of HIE potential benefits, financial incentive programs, use of standard guidelines, implementation of certified technology, technical assistance, training programs and trust between healthcare providers. The study highlights deficiencies in the current policy using the literature and identifies the "pattern" as an indication for a new policy approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Data Practices, Policy, and Rewards in the Information Era Demand a New Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Barton

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As informatics becomes embedded in the scientific method, workload shifts from the user to the provider of data and information services and systems. Yet there is little incentive for research scientists to devote time to data management and system development. Our reward system can be adjusted to encourage responsible data management and open access practices, as well as motivate people to develop systems and services for the common good. At the same time, the status and professional infrastructure for those engaged in informatics needs to match traditional scientific and technical disciplines and create an attractive, competitive career path. Five readily achievable steps can be taken to redress these imbalances.

  15. Use of scientific information database to pursue the policy in science and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajkhet, I.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis methods of scientific and technical information are presented to determine regularities in scientific and technical development. As a rule, the studies are carried out using data base of patent literature. Three methods of are considered. The first one - analysis of data flow, when trends in technique, degree of the technique monopolyzation and its urgency are evaluated. The second one - lexical analysis, consisting in recording new terms and deviations in the number of terms with time. The third one - analysis of quatation networks, which leads to the establisment of author and subject groups, characterizing scientific and technical activity of the object observed, of a firm or subject area for instance

  16. Education Industry, Spring 2008

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bareihs, Deiter; Brew, Mitchell; Conley, Daniel; Cutright, Timothy; Esposito, Paul; Gerald, Leslie; Gleason, Carolyn; Hittle, John; Horoho, Mark; Johnson, Carol

    2008-01-01

    .... The ultimate paradox vis- -vis U.S. education might be the contrast between our self-image as a pragmatic democratic nation with the rhetoric, spin and disingenuous discussion seen about public policy and especially education...

  17. The Freshwater Information Platform - an online network supporting freshwater biodiversity research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kloiber, Astrid; De Wever, Aaike; Bremerich, Vanessa; Strackbein, Jörg; Hering, Daniel; Jähnig, Sonja; Kiesel, Jens; Martens, Koen; Tockner, Klement

    2017-04-01

    Species distribution data is crucial for improving our understanding of biodiversity and its threats. This is especially the case for freshwater environments, which are heavily affected by the global biodiversity crisis. Currently, a huge body of freshwater biodiversity data is often difficult to access, because systematic data publishing practices have not yet been adopted by the freshwater research community. The Freshwater Information Platform (FIP; www.freshwaterplatform.eu) - initiated through the BioFresh project - aims at pooling freshwater related research information from a variety of projects and initiatives to make it easily accessible for scientists, water managers and conservationists as well as the interested public. It consists of several major components, three of which we want to specifically address: (1) The Freshwater Biodiversity Data Portal aims at mobilising freshwater biodiversity data, making them online available Datasets in the portal are described and documented in the (2) Freshwater Metadatabase and published as open access articles in the Freshwater Metadata Journal. The use of collected datasets for large-scale analyses and models is demonstrated in the (3) Global Freshwater Biodiversity Atlas that publishes interactive online maps featuring research results on freshwater biodiversity, resources, threats and conservation priorities. Here we present the main components of the FIP as tools to streamline open access freshwater data publication arguing this will improve the capacity to protect and manage freshwater biodiversity in the face of global change.

  18. More than twenty years of European policy for the development of the information society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Feijóo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available La politique adoptée par l'union européenne en matière de société de l’information s’initie avec le "livre blanc de Delors" et le "rapport de Bangemann" au début des années 1990. Durant cette première période et en dépit de quelques orientations sociales, c’est essentiellement la question de la libéralisation des télécommunications qui a été au centre des discussions. La situation a évolué quelque peu avec la mise en place du programme eEurope entre 2000 et 2005 à Lisbonne. L’année 2006 aurait pu annoncer, avec une nouvelle stratégie baptisée i2010, une montée en puissance de l’investissement de la commission européenne en matière de société de l’information. Il n’en est rien. Au contraire, on constate finalement une baisse des ambitions, un retour en arrière, faute de résultats probants de la stratégie de Lisbonne.

  19. Secure Communication and Information Exchange using Authenticated Ciphertext Policy Attribute-Based Encryption in Mobile Ad-hoc Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Huda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available MANETs are considered as suitable for commercial applications such as law enforcement, conference meeting, and sharing information in a student classroom and critical services such as military operations, disaster relief, and rescue operations. Meanwhile, in military operation especially in the battlefield in freely medium which naturally needs high mobility and flexibility. Thus, applying MANETs make these networks vulnerable to various types of attacks such aspacket eavesdropping, data disseminating, message replay, message modification, and especially privacy issue. In this paper, we propose a secure communication and information exchange in MANET with considering secure adhoc routing and secure information exchange. Regarding privacy issue or anonymity, we use a reliable asymmetric encryption which protecting user privacy by utilizing insensitive user attributes as user identity, CP-ABE (Ciphertext-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption cryptographic scheme. We also design protocols to implement the proposed scheme for various battlefied scenarios in real evironment using embedded devices. Our experimental results showed that the additional of HMAC (Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code and AES (Advanced Encryption standard schemes using processor 1.2GHz only take processing time about 4.452 ms,  we can confirm that our approach by using CP-ABE with added HMAC and AES schemes make low overhead.

  20. Security Policy and Infrastructure in the Context of a Multi-Centeric Information System Dedicated to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Said, Mohamed; Robel, Laurence; Golse, Bernard; Jais, Jean Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neuro-developmental disorders affecting children in their early age. The diagnosis of ASD relies on multidisciplinary investigations, in psychiatry, neurology, genetics, electrophysiology, neuro-imagery, audiology and ophthalmology. In order to support clinicians, researchers and public health decision makers, we designed an information system dedicated to ASD, called TEDIS. TEDIS was designed to manage systematic, exhaustive and continuous multi-centric patient data collection via secured Internet connections. In this paper, we present the security policy and security infrastructure we developed to protect ASD' patients' clinical data and patients' privacy. We tested our system on 359 ASD patient records in a local secured intranet environment and showed that the security system is functional, with a consistent, transparent and safe encrypting-decrypting behavior. It is ready for deployment in the nine ASD expert assessment centers in the Ile de France district.

  1. Hot springs in Hokuriku District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K. (Hot Springs Research Center, Japan)

    1971-01-01

    In the Hokuriku district including Toyama, Ishikawa, and Fukui Prefectures, hot springs of more than 25/sup 0/C were investigated. In the Toyama Prefecture, there are 14 hot springs which are located in an area from the Kurobe River to the Tateyama volcano and in the mountainous area in the southwest. In Ishikawa Prefecture there are 16 hot springs scattered in Hakusan and its vicinity, the Kaga mountains, and in the Noto peninsula. In northern Fukui Prefecture there are seven hot springs. The hot springs in Shirakawa in Gifu Prefecture are characterized as acid springs producing exhalations and H/sub 2/S. These are attributed to the Quaternary volcanoes. The hot springs of Wakura, Katayamazu, and Awara in Ishikawa Prefecture are characterized by a high Cl content which is related to Tertiary andesite. The hot springs of Daishoji, Yamanaka, Yamashiro, Kuritsu, Tatsunokuchi, Yuwaku, and Yunotani are characterized by a low HCO/sub 3/ content. The Ca and SO/sub 4/ content decreases from east to west, and the Na and Cl content increases from west to east. These fluctuations are related to the Tertiary tuff and rhyolite. The hot springs of Kuronagi, Kinshu, and Babadani, located along the Kurobe River are characterized by low levels of dissolved components and high CO/sub 2/ and HCO/sub 3/ content. These trends are related to late Paleozoic granite. Hot springs resources are considered to be connected to geothermal resources. Ten tables, graphs, and maps are provided.

  2. Engaging the Voice of Patients Affected by Gender-Based Violence: Informing Practice and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-O'Connor, Annie; Chadwick, Mardi

    2015-01-01

    Evidence regarding the benefits, opportunities, and risks associated with providing health care to patients experiencing gender-based violence (GBV) and, moreover, their satisfaction with health care services is sparse. Using a patient- and trauma-informed relationship-based framework, survivors of GBV who were referred for follow-up care were asked to participate in a quality improvement (QI) initiative in an effort to understand their perspectives of receiving healthcare services. Patients were asked to answer three open-ended questions in regard to their healthcare experience. Individuals who were eligible for evidence collection after sexual assault (sexually assaulted should have evidence collected. More extensive research and program evaluation including outcomes research are warranted.

  3. Managing misaligned paternity findings in research including sickle cell disease screening in Kenya: 'consulting communities' to inform policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Vicki; Kombe, Francis; Fitzpatrick, Ray; Molyneux, Sassy; Parker, Michael

    2013-11-01

    The management of misaligned paternity findings raises important controversy worldwide. It has mainly, however, been discussed in the context of high-income countries. Genetic and genomics research, with the potential to show misaligned paternity, are becoming increasingly common in Africa. During a genomics study in Kenya, a dilemma arose over testing and sharing information on paternal sickle cell disease status. This dilemma may be paradigmatic of challenges in sharing misaligned paternity findings in many research and health care settings. Using a deliberative approach to community consultation to inform research practice, we explored residents' views on paternal testing and sharing misaligned paternity information. Between December 2009 and November 2010, 63 residents in Kilifi County were engaged in informed deliberative small group discussions, structured to support normative reflection within the groups, with purposive selection to explore diversity. Analysis was based on a modified framework analysis approach, drawing on relevant social science and bioethics literature. The methods generated in-depth individual and group reflection on morally important issues and uncovered wide diversity in views and values. Fundamental and conflicting values emerged around the importance of family interests and openness, underpinned by disagreement on the moral implications of marital infidelity and withholding truth. Wider consideration of ethical issues emerging in these debates supports locally-held reasoning that paternal sickle cell testing should not be undertaken in this context, in contrast to views that testing should be done with or without the disclosure of misaligned paternity information. The findings highlight the importance of facilitating wider testing of family members of affected children, contingent on the development and implementation of national policies for the management of this inherited disorder. Their richness also illustrates the potential for

  4. Evidence & Gap Maps: A tool for promoting evidence informed policy and strategic research agendas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snilstveit, Birte; Vojtkova, Martina; Bhavsar, Ami; Stevenson, Jennifer; Gaarder, Marie

    2016-11-01

    A range of organizations are engaged in the production of evidence on the effects of health, social, and economic development programs on human welfare outcomes. However, evidence is often scattered around different databases, web sites, and the gray literature and is often presented in inaccessible formats. Lack of overview of the evidence in a specific field can be a barrier to the use of existing research and prevent efficient use of limited resources for new research. Evidence & Gap Maps (EGMs) aim to address these issues and complement existing synthesis and mapping approaches. EGMs are a new addition to the tools available to support evidence-informed policymaking. To provide an accessible resource for researchers, commissioners, and decision makers, EGMs provide thematic collections of evidence structured around a framework which schematically represents the types of interventions and outcomes of relevance to a particular sector. By mapping the existing evidence using this framework, EGMs provide a visual overview of what we know and do not know about the effects of different programs. They make existing evidence available, and by providing links to user-friendly summaries of relevant studies, EGMs can facilitate the use of existing evidence for decision making. They identify key "gaps" where little or no evidence from impact evaluations and systematic reviews is available and can be a valuable resource to inform a strategic approach to building the evidence base in a particular sector. The article will introduce readers to the concept and methods of EGMs and present a demonstration of the EGM tool using existing examples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Policy Feedback System (PFS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Policy Feedback System (PFS) is a web application developed by the Office of Disability Policy Management Information (ODPMI) team that gathers empirical data...

  6. The Informal Working in Fortaleza City: Between Urban Sanitation, Public Policy and Philosophy (1880-1910

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Camurça Correia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With this papper we aim to analyze the ways in which some people as self-employed, workers of the streets, such as porters, sellers and beggars, articulated his days in the city of Fortaleza, in the end of nineteenth century, between the political and regulatory joints of Ceará province. Despite of several attempts by the political, medical and establish intellectual high society discourses and practices against the massive presence of this kind of sel-employed, the disjointed work and the sick body of the popular, these, increasingly, were present through the work carried out, whether in times of drought, is the period of the belle époque of Fortaleza. Through the analysis of the sources, discusses to typify poor and informal workers, at the time when the economic elite of Fortaleza wanted to establish commercial modernity in this city. For the development of this article, we used literature and bibliographical research. Was performed in addition to the survey data of the time as another primary sources (Acting Secretary of the Business of Interior of Ceará Province Report, Match Proceedings of the Municipal Stewardship of Fortaleza, Corres- pondence Minutes of city Hall of Fortaleza; and secondary sources (Postures Code of the City of Fortaleza; and chronic books and besides memories of the city of Fortaleza.

  7. Informing tobacco control policy in Jordan: assessing the effectiveness of pictorial warning labels on cigarette packs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha K. Bader

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pictorial warning labels (PWLs deter initiation and motivate quitting. Assessing PWLs is important to track effectiveness and wear out. Jordan introduced an updated set of PWLs in 2013. This study assessed the effectiveness of the set after 2.5 years on the market. Methods We administered a survey in a cross-sectional sample of young adults aged 17–26 years. For convenience, respondents were recruited on university campuses. For heterogeneity, respondents were solicited from the different schools in four geographically diverse university campuses. The study compared perceptions of effectiveness surveyed in 2015 to perceptions gauged in 2010 during a pre-launch evaluation exercise. Outcomes of interest were: salience, fear evocation, adding information, and ability to motivate quitting smoking (for smokers or deterring starting (for non-smokers. Results Results indicate awareness of the set among smokers and non-smokers, and their recall of at least one PWL message. Results also indicate effectiveness of the set: (1 1/3 smokers who frequently saw them reported PWLs to trigger considering quitting, (2 and among both smokers and non-smokers the set in 2015 sustained ability to motivate quitting and staying smoke-free. However, results uncover erosion of salience, suggesting that the set has reached its end of life. Finally, results reveal variability in performance among PWLs; the one PWL that depicts human suffering significantly outperformed the others, and its ability to motivate was most strongly associated with its ability to evoke fear. Conclusion Based on the early signs of wear-out (i.e. erosion of salience, and understanding the importance of sustaining upstream outcomes (especially fear evocation to sustain motivation, we recommend retiring this set of PWLs and replacing it with a stronger set in line with proven standards.

  8. Spring viremia of carp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahne, W.; Bjorklund, H.V.; Essbauer, S.; Fijan, N.; Kurath, G.; Winton, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    pring viremia of carp (SVC) is an important disease affecting cyprinids, mainly common carp Cyprinus carpio. The disease is widespread in European carp culture, where it causes significant morbidity and mortality. Designated a notifiable disease by the Office International des Epizooties, SVC is caused by a rhabdovirus, spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV). Affected fish show destruction of tissues in the kidney, spleen and liver, leading to hemorrhage, loss of water-salt balance and impairment of immune response. High mortality occurs at water temperatures of 10 to 17°C, typically in spring. At higher temperatures, infected carp develop humoral antibodies that can neutralize the spread of virus and such carp are protected against re-infection by solid immunity. The virus is shed mostly with the feces and urine of clinically infected fish and by carriers. Waterborne transmission is believed to be the primary route of infection, but bloodsucking parasites like leeches and the carp louse may serve as mechanical vectors of SVCV. The genome of SVCV is composed of a single molecule of linear, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA containing 5 genes in the order 3¹-NPMGL-5¹ coding for the viral nucleoprotein, phosphoprotein, matrix protein, glycoprotein, and polymerase, respectively. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the viral proteins, and sequence homologies between the genes and gene junctions of SVCV and vesicular stomatitis viruses, have led to the placement of the virus as a tentative member of the genus Vesiculovirus in the family Rhabdoviridae. These methods also revealed that SVCV is not related to fish rhabdoviruses of the genus Novirhabdovirus. In vitro replication of SVCV takes place in the cytoplasm of cultured cells of fish, bird and mammalian origin at temperatures of 4 to 31°C, with an optimum of about 20°C. Spring viremia of carp can be diagnosed by clinical signs, isolation of virus in cell culture and molecular methods. Antibodies directed

  9. Developing bulk exchange spring magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccall, Scott K.; Kuntz, Joshua D.

    2017-06-27

    A method of making a bulk exchange spring magnet by providing a magnetically soft material, providing a hard magnetic material, and producing a composite of said magnetically soft material and said hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet. The step of producing a composite of magnetically soft material and hard magnetic material is accomplished by electrophoretic deposition of the magnetically soft material and the hard magnetic material to make the bulk exchange spring magnet.

  10. Spring security 3.x cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Mankale, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style exploring various security solutions provided by Spring Security for various vulnerabilities and threat scenarios that web applications may be exposed to at the authentication and session level layers.This book is for all Spring-based application developers as well as Java web developers who wish to implement robust security mechanisms into web application development using Spring Security.Readers are assumed to have a working knowledge of Java web application development, a basic understanding of the Spring framework, and some knowledge of the fundamentals o

  11. A Framework for Using Qualitative Research To Inform Policy-Makers and Empower Practitioners: Lessons from Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneveld, Ward; Craig, Helen

    National education policy reforms often do not translate into changes at the classroom level. This paper presents a conceptual framework developed for Sub-Saharan Africa to assist policy-makers in bridging the gap between school practice and national policies. It also describes how the framework was applied to current school-improvement efforts in…

  12. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... recently attempted to modify the Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport (COS), CO... effort, it was determined the COS ARP geographic position information contained in the Colorado Springs... previously and required updating. This amendment action ensures the COS ARP described in the Colorado Springs...

  13. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA's Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation's nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Update on NHANES Dietary Data: Focus on Collection, Release, Analytical Considerations, and Uses to Inform Public Policy12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Dwyer, Johanna; Terry, Ana; Moshfegh, Alanna; Johnson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    NHANES is the cornerstone for national nutrition monitoring to inform nutrition and health policy. Nutritional assessment in NHANES is described with a focus on dietary data collection, analysis, and uses in nutrition monitoring. NHANES has been collecting thorough data on diet, nutritional status, and chronic disease in cross-sectional surveys with nationally representative samples since the early 1970s. Continuous data collection began in 1999 with public data release in 2-y cycles on ∼10,000 participants. In 2002, the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals and the NHANES dietary component were merged, forming a consolidated dietary data collection known as What We Eat in America; since then, 24-h recalls have been collected on 2 d using the USDA’s Automated Multiple-Pass Method. Detailed and targeted food-frequency questionnaires have been collected in some NHANES cycles. Dietary supplement use data have been collected (in detail since 2007) so that total nutrient intakes can be described for the population. The continuous NHANES can adapt its content to address emerging public health needs and reflect federal priorities. Changes in data collection methods are made after expert input and validation/crossover studies. NHANES dietary data are used to describe intake of foods, nutrients, food groups, and dietary patterns by the US population and large sociodemographic groups to plan and evaluate nutrition programs and policies. Usual dietary intake distributions can be estimated after adjusting for day-to-day variation. NHANES remains open and flexible to incorporate improvements while maintaining data quality and providing timely data to track the nation’s nutrition and health status. In summary, NHANES collects dietary data in the context of its broad, multipurpose goals; the strengths and limitations of these data are also discussed in this review. PMID:26773020

  15. Preliminary analysis of geothermal aspects of Brazilian thermal spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurter, S.J.; Hamza, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    Information on more than 400 geothermal springs in Brazil has been assembled. On the basis of the data colected the temperatures at the maximum depths of circulation of spring waters are calculated using the quality of silica dissolved in water. For some thermal springs temperatures are calculated on the basis of silica determination carrried out by us. Applying linear relations between silica temperature and geothermal flux the average depths of water circulation in the Parana Basin and the Brazilian folded belts surrounding the San Francisco craton are calculated. The radioactivity of the water, derived mainly from the dissolved radon can be correlated with the temperature of the spring. An inverse correlation, as was observed for thermal springs of Pocos de Caldas, can be used to calculate the ascent velocity of thermal waters, where as, a positive correlations could be interpreted as due to the mixing of thermal with surface waters. (Author) [pt

  16. SUPPORT Tools for evidence-informed health Policymaking (STP) 14: Organising and using policy dialogues to support evidence-informed policymaking

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of a series written for people responsible for making decisions about health policies and programmes and for those who support these decision makers. Policy dialogues allow research evidence to be considered together with the views, experiences and tacit knowledge of those who will be involved in, or affected by, future decisions about a high-priority issue. Increasing interest in the use of policy dialogues has been fuelled by a number of factors: 1. The recogni...

  17. Essays in energy policy and planning modeling under uncertainty: Value of information, optimistic biases, and simulation of capacity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ming-Che

    Optimization and simulation are popular operations research and systems analysis tools for energy policy modeling. This dissertation addresses three important questions concerning the use of these tools for energy market (and electricity market) modeling and planning under uncertainty. (1) What is the value of information and cost of disregarding different sources of uncertainty for the U.S. energy economy? (2) Could model-based calculations of the performance (social welfare) of competitive and oligopolistic market equilibria be optimistically biased due to uncertainties in objective function coefficients? (3) How do alternative sloped demand curves perform in the PJM capacity market under economic and weather uncertainty? How does curve adjustment and cost dynamics affect the capacity market outcomes? To address the first question, two-stage stochastic optimization is utilized in the U.S. national MARKAL energy model; then the value of information and cost of ignoring uncertainty are estimated for three uncertainties: carbon cap policy, load growth and natural gas prices. When an uncertainty is important, then explicitly considering those risks when making investments will result in better performance in expectation (positive expected cost of ignoring uncertainty). Furthermore, eliminating the uncertainty would improve strategies even further, meaning that improved forecasts of future conditions are valuable ( i.e., a positive expected value of information). Also, the value of policy coordination shows the difference between a strategy developed under the incorrect assumption of no carbon cap and a strategy correctly anticipating imposition of such a cap. For the second question, game theory models are formulated and the existence of optimistic (positive) biases in market equilibria (both competitive and oligopoly markets) are proved, in that calculated social welfare and producer profits will, in expectation, exceed the values that will actually be received

  18. Experiences of Knowledge Brokering for Evidence-Informed Public Health Policy and Practice: Three Years of the Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Helen; Geddes, Rosemary; Haw, Sally; Jackson, Caroline A.; Jepson, Ruth; Mooney, John D.; Frank, John

    2012-01-01

    Despite a burgeoning literature on, and widespread interest in, knowledge translation and exchange in public health, few articles provide an account of the actual experiences of knowledge brokerage organisations. The Scottish Collaboration for Public Health Research and Policy (SCPHRP) was formed in 2008 to: identify public health interventions…

  19. Economic considerations and health in all policies initiatives: evidence from interviews with key informants in Sweden, Quebec and South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Andrew D; Molnar, Agnes; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia J; Bayoumi, Ahmed M

    2015-02-18

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a form of intersectoral action that aims to include the promotion of health in government initiatives across sectors. To date, there has been little study of economic considerations within the implementation of HiAP. As part of an ongoing program of research on the implementation of HiAP around the world, we examined how economic considerations influence the implementation of HiAP. By economic considerations we mean the cost and financial gain (or loss) of implementing a HiAP process or structure within government, or the cost and financial gain (or loss) of the policies that emerge from such a HiAP process or structure. We examined three jurisdictions: Sweden, Quebec and South Australia. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 12 to 14 key informants in each jurisdiction. Two investigators separately coded transcripts to identify relevant statements. Initial readings of transcripts led to the development of a coding framework for statements related to economic considerations. First, economic evaluations of HiAP are viewed as important for prompting HiAP and many forms of economic evaluation were considered. However, economic evaluations were often absent, informal, or incomplete. Second, funding for HiAP initiatives is important, but is less important than a high-level commitment to intersectoral collaboration. Furthermore, having multiple sources of funding of HiAP can be beneficial, if it increases participation across government, but can also be disadvantageous, if it exposes underlying tensions. Third, HiAP can also highlight the challenge of achieving both economic and social objectives. Our results are useful for elaborating propositions for use in realist multiple explanatory case studies. First, we propose that economic considerations are currently used primarily as a method by health sectors to promote and legitimize HiAP to non-health sectors with the goal of securing resources for HiAP. Second

  20. Crafting citizen(ship) for people with dementia: How policy narratives at national level in Sweden informed politics of time from 1975 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedlund, Ann-Charlotte; Nordh, Jonas

    2015-08-01

    This article explores how policy narratives in national policy documents in Sweden inform associated politics on people with dementia. This is disentangled in terms of how people with dementia have been defined, what the problems and their imminent solutions have been, and if and how these have differed over time. Based on a textual analysis of policy documents at national level in Sweden, covering nearly 40 years the study shows how divergent policy narratives shape the construction of citizens with dementia as policy target groups. This study shows the temporal character of people with dementia as a political problem, the implications of policy narratives on people with dementia as a citizen group, and policy narratives as something being crafted rather than shaped by fixed pre-existing "facts". Dementia, and further citizens living with dementia, does not have a once and for all stabilised meaning. Instead, the meanings behind the categories continue to evolve and to be crafted, which affects the construction of citizens living with dementia, the space in which to exercise their citizenship and further belonging to the society. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mallow Springs, County Cork, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldwell, C. R.

    1996-03-01

    Because of its copious and reliable rainfall, Ireland has an abundance of springs. Many of the larger ones issue from the Carboniferous limestone that occurs in over 40% of the country. The spring water is mainly a calcium bicarbonate type with a temperature of about 10°C. In the 18th century, warm and cold springs were developed as spas in various parts of Ireland. The popularity of these springs was short and most were in major decline by 1850. Today only one cold spa at Lisdoonvarna, Co. Clare is still operating. Springs in Ireland were places of religious significance for the pre-Christian Druidic religion. In the Christian period they became holy wells, under the patronage of various saints. Cures for many different ailments were attributed to water from these wells.

  2. Information policies and strategies

    CERN Document Server

    Cornelius, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The big issues crowd our minds but the process of decision making is the same at every level and in every context, whether we are concerned with government secrets or our children's reading and viewing habits. This book examines the issues from varying standpoints, including the human rights approach and the commercial approach.

  3. Linear magnetic spring and spring/motor combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patt, Paul J. (Inventor); Stolfi, Fred R. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A magnetic spring, or a spring and motor combination, providing a linear spring force characteristic in each direction from a neutral position, in which the spring action may occur for any desired coordinate of a typical orthogonal coordinate system. A set of magnets are disposed, preferably symmetrically about a coordinate axis, poled orthogonally to the desired force direction. A second set of magnets, respectively poled opposite the first set, are arranged on the sprung article. The magnets of one of the sets are spaced a greater distance apart than those of the other, such that an end magnet from each set forms a pair having preferably planar faces parallel to the direction of spring force, the faces being offset so that in a neutral position the outer edge of the closer spaced magnet set is aligned with the inner edge of the greater spaced magnet set. For use as a motor, a coil can be arranged with conductors orthogonal to both the magnet pole directions and the direction of desired spring force, located across from the magnets of one set and fixed with respect to the magnets of the other set. In a cylindrical coordinate system having axial spring force, the magnets are radially poled and motor coils are concentric with the cylinder axis.

  4. Spatial Characteristics of Geothermal Spring Temperatures and Discharge Rates in the Tatun Volcanic Area, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, C. S.; Liu, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    The Tatun volcanic area is the only potential volcanic geothermal region in the Taiwan island, and abundant in hot spring resources owing to stream water mixing with fumarolic gases. According to the Meinzer's classification, spring temperatures and discharge rates are the most important properties for characterizing spring classifications. This study attempted to spatially characterize spring temperatures and discharge rates in the Tatun volcanic area, Taiwanusing indicator kriging (IK). First, data on spring temperatures and discharge rates, which were collected from surveyed data of the Taipei City Government, were divided into high, moderate and low categories according to spring classification criteria, and the various categories were regarded as estimation thresholds. Then, IK was adopted to model occurrence probabilities of specified temperatures and discharge rates in springs, and to determine their classifications based on estimated probabilities. Finally, nine combinations were obtained from the classifications of temperatures and discharge rates in springs. Moreover, the combinations and features of spring water were spatially quantified according to seven sub-zones of spring utilization. A suitable and sustainable development strategy of the spring area was proposed in each sub-zone based on probability-based combinations and features of spring water.The research results reveal that the probability-based classifications using IK provide an excellent insight in exploring the uncertainty of spatial features in springs, and can provide Taiwanese government administrators with detailed information on sustainable spring utilization and conservation in the overexploited spring tourism areas. The sub-zones BT (Beitou), RXY (Rd. Xingyi), ZSL (Zhongshanlou) and LSK (Lengshuikeng) with high or moderate discharge rates are suitable to supply spring water for tourism hotels.Local natural hot springs should be planned in the sub-zones DBT (Dingbeitou), ZSL, XYK

  5. 49 CFR 229.65 - Spring rigging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 229.65 Section 229.65....65 Spring rigging. (a) Protective construction or safety hangers shall be provided to prevent spring planks, spring seats or bolsters from dropping to track structure in event of a hanger or spring failure...

  6. A bountiful spring harvest

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Although we recently put the clocks forward and spring has officially begun, the view from my window looks more autumnal – befitting of the season of mists and mellow fruitfulness, rather than that of sowing seeds for the future. Which, in a way is appropriate. With the LHC paused, we are reaping a kind of harvest in the form of recognition for our efforts.   Two weeks ago, I was in Edinburgh, on behalf of everyone at CERN, to collect the Edinburgh medal, which we shared with Peter Higgs. I particularly like the citation for this honour: “The Edinburgh Medal is awarded each year to men and women of science and technology whose professional achievements are judged to have made a significant contribution to the understanding and well-being of humanity.” I like this, because it underlines a fact that needs to be shouted louder – that fundamental science does more than build the sum of human knowledge, it is also the foundation of human well-being. A few d...

  7. Spring comes for ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Butin, F.

    2004-01-01

    (First published in the CERN weekly bulletin 24/2004, 7 June 2004.) A short while ago the ATLAS cavern underwent a spring clean, marking the end of the installation of the detector's support structures and the cavern's general infrastructure. The list of infrastructure to be installed in the ATLAS cavern from September 2003 was long: a thousand tonnes of mechanical structures spread over 13 storeys, two lifts, two 65-tonne overhead travelling cranes 25 metres above cavern floor, with a telescopic boom and cradle to access the remaining 10 metres of the cavern, a ventilation system for the 55 000 cubic metre cavern, a drainage system, a standard sprinkler system and an innovative foam fire-extinguishing system, as well as the external cryogenic system for the superconducting magnets and the liquid argon calorimeters (comprising, amongst other things, two helium refrigeration units, a nitrogen refrigeration unit and 5 km of piping for gaseous or liquid helium and nitrogen), not to mention the handling eq...

  8. Act local, think global: how the Malawi experience of scaling up antiretroviral treatment has informed global policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony D. Harries

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART in Malawi was based on a public health approach adapted to its resource-poor setting, with principles and practices borrowed from the successful tuberculosis control framework. From 2004 to 2015, the number of new patients started on ART increased from about 3000 to over 820,000. Despite being a small country, Malawi has made a significant contribution to the 15 million people globally on ART and has also contributed policy and service delivery innovations that have supported international guidelines and scale up in other countries. The first set of global guidelines for scaling up ART released by the World Health Organization (WHO in 2002 focused on providing clinical guidance. In Malawi, the ART guidelines adopted from the outset a more operational and programmatic approach with recommendations on health systems and services that were needed to deliver HIV treatment to affected populations. Seven years after the start of national scale-up, Malawi launched a new strategy offering all HIV-infected pregnant women lifelong ART regardless of the CD4-cell count, named Option B+. This strategy was subsequently incorporated into a WHO programmatic guide in 2012 and WHO ART guidelines in 2013, and has since then been adopted by the majority of countries worldwide. In conclusion, the Malawi experience of ART scale-up has become a blueprint for a public health response to HIV and has informed international efforts to end the AIDS epidemic by 2030.

  9. Policy and Regulation in the Media Landscape: the Greek Paradigm Concentration of Media Ownership Versus the Right to Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Veneti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available By outlining the long-lasting peculiarities of the Greek media landscape, this paper aims to make us reflect on how the political system affects their development and role. Particularly, through analyzing the policy and regulating frames applied to Greek communication field, we try to shed light on the degree and shapes of media concentration and control as well as on the effects of this widespread phenomenon. Special emphasis is placed on the illicit interweaving of political and media interests, giving rise to a media system which has great difficulties in following constructively the technological developments in the field and challenges the active participation of citizens in the public affairs. In the contemporary society of digital revolution market values continue to be dominant. Those who control the private media outweigh the political figures and as a result any attempts to regulate the communication field are always implemented for the benefit of the private capital. Under these circumstances the question of whether the media can act as amplifiers of the democratic practices is more crucial than ever. This is the central question posed by the paper, arguing that the evolution of the Greek media system is inundated with evidence supporting the view that the particular voice of citizen as well as his right to information is under threat.

  10. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2018-04-01

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  11. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Short Project Overview of Spring Chinook Salmon Supplementation in the Upper Yakima Basin; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.; Bosch, William J.

    2005-09-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is on schedule to ascertain whether new artificial production techniques can be used to increase harvest and natural production of spring Chinook salmon while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the fish population being supplemented and keeping adverse genetic and ecological interactions with non-target species or stocks within acceptable limits. The Cle Elum Supplementation and Research Facility (CESRF) collected its first spring chinook brood stock in 1997, released its first fish in 1999, and age-4 adults have been returning since 2001. In these initial years of CESRF operation, recruitment of hatchery origin fish has exceeded that of fish spawning in the natural environment, but early indications are that hatchery origin fish are not as successful at spawning in the natural environment as natural origin fish when competition is relatively high. When competition is reduced, hatchery fish produced similar numbers of progeny as their wild counterparts. Most demographic variables are similar between natural and hatchery origin fish, however hatchery origin fish were smaller-at-age than natural origin fish. Long-term fitness of the target population is being evaluated by a large-scale test of domestication. Slight changes in predation vulnerability and competitive dominance, caused by domestication, were documented. Distribution of spawners has increased as a result of acclimation site location and salmon homing fidelity. Semi-natural rearing and predator avoidance training have not resulted in significant increases in survival of hatchery fish. However, growth manipulations in the hatchery appear to be reducing the number of precocious males produced by the YKFP and consequently increasing the number of migrants. Genetic impacts to non-target populations appear to be low because of the low stray rates of YKFP fish. Ecological impacts to valued non-target taxa were within containment objectives or impacts that

  12. Developing a cellular automata model of urban growth to inform spatial policy for flood mitigation : A case study in Kampala, Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-Molina, Eduardo; Sliuzas, R.V.; Flacke, J.; Jetten, V.G.

    2017-01-01

    Urban growth may intensify local flooding problems. Understanding the spatially explicit flood consequences of possible future land cover patterns contributes to inform policy for mitigating these impacts. A cellular automata model has been coupled with the openLISEM integrated flood modeling tool

  13. An Evaluation of the National Information Communication and Technology (ICT) Policy at the University of Namibia in the Faculty of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Albert; Kazembe, Lawrence; Kazondovi, Collins

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this evaluation study was to determine the extent to which the teacher educators in the Faculty of Education at the University of Namibia implemented the national Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Policy for Education. This study employed both the quantitative method in the form of questionnaires and the qualitative…

  14. Influence of Selected Factors on the Implementation of Information and Communication Technology Policy in Public Secondary Schools in Naivasha Sub-County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Njoroge Ngugi; Ngugi, Margaret; Kinzi, Joab

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the influence of selected factors on implementation of Information and Communication Technology in public secondary schools in Naivasha sub-county, Kenya. The study investigated whether the ICT infrastructural cost, schools' visions, and teachers' ICT skills hinder effective implementation of ICT policy in…

  15. Estimating the fitness cost and benefit of cefixime resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae to inform prescription policy: A modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilith K Whittles

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gonorrhoea is one of the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in England. Over 41,000 cases were recorded in 2015, more than half of which occurred in men who have sex with men (MSM. As the bacterium has developed resistance to each first-line antibiotic in turn, we need an improved understanding of fitness benefits and costs of antibiotic resistance to inform control policy and planning. Cefixime was recommended as a single-dose treatment for gonorrhoea from 2005 to 2010, during which time resistance increased, and subsequently declined.We developed a stochastic compartmental model representing the natural history and transmission of cefixime-sensitive and cefixime-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in MSM in England, which was applied to data on diagnoses and prescriptions between 2008 and 2015. We estimated that asymptomatic carriers play a crucial role in overall transmission dynamics, with 37% (95% credible interval CrI 24%-52% of infections remaining asymptomatic and untreated, accounting for 89% (95% CrI 82%-93% of onward transmission. The fitness cost of cefixime resistance in the absence of cefixime usage was estimated to be such that the number of secondary infections caused by resistant strains is only about half as much as for the susceptible strains, which is insufficient to maintain persistence. However, we estimated that treatment of cefixime-resistant strains with cefixime was unsuccessful in 83% (95% CrI 53%-99% of cases, representing a fitness benefit of resistance. This benefit was large enough to counterbalance the fitness cost when 31% (95% CrI 26%-36% of cases were treated with cefixime, and when more than 55% (95% CrI 44%-66% of cases were treated with cefixime, the resistant strain had a net fitness advantage over the susceptible strain. Limitations include sparse data leading to large intervals on key model parameters and necessary assumptions in the modelling of a complex epidemiological process

  16. Evidence-informed health policy 2 – Survey of organizations that support the use of research evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxman Andrew D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous surveys of organizations that support the development of evidence-informed health policies have focused on organizations that produce clinical practice guidelines (CPGs or undertake health technology assessments (HTAs. Only rarely have surveys focused at least in part on units that directly support the use of research evidence in developing health policy on an international, national, and state or provincial level (i.e., government support units, or GSUs that are in some way successful or innovative or that support the use of research evidence in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs. Methods We drew on many people and organizations around the world, including our project reference group, to generate a list of organizations to survey. We modified a questionnaire that had been developed originally by the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation in Europe (AGREE collaboration and adapted one version of the questionnaire for organizations producing CPGs and HTAs, and another for GSUs. We sent the questionnaire by email to 176 organizations and followed up periodically with non-responders by email and telephone. Results We received completed questionnaires from 152 (86% organizations. More than one-half of the organizations (and particularly HTA agencies reported that examples from other countries were helpful in establishing their organization. A higher proportion of GSUs than CPG- or HTA-producing organizations involved target users in the selection of topics or the services undertaken. Most organizations have few (five or fewer full-time equivalent (FTE staff. More than four-fifths of organizations reported providing panels with or using systematic reviews. GSUs tended to use a wide variety of explicit valuation processes for the research evidence, but none with the frequency that organizations producing CPGs, HTAs, or both prioritized evidence by its quality. Between one-half and two-thirds of organizations

  17. 76 FR 18138 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Spring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... on a Petition To List the Spring Pygmy Sunfish as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the spring pygmy sunfish... scientific and commercial information, we request information on the spring pygmy sunfish from governmental...

  18. The Begg's uprighting spring - Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Sundareswaran, Shobha

    2015-01-01

    Uprighting springs, an integral part of the Begg ligsht wire differential force technique is gaining more and more popularity, as a useful adjunct in contemporary preadjusted edgewise appliance systems as well. It can be used with brackets containing vertical slots for mesiodistal crown uprighting, or as braking auxiliaries providing additional anchorage while protracting posteriors. Here, we present a simple and quick chair side method of fabricating and customizing uprighting springs according to the required crown/root movement for correction. This communication would serve as a ready reckoner during fabrication of the springs, thus dispelling the confusion that usually arises regarding direction and position of the coil and active arm.

  19. Integrating Climate Change Scenarios and Co-developed Policy Scenarios to Inform Coastal Adaptation: Results from a Tillamook County, Oregon Knowledge to Action Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipiec, E.; Ruggiero, P.; Serafin, K.; Bolte, J.; Mills, A.; Corcoran, P.; Stevenson, J.; Lach, D.

    2014-12-01

    Local decision-makers often lack both the information and tools to reduce their community's overall vulnerability to current and future climate change impacts. Managers are restricted in their actions by the scale of the problem, inherent scientific uncertainty, limits of information exchange, and the global nature of available data, rendering place-based strategies difficult to generate. Several U.S. Pacific Northwest coastal communities are already experiencing chronic erosion and flooding, hazards only to be exacerbated by sea level rise and changing patterns of storminess associated with climate change. To address these issues, a knowledge to action network (KTAN) consisting of local Tillamook County stakeholders and Oregon State University researchers, was formed to project future flooding and erosion impacts and determine possible adaptation policies to reduce vulnerability. Via an iterative scenario planning process, the KTAN has developed four distinct adaptation policy scenarios, including 'Status Quo', 'Hold The Line', 'ReAlign', and 'Laissez-Faire'. These policy scenarios are being integrated with a range of climate change scenarios within the modeling framework Envision, a multi-agent GIS-based tool, which allows for the combination of physical processes data, probabilistic climate change information, coastal flood and erosion models, and stakeholder driven adaptation strategies into distinct plausible future scenarios. Because exact physical and social responses to climate change are impossible to ascertain, information about the differences between possible future scenarios can provide valuable information to decision-makers and the community at large. For example, the fewest projected coastal flood and erosion impacts to buildings occur under the 'ReAlign' policy scenario (i.e., adaptation strategies that move dwellings away from the coast) under both low and high climate change scenarios, especially in comparison to the 'Status Quo' or 'Hold The

  20. The right to be informed and fear of disclosure: sustainability of a full error disclosure policy at an Italian cancer centre/clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Errico, Stefano; Pennelli, Sara; Colasurdo, Antonio Prospero; Frati, Paola; Sicuro, Lorella; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the behaviour of physicians in cases of medical error as well as the nature of the information that should be given to the patient and to ascertain whether it is possible to institute a full error disclosure policy. Data was collected through the completion of anonymous questionnaires by medical directors of the IRCCS CROB (the Oncology Centre of Basilicata, Italy). An anonymous questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was prepared and administered to all the physicians working at the IRCCS CROB - the Oncology Centre of Basilicata. The main aim of the research was to evaluate the feasibility of adopting a full disclosure policy and the extent to which such a policy could help reduce administration and legal costs. The physicians interviewed unanimously recognize the importance of error disclosure, given that they themselves would want to be informed if they were the patients. However, 50% have never disclosed a medical error to their patients. Fear of losing the patient's trust (33%) and fear of lawsuits (31%) are the main obstacles to error disclosure. The authors found that physicians were in favour of a full policy disclosure at the IRCCS CROB - the Oncology Centre of Basilicata. Many more studies need to be carried out in order to comprehend the economic impact of a full error disclosure policy.

  1. Evaluating Environmental Governance along Cross-Border Electricity Supply Chains with Policy-Informed Life Cycle Assessment: The California-Mexico Energy Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolorinos, Jose; Ajami, Newsha K; Muñoz Meléndez, Gabriela; Jackson, Robert B

    2018-04-12

    This paper presents a "policy-informed" life cycle assessment of a cross-border electricity supply chain that links the impact of each unit process to its governing policy framework. An assessment method is developed and applied to the California-Mexico energy exchange as a unique case study. CO 2 -equivalent emissions impacts, water withdrawals, and air quality impacts associated with California's imports of electricity from Mexican combined-cycle facilities fueled by natural gas from the U.S. Southwest are estimated, and U.S. and Mexican state and federal environmental regulations are examined to assess well-to-wire consistency of energy policies. Results indicate most of the water withdrawn per kWh exported to California occurs in Baja California, most of the air quality impacts accrue in the U.S. Southwest, and emissions of CO 2 -equivalents are more evenly divided between the two regions. California energy policy design addresses generation-phase CO 2 emissions, but not upstream CO 2 -eq emissions of methane during the fuel cycle. Water and air quality impacts are not regulated consistently due to varying U.S. state policies and a lack of stringent federal regulation of unconventional gas development. Considering local impacts and the regulatory context where they occur provides essential qualitative information for functional-unit-based measures of life cycle impact and is necessary for a more complete environmental impact assessment.

  2. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Yot; Russell, Steve

    2008-09-26

    This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Twenty six out of 36 (72%) respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC) in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17%) whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  3. The greatest happiness of the greatest number? Policy actors' perspectives on the limits of economic evaluation as a tool for informing health care coverage decisions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell Steve

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents qualitative findings from an assessment of the acceptability of using economic evaluation among policy actors in Thailand. Using cost-utility data from two economic analyses a hypothetical case scenario was created in which policy actors had to choose between two competing interventions to include in a public health benefit package. The two competing interventions, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC for gallbladder disease versus renal dialysis for chronic renal disease, were selected because they highlighted conflicting criteria influencing the allocation of healthcare resources. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 policy actors who play a major role in resource allocation decisions within the Thai healthcare system. These included 14 policy makers at the national level, five hospital directors, ten health professionals and seven academics. Results Twenty six out of 36 (72% respondents were not convinced by the presentation of economic evaluation findings and chose not to support the inclusion of a proven cost-effective intervention (LC in the benefit package due to ethical, institutional and political considerations. There were only six respondents, including three policy makers at national level, one hospital director, one health professional and one academic, (6/36, 17% whose decisions were influenced by economic evaluation evidence. Conclusion This paper illustrates limitations of using economic evaluation information in decision making priorities of health care, perceived by different policy actors. It demonstrates that the concept of maximising health utility fails to recognise other important societal values in making health resource allocation decisions.

  4. Hydrochemical Characteristics and Formation of the Saline or Salty Springs in Eastern Sichuan Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X.

    2017-12-01

    Saline or salty springs provide important information on the hydrogeochemical processes and hydrology within subsurface aquifers. More than 20 saline and salty springs occur in the core of anticlines in the eastern Sichuan Basin in southwestern China where the Lower and Middle Triassic carbonates outcrop. Water samples of 8 saline and salty springs (including one saline hot spring) were collected for analyses of the major and minor constituents, trace elements and stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes. The TDS of the springs range from 4 to 83 g/L, and they are mainly of Cl-Na type. Sr, Ba and Li are the predominant trace elements. The δ2H and δ18O of the water samples indicate that they are of meteoric origin. The source of salinity of the springs originates from dissolution of minerals in the carbonates, including halite, gypsum, calcite and dolomite. The formation mechanism of the springs is that groundwater receives recharge from infiltration of precipitation, undergoes shallow or deep circulation in the core of the anticline and incongruent dissolution of the salt-bearing carbonates occurs, and emerges in the river valley in the form of springs with relatively high TDS. The 8 springs can be classified into 4 springs of shallow groundwater circulation and 4 springs of deep groundwater circulation according to the depth of groundwater circulation, 7 springs of normal temperature and 1 hot spring according to temperature. There are also 2 up-flow springs: the carbonate aquifers are overlain by relatively impervious sandstone and shale, groundwater may flows up to the ground surface through the local portion of the overlying aquiclude where fractures were relatively well developed, and emerges as an up-flow spring. Knowledge of the hydrochemical characteristics and the geneses of the saline and salty springs are of important significance for the utilization and preservation of the springs.

  5. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  6. Yakima River Spring Chinook Enhancement Study, 1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fast, David E.

    1991-05-01

    The population of Yakima River spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) has been drastically reduced from historic levels reported to be as high as 250,000 adults (Smoker 1956). This reduction is the result of a series of problems including mainstem Columbia dams, dams within the Yakima itself, severely reduced flows due to irrigation diversions, outmigrant loss in irrigation canals, increased thermal and sediment loading, and overfishing. Despite these problems, the return of spring chinook to the Yakima River has continued at levels ranging from 854 to 9,442 adults since 1958. In October 1982, the Bonneville Power Administration contracted the Yakima Indian Nation to develop methods to increase production of spring chinook in the Yakima system. The Yakima Nation's current enhancement policy attempts to maintain the genetic integrity of the spring chinook stock native to the Yakima Basin. Relatively small numbers of hatchery fish have been released into the basin in past years. The goal of this study was to develop data that will be used to present management alternatives for Yakima River spring chinook. A major objective of this study is to determine the distribution, abundance and survival of wild Yakima River spring chinook. The second major objective of this study is to determine the relative effectiveness of different methods of hatchery supplementation. The last three major objectives of the study are to locate and define areas in the watershed that may be used for the rearing of spring chinook; to define strategies for enhancing natural production of spring chinook in the Yakima River; and to determine the physical and biological limitations on production within the system. 47 refs., 89 figs., 67 tabs.

  7. FEMP Focus - Spring 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-04-29

    Features information about Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings, Energy Rate Escalation calculator, Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project, Natural Gas Markets, GSA develops new O&M contract, and more for federal agencies.

  8. Laurel Springs & DoDEA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jhung, Seung

    2000-01-01

    At the request of the client organization, Laurel Springs School, we developed an in-depth market analysis of comparable educational programs offered within the Department of Defense Education Activities (DoDEA...

  9. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 23: Information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion: Exploring the intermediary-end user interface in a policy framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and empirical knowledge of the process of technological innovation and fails to acknowledge the relationship between knowled reproduction, transfer, and use as equally important components of the process of knowledge diffusion. It is argued that the potential contributions of high-speed computing and networking systems will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge about the information-seeking behavior of the members of the social system is incorporated into a new policy framework. Findings from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project are presented in support of this assertion.

  10. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXIII - Information technology and aerospace knowledge diffusion: Exploring the intermediary-end user interface in a policy framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Bishop, Ann P.; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal attempts to stimulate technological innovation have been unsuccessful because of the application of an inappropriate policy framework that lacks conceptual and empirical knowledge of the process of technological innovation and fails to acknowledge the relationship between knowledge production, transfer, and use as equally important components of the process of knowledge diffusion. This article argues that the potential contributions of high-speed computing and networking systems will be diminished unless empirically derived knowledge about the information-seeking behavior of members of the social system is incorporated into a new policy framework. Findings from the NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project are presented in support of this assertion.

  11. Onsen (hot springs) in Japan--transforming terrain into healing landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serbulea, Mihaela; Payyappallimana, Unnikrishnan

    2012-11-01

    Japan is situated on the Pacific fire rim and has a large number of hot springs (onsens). There are over 27,000 sources of such springs and the country has a well regulated system of onsens. Within this geographical and cultural peculiarities certain unique traditional health practices have evolved, prominent among which is Touji or onsen therapy. The article highlights various healing practices surrounding onsens, institutionalization of these practices, current policy regulations, standards and their contemporary challenges. This research used publicly available information from literature sources and data through expert interviews. It draws attention to the fact that touji has been marginalized in the recent health policies. The study highlights that onsen as a therapeutic landscape has an important role in maintaining health and wellbeing in the country and holds immense value in building social cohesion in local communities. The study points to the need for appropriate studies on the social and symbolic healing elements related to onsen landscapes, as well as the need for developing a comprehensive strategy for strengthening their culturally specific health management roles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Data Confidentiality and Integrity Issues and Role of Information Security Management Standard, Policies and Practices - An Empirical Study of Telecommunication Industry in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Nabi, Syed Waqar; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmed; Haqqi, Bushra; Abid, Zahra; Alghathbar, Khaled

    The amount of data communications is increasing each day and with it comes the issues of assuring its security. This research paper explores the information security management issues with respect to confidentiality and integrity and the impact of Information Security Management Standards, Policies and Practices (ISMSPP) on information security. This research has been conducted on the telecommunication industry of Pakistan that was ranked 9th globally in 2009 in terms of subscription. The research methodology was case study based in which perceptions were gathered as well as thematic analysis of the interviews was done. The research focus is on breach of data integrity and confidentiality by the internal users in the industry and the perception of improvement, if any, of the data security due to implementation of security management policies and controls. The results show that information security measure are perceived to have a positive impact on reducing data confidentiality and integrity breaches but still falls short of what is required. It concludes that security policies might improve the situation provided, firstly, that the top managements takes information security seriously, and secondly, the non-technical human aspects of the issues are taken into consideration.

  13. Optimal (R, Q) policy and pricing for two-echelon supply chain with lead time and retailer's service-level incomplete information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, M.; Naghavi, M. S.; Ghahghaei, A.

    2018-03-01

    Many studies focus on inventory systems to analyze different real-world situations. This paper considers a two-echelon supply chain that includes one warehouse and one retailer with stochastic demand and an up-to-level policy. The retailer's lead time includes the transportation time from the warehouse to the retailer that is unknown to the retailer. On the other hand, the warehouse is unaware of retailer's service level. The relationship between the retailer and the warehouse is modeled based on the Stackelberg game with incomplete information. Moreover, their relationship is presented when the warehouse and the retailer reveal their private information using the incentive strategies. The optimal inventory and pricing policies are obtained using an algorithm based on bi-level programming. Numerical examples, including sensitivity analysis of some key parameters, will compare the results between the Stackelberg models. The results show that information sharing is more beneficial to the warehouse rather than the retailer.

  14. Marble Canyon spring sampling investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulley, B.

    1985-10-01

    The Mississippian Leadville Limestone is the most permeable formation in the lower hydrostratigraphic unit underlying the salt beds of the Paradox Formation in Gibson Dome, Paradox Basin, Utah, which is being considered as a potential nuclear waste repository site. The closest downgradient outcrop of the Mississippian limestone is along the Colorado River in Marble Canyon, Arizona. This report describes the sampling and interpretation of springs in that area to assess the relative contribution of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water to that spring discharge. The high-volume (hundreds of liters per second or thousands of gallons per minute) springs discharging from fault zones in Marble Canyon are mixtures of water recharged west of the Colorado River on the Kaibab Plateau and east of the river in the Kaiparowits basin. No component of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone ground water is evident in major and trace element chemistry or isotopic composition of the Marble Canyon Springs. A low-volume (0.3 liters per second or 5 gallons per minute) spring with some chemical and isotopic characteristics of Gibson Dome-type Leadville Limestone water diluted by Kaiparowits basin-type water issues from a travertine mound in the Bright Angel Shale on the Little Colorado River. However, the stable isotopic composition and bromide levels of that spring discharge, in addition to probable ground-water flow paths, contradict the dilution hypothesis

  15. Early responses to zebra mussels in the Great Lakes: a journey from information vacuum to policy and regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Ronald W.; Schloesser, Don W.; Kovalak, William P.

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species such as zebra mussels pose a threat to the economies and environments of coastal and fresh-water habitats around the world. Consequently, it is important that government policies and programs be adequate to protect these waters from invaders. This chapter documents key events that took place in the early years (1988-1991) of zebra mussel colonization of the Laurentian Great Lakes and evaluates government responses (policies and programs) to this disruptive, invasive, freshwater species.

  16. N Springs expedited response action proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    Since signing the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) in 1989, the parties to the agreement have recognized the need to modify the approach to conducting investigations, studies, and cleanup actions at Hanford. To implement this approach, the parties have jointly developed the Hanford Past-Practice Strategy. The strategy defines a non-time-critical expedited response action (ERA) as a response action ``needed to abate a threat to human health or welfare or the environment where sufficient time exists for formal planning prior to initiation of response. In accordance with the past-practice strategy, DOE proposes to conduct an ERA at the N Springs, located in the Hanford 100 N Area, to substantially reduce the strontium-90 transport into the river through the groundwater pathway. The purpose of this ERA proposal is to provide sufficient information to select a preferred alternative at N Springs. The nature of an ERA requires that alternatives developed for the ERA be field ready; therefore, all the technologies proposed for the ERA should be capable of addressing the circumstances at N Springs. A comparison of these alternatives is made based on protectiveness, cost, technical feasibility, and institutional considerations to arrive at a preferred alternative. Following the selection of an alternative, a design phase will be conducted; the design phase will include a detailed look at design parameters, performance specifications, and costs of the selected alternative. Testing will be conducted as required to generate design data.

  17. Feasibility study for remedial action for the groundwater operable units at the chemical plant area and the ordnance works area at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the U.S. Department of Army (DA) are conducting an evaluation to identify the appropriate response action to address groundwater contamination at the Weldon Spring Chemical Plant (WSCP) and the Weldon Spring Ordnance Works (WSOW), respectively. The two areas are located in St. Charles County, about 48 km (30 rni) west of St. Louis. The groundwater operable unit (GWOU) at the WSCP is one of four operable units being evaluated by DOE as part of the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). The groundwater operable unit at the WSOW is being evaluated by the DA as Operable Unit 2 (OU2); soil and pipeline contamination are being managed under Operable Unit 1 (OU1). Remedial activities at the WSCP and the WSOW are being conducted in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Consistent with DOE policy, National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) values have been incorporated into the CERCLA process. A remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in August of 1995 (DOE 1995). The remedial investigation (RI) and baseline risk assessment (BRA) have also recently been completed. The RI (DOE and DA 1998b) discusses in detail the nature, extent, fate, and transport of groundwater and spring water contamination. The BRA (DOE and DA 1998a) is a combined baseline assessment of potential human health and ecological impacts and provides the estimated potential health risks and ecological impacts associated with groundwater and springwater contamination if no remedial action were taken. This feasibility study (FS) has been prepared to evaluate potential options for addressing groundwater contamination at the WSCP and the WSOW. A brief description of the history and environmental setting of the sites is presented in Section 1.1, key information relative to the

  18. Spring Into Action

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-12

    Physical inactivity is one factor that contributes to the steady rise in rates of obesity, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. This podcast gives information and resources to help make your community a place that makes healthy living easier.  Created: 3/12/2013 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/12/2013.

  19. 49 CFR 230.111 - Spring rigging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spring rigging. 230.111 Section 230.111... Tenders Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System § 230.111 Spring rigging. (a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to the...

  20. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...