WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy indicators developed

  1. Using Standardized Health Consumer Indicators as a Policy Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.

  2. Developing implementation indicators for public policy, case study: Tehran and Qom Agricultural Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahammad Ali Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Public policies are problem oriented and solve a public problem. Making decision and policies does not solve problems by itself but they must be executed effectively. As executing policies is a main step of policy making, formulating indicators for implementing policy is necessary. In this article we conducted a content analysis of elites’ opinions to improve implementation of public policies. Therefore, three major factors have been introduced including policy making, environmental policy implementation and organizational structure factors. Sample data were taken from agricultural organizations of Tehran and Qom. For data gathering library research, interview and questionnaire were used. To analyze the data, k-s, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, confirmatory factors analysis and means comparisons were applied using SPSS and LISREL. Results show all of proposed indicators and measures are valid for implementation of public policies and about important of indicators between two participant groups, indicators in Tehran groups is more important.

  3. Policy framework on energy access and key development indicators: ECOWAS interventions and the case of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglina, Moses Kwame; Agbejule, Adebayo; Nyamuame, Godwin Yao

    2016-01-01

    Energy has become the main driver for development as industries grow, agricultural sectors become more modernized, economies boom and countries become wealthy. There are still vast majority of people living under the poverty line especially in the ECOWAS region. The purpose of this study is to explore how improvements in energy access can be a key driver in economic development and progress in the ECOWAS region. Data for the study was obtained from the database of the World Bank. A regression analysis was carried out to establish the relationships between energy access and development indicators. The paper suggests the need for policy makers in the ECOWAS region to focus on targets, such as household access, consumption of electricity, and ease of use instead on supply targets that focus merely on physical coverage. A case on how Ghana is improving energy access is presented. - Highlights: • Energy policies in the ECOWAS region must focus on demand side targets. • Energy policies should target rural and peri-urban areas of the ECOWAS region. • Improved energy access requires a new supply chain energy model.

  4. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs (Summary)

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Dragoset; Anne Gordon

    2010-01-01

    This brief describes exploratory work to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes that may be coming in policies and practices related to school meals and school food environments.

  5. Assessing the Role of Energy in Development and Climate Policies - Conceptual Approach and Key Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from China, India and South...... Africa, and some other countries. It concludes that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being. Several policy goals related to sustainable development, energy, and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals...

  6. Development of the policy indicator checklist: a tool to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages across multiple settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Hallett, Allen M; Parker, Nathan; Kudia, Ousswa; Kao, Dennis; Modelska, Maria; Rifai, Hanadi; O'Connor, Daniel P

    2015-05-01

    We developed the policy indicator checklist (PIC) to identify and measure policies for calorie-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages to determine how policies are clustered across multiple settings. In 2012 and 2013 we used existing literature, policy documents, government recommendations, and instruments to identify key policies. We then developed the PIC to examine the policy environments across 3 settings (communities, schools, and early care and education centers) in 8 communities participating in the Childhood Obesity Research Demonstration Project. Principal components analysis revealed 5 components related to calorie-dense food policies and 4 components related to sugar-sweetened beverage policies. Communities with higher youth and racial/ethnic minority populations tended to have fewer and weaker policy environments concerning calorie-dense foods and healthy foods and beverages. The PIC was a helpful tool to identify policies that promote healthy food environments across multiple settings and to measure and compare the overall policy environments across communities. There is need for improved coordination across settings, particularly in areas with greater concentration of youths and racial/ethnic minority populations. Policies to support healthy eating are not equally distributed across communities, and disparities continue to exist in nutrition policies.

  7. Sustainable Development Policies as Indicators and Pre-Conditions for Sustainability Efforts at Universities: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana Londero; Becker, Deisi; Skanavis, Constantina; Kounani, Aristea; Sardi, Chrysoula; Papaioannidou, Dimitra; Paço, Arminda; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; de Sousa, Luiza Olim; Raath, Schalk; Pretorius, Rudi Wessel; Shiel, Christine; Vargas, Valeria; Trencher, Gregory; Marans, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: There is a widely held belief that sustainable development (SD) policies are essential for universities to successfully engage in matters related to sustainability, and are an indicator of the extent to which they are active in this field. This paper aims to examine the evidence which currently exists to support this assumption. It…

  8. The EU sustainable energy policy indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Sivickas, Gintautas

    2008-11-01

    The article deals with indicators framework to monitor implementation of the main EU (European Union) directives and other policy documents targeting sustainable energy development. The main EU directives which have impact on sustainable energy development are directives promoting energy efficiency and use of renewable energy sources, directives implementing greenhouse gas mitigation and atmospheric pollution reduction policies and other policy documents and strategies targeting energy sector. Promotion of use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements are among priorities of EU energy policy because the use of renewable energy sources and energy efficiency improvements has positive impact on energy security and climate change mitigation. The framework of indicators can be developed to establish the main targets set by EU energy and environmental policies allowing to connect indicators via chain of mutual impacts and to define policies and measures necessary to achieve established targets based on assessment of their impact on the targeted indicators representing sustainable energy development aims. The article discusses the application of indicators framework for EU sustainable energy policy analysis and presents the case study of this policy tool application for Baltic States. The article also discusses the use of biomass in Baltic States and future considerations in this field.

  9. Radiation indicator options for environmental policy

    CERN Document Server

    Pruppers, M J M

    2002-01-01

    It has proven impossible to create an indicator capable of showing the state of the art in a single figure so as to determine the progress made in the 'radiation component' of environmental policy from the trends indicated. This is the conclusion following an investigation requested by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment in the framework of the environmental theme 'dispersion of radioactive substances and ionising radiation' to develop a radiation indicator comparable to the indicators for proprietary substances and pesticides. The most important reasons for failing to develop this indicator lie in the absence of both suitable policy targets and data for the calculations necessary for the indicator. Substituting policy targets with reference emissions, reference concentrations and reference doses would make it possible to define indicators for radiation protection. Here, environmental pressure indicators are proposed for nuclear installations and the process industry. The environment...

  10. Why Social Policy Needs Objective Indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThere are many qualms about subjective indicators, and some believe that social policy would be better for not using them. This paper consists of a review of these objections. It is argued that policy makers need subjective indicators. The main reasons being: 1. Social policy is never

  11. Mexican energy policy and sustainability indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheinbaum-Pardo, Claudia; Ruiz-Mendoza, Belizza Janet; Rodríguez-Padilla, Víctor

    2012-01-01

    The authors analyze the Mexican energy policy taking as reference the methodological framework for sustainable energy development proposed by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean. This methodology takes eight related indicators to the social, environmental and economic dimensions in order to calculate a general sustainability indicator for the energy sector. In this methodology, the weight of each dimension is different; namely, the social and environmental issues have less relevance than the economic issues. The authors use this methodology because government institutions as the Department of Energy and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources have used some indicators from such a methodology to propose plans, programs, projects and bills. Authors know of the existence of other methodologies about sustainability. Nonetheless, opting for the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean's methodology is convenient because this organization is a respectable authority for civil servants from the Mexican institutions. Our objective is just to contrast the sustainability grade of the energy sector between 1990 and 2008 for Mexico whose government started reforms in the 1990s. It concludes that those reforms did not bring about a higher sustainability level for the energy sector. - Highlights: ► We used the OLADE, CEPAL and GTZ's methodology to calculate sustainability indicators for the Mexican energy sector. ► We studied the Mexican energy policy from 1990 to date and presented it. ► Currently, the Mexican energy sector is less sustainable than in 1990.

  12. Energy indicators for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vera, Ivan; Langlois, Lucille

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential factor in overall efforts to achieve sustainable development. Countries striving to this end are seeking to reassess their energy systems with a view toward planning energy programmes and strategies in line with sustainable development goals and objectives. This paper summarizes the outcome of an international partnership initiative on indicators for sustainable energy development that aims to provide an analytical tool for assessing current energy production and use patterns at a national level. The proposed set of energy indicators represents a first step of a consensus reached on this subject by five international agencies-two from the United Nations system (the Department of Economic and Social Affairs and the International Atomic Energy Agency), two from the European Union (Eurostat and the European Environment Agency) and one from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (the International Energy Agency). Energy and environmental experts including statisticians, analysts, policy makers and academics have started to implement general guidelines and methodologies in the development of national energy indicators for use in their efforts to monitor the effects of energy policies on the social, economic and environmental dimensions of sustainable development

  13. The Policy Use of Environmental Indicators - Learning from Evaluation Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2003-01-01

    indicators and monitoring systems are increasingly used, but what does the use of indicators mean for policymaking? The article exploits indicator theory and the evaluation research literature to develop an analytical framework so as to study the policy uses of indicators. The paper then provides...... system and partly to the lack of accountability mechanisms. The article concludes that the analytical framework and the concepts derived from evaluation research are useful starting points, but that further research should extend the analysis to other policy contexts (national or local) and broaden...

  14. Developing macroeconomic energy cost indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Indicators are more and more drawn on for policy making and assessment. This is also true for energy policy. However, while numerous different energy price figures are available, subordinate energy cost indicators are lacking. This paper lays out a general concept for such indicator sets and presents a flexible framework for representative and consistent energy cost indicators with an underlying weighting principle based on consumption shares. Their application would provide interesting new insights into the relationship between energy cost burdens of different sectors and countries. It would allow for more rigorous analysis in the field of energy economics and policy, particularly with regard to market monitoring and impact assessment as well as ex-post-policy analysis.

  15. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focacci, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  16. Empirical analysis of the environmental and energy policies in some developing countries using widely employed macroeconomic indicators: the cases of Brazil, China and India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Focacci, Antonio [Bologna Univ., Business and Management Dept., Bologna (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    This paper proposes an empirical analysis concerning the environmental and energy policies of some important developing countries (Brazil, China and India) today present in the international scenario with very different features than in the past. The research is carried out using two of the most important macroeconomic indicators several times proposed in the field of policy analysis: emission-intensity ratio and energy-intensity ratio. Moreover, the emission-intensity ratio is used in order to verify the empirical existence of the so-called 'Environmental Kuznets Curve' for the three countries. For what concerns this last point, final results do not correspond closely to the theoretical strict formulations hypothesised in the classical Environmental Kuznets Curve model. This paper follows (completing and concluding) the previous one carried out by the same author for some industrialised countries. After a brief, but ineluctable, premise considering the theoretical basic assumptions to define the question and regarding general statements, the specific cases are analysed. Main findings show that resulting trends in these developing countries are different and, furthermore, they differ from those already observed in industrialised ones. (Author)

  17. Illicit drug use and harms, and related interventions and policy in Canada: A narrative review of select key indicators and developments since 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Benedikt; Murphy, Yoko; Rudzinski, Katherine; MacPherson, Donald

    2016-01-01

    By the year 2000, Canada faced high levels of illicit drug use and related harms. Simultaneously, a fundamental tension had raisen between continuing a mainly repression-based versus shifting to a more health-oriented drug policy approach. Despite a wealth of new data and numerous individual studies that have emerged since then, no comprehensive review of key indicators and developments of illicit drug use/harm epidemiology, interventions and law/policy exist; this paper seeks to fill this gap. We searched and reviewed journal publications, as well as key reports, government publications, surveys, etc. reporting on data and information since 2000. Relevant data were selected and extracted for review inclusion, and subsequently grouped and narratively summarized in major topical sub-theme categories. Cannabis use has remained the principal form of illicit drug use; prescription opioid misuse has arisen as a new and extensive phenomenon. While new drug-related blood-borne-virus transmissions declined, overdose deaths increased in recent years. Acceptance and proliferation of - mainly local/community-based - health measures (e.g., needle exchange, crack paraphernalia or naloxone distribution) aiming at high-risk drug users has evolved, though reach and access limitations have persisted; Vancouver's 'supervised injection site' has attracted continued attention yet remains un-replicated elsewhere in Canada. While opioid maintenance treatment utilization increased, access to treatment for key (e.g., infectious disease, psychiatric) co-morbidities among drug users remained limited. Law enforcement continued to principally focus on cannabis and specifically cannabis users. 'Drug treatment courts' were introduced but have shown limited effectiveness; several attempts cannabis control law reform have failed, except for the recent establishment of 'medical cannabis' access provisions. While recent federal governments introduced several law and policy measures reinforcing a

  18. Food and nutrition policies associate with indicators of healthy eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2009-01-01

    become one of the preferred organizational tools to frame these efforts. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the association between having a local food & nutrition policy and indicators of healthy eating at school. It is based results from a web survey among food service coordinators in 179......The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has resulted in more focus on the role that public settings such as school for children can play in promoting healthy lifestyle. As a consequence increasingly organizational efforts have been directed towards this issue and policy instruments have......, the attitude of school respondents regarding promoting organic food and healthy eating habits through school environment, the existing policies concerning healthy school food and the development of school food serving practice, were analyzed by using statistic tools. The results indicate a strong relationship...

  19. Developing Indicators of Territorial Cohesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallina, Andrea; Farrugia, Nadia

    setting. The concept of territorial cohesion attaches importance to the diversity of the European territory which is seen as a key competitive advantage, the preservation of the European social model, and the ability of the citizens of Europe's nations and regions to be able to continue to live within...... (EU). The objective of territorial cohesion, which builds on the European Spatial Development Perspective (ESDP), is to help achieve a more balanced development by reducing existing disparities, avoiding territorial imbalances and by making sectoral policies, which have a spatial impact and regional...... policy more coherent. It also aims to improve territorial integration and encourage cooperation between regions. Territorial cohesion complements the notions of economic and social cohesion by translating the fundamental EU goal of a balanced competitiveness and sustainable development into a territorial...

  20. Sustainable development and energy indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop-Jordanov, Jordan

    2002-01-01

    Starting from the basic definition of sustainable development and its four dimensions, the role of indicators for sustainable energy development is analysed. In particular, it is shown that important energy efficiency indicators belong in fact to energy supply efficiency, while the end-use energy efficiency could be more pertinently represented by energy intensity indicators. Furthermore, the negentropic effects of science and technology related sustainable energy scenarios are pointed out. Finally, the sustainable development is related to wisdom, interpreted as a sum of knowledge, morality and timing. (Author)

  1. AREVA sustainable development indicators guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    These guidelines set out the procedures used to measure and report the sustainable development and continuous progress data and indicators used within the Areva Group. It defines the scope of the guide, the list of indicators, the measurement and calculation procedures, the internal and external audits. (A.L.B.)

  2. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-01-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Development of Mental Health Indicators in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeree; Ahn, Dong Hyun; Song, Jinhee; Hwang, Tae Yeon

    2012-01-01

    Objective Promoting mental health and preventing mental health problems are important tasks for international organizations and nations. Such goals entail the establishment of active information networks and effective systems and indicators to assess the mental health of populations. This being said, there is a need in Korea develop ways to measure the state of mental health in Korea. Methods This paper reviews the mental health indicator development policies and practices of seven organizations, countries, and regions: WHO, OECD, EU, United States, Australia, UK, and Scotland. Using Delphi method, we conducted two surveys of mental health indicators for experts in the field of mental health. The survey questionnaire included 5 domains: mental health status, mental health factor, mental health system, mental health service, and quality of mental health services. We considered 124 potential mental health indicators out of more than 600 from indicators of international organizations and foreign countries. Results We obtained the top 30 mental health indicators from the surveys. Among them, 10 indicators belong to the mental health system. The most important five mental health indicators are suicide rate, rate of increase in mental disorder treatment, burden caused by mental disorders, adequacy of identifying problems of mental health projects and deriving solutions, and annual prevalence of mental disorders. Conclusion Our study provides information about the process for indicator development and the use of survey results to measure the mental health status of the Korean population. The aim of mental health indicator development is to improve the mental health system by better grasping the current situation. We suggest these mental health indicators can monitor progress in efforts to implement reform policies, provide community services, and involve users, families and other stakeholders in mental health promotion, prevention, care and rehabilitation. PMID:23251193

  4. Sustainability indicator system and policy processes in Malaysia: a framework for utilisation and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hezri, A A

    2004-12-01

    Formulation of effective sustainability indicators for national assessment demands a comprehensive understanding of the utilisation, diffusion and dissemination of information in policy processes. To illustrate the dynamic of sustainability assessment within the context of policy processes, this paper uses a case study of national sustainability indicators development in Malaysia. Subsequently, this paper ascribes the limited achievement of national sustainability assessment in Malaysia to four types of constraints: meta-policy issues; technical capacities; communication concerns; and the inherent knowledge gaps within the indicator developer community vis-a-vis their theoretical limitations. It is proposed that such constraints will be encountered in many countries. Drawing from the literature on public policy, this paper outlines a framework for investigating indicator behaviour within policy processes based on well-established concepts such as knowledge utilisation and policy learning. I conclude this paper by elaborating on the corresponding future challenges that must be addressed before effective integration of sustainability indicators within policy systems can occur.

  5. Sustainable development indicators for territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau; Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Bovar, Odile; Nirascou, Francoise; Albecker, Marie-Fleur; Bardou, Magali; Barret, Christophe; Berger, Emmanuel; Blanc, Christophe; Bovar, Odile; Briquel, Vincent; Chery, Jean-Pierre; Deshayes, Michel; Firdion, Laetitia; Fluxa, Christine; Girault, Maurice; Guerrero, David; Hassaine, Zahida; Hilal, Mohamed; Imbert, Frederic; Kerouanton, Marie-Helene; Lacroix, Steve; Magnier, Celine; Moreau, Jacques; Nirascou, Francoise; Pageaud, Dorothee; Schaeffer, Yves; Thienard, Helene; Vinet, Loic; Wemelbeke, Guillaume; Wichmann, Martine; Boitard, Corinne; Bird, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    For different themes (Sustainable consumption and production, Knowledge and social and economic development society, governance, climate change and energy management, sustainable transport and modality, conservation and sustainable management of biodiversity and natural resources, public health, risk prevention and management, social and territorial cohesion), this study proposes a set of axis, and several indicators for each axis. Indicators correspond to different geographical scale and are determined from different sources. These indicators are for example: production of aggregates, proportion of organic agriculture in usable agricultural area, evolution in quantity of household waste collected per inhabitant, employment rate, research spending in relation to GDP, coverage of population by local Agenda 21, and so on. Thus, each indicator is discussed, commented and analysed

  6. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nicholson

    Full Text Available In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  7. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance.......; and specifics including organized dentistry's efforts to create global policy to restrict environmental contamination by mercury. Dentistry must participate in interprofessional collaborations and build on such experiences to be optimally placed for ongoing interprofessional policy development. Current areas...

  8. AN OVERVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian CRISTU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development requires better quality of life for present and future generations. Additional data is required to measure lasting progress, that tracks economic growth. The objectives that take these aspects into consideration should be accompanied by economic, social, environmental and demographic indicators. Thus, sustainable development indicators satisfy these requirements. The articles makes an analysis of the main indicators of sustainable development. Even though it is important to observe them at a macro, European level, it is necessary to take into consideration the specific situation existing at a local and regional level, as well. Equally important is the integration of objectives aimed at sustainable development into the national policies. Economic improvement can be achieved through jobs and sustainable consumption.

  9. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  10. Assessing youth policies. A system of indicators for local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planas, Anna; Soler, Pere; Vilà, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    In the current European climate of economic, financial and political crisis and the questioning of the welfare state, assessing public policies assume a primary and strategic relevance in clarifying the results and contributions of policy actions. In this article, we aim to present the current situation in relation to youth policy assessment so as to formulate a system of assessment indicators in the sphere of Spanish local government youth policy. A review is conducted of some of the principal contributions in the field of constructing indicators for evaluating youth policies. We have found that most of these evaluation tools exist on a national or state level and that there is a dearth of local or municipal tools. The article concludes with a concrete proposal for an assessment tool: the SIAPJove (Sistema d'Indicadors d'Avaluació per a les Polítiques Municipals de Joventut or System of Assessment Indicators for Local Government Youth Policies) (web page: http://siapjove.udg.edu/). It provides both quantitative and qualitative indicators for local youth policy managers to obtain assessment reports with relative ease in 12 possible areas for assessment within youth policy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CHALLENGES WHEN DEVELOPING PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Maria POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Developing key performance indicators (KPIs represents one step closer to the achievement of objectives and strategic vision of the organization. They are important elements of the pathway towards performance, they evaluate and indicate the level of progress, guide the organizational strategy, they can be considered even the qualitative or quantitative expression of the execution of the strategy. Building reliable and appropriate measurement systems is one of the most difficult stage in the performance evaluation process. Such systems of management will help the executives and the management teams identify and build upon the elements that create competitive advantage and opportunities for better results.

  12. Sustainable management indicators and implications of public policies for forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyron, Jean-Luc; Bonheme, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    Since 1995, in the framework of the Pan-European process of Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe, every five years France establishes sustainable management indicators for forests in metropolitan France. The four successive publications now available provide information, according to the six criteria for sustainable forest management formulated in Helsinki in 1993, on developments over time in the state of French forests and the activities they generate. They also give rise to questions about the extent to which this follow-up meet the needs of forests in the area of public policies, including the fight against the greenhouse effect and adaptation to climate change. In addition, they suggest improvements for the short, medium and long term aimed at enhancing the switch from a statistical description to a strategic vision, as well as harmonisation and coherence of information, and extending the legal, political, institutional and geographic scope of sustainable forest management indicators. (authors)

  13. Indicators for Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Considering the scale of nuclear power aspirations, the number of planned nuclear new builds and the prospects of a number of countries constructing their first nuclear power plants, there is a need to assess the broader context of nuclear energy programmes in areas of macro-and socioeconomic conditions, energy systems and nuclear power, and the environment. It is important to assess the degree to which introduction or expansion of nuclear power is beneficial under these specific circumstances. This publication provides a set of indicators for nuclear power development that can serve as a tool to help explore these issues. The indicators are meant to provide a first order assessment of the situation and identify the issues that present the benefits and challenges in a balanced and objective manner and thereby help guide more detailed evaluations in the next stage of planning and preparations. Methodology sheets are provided to help users in data collection, quantification and interpretation of the indicators. The application of the indicators set is flexible. Users can select a subset of indicators that are most relevant for the questions they wish to explore in a given study or decision making process

  14. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable...... Development Goals, which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  15. Engaging scientists and policy stakeholders using a land use modelling and regional scenario exercise: an input to the development of sustainability indicators for European regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrov, Laura Oana; Shahumyan, Harutyun; Williams, Brendan

    2015-01-01

    (Williams, Hughes, & Redmond, 2010; Kitchen, 2002; Hourihan, 1989). This paper investigates the Greater Dublin Region (GDR) of Ireland where urban development has been poorly controlled, leading to changes in its spatial configuration and particularly the preponderance of a sprawl pattern of development...... for a methodology for practical action to be used by scientists and stakeholders to ensure effective on-going collaborations. They also allow us to grasp crucial ideas about urban development processes, sustainable growth management and their possible consequences in the regional context in Europe and worldwide....

  16. Africa Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marnia Lazreg, City University of New York, USA. Takyiwaa Manuh, IAS, University of Ghana. Jomo Kwame Sunderan, Assistant Secretary General, UNO, NY. Nouria Ramaoun, CRASC, Oran, Algérie. Lloyd Sachikonye, Institute of Development Studies, Zimbabwe. Fatou Sow, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.

  17. The indicators of the sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 132 selected indicators of the sustainable development are described. They are grouped into: (1) The social indicators of the sustainable development; (2) The economic indicators of the sustainable development; (3) The environmental indicators of the sustainable development. (4) The institutional indicators of the sustainable development

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2002-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  20. Scandinavian Development policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Thorsten Borring

    2017-01-01

    peace operations have been reduced to a minimum, the Nordics continue to provide considerable support for UN development organisations and programmes, and they also continue to support UN peace operations in other ways. But the Nordic-UN relationship has become more instrumental. Support for the UN......This analysis explains the evolution of the Nordic-UN relationship as the result of continuous interaction between international and national factors and argues that the level and nature of Nordic UN support has ebbed and flowed depending on how their interests, ideals and national identities...... interacted. Nordic support for the UN was low in the early years because the UN was viewed with scepticism and seen as a potential source of entrapment in the Cold War. Peacekeeping contributions were made with reluctance and the Nordic aid contributions were ranked at the bottom in the annual statistics...

  1. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  2. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  3. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  4. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Wiertz, J.; Van Bree, L.

    2004-01-01

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health [nl

  5. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2009-01-01

    With the point of departure in the otherwise extensive knowledge on reform and routine within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU), this paper argues that: (1) in order to fully appreciate the insights provided we need to look into the complementary nature of ideational...... of policy development that may be used for other areas of study, which both draws on the insights into bargaining processes as offered by rational choice institutional theory and the insight into arguing processes as offered by constructivist approaches....

  6. European Transportation in the Greenhouse — System and Policy Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The transport sector in Europe is growing in both absolute and relative terms. Not only because the number of European Union states have increased – 10 new members, including Cyprus welcomed in 2004 - but also because transport is a highly expansive sector in both old and new Member Countries....... The purpose of this paper is to give a brief overall account of the present situation and outlook in terms of transport energy use and GHG emissions in the context of European Union transport policy. The present assessment is based on a personal selection of some indicators that the author belives are key...

  7. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  8. Outcome indicators for the evaluation of energy policy instruments and technical change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neij, Lena; Astrand, Kerstin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose a framework for the evaluation of policy instruments designed to affect development and dissemination of new energy technologies. The evaluation approach is based on the analysis of selected outcome indicators describing the process of technical change, i.e. the development and dissemination of new energy technologies, on the basis of a socio-technical systems approach. The outcome indicators are used to analyse the effect, in terms of outcome, and outcome scope of the policy instruments as well as the extent to which the policy instruments support diversity, learning and institutional change. The analysis of two cases of evaluations, of energy efficiency policy and wind energy policy in Sweden, shows that the approach has several advantages, allowing continuous evaluation and providing important information for the redesign of policy instruments. There are also disadvantages associated with the approach, such as complexity, possible high cost and the requirement of qualified evaluators. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the information on the continuous performance of different policy instruments and their effects on the introduction and dissemination of new energy technologies, provided by this evaluation approach, is essential for an improved adaptation and implementation of energy and climate policy

  9. Cultural policy for national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsekela, A J

    1977-02-01

    Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)

  10. Provincial resource development research policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flock, D L

    1976-01-01

    In Alberta, there is an abundance of oil, natural gas, and coal. But only a small portion of the Alberta oil sands and coal resources are commercially accessible to surface-mining techniques. It is quite apparent that some in-situ technological breakthrough will be required, which will mean a concerted research effort at the provincial level. It is the purpose of this paper to present certain concepts and recommendations for a coordinated provincial resource development research policy for the Province of Alberta. Research as discussed in this paper covers basic and applied research and development. (MCW)

  11. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  12. Indicators assessing the performance of renewable energy support policies in 27 Member States. D17 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhilber, S.; Ragwitz, M. [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research ISI, Karlsruhe (Germany); Rathmann, M.; Klessmann, C.; Noothout, P. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The core objective of the RE-Shaping project is to assist Member State governments in preparing for the implementation of Directive 2009/28/EC (on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources) and to guide a European policy for RES (renewable energy sources) in the mid- to long term. The past and present success of policies for renewable energies will be evaluated and recommendations derived to improve future RES support schemes. The core content of this collaborative research activity comprises: Developing a comprehensive policy background for RES support instruments; Providing the European Commission and Member States with scientifically based and statistically robust indicators to measure the success of currently implemented RES policies; Proposing innovative financing schemes for lower costs and better capital availability in RES financing; Initiation of National Policy Processes which attempt to stimulate debate and offer key stakeholders a meeting place to set and implement RES targets as well as options to improve the national policies fostering RES market penetration; Assessing options to coordinate or even gradually harmonize national RES policy approaches. It is the objective of this report to assess the performance of Member States in promoting renewable energy technologies (RET) that has been achieved during recent years. The report was originally published in late 2010 and has now been updated using the latest available data. The focus shall be on the following aspects: Monitoring the historic success of RET-support with quantitative indicators; Extension of existing Policy Effectiveness Indicator and economic indicators; New: Deployment Status Indicator and Electricity Market Preparedness indicator; followed by Conclusions and recommendations.

  13. [The development of population policies in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M

    1991-12-01

    Influencing demographic dynamics in order to improve the welfare of the population is the fundamental objective of a population policy. The efficacy of a population policy cannot be satisfactorily evaluated without referring to the objectives of the overall development strategy, of which the population policy is only one component. At the time of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, the positions of the developed and developing countries were polarized. The developing countries were accused of impeding their own socioeconomic development by their high fertility rates and rapid population growth, while the industrialized world was blamed for environmental degradation and exhaustion of nonrenewable resources due to overconsumption by households and industry. Despite the near total disagreement about what constituted the problem, a "World Population Plan of Action" was adopted almost unanimously, indicating agreement at least on the existence of a problem even if ther was no consensus on its content. The Plan affirmed that each nation has a sovereign right to formulate and implement its own population policies, that international cooperation is needed in population matters, and that population policies are components of social and economic development policies and not substitutes for them. Interest in African population dates back to the beginning of the colonial era, when the imperial powers wished to control population movements, estimate the taxable population, and control depopulation due to pathological infertility. Colonial population legislation was somewhat more liberal in English-speaking countries than in those under the sway of France because of the influence of Malthusianism in Great Britain and the movement for birth control that developed there. By the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico, the governments of African countries had adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning the African Population and Autonomous Development

  14. A healthy turn in urban climate change policies; European city workshop proposes health indicators as policy integrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keune, Hans; Ludlow, David; van den Hazel, Peter; Randall, Scott; Bartonova, Alena

    2012-06-28

    The EU FP6 HENVINET project reviewed the potential relevance of a focus on climate change related health effects for climate change policies at the city region level. This was undertaken by means of a workshop with both scientists, city representatives from several EU-countries, representatives of EU city networks and EU-experts. In this paper we introduce some important health related climate change issues, and discuss the current city policies of the participating cities. The workshop used a backcasting format to analyse the future relevance of a health perspective, and the main benefits and challenges this would bring to urban policy making. It was concluded that health issues have an important function as indicators of success for urban climate change policies, given the extent to which climate change policies contribute to public health and as such to quality of life. Simultaneously the health perspective may function as a policy integrator in that it can combine several related policy objectives, such as environmental policies, health policies, urban planning and economic development policies, in one framework for action. Furthermore, the participants to the workshop considered public health to be of strategic importance in organizing public support for climate change policies. One important conclusion of the workshop was the view that the connection of science and policy at the city level is inadequate, and that the integration of scientific knowledge on climate change related health effects and local policy practice is in need of more attention. In conclusion, the workshop was viewed as a constructive advance in the process of integration which hopefully will lead to ongoing cooperation. The workshop had the ambition to bring together a diversity of actor perspectives for exchange of knowledge and experiences, and joint understanding as a basis for future cooperation. Next to the complementarities in experience and knowledge, the mutual critical reflection

  15. [Construction of indicators for assessing the policy of reducing accidents and violence for the elderly care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos; Correia, Bruna Soares Chaves

    2010-09-01

    The follow article presents the methodology used to construct indicators to assess the implementation of the National Policy of Mortality Reduction by Accidents and Violence, of public health policies aimed at the elderly and the Mental Health Policy developed in the research entitled Diagnostic Analysis of Local Health Systems to Meet the Problems Caused by Accidents and Violence against Elderly. These indicators were applied in health services that meet elderly victims of accidents and violence in five Brazilian cities: Brasília, Curitiba, Manaus, Recife and Rio de Janeiro. It started with 124 indicatives to assistance level pre-hospital, hospital, rehabilitation and CAPS. There was a selection phase where indicatives without discriminatory capability were eliminated. It was also decided by the relaxation of some criteria are creating new categories. After this step, a group of the experts validate the questionnaires created with these indicators by using Nominal Technical Group. We performed the Kruskal-Wallis test and a graphical analysis. In the final round, the indicators were grouped by similarity, building synthetic indices, 60 indicatives left. These methods can be used in other organizations to evaluate and adjust their health care based on public policies.

  16. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  17. Indicators for sustainable transport policy in Denmark - why, what and how?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Cornet, Yannick

    in the Danish transport policy, using policy goals, sustainability indicators and performance measures. The paper represents a first step in the SUSTAIN project aiming to develop a framework for national sustainable transport planning. The paper will draw on analysis of experience with the development and use......Denmark and other countries have the ambition to move towards a sustainable transport system. However it is challenging to achieve and credibly demonstrate progress towards sustainability in transport. The paper will specify foundations for monitoring and reporting progress towards sustainability...... of sustainability indicators to report transport policy performance, in Europe, North America and other parts of the world. The experience will be connected to critical literature in the areas of sustainability theory, knowledge utilization, and implementation in order to identify challenges to overcome...

  18. Selecting Policy Indicators and Developing Simulation Models for the National School Lunch and Breakfast Programs. Final Report. Special Nutrition Programs Report Series. Special Nutrition Programs Report No. CN-10-PRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoset, Lisa; Gordon, Anne

    2010-01-01

    This report describes work using nationally representative 2005 data from the School Nutrition Dietary Assessment-III (SNDA-III) study to develop a simulation model to predict the potential implications of changes in policies or practices related to school meals and school food environments. The model focuses on three domains of outcomes: (1) the…

  19. A Kantian approach to a sustainable development indicator for climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greaker, Mads; Stoknes, Per Espen; Alfsen, Knut H.; Ericson, Torgeir

    2012-11-01

    How can the informed citizen know if the government is implementing a good-enough climate change policy? Most developed democracies have their own set of indicators for sustainable development, including indicators for climate change. These include yearly national emissions of greenhouse gasses (GHGs), global concentration of GHGs in the atmosphere and time series for global temperatures. However, without some kind of benchmark neither national emissions of GHGs nor global concentration of GHGs or temperatures, make it possible for the general public to evaluate the current climate policy of a nation state. In this paper we propose a benchmark for national climate policy based on a remaining Co2 budget allocated by egalitarian principles. Moreover, based on Kantian ethics we argue that this benchmark should be used as a sustainable development indicator for climate change. One way of interpreting Kantian ethics is to demand that each nation state should act as if a just global treaty on climate change were in place. We discuss possible important elements in a global treaty, and show how the different elements can be integrated in a forward-looking indicator of national climate policy.(auth)

  20. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National environmental education policy is essential for guiding and coordinating environmental education activities within a country. The Zimbabwean Environmental Education Policy development process took place between 2000 and 2001.This paper looks at stages in the policy development process, the factors that ...

  1. Indicator Accuracy and Monetary Policy: Is Ignorance Bliss?

    OpenAIRE

    Nimark, Kristoffer P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that assuming a common information set shared by the public and the central bank may be inappropriate when one is concerned with the value of information itself. Specifically, we argue that it may lead one to draw the conclusion that monetary policy do not benefit from accurate real time data. This paper sets up a New-Keynesian model with optimal discretionary monetary policy, where we allow for partial and diverse information. The model is used to show that monetary policy ...

  2. Ecological Footprint Policy? Land Use as an Environmental Indicator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.; Grazi, F.

    2014-01-01

    Summary: This article argues that policies aimed at sustainability need to address the spatial dimensions of environmental problems and their solutions. In particular, spatial configurations of economic activities deserve attention, which means addressing land use, infrastructure, trade, and

  3. Towards a More Energy Efficient Future: Applying indicators to enhance energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is a shared policy goal of many governments around the world. The benefits of more efficient use of energy are well known. Not only does it reduce energy costs and investments in energy infrastructure, it also lowers fossil fuel dependency and CO2 emissions, while at the same time increasing competitiveness and improving consumer welfare. Yet many questions remain unanswered. What are the latest trends in global energy use and CO2 emissions? How do factors such as demography, economic structure, income, lifestyle and climate affect these trends? Where are the greatest potentials to further improve energy efficiency, and which data are required to support energy efficiency policy development? This publication answers these questions using the latest insights from the IEA energy indicators work. The goal is to show policy makers how in-depth indicators can be used to track the progress in efficiency and identify new opportunities for improvements.

  4. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  5. Policy Driven Development: Flexible Policy Insertion for Large Scale Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demchak, Barry; Krüger, Ingolf

    2012-07-01

    The success of a software system depends critically on how well it reflects and adapts to stakeholder requirements. Traditional development methods often frustrate stakeholders by creating long latencies between requirement articulation and system deployment, especially in large scale systems. One source of latency is the maintenance of policy decisions encoded directly into system workflows at development time, including those involving access control and feature set selection. We created the Policy Driven Development (PDD) methodology to address these development latencies by enabling the flexible injection of decision points into existing workflows at runtime , thus enabling policy composition that integrates requirements furnished by multiple, oblivious stakeholder groups. Using PDD, we designed and implemented a production cyberinfrastructure that demonstrates policy and workflow injection that quickly implements stakeholder requirements, including features not contemplated in the original system design. PDD provides a path to quickly and cost effectively evolve such applications over a long lifetime.

  6. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing research career indicators using open data: the RISIS infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cañibano, C.; Woolley, R.; Iversen, E.; Hinze, S.; Hornbostel, S.; Tesch, J.

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduces the research infrastructure for rsearch and innovation policy studies (RISIS) and its ongoing work on the development of indicators for research careers. The paper first describes the rationale for developing an information system on research careers. It then uses and example to demonstratate the possibilities arising from aggregating open data from different datasets within the RISIS platform to create new information and monitoring possibilies with regard to research careers. (Author)

  8. Innovation policies and SMEs development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Lai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises are the backbone of the European economy, states create policies to foster research. These mentioned policies changed in the time and it is possible to observe that the national policies of the European Union (EU member states are interconnected at an EU level. In the science field, the European Union is generally moving towards a multilevel governance. The central issue of this paper is to show the systematic importance of an effective government policies and institutional interaction in the field of R&D. The article will show that a well framed policy is essential and furthermore it fosters a better cooperation between the private and public sector.

  9. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  10. Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology......Theories in Social Policy and Development Studies Presentation for the PhD Seminar - Theories, Concepts and Methods in Development Studies and Sociology...

  11. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP, this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC and water pollutant discharge (WPD, virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has been newly set up based on an extended input-output model. These indicators allow to provide specific and well-structured analysis on FC, WPD and the economy as well as their implicated interrelationships. The Source Region of Liao River located in northeastern China was selected as an empirical study area to apply the indicator package. The results indicate that farming and production of electricity industries are major contributors to FC; farming and breeding industries, and households are major contributors to WPD. The study area exports a large amount of net virtual total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (29.01 × 103 t, 4.66 × 103 t, 60.38 × 103 t, respectively. Farming and breeding industries are the sectors whose production could be constrained to contribute to mitigating WSP without excessive negative impacts on the economy. Two categories of policies have been proposed to mitigate WSP based on the analysis of the indicator package. One is to introduce direct water pollutant treatment and water-saving policies to the target sectors; the other is to adjust industrial structure. The integrated indicator package developed and the methodology presented are expected to provide policy researchers and decision makers with references for more sound water management.

  12. Development and integration of programmatic performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wreathall, J.; Appignani, P.; Modarres, M.

    1990-01-01

    Work is currently being performed to develop and integrate programmatic performance indicators, that is, indicators of performance associated with the influence on safety associated with plant functional areas like maintenance, operations and training. The process for identifying and evaluating indicators associated with maintenance and training has been described earlier. Since that time, the authors have evaluated the maintenance indicators: inadvertent engineered safety feature actuations due to test and maintenance errors, and daily power loss (DPL), which seemingly show relationships to safety. Work on training process will lead to characteristic sorts of behavior. In the integration study, several frameworks have been developed to provide a basis for describing the interrelationships of plant behavior, personnel behavior, and safety. These will be applied in the next phase of the work to perform the nominal integration

  13. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  14. The Real Interest Rate Spread as a Monetary Policy Indicator

    OpenAIRE

    Browne, Frank; Everett, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a consumption-based capital asset pricing model to derive the generalised Fisher equation, in order to estimate the natural rate of interest and corresponding real interest rate spread for the US. Analysis reveals not only is the estimated real interest rate spread a useful measure of the degree of looseness/tightness in the Federal Reserve’s monetary policy stance, but also the variable contributes substantially to an understanding of the evolution of US inflation over the...

  15. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Policy developers in corporate and governance roles are often developing policies by means of policy development cycles that typically resemble a system life cycle approach. Although policy development cycles often vary, depending on the applicable...

  16. Indicators for establishing SME product development networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, G.J.J.; Hop, L.; Aken, van J.E.

    2001-01-01

    The results of research into SME product development networks are presented. The paper provides insight to the process of establishing such networks and the use of indicators in the design and monitoring of this process. It is based on five extensive case studies and in addition on several in-depth

  17. Regional Development and Social Indicators in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Željko Lovrin?evi?; Davor Mikuli?

    2012-01-01

    This report, Regional Development and Social Indicators in Croatia, provides a comprehensive profile of social and economic characteristics of Croatia's regions as well as profiling the Government s social transfers to households. Demographic and economic structure of Croatian economy is analyzed, as well as the process of secondary distribution of income in Croatia on the regional level. ...

  18. Policy for geothermal energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiuchi, S [Public Utilities Bureau, Ministry of International Trade and Industry, Japan

    1973-01-01

    Government actions related to Japanese geothermal energy development in the past include: a mining and industrial research subsidy of 27 million yen granted to Kyushu Electric Power Co. in 1952, a mining and industrial research subsidy of 13 million yen granted to Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. in 1960, a study on steam production technology for geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 3.5 hundred million yen from the Research Development Corporation of Japan, and a study on steam production technology for large scale geothermal power generation by Japan Metals and Chemicals Co. funded at 7.6 hundred million yen by the Research Development Corporation of Japan. The following projects are planned by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry for 1973: a two-year geothermal power promotion including investigations into the utilization of hot water, new methods for geothermal reservoir detection and steam well drilling, and environmental effects, studies on hydrothermal systems, basic investigations for geothermal indicators in 30 areas, and a means to finance the construction of geothermal power plants in Kakkonda (Iwate Prefecture) and Hatchobara (Oita Prefecture).

  19. Governance and Development: Changing EU Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Hout (Wil)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory article to the special issue on European Union, development policies and governance discusses how notions of ('good') governance have come to dominate development discourses and policies since the mid-1990s. The article argues that governance was part of the

  20. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  1. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  2. Indicators in the governance of sustainable transport policies in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Fukuda, Daisuke

    extent governance frameworks associated with ‘new public management’ reforms in Japan also provide an enhanced basis to promote sustainability within transportation. A framework is derived based on the assumption that the effectiveness of such frameworks in this regard depends on the way sustainability...... is represented, as well as how the framework is integrated with decision making processes. Japan is used as a case, because Japanese transport seems to perform well in certain aspects of ‘sustainability’, while Japanese transportation policy also faces significant management challenges. A range of governance...... evaluation framework for the road sector used by the Japanese Ministry of Land Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). The second is the so-called ‘Eco-model’ cities program, also undertaken by the MLIT, using the case of Toyama City for illustration. In each case the approach to performance...

  3. Indicators for sustainable mobility - a policy oriented approach

    OpenAIRE

    Borken, Jens

    2003-01-01

    Seven indicators are derived to measure transport´s most important environmental impacts. They are proposed for prospective analysis at the highest level of aggregation. With the aid of three valuation criteria adopted from life cycle analysis a transparent ranking and overall assessment can be established. A sensitivity analysis checks the validity of the results with resprect do data uncertainty and different value judgements. These elements can eually be applied as indicators for environme...

  4. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    depending on whether their emphasis is on rationalist bargaining or constructivist arguing processes. Studies also differ in the number of reforms they examine, single or more. The point of departure for this paper is the view that in order to fully appreciate the insights provided by the literature...... of policy reform by bridging insights into bargaining and arguing processes within the CAP, and by covering three attempts to reform the CAP with a time horizon stretching from 1980 to 2003....

  5. Development of future indications for BOTOX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brin, Mitchell F

    2009-10-01

    Since the late 1970s, local injections of BoNT have provided clinical benefit for patients with inappropriately contracting muscles with or without pain or sensory disturbance. Marketing authorization for some BoNTs, depending on country, include core indications of dystonia (blepharospasm and cervical dystonia), large muscle spastic disorders (not yet approved in the United States, e.g., adult post-stroke spasticity and equinus foot deformity), hyperhidrosis and aesthetic. Subsequent development has extended to selected conditions characterized by recurrent or chronic pain (migraine headache), and urologic indications (neurogenic/idiopathic overactive bladder; prostate hyperplasia), with multiple additional opportunities available. Portfolio management requires a careful individual opportunity assessment of scientific and technical aspects (basic science foundation, potential to treat unmet medical need, product-specific risk in specific populations, therapeutic margin/safety profile, and probability of successful registration pathway). This article describes ongoing development targets for BOTOX.

  6. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  7. Development of Safety Culture Indicators for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Lee, Kye-Hong

    2007-01-01

    Safety culture is more important than a technical matter for the management of nuclear facilities. Some of the accidents that have occurred recently in nuclear plants are important as a social problem besides a technical problem. That's why the management of nuclear plants has been focused on the safety culture to improve confidence of nuclear facilities. As for a safety culture, there are difficulties in that a tangible result does not come out clearly in spite of an effort for a long time. Some IAEA guides and reports about a safety culture and its evaluation method for nuclear power plants (NPP) were published after the Chernobyl accident. Until now there is no tool to evaluate a safety culture of for research reactors. HANARO developed its own safety culture indicators based on the IAEA's documents. The purpose of the development of the safety culture indicators is to evaluate and enhance the safety attitude in HANARO

  8. Local Agenda 21. Policy and indicators for sustainability; Lokale Agenda 21. Beleid en indicatoren voor duurzaamheid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultink, R.

    1997-11-01

    The main questions that are dealt with in this report concern the sustainability policy of the so-called Local Agenda 21 and the different sustainability indicators and their use for several aspects of sustainability. The Local Agenda 21 is the result of the Agenda 21 conference, which was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, June 1992. The global aspects of sustainable developments is based on sustainability developments that can take place on a local level. In this report the Local Agenda 21 activities in the Netherlands are outlined. A framework is developed by means of which the quality of indicators to determine sustainability can be assessed. Four framework criteria are defined: (1) the coverage of sustainability with regard to economical, spatial, social and ecological developments; (2) the transparency of the indicator, i.e. is it easy to calculate?; (3) the scale of the indicator, which in this case concerns the local or regional level; and (4) the availability of data, of which the processing is not always simple. The indicators to which those criteria are applied are the (a) Gross National Product, (b) Human Development Index, which measures economic and sustainability aspects, (c) the Ecological Footprint, reflecting an ideal sustainable development, and (d) environmental indicators (NAMEA or National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts). 30 refs.

  9. Chronic Absenteeism: A Key Indicator of Student Success. Policy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafa, Alyssa

    2017-01-01

    Research shows that chronic absenteeism can affect academic performance in later grades and is a key early warning sign that a student is more likely to drop out of high school. Several states enacted legislation to address this issue, and many states are currently discussing the utility of chronic absenteeism as an indicator of school quality or…

  10. Water poverty indicators: conceptual problems and policy issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molle, F.; Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    In the wake of a growing concern about both the unchecked rise of poverty and the local and global consequences of water scarcity, the relationships between water and poverty are the object of a sprawling literature. Indicators are presented as indispensable tools for informing and orienting

  11. Developing biodiversity indicators on a stakeholders' opinions basis: the gypsum industry Key Performance Indicators framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitz, Carline; Mahy, Grégory; Vermeulen, Cédric; Marlet, Christine; Séleck, Maxime

    2016-07-01

    This study aims to establish a common Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) framework for reporting about the gypsum industry biodiversity at the European level. In order to integrate different opinions and to reach a consensus framework, an original participatory process approach has been developed among different stakeholder groups: Eurogypsum, European and regional authorities, university scientists, consulting offices, European and regional associations for the conservation of nature, and the extractive industry. The strategy is developed around four main steps: (1) building of a maximum set of indicators to be submitted to stakeholders based on the literature (Focus Group method); (2) evaluating the consensus about indicators through a policy Delphi survey aiming at the prioritization of indicator classes using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method (AHP) and of individual indicators; (3) testing acceptability and feasibility through analysis of Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) and visits to three European quarries; (4) Eurogypsum final decision and communication. The resulting framework contains a set of 11 indicators considered the most suitable for all the stakeholders. Our KPIs respond to European legislation and strategies for biodiversity. The framework aims at improving sustainability in quarries and at helping to manage biodiversity as well as to allow the creation of coherent reporting systems. The final goal is to allow for the definition of the actual biodiversity status of gypsum quarries and allow for enhancing it. The framework is adaptable to the local context of each gypsum quarry.

  12. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  13. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  14. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  15. Analysing innovation policy indicators through a functional approach: the aeronautic industry case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, C.R.; Uriona Maldonado, M.

    2016-07-01

    Developing countries face different problems than developed countries and the use of the same indicator to evaluate and compare both regions can lead to misleading conclusions. Traditional indicators, such as R&D and patents may not capture the whole dynamic of a system, as they are used to compare systems focusing on its current structure. Many authors have been discussing the processes underlying industry transformation, innovation, and economic growth to access a system performance, i.e. the functions of innovation systems. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to analyze these functions as indicators to measure the performance of the system in order to identify policy issues. In order to do that, we analyze the case of the aeronautic sectoral system of innovation of a region in Brazil. The functional approach helped us to better capture the dynamic of the system, by not restricting our analysis to the system’s structure. (Author)

  16. The Evolution of Renewable Energy Policy in OECD Countries: aggregate indicators and determinants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolli, Francesco; Vona, Francesco

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes different methods to aggregate heterogeneous policies for renewable energy. We compare time-varying indicators built using principal component analysis with average-based indicators. The main goal of the paper is to account for the evolution of both types of policy indicators with a set of common variables. Our empirical results are consistent with predictions of political-economy models of environmental policies as lobbying, income and, to a less extent, inequality have expected effects on policy. The brown lobbying power, proxied by entry barriers in the energy sector, has negative influence on the policy indicators even when taking into account endogeneity in its effect. The results are also robust to dynamic panel specifications and to the exclusion of groups of countries. Interestingly, too, corruption has only an indirect effect on policy mediated by entry barriers, while the negative effect of inequality is much stronger for the richer countries. (authors)

  17. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  18. Nurses' engagement in AIDS policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, M S; Mill, J; Muller, C E; Kahwa, E; Etowa, J; Dawkins, P; Hepburn, C

    2013-03-01

    A multidisciplinary team of 20 researchers and research users from six countries - Canada, Jamaica, Barbados, Kenya, Uganda and South Africa - are collaborating on a 5-year (2007-12) program of research and capacity building project. This program of research situates nurses as leaders in building capacity and promotes collaborative action with other health professionals and decision-makers to improve health systems for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) nursing care. One of the projects within this program of research focused on the influence of workplace policies on nursing care for individuals and families living with HIV. Nurses are at the forefront of HIV prevention and AIDS care in these countries but have limited involvement in related policy decisions and development. In this paper, we present findings related to the barriers and facilitators for nurses' engagement in policymaking. A participatory action research design guided the program of research. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 51 nurses (unit managers, clinic and healthcare managers, and senior nurse officers) for interviews. Participants expressed the urgent need to develop policies related to AIDS care. The need to raise awareness and to 'protect' not only the workers but also the patients were critical reason to develop policies. Nurses in all of the participating countries commented on their lack of involvement in policy development. Lack of communication from the top down and lack of information sharing were mentioned as barriers to participation in policy development. Resources were often not available to implement the policy requirement. Strong support from the management team is necessary to facilitate nurses involvement in policy development. The findings of this study clearly express the need for nurses and all other stakeholders to mobilize nurses' involvement in policy development. Long-term and sustained actions are needed to address

  19. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related institution. The development of technology audit policy for national interest requires provision of mandatory audit implementation, accompanied by tools for developing technology auditor’s competence and technology audit institutional’s mechanism. To guide technology auditor’s competence, concept of national audit technology policy shall classify object of technology audit into product technology, production technology, and management of technology, accompanied by related parameters of technology performance evaluation.

  20. Domestic water service delivery indicators and frameworks for monitoring, evaluation, policy and planning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Georgia L; Moriarty, Patrick; Fonseca, Catarina; Bartram, Jamie

    2013-10-11

    Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator--service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  1. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Development Goals (MDGs) and will continue under the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which have even more ambitious targets. The paper also assesses some of the concerns associated with the ‘Paris-style’ aid modalities, and discusses major challenges for the future global development agenda....

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  3. Developing Sensitivity Indicators for Hydraulic Perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Heidari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Determination the hydraulic performance of an irrigation network requires adequate knowledge about the sensitivities of the network structures. Hydraulic sensitivity concept of structures and channel reaches aid network operators in identifying structures with higher sensitivities which will attract more attention both during network operation and maintenance program. Sluice gates are frequently used as regulator and delivery structures in irrigation networks. Usually discharge coefficient of sluice gate is considered constant in the design and operation stage. Investigation of sensitivity of offtakes and cross-regulators has carried out by various researchers and some hydraulic sensitivity indicators have been developed. In the previous researches, these indexes were developed based on constant coefficient of discharge for free flow sluice gates. However, the coefficient of discharge for free flow sluice gates depend on gate opening and the upstream water depth. So, in this research, some hydraulic sensitivity indicators at structure based on variable coefficient of discharge for free flow sluice gates were developed and they were validated by using observed data. Materials and Methods: An experimental setup was constructed to analyses the performance of the some hydraulic sensitivity. The flume was provided with storage reservoir, pumps, electromagnetic flowmeter, entrance tank, feeder canal, delivery canals, offtakes, cross-regulators, collector reservoir, piezometric boards. The flume is 60.5 m long and the depth of that is 0.25 m, of which only a small part close to offtake and Cross-regulators was needed for these tests. Offtakes and Cross-regulators are free-flowing sluice gates type. Offtakes were located at distances 20 m and 42.5 m downstream from the entrance tank, respectively. and, Cross-regulators were located 2 m downstream from each offtakes. The offtakes are 0.21 m and Cross-regulators are 0.29 m wide. The upstream

  4. Governance and Development: Changing EU Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hout, Wil

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract This introductory article to the special issue on European Union, development policies and governance discusses how notions of ('good') governance have come to dominate development discourses and policies since the mid-1990s. The article argues that governance was part of the so-called Post-Washington Consensus, which understands governance reform as part of the creation of market societies. Although academics have commonly emphasised the fact that governance concerns the...

  5. Declining agricultural production in rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions: policy tradeoffs and sustainability indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dozier, André Q.; Arabi, Mazdak; Wostoupal, Benjamin C.; Goemans, Christopher G.; Zhang, Yao; Paustian, Keith

    2017-08-01

    In rapidly urbanizing semi-arid regions, increasing amounts of historically irrigated cropland lies permanently fallowed due to water court policies as agricultural water rights are voluntarily being sold to growing cities. This study develops an integrative framework for assessing the effects of population growth and land use change on agricultural production and evaluating viability of alternative management strategies, including alternative agricultural transfer methods, regional water ownership restrictions, and urban conservation. A partial equilibrium model of a spatially-diverse regional water rights market is built in application of the framework to an exemplary basin. The model represents agricultural producers as profit-maximizing suppliers and municipalities as cost-minimizing consumers of water rights. Results indicate that selling an agricultural water right today is worth up to two times more than 40 years of continued production. All alternative policies that sustain agricultural cropland and crop production decrease total agricultural profitability by diminishing water rights sales revenue, but in doing so, they also decrease municipal water acquisition costs. Defining good indicators and incorporating adequate spatial and temporal detail are critical to properly analyzing policy impacts. To best improve agricultural profit from production and sale of crops, short-term solutions include alternative agricultural transfer methods while long-term solutions incorporate urban conservation.

  6. Development of organ-specific donor risk indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K; Asrani, Sumeet K; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, W Ray; Israni, Ajay K

    2012-04-01

    Because of the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival with various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. Here we review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and the liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The KDRI has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The LDRI allows a greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C virus-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, the rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. The use of livers with high donor risk indices is associated with increased hospital costs that are independent of recipient risk factors, and the transplantation of livers with high donor risk indices into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores indices for liver transplantation, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. Although substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Development of indicators to assess hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radimer, K L; Olson, C M; Campbell, C C

    1990-11-01

    Despite widespread concern about hunger in America, efforts to monitor and assess the extent of hunger have been hampered by lack of consensus on an appropriate meaning for the term hunger and by the lack of valid indicators to assess it. The first phase of the research used qualitative methods to derive a socially-appropriate definition of hunger. Thirty-two women in Upstate New York were interviewed regarding their experience with food problems and hunger. The interviews were analyzed using the constant comparative method. Results indicated that women had a narrow and a broad concept of hunger. The narrow concept focused on going without food for a specified period of time and the physical sensation of hunger. The broad one included two dimensions: household and individual hunger. Each had quantitative, qualitative, psychological, and social components. The second phase of the research used survey methodology to examine the validity and reliability of items designed to measure the conceptual definition of hunger. The survey was administered to 189 women in Upstate New York who participated in programs designed for low-income households or households in need of food. The second phase confirmed the conceptualization of hunger developed in the first phase. A subset of valid and reliable items that represented each of the major dimensions and components of hunger was identified as being useful for monitoring and assessing hunger.

  8. Domestic Water Service Delivery Indicators and Frameworks for Monitoring, Evaluation, Policy and Planning: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie Bartram

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring of water services informs policy and planning for national governments and the international community. Currently, the international monitoring system measures the type of drinking water source that households use. There have been calls for improved monitoring systems over several decades, some advocating use of multiple indicators. We review the literature on water service indicators and frameworks with a view to informing debate on their relevance to national and international monitoring. We describe the evidence concerning the relevance of each identified indicator to public health, economic development and human rights. We analyze the benefits and challenges of using these indicators separately and combined in an index as tools for planning, monitoring, and evaluating water services. We find substantial evidence on the importance of each commonly recommended indicator—service type, safety, quantity, accessibility, reliability or continuity of service, equity, and affordability. Several frameworks have been proposed that give structure to the relationships among individual indicators and some combine multiple indicator scores into a single index but few have been rigorously tested. More research is needed to understand if employing a composite metric of indicators is advantageous and how each indicator might be scored and scaled.

  9. A Proposal of Indicators and Policy Framework for Innovation Benchmark in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    García Manjón, Juan Vicente

    2010-01-01

    The implementation of innovation policies has been adopted at European level from a common perspective. The European Council (2000) established open methods of coordination (OMC) in order to gain mutual understanding and achieving greater convergence on innovation policies, constituting a benchmarking procedure. However, the development of benchmarking analysis for innovation policies faces two major inconveniences: the lack of accepted innovation policy frameworks and the existence of sui...

  10. RAIL TRAFFIC VOLUME ESTIMATION BASED ON WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Lazarević

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available European transport policy, defined in the White Paper, supports shift from road to rail and waterborne transport. The hypothesis of the paper is that changes in the economic environment influence rail traffic volume. Therefore, a model for prediction of rail traffic volume applied in different economic contexts could be a valuable tool for the transport planners. The model was built using common Machine Learning techniques that learn from the past experience. In the model preparation, world development indicators defined by the World Bank were used as input parameters.

  11. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    of telecommunications network development in Poland than other countries in the European Union is the reason that the circumstances and also the effects of the implementation of some solutions of the EU regulation model are different in Poland than in the most developed EU countries. The aim of the paper is to examine...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level....../distribution in the country and the infrastructural point of departure. The paper, therefore, analyses the implications of the policy initiatives in light of these basic conditions and the broader context of factors influencing broadband development. In the paper, different kinds of policy initiatives are examined...

  12. Universities and Development: Global Cooperation. Policy Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This policy briefing aims to demonstrate that universities are key organisations in international development. Universities are involved in a wide range of international development activities, including collaborative research projects, developing entrepreneurial and employability skills and the evaluation of non-governmental organisation (NGO)…

  13. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  14. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  15. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  16. Regional development and regional policy

    OpenAIRE

    Šabić, Dejan; Vujadinović, Snežana

    2017-01-01

    Economic polarization is a process that is present at global, national and regional level. Economic activity is extremely spatially concentrated. Cities and developed regions use the agglomeration effect to attract labor and capital, thus achieving more favorable economic conditions than the agrarian region. Scientific research and European experiences over the past decades have contributed to the discrepancy among theorists about the causes and consequences of regional inequalities. Regional...

  17. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The ...

  18. Fiscal Policy and Growth in Developing Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdon, Arnelyn May; Estrada, Gemma Esther; Lee, Minsoo; Park, Donghyun

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we empirically explore the relationship between fiscal policy and economic growth in developing Asia. The region's overall level of taxes and government spending are substantially lower than those prevailing in advanced economies. Nevertheless, there are conceptual grounds why fiscal policy, including the composition of taxes and government spending, can have a significant effect on growth, as our empirical analysis shows. In line with economic theory, property taxes have a more...

  19. Development and integration of programmatic performance indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, M.; Wrethall, J.; Appignani, P.L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an evaluation of maintenance-related programmatic performance indicators, and summarizes the direction being taken in a new project to integrate indirect performance indicators for nuclear power plants. Programmatic indicators allow NRC to monitor, at a distance, trends in functional activities before a significant impact appears on safety. Previously presented work described the selection of candidate performance indicators associated with maintenance for continued analysis. This evaluation focused on two aspects of the selected indicators: (1) an evaluation of the state of maintenance programs in the narrative text of SALP reports versus the frequencies of inadvertent ESF actuations from test and maintenance errors; and (2) an evaluation of alternative methods for analyzing the thermal performance of plants as an integral indicator of maintenance program effectiveness. 1 ref., 1 fig

  20. No sustainable development without an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhras, G.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973, and again during the 1980s, prompted industrialized countries to adopt measures to reduce energy usage and to encourage conservation practices. Energy consumption in the transportation field was particularly high. However, after a while, some of the measures were either dropped or not enforced and our energy utilization continued to intensify. It soon became apparent that a different approach was required. At the Rio Conference in 1992, the idea of sustainable development was introduced with the objective to reduce global warming. The utilization of fossil fuels amplifies the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming which threatens the entire environment and also the health of citizens, particularly those living in cities. In 1997, 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. Canada committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6 per cent compared to 1990 levels, and this between 2008 and 2012. It is obvious that drastic steps are needed in order for Canada to meet this commitment. After an extensive analysis of the situation by various committees, it was concluded that activities related to the transportation of people in particular contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases. The results also indicate that solutions need to be found to reduce energy consumption. The author recommended the adoption of intelligent structures and materials which imitate biological systems in a predictable manner to optimize certain functions. He also recommended a better integration of energy policy with the basic principles of sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development | Akujuobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on theeconomic development of Nigeria, using multiple regression technique. Itwas found that cash reserve ratio was significant in impacting on theeconomic development of Nigeria at both 1% and 5% levels of significance,treasury bill at 5.6%, minimum ...

  2. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  3. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in developing new kidney allocation algorithms. The Liver Donor Risk Index allows for greater appreciation of the importance of donor factors, particularly for hepatitis C-positive recipients; as the donor risk index increases, rates of allograft and patient survival among these recipients decrease disproportionately. Use of livers with high donor risk index is associated with increased hospital costs independent of recipient risk factors, and transplanting livers with high donor risk index into patients with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease scores Donor Risk Index has limited this practice. Significant regional variation in donor quality, as measured by the Liver Donor Risk Index, remains in the United States. We also review other potential indices for liver transplant, including donor-recipient matching and the retransplant donor risk index. While substantial progress has been made in developing donor risk indices to objectively assess donor variables that affect transplant outcomes, continued efforts are warranted to improve these indices to enhance organ allocation policies and optimize allograft survival. PMID:22287036

  4. Development of safety performance indicators in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, H.; Tamao, S.; Tanaka, J.; Sawayama, T.

    2001-01-01

    For the purpose of safety regulations of operating nuclear power stations in Japan, the regulatory authorities utilize two types of regulations. One is the direct regulation, such as periodical inspection to inspect the function and performance of equipment important to safety, and the other is the audit type regulation such as preservation inspection to audit the compliance with the safety preservation rules. As performance indicators are expected to be an effective tool to evaluate the activities by audit type regulations, NUPEC is studying a comprehensive set of operational performance indicators to meet the effective evaluation method for the safety preservation activities in the audit type regulations under the frame of current safety regulation system. The study includes the establishment of comprehensive operational performance indicators applicable in Japan, the effective application of performance indicators to the current Japanese regulation, the clarification of the applicable scope of utilization, the possibility of applying the performance indicators. This report describes the present status of our performance indicator studies. After the completion of these studies the regulatory authorities will evaluate if and how the new set of comprehensive performance indicators could be introduced to Japanese regulatory scheme. (author)

  5. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  6. Alberta's transmission development policy : review and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stubbings, R.V.

    2004-01-01

    Alberta's Department of Energy (ADOE) released a policy paper in November 2003 regarding power transmission development for the province. The transmission development policy (TDP) is intended to promote economic growth in Alberta while ensuring consumers with reliable, reasonably priced electricity. This presentation reviewed the main features of the policy and then focused on the allocation of costs to generation customers. The author argued that the proposed changes would result in a sub-optimal development of generation and higher total electricity bills for consumers. He argued that the policy will spare generation customers of any obligation to pay wire-related costs other than local interconnection costs. This would weaken a long-standing ADOE policy which requires generators to pay costs that depend on their location on the transmission system. With the new proposal, generators would not be responsible for ancillary service costs even when they provide direct benefits, and they would pay for system losses on a zonal basis. The author recommended that location charges should be large enough to influence the siting decisions of generators. He also recommended that generators should pay their fare share of transmission use-of-system charges, including ancillary services that provide benefits to generators in the form of a stable, reliable transmission system. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  7. Development of safety performance indicators for HANARO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jong-Sup; Jung, Hoan-Sung; Ahn, Guk-Hoon; Lee, Kye-Hong; Lim, In-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear facilities need an extensive basis for ensuring their safety. An operating organization should conduct its operation and utilization important to the safety in accordance with approved procedures and regulations. The general aims of a management system for nuclear facilities are to improve the safety performance through a planning, control and supervision of safety related activities and to foster a strong safety culture. The effectiveness of a management system can be monitored and measured to confirm the ability of its processes to achieve the intended safety performance by an assessment of the operational performance. The Operational Safety Performance Indicators, also known as SPI, help an organization define and measure a progress with regard to safety activity goals. The elements of a SPI are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of an organizational safety. Since 1995, efforts have been directed towards the elaboration of a framework for the establishment of an operational safety performance indicator program in nuclear power plants (NPP). IAEA-TECDOC-1141, 'Operational safety performance indicators for NPP' attempted to provide a frame work for an identification of performance indicators which have a relationship to the desired safety attributes, and therefore, to a safe plant operation. Three key attributes of a smooth operation, an operation with a low risk, and an operation with a positive safety attitude, were recommended, which are associated with a safe operation. Because these attributes cannot be directly measured, an indicator structure is expanded further until a level of easily quantifiable or directly measurable indicators is identified. The intention of this approach is to use quantitative information provided by the specific indicators and to analyze performance trends relative to established goals. The safety activities in HANARO have been continuously conducted to enhance its safe operation. HANARO

  8. Government Research and Development Policy for Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Linda

    This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…

  9. Key performance indicators: Global product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taylor, Thomas Paul; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2014-01-01

    The decision to globalise parts of product development is a consequence of an increasingly competitive world market. The variety of risks and opportunities as a result of the decision make it difficult for management to evaluate if global product development has been successful. This paper invest...

  10. Agenda 21 and Indicators of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.

    1996-01-01

    This book contains the basic document - Agenda 21 century which was accepted on the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, and document from Forty sitting of the Commission of the United Nations for sustainable development (18 April 1996 in New York (in the shortened text)

  11. National Climate Assessment Indicators: Background, Development, & Examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Kenney, Melissa A.; Abbasi, Daniel; Armstrong, Tom; Bartuska, Ann; Blair, Maria; Buizer, Jim; Dietz, Tom; Easterling, Dave; Kaye, Jack; Kolian, Michael; McGeehin, Michael; O' Connor, Robert; Pulwarty, Roger; Running, Steve; Schmalensee, Dick; Webb, Robert; Weltzin, Jake; Baptista, Sandra; Enquist, Carolyn A.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Chen, Robert; Arndt, Deke; Hatfield, Jerry; Hayes, Mark L.; Jones, K. Burce; McNutt, Chad; Meier, Wayne R.; Schwartz, Mark D.; Svoboda, Mark

    2012-02-28

    Indicators are usually thought of as measurements or calculations that represent important features of the status, trend, or performance of a system of interest (e.g. the economy, agriculture, air quality). They are often used for the most practical of reasons – one cannot measure everything important about systems of interest, so there is a practical need to identify major features that can be reported periodically and used to guide both research and decisions (NRC 2000).

  12. A harmonized calculation model for transforming EU bottom-up energy efficiency indicators into empirical estimates of policy impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Marvin J.; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This study is an impact analysis of European Union (EU) energy efficiency policy that employs both top-down energy consumption data and bottom-up energy efficiency statistics or indicators. As such, it may be considered a contribution to the effort called for in the EU's 2006 Energy Services Directive (ESD) to develop a harmonized calculation model. Although this study does not estimate the realized savings from individual policy measures, it does provide estimates of realized energy savings for energy efficiency policy measures in aggregate. Using fixed effects panel models, the annual cumulative savings in 2011 of combined household and manufacturing sector electricity and natural gas usage attributed to EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 is estimated to be 1136 PJ; the savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 is estimated to be 807 PJ, or the equivalent of 5.6% of 2011 EU energy consumption. As well as its contribution to energy efficiency policy analysis, this study adds to the development of methods that can improve the quality of information provided by standardized energy efficiency and sustainable resource indexes. - Highlights: • Impact analysis of European Union energy efficiency policy. • Harmonization of top-down energy consumption and bottom-up energy efficiency indicators. • Fixed effects models for Member States for household and manufacturing sectors and combined electricity and natural gas usage. • EU energy efficiency policies since 2000 are estimated to have saved 1136 Petajoules. • Energy savings attributed to energy efficiency policies since 2006 are 5.6 percent of 2011 combined electricity and natural gas usage.

  13. Suggestion for a natural gas development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drummond, P.H.

    1987-01-01

    First, this work presents some aspects concerning the reserves and the future of natural gas consumption in Brazil. Then, from the results of a case-study about the implementation of a natural gas distribution company in Fortaleza (Ceara), we analyse under which conditions the business of natural gas distribution is economically interesting (subject of the M.Sc. thesis developed by the author). In possession of this results, the author proposes directions for a Natural Gas Policy in Brazil, approaching also aspects of Tariffs Policy. (author)

  14. 1993 in review: Science policy developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard M.; Mockler, Susan Bucci

    Looking back over 1993, here are some of the major policy developments affecting the geophysical sciences community:JANUARY: John Gibbons confirmed as Office of Science and Technology Policy director and President Clinton's science advisor… Walter Massey resigns as National Science Foundation director… Hazel O'Leary becomes Department of Energy secretary … House Science, Space and Technology Committee is reorganized, reducing its six subcommittees to five… NSF's Division of Polar Programs elevated to the Office of Polar Programs, now a part of the Office of the Director… Bruce Babbitt confirmed as Secretary of the Interior.

  15. [Child wellbeing and development indicators in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Filipa; Allen-Leigh, Betania; Katz, Gregorio; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To provide evidence and input for monitoring child welfare and wellbeing in Mexico. Adjusting for sampling design, information from ENSANUT 2012 for children <10 years was compared with national and international parameters and goals. While 8.37% of infants were born with low birth weight (<2,500 g), neonatal screening was not performed on 9.4% of newborns. Of children <5 years, 78.03% were breastfed until at least four months. Among mothers of newborns, 69.5% received training in early stimulation. At the national level, 28% of children (23% in rural areas) received five medical consultations to monitor their early development. 29% of children either had a disability or were at risk of developing one. Progress has been made in Mexico in terms of services promoting early child development and wellbeing but important challenges persist. National standards and a system for monitoring, screening, referring and providing care for child development and wellbeing are necessary.

  16. From Indicators to Policies: Open Sustainability Assessment in the Water and Sanitation Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Alejandro Iribarnegaray

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A water and sanitation sustainability index (WASSI was developed and estimated in four cities of the province of Salta, in northern Argentina. The index was built with nine descriptors and fifteen indicators that covered all essential aspects of the sustainability of local water and sanitation management systems. Only one of the cities studied obtained a sustainability value above the acceptability threshold adopted (50 of 100 points. Results indicate that the water company needs to address some environmental and social issues to enhance the sustainability of the systems studied. The WASSI was conceptually robust and operationally simple, and could be easily adapted to the case studies. The index can be followed and updated online on a web site specially developed for this project. This website could be useful to promote participatory processes, assist decision makers, and facilitate academic research. According to local stakeholders, a more open sustainability assessment based on sustainability indices and supported by virtual tools would be relevant and highly feasible. It would help decision makers improve the sustainability and transparency of water and sanitation management systems, and promote more sustainable water policies in the region and beyond.

  17. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  18. US energy policy and Arctic gas development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beecy, D.

    2004-01-01

    This presentation provided a perspective of Arctic energy resource development and the impact that science and technology will have on the American National Energy Policy (NEP). The role of the NEP is to provide energy security for the United States by ensuring dependable, affordable and sustainable energy for the future. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) conducts a wide range of energy and research activities that contribute to energy efficiency advances that help meet rising energy demand and reduce pollution emissions. In May 2001, the NEP proposed 100 recommendations, of which half focus on energy efficiency and developing renewable energy sources. The Clean Coal Power Initiative is also based on technological innovation and focuses on a program called FutureGen to build and operate a zero emission coal-fired power plant to produce both electricity and hydrogen. These initiatives could result in major changes in America's energy scenario. The provisions of the Energy Bill in streamlining the regulatory process for the proposed Alaska gas pipeline were outlined. The 2004 Annual Energy Outlook for the United States indicates that a pipeline from the Mackenzie Delta to Alberta would be constructed first, followed by one from Alaska. The North Slope Alaska natural gas pipeline will likely be operational by 2018 and add 4.5 BCF per day to meet growing natural gas demand in the United States. The National Petroleum Council's report on America's long-term natural gas supply and demand situation claims that lower-48 and traditional Canadian natural gas basins will be able to supply 75 per cent of the U.S. demand by the year 2025. The remainder will be made up by Alaskan natural gas, liquefied natural gas (LNG) and gas from new sources in Canada such as coalbed methane, methane hydrates, and oil sands

  19. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  20. The pT-value as environmental policy indicator for the exposure to toxic substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slooff W; de Zwart D

    1991-01-01

    This report contains a proposal for an indicator to measure the effectivity of the environmental policy with regard to the theme "Verspreiding" of the Directorate-General for Environmental Protection. It is recommended to use a method which indicates the toxicity of organic pollutants as

  1. A National Scale Sustainable Agriculture Matrix of Indicators to Inform Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, E. A.; Zhang, X.

    2017-12-01

    The ratification of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by all member countries of the United Nations demonstrates the determination of the international community in moving towards a sustainable future. To enable and encourage accountability, independent and transparent measurements of national sustainability efforts are essential. Among all sectors, agriculture is fundamental to all three pillars of sustainability, namely environment, society, and economy. However, the definition of a sustainable agriculture and the feasibility of measuring it remain elusive, in part because it encompasses both biophysical and socio-economic components that are still poorly integrated. Therefore, we have been developing a Sustainable Agriculture Matrix (SAM) on a national scale in order to measure country-level performance in agriculture. First proposed by Swaminathan for agricultural research and policy in 1990s, SAM is a collection of indicators measuring sustainable agriculture from environmental, social, and economic dimensions. The environmental dimension evaluates various impacts of agricultural production on the environment, such as water consumption and nutrient pollution. The economic dimension quantifies the costs and benefits for major stakeholders involved in agricultural production, including government, industry, farmers, and consumers. The social dimension considers three major aspects: 1) social welfare (e.g., hunger and poverty rate, nutritional quality, demography of rural community); 2) equity over sectors, space, and gender (e.g., access to resources/services and opportunities, distribution of income, land ownership and tenure rights); 3) systemic risk (e.g., fragility of the global agricultural production and trade system, resilience of a farm or a country to market and natural shocks). Translating the illustrative concepts into measureable indicators will not only provide an independent and transparent measurement of national performance in the

  2. Metal spectra as indicators of development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graedel, T. E.; Cao, J.

    2010-01-01

    We have assembled extensive information on the cycles of seven industrial metals in 49 countries, territories, or groups of countries, drawn from a database of some 200,000 material flows, and have devised analytical approaches to treat the suite of metals as composing an approach to a national “materials metabolism.” We demonstrate that in some of the more developed countries, per capita metal use is more than 10 times the global average. Additionally, countries that use more than the per capita world average of any metal do so for all metals, and vice versa, and countries that are above global average rates of use are very likely to be above global average rates at all stages of metal life cycles from fabrication onward. We show that all countries are strongly dependent on international trade to supply the spectrum of nonrenewable resources that modern technology requires, regardless of their level of development. We also find that the rate of use of the spectrum of metals stock is highly correlated to per capita gross domestic product, as well as to the Human Development Index and the Global Competitiveness Innovation Index. The implication is that as wealth and technology increase in developing countries, strong demand will be created not for a few key resources, but across the entire spectrum of the industrial metals. Long-term metal demand can be estimated given gross domestic product projections; the results suggest overall metal flow into use in 2050 of 5–10 times today’s level should supplies permit. PMID:21098309

  3. Biofuels development and the policy regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philp, Jim C; Guy, Ken; Ritchie, Rachael J

    2013-01-01

    Any major change to the energy order is certain to provoke both positive and negative societal responses. The current wave of biofuels development ignited controversies that have re-shaped the thinking about their future development. Mistakes were made in the early support for road transport biofuels in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. This article examines some of the policies that shaped the early development of biofuels and looks to the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The indicative analysis and ranking of human capital development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inessa, Gurban; Alexandr, Tarasyev

    2017-07-01

    In this article we discuss the rationale for the importance and effectiveness of the regions ranking as a tool for regional social and economic policies aimed to control the regional socio-economic development. A methodological approach to the determination of the human capital development level in the regions of the Russian Federation is provided focused on determining the quality of human capital in each region of the Russian Federation and the causes underlying this situation. The methodological apparatus is based on the indicative qualimetric analysis method that allows to convert various benchmarks expressed in different units in a comparable type. Also it is possible to receive and differentiate a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level in each region of the Russian Federation on the basis of the proposed classification. In this article we present the structure of the indicators system that simulates the human capital level by a number of descriptive components including demographic, educational, employment, research and socio-cultural components. In our research we found that in the overwhelming majority of the Russian Federation human capital is characterized mainly by a low development level. The system shows unstable dynamics in the human capital level through the Russian Federal Districts, as well as the leaders and laggards in the rating of the Russian Federation during the period 2000-2013. Our article presents the structure of a comprehensive assessment of the human capital level by providing estimates of its components.

  5. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  6. The effectiveness of domestic Scientific research on Iran development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ehsani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. Meanwhile, research policy makers of different societies have concentrated, more and more, on "the effectiveness of researches" and today, their main concern is to ensure that researches are truly contributing to achieve development goals. The issue of "use of research to improve society" has also been emphasized by Iran high-ranking managers and consultants in superior governmental documents, implying their agreement on the importance and necessity of it. Experts' view about the necessity for science to play a fundamental role in the process of society improvement, research impact assessment specialists' models in which they directly emphasize on "promotion of development scale" as the research final expected effect, and the proven high correlation between scientific progress and economic development of societies, create a reasonable expectation that as a consequent of "remarkable progress in research", Iran has experienced a tangible improvement in other aspects and this improvement has been reflected in development indicators. This expectation leads to a question which has been the main reason for this study to be implemented. The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of Iran increasingly research growth in recent three decades on the country development. The study uses a Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data have been the base of analyses. At first, the reliable development indicators for which data were available for a number of countries in an appropriate timeframe were selected. Next, the rank of Iran determined in any indicator among 215 countries (based on the number of countries in World Bank Web site. Then, the trend of Iran's research position was compared with the trend of Iran's position in terms of each development

  7. Towards Developing an Entrepreneurship Policy for Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the background information to the national entrepreneurship policy statement and sets out a blueprint to drive entrepreneurship. A vision for an entrepreneurial society is established and measures to further improve the environment for entrepreneurship are outlined. The report looks at a number of key issues in detail and identifies areas for further development in improving the entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurship in the education system and entrepreneurial activity...

  8. The development of accessibility indicators for distance learning programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Burgstahler

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to explore program policies and practices related to the accessibility of American distance learning courses to qualified students with disabilities. A literature review was conducted, a draft list of accessibility indicators was created, examples of applications of the indicators in existing distance learning programs were collected, the indicators were systematically applied to one distance learning program, input from a variety of distance learning programs was used to further refine the indicators, and these programs were encouraged to adopt the indicators and make use of resources provided by the project. Results of this exploratory work suggest that incorporating accessibility considerations into policies, procedures and communications of a program requires consideration of the unique needs of students, course designers, instructors and evaluators; involves approval and implementation at a variety of administrative levels; and is an ongoing process that may be implemented in incremental steps.

  9. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.; Goldberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  10. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...

  11. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    development (R and D), demonstration (D) and investment and production subsidies. In order to study development of and changes in the socio-technological-system, we identify indicators that describe the wind power development. The indicators show: (i) changes in technology development; (ii) cost development due to technology and market development; (iii) development of actors, institutions and organisations and changes in their commitment to wind power development. From this analysis of the changes in the wind power system over time, the impact of the policy instruments on the development of the technology and market of wind power is assessed. Lastly, we discuss the tardiness in market development and identify possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent in Sweden. The study of the development of the Swedish wind power system shows how public energy policy and the impact of policy instruments shaped turbine technology and market development. The governmental interventions made during the 1970s and 1980s were limited to RD and D measures. These steered both the choice of technology; i.e. turbine development with a focus on large (over 1 MW), two-bladed, flexible turbines, and the early market development in Sweden, with a limited number of actors, institutions and organizations. The number of wind turbines manufactured in Sweden is low and by 2000 there had not been a commercial breakthrough for the technology developed. The R and D-programmes have, however, generated knowledge and increased competence regarding wind power technology. The introduction of investment and production subsidies in the early 1990s changed the focus from technology development to a more general focus on market development and the production of wind power. The change in policy increased the diversity of actors involved in the development process and a market for commercially available, three-bladed, Danish turbines grew in Sweden. The investment and production subsidies

  12. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  13. Developmental State Policy, Educational Development, and Economic Development: Policy Processes in South Korea (1961-1979)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki Su

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores two inter-connected issues--the state's role in educational development and educational contribution to economic development--in the policy processes entailed by the South Korean state's pursuit of economic development during the Park Chung Hi era, 1961-1979. It disputes the statist view that South Korea's economic development…

  14. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  15. A Review on the research and practice of city sustainable development indicators and indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Ning

    2017-10-01

    City sustainable development indicators and indices have become a hot issue in academic research and practical application, alongside the high-speed worldwide urbanization and driven by the actual managing demand. This article is aimed at a clear understanding of the progress in relevant research and practice. This is done by collecting common indicators and indices for city sustainable development and making comparison of the assessment process and contents, so as to find out main obstacles for the development of this research field and explore the direction for efforts to be made next step. The article divides these indicators and indices into two categories: ① indicators serving as single index which can provide an explicit description on the relationship between economic activities and environmental carrying capacity, but have a narrow scope of assessment and use complicated methods to collect and calculate data; ② indices based on indicator systems which can represent multiple processes, could reflect the view of strong sustainability and are easy to use, but can hardly depict the responding relationship between social, environmental and economic changes for city sustainable development or assure the scientific rigor of weight setting. Practices on indicators and indices for city sustainable development was summarized, and its problems were reviewed with China being representative of transitioning countries. According to the review, great progress has been achieved in the research and practice of indicators and indices for city sustainable development, but consistency of theories, rationality of indicators and scientific rigor of methodology are to be improved significantly.

  16. Lessons from photovoltaic policies in China for future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Mo-lin; Zhang, Dan-wei

    2012-01-01

    The paper first provides an overview of the current status of PV industry development in China, including the penetration speed, the market segments and the value chain. Further, it reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market incentives and manufacturing policies for lessons learning. After the Renewable Energy Law took effect in 2006, PV penetration was accelerated. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, which were still in a trial stage, public bidding and the cooperation among relevant Ministries played important roles. A series of public R and D projects provided elemental technologies and meanwhile the preferential tax policies encouraged PV R and D nationwide. Then the paper looks into the future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national indicative targets in 2020, and the energy planning considering the governmental targets of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. Consequently we analyze problems impeding the future development based on evidences. For instance, there was no predetermined degression of the capital subsidy to push cost reduction; the budget and the organization of public PV R and D were insufficient. Finally, we propose some recommendations on improving policy interventions. - Highlights: ► Surveys the current status of PV industry in China, including the market trend, the installation distribution and the value chain. ► Reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market policies and manufacturing policies. ► Looks into future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national targets of 2020, policies of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. ► Analyzes barriers of future development, and proposes some recommendations on improving policy interventions.

  17. New financial development indicators: with a critical contribution to inequality empirics

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu, Simplice A.

    2013-01-01

    The employment of financial development indicators without due consideration to country/regional specific financial development realities remains an issue of substantial policy relevance. Financial depth in the perspective of money supply is not equal to liquid liabilities in every development context. This paper introduces complementary indicators to the existing Financial Development and Structure Database (FDSD). Dynamic panel system GMM estimations are applied. Different specifications, ...

  18. National quality indicators and policies from 15 countries leading in adult end-of-life care: a systematic environmental scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdun, Claudia; Luckett, Tim; Lorenz, Karl A; Phillips, Jane

    2018-06-01

    The importance of measuring the quality of end-of-life care provision is undisputed, but determining how best to achieve this is yet to be confirmed. This study sought to identify and describe national end-of-life care quality indicators and supporting policies used by countries leading in their end-of-life care provision. A systematic environmental scan that included a web search to identify relevant national policies and indicators; hand searching for additional materials; information from experts listed for the top 10 (n=15) countries ranked in the 'quality of care' category of the 2015 Quality of Death Index study; and snowballing from Index experts. Ten countries (66%) have national policy support for end-of-life care measurement, five have national indicator sets, with two indicator sets suitable for all service providers. No countries mandate indicator use, and there is limited evidence of consumer engagement in development of indicators. Two thirds of the 128 identified indicators are outcomes measures (62%), and 38% are process measures. Most indicators pertain to symptom management (38%), social care (32%) or care delivery (27%). Measurement of end-of-life care quality varies globally and rarely covers all care domains or service providers. There is a need to reduce duplication of indicator development, involve consumers, consider all care providers and ensure measurable and relevant indicators to improve end-of-life care experiences for patients and families. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. MANAGING ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY FOR TOURISM DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Matlievska

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on variety of impacts that tourism poses over national economies, each country is interested in supporting its development. Moreover, everyone urges measures for increasing the number of tourists who are eager in meeting their travel and tourism preferences. Since the motive for tourism flows lies in natural or cultural background, it is necessary to find solutions for enhancing such basis. This paper supports the fact that tourism development may not be addressed if environment is neglected. For that purpose, the research is focused on environmental policy as a precondition for preserving safe and sound grounds for tourism development. In this respect, the case of Macedonia is investigated with its corpus of environmental laws being in a state of approximation with the ‘horizontal’ legislation of the European Union. So, the contribution of this paper lies in the fact that provides overview and facts at glance not only on the environmental protection legislation in Macedonia, but on the constitutional regulation as well. The research outcomes confirm the starting research hypothesis for obtaining national environmental legislation fully in line with already established international standards. Hence, one may argue that environmental policy provides basis and legal opportunities for strengthening tourism development.

  20. Performance management in healthcare : performance indicator development, task uncertainty, and types of performance indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer-Rutten-Rijswijk, van der E.; Tuijl, van H.F.J.M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2009-01-01

    In healthcare, performance indicators are increasingly used to measure and control quality and efficiency of care-providing teams. This article demonstrates that when controllability is emphasized during indicator development, the level of task uncertainty influences the type of resulting

  1. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  2. [The development of public policies for elderly care in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Maria Teresinha de Oliveira; Soares, Sônia Maria

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this documental analysis is to discuss the legal aspects involved in the development of elderly care policies in Brazil, considering the socio-historical-political context, and in view of the aspects that outline the wellbeing of an aged individual. Data collection was performed between June and September of 2010 via governmental websites. Documents were included if they complied with the proposed objective; were connected with elderly care policies, and lay within the legal accomplishments regarding elderly care policies in 2006 and the Elói Chaves Law of 1923. This analysis indicated that elderly wellbeing depends significantly on resource allocation in sectors other than the healthcare area, with emphasis on the elderly in the labor market and the feminization of old age. It is expected that the community and administrators will discuss the needs of the elderly population and the integration of care networks that remain necessary for the heterogeneity of this population.

  3. Seeking consensus on universal health coverage indicators in the sustainable development goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddock, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    There is optimism that the inclusion of universal health coverage in the Sustainable Development Goals advances its prominence in global and national health policy. However, formulating indicators for Target 3.8 through the Inter-Agency Expert Group on Sustainable Development Indicators has been challenging. Achieving consensus on the conceptual and methodological aspects of universal health coverage is likely to take some time in multi-stakeholder fora compared with national efforts to select indicators.

  4. Implementing care policy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tattum, L.; Phishner, E.S.

    1992-01-01

    How do chief executives of Western companies, from their plush offices, keep tabs on what happens at chemical plants in developing countries? Many point out that it is difficult to operate a Responsible Care policy in countries where industry associations have not yet started a coordinated initiative. 'Responsible Care is a program that has primarily a geographic dimension and is organized country by country by the industry associations,' note Kaspar Eigenmann, head of corporate unit safety and environment at Ciba (Basel). Where there is a campaign, the local Ciba company participates, he says. 'It's obvious that the industrialized countries are taking the lead,' adds Eigenmann

  5. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  6. Safety policy for nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    The report discusses various aspects of the safety policy for nuclear power development in Japan. Nuclear power development over three decades in Japan has led to operating performance which is highly safe and reliable. This has been appreciated internationally. Discussed here is the Japanese basic safety policy for nuclear power development that is essential first to design, manufacture and construction using high technology. The current careful quality assurance and reliable operation management by skilled operators are relied upon, on the basis of the fact that measures to prevent abnormal events are given first priority rather than those to mitigate consequences of abnormal events or accidents. Lessons learned from accidents and failures within or outside Japan such as the TMI accident and Chernobyl accident have been reflected in the improvement of safety through careful and thorough examinations of them. For further improvement in nuclear safety, deliberate studies and investigations on severe accidents and probabilistic safety assessment are considered to be important. Such efforts are currently being promoted. For this purpose, it is important to advance international cooperation and continue technical exchanges, based on operation experience in nuclear power stations in Japan. (Nogami, K.)

  7. Policy alternatives in reforming energy utilities in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriele, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the policy alternatives faced by developing countries in their endeavor to preserve and develop their electricity and gas systems, two service-oriented industries which--along with oil--provide the bulk of energy supply both in developed and in developing countries. Even in very poor countries, industrially generated energy is indispensable for carrying out most economic activities. Therefore, governments traditionally recognize that the supply of gas and electricity entails a fundamental public service dimension. The Introduction presents the case for reforming of energy utilities, discusses in general terms the pros and cons of privatization, and attempts to locate the reforms in a broader historical framework in which developing countries' governments faced characterized by increasing financial hardship. Section 2 constitutes the core of the paper. It reviews the main features of gas and power sector reforms in the developing world and analyzes specifically the cases of five semi-industrialized countries in Latin America and Asia. Section 3 (Concluding remarks) briefly evaluates the country experiences reviewed above and indicates a few policy lessons which can be learnt from them. The main conclusion is that, in a long-run development perspective, full-scale privatization of gas and power sectors in developing countries entails significant risks, and therefore a flexible policy approach is preferable to a rigid commitment to extensive liberalization

  8. Agricultural policy and sustainable livestock development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillhorn van Veen, T W

    1999-01-01

    Future agricultural and rural development is, to a large extent, influenced by the projected food needs of 2.5 billion people expected to swell the world population by 2020. This increase will require more food in general and, in view of recent experience in East Asia, more animal products. To achieve this increase will require judicious use of resources, and trade, especially in those countries where natural resources are insufficient to support food production. Achieving food sufficiency in a sustainable manner is a major challenge for farmers, agro-industries, researchers and governments. The latter play an important role as many of the farmers' choices are, to a large extent, directed by government or supra-government, often through macro- and micro-economic policy. In many countries the economic, environmental, trade and agricultural policies have not been conducive to an agricultural development that is risk-free with respect to the environment, animal welfare or public health. The recent decline of government support in agriculture forced farmers in Western countries to think about more risk adverse agricultural practices and more efficient production systems. On the other hand, many countries in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, as well as other developing countries, are still going through a painful process of adjustment to new market conditions. International banks and development agencies have a mandate to help developing countries, but are somewhat restricted both by needing to work directly with governments and by their perceived dogmatic approach to development. Changing policies do, now and in the future, also affect the development of animal disease control programmes, including the control of parasitic diseases. On the one hand there is an increasing interest in risk-free control practices, and on the other hand a demand for greater regulatory control over the production process. As parasitic diseases of animals are closely linked to the

  9. Policy Diversity as an Engine of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2004-06-01

    policy diversity to operate as a means to foster economic development; that there might be a paradigmatic cycle in the dynamic of economic policies

  10. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  11. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  14. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  15. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K.

    2007-01-01

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  16. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    OpenAIRE

    O’Doherty Travis; Fitzgerald Brian G.; Moles Richard; O’Regan Bernadette

    2013-01-01

    Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by...

  17. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  18. The impact of environmental policy on economic indicators. Moving from global to sectoral and regional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    In recent times, environmental, energy and climate policies have gained tremendously in importance. Not least, this is due to the latest research findings related to climate change and the resulting growing environmental awareness among people. However, policy approaches to combat environmental pollution and climate change differ both in their intention and in their economic impacts. For instance, command-and-control instruments such as performance or technology standards have different implications than market-based mechanisms such as permit trading of greenhouse gas emissions. Furthermore, sectoral and regional characteristics play an important role when implementing and assessing policy measures. This applies both to the attainability of the targets and to the available instruments. The present doctoral thesis addresses this point and analyzes in several essays different policy instruments and their economic effects from global, regional and sectoral perspectives. In this respect, it deals with various, often very heterogeneous question: How are specific policy types implemented in different countries? What is the CO2 abatement potential in specific regions and sectors? What policy measures can be plausibly used to exploit this potential? How can technological developments and technology-directed policy interventions contribute to improve energy efficiency? Does the promotion of certain energy sources necessarily create positive production and employment effects? To answer these and further questions, different economic methods are applied that accommodate the particular problem, where special emphasis is put on computable general equilibrium modeling. The aim of this work is to contribute to the academic and political debate on measures to combat environmental and climate problems.

  19. BAYESIAN APPROACH TO THE ANALYSIS OF MONETARY POLICY IMPACT ON RUSSIAN MACROECONOMICS INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheveleva O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the interaction between the production macroeconomic indicators of the Russian economy and MIBOR (the main operational benchmark of the Bank of Russia, as well as the relationship between the inflation indicators and money supply were investigated with Bayesian approach. Conjugate Normal Inverse Wishart Prior was used. According to the study, tough monetary policy has a deterrent effect on the Russian economy. The growth of the money market rate causes a reduction in investments and output in the main sectors of the economy, as well as a drop in the income of the population with an increase in the unemployment rate.

  20. Suitability of pesticide risk indicators for less developed countries: a comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Feola, Giuseppe; Rahn, E.; Binder, C.R.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticide risk indicators provide simple support in the assessment of environmental and health risks\\ud from pesticide use, and can therefore inform policies to foster a sustainable interaction of agriculture\\ud with the environment. For their relative simplicity, indicators may be particularly useful under conditions\\ud of limited data availability and resources, such as in Less Developed Countries (LDCs). However,\\ud indicator complexity can vary significantly, in particular between those t...

  1. The nuclear power development policy of Taipower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    Taipower began its nuclear power epoch in 1978 when the first unit of its First Nuclear Power Station was synchronized to the system on November 1977. At present, Taipower has six units installed in three nuclear power plants, totalling 5144 MW in operation. These units are the mainstay of the 16,600 MW system and have played a significant role in the energy supply of Taiwan. This paper will firstly give a brief overview of Taipower's system, then introduce Taipower's nuclear power policies within the frame of issues on nuclear power economy, nuclear fuel cycle management, nuclear safety and environmental concerns, radioactive waste management, public communications and personnel training. At last, this paper will present the prospect for future nuclear power development in Taiwan with reference to the above discussion. (author)

  2. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  3. Indicators for sustainable development 2010; Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Kolshus, Kristine E.

    2011-07-01

    This report presents an updated set of Norwegian sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. Whilst compiling the report, we have had an effective collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data, text and assessments for various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have made contributions to their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. The report has been edited by senior advisers Frode Brunvoll and Kristine E. Kolshus. Main findings within the policy areas of the Norwegian strategy for sustainable development: International cooperation for sustainable development and combating poverty. Norwegian official development aid is increasing. In 2010, Norway contributed over 1 per cent of GNI as official development assistance. Following a decrease in 2009, the imports to Norway from developing countries increased again in 2010. However, the imports from the least developed countries decreased substantially. Climate, ozone and long-range air pollution The two-year decrease in Norwegian greenhouse gas emissions was followed by a new increase in 2010, when the emissions amounted to 53.7 million tonnes CO2 equivalents. This is 4.8 per cent more than in 2009, and 3.6 million tonnes CO2 equivalents above the Norwegian Kyoto target. In 2010, Norway's emissions of NOX increased by 4 per cent. This is 20 per cent above the obligation for 2010 set in the Gothenburg Protocol. However, the emissions of the other acidifying gases and NMVOCs were below the obligations. Biodiversity and cultural heritage. In mountain areas and cultural landscapes the populations of nesting birds have decreased. The figures for forest birds show no clear trend. The water quality in Norway, also

  4. Rural Development Policy: Promises Made and Promises Denied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Drew

    1991-01-01

    Presents historical trends toward rural development policy. Describes the agrarian perspective and the industrial and urbanization perspective as current visions which guide policy. Recommends a new vision focusing on "livability for people" and "viability of community systems." (KS)

  5. Development and validation of stability indicating studies of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development and validation of stability indicating studies of paliperidone ... A simple and sensitive stability indicating HPLC method is developed for the ... The developed method was proved adequate for quantitative determination of ... Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access.

  6. [Indication for mitral valve interventions: Development of a quality indicator for external hospital quality assurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köster, Christina; Schorbach, Lena; Wrede, Stephanie; Meyer, Sven; Kazmaier, Tonia; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    The indication for a mitral valve intervention is an important patient-relevant parameter for the assessment of process quality and the comparison of healthcare providers. In this article, we describe the development of a corresponding quality indicator for an external hospital quality assurance (QA) procedure in Germany. An expert panel was set up by the aQua Institute to assist with the development of a QA procedure for mitral valve interventions and the associated quality indicators. In a comprehensive, systematic literature and evidence research, the American and European guidelines were identified as the best evidence available. Especially the more current American guideline formed the basis on which a quality indicator dealing with the correct indication for a mitral valve intervention was developed. The developed quality indicator assesses the proportion of patients for whom an indication for a mitral valve intervention was determined in compliance with guideline recommendations. The indicator differentiates between surgical and catheter-based procedures. To determine whether or not the indication was correct, different medical parameters are included, such as, for example, type of mitral valve defect, etiology of the disease, severity of symptoms, valve morphology (e. g., mitral valve area), valve hemodynamics and comorbidity, which healthcare providers have to document. The documentation for the developed quality indicator is considerable. Nonetheless, its relevance is undeniable because it allows the user to determine whether a surgical or catheter-based mitral valve intervention was necessary and performed according to guideline recommendations. In the first year of its implementation, this indicator should be evaluated for further improvement and simplification of assessment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  8. Enhancing Evidence-Based Public Health Policy: Developing and Using Policy Narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G

    2016-06-01

    Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Development of National Technology Audit Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Subiyanto Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    The Laws have mandated implementation of technology audit, nevertheless such implementation needs an additional policy that is more technical. The concept of national audit technology policy shall make technology audit as a tool to ensure the benefit of technology application for society and technology advance for nation independency. This article discusses on technology audit policy concept especially infrastructure requirement, with emphasis on regulation, implementation tools, and related ...

  10. Exchange Rate Policy in Philippine Development

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, Romeo M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the conduct of exchange rate policy in the Philippines since the early 1980s, paying particular attention to the influence of exchange rate adjustments on relative production incentives. While primary interest is in the exchange rate regime and its incentive effects, the role of trade policy has to be simultaneously analyzed in view of its influence on the conduct of exchange rate policy as well as its direct effect on the real exchange rate. Moreover, there are analytical...

  11. A novel method for feasibility testing urban sustainable development policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Doherty Travis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy making to promote more sustainable development is a complex task due in part to the large number of both stakeholders and potential policies. Policy feasibility testing provides a guide to the viability and practicality of policy implementation and forms an important part of an evidence based policy making process. An extensive literature review has identified no standardized approach to feasibility testing. This paper addresses this knowledge gap by describing a novel method using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA for feasibility testing of policies aimed at increasing the sustainability of towns and villages in Ireland. Feasibility results are provided for 40 frequently cited policy interventions tested for 18 settlements in Ireland. Policies were selected in the arenas of transport, food, housing and urban form, energy, waste and water. Policies are feasibility tested through analysis of operational evidence from both quantitative and qualitative data sources. Following testing, policies are ranked in terms of feasibility. This research examines the effectiveness of local and national level policies and the importance of both local community involvement and central government regulation in policy success. The inter-settlement variation in feasibility testing scores prioritises policy selection and aims to reduce cherry-picking of policies to support the viewpoints of the decision maker. Although developed for an Irish urban context the methods described here may have applicability elsewhere.

  12. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future......This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...

  13. On the effects of monetary policy shocks in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Kandil

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using annual data for a sample of developing countries, the time-series evidence indicates the allocation of monetary policy shocks, both expansionary and contractionary, between price inflation and output growth. Subsequently, cross-country regressions evaluate factors that underlie the difference in these allocations and their implications. The real effects of monetary shocks increase as the elasticity of aggregate demand increases with respect to monetary shocks. Nonetheless, capacity constraints hamper the output adjustment to monetary shocks and increase price inflation. Across countries, trend output growth increases with the output response to monetary shocks. Consistent with the stabilizing function of monetary policy, the variability of output growth decreases in the face of monetary fluctuations across countries. In contrast, monetary fluctuations increase the trend and variability of price inflation across countries.

  14. Energy indicators for tracking sustainability in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemmler, Andreas; Spreng, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fact that human activities and most sustainability issues are closely related to energy use, the energy system is a sound framework for providing lead indicators for sustainable development. Common energy-economic models enable the estimation of future states of the energy system. An energy system-based lead indicator set can be used to develop consistent and coherent future indicator estimates and to track sustainability, a clear advantage over existing sets. In developed countries, the sustainability discussion is focused on environmental topics, while in developing countries the issues of poverty and equity are equally important. Consequently, for measuring sustainable development in a developing country, the inclusion of a poverty indicator in a set of lead indicators is essential. By correlation and descriptive analysis, it is shown that reliable energy-based indicators of poverty can be created. Although no one-dimensional indicator is a comprehensive measure of poverty, the explanatory power of energy poverty indicators is comparable to that of other poverty indicators. Thus, the use of energy indicators is not restricted to environmental and economic issues but is also relevant for social issues

  15. The indicators of urban development following principles of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Šašek Divjak

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Development in space reflects the consequences of development decisions in all areas of life and work. For this purpose all questions with regard to spatial planning should be solved comprehensively, in connection with economic and social development, while taking into consideration natural potentials and limitations and observing the principles for sustainable balanced development. To measure the sustainability of a place a series of indicators have to be devised. An example of the use of these indicators is presented.

  16. [Environmental health and inequalities: building indicators for sustainable development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Franco Netto, Guilherme; Corvalan, Carlos; de Freitas, Carlos Machado; Sales, Luiz Belino Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Despite its progress in terms of socio-economic indicators, Brazil is still unequal, which is due to an unequal and exclusionary historical process. In this paper we selected the Human Development Index - HDI and other social, economic, environmental and health indicators to exemplify this situation. We selected the municipalities that had the lowest HDI in the country in 2000 comparing their evolution over time between 2000 and 2010 by means of indicators linked to the economic, environmental and social pillars of sustainable development. These municipalities have an HDI classified as low (sustainable development with quality of life, the improvement of sanitation and education indicators should be a priority for Brazil.

  17. Policy alienation of public professionals: The development of a scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractToday, many public professionals feel estranged from the policy programs they implement. That is, they experience ‘policy alienation’. This is of concern as, for satisfactory implementation, some identification with the policy is required. We develop a quantitative scale to measure

  18. Demographic indicators of trust in federal, state and local government: implications for Australian health policy makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Samantha B; Mamerow, Loreen; Taylor, Anne W; Henderson, Julie; Ward, Paul R; Coveney, John

    2013-02-01

    To provide baseline findings regarding Australians' trust in federal, state and local government. A computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) survey was administrated during October to December 2009 to a random sample (n=1109) across Australia (response rate 41.2%). Binary logistic regression analyses were carried out by means of SPSS. Age, household size, household income, IRSD and ARIA were found to be significant indicators for trust in federal, state and local government. Trust in state government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in inner and outer regional areas. Trust in local council is lower in respondents living in inner regional areas, respondents living in disadvantaged areas, and respondents in the income bracket of $60001 to $100000. Trust in federal government is lower for older respondents and respondents living in disadvantaged areas. Of note is diminished trust in government among older, regional and lower income ($30001-$60000) respondents. Trust in all levels of government was found to be the lowest in population groups that are identified by empirical research and media to have the poorest access to government services. As a consequence, improved access to services for these populations may increase trust in health policy. Increased trust in health governance may in turn, ensure effective dissemination and implementation of health policies and that existing inequities are not perpetuated through distrust of health information and policy initiatives.

  19. Policy issues in Ethiopian energy development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    One of the most serious constraints to current survival and future development in Ethiopia is energy. The question of energy for survival is dependent on biomass which is being rapidly depleted;at the current rate of deforestation, Ethiopia will be bare of forests in 20 years. There are several points to emphasize in establishing a forestry policy which include: 1) Accurate costing of per unit of production 2) Selection of appropriate species by ecological zone 3) Land management improvements 4) Suitable Land Tenure Systems It is possible to outline general principles for energy-forestry management, namely: 1) Around densely settled areas, encourage the production of trees as a cash crop 2) In dry areas, encourage agroforestry to enchance total biomass productivity 3) Require state farms and all new settlement as far as possible to be self supporting in fuel through settlement woodlots 4) Enforce 'Green (Energy) Belts' around major urban areas. Without forestry, there will be no fuel. Except for hydroelectricity and geothermal, there are no substantial, really proven indigenous reserves: even the exploitation of hydropower and geothermal potential is totally dependent on foreign technology.

  20. Development and analysis of security policies in security enhanced Android

    OpenAIRE

    Rimando, Ryan A.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This thesis examines Security Enhanced Android. Both its policy and its additional security features are explored. The policy is examined in depth, providing a better understanding of the security provided by SE Android. We analyze the default SE Android policy. We identify a potential weakness and change the policy to facilitate control over communication channels. A proof-of-concept set of applications is developed to demonstrate ho...

  1. Stakeholder engagement for improved school policy: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.

  2. Constructing Indicators for Measuring Provincial Sustainable Development Index in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Van Canh; Lisowski, Andrzej

    2018-03-01

    Sustainable development is zeitgeist of our age. It is one kind of development that in this trajectory humanity can create a stable and developed socio-economic foundations, conserve environment and therefore able to continue for a long time. Using indicators is one of the best ways to monitor and measure the progress toward sustainable development. In this paper we have proposed the way to create indicators for measuring provincial sustainable development index in Vietnam. We firstly made a framework of elements for economic, social and environmental component and compiled a list of indicators of 20 national and international agencies in the world. We then applied the SMART framework (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-related) to choose indicators which will be relevant for Vietnam and put them back to the elements. We then have 39 relevant indicators with 12 indicators for economy, 17 indicators for social and 10 indicators for environmental component. Finally, we have established the way to determine the worst and best value for each indicator from available data for countries in the world.

  3. Summary of indicators of Nth country weapon development programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, J.E.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of indicators that various phases of weapon development programs are being carried out is presented. An attempt is made to answer the question ''what observations can be made that would help in deciding whether country X is developing nuclear explosive devices.'' The indicators themselves are accompanied by some general discussions of what is likely to be going on in the areas of nuclear materials ''manufacture,'' nuclear materials chemistry, development and testing, scientific personnel, delivery systems, and evasion of safeguards

  4. Policy Analyst | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... reviews the plans produced to ensure that they are of the highest possible quality. ... The Policy Analyst plays a key role in information management. ... discussion and decision-making; prepares guidelines on issues relating to processes, ...

  5. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  6. International Development Research Centre Corporate Policy Travel

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    André Lavoie

    put in place procedures to issue advances to employees entitled to receive them; ... recover Canadian tax credits where expense reports include Canadian ... Any instances of abuse, fraud, or non-compliance with the IDRC travel policy will be ...

  7. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  8. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    promote monetary stability and a sound financial system in Nigeria under the overall ... default in the money market and, (iv) Excessive borrowing for speculative ..... Crookett, A. (1979): Monetary Theory, Policy and Institutions, Thomas Nelson ...

  9. Comparing investment projects of innovative developing strategies of municipalities, based on a set of indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurenko Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of comparison by a set of indicators which show the quality of investment projects and embody innovative policy of developing municipal entities is proposed. The method is based on establishing preferences for individual quality indicators of projects in accordance with the principle of maximum uncertainty (entropy and representing their aggregate in the form of a scalar function as an argument of the vector.

  10. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  11. Methodology for development of risk indicators for offshore platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeien, K.; Sklet, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a generic methodology for development of risk indicators for petroleum installations and a specific set of risk indicators established for one offshore platform. The risk indicators should be used to control the risk during operation of platforms. The methodology is purely risk-based and the basis for development of risk indicators is the platform specific quantitative risk analysis (QRA). In order to identify high risk contributing factors, platform personnel are asked to assess whether and how much the risk influencing factors will change. A brief comparison of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) for nuclear power plants and quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for petroleum platforms is also given. (au)

  12. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 236

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...

  13. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  14. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  15. Comments on "Women, Development Planning and Government Policies in Pakistan".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, S

    1992-01-01

    Commentary on Shahnaz and Bilquees Raza's paper on women in development in Pakistan is supportive of the content analysis of the Sixth and Seventh 5-Year Plans and policies, but critical of the methods used n the analysis. The parallel to survey research methods was made in that there was a specification of 1) the unit of analysis (reference to each policy measure, each chapter, each page of the plan), 2) the rationale for the plan, 3) specific objectives of the examination, and 4) the criteria for analysis. Missing also was the identification of policy trends from the Fourth and Fifth 5-Year Plans. The question is never answered as to why gender issues were not directed to the agricultural sector. The conclusion that there was a hugh gap between intentions and implementation was an issue not unique to women's issues, and a deeper analysis may have been required in order to understand the nature and magnitude of the gaps for women's policies and their productive roles. Questions should have been directed to the issues of the root causes of gaps in planning and implementation of policies and programs for women in development, and the identification of quantitative and qualitative indicators of gaps. Questions arise as to whether the gaps have changed with changes in the strength of political and social will in various decades. Recognition was given by the authors to the low budget allocations between 1955 and 1970 to education and health which affected both men and women, but there was scant mention of the strong social, not political, will to enhance women's welfare prevalent at this time. Information was lacking on the differences between the Sixth and Seventh sectoral plans for agricultural employment and women and the working groups plans that did include women in agricultural employment; the question is why the working plans were not incorporated into the final plans, and why the working groups did not protest this omission. The lack of political and social

  16. Redefining Individual Growth and Development Indicators: Oral Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradfield, Tracy A.; Besner, Amanda C.; Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Albano, Anthony D.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Language skills developed during preschool contribute strongly to later reading and academic achievement. Effective preschool assessment and intervention should focus on core components of language development, specifically oral language skills. The Early Language and Literacy Individual Growth and Development Indicators (IGDIs) are a set of…

  17. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  18. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  19. Perceptions Regarding Importance and Skill at Policy Development Among Public Health Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrucci, Brian C; Leider, Jonathon P; Sellers, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Policy development is recognized as a core function of public health and a core competency in formal public health education. However, relatively little is known nationally about worker perceptions and competencies related to policy development in the governmental public health workforce. To characterize perceived importance and presence or absence of competency gaps related to policy development. As part of the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS), a nationally representative stratified sample of permanently employed state health agency (SHA) central office staff was created. Descriptive and inferential analyses examined correlates of perceived importance and competency gaps related to policy development. Permanently employed central office employees of SHAs. Analyses focus on 2 self-reported measures of perceived importance and ability related to policy development skills, as well as awareness and perceptions regarding Health in All Policies (HiAP). Seventy-two percent of SHA central office staff (95% confidence interval, 71-73) indicated "influencing policy development" was somewhat or very important to their day-to-day work. Among that group, 35% (95% confidence interval, 34-36) reported that they were unable to perform this or they considered themselves to be a beginner at this skill. Approximately three-fourths of staff indicated "understanding the relationship between a new policy and many types of public health problems" was somewhat or very important, and 30% of those who did said they were unable to perform this skill or were a beginner at it. Nationally, one-half of staff have not heard of HiAP. Among those who have, 86% indicated it was somewhat or very important to public health, and 41% reported they would like to see more emphasis on HiAP. Workforce development, both formal education and on-the-job training, may benefit from placing a greater emphasis on the development of policy skills. HiAP is an important approach to policy

  20. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  1. Developing a policy for paediatric biobanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hens, Kristien; Van El, Carla E; Borry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    practice for policy makers of biobanks, researchers and anyone involved in dealing with stored tissue samples from children. Actual implementation of the principles will vary according to different jurisdictions.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg...

  2. Analyst, Policy and Strategy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Working under the supervision of the Director, and with guidance from the Senior Analyst, the Analyst provides research, analysis, and advice on matters of policy and strategy for the Centre and its Board. He or she contributes to strategic and operational planning, corporate reporting, trend monitoring, and engagement with ...

  3. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  4. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By promoting comparative assessment of policy options, MAS hopes to demonstrate the benefits of evidence-based policymaking, which is needed for the economy to prosper. ... stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  5. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Guidelines and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This publication is the product of an international initiative to define a set of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) and corresponding methodologies and guidelines. The successful completion of this work is the result of an intensive effort led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The thematic framework, guidelines, methodology sheets and energy indicators set out in this publication reflect the expertise of these various agencies, recognized worldwide as leaders in energy and environmental statistics and analysis. While each agency has an active indicator programme, one goal of this joint endeavour has been to provide users with a consensus by leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies for the development and worldwide use of a single set of energy indicators. No set of energy indicators can be final and definitive. To be useful, indicators must evolve over time to fit country-specific conditions, priorities and capabilities. The purpose of this publication is to present one set of EISD for consideration and use, particularly at the national level, and to serve as a starting point in the development of a more comprehensive and universally accepted set of energy indicators relevant to sustainable development. It is hoped that countries will use the EISD to assess their energy systems and to track their progress towards nationally defined sustainable development goals and objectives. It is also hoped that users of the information presented in this publication will contribute to refinements of energy indicators for sustainable development by adding their own unique perspectives to what is presented herein

  6. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Guidelines and methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This publication is the product of an international initiative to define a set of Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development (EISD) and corresponding methodologies and guidelines. The successful completion of this work is the result of an intensive effort led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA), the International Energy Agency (IEA), Eurostat and the European Environment Agency (EEA). The thematic framework, guidelines, methodology sheets and energy indicators set out in this publication reflect the expertise of these various agencies, recognized worldwide as leaders in energy and environmental statistics and analysis. While each agency has an active indicator programme, one goal of this joint endeavour has been to provide users with a consensus by leading experts on definitions, guidelines and methodologies for the development and worldwide use of a single set of energy indicators. No set of energy indicators can be final and definitive. To be useful, indicators must evolve over time to fit country-specific conditions, priorities and capabilities. The purpose of this publication is to present one set of EISD for consideration and use, particularly at the national level, and to serve as a starting point in the development of a more comprehensive and universally accepted set of energy indicators relevant to sustainable development. It is hoped that countries will use the EISD to assess their energy systems and to track their progress towards nationally defined sustainable development goals and objectives. It is also hoped that users of the information presented in this publication will contribute to refinements of energy indicators for sustainable development by adding their own unique perspectives to what is presented herein

  7. The Development of a National Agricultural Extension Policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.; Sarkar, A. A.

    1996-01-01

    The background of agriculture in Bangladesh and the process of developing a national agricultural extension policy focused on sustainable development are described. The policy explicates the meaning of agricultural extension, use of agricultural knowledge and information systems, and 11 core principles. (SK)

  8. Public-private partnerships (PPPs) in development policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Lena; Petersen, Ole Helby

    2018-01-01

    exploration of the PPP concept. Based on a comprehensive review of the literature, we frame eight characteristics of PPPs in development policy. Turning then to exploration of empirical practice, we present a longitudinal analysis of PPPs in Danish development policy over a twenty-year period. The conceptual...

  9. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Efficient Market Hypothesis proposes that macroeconomic policy actions do not influence stock market development but the Tobin's q theory argues otherwise. This paper uses the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) technique to investigate the impact of macroeconomic policy on the development of the Ghana Stock ...

  10. Perspectives for the Development of a Working Life Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvid, Helge; Hasle, Peter

    2003-01-01

    A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity.......A discussion of the perspectives in a working life policy with development of both a humane working life and productivity....

  11. Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of education ...

  12. Imperatives and Guidelines for Bamboo Development Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's industrial policy has always hinged on the development and utilization of its locally available raw materials. The current industrial policy which came into operation in 1988 aimed at increasing private sector participation in the manufacturing sector and accelerated development and utilization of local raw materials ...

  13. Can We Improve Indicator Design for Complex Sustainable Development Goals?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burford, Gemma; Tamas, P.A.; Harder, Marie K.

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual framework was constructed for United Nations’ complex Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) Target 4.7 focusing on education for sustainable development (ESD), and used to analyse the usefulness and character of indicators produced from a values-based approach called ESDinds, compared to a

  14. Making Education Count: Developing and Using International Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France). Centre for Educational Research and Innovation.

    The chapters in this book were prepared during the second phase of a study conducted by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development to develop a set of International Indicators of Education Systems (INES). They were among the many studies presented at the General Assembly of the INES Project in Lugano (Switzerland), September 16-18,…

  15. Key Performance Indicators (KPI) Developing, Implementing, and Using Winning KPIs

    CERN Document Server

    Parmenter, David

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at how to create and use key performance indicators (KPIs), from the King of KPIs â€" now updated and expanded! By exploring measures that have transformed businesses, David Parmenter has developed a methodology that is breathtaking in its simplicity and yet profound in its impact. Now in an updated and expanded Second Edition, Key Performance Indicators is a proactive guide representing a significant shift in the way KPIs are developed and used, with an abundance of implementation tools, including: The four foundation stones that lead the development and use of KPIs; A 12-ste

  16. Assessment of the indicator of sustainable development for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, J. H.; Park, W. J.

    2003-01-01

    As a follow up to the agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicator in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for some countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program

  17. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice...... of Danish innovation policy practices is not accidental. In 2008 Denmark implemented 40 different national innovation programs by allocating about 400 million euros. Since the three emerging paradigms have become globally relevant, the discussion of Danish policy development challenges and practices...... is expected to be insightful for innovation experts from other developed countries that are currently dealing with the adoption of these paradigms....

  18. WEF nexus indicators: A study on the development of indicators for urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M. H.; Lo, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    Energy shortages and resources constraints have both emerged as one of the greatest challenges facing mankind this century.By 2030, humans will require 30% more water, 45% more energy and 50 % more food. The Food- Energy -Water (FEW) nexus is extensive and few areas are now untouched by it. Competition for energy and resources is increasing , especially in urban areas. To explore ways of meeting the challenges and seizing new opportunities, indicators could provide valuable information on complex issues in a relatively accessible way. In this paper, we develop a framework for selection of indicators, to assess the comprehensive sustainable status and trends to the FEW system .We identify indicators based on related ecosystem services to examine the status of FEW sustainability. We test the framework on two case studies in Taipei and Canberra. Several criteria were used to evaluate the usefulness of the selected indicators, including scalability and sensitivity . This paper identifies the need to establish indicators that entirely and largely reveal the potential of an ecosystem services support by FEW sustainability.

  19. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  20. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  1. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies - Vol 2, No 1 (2006) .... Locating oppressive use of language: a study of linguistic violence on nigerian ... trafficking - poverty link based on urban development and planning process ...

  2. Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Policy development and opportunities in ICT for sustainable food and nutrition ... improved marketing and distribution that would lead to food and nutrition security ... Bridging the digital divide through development and utilization of information ...

  3. Developing quality indicators for community services: the case of district nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Philippa; Wye, Lesley; Horrocks, Sue; Salisbury, Chris; Sharp, Debbie

    2011-01-01

    Quality indicators exist for the acute and primary care sectors in the National Health Service (NHS), but until recently little attention has been given to measuring the quality of community services. The innovative project described in this paper attempted to address that gap. To produce a framework for developing quality indicators for Bristol Community Health services. To develop a set of initial indicators for Bristol Community Health services using the proposed framework. After familiarising ourselves with community services and NHS policy, gathering the views of stakeholders and consulting the literature on quality indicators, we designed a framework for indicator development, using the 'test' case of the district nursing service. The long list of possible indicators came from best practice guidelines for wound, diabetes and end of life care, the three conditions most commonly treated by district nurses. To narrow down this list we surveyed and held workshops with district nurses, interviewed service users by telephone and met with commissioners and senior community health managers. The final set of quality indicators for district nurses included 23 organisational and clinical process and outcome indicators and eight patient experience indicators. These indicators are now being piloted, together with two potential tools identified to capture patient reported outcomes. Developing quality indicators for community services is time consuming and resource intensive. A range of skills are needed including clinical expertise, project management and skills in evidence-based medicine. The commitment and involvement of front-line professionals is crucial.

  4. Development towards sustainability: how to judge past and proposed policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmar, Michael

    2014-02-15

    Most countries have, at least since the 1992 United Nations summit in RIO, adopted some vague "sustainable development" policies. The goals of such policies are to combine economic growth with social development, while protecting our fragile planetary life support system. The scientific data about the state of our planet, presented at the 2012 (Rio+20) summit, documented that today's human family lives even less sustainably than it did in 1992. The data indicate furthermore that the environmental impacts from our current economic activities are so large, that we are approaching situations where potentially controllable regional problems can easily lead to uncontrollable global disasters. Despite these obvious failures, our political global leaders and their institutions are continuing the same "sustainable development" policies, which are now supplemented by equally vague ideas about future "green economies". Assuming that (1) the majority of the human family, once adequately informed, wants to achieve a "sustainable way of life" and (2) that the "development towards sustainability" roadmap will be based on scientific principles, one must begin with unambiguous and quantifiable definitions of these goals. As will be demonstrated, the well known scientific method to define abstract and complex issues by their negation, satisfies these requirements. Following this new approach, it also becomes possible to decide if proposed and actual policy changes will make our way of life less unsustainable, and thus move us potentially into the direction of sustainability. Furthermore, if potentially dangerous tipping points are to be avoided, the transition roadmap must include some minimal speed requirements. Combining the negation method and the time evolution of that remaining natural capital in different domains, the transition speed for a "development towards sustainability" can be quantified at local, regional and global scales. The presented ideas allow us to measure the

  5. Challenges to the Indicators on Science, Technology and Innovation Development

    OpenAIRE

    Chobanova, Rossitsa

    2006-01-01

    The paper attempts to define the challenges to the indicators on science, technology and innovation development which result from the contemporary dynamics of the global knowledge based economy progress and the pursued challenges of identification of the specific national priority dimensions for public funding research and innovation projects on the case of Bulgaria. It is argued that recent the most widespread methodologies of positioning science, technology and innovation indicators do not ...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A CERAMIC TAMPER INDICATING SEAL: SRNL CONTRIBUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krementz, D.; Brinkman, K.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Mendez-Torres, A.; Weeks, G.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  7. Development of a ceramic tamper indicating seal: SRNL contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krementz, Dan; Brinkman, Kyle S.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Michael J.; Mendez-Torres, Adrian E.; Weeks, George E.

    2013-01-01

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) are collaborating on development of a Ceramic Seal, also sometimes designated the Intrinsically Tamper Indicating Ceramic Seal (ITICS), which is a tamper indicating seal for international safeguards applications. The Ceramic Seal is designed to be a replacement for metal loop seals that are currently used by the IAEA and other safeguards organizations. The Ceramic Seal has numerous features that enhance the security of the seal, including a frangible ceramic body, protective and tamper indicating coatings, an intrinsic unique identifier using Laser Surface Authentication, electronics incorporated into the seal that provide cryptographic seal authentication, and user-friendly seal wire capture. A second generation prototype of the seal is currently under development whose seal body is of Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramic (LTCC) construction. SRNL has developed the mechanical design of the seal in an iterative process incorporating comments from the SNL vulnerability review team. SRNL is developing fluorescent tamper indicating coatings, with recent development focusing on optimizing the durability of the coatings and working with a vendor to develop a method to apply coatings on a 3-D surface. SRNL performed a study on the effects of radiation on the electronics of the seal and possible radiation shielding techniques to minimize the effects. SRNL is also investigating implementation of Laser Surface Authentication (LSA) as a means of unique identification of each seal and the effects of the surface coatings on the LSA signature.

  8. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  9. The integrated indicator of sustainable urban development based on standardization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonova Tatiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity for the system of planned indicators for sustainable urban development design in accordance with the requirements of international standards and the Russian standard GOST R ISO 37120-2015, and the estimation of their actual achievement based on complex qualimetric models. An analysis of opinions on this issue and an overview of Russian normative documents for assessing the effectiveness of the municipalities, including urban development are presented. General methodological principles and sequence for the construction of qualimetric models, as well as formulas for the calculation of complex indicators, taking into account the specific weights obtained on the basis of expert assessment, are presented, the need for careful selection of experts and determination of the consistency of expert opinions is indicated. The advantages and disadvantages of this approach are shown. Conclusions are drawn on the use of qualimetric models for sustainable urban development.

  10. Indicators of the development of defense logistics as a science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko D. Andrejić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In practice, there are several approaches in discussing the achieved level of development of a scientific discipline. One group of them concentrates on external indicators of the development of a scientific discipline, i.e. its research network, while the other group analyzes the science structure, i.e. its elements. The achieved level of the development of the defense system and its (external and internal environment, general knowledge on the development and the systematic treatment of science as well as the present situation in the society require an insight into the internal and external indicators of the development of defense logistics as a scientific discipline (Defense Science. General knowledge on the creation, development and interdependence of sciences as well as internal and external indicators of the achieved development level of Defense Logistics show that it should be developed in the network environment as a multidisciplinary science, in close cooperation with other special disciplines of logistics, within defense science. It could thus contribute to the improvement of the defense as an important public function as well as to closer contacts of the scientific disciplines dealing with technical systems and technologies with the so-called. orthodox military disciplines.

  11. Tools for tracking progress. Indicators for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, A.; Rogner, H.H.; Aslanian, G.

    2000-01-01

    A project on 'Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development (ISED)' was introduced by the IAEA as a part of its work programme on Comparative Assessment of Energy Sources for the biennium 1999-2000. It is being pursued by the Planning and Economic Studies Section of the Department of Nuclear Energy. The envisaged tasks are to: (1) identify the main components of sustainable energy development and derive a consistent set of appropriate indicators, keeping in view the indicators for Agenda 21, (2) establish relationship of ISED with those of the Agenda 21, and (3) review the Agency's databases and tools to determine the modifications required to apply the ISED. The first two tasks are being pursued with the help of experts from various international organizations and Member States. In this connection two expert group meetings were held, one in May 1999 and the other in November 1999. The following nine topics were identified as the key issues: social development; economic development; environmental congeniality and waste management; resource depletion; adequate provision of energy and disparities; energy efficiency; energy security; energy supply options; and energy pricing. A new conceptual framework model specifically tuned to the energy sector was developed, drawing upon work by other organizations in the environmental area. Within the framework of this conceptual model, two provisional lists of ISED - a full list and a core list - have been prepared. They cover indicators for the following energy related themes and sub-themes under the economic, social and environmental dimensions of sustainable energy development: Economic dimension: Economic activity levels; End-use energy intensities of selected sectors and different manufacturing industries; energy supply efficiency; energy security; and energy pricing. Social dimension: Energy accessibility and disparities. Environmental dimension: Air pollution (urban air quality; global climate change concern); water

  12. Analysis of Kerch by Local Indicators of Sustainable Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazygula, E.; Kharlamova, M.; Kozlova, E.

    2017-11-01

    This article presents an analysis of the city of Kerch (Crimea Republic, Kerch Peninsula) in accordance with the local sustainable development indicators. The authors carried out the assessment of the existing environmental problems in the city which was necessary for the further development of the environmentally oriented infrastructure under various development scenarios. Due to the natural and economic factors, Kerch can develop both as an industrial and recreational centre of the peninsula. The analysis of the atmospheric air condition, use of water and energy resources and the waste management system was conducted. The presented results showed the presence of major environmental problems in almost all spheres.

  13. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem, E-mail: dizdaroglu@bilkent.edu.tr

    2015-09-15

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [Turkish] Highlights: • As the impacts of environmental problems have multi-scale characteristics, sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all scales. • The detailed data is necessary to assess local environmental change in urban ecosystems to provide insights into the national and global scales. • This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. • This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature.

  14. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Developing Indicators of Service Quality Provided for Cardiovascular Patients Hospitalized in Cardiac Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Azami-Aghdash

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most prevalent chronic diseases leading to high degrees of mortality and morbidity worldwide and in Iran. The aim of the current study was to determine and develop appropriate indicators for evaluating provided service quality for cardiovascular patients admitted to Cardiac Care Units (CCU in Iran. Methods: In order to determine the indicators for evaluating provided service quality, a four-stage process including reviewing systematic review articles in premier bibliographic databases, interview, performing two rounds of Delphi technique, and holding experts panel by attendance of experts in different fields was adopted. Finally, after recognizing relevant indicators in resources, these indicators were finalized during various stages using ideas of 27 experts in different fields. Results: Among 2800 found articles in the text reviewing phase, 21 articles, which had completely mentioned relevant indicators, were studied and 48 related indicators were extracted. After two interviews with a cardiologist and an epidemiologist, 32 items of the indicators were omitted and replaced by 27 indicators coping with the conditions of Iranian hospitals. Finally, 43 indicators were added into the Delphi phase and after 2 rounds of Delphi with 18 specialists, 7 cases were excluded due to their low scores of applicability. In the experts’ panel stage, 6 items were also omitted and 10 new indicators were developed to replace them. Eventually, 40 indicators were finalized. Conclusion: In this study, some proper indicators for evaluating provided service quality for CCU admissions in Iran were determined. Considering the informative richness of these indicators, they can be used by managers, policy makers, health service providers, and also insurance agencies in order to improve the quality of services, decisions, and policies.

  16. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  17. Applying of the Agenda 21 and evaluating of the indicators of the sustainable development in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In the Slovak Republic the Agenda 21 and The Strategy, principles and priorities of the state environmental policy were accepted. In the Appendix 1 the selected 132 indicators of the sustainable development in the Slovak Republic and their warrantors are described. In the Appendix 2 the chapters of the Agenda 21 and their warrantors in the Slovak Republic are included. They are grouped into for groups (and 40 chapters): (1) The social indicators of the sustainable development; (2) The economic indicators of the sustainable development; (3) The environmental indicators of the sustainable development. (4) The institutional indicators of the sustainable development

  18. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  19. Developing a Sexual Harassment Policy for Sheldon Jackson College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddick, Jan

    A practicum to determine the need for a sexual harassment policy and to develop an appropriate policy for Sheldon Jackson College, Alaska, is described. The objective of the practicum was to determine the impact of equal opportunity legislation, specifically as it relates to sexual harassment of students, on the private college campus. The…

  20. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  1. AGROZOOTECHNICAL INDICATORS FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN MARAMURES COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talida Daniela Giambasu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Researching the Romanian contemporary rural space requires the determination of certain criteria expressed as indicators, which capture the dynamics of such space, its strong points that can be developed, as well as its weak spots that can be corrected. In Maramures County, the rural environment faces a set of significant matters that require urgent settlement in order to fulfil the desire to obtain sustainable development. To this end, using classic investigation methods (observation, comparison, interrogation, bibliographic research, several indicators of the agricultural sector were determined and analyzed, whereas the dynamics of these indicators is related to the timeframe 2008-2013. The conclusion of this work can be successfully corroborated with other studies, in order to sketch a full picture of the economic, social and cultural mosaic existing at the level of Maramures County.

  2. INDICATORS FOR DIGITALIZATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN PEEX PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Bobylev

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX program and indicators for monitoring of implementation and digitalization of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG inRussia, especially environmental goals. The authors considered the possibility of integration and identification of the methodological approaches of the socio-economic research to environmental sciences. Paper gives insights into the international framework of the United nations, addreses several relevant indicators to be monitored in a Russian perspective and summarizes shortly the status of the monitoring activities and provide an overview on the main tasks for the upcoming years to reach the sustainable development goals established by the United Nations. The tasks to which the Goals divided are considered in detail. The indicators of Russian statistics that can be used to monitor the implementation of these tasks are determined. It is shown, that more detailed regional analysis and new data is needed in order to quantify the feedbackloops.

  3. Developing and Using Dashboard Indicators in Student Affairs Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Joshua J.; Ryder, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Dashboard systems are increasingly popular as assessment and performance management tools in higher education. This chapter examines the use of dashboards in student affairs, including examples of key indicators and considerations for developing and implementing these tools. The chapter begins with an overview of the origins of dashboards, from…

  4. Composite Indices of Development and Poverty: An Application to MDGs

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pasquale; Mazziotta, Matteo; Pareto, Adriano

    2011-01-01

    The measurement of development or poverty as multidimensional phenomena is very difficult because there are several theoretical, methodological and empirical problems involved. The literature of composite indicators offers a wide variety of aggregation methods, all with their pros and cons. In this paper, we propose a new, alternative composite…

  5. Developing an Evaluation Framework of Quality Indicators for Learning Analytics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffel, Maren; Drachsler, Hendrik; Specht, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results from the continuous process of developing an evaluation framework of quality indicators for learning analytics (LA). Building on a previous study, a group concept mapping approach that uses multidimensional scaling and hierarchical clustering, the study presented here

  6. Developing micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for sustainability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dizdaroglu, Didem

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability assessment is increasingly being viewed as an important tool to aid in the shift towards sustainable urban ecosystems. An urban ecosystem is a dynamic system and requires regular monitoring and assessment through a set of relevant indicators. An indicator is a parameter which provides information about the state of the environment by producing a quantitative value. Indicator-based sustainability assessment needs to be considered on all spatial scales to provide efficient information of urban ecosystem sustainability. The detailed data is necessary to assess environmental change in urban ecosystems at local scale and easily transfer this information to the national and global scales. This paper proposes a set of key micro-level urban ecosystem indicators for monitoring the sustainability of residential developments. The proposed indicator framework measures the sustainability performance of urban ecosystem in 3 main categories including: natural environment, built environment, and socio-economic environment which are made up of 9 sub-categories, consisting of 23 indicators. This paper also describes theoretical foundations for the selection of each indicator with reference to the literature [tr

  7. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  8. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  9. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  10. Towards a Comparative Index of Seaport Climate-Risk: Development of Indicators from Open Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, R. D.; Becker, A.

    2016-02-01

    Seaports represent an example of coastal infrastructure that is at once critical to global trade, constrained to the land-sea interface, and exposed to weather and climate hazards. Seaports face impacts associated with projected changes in sea level, sedimentation, ocean chemistry, wave dynamics, temperature, precipitation, and storm frequency and intensity. Port decision-makers have the responsibility to enhance resilience against these impacts. At the multi-port (regional or national) scale, policy-makers must prioritize adaptation efforts to maximize the efficiency of limited physical and financial resources. Prioritization requires comparing across seaports, and comparison requires a standardized assessment method, but efforts to date have either been limited in scope to exposure-only assessments or limited in scale to evaluate one port in isolation from a system of ports. In order to better understand the distribution of risk across ports and to inform transportation resilience policy, we are developing a comparative assessment method to measure the relative climate-risk faced by a sample of ports. Our mixed-methods approach combines a quantitative, data-driven, indicator-based assessment with qualitative data collected via expert-elicitation. In this presentation, we identify and synthesize over 120 potential risk indicators from open data sources. Indicators represent exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity for a pilot sample of 20 ports. Our exploratory data analysis, including Principal Component Analysis, uncovered sources of variance between individual ports and between indicators. Next steps include convening an expert panel representing the perspectives of multiple transportation system agencies to find consensus on a suite of robust indicators and metrics for maritime freight node climate risk assessment. The index will be refined based on expert feedback, the sample size expanded, and additional indicators sought from closed data sources

  11. Policy Recommendations for Developing Foreign-invested Enterprise in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原磊

    2008-01-01

    China has undergone the three major stages in its development of foreign-invested enterprise: exploratory development, accelerated development and innovative development. This harnessing of foreign investment has resulted in tremendous success for China, including making up for the funds shortage for economic construction, promoting corporate technological progress and management expertise, easing employment pressure, increasing fiscal revenue and boosting trade. At the same time, there have been problems, including questions of economic security, environment and energy issues, unequal competition and problems with the management of foreign-invested enterprises. To promote the development of foreign-invested enterprises in both a healthy and rapid fashion, China should look toward "maintaining policy continuity, promoting the forward-looking nature of policy, strengthening policy guidance and highlighting policy innovativeness."

  12. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  13. Assessing nanocellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Henrique Milanez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nanocellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nanocellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nanomaterials. Scientific and technological future developments in nanocellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nanocellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nanocellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nanocellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nanocellulose S&T advances in the coming years.

  14. Assessing nano cellulose developments using science and technology indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanez, Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria, Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin, Jose Angelo Rodrigues, E-mail: douglasmilanez@yahoo.com.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos (UFSCar), SP (Brazil). Nucleo de Informacao Tecnologica em Materiais. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2013-11-01

    This research aims to examine scientific and technological trends of developments in nano cellulose based on scientometric and patent indicators obtained from the Science Citation Index and Derwent Innovations Index in 2001-2010. The overall nano cellulose activity indicators were compared to nanotechnology and other selected nano materials. Scientific and technological future developments in nano cellulose were forecasted using extrapolation growth curves and the main countries were also mapped. The results showed that nano cellulose publications and patent documents have increased rapidly over the last five years with an average growth rate higher than that of nanotechnology and fullerene. The USA, Japan, France, Sweden and Finland all played a significant role in nano cellulose development and the extrapolation growth curves suggested that nano cellulose scientific and technological activities are still emerging. Finally, the evidence from this study recommends monitoring nano cellulose S and T advances in the coming years. (author)

  15. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  16. Policy development for biodiversity offsets: a review of offset frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A; Kiesecker, Joseph M

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks-US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) "additionality" (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) "currency" and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  17. GRTgaz 10-year indicative development plan 2007-2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    GRTgaz is a European leader in natural gas transmission, a world expert in gas transmission networks and systems, and an operator firmly committed to the energy transition. It owns and operates the gas transmission network throughout most of France and it manages the transmission network in Germany, thereby helping to ensure correct operation of the French and European gas market. It contributes to the energy security of regional supply systems and performs a public service mission to ensure the continuity of consumer supply. In accordance with the French Energy Code, GRTgaz publishes a 10-year development plan for its gas distribution network in France every year. This document is produced in line with European and French energy policies. It identifies the transport infrastructure that will need to be built over the next three years, and presents the main infrastructure that is likely to be developed within the next ten years. It incorporates the supply security obligations that TSOs are required to fulfil. It takes account of interested parties' needs and projects at the national, supranational and European levels. It is based on existing gas supply and demand and reasonable medium-term development forecasts for gas infrastructure, consumption and international trade

  18. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....

  19. Development and use of safety indicators at STUK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiipana, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives an outline of the development and use of STUK's indicator system at the department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) in the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, STUK. Indicators used at YTO are measures related to the safety of nuclear installations and regulatory activities. Indicators are numbers, ratios, percentages and amounts of interested matters that are for suitable for regulatory purposes, that is assessment and trending of the safety of nuclear installations and regulatory activities. STUK's indicator system is divided into two main areas: safety of nuclear facilities and regulatory activities. Safety of nuclear facilities is divided into 3 areas based on the concept of defence in de safety and quality culture, operational events and physical barriers. Regulatory activities are divided into 3 areas: working processes, resource management and regeneration and ability to work. These areas are measured using several indicators. At the moment some of indicators are included in YTO's management system to measure whether or not internally set goals are achieved. (author)

  20. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  1. Analyzing Agricultural Sustainability Indicators,Under Energy Subsidy Reduction Policy(Case Study of Qorveh Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Balali

    2016-03-01

    region, situated in the West of Iran. Materials and Methods: The statistical sample of this research includes all irrigated land of Qorveh as the studied area. A partial equilibrium model has been applied by mathematic programming approach in order to analyze the economic and environmental effects of reduction of energy subsidies for the agriculture sector in the studied area. For this purpose, through a survey, questionnaires were used in order to identify production coefficients of agriculture products and farmers' behavior during 2012-2013. Then relevant equations were used in mathematical programming framework with the aim of maximizing gross margin of agriculture activities in planning horizon by using GAMS 22.9. Results and Discussion: The results showed that by increasing energy price in policy scenarios of ES1 to ES7 the gross margin of agriculture activities decreases. Also, the results indicate that by implementation of scenarios SE1 and SE2, most economical and environmental indicators of agricultural sustainability will be improved and increasing energy prices as the mentioned policy scenarios has the most effect on GM_ELEC , GM_GAS, and NIT_H indicators and reduces them by 10.7%, 0.97% and 1.48%, respectively. In scenarios ES3 to ES5 with respect to scenarios ES1 and ES2, there is only 7% decrease in the NIT_H index. In scenario ES6, which grows electricity cost by 2.25 times and diesel fuel cost by 1.98 times, GM_ELEC, and GM_WA have the maximum decrease, namely 12.66% and 14.47%, respectively and WA_H has reached 9010 which shows an increase of 6.47%. In scenario ES7, with the exception of WA_H, GM_ELEC and GM_GAS other indicators decreased and this shows that the closer we keep to real energy prices, the more improvement we observe in the environmental indicators. Conclusions: Consequently, results showed that the reduction of energy subsidies leads to reductions in economic indicators of the study area, as total gross margins. Also, the results showed

  2. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  3. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  4. Integrated policy analysis of sustainable urban and transportation development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Feng, T.; Fujiwara, A.; Fujiwara, A.; Zhang, Junyi

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban and transportation development needs to balance economic sustainability, environmental sustainability, and social equity. This study conducts integrated policy analyses by explicitly incorporating these sustainability goals and optimizing the performance of transportation networks.

  5. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role ... SPDC's main areas of research are poverty, inequality, governance, provincial ... and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  6. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  7. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic ... IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of ... The project will also encourage and assist in the creation of a business ...

  8. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing. ... In doing so, the book examines the underlining international developmental, ethical, economic, and political issues shaping ...

  9. Impacts of public policy on rail development in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Identifying the State policies that most directly affect or advance railroad development begins with an : understanding of how railroads make investment decisions. Railroads are a capital-intensive business, : owning all physical assets, locomotives,...

  10. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... law and policy ranging from the economic, social and environmental dimensions. ... international development scholars and experts from Italy, United Kingdom, ... Contractual agreements in Ghana's oil and gas industry: In whose interest?

  11. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  12. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  13. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  14. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  15. Developing a Model for Assessing Public Culture Indicators at Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisam Latifi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed to develop a model for assessing public culture at universities and evaluating its indicators at public universities in Mashhad. The research follows an exploratory mixed approach. Research strategies in qualitative and quantitative sections are thematic networks analysis and descriptive- survey method, respectively. In the qualitative section, document analysis and semi-structured interviews with cultural experts are used as research tools. In this section, targeted sampling is carried out. In the quantitative section, a questionnaire which is developed based on the findings of the qualitative section is used as the research tool. Research population of the quantitative section consists of all the students who are admitted to public universities in Mashhad between 2009 and 2012. Sample size was calculated according to Cochran’s formula. Stratified sampling was used to select the sample. The results of the qualitative section led to the identification of 44 basic themes which are referred to as the micro indicators. These themes were clustered into similar groups. Then, 10 organizer themes were identified and recognized as macro indicators. In the next phase, importance factor of each indicator is determined according to the AHP method. The results of the qualitative assessment of indicators at public universities of Mashhad show that the overall cultural index declines during the years the student attends the university. Additionally, the highest correlation exists between national identity and revolutionary identity. The only negative correlations are observed between family and two indicators including social capital and cultural consumption. The results of the present study can be used to assess the state of public culture among university students and also be considered as a basis for assessing cultural planning.

  16. Measuring occupational stress: development of the pressure management indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Cooper, C L

    1998-10-01

    The study of occupational stress is hindered by the lack of compact and comprehensive standardized measurement tools. The Pressure Management Indicator (PMI) is a 120-item self-report questionnaire developed from the Occupational Stress Indicator (OSI). The PMI is more reliable, more comprehensive, and shorter than the OSI. It provides an integrated measure of the major dimensions of occupational stress. The outcome scales measure job satisfaction, organizational satisfaction, organizational security, organizational commitment, anxiety--depression, resilience, worry, physical symptoms, and exhaustion. The stressor scales cover pressure from workload, relationships, career development, managerial responsibility, personal responsibility, home demands, and daily hassles. The moderator variables measure drive, impatience, control, decision latitude, and the coping strategies of problem focus, life work balance, and social support.

  17. Energy Indicators 2012. Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2012. Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-06-15

    The Swedish Energy Agency has a mandate to identify indicators for follow-up of the energy policy objectives. A first presentation of indicators was done in 2002. Since then, annual presentations have been made with different themes. Past themes have been the electricity market (2003), district heating and natural gas market (2004), energy consumption (2005), oil consumption (2006), secure energy supply (2007), renewable energy (2008), EU (2009) and energy efficiency (2011). This year's theme is bioenergy development.

  18. The management of conflict in nutrition policy formulation: choosing growth-monitoring indicators in the context of dual burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoey, Lesli; Pelletier, David L

    2011-06-01

    We argue in this paper that a shared desire to find a solution to malnutrition and agreement at a broad level concerning priority, evidence-based interventions are important but not sufficient conditions for effective policy development. This paper illustrates this point, and draws out general implications, through a detailed analysis of a case in which conflict emerged when committed nutrition policy actors began discussing the details of program design and implementation. The case involves one country's effort to select "the best" anthropometric indicator for use in its national child growth-monitoring program. In this case the interested parties approached this deceptively simple decision for different reasons, using different sources and standards of evidence and focusing their attention on opposite, but equally critical, operational considerations, while being heavily influenced by global, national, and interorganizational events and relationships. We suggest that actors seeking to translate political commitment for nutrition into effective action should recognize the technical and sociopolitical complexity of seemingly simple decisions related to intervention design and employ more systematic, intentional, and inclusive decision-making procedures. Without attention to such practical matters, the current window of opportunity to reduce malnutrition on a global scale may quickly close.

  19. Relevance of gender-sensitive policies and general health indicators to compare the status of South Asian women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Roopan; Stewart, Donna E

    2011-01-01

    despite goals for gender equity in South Asia, the relationship between gender-sensitive policies and the empowerment of women is complex and requires an analysis of how policies align with a broad set of social, cultural, political, and economic indicators that relate to women's health. through a review of four documents under the umbrella of the World Health Organization and the United Nations, a list of 17 gender-sensitive policy and 17 general health indicators was generated with a focus on health, education, economic, and political empowerment and violence against women. A series of policy documents and international and national databases that are accessible in the public domain were the major tools used to find supporting documentation to address women's health outcomes in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. all five South Asian countries had several gender-sensitive policies that were measurable by indicators that contribute to health. Examination of political and economic status, birth sex ratios, human trafficking, illiteracy rates, maternal mortality rates, contraception prevalence, fertility rates, knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention, access to skilled birth attendants, and microfinance show that large gender inequities still prevail despite the presence of gender-sensitive policies. in many cases, the presence of gender-sensitive policies did not reflect the realization of gender equity over a wide range of indicators. Although the economic, political, social, and cultural climates of the five countries may differ, the integration of women's needs into the formulation, implementation, and monitoring of policies is a universal necessity to achieve positive outcomes. 2011 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Development of Organ-Specific Donor Risk Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Akkina, Sanjeev K.; Asrani, Sumeet K.; Peng, Yi; Stock, Peter; Kim, Ray; Israni, Ajay K.

    2012-01-01

    Due to the shortage of deceased donor organs, transplant centers accept organs from marginal deceased donors, including older donors. Organ-specific donor risk indices have been developed to predict graft survival using various combinations of donor and recipient characteristics. We will review the kidney donor risk index (KDRI) and liver donor risk index (LDRI) and compare and contrast their strengths, limitations, and potential uses. The Kidney Donor Risk Index has a potential role in devel...

  1. Development of Seismic Resistance Position Indicator for the Integral Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Je-Yong; Huh, Hyung; Choi, Myoung-Hwan; Kim, Ji-Ho; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is related to position sensing means and more particularly, to a magnetic position sensor using a permanent magnet and a compact arrangement of reed switches in a nuclear power plant. The reed switch position transmitter (RSPT) is used as a position indicator for the control rod in commercial nuclear power plants made by ABB-CE. But this position indicator has some problems when directly adopting it to the integral reactor. Its indicating resolution (1-1/2 inch (38.1mm)) is suitable to measure the position of a control rod which is driven by a motor having steps of 3/4 inch (19.05mm). But the Control Element Drive Mechanism (CEDM) for the integral reactor is designed to raise and lower the control rod in steps of 2mm in order to satisfy the design features of the integral reactor which are the soluble boron free operation and the use of a nuclear heating for the reactor start-up. These design features require a CEDM for the integral reactor to have a fine-step movement for a fine reactivity control. Therefore the resolution of the position indicator for the integral reactor should be achieved to sense the position of the control rod more precisely than that of the RSPT of the ABB-CE. This paper adopts seismic resistance reed switches to the position indicator in order to reduce the damages or impacts during the handling of the position indicator and earthquake. The control rod position indicator having a seismic resistance characteristic for the integral reactor was developed on the basis of the RSPT technology identified through the survey

  2. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-12-31

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses.

  3. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  4. Working with Toronto neighbourhoods toward developing indicators of community capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Suzanne F; Cleverly, Shelley; Poland, Blake; Burman, David; Edwards, Richard; Robertson, Ann

    2003-12-01

    Often the goal of health and social development agencies is to assess communities and work with them to improve community capacity. Particularly for health promoters working in community settings and to ensure consistency in the definition of health promotion, the evaluation of health promotion programmes should be based on strengths and assets, yet existing information for planning and evaluation purposes usually focuses on problems and deficits. A model and definition of community capacity, grounded in community experience and focusing on strengths and assets, was developed following a 4-year, multi-site, qualitative, action research project in four Toronto neighbourhoods. There was significant community involvement in the four Community Advisory Committees, one for each study site. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews and focus groups were conducted with 161 residents and agency workers identified by the Community Advisory Committees. The data were analyzed with the assistance of NUDIST software. Thematic analysis was undertaken in two stages: (i) within each site and (ii) across sites, with the latter serving as the basis for the development of indicators of community capacity. This paper presents a summary of the research, the model and the proposed indicators. The model locates talents and skills of community members in a larger context of socioenvironmental conditions, both inside and outside the community, which can act to enable or constrain the expression of these talents and skills. The significance of the indicators of community capacity proposed in the study is that they focus on identifying and measuring the facilitating and constraining socioenvironmental conditions.

  5. Exploration of sustainable development by applying green economy indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yungkun; Chen, Chia-Yon; Hsieh, Tsuifang

    2011-11-01

    Following the global trend of sustainable development, development of green economy is the best way of slowing the negative ecological and environmental impact. This research establishes the Taiwan's green economic indicators based on the ecological footprint and energy analysis. The results are as follows: Taiwan's ecological footprint in 2008 intensity index was at 4.364; ecological overshoot index was at 3.364, showing that Taiwan's ecological system is in overload state. Moreover, this study utilizes energy analysis model to study the sustainable development of Taiwan. Findings showed that total energy use in 2008 was 3.14 × 10(23) sej (solar energy joule, sej), energy of renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22) sej, energy of nonrenewable resources was 2.26 × 10(23) sej, energy of products from renewable resources was 1.30 × 10(22)sej, energy of currency flow was 8.02 × 10(22) sej and energy of wastes flow was 6.55 × 10(22) sej. Taiwan's energy per capita and the utilization rate of energy is lower while the environmental loading rate is significantly higher comparing to some other countries. The foregoing findings indicate that Taiwan currently belongs to an economic development pattern based on high resource consumption. The economic development is mainly established on the exploitation and utilization of nonrenewable resources. Therefore, Taiwan should change the development pattern, regulate the industrial structure, promote the utilization rate of resources, develop green pollution-free products, and enhance the sustainable development of ecological economic system.

  6. The process of construction of evidence: An analysis of the use of indicators in two decisions of innovation policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boavida, N.; Moniz, A.; Laranja, M.

    2016-07-01

    Despite increasing calls for evidence-based policies, knowledge about the practical use of evidences remains limited. This paper studies the process of construction of evidences in decisions of innovation policy to understand how evidences were used. It analysis the use of indicators and other evidences through interviews conducted to inquire about the two decisions: an electric mobility policy and a nanotechnology laboratory. Results show indicators and other evidences were brought to decision processes according to their availability and capacity to support the different interests of the actors and the stakeholders. Their role was influenced by the particular situation of the decision makers. More importantly, the use of persuasive analytical evidences appears to be related with the adversity of the policy context. In addition, research suggests that indicators are one tool among others to foster innovation decisions. In fact, the relatively minor instrumental role of indicators suggests that indicators are mostly a complementary instrument of decision. When used relevantly, indicators can offer support to a decision. But there are other significant influences that need to be taken into account to understand the specific role indicators and other evidences play, such as the social relations of the decision makers and their emotional-intuitive decisions. (Author)

  7. Development of key performance indicators for prehospital emergency care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Adrian; Wakai, Abel; Walsh, Cathal; Cummins, Fergal; O'Sullivan, Ronan

    2016-04-01

    Key performance indicators (KPIs) are used to monitor and evaluate critical areas of clinical and support functions that influence patient outcome. Traditional prehospital emergency care performance monitoring has focused solely on response time metrics. The landscape of emergency care delivery in Ireland is in the process of significant national reconfiguration. The development of KPIs is therefore considered one of the key priorities in prehospital research. The aim of this study was to develop a suite of KPIs for prehospital emergency care in Ireland. A systematic literature review of prehospital care performance measurement was undertaken followed by a three-round Delphi consensus process facilitated by a broad-based multidisciplinary group of panellists. The consensus process was conducted between June 2012 and October 2013. Each candidate indicator on the Delphi survey questionnaire was rated using a 5-point Likert-type rating scale. Agreement was defined as at least 70% of responders rating an indicator as 'agree' or 'strongly agree' on the rating scale. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. Sensitivity of the ratings was examined for robustness by bootstrapping the original sample. Of the 78 citations identified by the systematic review, 5 relevant publications were used to select candidate indicators for the Delphi round 1 questionnaire. Response rates in Delphi rounds 1 and 2 were 89% and 83%, respectively. Following the consensus development conference, 101 KPIs reached consensus. Based on the Donabedian framework for quality-of-care indicators, 7 of the KPIs which reached agreement were structure KPIs, 74 were process KPIs and 20 were outcome KPIs. The highest ranked indicator was a process KPI ('Direct transport of ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients to a primary percutaneous intervention (PCI)-capable facility for ECG to PCI time performance measurement using scientifically valid and reliable KPIs. Employing a Delphi panel of key

  8. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Nkegbe is Editorial Secretary and Head of Department, Department of Economics and Entrepreneurial Studies, Faculty of Integrated Development Studies, University for Development Studies. He holds a Ph.D in Agricultural and Food Economics from the University of Reading, United Kingdom. He is a Senior Lecturer in ...

  9. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After independence rural development, hitherto an ensemble of discrete interventions, became part of the overall national development plan. ... This paper attempts to fill this gap, trying to show that the familiar parameters of Lesotho's economy - dependency, dominance of foreign aid, poverty and subsistence production ...

  10. Cultural Policies Development in Italian Regions between Heritage and Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Di Giangirolamo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how cultural policies developed in Italy. In particular the attention is focused especially on the development of public policies between the Sixties and the first half of the Seventies. This period can be defined as a summit of the debate and policies that in Italy began, after the Unification and stills on today. The decentralization of the State’s functions and consequently the first regional initiatives in the field of culture are a central passage of this process. In this way, in the relationship between national and local organisation appears a new attention to the development of cultural policies. A definition of heritage and landscape that is nowadays related to the evolution of cultural itineraries that involves local institution in cooperation and interaction towards the support of this form of sustainable and cultural tourism.

  11. Irrigation water quality as indicator of sustainable rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajković Slaviša

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable rural development more and more depends on the efficient usage of water resources. Most often, at least in one part of the year, the rain is not sufficient for plant growth and rain plant production significantly depends on the yearly precipitation variation. The increase and stability of the agricultural production is possible in the irrigation conditions. The most part (around 70% of the global water resources is used for food production. Irrigation water quality indicator is used to show if the available water resources have the required quality for application in agriculture. Irrigation is characterised by the complex water-plant-soil relationship, and in that eco-system the man as the end user of the irrigated fields occupies a very important place. That explains the difficulties in producing one universal classification of irrigation water quality. The paper analyses numerous water quality classifications from the aspect of the applicability on the quantifying of this indicator. The adopted classification should possess understandable, qualified and internationally comparable indicator. Thus, local classifications (Neigebauer, Miljkovic cannot be used for this indicator. United Nation Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO and US Salinity Laboratory (USSL classifications are used for the evaluation of the irrigation water quality throughout the world. FAO classification gives the complex picture of the usability of the irrigation water from the point of its influence on the soil and the plants. However, the scope of the analyses is not often suited to the needs of that classification, which makes it difficult to apply. The conclusion is that the USSL (US Salinity Laboratory classification is best suited to this range of chemical water analyses. The evaluation of the irrigation water quality indicator in the Juzna Morava river basin, upstream from the Toplica river estuary is given in this paper. Based on the obtained

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF THE LEVEL INDICES SYSTEM OF UNIVERSITY INTERNATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem R. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation is to show possible variants of audit in the higher educational institution while processes of internationalisation (procedures of definition of its level; to find out an estimation method of the received results in the given sphere.Methods. The methods involve comparative analysis, synthesis, range and systematization of information concerning the discussed problem.Results and scientific novelty. The necessity of universities participating in internationalization processes is proved. Existing approaches to internationalization evaluation levels are reviewed, as well as best practices for each criterion. Level indicators of considered process are proposed due to summarising the results of the given review, and also as a result of the coordination of criteria NAFSA and authors’ system of indicators: international programs supporting by a university administration, curricular changes, faculty involving into international research, faculty involving into teaching process, students participation, abroad study support, international students and teachers support. The research demonstrates that to improve the adequacy the system of indicators has to be supplemented with some indicators to evaluate the conformity of a university’s internationalization to its mission; the conformity of a university’s internationalization to the government geopolitics; extracurricular activities of students; cultural aspects of internationalization including communication with local ethnical groups; attractiongetting mechanisms for international students.Practical significance. The proposed system of indicators can be used for an estimation of high school development in internationalisation sphere, and under certain correction and improvement for efficiency definition of development of its academic divisions in the given field.

  13. The Development of a Multisource and a Systematized Database for Economic and Policy Impact Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ec. Filippo Oropallo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ISTAT is involved in various EU projects with the objective of "supporting the Lisbon objectives, EU governance and the process of national policy coverage with the best EU-wide and national policy impact and evaluation analyses". Existing knowledge on policy impact analyses is approximate. The "facts" on the impact of policies are charted only at the aggregate level and with a high degree of approximation. Macro indicators have well-known pitfalls and drawbacks. Understanding how policies affect economic performance and developing better indicators to gauge their effects is central to endow the EU with a set of efficient and fair policies. The gap in European knowledge and capacity for Policy Impact Analysis is patent. The DIECOFIS EU-FP5 project has taken up the challenge of reducing this gap in the field of taxation. Results have been quite encouraging and have open new vistas for future work. Particularly notable has been the development of a system of micro-founded indicators, based on factuals and counterfactuals, estimated through micro-simulation models. This has led to the current utilization of such a tool in the ex-ante microsimulation of the effects of several reforms of corporate taxation

  14. Trade as an indicator of social and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Serebryakova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions of trade in the Russian Federation became the most important type of entrepreneurship. It is, in a number of objective and subjective reasons, is the most rapidly developing sector of the national economy, affecting the interests of all subjects of market relations: population, manufacturers of commercial products, government and trade. Currently in the internal trade of the Russian Federation there have been significant changes occurring under the influence of growing tensions on the international market, in the economy of our country and within the trading industry. But despite the deteriorating economic situation in the world and strained relations between the Russian Federation and its European and American partners, the latest statistics indicate the translational dynamics of retail trade turnover in the whole country, and in the Voronezh region. Retail trade turnover is among the most important indicators of economic and social development of the Voronezh region and the country as a whole. Its structure and volume characterize the level of consumption of goods population, the increase or decrease of welfare of the people. Through retail sales is a constant influence on the development of the volume and structure of production of consumer goods. This article assessed the relationship between the economic development of the Voronezh region as one of average of region of our country, its trade and standard of living of Voronezh.

  15. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... if improved and rationalized as an agroforestry system, has high potential for poverty ... with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the ... International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development.

  16. “BRAINSTORM” OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDEXES AND INDICATORS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE VOLGA BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Kostina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – development of management strategies ensuring sustainable development of the territories of the Volga river basin and its administrative units.Methods. In the research we used various methods of mathematical statistics, systematic principles. We propose the conception of "brainstorming" for the assessment of the territory using indices and indicators of sustainable development.Results. We selected nine indicators and indices. We have conducted a correlation analysis of the selected indices and indicators of sustainable development, all of which reflect the state of social, ecological and economic systems. For an integrated assessment of the two objects one introduced the "critical" and the "reference" state and fixed values for each index and indicator under the review. Factor analysis in the space of two principal components is conducted as well as one carried out the calculation of generalized desirability function for each administrative unit of the Volga river basin. "Brainstorm", taking into consideration indices and indicators of sustainable development, showed similarities in the administrative units of the Volga river basin, which primarily reflects approximately the same socio-ecological-economic development, defined by a single policy and economic decisions.Conclusion. The analysis revealed different management strategies of sustainable development of regions. The first group (strategy A includes the Republic of Tatarstan, and Chuvashia, Moscow and Samara regions, which should pay special attention to investments in improving the "life quality" by stabilizing and reducing the degree of anthropogenic load on the territory. The second group (strategy B: Astrakhan, Volgograd, Kirov, Tver and Kostroma and Perm regions - it is advisable to do finance and investment of resources in public education, increase the average lifetime, increase the incomes of the population. For the remaining areas optimally

  17. Monitoring energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} abatement policies: what can we learn from indicators UNFCC workshop best practices in PAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosseboeuf, D. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie, ADEME, 49 - Angers (France); Chaterau, B.; Lapillonne, B. [ENERDATA 38 - Gieres (France)

    2000-04-01

    Since 1992, 15 national agencies in charge of implementing energy efficiency and environmental policies have developed a monitoring tool for energy efficiency assessment called 'ODYSSEE'. To monitor trends of energy efficiency CO{sub 2}, a set of comparable energy efficiency indicators and CO{sub 2} indicators among countries has been commonly defined, calculated and interpreted by participants. Supported by the European Commission, This project will be used to provide 'official indicators' by the Commission. These indicators are calculated at different levels: by sector, end uses etc. This presentation will focus on how these indicators can be used to assess energy efficiency policy measures through examples over the different sectors. A selection of a priority set of indicators could be used to report on the impact of policies and measures. Such a framework for a set of indicators and reporting on PAM's could emerge under the condition of transparencies with respect to the methodology used. Since the first oil shock, various policies and measures (PAM's) on energy efficiency have been set up in Europe with different amplitudes and timing They have been reinforced with a new legitimacy with the raise of climate change concerns. Ministries, energy And environmental agencies or organisations in charge of the implementation of the programmes are directly concerned by the question of the evaluation of their actions. Among the different methodologies, macro-sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} indicators are helpful to monitor and evaluate energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} trends and policies. This paper presents an European initiative (the ODYSSEE project) carried out by 15 European countries since 1992. The use of indicators Certainly requires a transparent and consensual methodology which will be firstly presented. In a second part, we will illustrate how these indicators could be used to assess sectoral energy efficiency and CO{sub 2

  18. Development of an indicator to monitor mediterranean wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Antonio; Abdul Malak, Dania; Guelmami, Anis; Perennou, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are sensitive ecosystems that are increasingly subjected to threats from anthropogenic factors. In the last decades, coastal Mediterranean wetlands have been suffering considerable pressures from land use change, intensification of urban growth, increasing tourism infrastructure and intensification of agricultural practices. Remote sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques are efficient tools that can support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands on large scales and over long periods of time. The study aims at developing a wetland indicator to support monitoring Mediterranean coastal wetlands using these techniques. The indicator makes use of multi-temporal Landsat images, land use reference layers, a 50m numerical model of the territory (NMT) and Corine Land Cover (CLC) for the identification and mapping of wetlands. The approach combines supervised image classification techniques making use of vegetation indices and decision tree analysis to identify the surface covered by wetlands at a given date. A validation process is put in place to compare outcomes with existing local wetland inventories to check the results reliability. The indicator´s results demonstrate an improvement in the level of precision of change detection methods achieved by traditional tools providing reliability up to 95% in main wetland areas. The results confirm that the use of RS techniques improves the precision of wetland detection compared to the use of CLC for wetland monitoring and stress the strong relation between the level of wetland detection and the nature of the wetland areas and the monitoring scale considered.

  19. The role of bureaucratic expertise in nuclear waste policy: Agency power and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agency expertise in the nuclear waste policy process is explored during three periods: (1) 1957-1959 when nuclear wastes entered the public agenda, (2) 1970-1972 when the Atomic Energy Commission attempted to establish a waste repository in Kansas, and (3) 1984-1986 during the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The study evaluated whether the preconditions for dependence on or deference to agency expertise have become less favorable, weakening agency control of the policy process. Five factors of expertise power are evaluated, beginning with the agency's role in the nuclear-energy and radioactive-waste information system. Perspectives on nuclear energy generally and of waste issues specifically are examined next; both indicate attitudes on the tractability of the problem and the likelihood of policy success. References to agency behavior and policies are used to evaluate views of agency competency. Finally, views of agency trustworthiness are examined through the comparison of portrayals of agency priorities and motivations. Agency expertise is evaluated in four contexts: (1) Congressional hearings, (2) nationally prominent newspapers, (3) journals of the scientific community, and (4) state and local papers of affected areas. State and tribal officials involved in the 1980s' nuclear waste policy process were surveyed also

  20. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  1. New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Development expert Todd Moss analyzes these trends in US development policy and forecasts what changes to expect. He also relates these trends to Canada – facing some similar issues – including how the challenges will affect the way the two countries cooperate on development. Listen to the audio ...

  2. [Migration, urbanization, and development policy in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dione, D

    1992-01-01

    "The various studies focussing on human settlements in Senegal show that the share of population living in cities is ever increasing because of the massive and continuous flow from rural areas. The persistance of such migration trends from the country to cities deepens regional disparities, compounds the difficulties and cost of city management and development, specially in the case of Dakar, and runs counter to the goals of social and economic development plans.... The growing importance of such phenomena calls for the designing of corrective measures in favour of rural areas and small towns in order to settle rural populations and halt the inordinate and chaotic geographical growth of large cities. Failing this, development efforts may well be compromised." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  3. Development of radiological performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.S.; Jung, K.H.; Lee, S.H.; Jang, S.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to improve the regulatory approach to check the licensee's compliance with regulation regarding radiation protection in operating nuclear power plants (NPPs). The current domestic inspection program for NPPs requires inspectors to conduct compliance-inspection for the systems/equipment and the procedures of NPPs. In this work, we have developed a set of draft radiological performance indicators (PIs) to assess radiation safety in NPPs. The development of PIs was based on the concept that the licensees' implementation of the radiation protection program in NPPs should be able to achieve the goal of radiation protection which the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has recommended as ICRP 60 (1991). We selected and/or developed the radiological performance indicators considering the radiation exposure network (source-environment-receptor) for NPPs. The PIs intend to be applied only to normal exposure due to normal operations including transient operational conditions, but not to potential exposure due to accidents. Also, we have chosen the receptor as workers who are occupationally exposed to radiation as well as the members of public who are exposed to radiation from radioactive effluents. The PIs intend to track the past performance rather than to expect the future performance. Finally, the individual PIs do not verify the root cause of the trend of performance; however, they provide the basis for deciding whether the procedures and work management have been properly implemented. Currently a set of 21 draft PIs has been developed for the exposure network in NPPs. For the receptor, the PIs are divided into worker individual dose, worker collective dose and public individual dose. For the environment, the PIs are related to the dose rates of controlled areas, radioactive material concentrations in controlled areas, radioactive contamination in controlled areas and at exit points, and radioactive effluent

  4. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  5. Greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    2001-01-01

    The chapter begins with an introduction of the main arguments for why global cost-effectiveness in GHG emission reduction policies will suggest that an international collaboration about the policies is established such as initiated by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A general conceptual overview is given on the cost concepts that are relevant to apply to the evaluation of GHG emission reduction policies, and the methodological framework of GHG emission reduction cost studies for developing countries are introduced. The studies have in particular focussed on GHG emission reduction options in the energy sector, and a number of costing results are reported for this sector. Finally, the chapter considers potential local side-impacts on development, the local environment, and social policy objectives of GHG emission reduction projects seen from the perspective of developing countries. It is concluded that there is a potential for combining global cost-effectiveness principles for GHG emission reduction policies, and local policy objectives of developing countries. (LN)

  6. Housing policies in developing countries: Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, P.G.S.M.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; O’Mahony, L.H.; Ong, S.E.; Wachter, S.; Wood, G.

    2012-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need for which financial means are required. Poorer sections of society face difficulties in accessing and coping with conventional mortgage finance and are better assisted with housing microfinance. This enables the poor, especially in 'developing' countries to build their

  7. English and development policy, pedagogy and globalization

    CERN Document Server

    Erling, Elizabeth J

    2013-01-01

    This book investigates the relationship between English and personal and national development in the era of globalization. It addresses the effects that the increased use of English and the promotion of English-language education are having in developmental contexts, and their impact on broader educational issues.

  8. Development and appropriation of an integration policy for sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2011-01-01

    the history and culture of the society in which it is created. Second, policy is seen as discourses that are articulated by specific institutions, and third, the anthropological perspective focuses on the ways in which policy is a applied and interpreted in practice. The first part of this article therefore...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear......-Danish ethnic background) appropriate these political assumptions....

  9. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie-Desvergne, C.; Dubosson, M.; Lacombe, M.; Brun, V.; Mossuz, V.

    2015-05-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations.

  10. Nanoparticle exposure biomonitoring: exposure/effect indicator development approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marie-Desvergne, C; Dubosson, M; Mossuz, V; Lacombe, M; Brun, V

    2015-01-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (NP) is more and more widespread in various industrial sectors. The inhalation route of exposure is a matter of concern (adverse effects of air pollution by ultrafine particles and asbestos). No NP biomonitoring recommendations or standards are available so far. The LBM laboratory is currently studying several approaches to develop bioindicators for occupational health applications. As regards exposure indicators, new tools are being implemented to assess potentially inhaled NP in non-invasive respiratory sampling (nasal sampling and exhaled breath condensates (EBC)). Diverse NP analytical characterization methods are used (ICP-MS, dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy coupled to energy-dispersive X-ray analysis). As regards effect indicators, a methodology has been developed to assess a range of 29 cytokines in EBCs (potential respiratory inflammation due to NP exposure). Secondly, collaboration between the LBM laboratory and the EDyp team has allowed the EBC proteome to be characterized by means of an LC-MS/MS process. These projects are expected to facilitate the development of individual NP exposure biomonitoring tools and the analysis of early potential impacts on health. Innovative techniques such as field-flow fractionation combined with ICP-MS and single particle-ICPMS are currently being explored. These tools are directly intended to assist occupational physicians in the identification of exposure situations. (paper)

  11. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  12. Energy Indicators 2013 - Follow-up of Sweden's energy policy objectives; Energiindikatorer 2013 - Uppfoeljning av Sveriges energipolitiska maal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-09-01

    The Swedish Energy Agency has been commissioned by the government to develop indicators for monitoring the energy policy objectives. A first report of indicators was published in 2002. Thereafter, annual reports have been published, with different themes. Past themes have been the Electricity market (2003), District heating and natural gas market (2004), Energy (2005), Oil use (2006), Energy security (2007), Renewable Energy (2008), EU (2009), Energy efficiency (2011) and Bioenergy development (2012). This year's theme is 'Transportation' and beyond there are also theme extensions as 'District heating market' and 'Cost comparison of heating options for apartment buildings' as attachments to this report. The publication begins with a brief review of the energy policy goals. Then we describe two thematic indicators, five light indicators and twenty basic indicators. While this report will serve as a tool for monitoring the energy policy objectives it's our hope that it will also make a contribution to the discussion on the development of the future Swedish energy system. The previous publications are available on the Agency's Web site, www.energimyndigheten.se.

  13. What drives the gender gap in STEM? The SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL) as a new approach to linking indicators to STI policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, E.; Schaaper, M.; Bello, A.

    2016-07-01

    There is a large imbalance in the participation of women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) fields across all of Latin American countries despite the fact that the region has one of the highest proportions of female researchers worldwide (44% according to UIS statistics). Female researchers face persisting institutional and cultural barriers, which limit the development of their careers and constrains their access to decision-making positions. In this framework, UNESCO has launched the STEM and Gender Advancement (SAGA) project, which has for objective to address the gender gap in STEM fields in all countries at all levels of education and research as well as to promote women’s participation in science. SAGA is a global UNESCO project with the support of the Swedish Government through the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida). One of the outcomes of this project is the SAGA Science, Technology and Innovation Gender Objectives List (STI GOL), which is an innovative tool that aids in the identification of gaps in the policy mix. Additionally, the STI GOL configures the conceptual backbone of the SAGA project, by linking gender equality STI policy instruments with indicators. By using the STI GOL, and identifying the gender gaps, policy-makers will be able to implement evidence-based policies in STEM fields. The SAGA STI GOL is a new and innovative way of contributing to the development of effective gender sensitive policies in STI fields, both in education and in the workplace. Likewise, it enables the categorization of STI policies and instruments, with the objective of identifying gaps in the policy mix and aid in the creation and design of evidence-based public policies to promote gender equality. (Author)

  14. SOLAR ENERGY POLICY DEVELOPMENTS IN EUROPE

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela PÃCE?ILÃ

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is one of the most important renewable energy sources in Europe offering new possibilities to generate electricity and heat. In this context, the study provides accurate information about researches that characterize the solar resource and investigates the potential of solar energy in European countries. The analysis is also focused on the current status of market development including photovoltaic capacity, electricity production from solar photovoltaic power, solar thermal capa...

  15. Public-Private Collaboration on Productive Development Policies in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Eslava; Marcela Meléndez Arjona; Guillermo Perry

    2014-01-01

    This Working Paper analyzes the institutions that shape public-private collaboration for the design and implementation of productive development policies in Colombia. These policies are increasingly designed in the context of formal institutions and venues, with public-private collaboration being a pillar of that formal design. This paper focuses on two specific case studies: the Private Council for Competitiveness and its role in the National Competitiveness System and the Productive Transfo...

  16. Monitoring of agricultural policy developments in the Western Balkan countries

    OpenAIRE

    VOLK TINA; REDNAK MIROSLAV; ERJAVEC EMIL; ZHLLIMA EDVIN; GJECI GRIGOR; BAJRAMOVIĆ SABAHUDIN; VAŠKO ŽELJKO; OGNJENOVIĆ DRAGANA; BUTKOVIĆ JAKUB; KEROLLI-MUSTAFA MIHONE; GJOKAJ EKREM; HOXHA BEKIM; DIMITRIEVSKI DRAGI; KOTEVSKA ANA; STAMENKOVSKA IVANA JANESKA

    2017-01-01

    This reports provides the analysis of the monitoring of agricultural policy in the Western Balkans (WB) countries. This reports attempts to show (i) the main development patterns in production and trade in WB; (ii) an overview of the new policy framework (new programming documents from the period 2013-2015) and its implementation; (iii) the scope and structure of budgetary transfers to agriculture in regional comparison and also in terms of approximation with the CAP; and (iv) the main charac...

  17. Heritage and Patrimony of the Peasantry Framework and Rural Development Indicators in Rural Communities in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Alberto Pachon Ariza

    Full Text Available Abstract: The analytical framework “heritage and patrimony of the peasantry” and its recommended implementation theoretically provide an enhancement over previous methodologies to examine rural development. The current paper measures rural development indicators in six Mexican rural territories, and analyses their interaction in the heritages and patrimonies of the peasantry. The principal indicators that affect the patrimonies in these regions were recognised as Pluriactivity, Social Acknowledgment, Biodiversity and Recycling. Based on these outcomes, the indicators that belong to the Human Patrimony define it as the lowest of all the heritages of the Mexican peasantry. The analysis of the results remarks on the fact that the emphasis of public policies on productive concerns has left out complicated social problems such as the loss of identity, diversity and culture. These matters are becoming the strongest threat affecting the Mexican peasantry to improve their quality of life while respecting their human rights.

  18. Measuring health inequality among children in developing countries: does the choice of the indicator of economic status matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, Tanja A. J.; Kunst, Anton E.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Currently, poor-rich inequalities in health in developing countries receive a lot of attention from both researchers and policy makers. Since measuring economic status in developing countries is often problematic, different indicators of wealth are used in different studies. Until now,

  19. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    and sustainable development goals. Essential, uncertain and limited interactions are mapped out as a result, their overview indicates that a full reconciliation between these policies and sustainability goals is not always attainable. The careful alignment and contextual examination of interactions between...... measures and goals as exemplified in this approach can help inform practical transport energy policy that better match an agenda for sustainable development.......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  20. Developing policy analytics for public health strategy and decisions-the Sheffield alcohol policy model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel

    This paper sets out the development of a methodological framework for detailed evaluation of public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction to meet UK policy-makers needs. Alcohol is known to cause substantial harms, and controlling its affordability and availability are effective policy options. Analysis and synthesis of a variety of public and commercial data sources is needed to evaluate impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers and industry, so a sound evaluation of impact is important. We discuss the iterative process to engage with stakeholders, identify evidence/data and develop analytic approaches and produce a final model structure. We set out a series of steps in modelling impact including: classification and definition of population subgroups of interest, identification and definition of harms and outcomes for inclusion, classification of modifiable components of risk and their baseline values, specification of the baseline position on policy variables especially prices, estimating effects of changing policy variables on risk factors including price elasticities, quantifying risk functions relating risk factors to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and monetary valuation. The most difficult model structuring decisions are described, as well as the final results framework used to provide decision support to national level policymakers in the UK. In the discussion we explore issues around the relationship between modelling and policy debates, valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions. We reflect on the approach taken and outline ongoing plans for further development.

  1. The price of policy risk — Empirical insights from choice experiments with European photovoltaic project developers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lüthi, Sonja; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Managing the transition to a renewable energy future is an important policy priority in many countries. Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is expected to make an essential contribution, but due to relatively high cost, its growth to date has been largely driven by public policy, notably feed-in tariffs. Feed-in tariffs have been implemented in various countries, but with widely differing outcomes in terms of installed PV capacity. Previous research indicates that the level of policy risk may be an important driver for differences in renewable energy policy effectiveness. This paper suggests that project developers who make a decision between PV investment opportunities in different countries carefully weigh feed-in tariff-induced returns against a set of policy risks, and choose the country with the most favorable risk-return profile. This model is empirically tested by a stated preference survey among European PV project developers, consisting of 1575 choice decisions by 63 investors. The findings demonstrate that risk matters in PV policy design, and that a “price tag” can be attached to specific policy risks, such as the duration of administrative processes or uncertainty induced by an approaching capacity cap. Governments can build on these empirical results to design policies that will be effective in attracting private PV investment, while at the same time maintaining efficiency by providing an adequate compensation for policy risk. - Highlights: ► This study is based on 1575 choice and rating decisions made by 63 European PV project developers. ► This study confirms importance of “non-economic” barriers to deployment of renewable energy. ► This study measures “price of policy risk”, i.e. investors' willingness-to-accept certain policy risks.

  2. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  3. AN ANALYSIS OF IMPORTANT POLICIES FOR ACCELERATING DEVELOPMENT IN NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarshan Neupane

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Nepal belongs to one of the least developed countries around the world with HDI 157 out of 187 countries (UNDP 2013. Even though poverty in Nepal has reduced to 24.8% in the latest census, the livelihoods of the poorest people living in the remote communities are still vulnerable. Two third of the population still depends on the subsistence agriculture. Similarly, due to lack of job opportunities, youth migration is escalating and Nepal is facing one of the most critical phases of development in its history (Snellinger 2009. Inadequate infrastructure and poor road connectivity are other constraints for the development (World Bank 2011. It follows that, poor access to electricity is another challenge despite the country’s enormous potential for hydroelectricity. Similarly, Nepal  has huge prospective for tourism due to its unique natural resources (Bhandari 2004. Nonetheless, Nepal has not benefited optimally from the tourism sector for its self-sustained development. Recently Government of Nepal (2011 has announced diverse policies for accelerating development through proper utilization of local resources. This paper critically evaluates the crucial policies such as Agriculture Development Strategy, National Cooperatives Policy, National Youth Policy, and Micro-hydro for Rural Development, and Tourism for Development. The paper discusses each of these policies’ background; critically analyse the likelihood as well as challenges for fast-tracking development; and finally offers some recommendations based discussion and analysis.

  4. Environment 1994: Policy for sustainable, environmentally compatible development. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Economic, social and ecological development are inseparably interlaced. This is the essential message of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development 1992 in Rio. Linking of economic, social and ecological aspects is also the main approach of German environmental policy. Environmentally compatible recycling, comprehensive product liability, and just attribution of environmental consumption costs are major targets of this national strategy for the promotion of sustainable development. High standards and strict limiting values form the foundation of effective environmental protection. The further integration of environmental protection in all areas of activity and policy fields will be a central concern especially in the 90s. (orig./TF) [de

  5. Policy recommendations to promote shale gas development in China based on a technical and economic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Jiehui; Luo, Dongkun; Xia, Liangyu; Feng, Lianyong

    2015-01-01

    Because of its resource potential and clean burning advantages, the development of shale gas can significantly increase the supply of cleaner energy while offering the associated benefits. To foster shale gas development, many policy incentives have been introduced in China. However, the current incentives have not been sufficiently aggressive, and the shale gas industry has been slow to develop. Existing policies thus need to be further improved. To provide effective support for decision makers in China, a technical and economic evaluation is performed in this study to explore the profitability of shale gas production in pilot zones. The results show that shale gas production is subeconomic under the current technical and economic conditions. Based on this evaluation, a policy analysis is conducted to investigate the profitability improvement offered by the major policies available in China to elucidate a path toward improving incentive policies. The results indicate that policy instruments related to gas prices, financial subsidies, corporate income taxes or combinations thereof could be used as priority options to improve policy incentives. Based on these results, recommendations are presented to improve the current incentive polices aimed at accelerating shale gas development. -- Highlights: •We explore the economic feasibility of shale gas development in China. •Current incentive policies cannot render shale gas development economically viable. •These incentives must be improved to effectively promote shale gas development. •We investigate the effect of the major policies available in China to light a path. •Recommendations are proposed to continually improve the incentive polices in China

  6. Extent of East-African Nurse Leaders’ Participation in Health Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Shariff

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports part of a bigger study whose aim was to develop an empowerment model that could be used to enhance nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. A Delphi survey was applied which included the following criteria: expert panelists, iterative rounds, statistical analysis, and consensus building. The expert panelists were purposively selected and included national nurse leaders in leadership positions at the nursing professional associations, nursing regulatory bodies, ministries of health, and universities in East Africa. The study was conducted in three iterative rounds. The results reported here were gathered as part of the first round of the study and that examined the extent of nurse leaders’ participation in health policy development. Seventy-eight (78 expert panelists were invited to participate in the study, and the response rate was 47%. Data collection was done with the use of a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was done by use of SPSS and descriptive statistics were examined. The findings indicated that nurse leaders participate in health policy development though participation is limited and not consistent across all the stages of health policy development. The recommendations from the findings are that health policy development process needs to be pluralistic and inclusive of all nurse leaders practicing in positions related to policy development and the process must be open to their ideas and suggestions.

  7. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  8. Kenya AIDS Indicator Surveys 2007 and 2012: implications for public health policies for HIV prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, William K; Kim, Andrea A; Rutherford, George W; Harper, Malayah; K'Oyugi, Boniface O; Sharif, Shahnaaz; Kichamu, George; Muraguri, Nicholas M; Akhwale, Willis; De Cock, Kevin M

    2014-05-01

    AIDS Indicator Surveys are standardized surveillance tools used by countries with generalized HIV epidemics to provide, in a timely fashion, indicators for effective monitoring of HIV. Such data should guide responses to the HIV epidemic, meet program reporting requirements, and ensure comparability of findings across countries and over time. Kenya has conducted 2 AIDS Indicator Surveys, in 2007 (KAIS 2007) and 2012-2013 (KAIS 2012). These nationally representative surveys have provided essential epidemiologic, sociodemographic, behavioral, and biologic data on HIV and related indicators to evaluate the national HIV response and inform policies for prevention and treatment of the disease. We present a summary of findings from KAIS 2007 and KAIS 2012 and the impact that these data have had on changing HIV policies and practice.

  9. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  10. Macroeconomic policies for development in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ffrench-Davis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the link between the macroeconomic environment and development (economic growth with equity. The aim of the analysis is to compare two alternative approaches to interpreting and implementing macroeconomics. The first to come under analysis is the financialist or neoliberal approach, which places the emphasis on macroeconomic balance, giving particular weight to the two cornerstones of low inflation and control of the fiscal budget, together with general openness of the capital account. The second approach –which we will call the “alternative”– is the productivist approach, which places the emphasis on a comprehensive group of macroeconomic balances: or rather, in addition to low inflation and fiscal responsibility, it involves a real balanced economy; that is to say, an aggregate demand that is consistent with the economy’s productive capacity and with a sustainable external balance. This second approach involves, firstly, a high coefficient of the use of productive factors (capital and work while, secondly, it attempts to prevent vulnerability in front of costly crises of external origin. Finally, the author argues that the broadest macroeconomic objectives demand more and better political instruments in the context of the globalisation of financial volatility.

  11. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  12. Agrarian Reform Policies and Development in the Arab Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baali, Fuad

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze and evaluate the nature, scope, and implications of the rural development in the Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa. The first section of the paper deals with the forces that have caused changes in agrarian reform policies as they affected rural development in these countries. Specifically…

  13. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We welcome submissions that focus on any aspect of sustainable development law and policy ranging from the economic, social and environmental dimensions. Consequently, papers that explore broad themes of sustainable development such as agriculture, banking, e-commerce, environment, natural resources, public ...

  14. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  15. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  16. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  17. The use of a policy dialogue to facilitate evidence-informed policy development for improved access to care: the case of the Winnipeg Central Intake Service (WCIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damani, Zaheed; MacKean, Gail; Bohm, Eric; DeMone, Brie; Wright, Brock; Noseworthy, Tom; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna; Marshall, Deborah A

    2016-10-18

    Policy dialogues are critical for developing responsive, effective, sustainable, evidence-informed policy. Our multidisciplinary team, including researchers, physicians and senior decision-makers, comprehensively evaluated The Winnipeg Central Intake Service, a single-entry model in Winnipeg, Manitoba, to improve patient access to hip/knee replacement surgery. We used the evaluation findings to develop five evidence-informed policy directions to help improve access to scheduled clinical services across Manitoba. Using guiding principles of public participation processes, we hosted a policy roundtable meeting to engage stakeholders and use their input to refine the policy directions. Here, we report on the use and input of a policy roundtable meeting and its role in contributing to the development of evidence-informed policy. Our evidence-informed policy directions focused on formal measurement/monitoring of quality, central intake as a preferred model for service delivery, provincial scope, transparent processes/performance indicators, and patient choice of provider. We held a policy roundtable meeting and used outcomes of facilitated discussions to refine these directions. Individuals from our team and six stakeholder groups across Manitoba participated (n = 44), including patients, family physicians, orthopaedic surgeons, surgical office assistants, Winnipeg Central Intake team, and administrators/managers. We developed evaluation forms to assess the meeting process, and collected decision-maker partners' perspectives on the value of the policy roundtable meeting and use of policy directions to improve access to scheduled clinical services after the meeting, and again 15 months later. We analyzed roundtable and evaluation data using thematic analysis to identify key themes. Four key findings emerged. First, participants supported all policy directions, with revisions and key implementation considerations identified. Second, participants felt the policy roundtable

  18. Methodological developments in US state-level Genuine Progress Indicators: toward GPI 2.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Berik, Günseli; Gaddis, Erica J. Brown

    2014-01-01

    The Genuine Progress Indicator (GPI) has emerged as an important monetary measure of economic well-being. Unlike mainstream economic indicators, primarily Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the GPI accounts for both the benefits and costs of economic production across diverse economic, social, and environmental domains in a more comprehensive manner. Recently, the GPI has gained traction in subnational policy in the United States, with GPI studies being conducted in a number of states and with their formal adoption by several state governments. As the GPI is applied in different locations, new methods are developed, different data sources are available, and new issues of policy relevance are addressed using its component indicators. This has led to a divergence in methods, reducing comparability between studies and yielding results that are of varying methodological sophistication. In this study, we review the “state of the art” in recent US state-level GPI studies, focusing on those from Hawaii, Maryland, Ohio, Utah, and Vermont. Through adoption of a consistent approach, these and future GPI studies could utilize a framework that supports more uniform, comparable, and accurate measurements of progress. We also identify longer-term issues, particularly related to treatment of nonrenewable resource depletion, government spending, income inequality, and ecosystem services. As these issues are successfully addressed and disseminated, a “GPI 2.0” will emerge that better measures economic well-being and has greater accuracy and policy relevance than past GPI measurements. As the GPI expands further into mainstream policy analysis, a more formal process by which methods could be updated, standardized, and applied is needed.

  19. A policy for development of project management. Projektijuhtimise arendamise poliitika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvi Kuura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The share of temporary tasks and activities organised through projects and/or programmes is increasing in modern societies and also in businesses, non-profit and public organisations. To manage an increasing load of projects and programmes, the majority of organisations employ more skilled project management professionals and develop their project management capabilities. Against that background, most governments globally have not paid much attention to the development of project management. In other words, the project management capability (or maturity has not been a macro-level or policy concern. The article explores the importance of project management capabilities and the need for suitable policies, and outlines a policy for the development of project management

  20. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  1. Indicators for sustainable development 2012; Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Homstvedt, Svein; Kolshus, Kristine E.

    2012-11-01

    This report presents the updated set of Norwegian sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. This report is the result of a fruitful collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data, text and assessments for various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have also made contributions from their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for energy and environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. Main findings: Economic capital, The net national income per capita shows an increasing trend in the period from 1985, The generational accounts indicate a need to tighten public finances with an amount equivalent to between 7.8 and 10 per cent of GDP to ensure balanced long-term public finances. Social and human capital: Life expectancy in Norway continues to increase, The level of education in Norway has increased substantially over the last 30-40 years, The household income distribution in 2010 is at about the same level as in the 1990s. The income inequality in Norway is small compared to many other European countries and in a global context, Unemployment is low in Norway by international standards. About 10 per cent of the population receives a disability pension. Still, few other countries have a higher labour force participation rate. Natural resources and environmental capital: The energy intensity of the economy is decreasing, but the total energy use is still increasing. The percentage renewable energy is not significantly higher today than it was thirty years ago. Several important fish stocks in Norwegian waters are currently at high levels, and they are being harvested sustainably. The size of the spawning stock of Northeast Arctic cod is now at the highest level seen during the whole times series which goes back to

  2. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Preliminary Calculation of the Indicators of Sustainable Development for National Radioactive Waste Management Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheong, Jae Hak; Park, Won Jae

    2003-01-01

    As a follow up to the Agenda 21's policy statement for safe management of radioactive waste adopted at Rio Conference held in 1992, the UN invited the IAEA to develop and implement indicators of sustainable development for the management of radioactive waste. The IAEA finalized the indicators in 2002, and is planning to calculate the member states' values of indicators in connection with operation of its Net-Enabled Waste Management Database system. In this paper, the basis for introducing the indicators into the radioactive waste management was analyzed, and calculation methodology and standard assessment procedure were simply depicted. In addition, a series of innate limitations in calculation and comparison of the indicators was analyzed. According to the proposed standard procedure, the indicators for a few major countries including Korea were calculated and compared, by use of each country's radioactive waste management framework and its practices. In addition, a series of measures increasing the values of the indicators was derived so as to enhance the sustainability of domestic radioactive waste management program.

  4. Indicators of Discontinuous Change in the Development of Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosenfeld; van der Maas HLJ; van den Boom DC

    1997-03-01

    In a longitudinal study, five indicators of a transition in the development of analogical reasoning were examined in young elementary school children, (a) bimodality and (b) inaccessibility in the frequency distributions of test performance, and in the responses of the transitional subjects, respectively, (c) sudden jumps, (d) anomalous variance, and (e) critical slowing down. An open-ended geometric-analogies test was administered eight times during a period of six months to eighty children in Grades 1 and 2 (six- to eight-year-olds). Strong evidence for bimodality was found in the distribution of the test scores and weaker evidence for inaccessibility. In the performance curves of the transitional subjects sudden jumps were demonstrated. Furthermore, the transitional subjects displayed a temporary increase of inconsistent solution behavior and solution time near the sudden jump. The characteristic changes in the analogy performance of the transitional subjects were interpreted as a strategy shift.

  5. Policy, Personalities and Pedagogy: The Use of Simulation Games to Teach and Learn about Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Gerard; Overton, John

    2011-01-01

    Simulation games have a long history in education and are well suited to learning about negotiation, power, relationships and uncertain outcomes. This paper reflects on the experience of using a semester-long simulation game to introduce postgraduate students to development policy. It focuses on three issues identified in the literature--realism,…

  6. A Collaborative Approach to Bridging the Research-Policy Gap through the Development of Policy Advice Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Barry John; Lay-Yee, Roy; McLay, Jessica; Tobias, Martin; Tuohy, Pat; Armstrong, Ann; Lynn, Robert; Pearson, Janet; Mannion, Oliver; Davis, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a software-based tool to support a dynamic micro-simulation model of life-course development (to age 13) as an aid to policy makers assessing the impact of policies affecting children. We demonstrate how this approach bridges the research-policy gap by creating: (1) an easy transfer of evidence in a form that policymakers can use…

  7. International Security, Development, and Human Rights: Policy Conversion or Conflict?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-ling Lin Hasenkamp

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This article uses an institutional network governance approach to explore the overlapping dimension of the policy fields between security, development, and human rights, reflected in the US and German provincial reconstruction teams (PRTs in Afghanistan. The past two decades have witnessed a gradually changing paradigm in academic and policy debates regarding the questions of the normative basis of world order and possibilities for tackling imminent threats to security and peace (i.e. intra-state armed conflicts, failed states, terrorism, poverty, and deepening inequality. The introduction of concepts such as “human security” and “the right to humanitarian intervention/responsibility to protect (R2P” as well as critical examinations of peace-, nation-, and state-building missions (PNSB have led to a relativist tendency of state sovereignty and a changing attitude regarding how to address the intersection of security, development, and human rights. Despite this shift, the policy commitments to integrating these policy considerations remain puzzling. How have they been redefined, conceptualized, and put into practice? I argue that an integrated conceptual approach has facilitated the redefinition of common policy goals, principles, and the mobilization of resources. At the same time, civil and military cooperation, as demonstrated in the multifunctional work of PRTs, has been Janus-headed—permanently caught in an ongoing tension between the war on terror and short-term stability operation on the one hand and long-term durable peace and development on the other. The misunderstanding of its interim character, the dynamics of Afghan environment, the blurring of policy lines, and the differences between national PRT models have made it difficult to systematically assess the efficiency and legitimacy of each policy frame and program.

  8. Using social media to engage nurses in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan

    2017-11-01

    To explore nurses' views on future priorities for the profession and to examine social media as an engagement tool to aid policy discussion and development. Nurses are often not directly involved in policy creation and some feel it is a process they cannot easily influence. A descriptive mixed methods study of a Twitter chat hosted by the Chief Nursing Officer for Scotland was undertaken. Data were gathered using an analytics platform and NCapture software. The framework approach aided thematic analysis to draw out themes. Sixty-four people took part in the Twitter chat (#CNOScot) and posted 444 tweets. Nurses called for investment in technology, nursing research, education and mental health. Primary care and advanced practice roles to support older adults with complex health and social care needs were also seen as vital to develop further. Social media can help reach and engage nurses in policy discussion and ensure there is better continuity between policy and practice but some groups risk being excluded using this digital medium. Nursing leaders should consider social media as one of many engagement strategies to ensure nurses and other stakeholders participate in policy debate that informs health strategy development. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The development and state regional policy in the V4 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Pristach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available -\tArticle provides an overview of the current state of development of regional policy in the European Union, which compares with developments in the countries of the Rose Group (Slovakia, Czech Republic, Hungary and Poland -\tit informs about the possibilities of regional, structural and cohesion European Union policy -\tobjectives and instruments of regional policy in the programming period 2007 – 2013 -\tWhat is NUTS regions and cohesion. in all countries analyzed evaluates and compares economic regions according to objective level verifiable indicators. They include gross domestic product (GDP in purchasing power parity (PPP 1 per capita and unemployment levels -\twork describes the strategies, objectives, instruments, program and institutional framework of regional policy in individual countries.

  10. Environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia: unity in diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Arif; Azam, Muhammad; Abdullah, Alias Bin; Malik, Ihtisham Abdul; Khan, Anwar; Hamzah, Tengku Adeline Adura Tengku; Faridullah; Khan, Muhammad Mushtaq; Zahoor, Hina; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-06-01

    Environmental quality indicators are crucial for responsive and cost-effective policies. The objective of the study is to examine the relationship between environmental quality indicators and financial development in Malaysia. For this purpose, the number of environmental quality indicators has been used, i.e., air pollution measured by carbon dioxide emissions, population density per square kilometer of land area, agricultural production measured by cereal production and livestock production, and energy resources considered by energy use and fossil fuel energy consumption, which placed an impact on the financial development of the country. The study used four main financial indicators, i.e., broad money supply (M2), domestic credit provided by the financial sector (DCFS), domestic credit to the private sector (DCPC), and inflation (CPI), which each financial indicator separately estimated with the environmental quality indicators, over a period of 1975-2013. The study used the generalized method of moments (GMM) technique to minimize the simultaneity from the model. The results show that carbon dioxide emissions exert the positive correlation with the M2, DCFC, and DCPC, while there is a negative correlation with the CPI. However, these results have been evaporated from the GMM estimates, where carbon emissions have no significant relationship with any of the four financial indicators in Malaysia. The GMM results show that population density has a negative relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, in case of M2, this relationship is insignificant to explain their result. Cereal production has a positive relationship with the DCPC, while there is a negative relationship with the CPI. Livestock production exerts the positive relationship with the all four financial indicators; however, this relationship with the CPI has a more elastic relationship, while the remaining relationship is less elastic with the three financial indicators in a country

  11. Climate policy in developing countries and conditional transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role international transfers may play in international climate policy in consideration of the policy's ancillary benefits, such as air quality improvements. Ancillary benefits are especially important in many developing countries, while climate protection benefits or primary benefits play a minor role on the political agenda of these countries. In contrast, industrialized countries have a strong interest in combating climate change. These often neglected asymmetries between the developing and industrialized world affect the impacts of transfers. Interestingly, as we will show, the cost differentials between different environmental technologies among countries are the crucial prerequisite for the functioning of a transfer scheme and not the cost differentials in the execution of climate policy. This result has been overlooked by standard pure public good approaches

  12. Putting Climate Change Adaptation in the Development Mainstream. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Paris, R.

    2005-03-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable because their economies are generally more dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, and because they are less able to cope with the impacts of climate change. How development occurs has implications, in turn, for climate change and for the vulnerability of societies to its impacts. Climate change adaptation needs to be brought into the mainstream of economic policies, development projects, and international aid efforts. Considerable analytical work has been done on how development can be made climate-friendly in terms of helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, although implementation remains a challenge. Much less attention has been paid to how development can be made more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In a narrow engineering sense, this could involve taking climate changes into account in the siting and design of bridges and other infrastructure. At a policy level, it could involve considering the implications of climate change on a variety of development activities including poverty reduction, sectoral development, and natural resource management. Bridging the gap between the climate change adaptation and development communities, however, is not easy. The two communities have different priorities, often operate on different time and space scales, and do not necessarily 'speak the same language'. Specific information is therefore needed on the significance of climate change for development activities along with operational guidance on how best to adapt to its impacts, within the context of other pressing social priorities. This Policy Brief looks at how far current development policies and programmes are taking climate change risks into account, as well as at ways to improve the 'mainstreaming' of adaptation to climate change in development planning and assistance

  13. Big Data: transforming drug development and health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Demissie; Berger, Marc L

    The explosion of data sources, accompanied by the evolution of technology and analytical techniques, has created considerable challenges and opportunities for drug development and healthcare resource utilization. We present a systematic overview these phenomena, and suggest measures to be taken for effective integration of the new developments in the traditional medical research paradigm and health policy decision making. Special attention is paid to pertinent issues in emerging areas, including rare disease drug development, personalized medicine, Comparative Effectiveness Research, and privacy and confidentiality concerns.

  14. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Vázquez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels.Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  15. Public Policies for ICT Update In Business: Some Key Indicators for Spain in the European Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lanero

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose—Based on the new face of business in the twenty first century, this general review is aimed at analyzing the use of information and communication technologies (ICT as social technologies by Spanish enterprises in the European context, as a result of recent policy frameworks set at communitarian and national levels. Design/methodology/approach—The paper reviews the guidelines marked by European common policies with regards to ICT update in business, just as the translation of such standards in the Spanish area. From this framework, implications of ICT adoption in the social relationships with consumers, employees, business partners and public authorities are analyzed by providing some figures in the Spanish context in comparison with the European average.Findings—The analysis supports a positive effect of national policies on Spanish enterprises’ use of social technologies in the interactions with their internal and external stakeholders, while some differences can be reported attending size and sector criteria. In this respect, ICT penetration seems to be widespread in Spanish enterprises longer than ten employees, specially within informatics, telecommunications and audiovisuals, whereas automation of interactions is moderated in micro-enterprises in the manufacture, building, retailing, and transportation sectors.Research limitations/implications—The paper offers a general overview of the use of ICT as social technologies in Spanish enterprises based on public reports. However, further research should be oriented to analyze more in deep the impact of public policies on ICT adoption and usage in business, by explaining their determining factors and comparing different clusters of counties and major regions of the world.Practical implications—The analysis reported point to the need of reinforcing the Spanish positioning in the ICT European sector in the long term. In this sense, future policy measures should be devoted to

  16. Developing Health-Related Indicators of Climate Change: Australian Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navi, Maryam; Hansen, Alana; Nitschke, Monika; Hanson-Easey, Scott; Pisaniello, Dino

    2017-05-22

    Climate-related health indicators are potentially useful for tracking and predicting the adverse public health effects of climate change, identifying vulnerable populations, and monitoring interventions. However, there is a need to understand stakeholders' perspectives on the identification, development, and utility of such indicators. A qualitative approach was used, comprising semi-structured interviews with key informants and service providers from government and non-government stakeholder organizations in South Australia. Stakeholders saw a need for indicators that could enable the monitoring of health impacts and time trends, vulnerability to climate change, and those which could also be used as communication tools. Four key criteria for utility were identified, namely robust and credible indicators, specificity, data availability, and being able to be spatially represented. The variability of risk factors in different regions, lack of resources, and data and methodological issues were identified as the main barriers to indicator development. This study demonstrates a high level of stakeholder awareness of the health impacts of climate change, and the need for indicators that can inform policy makers regarding interventions.

  17. Policy Model of Sustainable Infrastructure Development (Case Study : Bandarlampung City, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persada, C.; Sitorus, S. R. P.; Marimin; Djakapermana, R. D.

    2018-03-01

    Infrastructure development does not only affect the economic aspect, but also social and environmental, those are the main dimensions of sustainable development. Many aspects and actors involved in urban infrastructure development requires a comprehensive and integrated policy towards sustainability. Therefore, it is necessary to formulate an infrastructure development policy that considers various dimensions of sustainable development. The main objective of this research is to formulate policy of sustainable infrastructure development. In this research, urban infrastructure covers transportation, water systems (drinking water, storm water, wastewater), green open spaces and solid waste. This research was conducted in Bandarlampung City. This study use a comprehensive modeling, namely the Multi Dimensional Scaling (MDS) with Rapid Appraisal of Infrastructure (Rapinfra), it uses of Analytic Network Process (ANP) and it uses system dynamics model. The findings of the MDS analysis showed that the status of Bandarlampung City infrastructure sustainability is less sustainable. The ANP analysis produces 8 main indicators of the most influential in the development of sustainable infrastructure. The system dynamics model offered 4 scenarios of sustainable urban infrastructure policy model. The best scenario was implemented into 3 policies consist of: the integrated infrastructure management, the population control, and the local economy development.

  18. Facilitating Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals through Open Scientific Data and Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R. S.; Levy, M. A.; de Sherbinin, A. M.; Fischer, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) represent an unprecedented international commitment to a shared future encompassing sustainable management of the planet and significant improvement in the human condition around the world. The scientific community has both an ethical responsibility and substantial self-interest—as residents of this planet—to help the world community to better understand the complex, interlinked behavior of human and environmental systems and to elucidate pathways to achieve long-term sustainability. Critical to making progress towards the SDGs is the open availability of timely, reliable, usable, and well integrated data and indicators relevant to all SDGs and associated targets. Such data and indicators will not only be valuable in monitoring and evaluation of progress, but also in developing policies and making decisions on environmental and societal issues affecting sustainability from local to global scales. The open availability of such data and indicators can help motivate performance, promote accountability, and facilitate cooperation. A range of scientific, technical, organizational, political, and resource challenges need to be addressed in developing a coherent SDG monitoring and indicator framework. For example, assembling and integrating diverse data on consistent spatial and temporal scales across the relevant natural, social, health, and engineering sciences pose both scientific and technical difficulties, and may require new ways to interlink and organize existing cyberinfrastructure, reconcile different data policy regimes, and fund integration efforts. New information technologies promise more timely and efficient ways of collecting many types of data, but may also raise privacy, control, and equity issues. Scientific review processes to ensure data quality need to be coordinated with the types of quality control and review employed by national statistical agencies for trusted economic and social statistics. Although

  19. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  20. Using deliberative techniques to engage the community in policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Judy; Hartz-Karp, Janette; Watson, Rebecca

    2008-07-16

    This paper examines work in deliberative approaches to community engagement used in Western Australia by the Department of Planning and Infrastructure and other planning and infrastructure agencies between 2001 and 2005, and considers whether the techniques could be applied to the development of health policy in Australia. Deliberative processes were used in WA to address specific planning and infrastructure problems. Using deliberative techniques, community participants contributed to joint decision making and policy development. Outcomes from deliberative processes were seriously considered by the Minister and used to influence policy decisions. In many cases, the recommendations generated through deliberative processes were fully adopted by the Minister. The experiences in WA demonstrate that deliberative engagement processes can be successfully implemented by government and can be used to guide policy. The techniques can be adapted to suit the context and issues experienced by a portfolio, and the skills required to conduct deliberative processes can be fostered amongst the portfolio's staff. Health policy makers may be able to learn from the experiences in WA, and adopt approaches to community engagement that allow for informed deliberation and debate in the community about the future of Australia's health system.

  1. Wellness programme and health policy development at a large faith ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study's primary recommendations include: taking its employees' cultural and social norms into consideration; addressing issues related to capacity and ... list of recommendations for other resource-constrained NGOs that also wish to develop and implement wellness programmes and health policies in their workplace.

  2. Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...

  3. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  4. Analyzing the influence of institutions on health policy development ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... on health policy development in Uganda: A case study of the decision to abolish user fees. ... Methods: An explanatory case study informed by analytical frameworks from the ... Multiple data sources were used including: academic literature, key ... However, prevalent informal institutions such as “Big Man” presidentialism ...

  5. Fiscal Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria (1960 - 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of fiscal policy measures on economic development in Nigeria. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-perron unit root test were first conducted. The cointe gration test was then performedusing Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. The granger causality test, the impulse response ...

  6. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  7. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  8. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  9. Social Media: Developing an Acceptable Use Policy. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The growing use of social media by students and staff has led many schools to consider developing acceptable use policies. There is tremendous opportunity for improving education through the use of social media. There is also potential risk because social media can be used to access age inappropriate information and to engage in aggressive online…

  10. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  11. Participatory policy development for integrated watershed management in Uganda's highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutekanga, F.P.

    2012-01-01

    Soil erosion is a serious problem in the densely populated Uganda highlands and previous interventions were ineffective. This study, on the Ngenge watershed, Mount Elgon, was aimed at developing policy for the implementation of a new strategy for solving the problem, Integrated Watershed

  12. Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation. The cost of access to information and communication technologies (ITCs) in Africa remains the major impediment to the participation of Africans in the networked society. While Africa is the region with the fastest growing number of mobile phone subscribers in the ...

  13. THE EXTENSION OF GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATION PROTECTION: NECESSARY FOR DEVELOPING COUNTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mas Rahmah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the need of extension of Geographical Indication (GI protection since the current protection under Trade Related Aspect of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS is insufficient to cover all products as a result of discriminatory provisions in TRIPS regulating a greater protection to wines and spirits only and different level of GI protection under Article 22 and Article 23 TRIPS. This paper then assumes that the extensive GI protection for all products should be supported because it would give greater benefits particularly to developing countries such as prevent the free riding, attract regional investment and obtain market power.   Perlindungan Indikasi Geografis (IG perlu diperluas tidak hanya pada produk tertentu seperti wines danspiritskarena perlindungan IG diatur di dalam TRIPS tidak cukup memberikan perlindungan kepada semua produk sebagai akibat perbedaan pengaturan di TRIPS yang memberikan perlindungan lebih kepada wines danspirits saja dan adanya perbedaan tingkat perlindungan pada Pasal 22 dan 23 TRIPS. Perluasan perlindungan IG harus didukung karena akan memberikan manfaat khususnya kepada negara berkembang. Perluasan perlindungan IG dapat melarang pemboncengan reputasi, menarik investasi dan meningkatkan kekuatan produk negara berkembang di pasaran.

  14. National indicators of the ecological transition towards a sustainable development. 2015-2020: first statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nirascou, Francoise; Kleiber, Florence; Mosdale, Lauren; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Baudu-Baret, Claude

    2016-03-01

    The national strategy for the ecological transition towards sustainable development 2015-2020 was adopted by the French Government in February 2015 to set the political course in matters of sustainable development for France. The strategy defines public policies guidelines to engage in the ecological transition. Four key environmental challenges are outlined in the strategy and some other nine transverse goals describe the priority actions. This synthesis report is the initial assessment of the national strategy's monitoring indicators. The overall picture of this set of indicators shows strong contrasts. The situation is concerning with regards to the four key environmental challenges: climate change, accelerated loss of biodiversity, resource scarcity, increased health risks. On the other hand, indicators related to the transverse goals of the strategy demonstrate the development of good practices steering towards a sustainable development. More specifically, the goals with good perspectives are: inequalities reduction, economic activities transformation, knowledge production and innovation, training and raising awareness, stakeholders' mobilization; and sustainable and resilient territories development. The picture doesn't appear as bright for the aims of engaging in a circular and low-carbon economy, inventing new economic and financial models and especially promoting sustainable development at European and international levels. With this initial assessment as a reference, the monitoring of the strategy's indicators over the next few years will enable to estimate to what extent the pursuit of good practices will lead to a positive evolution of the key environmental challenges. This synthetic review of the first results completes the more detailed reading of the indicators on the official web site dedicated to statistics of the Ministry in charge of Ecology, Energy and the Sea: http://www.statistiques.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/indicateurs-indices

  15. Development of an urban green space indicator and the public health rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annerstedt van den Bosch, Matilda; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Uscila, Valdas; Barrdahl, Maria; Kulinkina, Alexandra; Staatsen, Brigit; Swart, Wim; Kruize, Hanneke; Zurlyte, Ingrida; Egorov, Andrey I

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the aim was to develop and test an urban green space indicator for public health, as proposed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) Regional Office for Europe, in order to support health and environmental policies. We defined the indicator of green space accessibility as a proportion of an urban population living within a certain distance from a green space boundary. We developed a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based method and tested it in three case studies in Malmö, Sweden; Kaunas, Lithuania; and Utrecht, The Netherlands. Land use data in GIS from the Urban Atlas were combined with population data. Various population data formats, maximum distances to green spaces, minimum sizes of green spaces, and different definitions of green spaces were studied or discussed. Our results demonstrated that with increasing size of green space and decreased distance to green space, the indicator value decreased. As compared to Malmö and Utrecht, a relatively bigger proportion of the Kaunas population had access to large green spaces, at both shorter and longer distances. Our results also showed that applying the method of spatially aggregated population data was an acceptable alternative to using individual data. Based on reviewing the literature and the case studies, a 300 m maximum linear distance to the boundary of urban green spaces of a minimum size of 1 hectare are recommended as the default options for the indicator. The indicator can serve as a proxy measure for assessing public accessibility to urban green spaces, to provide comparable data across Europe and stimulate policy actions that recognise the importance of green spaces for sustainable public health. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  17. Energy policy. Developing strategies for energy policies in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England-Joseph, Judy A.; Fowler, James A.; Kime, Barry R.; McLaughlin, Brian T.; Price, Margaret W.; Adams, Charles M.; Grace, Paul O.; Kruslicky, Mary Ann; McGee, William F.

    1990-06-01

    Securing sufficient and reliable future energy supplies to meet the increased U.S. energy demand projected for the 1990s is a major issue facing the nation. Since 1983, U.S. energy consumption has increased by about 16 percent, and an upward trend is expected to continue through the year 2000. Petroleum is used more than any other energy source in the United States, supplying about 41 percent of the nation's total energy needs. With the increase in total energy consumption, two potentially disturbing energy supply trends are emerging: The U.S. is becoming increasingly dependent on imported oil, particularly from the strategically sensitive Persian Gulf, to meet its petroleum energy needs. This trend increases the nation's vulnerability to potential oil supply disruptions and increased oil prices. Questions are being raised as to whether there will be adequate generating capacity to meet the nation's future electricity needs. While electricity consumption has been steadily increasing in recent years and is projected to continue through the year 2000, much of the additional generating capacity projected to come on line is in the early stages of construction and may not be completed in time to meet the nation's future electricity needs during the 1990s. It is also increasingly being recognized that energy consumption creates potentially serious environmental, health, and safety consequences, whose possible solutions can be costly to address. As indicated by our previous work, a number of options are available to improve the nation's ability to cope with the trend toward increased dependence on imported oil and to ensure adequate supplies of future electric generating capacity. These options also recognize the importance of protecting the environment. As directed by the President, DOE is developing a much needed national energy strategy that it expects will integrate and balance concerns for energy choices against other national concerns, such as environmental

  18. Development of evidence-based health policy documents in developing countries: a case of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-02-07

    Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policy-making. 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers and facilitators of a behavior.

  19. Promoting interactions between local climate change mitigation, sustainable energy development, and rural development policies in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streimikiene, Dalia; Baležentis, Tomas; Kriščiukaitienė, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Lithuania has developed several important climate change mitigation policy documents however there are no attempts in Lithuania to develop local climate change mitigation policies or to decentralize climate change mitigation policy. Seeking to achieve harmonization and decentralization of climate change mitigation and energy policies in Lithuania the framework for local climate change mitigation strategy need to be developed taking into account requirements, targets and measures set in national climate change mitigation and energy policy documents. The paper will describe how national climate change mitigation and energy policies can be implemented via local energy and climate change mitigation plans. The aim of the paper is to analyze the climate change mitigation policy and its relationship with policies promoting sustainable energy development in Lithuania and to present a framework for local approaches to climate change mitigation in Lithuania, in the context of the existing national and supra-national energy, climate change, and rural development policies. - Highlights: ► The framework for local energy action plans is offered. ► The structural support possibilities are assessed with respect to the Lithuanian legal base. ► The proposals are given for further promotion of sustainable energy at the local level.

  20. Development policy and the projects for fertility decline in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, M; Lieberman, S S

    1983-09-01

    This paper reviews Bangladesh's government policy and suggests which development measures other than family planning services would increase contraceptive usage. It develops a framework for policy analysis by reviewing the fertility determinants literature in general, and that on Bangladesh. Conventional approaches, based on demographic transition theory (which presupposes economic development in the Third World will follow the historical path of the West, with attendant rates of urbanization and industrialization) and the microeconomic theory of consumer choice (whereby costs of children are measured only in the context of the internal workings of the household without regard to outside influences) are rejected in favor of an institutional framework, which emphasizes the productive value of children in the context of the institutional underpinnings of the costs and benefits of children. The analysis identifies the extremely harsh environment of risk, and the absence of effective forms of risk insurance, as crucial to understanding the persistence of Bangladesh's high fertility. It concludes that to ensure the country's fertility transition, the positive reproductive incentive associated with children as insurance against risk must be eliminated or reduced. Therefore policies with the greatest impact on reproductive behavior would either alter the environment of risk or introduce other effective means of adjusting to risk. Among the components of the development program in the Second Five Year Plan, rural public employment measures hold the greatest promise for reducing fertility. Such current initiatives have had program limitations, such as relief rather than long-term orientation and bottlenecks in communication and transportation. However, these efforts form a basis for developing a policy of guaranteed public works employment. This policy's potential flexibility, broad base, and success in other parts of South Asia (particularly Maharashtra State, India) make

  1. Some use—Little influence? On the roles of indicators in European sustainable transport policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik; Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2013-01-01

    a very limited direct instrumental role, while some signs of symbolic, conceptual and process roles are found. In the EU case we identify what is called a rationalization role of indicators, meaning that indicators inform and help to rationalize a change in the position towards key objectives. Several...

  2. DEVELOPING SAFETY INDICATORS ON THE BASIS OF THE ICAO RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Sharov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers direct use of the recommendations of SMM ICAO Doc.9859, 3rd ed. 2013, for calculation the target and alert levels of safety indicators. Examples of calculation based on data of 2011 and monitoring of the current indicators during 2012 are presented. Safety indicators for airlines in terms of “numbers of incidents per 1000 flight hours” could be calculated on the basis of the state values through the «coefficient of conformity».

  3. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Policies that support strategic development and implementation are related to health ICT implementation successes. This research aimed to explore the question, 'Why have we not seen more successful ICT implementation in healthcare, and what does policy have to do with success?' Healthcare systems are faced with rising costs, increased prevalence of chronic diseases and diminishing resources. E-health initiatives have gained acceptance in addressing these crucial health sector issues. National governments and healthcare organisations are finding it necessary to have health Information and Communications Technology (ICT) systems in place. However, poorly developed health information policies, lack of a clear business plan and ineffective leadership contribute to failure of ICT implementation in healthcare. This study uses a Grounded Theory approach, in which a series of data gathering activities will be completed. The first author attended the Health Information Management & Systems Society (HIMSS) Policy Summit in the USA in 2011. Five Summit participants were approached individually and informally discussed the 'meaningful use' policy and how it influences ICT implementation in healthcare. Field notes were made and analysed for themes relating to the research question. There were three overlapping concepts that all of the participants indicated as primary considerations for policymakers. The alignment aspect stresses the need to align e-health initiatives with overall health policy, ensuring that e-health is incorporated with other healthcare investments. The shared responsibility theme involves the need for e-health initiatives to be recognised as a priority along all levels of government, i.e. local, state, federal, and national. This stresses the importance of health ICT development and implementation in a joint government direction. The last theme is collaboration with stakeholders, including clear division of tasks and clarity about technical and non

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

  6. Learning and Development Policy available on HR web

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: pascale.goy@cern.ch , tel. 62232.

  7. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  8. Development of indirect indicators for CO2 intrusion into freshwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humez, P.

    2012-01-01

    This study deals with the impact of CO 2 leakages out of geological storage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Compared to other existing studies, the major added value of this study lies, on the one hand, in the research of new monitoring tools and isotopic approach in the context of CCS aiming at early and sensitive detection of CO 2 leakage and, on the other hand, in the application of these tools at the (limited) laboratory scale as well as at field scale. In order to test these tools, solid and liquid materials were sampled out of the major strategic drinking water Albian aquifer in the Paris Basin (France). We have then precisely characterized and used them within a batch experiment. This experiment yields interesting results which help understanding and constraining precisely the water-rock-CO 2 interactions as well as the isotopic responses. A real scale application of the method was then performed in Norway. It was an opportunity to develop this isotopic program and to track the isotopic evolution composition, while differentiating the natural processes and the system response to the CO 2 injection. When applied to the detection of CO 2 leakage context, the two case studies open the way for choosing the 'best' isotopic tools as indirect indicators of CO 2 presence in these specific systems. The efficiency of these isotopic tools comes from the recording of the CO 2 footprint all along the water-rock-CO 2 interactions. Using such tools imposes a rigorous methodology, which is tackled in this manuscript. Furthermore, future application will require adapting to the specifics of a proposed site. (author)

  9. Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahman, Max

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles, the effect of government programmes, and the importance of technical flexibility in government support schemes. The focus is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a systems approach drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy including R and D, demonstration programmes and market support guided by long-term strategic plans. The role of the Government has been that of a conductor in the development process supplying both R and D support and artificially created niche markets, and easing the way for targeted technologies by means of legislation and standards. Despite this, the targeted technology (the BPEV) has not been established on the market. However, the recent market success of the HEV can partly be attributed to the government support of the BPEV technology. The enabling component, the electric drivetrain, was developed for automotive use within the BPEV programmes offered by the MITI. This technology was later utilised in the HEV. The history of BPEVs in Japan demonstrates that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Despite a sustained and ambitious policy by the MITI, the development of alternative vehicles never unfolded according to plan. The success factors for policy seem more related to technology specific features than the particular policy style. Our conclusion is that flexibility, adaptability and cooperation in terms of technical choice is necessary in policy. This increases the chances of a technology

  10. Corruption, development and governance indicators predict invasive species risk from trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton-Rule, Evan C; Barbieri, Rafael F; Lester, Philip J

    2016-06-15

    Invasive species have an enormous global impact, with international trade being the leading pathway for their introduction. Current multinational trade deals under negotiation will dramatically change trading partnerships and pathways. These changes have considerable potential to influence biological invasions and global biodiversity. Using a database of 47 328 interceptions spanning 10 years, we demonstrate how development and governance socio-economic indicators of trading partners can predict exotic species interceptions. For import pathways associated with vegetable material, a significantly higher risk of exotic species interceptions was associated with countries that are poorly regulated, have more forest cover and have surprisingly low corruption. Corruption and indicators such as political stability or adherence to rule of law were important in vehicle or timber import pathways. These results will be of considerable value to policy makers, primarily by shifting quarantine procedures to focus on countries of high risk based on their socio-economic status. Further, using New Zealand as an example, we demonstrate how a ninefold reduction in incursions could be achieved if socio-economic indicators were used to select trade partners. International trade deals that ignore governance and development indicators may facilitate introductions and biodiversity loss. Development and governance within countries clearly have biodiversity implications beyond borders. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Some policy aspects of energy development in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mwandosya, M J [Ministry of Water, Energy and Minerals and Univ. of Dar es Salaam (TZ)

    1991-01-01

    Tanzania's energy policy goals must reconcile the need to ensure continuity and security of oil supplies on one hand and the need to reduce the burden on the economy of imports of petroleum on the other. Petroleum imports account for 40% of the value of the country's export earnings, having risen from 5% in 1964. Therefore, the national energy policy goals, must have the immediate task of overcoming problems caused by this total dependence on imported petroleum. Another immediate goal of the national energy policy should be the minimisation of biomass energy use in order to reduce deforestation and its ecological and social consequences. Although not articulated in a concise form, the development of the energy sector in Tanzania over the last two decades has followed a consistent pattern based on the following principles: the need to exploit the abundant hydroelectric energy sources; the need to develop and utilise other indigenous energy sources such as coal and natural gas; the need to step up petroleum exploration activities; the need to arrest the depletion of wood through the evolution of more appropriate land management practices, wood plantation and woodlot development and use of more efficient woodfuel technologies; the need to minimise energy price fluctuations through strengthening and rationalisation of energy supply sources and infrastructure and a rational energy pricing structure; the need to develop the human resource potential; and the need to develop an indigenous capacity for research and development in energy systems technologies.

  12. Mobile telecom policy and business development in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Congliang; Teng, Yong; Sun, Jinjun

    2001-10-01

    It is an interesting that you research on mobile telecom policy and business development in China. China is a developing country, and she is one of the biggest countries in the world. There has a potential advantage in increasing mobile users in China. The wireless communication business developed fast and stable in the last 10 years, and it caused special concern in the world. So the question is why it does and how to do? You will be clear to know these after some researched results as follows: Do not forget the backward history in telecom technology; Pull competition mechanism into telecom business; Cooperation and some limited principles; China user group and characters; The condition of China telecom manufacture industry; Telecom business development strategy and policy dynamic adjusted. Focusing our attention on mobile telecom policy and business development in China, there will have great interest reliability for every one invested telecom business in the world. There is an important thing to find one good method to control market with competition in developing country.

  13. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  14. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  15. Framework and indicator testing protocol for developing and piloting quality indicators for the UK quality and outcomes framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke Martyn

    2011-08-01

    care settings and may be of use to policy-makers and researchers worldwide to test the likely effect of implementing indicators prior to roll out. It builds on and codifies existing literature and other testing protocols to create a field testing methodology that can be used to produce country specific quality indicators for pay-for-performance or quality improvement schemes.

  16. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  17. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...... of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development....

  18. Keynesian Substantiation of the Marketing Policies in Local Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucica MATEI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The local development means the existence of several goods and services and their performance, expressed through adequate marketing policies, thus determining the overall development performance.The paper approaches the economic fundamental issues of local development and in this context it determines the basic components of public service marketing, relevant for local development: price, multiplier of revenues/expenditures, respectively the export multiplier.Those elements will express the ratios between resources and outcomes and their balance is based on a Keynesian model in an open economy.

  19. Development of Evidence-Based Health Policy Documents in Developing Countries: A Case of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani-Nasab, Mohammad Hasan; Seyedin, Hesam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Yazdizadeh, Bahareh; Salehi, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based policy documents that are well developed by senior civil servants and are timely available can reduce the barriers to evidence utilization by health policy makers. This study examined the barriers and facilitators in developing evidence-based health policy documents from the perspective of their producers in a developing country. Methods: In a qualitative study with a framework analysis approach, we conducted semi-structured interviews using purposive and snowball sampling. A qualitative analysis software (MAXQDA-10) was used to apply the codes and manage the data. This study was theory-based and the results were compared to exploratory studies about the factors influencing evidence-based health policymaking. Results: 18 codes and three main themes of behavioral, normative, and control beliefs were identified. Factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents were identified by the participants: behavioral beliefs included quality of policy documents, use of resources, knowledge and innovation, being time-consuming and contextualization; normative beliefs included policy authorities, policymakers, policy administrators, and co-workers; and control beliefs included recruitment policy, performance management, empowerment, management stability, physical environment, access to evidence, policy making process, and effect of other factors. Conclusion: Most of the cited barriers to the development of evidence-based policy were related to control beliefs, i.e. barriers at the organizational and health system levels. This study identified the factors that influence the development of evidence-based policy documents based on the components of the theory of planned behavior. But in exploratory studies on evidence utilization by health policymakers, the identified factors were only related to control behaviors. This suggests that the theoretical approach may be preferable to the exploratory approach in identifying the barriers

  20. Policies and legislation driving Taiwan's development of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2010-01-01

    Under the current wave of international responses to the growing threat of climate change, Taiwan cannot afford to step back from its goal of advancing its renewable energy, strengthening its energy self sufficiency and energy security. This paper will first analyze the high level dependency structure of Taiwan's energy demands; then we will explore Taiwan current situation in terms of renewable energy development; furthermore from an overview of the course of changes and development in Taiwan's energy policy, highlight the commitment to and aims of Taiwan's Renewable Energy Development, made by the government at the Annual National Energy Conference. Fourth, we shall analyse technological R and D, incentives, taxes, market reforms and other related policy tools. Fifth, in light of public announcements and budgets set in recent years for Taiwan's renewable energy research plan, highlight main strategies being given impetus by the government. Sixth, the author will discuss the implications of recent significant legal reforms to the development of renewable energy in Taiwan and from the correlating aspects of industrial structures and energy consumption, take the first steps in emphasizing the urgent need for adjustments to be made to Taiwan's industrial structure. Finally, this paper will conclude by examining current policies, legislation and strategies which are in place to promote this area in Taiwan and discuss the potential competitiveness and future scenarios which the development of Renewable Energy could mean for Taiwan. (author)

  1. X-ray Computed Tomography Image Quality Indicator (IQI) Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Phase one of the program is to identify suitable x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) Image Quality Indicator (IQI) design(s) that can be used to adequately capture CT...

  2. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  3. Correlation analysis of energy indicators for sustainable development using multivariate statistical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Alvaro Luiz Guimaraes; Santos, Francisco Carlos Barbosa dos

    2007-01-01

    Energy is an essential input for social development and economic growth. The production and use of energy cause environmental degradation at all levels, being local, regional and global such as, combustion of fossil fuels causing air pollution; hydropower often causes environmental damage due to the submergence of large areas of land; and global climate change associated with the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. As mentioned in chapter 9 of Agenda 21, the Energy is essential to economic and social development and improved quality of life. Much of the world's energy, however, is currently produced and consumed in ways that could not be sustained if technologies were remain constant and if overall quantities were to increase substantially. All energy sources will need to be used in ways that respect the atmosphere, human health, and the environment as a whole. The energy in the context of sustainable development needs a set of quantifiable parameters, called indicators, to measure and monitor important changes and significant progress towards the achievement of the objectives of sustainable development policies. The indicators are divided into four dimensions: social, economic, environmental and institutional. This paper shows a methodology of analysis using Multivariate Statistical Technique that provide the ability to analyse complex sets of data. The main goal of this study is to explore the correlation analysis among the indicators. The data used on this research work, is an excerpt of IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica) data census. The core indicators used in this study follows The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) framework: Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development. (author)

  4. Engineering Education in Bangladesh--An Indicator of Economic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-01-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although…

  5. An integrated impact indicator: a new definition of 'impact' with policy relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, C.S.; Leydesdorff, L.

    2012-01-01

    Allocation of research funding, as well as promotion and tenure decisions, are increasingly made using indicators and impact factors drawn from citations to published work. A debate among scientometricians about proper normalization of citation counts has resolved with the creation of an Integrated

  6. Indicators and calculation methods for monitoring policy for energy efficiency; Indikatorer och beraekningsmetoder foer att foelja upp politik foer energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency objectives can be absolute or relative. With absolute objectives the energy use of a given year should be at a certain level, for example, 80 percent of today's energy use. With a relatively objective energy use should be related to something else such as gross domestic production (GDP) or gross national income (GNI). Depending on how the goals are formulated the requirements of the policy instruments introduced to contribute to the achievement of objectives will vary. In addition to the Energy Services Directive objective (Directive 2006/32/EC) an objective has been set for the EU which means that energy consumption in 2020 will be 20 percent more efficient compared to a reference scenario. Estimates of the impact analysis of the EU Action Plan for energy efficiency 2011 indicates that the EU's energy input for energy purposes should be a maximum of 1474 Mtoe. The savings compared to the energy use reference scenario which are projected to be 1842 Mtoe will thus amount to 368 Mtoe in 2020. There are reasons to pay attention to the definition of key terms. Energy conservation and energy efficiency for example are used in a number of non synonymous ways even in EU documents. It has consequences including the interpretation of the objective. Sweden has set an objective to reduce energy intensity in terms of energy input in relation to GDP by 20 percent by the year 2020 with 2008 as base year. Sweden's intensity objective takes, unlike the EU's energy efficiency objective, account of the actual economic development. EU's energy efficiency objective is based on a forecast of the economic development. Sweden also has an objective of energy consumption per square meter of residential and commercial buildings. It should be reduced by 20 percent by 2020 and by 50 percent by 2050. Furthermore, there is a focus that energy efficiency in transport must improve in order to contribute to the environmental objective of reduced climate

  7. Measuring quality of life in Macedonia - using human development indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Eftimoski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available By the end of the 1980s, the central issue of development was focused on the growth of income and not on the growth of quality of life. Therefore, the development strategies were oriented towards production and left no significant space for improving the welfare of individuals.In the beginning of the 1990s, the human development concept emerged, stressing that economic development ultimately should result in growth of quality of life of individuals, while the goal of the development process was to expand the capabilities of individuals by placing them in the focus of the efforts for development.This paper if focused on the quality of life of the individuals. Moreover, in addition to the previous practice in Macedonia of calculating the human development index (HDI - as a measure of quality of life, an attempt will be made to calculate the humanpoverty index (HPI-2 - as a measure of non-income poverty, gender development index (GDI - as a measure of inequality between men and women, as well as the human development index at the level of aggregated urban and rural municipalities.We hope that it will contribute to the improvement of the quality of decisions made by the state and local authorities in Macedonia when it comes to issues concerning the human development.

  8. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulé, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick

    2009-05-15

    In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH) perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.

  9. Development of a set of process and structure indicators for palliative care: the Europall project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woitha Kathrin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By measuring the quality of the organisation of palliative care with process and structure quality indicators (QIs, patients, caregivers and policy makers are able to monitor to what extent recommendations are met, like those of the council of the WHO on palliative care and guidelines. This will support the implementation of public programmes, and will enable comparisons between organisations or countries. Methods As no European set of indicators for the organisation of palliative care existed, such a set of QIs was developed. An update of a previous systematic review was made and extended with more databases and grey literature. In two project meetings with practitioners and experts in palliative care the development process of a QI set was finalised and the QIs were categorized in a framework, covering the recommendations of the Council of Europe. Results The searches resulted in 151 structure and process indicators, which were discussed in steering group meetings. Of those QIs, 110 were eligible for the final framework. Conclusions We developed the first set of QIs for the organisation of palliative care. This article is the first step in a multi step project to identify, validate and pilot QIs.

  10. Leading indicators of crisis incidence: evidence from developed countries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babecký, J.; Havránek, T.; Matějů, Jakub; Rusnák, M.; Šmídková, K.; Vašíček, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 35, June (2013), s. 1-19 ISSN 0261-5606 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 267801/2013 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : early warning indicators * Bayesian model averaging * economic crises Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.090, year: 2013

  11. Development of Corporate Governance Performance Indicators for Czech Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavláková Docekalová Marie

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective corporate governance is a key element in achieving long-term success for any company. The codes of conduct that corporate governance adopts directly determine the sustainability of business activities. With this in mind, this paper aims to demonstrate the results of research that identifies a set of key indicators of corporate governance performance. The presented research is quantitative. In order to identify key performance indicators, factor analysis was employed. It was found that corporate governance performance is influenced by two factors. For the first factor, the relationship between corporate governance and stakeholders is measured by key indicators: percentage of women within CG, contributions to political parties, politicians and related institutions and number of complaints received from stakeholders. The second factor, strategy & compliance, is generated from the following: percentage of strategic objectives met and total number of sanctions for breaching the law. This research aims to assist both academic and corporate practitioners who want to improve corporate governance performance and, through the use of key performance indicators, support the transparency and sustainability of their business.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...

  14. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à cette subvention, le Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SPDI) sera en mesure de former un groupe de diplômés et de jeunes professionnels afin qu'ils puissent réaliser des recherches en sciences sociales au Pakistan et en Asie du Sud. Le programme comportera un volet théorique et des travaux pratiques ...

  15. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy Institute sur les questions de paix, de violence et de développement. Alors que la paix, la violence et le développement représentent des défis de taille au Pakistan, ils constituent rarement le point de mire pour l'élaboration de politiques. De surcroît, les étudiants ...

  16. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  17. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  18. Policy indicators for health and nature. 25 years of international research and policy on acidification; Beleidsindicatoren voor gezondheid en natuur. Vijfentwintig jaar internationaal verzuringsonderzoek en -beleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hinsberg, A.; Van der Hoek, D.C.J.; Wiertz, J.; Van Bree, L. [Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau, Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2004-12-01

    25 years of international cooperation between research and policy resulted in effect indicators for health and nature by means of which environmental targets can be adjusted. At the same time those indicators increased the coherence of targets in the field of nature and health. [Dutch] Op het gebied van verzuring en grootschalige luchtverontreiniging is er nu vijfentwintig jaar internationale samenwerking tussen onderzoek en beleid. Dit heeft geresulteerd in concrete effectindicatoren voor gezondheid en natuur. Daardoor zijn ook de milieudoelstellingen bijgesteld en concreter geworden. Tegelijk kon de samenhang worden vergroot tussen enerzijds het milieubeleid en anderzijds de te halen doelen op het gebied van de natuur en gezondheid. Milieueffecten worden steeds beter (kwantitatief) uitgedrukt in biodiversiteit- en gezondheidsindicatoren. Dit maakt een meer transparante afweging mogelijk ten aanzien van de kosten en de effectiviteit van maatregelen. En de uitdaging gaat verder: bij luchtverontreiniging en klimaat zijn veelal dezelfde stoffen betrokken en in een samenhangende aanpak zit daarom winst.

  19. Canada's energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Karen; Li Xianguo

    2009-01-01

    A regression analysis is performed to make projections for the Canadian energy production and consumption. These have been increasing and are projected to increase even further in the near future. The primary energy production and consumption are projected to increase by 52% and 34%, respectively, by 2025 over 2004 if business as usual. The amount of fossil energy resources is finite and the extraction, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels cause environmental pollution and climate change. On the other hand, energy plays an important role in the economic and social development of Canada. Canada can develop further from an energy balance point of view, but this alone cannot be sustainable, because of the negative consequences of the major energy use on the environment. Application of energy localization and diversification is a promising solution, but in order to reach that, better energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy are necessary. Instead of non-compulsory policies Canada's policy approach should have more compulsory policies. Only then Canada can be made to develop further in a sustainable manner

  20. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  1. Quantitative indicators of the impacts generated in lineal development projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ospina N, Jesus Efren; Lema T, Alvaro de J.

    2002-01-01

    This work outlines a methodological proposal for the elaboration of quantitative indicators of the impact caused by electrical power transmission projects, using the perspective of the model of environmental administration by dimensions (physical, biotic, cultural, economic, and political). The model achieved an integral and interdisciplinary analysis, managing to determine what the degree of impact that a project generates on a dimension and its relationships to the others, moreover the indicators identified are useful tools that should help support planning, project formulation, decisions making, and environmental studies, such as: environmental management plans and greater efficiency in the estimation of administrative costs, as well as in the techniques of generating location alternatives, and also may lead to better administration of economic and human resources, among others

  2. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  3. Engineering education in Bangladesh - an indicator of economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-05-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.

  4. Evaluation of the Policy of the Creative Industry for Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture, an intellectual capital of a city, is accumulated through the intellect and wisdom of the government, citizens, businesses and other organizations. Cities regardless of their size are seeking their own distinguishing features and positions. By combining culture and creativity to improve international visibility, cities can develop new potentials, create job opportunities and boost economic growth. Therefore, cultural and creative industries have become the core industries that cities worldwide actively seek to develop; furthermore, various city governments have unanimously agreed that the creative industry will effectively improve urban economic competitiveness. This study investigated how the creative industry improved urban competitiveness, developed relevant assessment indexes and formulated policies for developing the creative industry. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was adopted to determine the indexes for assessing the creative industry’s positive influence on urban competitiveness. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process and the analytic network process were integrated to establish a model for assessing city-based creative industry development policies. City governments seeking to promote such policies can refer to this model. Finally, an importance-performance analysis was performed to investigate the satisfaction for policies related to creative industries, providing a reference for governments to promote pertinent policies. The results of this study indicated that the indexes of innovation capability, industrial cooperation, innovation incubation and industry-government-academia integration are crucial bases for cities to develop the creative industry. In addition, the policies of industrial R&D and clustering, talent training and industrial consulting and expanding industrial and marketing channels and networks can be adopted to enhance creative industry development.

  5. Energy indicators for sustainable development: Country studies on Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russian Federation, Slovakia and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-02-01

    This publication presents seven national case studies from a coordinated research project on Indicators for Sustainable Energy Development conducted during the 2002-2005 time period. The project was led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). The case studies were developed by research organizations from Brazil, Cuba, Lithuania, Mexico, Russia, Slovakia and Thailand. This publication is being issued just prior to the 15th session of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development for which energy for sustainable development is a major theme. The 15th session of the Commission will focus on policy decisions on practical measures and options to expedite implementation in selected clusters of energy issues. The application the energy indicator, especially their quantification, enables systematic monitoring of progress made towards the implementation of energy-related targets. This publication presents actual examples of how these indicators are developed at the national level, how they can be used to assess national energy systems and how they assist in reviewing the effectiveness of policies undertaken or planned. Energy continues to pose a fundamental dilemma for achieving sustainable development goals - its use is necessary prerequisite for economic growth and social development while energy production and use are associated with adverse impacts on public health and the environment. Win-win situations specific to energy production and use do exist and national governments and institutions, and regional and international bodies have identified and promoted policies, initiatives and measures that encourage energy efficiency, alternative fuels, advanced and cleaner technologies that in one way or another result in foster economic activity with less energy per unit of output, increased access to affordable energy services and reduced environmental pollution

  6. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  7. Associations between and development of welfare indicators in organic layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Riber, Anja Brinch; Labouriau, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The retail market share of organic eggs in Denmark is high, and the consumers expect high animal welfare standards in the organic production. Documentation of animal welfare is important, however, knowledge about the associations between animal-based welfare indicators is limited. The aims......, keel bone damages, back feathering, body feathering, foot damages, comb colour and wounds on the body. An observational study with 12 organic egg farms was conducted in 2012 and 2013 with a total of 214 hens assessed individually at the peak and the end of lay. Insufficient data were obtained...

  8. School Board Policies on Leaves and Absences. Educational Policies Development Kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National School Boards Association, Waterford, CT. Educational Policies Service.

    This report provides board policy samples and other policy resources on leaves and absences. The intent in providing policy samples is to encourage thinking in policy terms and to provide working papers that can be edited, modified, or adapted to meet local requirements. Topics covered in the samples include (1) sick leave, (2) maternity leave,…

  9. New indicators of illegal drug use to compare drug user populations for policy evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Fabi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: New trends in drug consumption show a trend towards higher poly-use. Epidemiological indicators presently used are mostly based on the prevalence of users of the “main” substances and the ranking of harm caused by drug use is based on a single substance analysis.Methods: In this paper new indicators are proposed; the approach consider the segmentation of the population with respect to the frequency of use in the last 30 days and the harm score of the various substances used by a poly-user. Scoring is based on single substance score table reported in recent papers and principal component analysis is applied to reduce dimensionality. Any user ischaracterized by the two new scores: frequency of use score and poly-use score.Results: The method is applied to the drug user populations interviewed in Communities and Low Threshold Services within the Problem Drug Use 2012 survey in four different European countries. The comparison of the poly-use score cumulative distributions gives insight about behavioural trends of drug use and also evaluate the efficacy of the intervention services. Furthermore, the application of this method to School Population Survey 2011 data allows a definition of the expected behaviour of the poly-drug score for the General Population Survey to be representative.Conclusions: In general, the method is simply and intuitive, and could be applied to surveys containing questions about drug use. A possible limitations could be that the median is chosen for calculating the frequency of use score in questionnaires containing the frequency of drug use in classes.

  10. BUSINESS VALUATION IN TERMS OF INDICATORS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leontina Pavaloaia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The indexes regarding the sustainable development have an important role in the decision-making process and that is why several bodies and institutions are concerned about their development. This fact happens not only at macro-level, but also at micro-level, the entities being encouraged to take into account the sustainable development principles and to relate its individual performances to the environment in which they operate (local, regional, global. The usage of the indexes regarding the sustainable development offers information regarding the evolution in time helps at identifying the possibilities of improving the activity and the weaknesses; they can be used in order to establish and achieve the objectives, the values being easily communicated both within and outside the company. A main disadvantage is the aggregation level, which hinders comparisons. This paper analyzes the information regarding the sustainable development published by the companies ranked at the Stock Exchange of Bucharest in the 1st category and the subsidiaries of 30 national companies.

  11. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  13. Depletion policies for oil-exporting developing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stournaras, Y A

    1984-01-01

    The fact that most oil-exporting countries are developing economies has important implications for oil supply which have not been properly taken into account in the literature on exhaustible resource depletion. The way in which depletion policies are affected by trade uncertainty, given the high degree of the major oil exporters' 'dependence' on crude oil revenues, by investment time lags which delay the exploitation of (some of) these countries' comparative advantage in a petroleum based development, and by ideological objections to the ideal of a rentier society and to foreign capital are examined.

  14. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    development (R and D), demonstration (D) and investment and production subsidies. In order to study development of and changes in the socio-technological-system, we identify indicators that describe the wind power development. The indicators show: (i) changes in technology development; (ii) cost development due to technology and market development; (iii) development of actors, institutions and organisations and changes in their commitment to wind power development. From this analysis of the changes in the wind power system over time, the impact of the policy instruments on the development of the technology and market of wind power is assessed. Lastly, we discuss the tardiness in market development and identify possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent in Sweden. The study of the development of the Swedish wind power system shows how public energy policy and the impact of policy instruments shaped turbine technology and market development. The governmental interventions made during the 1970s and 1980s were limited to RD and D measures. These steered both the choice of technology; i.e. turbine development with a focus on large (over 1 MW), two-bladed, flexible turbines, and the early market development in Sweden, with a limited number of actors, institutions and organizations. The number of wind turbines manufactured in Sweden is low and by 2000 there had not been a commercial breakthrough for the technology developed. The R and D-programmes have, however, generated knowledge and increased competence regarding wind power technology. The introduction of investment and production subsidies in the early 1990s changed the focus from technology development to a more general focus on market development and the production of wind power. The change in policy increased the diversity of actors involved in the development process and a market for commercially available, three-bladed, Danish turbines grew in Sweden. The investment and production subsidies

  15. Measuring Life Skills: Standardizing the Assessment of Youth Development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat D. Duerden

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available While the development of life skills (e.g., communication, problem solving, etc. is a commonly targeted youth program outcome, the lack of standardized conceptualizations and instrumentation make it difficult to compare impacts across programs and develop validated best practices. In order to promote a more unified approach to life skill development, literature reviews were conducted for 10 life skill domains to identify common definitions and, if available, appropriate outcome measures. Data were then collected from an ethnically diverse sample (N = 758 of elementary, middle, and high school aged youth for the 10 identified instruments. Analyses were conducted to ascertain the psychometric qualities of each measure, the interrelationships among measures, and the measures’ relationships with gender, ethnicity, and school level. Results are discussed in terms of their relevance to life skill theory and measurement.

  16. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  17. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  18. Development Education and Education in International Development Policy: Raising Quality through Critical Pedagogy and Global Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Skinner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Development education is an approach to learning that questions dominant paradigms of development and inspires citizen- and community-driven change towards a world of greater social justice. This article provides an overview of development education and reflects on the extent to which development education principles are currently reflected in, or missing from, mainstream educational policies pursued within an international development framework. In particular, the article addresses the issue of quality in education – one of the key current debates within international education policy – and suggests that, through its critical pedagogy and focus on the development of global skills, development education has a significant contribution to make to these debates. The article suggests that greater collaboration between the field of development education and international education policy could facilitate the creation of an agenda that focuses on education quality and learning processes, as opposed to the current preoccupation with education access and outcomes.

  19. Towards a black carbon indicator for a healthier air quality policy; Naar een roetmaat voor een gezonder luchtkwaliteitsbeleid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molenaar, R. [DCMR Milieudienst Rijnmond, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Krijgsheld, K. [Ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu I+M, Den Haag (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    October 5, 2011, the national conference 'Towards a black carbon indicator for a healthier air quality policy' was held in Schiedam, Netherlands. This article reports on the conference, which was divided into three aspects: the administrative reality, the scientific contribution and practice. [Dutch] Op 5 oktober 2011 vond de nationale conferentie 'Naar een roetmaat voor een gezonder luchtkwaliteitsbeleid' plaats in Schiedam. In dit artikel wordt verslag gedaan van de conferentie, die was opgedeeld in drie deelaspecten: de bestuurlijke werkelijkheid, de wetenschappelijke bijdrage en de praktijk.

  20. A Case for Rethinking Inclusive Education Policy Creation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Carrington, Suzanne; Ioelu, Ailini

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of the development and implementation of the 2014 inclusive educational policy in Samoa. While Samoan culture is traditionally founded on inclusive social practices, rather than reflecting these practices in their policy, Samoan policy developers have been under pressure to adopt or borrow policy from…

  1. Bioenergy policy and market development in Finland and Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericsson, Karin; Huttunen, Suvi; Nilsson, L.J.; Svenningsson, Per

    2004-01-01

    The use of biomass in Finland and Sweden has steadily increased over the past 25 years, up to approximately 20% of the primary energy supply in 2001. In both countries most biomass originates from forests. Forest biomass is now an integral part of modern energy systems, although primarily in industry and in the heating sector. For example, biomass accounts for 7.9% and 53% of the fuel mix in district heating in Finland and Sweden, respectively. The general energy policy of both countries has supported biomass for energy over the entire period, although specific policies have changed with time. Research, development and demonstration has been continuously supported, and some subsidy schemes have been applied, in particular, for district heating systems (DHS) and combined heat and power. Heavy taxation of competing fossil fuels seems to have been the most effective policy instrument, although this has been directed mainly at the heat and transportation fuel markets. Electricity taxes are imposed on consumption (industry is largely exempt), and do not discriminate significantly between the sources of electricity. Starting in 2003, Sweden will have a quota-based system, a renewable portfolio standard, which is expected to increase biomass-based electricity production. Both countries possess vast and not fully exploited biomass resources in the form of forests, and have a history of rational and large-scale forestry. Strong actors exist both with regard to forest ownership and the industrial processing of forest products. The user side, in particular, represented by DHS, can also be characterised by strong and professional management. Over time, structures have developed that facilitate an increased use of biomass for energy, for example, the forest industry infrastructure and extensive district heating. Actors within these structures have had the ability to react to policies, resulting in a stable growth in biomass use

  2. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  3. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  4. INDICATORS USED FOR THE PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladoi Anca Daniela

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of the environment of a company has a direct influence on its performance and its success. For this reason a company should not only analyze its internal performance, but also the external performance of the business environment and the su

  5. Developing a school infrastructure Performance Indicator System (SIPIS)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sebake, TN

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thuba Makote (TM) Programme, initiated in 2002 by the Department of Education and managed by the CSIR, was developed to introduce and pilot innovative approaches to school building design, construction and operation in order to address the need...

  6. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Karen L; Spack, Edward G

    2009-06-12

    Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonization. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s). Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot Program provide funding and

  7. The basics of preclinical drug development for neurodegenerative disease indications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spack Edward G

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Preclinical development encompasses the activities that link drug discovery in the laboratory to initiation of human clinical trials. Preclinical studies can be designed to identify a lead candidate from several hits; develop the best procedure for new drug scale-up; select the best formulation; determine the route, frequency, and duration of exposure; and ultimately support the intended clinical trial design. The details of each preclinical development package can vary, but all have some common features. Rodent and nonrodent mammalian models are used to delineate the pharmacokinetic profile and general safety, as well as to identify toxicity patterns. One or more species may be used to determine the drug's mean residence time in the body, which depends on inherent absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. For drugs intended to treat Alzheimer's disease or other brain-targeted diseases, the ability of a drug to cross the blood brain barrier may be a key issue. Toxicology and safety studies identify potential target organs for adverse effects and define the Therapeutic Index to set the initial starting doses in clinical trials. Pivotal preclinical safety studies generally require regulatory oversight as defined by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA Good Laboratory Practices and international guidelines, including the International Conference on Harmonisation. Concurrent preclinical development activities include developing the Clinical Plan and preparing the new drug product, including the associated documentation to meet stringent FDA Good Manufacturing Practices regulatory guidelines. A wide range of commercial and government contract options are available for investigators seeking to advance their candidate(s. Government programs such as the Small Business Innovative Research and Small Business Technology Transfer grants and the National Institutes of Health Rapid Access to Interventional Development Pilot

  8. A Systemic and Systematic Approach to the Development of a Policy Mix for Material Resource Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ekvall

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing material use efficiency is important to mitigate future supply risks and minimize environmental impacts associated with the production of the materials. The policy mix presented in this paper aims to contribute to reducing the use of virgin metals in the EU by 80% by 2050 without significant shifting of burdens to other material resources, environmental impacts, or parts of the world. We used a heuristic framework and a systems perspective for designing the policy mix that combines primary instruments designed to increase material efficiency, recycling and substitution of materials (a materials tax, the extended producer responsibility, technical regulations, and environmental taxes and supportive instruments aimed to reduce barriers to implementing the primary instruments and to contribute towards the policy objectives (e.g., research and development support, and advanced recycling centers. Furthermore, instruments were designed so as to increase political feasibility: e.g., taxes were gradually increased as part of a green fiscal reform, and border-tax adjustments were introduced to reduce impacts on competitiveness. However, even in such a policy mix design ongoing ex-ante assessments indicate that the policy mix will be politically difficult to implement—and also fall short of achieving the 80% reduction target. Nonetheless, we suggest combining primary and supportive instruments into coherent and dynamic policy mixes as a promising step towards system reconfigurations for sustainability.

  9. Condition of nuclear energy policy development in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudyma, A.; Piriashvili, B.; Khakimov, Y.; Khrushtchov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The preservation and strengthening of economic and political stability of the state depends first of all on the situation in the main branches of economy. One of such branches is the energy sector, whose level of development defines the place and the role of the state in the world community. On the other hand, the status of the energy sector, one of the major elements ensuring political and economic stability, determines energy security as well. Besides, the concept of energy sector development in general and nuclear energy in particular should be based on the real geopolitical situation, which Ukraine has faced after USSR disintegration. Therefore, the energy policy development is the most important link in the development of the state itself, for importance of this policy goes far beyond the frameworks of the energy sector. Besides, it is necessary to note, that the new geopolitical conditions have abruptly changed the course of economic and social development of the country. Frist of all, it was reflected in the significant drop of its energy security that resulted in: first sharp fall own fuel resources production and electric power generation; second significant reduction in inflow of energy resources to Ukraine. Such situation is stipulated by the general drop in the demand for power resources due to general fall in industrial and agricultural production, as well as by the sharp decrease in own energy resources production and absence of sufficient financial means for the acquisition of the deficient power resources import

  10. HRS Clinical Document Development Methodology Manual and Policies: Executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indik, Julia H; Patton, Kristen K; Beardsall, Marianne; Chen-Scarabelli, Carol A; Cohen, Mitchell I; Dickfeld, Timm-Michael L; Haines, David E; Helm, Robert H; Krishnan, Kousik; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Rickard, John; Sapp, John L; Chung, Mina

    2017-10-01

    The Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) has been developing clinical practice documents in collaboration and partnership with other professional medical societies since 1996. The HRS formed a Scientific and Clinical Documents Committee (SCDC) with the sole purpose of managing the development of these documents from conception through publication. The SCDC oversees the process for developing clinical practice documents, with input and approval from the HRS Executive Committee and the Board of Trustees. As of May 2017, the HRS has produced more than 80 publications with other professional organizations. This process manual is produced to publicly and transparently declare the standards by which the HRS develops clinical practice documents, which include clinical practice guidelines, expert consensus statements, scientific statements, clinical competency statements, task force policy statements, and proceedings statements. The foundation for this process is informed by the Institute of Medicine's standards for developing trustworthy clinical practice guidelines; the new criteria from the National Guidelines Clearinghouse, effective June 2014; SCDC member discussions; and a review of guideline policies and methodologies used by other professional organizations. Copyright © 2017 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    . Closer examination of the practical implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) shows very clearly that substantial differences to an ideal type of emissions trading scheme have to be taken into account, which can or should only be eliminated in the longer term or, for practical reasons, not at all. Further, analysis of the market development of the EU ETS up to now demonstrates that a strategic, robustly developed climate policy which meets the ambitiousness described also has to factor in the possibility that an emissions trading scheme cannot produce any long-term scarcity signals for different reasons (e.g. continual opportunities for revision in democratic systems, operational realities) and can thus always only serve the - essential - purpose of clearing emission reduction options close to the market which are available in the short to medium term.

  12. New Financial Development Indicators: With a Critical Contribution to Inequality Empirics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simplice A. Asongu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment of financial development indicators without due consideration to country/regional specific financial development realities remains an issue of substantial policy relevance. Financial depth in the perspective of money supply is not equal to liquid liabilities in every development context. This paper introduces complementary indicators to the existing Financial Development and Structure Database (FDSD. Dynamic panel system GMM estimations are applied. Different specifications, non-overlapping intervals and control variables are used to check the consistency of estimated coefficients. Our results suggest that from an absolute standpoint (GDP base measures, all financial sectors are pro-poor. However, three interesting findings are drawn from measures of sector importance. (1 The expansion of the formal financial sector to the detriment of other financial sectors has a disequalizing income effect. (2 Growth of informal and semi-formal financial sectors at the expense of the formal financial sector has an income equalizing effect. (3 The positive income redistributive effect of semi-formal finance in financial sector competition is higher than the corresponding impact of informal finance. It unites two streams of research by contributing at the same time to the macroeconomic literature on measuring financial development and responding to the growing field of economic development by means of informal financial sector promotion and microfinance. The paper suggests a practicable way to disentangle the effects of the various financial sectors on economic development. The equation of financial depth in the perspective of money supply to liquid liabilities has put on the margin the burgeoning informal financial sector in developing countries. The phenomenon of mobile banking is such an example

  13. Development of radiation indicator plants by molecular breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jang-Ryol; Min, Sung-Ran; Jeong, Won-Joong; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwon, Seok-Yoon; Pai, Hyun-Sook; Cho, Hye-Sun; In, Dong-Su; Oh, Seung-Chol; Park, Sang- Gyu; Woo, Je-Wook; Kin, Tae-Hwan; Park, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Sook [Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    To develop the transgenic plants with low level of antioxidant enzyme, transgenic tobacco plants (157 plants) using 8 different plant expression vectors which have APX genes in sense or antisense orientation under the control of CaMV 35S promoter or stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter were developed. The insertion of transgene in transgenic plants was confirmed by PCR analysis. The total APX activities of transgenic plants were enhanced or reduced by introduction of APX gene in plants. To clone the radiation-responsive genes and their promoter from plants, the NeIF2Bb, one of radiation-responsive genes from tobacco plant was characterized using molecular and cell biological tools. Promoter of GST6, a radiation-responsive gene, was cloned using RT-PCR. The GST6 promoter sequence was analyzed, and known sequence motif was searched. To develop the remediation technology of radioactively contaminated soil using transgenic plants uranium reductase and radiation resistance genes have been introduced in tobacco and indian mustard plans. The uranium reductase and radiation resistance (RecA) genes were confirmed in transgenic tobacco and indian mustard plants by PCR analysis. Also, Gene expression of uranium reductase and radiation resistance were confirmed in transgenic indian mustard plants by northern blot analysis. 42 refs., 12 figs. (Author)

  14. Characteristics and use of urban health indicator tools by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Helen; Glonti, Ketevan; Rutter, Harry; Zimmermann, Nicole; Wilkinson, Paul; Davies, Michael

    2017-01-13

    There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers. Although many UHI tools have been specifically developed to inform policy, there is poor understanding of how they are used. This study aims to identify the nature and characteristics of UHI tools and their use by municipal built environment policy and decision-makers. Health and social sciences databases (ASSIA, Campbell Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice and Web of Science Core Collection) will be searched for studies using UHI tools alongside hand-searching of key journals and citation searches of included studies. Advanced searches of practitioner websites and Google will also be used to find grey literature. Search results will be screened for UHI tools, and for studies which report on or evaluate the use of such tools. Data about UHI tools will be extracted to compile a census and taxonomy of existing tools based on their specific characteristics and purpose. In addition, qualitative and quantitative studies about the use of these tools will be appraised using quality appraisal tools produced by the UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) and synthesised in order to gain insight into the perceptions, value and use of UHI tools in the municipal built environment policy and decision-making process. This review is not registered with PROSPERO. This systematic review focuses specifically on UHI tools that assess the physical environment's impact on health (such as transport, housing, air quality and greenspace

  15. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  16. Development of an epiphyte indicator of nutrient enrichment ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metrics of epiphyte load on macrophytes were evaluated for use as quantitative biological indicators for nutrient impacts in estuarine waters, based on review and analysis of the literature on epiphytes and macrophytes, primarily seagrasses, but including some brackish and freshwater rooted macrophyte species. An approach is presented that empirically derives threshold epiphyte loads which are likely to cause specified levels of decrease in macrophyte response metrics such as biomass, shoot density, percent cover, production and growth. Data from 36 studies of 10 macrophyte species were pooled to derive relationships between epiphyte load and -25 and -50% seagrass response levels, which are proposed as the primary basis for establishment of critical threshold values. Given multiple sources of variability in the response data, threshold ranges based on the range of values falling between the median and the 75th quantiles of observations at a given seagrass response level are proposed rather than single, critical point values. Four epiphyte load threshold categories - low, moderate, high, very high, are proposed. Comparison of values of epiphyte loads associated with 25 and 50% reductions in light to macrophytes suggest that the threshold ranges are realistic both in terms of the principle mechanism of impact to macrophytes and in terms of the magnitude of resultant impacts expressed by the macrophytes. Some variability in response levels was observed among

  17. Development of stochastic indicator models of lithology, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rautman, C.A.; Robey, T.H.

    1994-01-01

    Indicator geostatistical techniques have been used to produce a number of fully three-dimensional stochastic simulations of large-scale lithologic categories at the Yucca Mountain site. Each realization reproduces the available drill hole data used to condition the simulation. Information is propagated away from each point of observation in accordance with a mathematical model of spatial continuity inferred through soft data taken from published geologic cross sections. Variations among the simulated models collectively represent uncertainty in the lithology at unsampled locations. These stochastic models succeed in capturing many major features of welded-nonwelded lithologic framework of Yucca Mountain. However, contacts between welded and nonwelded rock types for individual simulations appear more complex than suggested by field observation, and a number of probable numerical artifacts exist in these models. Many of the apparent discrepancies between the simulated models and the general geology of Yucca Mountain represent characterization uncertainty, and can be traced to the sparse site data used to condition the simulations. Several vertical stratigraphic columns have been extracted from the three-dimensional stochastic models for use in simplified total-system performance assessment exercises. Simple, manual adjustments are required to eliminate the more obvious simulation artifacts and to impose a secondary set of deterministic geologic features on the overall stratigraphic framework provided by the indictor models

  18. INCREASE TAX BASE AS INDICATOR OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Iu. Padalkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The article analyzed the tax burden as an indicator of growth of production and security of financial activity of working capital. The most important duty of the enterprise - the taxpayer in accordance with paragraph 1 of art. 3 of the Tax Code of the Russian Federation is the responsibility to pay the legally established taxes and fees. However, according to article 45 of the Tax Code to claim 1 tax liability must be carried out within the period prescribed by law. Under the tax in accordance with paragraph 1 of article 8 of the Tax Code is understood mandatory, individually gratuitous payment collected from organizations and individuals in the form of alienation of their right to property, economic or operational management of funds for financial support of the state and (or municipalities. Tax regulation - measures the indirect impact on the economy of the state, economic and social processes by changing the types of taxes, tax rates, tax incentives to establish, reduce or increase the overall level of tax payments to the budget. So, tax cuts can stimulate production, and raising taxes - to restrain or even suppress some activities.

  19. The Policy Implementation in Development Water Front City in District Senapelan Pekanbaru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panca Setyo Prihatin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Structuring urban areas, especially the Pekanbaru City, is necessary given the problem of development of Pekanbaru City is more and more complex and highly in need of a better arrangement, especially concerning on the improvement of the environment (Water Front City in Siak River surroundings. This is a descriptive qualitative research with population sample of the Office of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure of Pekanbaru City, Senapelan District Government, NGOs, community leaders, and private parties. Data are collected through interview, observation and documentation, which is then analyzed using qualitative analysis technique. This research finds that the policy of the development of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru is not implemented optimally. This situation can be seen through a variety of indicators related to the implementation of development policies of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru in that the effect of interest policies, benefits, desire for change, the process of decision-making, implementing programs and supporting resources have not been implemented effectively. The curbing factors in implementing development policies in the District Water Front City Senapelan Pekanbaru are mostly due to the lack of human resources, process of compensation and other inadequate financing, and managerial instruments that are unsupported to the implementation of development programs of Water Front City at Village Kampung Baru sub-district Senapelan Pekanbaru.

  20. Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Nuclear Development Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert; Henderson, David; ); Moore, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied. These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programs. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policy-making in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources (gas, coal and renewables). It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. (authors)

  1. Agrofuels policy in Colombia: expectations and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Sandra Liliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The debate over the current biofuels policy has two positions: first, those considering it as an alternative aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming; secondly, those who argue about the distributional conflicts that can bring socio-environmental adoption of these policies at local level. This article presents the national policy settings and scenarios of biofuel production based on agro-energy projects, which are used raw materials such as palm oil to produce biodiesel, sugar cane, sugar loaf cane and cassava for the distillation of ethanol. Thus regional dynamics observed that intersect with the new rural environment in the Colombian countryside connection between the local and global that generate expectations to achieve rural development goals.

  2. Socioeconomic impact indicators relating to water and hydrological policies; Los indicadores de impacto socioeconomico del agua, como referentes en las politicas hidrologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Lorca, A.

    2009-07-01

    The work approaches one of the principal problematic ones in order the development of the arid, semiarid and sub humid dry regions, since it is the case of the land management and in I make concrete of that of hydrological management. For it, one presents an offer of design and construction of indicators, from the conceptual perspective of the sustainability, to evaluate the values corresponding to the socioeconomic productivity of the water, in order to motivate the public action in case of the territorial policies in general and sectorial especially. (Author) 4 refs.

  3. Regional innovative policy: Developed countries' experience and lessons for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beljaeva Julija

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research into formation of national innovative system at the regional level in developed countries gives the opportunity to reveal specific instruments of governmental policy and their adoption in Russian conditions. Nowadays Europe has got its general task in science development to build up common scientific area. According to the European Commission, it is possible to perform this task if EU countries and agree to unite their resources, and their national scientific policy is reformed under this common European standard. The main instrument of EU scientific and technological policy is European Framework programs of scientific research and technological development. In the context of these programs free funding is given as support to international scientific and technological projects. So, the most favorable climate is being created in Europe, which will let it become one of the centers of worldwide scientific research. The Japanese model of regional innovative system assumes building of brand new cities that is technology towns concentrating scientific research in forward spheres and industrial production. Herewith building of such technology towns to a great extent is funded at the regional level. Tax incentives play the significant role in the innovative activity stimulation in developed countries. For example, in Great Britain big corporations have the right to write down 125% of their scientific expenses to the cost, small write down 150%. Taxable profit decreases by a certain per cent what depends on increasing in expenses on scientific research. In another at a very high speed building up its innovative capital country - China - a differentiated VAT rate takes place. On average it is 18%, but it is twice lower in the sphere of IT. So, analysis of foreign experience of innovative development lets us underline the following necessary instruments of innovative policy: Private and governmental partnership in financing of academic and

  4. On the use of Standardized Drought Indices under decadal climate variability: Critical assessment and drought policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, J.; Rivera, D.; Oyarzún, R.; Arumí, J. L.

    2014-09-01

    Since the recent High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy held in Geneva in 2013, a greater concern about the creation and adaptation of national drought monitoring systems is expected. Consequently, backed by international recommendations, the use of Standardized Drought Indices (SDI), such as the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), as an operational basis of drought monitoring systems has been increasing in many parts of the world. Recommendations for the use of the SPI, and consequently, those indices that share its properties, do not take into account the limitations that this type of index can exhibit under the influence of multidecadal climate variability. These limitations are fundamentally related to the lack of consistency among the operational definition expressed by this type of index, the conceptual definition with which it is associated and the political definition it supports. Furthermore, the limitations found are not overcome by the recommendations for their application. This conclusion is supported by the long-term study of the Standardized Streamflow Index (SSI) in the arid north-central region of Chile, under the influence of multidecadal climate variability. The implications of the findings of the study are discussed with regard to their link to aspects of drought policy in the cases of Australia, the United States and Chile.

  5. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  6. Productive Development Policies in Latin American Countries: The Case of Peru, 1990-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Mario D. Tello; José Távara

    2010-01-01

    This paper assesses the institutional setting and productive impact of selected productive development policies (PDPs), institutions, and programs implemented in Peru during the period 1990-2007. The assessment is based on a simple, basic framework of a series of economic or market failures that may have constrained the transformation of the productive structure, the process of innovation, and the growth of total factor productivity. Evidence indicates that the PDPs and structural reforms imp...

  7. SOME INDICATORS OF CONSULTATIVE SERVICES DEVELOPMENT IN SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna PARAUSIC

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition process and Serbia's entering into the European Union is possible to hasten by adequate and timely consultative services, before all during the programs and methodologies creation for conducting the enterprises' restructuring processes. In such conditions, the consultative organizations help the enterprises in accomplishing their goals, solving problems in business and management, identifying and using new possibilities, increasing their knowledge and applying suggested changes in the practice. Consulting is a result of manager need for integrated and complex business information. To obtain the transfer of consultant knowledge and manager skills development, a certain conditions must be fulfilled. First of all, business integrity and consultant competence are the most important. Business integrity, i.e. consultant ethics contributes image and reputation and is important competitiveness factor on consultant services market. Regarding actual consulting trends in countries within our region, as well as developmental level of consulting in EU countries, the market of consultative services in Serbia has not significantly changed in previous period (as we saw, the acknowledgement of it was got also by empirical research. The owners and managers of enterprises still do not feel a need for external services, in order to solve business problems. Having in mind a level and quality of demand, neither a supply of consultative services had not reached satisfactory level.

  8. Wholesale pricing policies for energy in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lucia, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter focuses on wholesale pricing policies with particular emphasis on domestic fuels. There are several characteristics of the supply system that affect wholesale pricing: Source of the fuel (imported or domestic); Characteristics of the fuel (tradable or non-tradable); Nature of the supply companies (public or private and, if private, local or multinational); and stage of development of the resource. Each of these characteristics has implications for how the components of the efficient wholesale price of fuels are determined. (author). 13 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  9. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Moo, Philip; Koh, B. J.; Son, M. K.; Han, G. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors in near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  10. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, M. K.; Han, K. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors m near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  11. Impacts on the Common Agricultural Policy and on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.; Palz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)

  12. Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; König, H.; Feng, S.; Bezlepkina, I.; Nesheim, I.; Bonin, M.; Sghaier, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Sieber, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and

  13. The effectiveness of domestic Scientific research on Iran development Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ehsani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, research has growth Increasingly in Iran and, consequently, the country has risen dramatically in world rankings, based on the number of scientific documents. The impressive growth of the number of Iran researches, research experts increasingly focus on "research impact", and repeated emphasize on the issue of "use of research to improve society" in Iran superior governmental documents, leaded some researchers to investigate "how much Iran researches are effective?" They showed that these researches have in general been ineffective. Therefore, their efficacy should be evaluated which is the main purpose of this study. In this regard, using the Descriptive-Analytical method and valid secondary data and statistics, the results of Citation Analysis of Iran research outcomes were compared with other countries. Central questions of this study were respectively about «the quality of Iran whole researches (1996-2014», «the quality of top researches (2005-2014», «comparing the quality of whole researches with quality of top researches», and «the quality of Iran's Persian (2011-2012 and English (2014 scientific journals». For this purpose, based on the reliable data from valid databases (Thomson Reuters, Scopus and ISC, the value and rank of Iran at different citation related indices were extracted or calculated. The results, including «few citations per paper (5/7 which is about half of the global average (10/3 and declining trend of Iran rank based on this index», «poor country rank based on the share of top papers in all documents (128», «small share of global citations (47.0%, despite a significant share in the world Scientific document (1/1%», «low h-index despite the large number of articles», «inappropriate position in the basis of self-citation (more than 50% in 2014 in addition to a declining trend», «few citations per paper (76/7 which is about half of the global average (144/9», «small share of global

  14. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucheux, S.; Meral, P.

    1999-01-01

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies' decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ''governance'' institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.)

  15. On the right path? Indicators for sustainable development 2010; Paa rett vei? Indikatorer for baerekraftig utvikling 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunvoll, Frode; Smith, Tone

    2010-07-01

    This report presents an updated set of sustainable development indicators and describes the development of the indicators together with relevant supplementary information. Whilst compiling the report, we have had an effective collaboration with a number of institutions, which have supplied data and assessments for the various subject areas. A number of divisions and departments in Statistics Norway have made contributions to their respective specialist areas. The main responsibility for compiling the report has rested with the Division for environmental statistics in the Department of economics, energy and the environment. The report has been edited by senior advisers Frode Brunvoll and Tone Smith. The Norwegian strategy for sustainable development covers six policy areas: International cooperation for sustainable development and combating poverty, Climate, ozone and long-range air pollution, Biodiversity and cultural heritage, Natural resources, Hazardous chemicals, and Sustainable economic and social development. From one to six indicators are presented within each of these areas; 18 in total. The indicators are intended to provide important information on the condition and development of the different areas. Some of the indicators also point to critical factors in relation to sustainable development. Simultaneous to this, the question on sustainable development is so complex that the 18 indicators cannot throw light on all challenges. This report therefore includes supplementary information in the form of additional indicators.(Author)

  16. China's Development of Low-Carbon Eco-Cities and Associated Indicator Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    China's urban population surpassed its rural population historically in 2011, when the number of Chinese living in towns and cities reached about 690 million1. In the years to come, cities in China will face major challenges as their rapidly increasing populations burden already crowded infrastructure systems and exacerbate environmental and climate change issues, threatening public health and quality of life. Low-carbon cities may be key to addressing those challenges, especially as regards mitigating and adapting to climate change. Government entities at both the central and local level have moved aggressively on building low-carbon eco-cities. According to statistics reported by the Chinese Society for Urban Studies, by February of 2011, China will have 230 cities at the prefecture-and-above level that have proposed to establish themselves as “eco-cities,” accounting for 80.1% of the 287 such cities nationally. Of those 230 cities, 133, or 46.3%, have established targets to develop specifically as “lowcarbon cities” (Chinese Society for Urban Studies 2011). Given the proposed scale of the effort, China’s potential success or failure in demonstrating and implementing low-carbon eco-cities could greatly affect how the world addresses both the climate change impacts of urbanization and the sustainable development of cities. Despite the multiple guidelines that have been developed, it remains unclear what defines a low-carbon eco-city. Additionally, although more than 100 indicators have been used or proposed for assessing such cities, few relate directly to energy use or carbon emissions. Nonetheless, policy makers and leaders continue to demand comprehensive toolboxes to facilitate development of low-carbon eco-cities. This paper presents the results of an extensive literature review of the development of low-carbon eco-cities in China. The paper also qualitatively and quantitatively analyzes 11 major indicator systems that researchers, planners

  17. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  18. Multiculturalism as an Educational Policy. ESA 842, Policy Development and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Fazal

    The monograph that begins this volume analyzes multiculturalism as an educational policy in order to identify the broader values and interests that are served by its promotion. It begins with a historical review of Australia's post-World-War-II immigration policies. In the next two sections, the major elements of the policy of assimilation, a…

  19. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  20. Biofuel policies and the impact of developing countries' policy responses to the 2007-2008 food price boom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorter, de Harry; Drabik, D.

    2016-01-01

    Economists have been unanimous that developing countries’ policy responses to high food grain prices in 2007–2008 in restricting exports and promoting imports increased both world food grain price levels and volatility. Furthermore, the literature emphasizes the self-defeating aspects of policy