WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy green power

  1. Green power programs in Canada : 2003 : overview of Government green power policies, utility green power implementation initiatives, green power and certificate marketing programs, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitmore, J.; Bramley, M.; Holmes, R.

    2004-09-01

    Green power is defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. It offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities in Canada associated with these four categories in 2003 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Green power generation facilities in 2003 totaled 775 MW of capacity compared to 539 MW in 2002. Hydro capacity represented 41 per cent, followed by wind capacity at 40 per cent and wood waste at 17 per cent. Most of the green power generation facilities in 2003 were located in Alberta, followed by British Columbia, Ontario and Quebec. 230 refs., 8 tabs., 1 fig

  2. Green power programs in Canada : 2002 : Overview of Government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power and certificate marketing initiatives, and their benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramley, M.; Boustie, S.; Vadgama, J.; Wieler, C.; Pape-Salmon, A.; Holmes, R.

    2003-11-01

    Green power is generally defined as electricity produced from renewable sources, and whose production has low adverse impacts on the environment, human health and communities. Green power has near-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and includes sources such as wind, hydro, and solar power. Green power offers several environmental benefits, as well as the enhancement of energy security, regional development, economic diversification and the creation of skilled jobs. There are four categories of programs related to green power development in Canada: government green power policies, utility green power development programs, green power marketing initiatives, and green power certificate marketing initiatives. Most of the activities associated with these four categories in 2002 were discussed in this report. However, difficulties with quantification prevented the inclusion of some green power activities in the report, such as (1) the generation of green power not certified or identified by the generator as green power, (2) industry or residential self-generation, (3) net metering, and (4) small government programs. Each category was presented in detail. The information included in the report was based on surveys sent to each program proponent. Follow-up communications and other publicly available information was also included. New programs operating in 2003 or currently under development were listed. refs., 8 tabs

  3. Green Power voluntary purchases. Price elasticity and policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewton, Ross T.; Cacho, Oscar J.

    2011-01-01

    Green Power schemes offer electricity from renewable energy sources to customers for a higher price than ordinary electricity. This study examines the demand characteristics of Green Power in Australia and policies which could increase its sales. A sample of 250 pooled time series and cross sectional observations was used to estimate a statistically significant elasticity of demand for Green Power with respect to price of -0.96 with a 95% confidence interval of ±68%. The wide variation in market penetration between jurisdictions and between countries for Green Power, and the low awareness of Green Power found by surveys indicate that Green Power sales could be increased by appropriate marketing and government policies. The most cost effective means to increase sales was found to be advertising campaigns although only one Australian example was found, in the state of Victoria in 2005. It was also found that full tax deductibility of the Green Power premium to residential customers, exemption from the Goods and Services Tax and a tax rebate for Green Power are all probably less cost effective for promoting sales than direct government purchase of Green Power, in terms of cost per unit of increased sales. (author)

  4. The role of public policy in emerging green power markets: An analysis of marketer preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.

    1999-08-01

    Green power marketing has been heralded by some as a means to create a private market for renewable energy that is driven by customer demand for green products. This report challenges the premise--sometimes proffered in debates over green markets--that profitable, sizable, credible markets for green products will evolve naturally without supportive public policies. Relying primarily on surveys and interviews of US green power marketers, the article examines the role of specific regulatory and legislative policies in enabling the green market, and searches for those policies that are believed by marketers to be the most conducive or detrimental to the expansion of the green market. The authors find that marketers: (1) believe that profitable green power markets will only develop if a solid foundation of supportive policies exists; (2) believe that establishing overall price competition and encouraging customer switching are the top priorities; (3) are somewhat leery of government-sponsored or mandated public information programs; and (4) oppose three specific renewable energy policies that are frequently advocated by renewable energy enthusiasts, but that may have negative impacts on the green marketers' profitability. The stated preferences of green marketers shed light on ways to foster renewables by means of the green market. Because the interests of marketers do not coincide perfectly with those of society, however, the study also recognizes other normative perspectives and highlights policy tensions at the heart of current debates related to green markets. By examining these conflicts, they identify three key policy questions that should direct future research: (1) to what extent should price competition and customer switching be encouraged at the expense of cost shifting; (2) what requirements should be imposed to ensure credibility in green products and marketing; and (3) how should the green power market and broader renewable energy policies interact?

  5. Green Power Partnership Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Green Power Partnership develops videos on a regular basis that explore a variety of topics including, Green Power partnership, green power purchasing, Renewable energy certificates, among others.

  6. Green Power Partner Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA Green Power Partners can access tools and resources to help promote their green power commitments. Partners use these tools to communicate the benefits of their green power use to their customers, stakeholders, and the general public.

  7. Green Power Partnership 100 Green Power Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Partners on this list use green power to meet 100 of their U.S. organization-wide electricity use.

  8. Green Power Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership defines Green power is a subset of renewable energy and represents those renewable energy resources and technologies that provide the highest environmental benefit.

  9. Green Power Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    GPCs are towns, villages, cities, counties, or tribal governments in which the local government, businesses, and residents collectively use green power in amounts that meet or exceed EPA's Green Power Community purchase requirements.

  10. Green Power Partner List

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. There are thousands of Green Power Partners, all listed on this page.

  11. Green Power Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, Patrick Barry [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2013-01-28

    National energy policy supports the gathering of more detailed and authoritative data on the introduction of renewable bio-based fuels into new and existing district energy systems via the application of biomass gasification. The University of Iowa developed a biomass-fueled, university-scale steam generation system based on biomass gasification technologies. The system serves as a state-of-the-art research and educational facility in the emerging application of gasification in steam generation. The facility, which includes a smaller down-draft gasifier and a larger multi-stage biomass boiler, was designed to operate primarily on wood-based fuels, but has provisions for testing other biomass fuel sources produced within a 100-mile radius, providing enough flexibility to meet the fluctuating local supply of biomass from industry and Midwest agriculture. The equipment was installed in an existing, staffed facility. The down-draft gasifier unit is operated by College of Engineering staff and students, under the direct technical supervision of qualified Utilities plant staff. The Green Power Initiative also includes a substantial, innovative educational component. In addition to an onsite, graduate-level research program in biomass fuels, the investigators have integrated undergraduate and graduate level teaching – through classroom studies and experiential learning – and applied research into a biomass-based, university-scale, functioning power plant. University of Iowa is unique in that it currently has multiple renewable energy technologies deployed, including significant biomass combustion (oat hulls) at its Main Power Plant and a new reciprocating engine based renewable district energy system. This project complements and supports the national energy policy and State of Iowa initiatives in ethanol and biodiesel. Byproducts of ethanol and biodiesel processes (distiller grains) as well as industry residues (oat hulls, wood chips, construction and demolition

  12. Toward Green Sensor Field by Optimizing Power Efficiency Using D-Policy M/G/1 Queuing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuu-Cheng Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Power efficiency is a crucially important issue in the IEEE 802.15.4/ZigBee sensor networks (ZSNs for majority of sensor nodes equipped with non-rechargeable batteries. To increase the lifetime of sensor networks, each node must optimize power consumption as possible. Among open literatures, much research works have focused on how to optimally increase the probability of sleeping states using multifarious wake-up strategies. Making things different, in this article, we propose a novel optimization framework for alleviating power consumption of sensor node with the D-policy M/G/1 queuing approach. Toward green sensor field, the proposed power-saving technique can be applied to prolong the lifetime of ZSN economically and effectively. For the proposed data aggregation model, mathematical framework on performance measures has been formulated. Data simulation using MATLAB tool has been conducted for exploring the feasibility of the proposed approach. And also we analyze the average traffic load per node for tree-based ZSN. Focusing on ZigBee routers deployed at the innermost shell of ZSN, network simulation results validate that the proposed approach indeed provides a feasibly cost-effective approach for prolonging lifetime of ZSNs.

  13. Benefits of Green Power Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Learn about the benefits of becoming a Green Power Partner.

  14. Guide to Purchasing Green Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Guide for Purchasing Green Power is a comprehensive guide for current and potential buyers of green power with information about green power purchasing. The Guide is created cooperatively between the EPA, the U.S. Department of Energy, the World Resou

  15. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, Timothy J.

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  16. The Geography of Green Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-25

    Green power refers to the voluntary purchase of renewable electricity by retail electricity customers. Green power is unlike compliance-based renewable energy procurement imposed by law or regulation. In 2016, over six million customers procured about 95 million megawatt-hours (MWh) of green power in the United States, which represents about 28% of all U.S. renewable energy sales, excluding large hydropower. In this fact sheet, we use available data to illustrate the geography of green power demand (in terms of number of customers) and supply (in terms of MWh of generation) by state.

  17. Voluntary Green Power Market Forecast through 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Holt, E.; Sumner, J.; Kreycik, C.

    2010-05-01

    Various factors influence the development of the voluntary 'green' power market--the market in which consumers purchase or produce power from non-polluting, renewable energy sources. These factors include climate policies, renewable portfolio standards (RPS), renewable energy prices, consumers' interest in purchasing green power, and utilities' interest in promoting existing programs and in offering new green options. This report presents estimates of voluntary market demand for green power through 2015 that were made using historical data and three scenarios: low-growth, high-growth, and negative-policy impacts. The resulting forecast projects the total voluntary demand for renewable energy in 2015 to range from 63 million MWh annually in the low case scenario to 157 million MWh annually in the high case scenario, representing an approximately 2.5-fold difference. The negative-policy impacts scenario reflects a market size of 24 million MWh. Several key uncertainties affect the results of this forecast, including uncertainties related to growth assumptions, the impacts that policy may have on the market, the price and competitiveness of renewable generation, and the level of interest that utilities have in offering and promoting green power products.

  18. Green power opportunities for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elwell, C.; Rotenberg, E.; Torrie, R.; Poch, D.; Allen, G.

    2002-02-01

    Green energy is defined as the energy generated from renewable and environmentally benign sources. In this document, the authors demonstrated that Ontario possesses the potential to reduce energy waste on an economic basis while generating sufficient green energy to enable the province to decommission its coal burning power plants. In turn, this would lead to a more sustainable energy economy and a lesser reliance on nuclear generation. It was determined that a three-fold policy would enable the province to achieve this goal. First, there is a need to remove hidden subsidies to polluting forms of generation. The second aspect of this policy is the implementation of a robust Demand Side Management Program, and the third aspect calls for the reform of the price of electricity that includes all costs. In this manner, all forms of generation would compete on an equal footing. The authors identified an alternative to immediate price reform in the form of a legislated Renewable Portfolio Standard. A growing percentage of new renewable electricity in the supply portfolio offered by electricity providers would be required by the Renewable Portfolio Standard. It was suggested that the Ontario government adopt this measure before the opening of the electricity market in May 2002, as strong support for the measure is present. 13 refs

  19. Green Cleaning Label Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balek, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Green cleaning plays a significant and supportive role in helping education institutions meet their sustainability goals. However, identifying cleaning products, supplies and equipment that truly are environmentally preferable can be daunting. The marketplace is inundated with products and services purporting to be "green" or environmentally…

  20. Green Power Partnership Eligible Scope of Green Power Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA requires that Partners meet GPP's vintage requirement.

  1. Consumer perceptions of green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.; Parker, P.; Scott, D.

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between consumer perceptions of the environmental impact of different energy sources and their willingness to pay a premium for green electricity was examined using the ANOVA analysis of variance and the chi-square test procedures. Since green power producers can include several energy resources in their offerings, it is important to understand the preferences of their customers. A survey sent to 480 residents in the Waterloo region of southern Ontario showed that when asked about purchasing nuclear, large scale hydropower or natural gas out of a choice of 11 energy sources, there was a wide discrepancy between those who stated a willingness to pay a large premium for green power and those who stated a willingness to pay only a small, or no, premium for green power. It was determined that these 3 energy resources were not popular among the most environmentally inclined portion of the consumer market. It was noted however that willingness to pay should be interpreted with caution because peoples' stated intentions to pay a premium for green power do not necessarily translate into action once they have the opportunity to buy power from renewable energy sources. However, marketing strategies could be used to improve the uptake of green power by consumers. The study suggests that landfill gas, is probably preferred to large-scale hydro. It was also suggested that the relative position of biomass, natural gas, garbage and nuclear power should be examined more closely. 29 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Green Power Partnership Eligible Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. Many different types of organizations are eligible to become Partners.

  3. Certified: green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, S.; Brown, L.

    1999-01-01

    Deregulation of the energy industry in the USA may be a force favouring the environment but for the consumer it is something of a nightmare since there are so many options with respect to both price, service and environmental awareness. However, there is now a marked tendency for companies wishing to be seen as 'green' to favour environmentally aware suppliers. Indeed, some suppliers holding formal qualifications in 'greenness' believe they are justified in charging a premium for their energy. The question is asked 'what is green?' and the authors discuss the answers at some length: the hydro industry fares well in such a discussion. The authors (from Scientific Certification Systems) believe that certification provides a rational explanation of prices and why charging a premium may be justifiable.(UK)

  4. Green Power Marketing Abroad: Recent Experience and Trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Wustenhagen, R.; Aabakken, J.

    2002-04-01

    Green power marketing--the act of differentially selling electricity generated wholly or in part from renewable sources--has emerged in more than a dozen countries around the world. This report reviews green power marketing activity abroad to gain additional perspective on consumer demand and to discern key factors or policies that affect the development of green power markets. The objective is to draw lessons from experience in other countries that could be applicable to the U.S. market.

  5. 'Green' Preferences as Regulatory Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Timothy

    2001-01-01

    We examine the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If “green” preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for o...

  6. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California`s residential marketplace.

  7. Selling green power in California: Product, industry, and market trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.H.; Pickle, S.J.

    1998-05-01

    As one of the first US stages to open its doors to retail electric competition, California offers an important opportunity to assess the effectiveness of green power marketing as a mechanism for supporting renewable energy. This report is an interim assessment of key green power product, industry, and market trends in California. The report identifies and analyzes: the potential size of the green power market in California; the companies participating in the green power market; the green power products being offered and their prices; the impact of the green market on renewable generators and the environment; and the influence of several public policies and non-governmental programs on the market for green power. Data used in this paper have been collected, in large part, from surveys and interviews with green power marketers that took place between December 1997 and April 1998. There remain legitimate concerns over the viability of green power marketing to support significant quantities of renewable energy and provide large environmental gains, and it is far too early to assess the overall strength of customer demand for renewable energy. A critical finding of this report is that, because of the high cost of acquiring and servicing residential customers and the low utility default service price, green power marketing affords new energy service providers one of the only viable entrees to California's residential marketplace

  8. Green politics in Germany: what is Green health care policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, M; Wismar, M

    2001-01-01

    For the first time ever, a Green party has governed in Germany. From September 1998 to January 2001 the German Green party, Bündnis 90/Die Grünen, held the Federal Ministry of Health. Little has been said so far about Bündnis 90/Die Grünen and its relation to health policy. This article is intended to fill that void. An analysis of the health policy program of the Greens reveals that it centers around moving the health sector toward more comprehensiveness and decentralization, strengthened patients' rights, increased use of preventive and alternative medicine, and a critique of the German cost-containment debate and policy. The current health policy program of the Greens is closest to that of the Party of Democratic Socialism, and to a lesser extent it has affinities to the program of the Social Democratic Party. The health policy program of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen is furthest from those of the Christian Democratic Union and the Free Democratic Party. The health care reforms passed in 1998 and 1999 were not a shift toward a "Green paradigm" of health care policy, because they included no fundamental changes. In addition, cost-containment is still a major political goal in German health care policy.

  9. Green Power Partnership Top 30 Local Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists the largest green power users among local government partners within the GPP.

  10. Green Power Partnership Top 10 Federal Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page highlights federal agency efforts in procuring green power.

  11. Ukrainian 'greens' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sappa, Nikolai

    1993-01-01

    At the First Constituent Congress of the Ukrainian Ecology Association 'Zelenyj svit' started in 1989 under antinuclear banners the as an organization of 'greens'. Since a great many of the Ukrainian citizens shared the attitude of the 'greens' to the Chernobyl accident, we faced the problem to stand our ground at least on our 'territory', i,e. the towns-NPP satellites. It is this factor that specified the urgent tasks for our activities at the regional level, carried out in cooperation with public relations services at the NPP. He arranged giving lectures in these towns, sent the public relations services all kind of information which sight be of use for efficient work, and performed sociological studies, which included: i) clearing up the attitude of the public to different aspects of nuclear energy industry, the level of public knowledge concerning the problem involved, ii) finding the channels and most preferable forms of disseminating information on nuclear power, and iii) developing recommendations for NPP administration and public relations services. He started our work three years ago. it may be noted that at the end of the last year there was a conference in Kiev 'The power industry of independent Ukraine and ecology', held by the Union of power engineers and Z elenyj svit . It is rather significant that at this conference, for the first time in the history of the ecological movement in the Ukraine, the 'greens' have admitted the possibility of having a creative dialogue with power engineers on nuclear power problems. Re consider it to be a serious progress in the perception of our opponents may be noted that at the end of the last year there was a conference in Kiev T he power industry of independent Ukraine and ecology , held by the Union of power engineers and Z elenyj svit . It is rather significant that at this conference, for the first time in the history of the ecological movement in the Ukraine, the 'greens' have admitted the possibility of having

  12. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Xuexian Gao; Haidong Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents’ behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) fac...

  13. A game theory analysis of green infrastructure stormwater management policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Reshmina; Garg, Jugal; Stillwell, Ashlynn S.

    2017-09-01

    Green stormwater infrastructure has been demonstrated as an innovative water resources management approach that addresses multiple challenges facing urban environments. However, there is little consensus on what policy strategies can be used to best incentivize green infrastructure adoption by private landowners. Game theory, an analysis framework that has historically been under-utilized within the context of stormwater management, is uniquely suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to investigate the potential impacts of different policy strategies used to incentivize green infrastructure installation. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest reduction in pollutant loading. However, the choice of the "best" regulatory approach will depend on a variety of different factors including politics and financial considerations. Large, downstream agents have a disproportionate share of bargaining power. Results also reveal that policy impacts are highly dependent on agents' spatial position within the stormwater network, leading to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  14. Innovating innovation Policy. Rethinking green innovation policy in evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Dinica, V.; Marquart, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced environmental standards such as sustainability require substantial improvements in the environmental performances of present technologies. Governments are faced with the challenge to design green innovation policies able to support producers and users of technologies to comply with such

  15. Uncertain climate policy and the green paradox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Sjak A.; Tsur, Y.; Zemel, A.; Moser, E.; Semmler, W.; Tragler, G.; Veliov, V.

    2014-01-01

    Unintended consequences of announcing a climate policy well in advance of its implementation have been studied in a variety of situations. We show that a phenomenon akin to the so-called “Green-Paradox” holds also when the policy implementation date is uncertain. Governments are compelled, by

  16. 'Green' preferences as regulatory policy instrument

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, Timothy J. [Public Policy and Economics, University of Maryland Baltimore County (United States)

    2006-01-01

    We examine here the suggestion that if consumers in sufficient numbers are willing to pay the premium to have power generated using low-emission technologies, tax or permit policies become less necessary or stringent. While there are implementation difficulties with this proposal, our purpose is more fundamental: Can economics make sense of using preferences as a regulatory instrument? If 'green' preferences are exogenously given, to what extent can or should they be regarded as a substitute for other policies? Even with 'green' preferences, production and consumption of polluting goods continue to impose social costs not borne in the market. Moreover, if green preferences are regarded as a policy instrument, the 'no policy' baseline would require a problematic specification of counterfactual 'non-green' preferences. Viewing green preferences as a regulatory policy instrument is conceptually sensible if the benchmark for optimal emissions is based on value judgments apart from the preferences consumers happen to have. If so, optimal environmental protection would be defined by reference to ethical theory, or, even less favorably, by prescriptions from policy advocates who give their own preferences great weight while giving those of the public at large (and the costs they bear) very little consideration. (author)

  17. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-02-26

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates.

  18. Environmental Concerns, Environmental Policy and Green Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuexian; Zheng, Haidong

    2017-12-13

    Environmental regulators often use environmental policy to induce green investment by firms. However, if an environmental policy fails to exert a long-run effect on regulating the economic agents' behavior, it may be more reasonable to think of the firm as the leader in the game, since the investment in green technology is usually a strategic decision. In this paper, we consider a three-stage Stackelberg game to address the interaction between a profit-maximizing firm (Stackelberg leader) facing emission-dependent demand, and the environmental regulator (Stackelberg follower). The firm decides on the green technology level in the first stage of the game based on its understanding of the regulator's profits function, especially an environmental concern that is introduced as an exogenous variable. In the current research, we show that high levels of the regulator's environmental concerns do not necessarily lead to the choice of green technology by the firm, and green investment level depends on the combined effects of the market and operational factors for a given level of the regulator's environmental concerns. The result also shows that increasing environmental awareness amongst the consumers is an effective way to drive the firm's green investment.

  19. Green Power Partnership Long-term Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page lists Partners that signed a contract to purchase green power for 5 years or more.

  20. Green power marketing. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, S.

    2005-01-01

    Selectpower Inc. is an unregulated affiliate of Guelph Hydro and was formed to market green energy alternatives. Details of their Selectwind program were reviewed in this presentation. The program is available to both individuals and organizations. Customers sign a 3 or 5 year agreement to purchase monthly blocks of wind energy at a premium of $6.53 per month, which is billed on their Hydro bill. Details of the program's business strategy and branding policy were presented. The program markets itself by using full page colour newspaper ads, direct mailing and making forms available at Selectpower retail stores, mall kiosks and community events. In addition, Selectwind leaders are profiled in Enernews, and also have a quarterly newsletter. An example of an order form was provided, as well as an outline of Selectwind educational materials and details of their quality assurance procedures, EcoLogo certification and guarantees. Fifty percent of customers currently buy more than 100 kWh per month, and several customers buy 100 per cent equivalent of their electricity use as Selectwind. Minimum Selectwind purchase is 1200 kWh per year with a 3 year contract. Approximately 100 MWh are purchased every month, and 3,607,494 kWh have been sold for the life of the contracts. Selectwind's combined emissions reduction commitments are 3,206 tonnes of CO 2 . It was observed that 45,000 Ontario customer using wind energy represented 6.2 MW of installed capacity. refs., tabs., figs

  1. Green electricity policies in the United States: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.

    2005-01-01

    While there has been interest in promoting the use of renewable energy in electricity production for a number of years in the United States, the market share of non-hydro renewable energy sources in electricity production has remained at about 2 percent over the past decade. The paper reviews the principal energy resources used for electricity production, considers the changing regulatory environment for the electricity industry, and describes government policies that have been used to promote green electricity in the United States, with an emphasis on measures adopted by state governments. Factors influencing the development of green power markets are also discussed, including underlying economic issues, public policy measures, the regulatory environment, external costs, and subsidies. Without significant increases in fossil fuel prices, much more stringent environmental regulations, or significant changes in electricity customer preferences, green electricity markets are likely to develop slowly in the United States

  2. Solar photovoltaic power generation system and understanding of green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Chun Sik

    2004-03-01

    This book introduces sunlight generation system and green energy, which includes new and renewable energy such as photovoltaic power generation, solar thermal, wind power, bio energy, waste energy, geothermal energy, ocean energy and fuel cell photovoltaic industry like summary, technology trend, market trend, development strategy of the industry in Korea, and other countries, design of photovoltaic power generation system supporting policy and related business of new and renewable energy.

  3. Green Building Policy Options for New Orleans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.

    2011-09-01

    This document is adapted from a memo and report delivered to the City Council of New Orleans, the office of the Mayor of New Orleans, the Chairperson of the Citizen Stakeholders Group (New Orleans Energy Task Force) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Project Officer in 2008. The report outlines ideas for and potential impacts of various green building policies in New Orleans in the years following Hurricane Katrina.

  4. Green Power Partnership Related Programs & Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This page provides a brief program overview, including vision and accomplishments.

  5. New green paper on European energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heller, W.

    2006-01-01

    On March 8, 2006, EU Commission president Jose Manuel Barroso and Energy Commissioner Andris Piebalgs presented to the public the Green Paper on 'A European Strategy for a Sustainable, Competitive, and Secure Energy', which had been expected for some time. The authors thus underscore the great importance for European development of energy policy. However, the European treaties restrict the competence of the EU in matters of energy policy. The Green Paper is to spark off a broad consultation and discussion process about the potential design of a comprehensive European energy policy. 6 main areas are mentioned in which action needs to be taken: - Energy for growth and employment. - Single energy market and continuity of supply. - Mix of energy resources: sustainable, efficient, divers. - Climate protection. - Innovation in energy technologies. - Coherent foreign policy in matters of energy. 3 key objectives are identified: - Development of renewable and other energy sources also with low CO 2 emissions. - Opening of markets, promotion of investments, energy efficiency. - Continuity of supply. (orig.)

  6. Green Applications for Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit...

  7. State of the Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-03-26

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  8. Global Green New Deal. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The 'Global Green New Deal' (GGND) presented here has three broad objectives. It should make a major contribution to reviving the world economy, saving and creating jobs, and protecting vulnerable groups. It should promote sustainable and inclusive growth and the achievement of the MDGs, especially ending extreme poverty by 2015. Also, it must reduce carbon dependency and ecosystem degradation. These are key risks along a path to a sustainable world economy. Our consultations and our commissioned research, summarized here in this Policy Brief, make a strong case for the active 'greening' of proposed fiscal stimulus packages. However, this must also be backed by necessary changes in international and domestic policy architectures, as the current framework is biased in favour of resurrecting an unsustainable 'brown economy'. Our proposals are therefore grouped under three categories - targeted stimulus spending in 2009-10, changes in domestic policies, and changes in international policy architecture. Furthermore, we recognize that many less developed countries do not have the resources of their own and will have to rely on foreign aid and support, both financial and non-financial. We propose that the fiscal stimulus (to be applied over 2009 and 2010) should prioritize energy efficient buildings and investments in sustainable transport and renewable energy. Developing countries should prioritize investment in agricultural productivity measures, freshwater management, and sanitation, as these have demonstrable and exceptional social returns. Domestic policy reforms are recommended to substantially reduce perverse subsidies (eg: fossil fuels) and instead to create positive incentives and appropriate taxes which will encourage a greener economy. Domestic reforms should also address some common issues in land use and urban policy. Integrated management of freshwater would also require some domestic policy changes, and this should be prioritized by developing countries

  9. Green Wireless Power Transfer Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Q.; Golinnski, M.; Pawelczak, P.; Warnier, M.

    2016-01-01

    wireless power transfer network (WPTN) aims to support devices with cable-less energy on-demand. Unfortunately, wireless power transfer itself-especially through radio frequency radiation rectification-is fairly inefficient due to decaying power with distance, antenna polarization, etc.

  10. Pricing Policies in Green Supply Chains with Vertical and Horizontal Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the pricing policies and green strategies in a duopoly green supply chain with vertical and horizontal competition, which includes a green manufacturer, a traditional manufacturer and a common retailer. The purpose of the paper is to address the following research problems: (1 How manufacturers’ market power influences the pricing policies and green strategies of supply chain members in a green supply chain? (2 What conditions do first-mover advantage and green competitive advantage be effective simultaneously? We establish the linear demand functions of the duopoly green supply chain and obtain the players’ optimal decisions under channel members’ different market power. Further, we conduct sensitivity analysis and numerical examples of players’ optimal decisions about consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector. Based on the theoretical and numerical analysis, we find that green manufacturer would benefit from the increment of consumer’s environmental awareness but be depressed by the increase of greening cost, which is contrary to the traditional manufacturer. Additionally, correlations of retailer’ optimal decisions and profits between consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector are related to the manufacturers’ market power structures. Furthermore, we find that the green competitive advantage is more effective than first-mover advantage while first-mover advantage does not always effective in the duopoly green supply chain. Specially, traditional manufacturer always prefers to be the follower competing with the green manufacturer, no matter with the variety of consumer’s environmental awareness and greening cost effector, while green manufacturer would like to be the leader only when the consumer’s environmental awareness is relatively high or the greening cost effector is relatively low.

  11. Dynamic Spectrum Access: regulations, standards and green radio policy considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mfupe, L

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available -related requirements of electric utilities so that FCC can advise appropriately on federal smart grid policies and governmental departments on improving the energy-efficiency of their data centres [20]. Table 1 presents a SWOT analysis on green radio policies. IV... Table 1: A summary SWOT analysis of green radio policies. Method vs. Indicator Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Green radio compliance strategies ? Some regulators, telecommunications operators and standardization bodies around...

  12. Green Certificates and Market Power on the Nordic Power Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, Lars; Amundsen, Eirik S

    2007-06-01

    In Sweden a market for Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs) was introduced in 2003. The purpose was to stimulate investments in electricity generation based on renewable energy sources without using direct governmental subsidies to renewable energy. More precisely the aim is to create a market where different types of renewable electricity can compete on equal terms, thus relieving governments and public agencies from being directly involved in power industry investment decisions. The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power in the TGC market can be used to affect the entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with market power in TGC markets. The first is the fact that the industry average cost curve for 'green' electricity tends to be upward sloping. This is because the cost of wind power, the main source of green electricity, depends on the location of the power plants, and that the availability of first rate sites that do not involve sizable investments in new transmission and network infrastructure, is limited. The situation is similar for environmentally friendly hydro power, and, to some extent, for other types of 'green' electricity. Thus, given the state of technology and an upper cost limit, there is a maximum amount of 'green' electricity that can be produced within a country. This means that some generators, by getting access to the suitable sites, will become dominating producers of 'green' electricity and thus may be able to exercise market power in the TGC market. The second reason for being concerned with market power in a TGC market is that, as a result of the percentage requirement, the withdrawal of a given number of TGCs from the market forces a much larger reduction of electricity consumption. Thus relatively modest exercise of market power in the TGC market may have a significant impact on the price of electricity and the allocation of resources in

  13. Should policy ethics come in two colours: green or white?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Malcolm

    2013-05-01

    When writing about policy, do you think in green or white? If not, I recommend that you do. I suggest that writers and journal editors should explicitly label every policy ethics paper either 'green' or 'white'. A green paper is an unconstrained exploration of a policy question. The controversial 'After-birth abortion' paper is an example. Had it been labelled as 'green', readers could have understood what Giubilini and Minerva explained later: that it was a discussion of philosophical ideas, and not a policy proposal advocating infanticide. A serious policy proposal should be labelled by writer(s) and editor(s) as 'white'. Its purpose should be to influence policy. In order to influence policy, I suggest three essential, and two desirable, characteristics of any white paper. Most importantly, a white paper should be set in the context in which the policy is to be made and applied.

  14. Beware of false green power marketers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1997-06-01

    A warning was sounded to make people aware of false marketers of `green power`. These are companies that purchase excess power from existing sources, including nuclear, coal and large-scale hydro, and resell it at inflated prices to unsuspecting consumers. These consumers believe that they are buying power from renewable sources. With large amounts of money at stake, there are many new opportunities for unscrupulous companies to take advantage of the good intentions of environmentally conscious customers. Therefore, before making a commitment to purchase power from companies that claim to be enviro-friendly, it is important to check out the facts and be aware of how the industry works.

  15. Enmax to buy more green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2000-01-01

    Enmax, Calgary's electric power utility has recently issued a request for proposals to wind and small hydro power producers to supply an additional 30,000 MWh of green energy before the end of this year, and 40,000 MWh per year for the next 10 years. To meet this new demand with wind power, it would be necessary to install an additional 12 MW of new wind capacity. To qualify, a producer must be Ecologo certifiable have facilities built after 1996. The new energy will be used to expand green energy into the commercial energy market, as well as to sign up more residential customers. (Currently there are about 1,000.) Epcor, the Edmonton electric utility currently has 1,700 green energy customers and hopes to have 7,000 by 2005. Currently, it markets green energy generated by Whitecourt Power's wood waste biomass plant, but hopes to augment its supply from small hydro production from an Alberta plant now being installed in a joint venture with Canadian Hydro Developers. Epcor also has a 13.4 kW solar array installed on the roof of its headquarters building which has been recently EcoLogo certified

  16. Power policy review - Gujarat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Power is the engine of growth of any developing economy. Consumption of electrical energy is an universally accepted indicator of progress in the agricultural, industrial and commercial sectors, as also of the well being of the people of the State. No major economic activity can be sustained without adequate and reliable supply of power. It plays a critical role in employment generation, regional development and poverty eradication

  17. Is South Korea’s Green Job Policy Sustainable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeon-Mi Jung

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available South Korea’s green job policy was implemented in February 2008 as a part of low-carbon green growth policy, but has been discontinued at the present. The country’s actual energy and environmental consumption has continuously increased, and South Korean society has grown increasingly distant from sustainable development. The study constructs a theoretical framework centering on sustainable development and analyzes the process and contents of South Korea’s green job policy. We suggest four findings: First, in terms of ideology, the nation’s green job policy was based on green growth. Implemented as a strategy typical of developing countries, South Korea’s green growth was pursued as weak ecological modernization, relatively stressing economic growth and excluding citizens’ participation. Second, in terms of governance, the nation’s green job policy was led by the central government, thus nearly completely destroying existing legal and institutional infrastructures related to sustainable development. Third, South Korea’s green job policy was defined on the basis of a growth orientation and concentrated on the Four Major Rivers Restoration Project and the NPP project, both of which betrayed considerable problems from the perspective of sustainable development. Fourth, green jobs were created in traditional environmental protection and pollution reduction and therefore limited.

  18. Nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitschelt, H.

    1980-01-01

    The author gives an overlapping socialpolitical history of the decision-making process on nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. He follows the path on which within about two decades an investment strategy planned in the long term by a few international multis has become the issue of the century at all political and economic levels and instances. The study analyses the conditions of the fact that a conflict has arisen, and of the conflict development within the political system of the Federal Republic of Germany. As a result, the author shows that the present conflict has been provoked by the systematic ruling-out of all those concerned who have contrary interests. The escalation of the conflict during the 70s has led to a paralysis of the political decision-making process, because neither existing policies nor distinct alternatives could be ca rried through. (HSCH) [de

  19. 2nd European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2002 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. International perspectives and trends are discussed and strategies and management issues are examined. Product and price policies are discussed, as are instruments for the communication of 'Green Power' issues. Also, issues concerning customer needs, renewable energy sources, climate change and sustainability are dealt with and the situation in Australia is looked at

  20. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2014 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nobler, Erin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-16

    NREL's annual report on green power markets summarizes status and trends in the voluntary demand for renewable energy. U.S. green power markets have become more complex over time as state-level policies have enabled more avenues for green power purchases. In recent years, community solar, community choice aggregation (CCA), and voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs) have significantly increased the number of U.S. voluntary green power customers. The community solar model has grown rapidly with 90 projects in 25 states by 2015. Renewable energy sales in CCAs declined slightly in 2014 in response to less favorable economic conditions in Illinois. At the same time, several California CCAs continued to grow, and many more communities are planning to pursue green power through aggregation. Voluntary green power purchasing through bi-lateral PPAs took off in 2014 due to several large-scale agreements signed by information and communication technology firms. Traditional green power options, such as utility green pricing programs and voluntary RECs markets, also grew in 2014. Current trends suggest strong continued growth in U.S. voluntary green power markets.

  1. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  2. Interactions between the power and green certificate markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, S.G.; Skytte, K.

    2002-01-01

    The current trend of liberalising the power markets is combined with ambitious deployment plans for power production based on renewable energy supplies. A new policy scheme to ensure this extension has been developed in the form of a green certificate system, with a politically determined target of deployment. In such a system, producers of renewably based electricity receive tradable certificates in proportion to the electricity they produce. The producer can thereby sell these certificates and receive additional revenue apart from the power price. This paper studies the price and consumption effects of such a system. With a simple model we show that the effects are ambiguous. This ambiguity is caused by the interaction between the two markets. Therefore, the green certificate system is difficult to manage if the State has parallel energy targets, such as a desired deployment of renewably based energy and a stabilisation or reduction of the energy consumption. In addition, this complicates the regulation through a deployment target of renewably based power production, as the regulator has to be aware of the different effects, which follow a specific target. Until now, these effects have not been considered in the analyses of the green certificate system when introducing the system, even though it might have considerable consequences for the success of the system. (author)

  3. Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Bilharz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of renewable energy in Germany from 1973 to 2003. It investigates the relative importance of energy policy and green power marketing in shaping the renewable energy market. More than a decade of consistent policy support for renewables under the feed-in law (StrEG) and its successor (EEG) has been an important driver for increasing renewable electricity generation to date, putting the country in a better position than most of its peers when it comes to achieving European Union targets for renewable energy. Green power marketing driven by customer demand, on the other hand, is growing, but has had limited measurable impact so far. We discuss potential intangible benefits of green power marketing and scenarios for future market development. The paper concludes with lessons that can be learned from the German case for policy design and market development in other countries

  4. Gold or green: the debate on open access policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadal, Ernest

    2013-09-01

    The movement for open access to science seeks to achieve unrestricted and free access to academic publications on the Internet. To this end, two mechanisms have been established: the gold road, in which scientific journals are openly accessible, and the green road, in which publications are self-archived in repositories. The publication of the Finch Report in 2012, advocating exclusively the adoption of the gold road, generated a debate as to whether either of the two options should be prioritized. The recommendations of the Finch Report stirred controversy among academicians specialized in open access issues, who felt that the role played by repositories was not adequately considered and because the green road places the burden of publishing costs basically on authors. The Finch Report's conclusions are compatible with the characteristics of science communication in the UK and they could surely also be applied to the (few) countries with a powerful publishing industry and substantial research funding. In Spain, both the current national legislation and the existing rules at universities largely advocate the green road. This is directly related to the structure of scientific communication in Spain, where many journals have little commercial significance, the system of charging a fee to authors has not been adopted, and there is a good repository infrastructure. As for open access policies, the performance of the scientific communication system in each country should be carefully analyzed to determine the most suitable open access strategy.

  5. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated. (author)

  6. Establishing green roof infrastructure through environmental policy instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Fowler, Laurie

    2008-07-01

    Traditional construction practices provide little opportunity for environmental remediation to occur in urban areas. As concerns for environmental improvement in urban areas become more prevalent, innovative practices which create ecosystem services and ecologically functional land cover in cities will be in higher demand. Green roofs are a prime example of one of these practices. The past decade has seen the North American green roof industry rapidly expand through international green roof conferences, demonstration sites, case studies, and scientific research. This study evaluates existing international and North American green roof policies at the federal, municipal, and community levels. Green roof policies fall into a number of general categories, including direct and indirect regulation, direct and indirect financial incentives, and funding of demonstration or research projects. Advantages and disadvantages of each category are discussed. Salient features and a list of prompting standards common to successfully implemented green roof strategies are then distilled from these existing policies. By combining these features with data collected from an experimental green roof site in Athens, Georgia, the planning and regulatory framework for widespread green roof infrastructure can be developed. The authors propose policy instruments be multi-faceted and spatially focused, and also propose the following recommendations: (1) Identification of green roof overlay zones with specifications for green roofs built in these zones. This spatial analysis is important for prioritizing areas of the jurisdiction where green roofs will most efficiently function; (2) Offer financial incentives in the form of density credits and stormwater utility fee credits to help overcome the barriers to entry of the new technology; (3) Construct demonstration projects and institutionalize a commitment greening roofs on publicly-owned buildings as an effective way of establishing an educated

  7. Green Applications for Space Power Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel (Principal Investigator)

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft propulsion and power for many decades has relied on Hydrazine monopropellant technology for auxiliary power units (APU), orbital circularization, orbit raising/lowering and attitude control. However, Hydrazine is toxic and therefore requires special ground handling procedures to ensure launch crew safety. The Swedish Company ECAPS has developed a technology based upon the propellant Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN) that offers higher performance, higher density and reduced ground handling support than Hydrazine. This blended propellant is called LMP-103S. Currently, the United States Air Force (USAF) is pursuing a technology based on Hydroxyl Ammonium Nitrate (HAN, otherwise known as AF-M315E) with industry partners Aerojet and Moog. Based on the advantages offered by these propellants, MSFC should explore powering APU's with these propellants. Due to the availability of space hardware, the principal investigator has found a collection of USAF hardware, that will act as a surrogate, which operates on a Hydrazine derivative. The F-16 fighter jet uses H-70 or 30% diluted Hydrazine for an Emergency Power Unit (EPU) which supplies power to the plane. The PI has acquired two EPU's from planes slated for destruction at the Davis Monthan AFB. This CIF will include a partnership with 2 other NASA Centers who are individually seeking seed funds from their respective organizations: Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC). KSC is preparing for future flights from their launch pads that will utilize green propellants and desire a low-cost testbed in which to test and calibrate new leak detection sensors. DFRC has access to F-16's which can be used by MSFC & KSC to perform a ground test that demonstrates emergency power supplied to the jet. Neither of the green propellant alternatives have been considered nor evaluated for an APU application. Work has already been accomplished to characterize and obtain the properties of these 2 propellants

  8. Innovative insurance plan promises to leverage green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edge, Gordon

    1999-01-01

    This article explains the gap between customers of green power signing short term (1-2 year) contracts and the banks wanting power purchase agreements for ten or more years before lending on new projects. Details are given of a new initiative from the US green power industry for a green premium for green power marketeers with the idea of an insurance product to take some of the risk and bridge the gap. Examples of coverage under the green power insurance proposal are discussed, and the funding and implementation of the scheme, and the effect of the insurance are considered

  9. Green Human Resource Management: Policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoeb Ahmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, there has been observed an increasing awareness within business communities on the significance of going green and adopting various environment management techniques. As the corporate world is going global, the business is experiencing a shift from a conventional financial structure to a modern capacity-based economy which is ready to explore green economic facets of business. Today, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM has become a key business strategy for the significant organizations where Human Resource Departments play an active part in going green at the office. The paper largely focuses upon the various Green Human Resource Practices pursued by the organizations all over the world and, explains the simplified meaning of GHRM. The study also adds to the extant literature by discussing future direction of some GHRM functions. Finally, the paper suggests some potentially prolific HR initiatives for Green organizations.

  10. Implications of Carbon Regulation for Green Power Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Holt, Ed [Ed Holt & Associates Inc., Harpeswell, ME (United States); Carroll, Ghita [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-04-01

    This paper examines the potential effects that emerging mandatory carbon markets have for voluntary markets for renewable energy, or green power markets. In an era of carbon regulation, green power markets will continue to play an important role because many consumers may be interested in supporting renewable energy development beyond what is supported through mandates or other types of policy support. The paper examines the extent to which GHG benefits motivate consumers to make voluntary renewable energy purchases and summarizes key issues emerging as a result of these overlapping markets, such as the implications of carbon regulation for renewable energy marketing claims, the demand for and price of renewable energy certificates (RECs), and the use of RECs in multiple markets (disaggregation of attributes). It describes carbon regulation programs under development in the Northeast and California, and how these might affect renewable energy markets in these regions, as well as the potential interaction between voluntary renewable energy markets and voluntary carbon markets, such as the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). It also briefly summarizes the experience in the European Union, where carbon is already regulated. Finally, the paper presents policy options for policymakers and regulators to consider in designing carbon policies to enable carbon markets and voluntary renewable energy markets to work together.

  11. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thøgersen, John; Noblet, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss what might be termed an action-based learning approach to promoting important pro-environmental actions, such as support for or acceptance of environmental policy. Such an approach involves promoting simple and easy behaviours as entry points for more radical steps towards sustainability, referred to as “catalytic” or “wedge” behaviours. Despite the obvious need for innovative approaches to promote important pro-environmental behaviour, and sound theoretical backing for such concepts, there is a lack of research testing the key propositions of this approach. In a survey study based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday “green” behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday “green” behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind power when controlling for environmental concern. Hence, the promotion of everyday “green” behaviours may prepare the grounds for increasing acceptance of more far-reaching changes in the population, such as an expansion of wind power. - Highlights: ► Acceptance of wind power increases with environmental concern. ► So does everyday “green” consumerism. ► Green consumerism further increases acceptance of wind power. ► The effect of environmental concern on acceptance is partly mediated through green consumerism. ► Participants in the study are a random sample of residents of Maine, USA.

  12. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  13. 76 FR 65511 - Office of Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings; the Green...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... Governmentwide Policy; Office of Federal High- Performance Green Buildings; the Green Building Advisory Committee... meeting of the Green Building Advisory Committee Meeting (the Committee). The meeting is open to the..., Office of Federal High-Performance Green Buildings, Office of Governmentwide Policy, General Services...

  14. Borrowing green : economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands

  15. Guidelines for establishing a local authority market for green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    This project summary considers the UK government's aim of achieving 10% of electricity from renewable energy sources by the year 2010, and its backing of the launch of the ''Future Energy'' accreditation scheme to accredit power derived from renewable energy sources and assist power supply companies to promote green energy. The benefits to local authorities of buying and/or selling green power are highlighted, and the objectives of the guidelines in helping local authorities to buy green power and suppliers to target local authorities are discussed. Five case studies are presented covering the successful purchase of green electricity by 3 local authorities, a local authority currently preparing for green electricity procurement, and 2 local authorities which were unsuccessful in purchasing green power. Issues identified by the project are outlined, and details of the guidelines for local authorities and green electricity suppliers are given

  16. Green certificates and market power in the Nordic power market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundsen, Eirik S; Bergman, Lars

    2012-01-01

    principles and a numerical model based on that to investigate the Swedish TGC market operating in a setting of a common Nordic electricity market. The analysis shows that Swedish producers may exercise market power using the TGC-market but that this problem will be eliminated by opening the TGC-market......The purpose of this study is to elucidate under which circumstances, how, and to what extent market power on a Tradable Green Certificates (TGC) market can be used to affect an entire electricity market. There are basically two reasons for being concerned with this. One is that a small number...

  17. The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong loan

    2017-01-01

    Green economy is emerging as a new development trend in the World because the global economy is facing environmental and ecosystem risks. For developing economies, green economy is seen as an opportunity and an optimal choice to change the conventional economic growth model towards sustainable development. Therefore, the research topic "The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam" is chosen for this study. This study aims to clarify the concept of g...

  18. Establishing a local authority market for green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.; Evans, N.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project examining ways to maximise the potential local authority market for green power by investigating procurement and supply issues, and also surveying local authorities engaged in green power procurement and green electricity suppliers. A review of the local authority procurement process is presented, and the way in which procurement practices had to be adapted to allow local authorities to purchase green power is explored. Appendices give details of the questionnaires used with 22 local authorities, five case study local authorities, and the green suppliers

  19. Buying and selling green: deregulation and green power marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing trend towards deregulation of electricity markets, and the driving forces for liberalisation in the EU and North America. The use of green tariffs offered by utilities to differentiate themselves from competitors and to gain and keep customers is reported, and the situation with regard to green energy within the deregulated electricity markets in Australia, the EU, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden, the UK, Canada and the USA is outlined. Customers switching as a result of green tariffs, the growing role of renewables, and opportunities for the promotion of green tariffs are discussed. (UK)

  20. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  1. Customer Aggregation: An Opportunity for Green Power?; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, E.; Bird, L.

    2001-01-01

    We undertook research into the experience of aggregation groups to determine whether customer aggregation offers an opportunity to bring green power choices to more customers. The objectives of this report, therefore, are to (1) identify the different types of aggregation that are occurring today, (2) learn whether aggregation offers an opportunity to advance sales of green power, and (3) share these concepts and approaches with potential aggregators and green power advocates

  2. Probabilistic economic analysis of green roof benefits for policy design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, C.; Adriaens, P.; Talbot, B.

    2006-01-01

    The installation costs of green roofs continue to deter widespread use of green roof technology. Analyses of the boundary conditions for the cost differential between a green roof and a conventional roof are usually compared to environmental benefits such as storm water reduction and building energy savings. However, evidence is emerging that green roofs may play a role in urban air quality improvement. This paper discussed a methodology for developing probabilistic ranges of benefits and cost analyses. A probabilistic analysis was conducted to prepare a generalized cost-benefit analysis for application to a range of green roof projects. Environmental benefits of roof greening were quantified on a per unit surface area to assess environmental impact at the building scale. Parameters included conventional and green roof installation costs; storm water fees and fee reductions for green roofs; energy costs due to heat flux and the resultant savings through the installation of a green roof and the additional economic valuation of the public health benefits due to air pollution mitigation. Results were then integrated into an economic model to determine the length of time required for a return on investment in a green roof, assuming that a traditional roof would require replacement after 20 years. A net present value analysis was performed for an average-sized university roof. Results of the study showed that a valuation of environmental benefits can reduce the time required for a return on investment in a moderately priced green roof. While reduced installation costs reduced the time required for a return on investment, optimizing the green roof system for maximum environmental benefit had a greater potential to provide a higher return. It was concluded that the benefit of improved air quality should not be ignored by green roof policy-makers as a valuation tool. 10 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig

  3. From the ecological niche to the mass market with 'Green Power Marketing' - 1st European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2001 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. European perspectives and trends in the USA are discussed and examples of green power marketing in the USA and Holland are given. Marketing issues and price policies are discussed, as are labelling strategies and customer perception of 'Green Power' issues. Also, sales issues including e-marketing, power-market rules and certificate trading are dealt with

  4. DoD Green Remediation Policy Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    decisions and practices  Green remediation is the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy implementation and incorporating... reforestation irrigation – More than 30,000 tons of soil remediated and 270 tons of lead bullet fragments were reclaimed for recycling  Footprint Reduction

  5. Climate policy to defeat the green paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fölster, Stefan; Nyström, Johan

    2010-05-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions have accelerated since the signing of the Kyoto Protocol. This discouraging development may partly be blamed on accelerating world growth and on lags in policy instruments. However, it also raises serious question concerning whether policies to reduce CO2 emissions are as effective as generally assumed. In recent years, a considerable number of studies have identified various feedback mechanisms of climate policies that often erode, and occasionally reinforce, their effectiveness. These studies generally focus on a few feedback mechanisms at a time, without capturing the entire effect. Partial accounting of policy feedbacks is common in many climate scenarios. The IPCC, for example, only accounts for direct leakage and rebound effects. This article attempts to map the aggregate effects of different types of climate policy feedback mechanisms in a cohesive framework. Controlling feedback effects is essential if the policy measures are to make any difference on a global level. A general conclusion is that aggregate policy feedback mechanisms tend to make current climate policies much less effective than is generally assumed. In fact, various policy measures involve a definite risk of 'backfiring' and actually increasing CO2 emissions. This risk is particularly pronounced once effects of climate policies on the pace of innovation in climate technology are considered. To stand any chance of controlling carbon emissions, it is imperative that feedback mechanisms are integrated into emission scenarios, targets for emission reduction and implementation of climate policy. In many cases, this will reduce the scope for subsidies to renewable energy sources, but increase the scope for other measures such as schemes to return carbon dioxide to the ground and to mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases from wetlands and oceans. A framework that incorporates policy feedback effects necessitates rethinking the design of the national and regional emission

  6. Green Economy Performance and Green Productivity Growth in China’s Cities: Measures and Policy Implication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianglong Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for China’s sustainable development. This paper constructs indicators to assess China’s green economy performance and green productivity growth, in which economic expansion, resource conservation and environmental protection need to be incorporated simultaneously. For this purpose, we combine non-radial directional distance function and meta-frontier Malmquist productivity to develop the indicators. The methodology also allows for the decomposition of driving forces of China’s green economy. Moreover, the dataset employed in this paper allows for the evaluation of 275 cities in China during the period 2003–2012. The main findings are as follows. First, most of China’s cities did not perform efficiently in terms of the green economy, with an average score of only 0.233. Second, the growth rate of green productivity is slower than real GDP, and the green productivity growth in China is only moderate. Third, innovation is the main driving force of China’s green productivity growth, but the central region lags behind when it comes to green innovation. Fourth, artificial local protectionism and transport limitations impede the progress of cities that perform ineffectively in the green economy. Based on our empirical findings, we provide policy implications and suggestions for enhancing China’s green economy performance and productivity growth.

  7. Green Power Marketing in Retail Competition: An Early Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Porter; Ryan Wiser

    1999-01-01

    Green power marketing-the business of selling electricity products or services based in part on their environmental values-is still in an early stage of development. This Topical Issues Brief presents a summary of early results with green power marketing under retail competition, covering both fully competitive markets and relevant direct access pilot programs. The brief provides an overview of green products that are or were offered, and discusses consumers' interest in these products. Critical issues that will impact the availability and success of green power products under retail competition are highlighted

  8. Green Power Partnership Fortune 500® Partners List

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This Top Partner list presents Green Power Partners that also appear on the Fortune 500® list.

  9. Borrowing green. Economic and environmental effects of green fiscal policy in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtens, B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the economic and environmental impact of a policy instrument that is related to the tax deductibility of interest returns and dividend yields from specified 'green' projects. We investigate this so-called 'Green Project Facility' (Regeling Groenprojecten) in the Netherlands during 1995-1999. We analyze the effect on tax income, economic growth, employment, as well as on the emission of a number of gases and on solid waste production. We find that the economic effects in general are positive. This policy instrument increases growth, employment, and net tax income. However, the environmental effects are quite mixed. This especially results from the fact that a lot of projects would have been undertaken anyhow. Furthermore, we find that this green fiscal policy instrument is skewed towards energy and building. It appears to neglect environmental problems with consumer households, industry, and transport. 8 refs

  10. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2015 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-10-01

    The voluntary green power market refers to the sale and procurement of renewable energy for voluntary purposes by residential and commercial customers. This report reviews seven green power procurement mechanisms: utility green pricing programs, utility green tariffs, voluntary unbundled renewable energy certificates, competitive supplier green power, community choice aggregations, voluntary power purchase agreements (PPAs), and community solar. This report details the status of trends of those seven green power procurement mechanisms in 2015. Three trends -- significant growth of the voluntary PPA project pipeline, innovative green power mechanisms developed by utilities, and geographic expansion of green power mechanisms -- suggest that the green power market is likely to continue to grow in coming years.

  11. The potential for green power marketing in Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, B. [EcoPathways Consulting Inc., Whitby, ON (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A review of Ontario Hydro`s green power program was provided. Market research indicates that the public is interested in renewable energy, that a significant portion of the public claim to be `green` consumers, and that they are willing to pay a premium for green power. There is, however, very little actual experiential evidence to show who is truly willing to pay and what price would be acceptable. Sources of `green electricity` include renewables such as hydro, solar, wind, biomass from farm and forest waste, methane from landfills, and geothermal. Public support in Ontario, and in most other parts of Canada, is strong for investment by power utilities in `green electricity`. In a limited program, Ontario Hydro is currently offering greenpower pricing for some of its proposed green power projects. To those willing to pay, a premium of 4 cents per kWh will be added to the current costs from the electricity retailer. The general impression of industry experts is that the demand for green power is there, however, the supply is not. Continued delays and uncertainty about the power industry`s future structure are considered to be the major impediments to implementing the green program. 1 tab., 7 figs.

  12. Green electricity policies in the Netherlands: an analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha N.M. van; Wees, Mark T. van

    2006-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes can be observed in both market conditions and the national policy framework for green electricity in the Netherlands. The Dutch Government has regularly intervened in markets, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders, and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. Dutch green electricity policy over the last decade can be characterised roughly by three phases: in the early 1990s, the government negotiated voluntary agreements with the energy distribution sector on targets for green electricity sales, which were never met. In the second half of the 1990s, a regulatory energy tax was introduced, from which customers of green electricity were exempt. This led to a substantial increase in demand, which was largely met by green electricity imports, and did not lead to additional domestic renewable energy capacity. Finally, a change in policy has taken place recently (2003) shifting the focus from promotion of demand to the promotion of supply through a system of regulated feed-in tariffs. Despite the renewable energy policies, growth of the renewable energy market in the Netherlands has been small and targets have not been fully met. The Dutch government has not yet succeeded in substantially reducing market uncertainties and in building confidence among market parties, because the policies have not been stable and policy objectives have frequently been partly ambiguous. In addition, the influence of stakeholders in renewable energy policy making has been small which has the early acceptance and implementation of alternative policies

  13. GPP Webinar: Green Power Use and Opportunities for Sports Teams & Venues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Power Partnership webinar on the green power use by sports teams and their venues. Focused on how and why sports teams and venues use green power, review of available product options, and best practices for procuring renewable energy.

  14. Using game theory to analyze green stormwater infrastructure implementation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, R. K.; Garg, J.; Stillwell, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    While green stormwater infrastructure is a useful approach in addressing multiple challenges facing the urban environment, little consensus exists on how to best incentivize its adoption by private landowners. Game theory, a field of study designed to model conflict and cooperation between two or more agents, is well-suited to address this policy question. We used a cooperative game theory framework to analyze the impacts of three different policy approaches frequently used to incentivize the uptake of green infrastructure by private landowners: municipal regulation, direct grants, and stormwater fees. The results indicate that municipal regulation leads to the greatest environmental benefits; however, the choice of "best" regulatory approach is dependent on a variety of different factors including political and financial considerations. Policy impacts are also highly dependent on agents' spatial positions within the stormwater network. This finding leads to important questions of social equity and environmental justice.

  15. Environmental Policy in a Green Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraga-Gonzalez, J. Luis; Padron-Fumero, N.

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of some frequently-used environmental policies in a duopolistic market where purchasers are willing to pay more for less polluting goods. When consumers differ in their environmental awareness, a cleaner and a dirtier variant coexist in equilibrium. The higher the average willingness-to-pay for the good, the lower are variants' unit emissions but the higher are industrial aggregate effluents. A maximum unit emission standard reduces unit emissions of both variants, but boosts firms' sales and consequently increases industrial aggregate emissions. As a result, social welfare may be reduced. We also explore the effects of technological subsidies and product charges, including differentiation of charges

  16. Green power marketing in retail competition: an early assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, R.; Porter, K.; Fang, J.

    1999-01-01

    With retail competition being introduced throughout the United States, green power marketing offers the promise of customer-driven markets for renewable energy. This paper summarizes early experience with green marketing under full retail competition. We conclude that (1) niche markets exist today among residential and non-residential consumers for green power; (2) green demand may ultimately offer an important strategic market for renewable technologies, but the market is currently rather small and the long-term prospects remain uncertain; (3) the success of green markets will depend critically on the regulatory rules established at the onset of restructuring; and (4) the biomass industry will be forced to better communicate the environmental benefits of its technology in order to play a strong role within the green market. This paper is based on a more detailed NREL Topical Issues Brief, which is available on the Internet. (author)

  17. R and D Policies, Carbon Tax and Green Paradox

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez Neubauer, Mauricio; Grimaud, Andre; Rouge, Luc

    2016-01-01

    We study an economy in which a final good is produced by two sectors. One uses a non-renewable and polluting resource, the other a renewable and clean resource. A specific type of research is associated with each sector. The public authorities levy a carbon tax and simultaneously subsidise both research sectors. We study the impact of such a policy scheme on the rate of resource extraction and emissions. In the clean sector, the research subsidy and the carbon tax have opposite effects. If the tax creates a green paradox, the subsidy moderates it; if the tax slows resource extraction, then the subsidy generates a green paradox

  18. Exploring New York State Policy Expectations Pertaining to Energy Efficiency and Green Collar Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Felix Asher

    2012-01-01

    The Green Jobs Green New York (GJGNY) Act of 2009 was designed to reduce energy consumption by creating green collar workforce and providing energy efficiency audits to the public. The problem addressed in this study is the discrepancy between the expectations of Green Jobs Green New York Act of 2009 and the implementation of this policy. This…

  19. VT Green Mountain Power Line Data (Overhead Only)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) Green Mountain Power (GMP) pole and OVERHEAD linear distribution/sub-transmission model data. THE LINEAR DISTRIBUTION LAYER ONLY INCLUDES OVERHEAD...

  20. Public goods and private interests: Understanding non-residential demand for green power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan H.; Fowlie, Meredith; Holt, Edward A.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the results of the first large-scale mail survey of non-residential green power customers in the United States. The survey explored the motivations, attitudes, and experiences of 464 business, non-profit, and public-sector customers that have voluntarily opted to purchase - and frequently pay a premium for - renewable electricity. Results of this study should be of value to marketers interested in targeting these customer segments, to policy makers interested in fostering and understanding non-residential demand for green power, and to academics pondering the motivations for firms to engage in such voluntary environmental initiatives.

  1. Energy policy and nuclear power. Expectations of the power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1995-01-01

    In the opinion of the power industry, using nuclear power in Germany is a responsible attitude, while opting out of nuclear power is not. Electricity utilities will build new nuclear power plants only if the structural economic and ecological advantages of nuclear power are preserved and can be exploited in Germany. The power industry will assume responsibility for new complex, capital-intensive nuclear plants only if a broad societal consensus about this policy can be reached in this country. The power industry expects that the present squandering of nuclear power resources in Germany will be stopped. The power industry is prepared to contribute to finding a speedy consensus in energy policy, which would leave open all decisions which must not be taken today, and which would not constrain the freedom of decision of coming generations. The electricity utilities remain committed proponents of nuclear power. However, what they sell to their customers is electricity, not nuclear power. (orig.) [de

  2. Information Brief on Green Power Marketing Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    1999-08-18

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term ''green power'' generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all US consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the end of 1999, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As of July 1999, consumers can choose to purchase competitively marketed green power in California, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Rhode Island. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this Information Brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in both competitive and regulated market settings, as well as other pertinent data and information, are included.

  3. Green power: A renewable energy resources marketing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, R.C.

    1997-01-01

    Green power is electricity generated from renewable energy sources such as power generated from the sun, the wind, the heat of the earth, and biomass. Green pricing is the marketing strategy to sell green power to customers who voluntarily pay a premium for it. Green pricing is evolving from the deregulation of the electric industry, the need for clean air, reflected in part as concern over global warming, and technology advances. The goal of the renewable energy marketing plan is to generate enough revenues for a utility to fund power purchase agreements (PPAs) with renewable energy developers or construct its own renewable facilities. Long-term, fixed price PPAs enable developers to obtain financing to construct new facilities, sometimes taking technological risks which a utility might not take otherwise. The marketing plan is built around different rate premiums for different categories of ratepayers, volunteer customer participation, customer participation recognition, and budget allocations between project costs and power marketing costs. Green prices are higher than those for conventional sources, particularly prices from natural gas fired plants. Natural gas is abundant relative to oil in price per British thermal unit (Btu). Green pricing can help bridge the gap between the current oversupply of gas and the time, not far off, when all petroleum prices will exceed those for renewable energy. The rapid implementation of green pricing is important. New marketing programs will bolster the growing demand for renewable energy evidenced in many national surveys thus decreasing the consumption of power now generated by burning hydrocarbons. This paper sets forth a framework to implement a green power marketing plan for renewable energy developers and utilities working together

  4. An evaluation model for low carbon island policy: The case of Taiwan's green transportation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trappey, Amy J.C.; Trappey, Charles; Hsiao, C.T.; Ou, Jerry J.R.; Li, S.J.; Chen, Kevin W.P.

    2012-01-01

    Conserving energy and reducing carbon emissions have become the common responsibility of the international community. During the year 2010, the Taiwan government planned a four-year project budgeted at 300 million US dollars, called “The Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project.” The policy objective is to use Penghu Island (population 85,000) as a test platform to evaluate new ways to conserve energy and reduce carbon emissions before attempting to replicate the policies on Taiwan Island. For Taiwan, a zero carbon island green transportation policy will regulate the total number of electric scooters, the total number of gasoline motorcycles, influence government subsidy incentives, and create the need for new motorcycle license issuing and control. These factors interact with each other to form a complex and dynamic system that impacts policy as well as the current way of life. In this study, a system dynamics approach is designed to construct a model for evaluating the green transportation policy on Penghu Island. Simulations are conducted to model green transportation system behavior and related policy effects in a smaller, controlled environment before creating policies for Taiwan Island that will impact the lives of over 23 million people. - Highlights: ► Provides an overview of Taiwan's Penghu Low Carbon Island Development Project. ► Develops a systems dynamics approach for green transportation policy assessment. ► Provides causal analysis of social, economic, and environmental factors. ► Demonstrates that the proposed policy cannot meet the CO 2 reduction goals. ► Alternative policies can be evaluated using the proposed approach.

  5. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeffrey J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Annual report of sales and number of customers in voluntary green power markets, including utility green pricing programs, utility green partnerships, competitive suppliers, unbundled renewable energy certificates, community choice aggregations, power purchase agreements, and community solar.

  6. Green County Nuclear Power Plant. License application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Green County reactor, a PWR to be supplied by Babcock and Wilcox, will be a baseload generating facility planned to provide for mass transit and other public agency electrical needs. The plant is scheduled for completion by 1983 and will have a generating capacity of about 1200 MW(e). (FS)

  7. The Question of Sustainability of Green Electricity Policy Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Bigerna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the financial viability and economic sustainability implications of government programs for the development of renewable energy sources, explicitly considering that consumers take environmental issues into account. We envisage a broad policy strategy for the future, which we label the “World Sustainable Scenario”, and we quantify the inter-temporal resource requirement in terms of investment necessary to achieve it. We perform an empirical meta-analysis to quantify the willingness to pay for green electricity worldwide. Subsequently, we compare the amount of resources required according to policy programs and the populations’ willingness to sacrifice current resources for future benefits (i.e., willingness to finance future investments to assess the plausibility of current policies. The main empirical findings show that the population’s attitude toward green electricity will support, on average, 50% of the total investment required. We conclude that this is a positive result, which will make possible the success of the renewable energy sources development policy.

  8. An opinion survey on the public of nuclear and green power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Reiko; Miyazawa, Tatsuo

    2002-01-01

    To grasp image of people for nuclear and green power, we obtained information by means of questionnaires with key words related from July to August 1999. The subject of our questionnaires was 1000 people lived in Japan. The recovery rate was 81.6%. Their consciousness and value for energy policy were asked and the relation between their image and the answers was analyzed. The green energy showed sun energy and wind. The results showed they have negative image to the nuclear power and positive image to the green power. There are some difference of the rate of negative to positive image and understanding among sex, age and their educational background. There are relation between their image and their reliance and a sense of participation on the energy policy. It makes sure that people do not understand the energy policy in our country. Especially, their anticipation in green energy became disconnected with reality. It is important for people to increase the fundamental knowledge of energy and to introduce the system for adding the decision of energy. (S.Y.)

  9. Efficient and high-power green beam generation by frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    High-average-power green lasers are required for various applications in industry, research and even in ... But, intracavity frequency doubling suffers from power instabilities due to the thermal effects at the KTP crys- ... is constituted by the plane mirrors M1 and M2 with a geometrical separation of. 31 cm. The back mirror M1 ...

  10. Optimal subsidy policy for accelerating the diffusion of green products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongguang Peng

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We consider a dynamic duopoly market in which two firms respectively produce green products and conventional products. The two types of product can substitute each other in some degree. Their demand rates depend on not only prices but the consumers’ increasing environmental awareness. Too high initial cost relative to conventional products becomes one of the major obstacles that hinder the adoption of green products. The government employs subsidy policy to trigger the adoption of green products. The purpose of the paper is to explore the optimal subsidy strategy to fulfill the government’s objective. Design/methodology/approach: We suppose the players in the game employ open-loop strategies, which make sense since the government generally cannot alter his policy for political and economic purposes. We take a differential game approach and use backward induction to analyze the firms’ pricing strategy under Cournot competition, and then focus upon a Stackelberg equilibrium to find the optimal subsidy strategy of the government. Findings: The results show that the more remarkable the energy or environmental performance, or the bigger the initial cost of green products, the higher the subsidy level should be. Due to the increasing environmental awareness and the learning curve, the optimal subsidy level decreases over time. Research limitations/implications: In our model several simplifying assumptions are made to keep the analysis more tractable. In particular, we have assumed only one type of green product. In reality several types of product with different energy or environmental performances exist. Our research can be extended in future work to take into account product differentiation on energy or environmental performance and devise a discriminatory subsidy policy accordingly. Originality/value: In the paper we set the objective of the government as minimizing the total social cost induced by the energy consumption or

  11. Green growth: Policies for transition towards low carbon economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, Thorvald

    2012-11-01

    For the next fifty years and beyond, the world faces twin challenges: -Enhancing economic opportunities and living standards for a growing global population; -Addressing the environmental threats that, if left largely unaddressed, could undermine our abilities for longer term economic growth and development and the ability to reduce poverty. For twenty years the world community has attempted to face up to these challenges, notably global warming by a 'top down' international negotiation process under the auspices of the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The paper discusses why this process has failed so far. To get out of this impasse, a 'bottom up' policy framework for green growth based on national preferences, possibilities and policies should be considered and is discussed in some detail. However, while green growth may enhance the transition towards low-carbon economies in the short and medium term, it is argued that a 'Global Green Deal' with regional and global rules of the game is needed to reduce the risk for unsustainable development in the longer term.(auth)

  12. Green buildings in Malaysia towards greener environment: challenges for policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaida, M. S.; Tan, K. L.; Leong, Y. P.

    2013-06-01

    The launch of the National Green Technology Policy (NGTP) in 2009 is a manifesto of the government's seriousness in implementing "green" initiatives for the country. Specifically for buildings, the government promotes the application of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) and the application of green building index. With the introduction of Low Carbon Cities Framework, Green Pass, Green Neighbourhood, Green Building Index by various agencies and organisations in Malaysia, it is time to look back and see how all these tools could come together. This paper attempts to identify the challenges in harmonising the green initiatives for policy makers toward greener environment for sustainability.

  13. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. December 22, 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  14. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. 22 décembre 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  15. 78 FR 66337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ...'s Green Paper on Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy (Green Paper... Information Administration [Docket No. 130927852-3852-01] Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy AGENCY: United States Patent...

  16. Divestment prevails over the green paradox when anticipating strong future climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; McGlade, Christophe; Hilaire, Jérôme; Ekins, Paul

    2018-01-01

    Fossil fuel market dynamics will have a significant impact on the effectiveness of climate policies1. Both fossil fuel owners and investors in fossil fuel infrastructure are sensitive to climate policies that threaten their natural resource endowments and production capacities2-4, which will consequently affect their near-term behaviour. Although weak in near-term policy commitments5,6, the Paris Agreement on climate7 signalled strong ambitions in climate change stabilization. Many studies emphasize that the 2 °C target can still be achieved even if strong climate policies are delayed until 20308-10. However, sudden implementation will have severe consequences for fossil fuel markets and beyond and these studies ignore the anticipation effects of owners and investors. Here we use two energy-economy models to study the collective influence of the two central but opposing anticipation arguments, the green paradox11 and the divestment effect12, which have, to date, been discussed only separately. For a wide range of future climate policies, we find that anticipation effects, on balance, reduce CO2 emissions during the implementation lag. This is because of strong divestment in coal power plants starting ten years ahead of policy implementation. The green paradox effect is identified, but is small under reasonable assumptions.

  17. Green certificates will lead to increased electric power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, Oddvar

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of green certificates will lead to increased electricity production from renewable energy sources and less risk of price crises. For the time being, a common market for green certificates will be established with Sweden from January 1, 2006. It is possible to realise a ''compulsory total quota'' of 20 TWh by 2016. Green certificates will imply a premium on the electricity bill. However, the quota system will imply increased power generation, which in turn tends to lower the price. Norway should in principle follow Sweden's definition of renewable energy: all new hydroelectric power, wind power, solar energy, wave and tidal power, biomass energy, and energy recovery. The certificate regime will apply to new investments in renewable power production. However, it would be natural to include the established renewable power production that is currently receiving support. Some critics fear that the consumers rather than the authorities will subsidize the production of green power. The point is being made that central EU countries may save great sums by investing in renewable energy in Norway

  18. Nuclear power--the hope of green economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jiashu; Wang Chuang

    2010-01-01

    The thesis introduces the current situation of nuclear power development and developed countries' attitude towards nuclear power as the demand for energy consumption is continuously increasing with the global economic and social development and the green house gas emission leads to global warming. By comparison of the impact to the environment and the generating cost between thermal power and nuclear power, it is of great significance to strengthen nuclear power development to carry out international cooperation on low-carbon economy and to enhance self-innovation for developing the green economy and dealing with climate change. Based on the analysis of nuclear industry development in China, the Mid-Long Term Development Plan for Nuclear Power has been set up, and challenges and objectives of nuclear and radiation safety regulation have been brought forward. (authors)

  19. Green roof and storm water management policies: monitoring experiments on the ENPC Blue Green Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Gires, Auguste; Fitton, George; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Currently widespread in new urban projects, green roofs have shown a positive impact on urban runoff at the building/parcel scale. Nevertheless, there is no specific policy promoting their implementation neither in Europe nor in France. Moreover they are not taken into account (and usually considered as an impervious area) in the sizing of a retention basin for instance. An interesting example is located in the heart of the Paris-East Cluster for Science and Technology (Champs-sur-Marne, France). Since 2013 a large (1 ha) wavy-form vegetated roof (called bleu green wave) is implemented. Green roof area and impervious areas are connected to a large retention basin, which has been oversized. The blue green wave represents a pioneering site where an initially amenity (decorative) design project has been transformed into a research oriented one. Several measurement campaigns have been conducted to investigate and better understand the hydrological behaviour of such a structure. Rainfall, humidity, wind velocity, water content and temperature have been particularly studied. The data collected are used for several purposes: (i) characterize the spatio-temporal variability of the green roof response, (ii) calibrate and validate a specific model simulating its hydrological behavior. Based on monitoring and modeling results, green roof performances will be quantified. It will be possible to estimate how they can reduce stormwater runoff and how these performances can vary in space and in time depending on green roof configuration, rainfall event characteristics and antecedent conditions. These quantified impacts will be related to regulation rules established by stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. In the particular case of the building of a retention basin, the integration of green roof in the sizing of the basin will be studied. This work is funded by the European Blue Green Dream project (http://bgd.org.uk/, funded by Climate

  20. Green Purchasing Behavior Analysis of Government Policy About Paid Plastic Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khoiruman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research will be conducted to know: 1 The influence of green perceived value to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 2 The influence of green perceived risk to consumer green trust to use plastic bag after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. 3 The effect of green trust on green purchase behavior of consumers to use plastic bags after the policy of using plastic bag paid at modern retail store in Surakarta. The study was conducted in modern retail stores (Alfamart, Indomart and Superindo in Surakarta using 200 respondents who shop at the modern retail store. A model that can be used to measure green purchasing behavior in the use of paid plastic bags using four interrelated variables: green perceived value, green perceived risk, green trust and green purchasing. Data analysis using Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of analysis and discussion showed that green perceived value have positive and significant effect to green trust, green trust has positive effect on green purchasing, but green perceived risk has no significant effect to green trust.

  1. Wind power, policy learning and paradigm change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szarka, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to study how policy learning has led to new understandings of ways to support renewable energies, based on experience in the wind power sector. Drawing on analysis of the literature and informed by field-work in the wind power sector in Denmark, France and the UK, it explores the extent to which policy learning over the medium term has brought us closer to models that integrate economic, environmental and societal desiderata into renewables policy in a manner congruent with the sustainable development aspirations espoused by the European Union and its constituent states. It contributes to policy theory development by arguing in favour of a new policy paradigm that reaches beyond measures to increase production capacity per se to embrace both the institutional dynamics of innovation processes and the fostering of societal engagement in implementation processes

  2. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  3. Hydroelectric power is green, although controversial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulp, A.

    2003-01-01

    Hydroelectric power is worldwide the most important source of renewable energy. Still, it has some controversial aspects, which are briefly discussed in this article, focusing on Belgium and the Netherlands [nl

  4. Power blue and green laser diodes and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Thomas; Strauß, Uwe; Eichler, Christoph; Vierheilig, Clemens; Tautz, Sönke; Brüderl, Georg; Stojetz, Bernhard; Wurm, Teresa; Avramescu, Adrian; Somers, André; Ristic, Jelena; Gerhard, Sven; Lell, Alfred; Morgott, Stefan; Mehl, Oliver

    2013-03-01

    InGaN based green laser diodes with output powers up to 50mW are now well established for variety of applications ranging from leveling to special lighting effects and mobile projection of 12lm brightness. In future the highest market potential for visible single mode profile lasers might be laser projection of 20lm. Therefore direct green single-mode laser diodes with higher power are required. We found that self heating was the limiting factor for higher current operation. We present power-current characteristics of improved R and D samples with up to 200mW in cw-operation. An optical output power of 100mW is reached at 215mA, a current level which is suitable for long term operation. Blue InGaN laser diodes are also the ideal source for phosphor based generation of green light sources of high luminance. We present a light engine based on LARP (Laser Activated Remote Phosphor) which can be used in business projectors of several thousand lumens on screen. We discuss the advantages of a laser based systems in comparison with LED light engines. LARP requires highly efficient blue power laser diodes with output power above 1W. Future market penetration of LARP will require lower costs. Therefore we studied new designs for higher powers levels. R and D chips with power-current characteristics up to 4W in continuous wave operation on C-mount at 25°C are presented.

  5. Nuclear power and environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pershing, J.

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power, which presently accounts for approximately 20% of global electricity generation is still beset with environmental problems. Such problems are found throughout the fuel cycle - from mining and milling to processing, to plant operation and finally to waste disposal. While projected radioactive releases for normal operation is extremely low, much of the environmental risk comes from the potential for accidents. A list of the most significant nuclear accidents that occurred between 1966 and 1999 is given. On the other hand nuclear power offers great environmental benefits particularly when compared to other energy sources: all along the fuel cycle comparatively very few wastes are produced. In a world becoming more and more aware of environmental problems, it seems that there is no definitive conclusion about nuclear energy. (A.C.)

  6. Policy relevance of various proposals for greening GDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, G.

    1996-02-01

    From the study on the title subject it appears that the use of a number of separate physical indicators is valuable for policy making but that it would be helpful for policy to develop (alongside the conventional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and these environmental indicators) an extra 'green' GDP. The analysis of the various surveyed proposals of greening GDP results into the conclusion that adjustments should be made as follows: (1) adjustment for the net depletion of natural resources according to the net price method, (2) adjustment for the degradation of nature by polluting emissions with the aid of shadow prices derived from politics, and (3) adjustment for certain categories of environmental defensive expenditures. The major reasons for this recommendation are: (1) such a GDP can facilitate government in decisions where trade-offs between production and a clean environment are at stake, (2) the recommended way of valuation minimizes the inherent subjectiveness of valuing nature, (3) the way of valuation of nature is not likely to lead to an overestimation, and (4) at least for the Netherlands the proposal is operational in the near future. In Chapter 2 a set of evaluation criteria is designed. One evaluation criterion is the potential policy relevance of a proposed indicator, i.e. its relevance when the indicator measures exactly what it is intended to measure. In Chapter 3 the potential policy relevance of an adjusted GDP is elaborated. Another evaluation criterion is the scientific validity of a proposed indicator: is the indicator really measuring what it is intended to measure? To judge whether this is the case for the various proposals for adjusting GDP, a theoretical framework that facilitates such a judgement is discussed in Chapter 4. In Chapters 5, 6 and 7 actual evaluation of the various proposals for environmental indicators is carried out. In Chapter 5 proposals regarding the depletion of natural resources are evaluated. (Abstract Truncated)

  7. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  8. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (11th Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2008-10-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. It presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets and green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. Key market trends and issues are also discussed.

  9. Green lasers are beyond power limits mandated by safety standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, M H; Fox, K; Goldwasser, S; Lau, D W M; Aliahmad, B; Sarossy, M

    2016-08-01

    There has been an increasing number of reports of people losing vision from laser exposure from pocket laser pointers despite the safety limit of 1 milliwatt (1mW) imposed by the Australian government. We hypothesize that this is because commercially available red and green laser pointers are exceeding their labeled power outputs. We tested the power outputs of 4 red and 4 green lasers which were purchased for less than AUD$30 each. The average of 10 measurements was recorded for each laser. We found that 3 out of 4 red lasers conformed to the 1mW safety standard; in contrast, all of the green lasers exceeded this limit, with one of the lasers recording an output of 127.9 mW. This contrast in compliance is explained by the construction of these lasers - green lasers are typically Diode Pumped Solid State (DPSS) lasers that can emit excessive infrared (IR) radiation with poor workmanship or inconsistent adherence to practices of safe design and quality control; red lasers are diode lasers which have limited power outputs due to `Catastrophic Optical Damage' (COD). Relevant professional bodies ought to advocate more strongly for stringent testing, quality control and licensing of DPSS lasers with a view towards government intervention to banning green laser pointer use.

  10. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  11. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  12. High-power green diode laser systems for biomedical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, André

    spectroscopy and imaging, and fluorescence measurements. A major challenge in diode laser technology is to obtain high-power laser emission at wavelengths green spectral range is of high importance, for example, in dermatology or for direct pumping of ultrashort pulsed lasers...... in conjunction with optical coherence tomography, two-photon microscopy or coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. In order to provide high-power green diode laser emission, nonlinear frequency conversion of state-of-the-art near-infrared diode lasers represents a necessary means. However, the obtained...... output power of frequency doubled single emitters is limited by thermal effects potentially resulting in laser degradation and failure. In this work new concepts for power scaling of visible diode laser systems are introduced that help to overcome current limitations and enhance the application potential...

  13. Green Power Laboratorium på Aalborg Universitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teodorescu, Remus; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    Da vedvarende energisystemer, baseret på sol (PV), nu udvikler sig hurtigt har Aalborg Universitet, Institut for Energiteknik, besluttet at styrke forskningsindsatsen inden for dette område. Dette sker bl.a. ved at bygge et helt nyt moderne laboratorium kaldet »Green Power« Laboratoriet, som vil...

  14. Does green consumerism increase the acceptance of wind power?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Noblet, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    based on a random sample of residents of the state of Maine, USA, we find that both everyday ‘‘ green ’’ behaviour and the acceptance of an expansion of wind power are rooted in environmental concern and that everyday ‘‘green’’ behaviour gives a significant contribution to predicting acceptance of wind...

  15. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information and knowledge era; ICT development and industry are growing very fast and associated with huge procurement force. Today, the global society is facing serious challenges in improving environmental performance, particularly with climate change, global warming, and resource management. ICT industry is widely contributing to the global economy associating with innovation, invention and rapid development of almost all the aspect of human life. On other hand; ICT industry is responsible for global CO2 emissions. Global environmental problems are affecting directly many countries' energy and industrial policies. The rapid increasing of ICT usage means more energy consumption and more environmental problems and the estimated ICT consumption of energy will be about 15% of the total consumption worldwide in 2020. Therefore, many countries are establishing Green ICT policies which increase energy efficiency due to correspondence climate change. Therefore, governments especially in developing and Islamic countries need to adopt new strategic policies for efficient energy use in ICT. This study presents the current environmental problems related to green ICT and the efforts to solve it. Several studies have warning from the current energy consumption paradigm, based on newly changed ICT practices. This study provides guidelines for decision makers and ICT professionals to enhance their work toward green ICT and eliminating environmental problems. Islamic viewpoint on environment and its protection is considered since it offers comprehensive, stable, and fair viewpoint that is based on main Islamic sources; Quran and Sunnah. Hundreds of Quranic verses and prophet Hadiths clarify (directly or indirectly the right manner in dealing and protection of environment resources. This paper proposes a framework for strategy and policy statements of green ICT based on Islamic perspective to serve the world especially developing and Islamic countries

  16. Marketing of green electrons. Solar-power stock exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer-Waelti, E.

    1999-01-01

    An independent power producer evaluates the current solar-power stock exchanges in Switzerland. Most stock exchanges have been created by electric utilities which want to deliver 'green' power to those of their clients asking for. A first group of solar-power stock exchanges offer to take over the produced solar power at a marginal price. Among them, some organise a competition between the potential solar-power producers, in order to press down the investment cost for the new photovoltaic plants to build. Other stock exchanges propose a periodical adaptation of the prices, especially an adaptation to the capital interest rate. For sure, the total length of the time period for which the contract is established is one of the decisive factors. Because no bank is ready to grant a credit for such an investment without having seen a long-running take-over contract for the produced power [de

  17. Environmental Protection for Sale : Strategic Green Industrial Policy and Climate Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn

    2017-01-01

    Industrial policy has long been criticized as subject to protectionist interests; accordingly, subsidies to domestic producers face disciplines under World Trade Organization agreements, without exceptions for environmental purposes. Now green industrial policy is gaining popularity as governments

  18. Harnessing wind power with sustained policy support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meera, L. [BITS-Pilani. Dept. of Economics, Hyderabad (India)

    2012-07-01

    The development of wind power in India began in the 1990s, and has significantly increased in the last few years. The ''Indian Wind Turbine Manufacturers Association (IWTMA)'' has played a leading role in promoting wind energy in India. Although a relative newcomer to the wind industry compared with Denmark or the US, a combination of domestic policy support for wind power and the rise of Suzlon (a leading global wind turbine manufacturer) have led India to become the country with the fifth largest installed wind power capacity in the world. Wind power accounts for 6% of India's total installed power capacity, and it generates 1.6% of the country's power. (Author)

  19. CNEN activities and brazilian nuclear power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, E.M. da

    1989-01-01

    The goal of the brazilian policy in nuclear power is to provide its use in a pacific way to promote the well being of our people. It is intended, as well, to finish the construction of Angra II and III and proceed with the implementation of the nuclear fuel cycle, progressively fomenting its nationalization. (A.C.A.S.)

  20. The use of green waste from tourist attractions for renewable energy production: The potential and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yan; Du, Yuanyuan; Yang, Guofu; Tang, Yuli; Fan, Likun; Zhang, Jun; Lu, Yijun; Ge, Ying; Chang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying potential renewable energy sources from tourist attractions is a pivotal initial step in developing energy policies and strategies for low-carbon tourist industry development. Although solar energy and wind power have been in use for providing power for tourist attractions, the value of using waste biomass for energy production is still poorly understood. Here we advocate a promising approach that produces energy from green waste created by tourism attractions currently existing in large numbers and is still increasing dramatically. Using the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) of China as an example, we evaluated the potential of utilizing green waste to produce energy from 385 tourist attractions in 16 cities of this region. Our results showed that the total potential energy production using the green waste biomass was estimated at 6740 TJ/yr (1 TJ=10 12 J) with an average of 137 GJ/ha/yr (1 GJ=10 9 J), accounting for 6% (the average of the Yangtze River Delta, some scenic areas up to 93%) of YRD′s tourism industry′s energy consumption in 2008. The use of green waste for energy production is possible using current technology and could result in a win–win approach by reducing waste and increasing the renewable energy yields. -- Highlights: •Green waste from tourist attractions could help offset the tourist′s fossil fuel consumption. •Economic, technical, and social feasibility analysis of green waste for energy production. •Puts forward policy recommendations, from management regulations, public support etc

  1. Nuclear power. What policies for what future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiriet, Lucien.

    1976-01-01

    A long- and very long-dated estimation of the world uranium resources are given comparatively to that of fissile energies, and the short- and mean-dated distributions of these resources and uranium economy are discussed in the light of foresights concerning the energy consumption provided for France and the most important industrial countries in 1985. The competitive character and the economic future of nuclear power are discussed. The incidence that the evolution in the nuclear policies of the principal industrial countries had, in the past, on the formation and growth of the market of nuclear power production is shown. The future possibilities of nuclear reactors and nuclear hydrogen are evaluated with the role of nuclear power in an economic policy in national independence [fr

  2. Accounting for the distributional impacts of policy in the green accounts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horan, R.D.; Hrubovcak, J.; Shortle, J.S.; Bulte, E.H.

    2000-01-01

    Green income accounting models are designed to appropriately value changes in a country's natural resource (natural capital) base. However, green NNP is useful as a guide for domestic and international policy only to the extent that it accurately reflects the economic goals and policy options of

  3. Citizen versus consumer: challenges in the UK green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batley, S.L.; Fleming, P.D.; Urwin, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper investigates the potential advantages and disadvantages of green power products, as opposed to the traditional fossil fuel levy (which was the UK's chosen tax regime), as a means of developing renewable energy in the UK. Willingness to pay for electricity generated from renewables is investigated. Results indicate that willingness to pay varies with social status and income. However results demonstrate that there is a significant minority in full support of some sort of fiscal initiative. Electricity generated from renewables is a concept supported by the majority. However, given the stated willingness to pay it is unlikely that any new renewable capacity will result from green tariff schemes in the near term. It is concluded that the green citizen must continue to co-exist with the green power purchaser if the UK is to make any significant improvement in the contribution of renewable energy to electricity demand. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Irene Lorenzoni and Jane Powell of the Centre for Social and Economic Research on the Global Environment, University of East Anglia; Leicester Energy Efficiency Advice Centre; and Leicester Energy Agency. (author)

  4. Efficient and high-power green beam generation by frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The fundamental laser is a diode-side-pumped acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser producing 84 W of average power at 1064 nm at 8 kHz repetition rate. Type-II phase-matched polished KTP crystal is used as the nonlinear crystal for second-harmonic generation. The individual green pulse width is 50 ns and ...

  5. Efficient and high-power green beam generation by frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A 52-W green laser at 532 nm by extra-cavity second-harmonic generation in a coupled-cavity configuration is demonstrated. The fundamental laser is a diode-side- pumped acousto-optic (AO) Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser producing 84 W of average power at 1064 nm at 8 kHz repetition rate. Type-II ...

  6. Nuclear power threats, public opposition and green electricity adoption: Effects of threat belief appraisal and fear arousal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Patrick; Apaolaza, Vanessa; D'Souza, Clare; Echebarria, Carmen; Barrutia, Jose M.

    2013-01-01

    This study analyses the extent to which willingness to oppose nuclear power and intention to adopt green electricity are related to the cognitive and emotional appraisal of threats deriving from nuclear power. The analysis draws on a theoretical framework which introduces emotional fear arousal as a direct behavioural antecedent of coping behaviour into a model based on cognitive centred Protection Motivation Theory (PMT, Maddux and Rogers, 1983; Rogers, 1983) and the Extended Parallel Processing Model (EPPM, Witte, 1992, 1998). Hypothesized relations are tested in a nationally representative online study conducted in April and May 2012, one year after the Fukushima accident. Results support the hypothesized influences of perceived threat, fear arousal and perceived coping efficacy. Support for the proposed effects of fear control is rather limited. Findings contribute to extending previous knowledge on the role of cognitive and emotional appraisal processes induced by awareness of threats from nuclear power as behavioural antecedents of both opposing nuclear power and adopting green electricity. Findings of the study have implications for nuclear power policy and activism, as well as for institutional and commercial promoters of voluntary residential green electricity adoption. - Highlights: • Nationally representative online survey on nuclear power conducted in Spain in April and May 2012. • Opposition to nuclear power and green electricity adoption are related to threat beliefs. • Emotional fear arousal motivates nuclear opposition and green electricity uptake. • Significant behavioural effects of coping efficacy are confirmed. • Influences of fear control on behaviour intentions are rather weak

  7. The effectiveness of different policy regimes for promoting wind power: Experiences from the states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menz, Fredric C.; Vachon, Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Governments at the state (and to a lesser extent, local) level in the United States have adopted an array of policies to promote wind and other types of 'green' energy, including solar, geothermal, low-impact hydropower, and certain forms of biomass. However, because of different regulatory environments, energy resource endowments, political interests, and other factors, there is considerable variation among the states in their green power policies. This paper analyzes the contribution to wind power development of several state-level policies (renewable portfolio standards (RPS), fuel generation disclosure rules, mandatory green power options, and public benefits funds), along with retail choice (RET) facilitated by electricity restructuring. The empirical results support existing anecdotal and case studies in finding a positive relationship between RPS and wind power development. We also found that requiring electricity suppliers to provide green power options to customers is positively related to development of wind energy, while there is a negative relationship between wind energy development and RET (i.e., allowing retail customers to choose their electricity source)

  8. Green power. Renewable electricity purchasing by Leicester City Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    This case study describes the use of renewable energy by Leicester City Council in the East Midlands. The Council, which has a long-term commitment to sustainable energy and the environment, employs over 14,000 people. A contract was first negotiated with East Midlands Electricity (now PowerGen) to supply the Council's New Walk Centre with green electricity in 1995. Some of the green energy is supplied by the Milford Mill hydroelectric plant. Use of building energy monitoring systems (BEMSs) and other good practice has allowed the Council to achieve a 20% saving in its electricity bill. The Council has also negotiated contracts to supply two smaller sites (a recycling facility called Planet Works and the city's Energy Efficiency centre) with green electricity generated by Beacon Energy, a small renewable energy company which operates two 25 kW wind turbines and two 3 kW arrays of photovoltaic cells at a site some 15 miles from Leicester. The exemption given to renewable energy from the climate change levy makes these schemes even more economic; a worked example is provided to demonstrate the impact of the climate change levy on electricity costs at the New Walk Centre. Six steps to follow when seeking to connect to green electricity are advised

  9. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Dagher, L.; Swezey, B.

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  10. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (Tenth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dagher, Leila [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2007-12-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States, focusing on consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources and how this choice represents a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. The report presents aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States. It also provides summary data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets, on green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, and green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of renewable energy certificates. It also includes a discussion of key market trends and issues.

  11. From the ecological niche to the mass market with 'Green Power Marketing' - 1{sup st} European Conference on Green Power Marketing 2001; Mit 'Green Power Marketing' von der Oeko-Nische zum Massenmarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This report summarises the information presented at the European Conference on Green Power Marketing held in 2001 in St. Moritz, Switzerland. It takes a look at the market chances of ecologically produced electricity for use in Switzerland and for export. The opinions of experts from the areas of research, business, politics, marketing and non-governmental organisations that were presented at the meeting are summarised. European perspectives and trends in the USA are discussed and examples of green power marketing in the USA and Holland are given. Marketing issues and price policies are discussed, as are labelling strategies and customer perception of 'Green Power' issues. Also, sales issues including e-marketing, power-market rules and certificate trading are dealt with.

  12. Analysis of Carbon Policies for Electricity Networks with High Penetration of Green Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feijoo, Felipe A.

    In recent decades, climate change has become one of the most crucial challenges for humanity. Climate change has a direct correlation with global warming, caused mainly by the green house gas emissions (GHG). The Environmental Protection Agency in the U.S. (EPA) attributes carbon dioxide to account for approximately 82% of the GHG emissions. Unfortunately, the energy sector is the main producer of carbon dioxide, with China and the U.S. as the highest emitters. Therefore, there is a strong (positive) correlation between energy production, global warming, and climate change. Stringent carbon emissions reduction targets have been established in order to reduce the impacts of GHG. Achieving these emissions reduction goals will require implementation of policies like as cap-and-trade and carbon taxes, together with transformation of the electricity grid into a smarter system with high green energy penetration. However, the consideration of policies solely in view of carbon emissions reduction may adversely impact other market outcomes such as electricity prices and consumption. In this dissertation, a two-layer mathematical-statistical framework is presented, that serves to develop carbon policies to reduce emissions level while minimizing the negative impacts on other market outcomes. The bottom layer of the two layer model comprises a bi-level optimization problem. The top layer comprises a statistical model and a Pareto analysis. Two related but different problems are studied under this methodology. The first problem looks into the design of cap-and-trade policies for deregulated electricity markets that satisfy the interest of different market constituents. Via the second problem, it is demonstrated how the framework can be used to obtain levels of carbon emissions reduction while minimizing the negative impact on electricity demand and maximizing green penetration from microgrids. In the aforementioned studies, forecasts for electricity prices and production cost

  13. The Greening of Innovation Systems for Eco-innovation - Towards an Evolutionary Climate Mitigation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch; Foxon, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    -innovation policies in important ways. The paper argues that the evolutionary economic perspective entails a new policy rationale which not only puts more emphasis on greening of markets as a means towards reaching climate goals but also shifts the representation of the economy towards a more dynamic one. The policy...

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Sumner, J.

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2009 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sumner, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States. First, aggregate green power sales data for all voluntary purchase markets across the United States are presented. Next, we summarize data on utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. Finally, this is followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The data presented in this report are based primarily on figures provided to NREL by utilities and independent renewable energy marketers.

  16. Tunable high-power narrow-linewidth green external-cavity GaN diode laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system.......A tunable high-power green external-cavity diode laser is demonstrated. Up to 290 mW output power and a 9.2 nm tuning is achieve. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode laser system....

  17. Power and policy in the Third World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    A number of obstacles are blocking Third World countries from increasing their well-being and power. A sympathetic examination and comparison of countries in Latin America, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East identifies the political, socio-economic, psychological, and governmental relationships between national policies and their results. The author assesses the effects of colonialism and modernization, and compares the effects of communism in several Third World countries in terms of human dignity and values. The low level of upheaval despite massive discontent in these countries can be attributed to the lack of confidence and hope that prevails in an unjust social system. 112 references, 4 figures, 24 tables. (DCK)

  18. Study 5: certification and green electric power market; Etude 5: certification et marche de l'electricite ''Verte''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.E. [Observ' ER, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    The term green electric power, characterizes today the electric power development, from the renewable energies. Whether this development is governed by the market, the government intervention is always necessary. The fiscality is a preferential way where this complementarity between policy and market may hold. The ADEME asks for a study which presents the californian market of the green electric power, the netherlands system of green certificates and the extension to the european scale. This report deals with these three scopes after a recall and the clarification of the concepts. (A.L.B.)

  19. Green industrial policy. Perspectives of economic and political scienc; Oekologische Industriepolitik. Wirtschafts- und politikwissenschaftliche Perspektiven

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob, Klaus [Freie Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    The necessity and possibilities of, limits to and the specific instruments employed for green industrial policy are a topic of both scientific and political debate. Economists and politicians can draw on rich resources in dealing with these issues. The contributions contained in this volume are the outcome of a workshop held by the German Federal Environment Agency and the Federal Environment Ministry on the topic of ''Green industrial policy'' on 18 April 2008 in Berlin. Economists and politicians were invited to participate in an expert dialog to locate the topic of green industrial policy within the larger discourses of political economics, deliberate on theoretical motives and practical limits to the concept from an economic viewpoint and discuss possible instruments and fields of action. The workshop focussed on questions relating to the necessity of green industrial policy, the framing of political programmes and the implementation of adopted goals into specific measures.

  20. 78 FR 61337 - Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... Innovation in the Digital Economy (Green Paper) released on July 31, 2013, the Task Force seeks public... Information Administration [Docket No. 130927852-3852-01] Request for Comments on Department of Commerce Green Paper, Copyright Policy, Creativity, and Innovation in the Digital Economy AGENCY: Office of the...

  1. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report, Sixth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2003-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, nearly 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 350 investor-owned utilities, rural electric cooperatives, and other publicly owned utilities in 33 states offer green power programs. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. It describes green power product offerings, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The three distinct markets for green power are discussed in turn.

  2. Analysis of intelligent green building policy and developing status in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lin, Chieh-Hung; Hsu, Ming-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Taiwan launched a program dubbed “four emerging intellectual industries” that lists intelligent green buildings. The aim of promoting of intelligent green building is to stimulate the architecture technology industry. This has been combined with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the concept of green building to provide a safe and healthy living environment. While doing this it will also aim to reduce carbon emissions and save energy. This study investigates intelligent green building policies and the promotion of progress in Taiwan. It probes into cases from 1988 to 2014. Key success factors are derived from analyzing and summarizing intelligent green building experiences in Taiwan. This is done through Secondary Data Analyses by: 1. Establishing clear norms and standards for intelligent green building design and improvement; 2. First carrying out policies in public sector, in order to provide field trial and safeguarded market opportunities for industries; 3. Implementing rating-based assessments, in order to raise the quality of design; 4. Mandatory or incentive policies are introduced, depending on local specialties and conditions; 5. Respectively planning incentives for relevant interested parties in industrial chain; 6. Strengthening marketing efforts and proactively promoting policies. - Highlights: •Aggregate and analyze the results of Intelligent Green Building policy in Taiwan. •Chi-square Test of Independence is used for inspecting successful factors. •Organize experiences and propose recommended feasible scheme for future.

  3. On FDP energy and nuclear power policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirche, W.

    2002-01-01

    A liberal energy policy as proclaimed by the FDP, the Free Democratic Party, is based on the principle of sustainability and, in equal measure, serves to ensure economic viability, continuity of supply, and environmental as well as societal compatibility. The possibilities open for national action are determined by the framework conditions of globalization and liberalization, and by the contribution of Germany to the implementation of the sustainability goals. Liberal policies take into account the protection of the environment and of the climate. Levies imposed to protect the environment and the climate must serve specific purposes; the present eco-tax has no controlling function whatsoever. Political measures must not seek to impose government conditions, but rather strengthen public awareness of sustainable action. Liberal research policy focuses on the four areas of fossil energy sources, nuclear fission and nuclear fusion, renewable energy sources, and new technologies. A balanced energy mix as seen by the FDP constitutes the basic of sufficient, safe, non-polluting, and low-cost energy supply. Nuclear power is, and will continue to be, a component of this energy mix. (orig.) [de

  4. From Policy to Training: The Conundrum of Green Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Amy D.

    2013-01-01

    This journal issue about green jobs resulted from a preconference held at the 2011 American Association for Adult and Continuing Education Conference in Indianapolis, Indiana. Interested in exploring the ways that green jobs training is being approached in the United States, this preconference seemed like an excellent way to introduce two new…

  5. Powerful and large regional authorities are needed to preserve green open space for urban agglomerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Aalbers

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identification and assessment of strategies for the conservation and multifunctional development of green open space in the urban fringe of European urban regions is a challenge to both the academic and the real life world. Within the EU funded research project PLUREL – Peri-urban land use relationships – ‘Strategies and sustainability assessment tools for urban rural linkages’, we developed a methodology for international comparison of regional strategies that considers the policy context at supra-regional level. This methodology helped to explain the reported impacts of strategies. For this we further elaborated the theoretical concept of policy arrangements and policy dimensions by Van Tatenhove et al. (2000 and Arts et al. (2006. Strategies and policy contexts referred to are from Montpellier Agglomeration, a formal coalition of now 31 municipalities, Leipzig-Halle region, a functional urban region (FUR with governance coalitions around green open space preservation strategies, and Hangzhou in China, a very large city with hierarchical formal government. Results showed how the means of influence from different government levels can complement and reinforce each other and raise the effectiveness of the strategies. A combination of hierarchical government with a horizontal coalition between local authorities covering the full FUR can be very effective for managing the land use developments in the urban fringe, even when private business, CSOs or other NGOs are not included in the coalition. Supra-regional authorities do not have to possess the land resources, but setting the Rules of the Game is a powerful means of influence to coerce local municipalities to preserve green open space in the urban fringe.

  6. Radioactive waste management policy for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Glodeanu, F.; Simionov, V.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear power is part of energy future as a clean and environmental friendly source of energy. For the case of nuclear power, two specific aspects come more often in front of public attention: how much does it cost and what happens with radioactive waste. The competitiveness of nuclear power vs other sources of energy is already proved in many developed and developing countries. As concerns the radioactive wastes treatment and disposal, industrial technologies are available. Even final solutions for disposal of high level radioactive waste, including spent fuel, are now fully developed and ready for large scale implementation. Policies and waste management strategies are established by all countries having nuclear programs. Once, the first nuclear power reactor was commissioned in Romania, and based on the national legal provisions, our company prepared the first issue of a general strategy for radioactive waste management. The general objective of the strategy is to dispose the waste according to adequate safety standards protecting the man and the environment, without undue burden on future generations. Two target objectives were established for long term: an interim spent fuel dry storage facility and a low and intermediate level waste repository. A solution for spent fuel disposal will be implemented in the next decade, based on international experience. Principles for radioactive waste management, recommended by IAEA are closely followed in the activities of our company. The continuity of responsibilities is considered to be very important. The radioactive waste management cost will be supported by the company. A tax on unit price of electricity will be applied. The implementation of radioactive waste management strategy includes as a major component the public information. A special attention will be paid by the company to an information program addressed to different categories of public in order to have a better acceptance of our nuclear power projects

  7. Green consumers and public policy: On socially contingent moral motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, Karine; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Howarth, Richard B.

    2006-01-01

    'Green' consumers appear to accept individual responsibility for the provision of public goods. The propensity to take such responsibility may depend on beliefs about others' behavior, even for consumers motivated by internalized moral norms, not by social sanctions. This effect can produce multiple equilibria with either high or low demand for 'green' products. Permanent increases in green consumption may be achieved by imposing temporary taxes or subsidies, or through advertising that influences beliefs about others' behavior or about external effects. If a tax is interpreted as taking responsibility away from the individual, however, taxes can reduce the influence of moral motivation. (author)

  8. Working paper Green Gas. Overview of policy issues on Green Gas; Werkdocument Groen Gas. Overzicht Beleidsvraagstukken Groen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, M.

    2012-07-15

    Early 2010, the interdepartmental Accelerator Team Green Gas was established which deals with policy issues in the field of Green Gas. This working document reflects the current state of affairs. Via the website www.groengas.nl new versions will be made available on a regular basis [Dutch] Begin 2010 is het interdepartementale Versnellerteam Groen Gas opgericht dat zich bezighoudt met vraagstukken op het gebied van Groen Gas die op het terrein van de rijksoverheid liggen. Dit werkdocument geeft de huidige stand van zaken weer. Via www.groengas.nl komen geregeld nieuwe versies beschikbaar.

  9. Comparative Policy Study for Green Buildings in U.S. and China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanna, Nina; Romankiewicz, John; Feng, Wei; Zhou, Nan; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Prominent barriers facing the U.S. green building industry include the fact that government bodies that supervise health, fire safety, land, and other public operations are slow to revise codes to accommodate green building (regulatory barrier). In China, the lack of a green building professional accreditation process similar to the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) AP process limits the green building workforce capacity development (informational barrier). The main policies highlighted in this report to tackle these barriers are 1) comprehensive codes and labeling plan (informational, institutional), 2) government-led targets and demonstrations (risk), 3) education and awareness programs (informational), 4) fiscal policy that supports green building investment (financial), and 5) integrated design promotion (institutional, financial).

  10. Probabilistic decision model of wind power investment and influence of green power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillenwater, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a model of a representative wind power investor's decision making process using a Monte Carlo simulation of a project financial analysis. Data, in the form of probability distribution functions (PDFs) for key input variables were collected from interviews with investors and other professionals active in the U.S. wind power industry using a formal expert elicitation protocol. This study presents the first quantitative estimates of the effect of the U.S. voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate (REC) market on renewable energy generation. The results indicate that the investment decisions of wind power project developers in the United States are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. The problem with the current voluntary REC market is that it does not offer developers a reliable risk-adjusted revenue stream. Consequently, the claims by U.S. green power retailers and promoters that voluntary market RECs result in additional wind power projects lack credibility. Even dramatic increases in voluntary market REC prices, in the absence of long-term contracts, were found to have only a small effect on investor behavior. - Highlights: • I use a formal expert elicitation to collect data from wind power investors. • I use a Monte Carlo model to look at the influence of Renewable Energy Certificates on investment. • Investment decisions are unlikely to have been altered by the voluntary REC market. • Claims that the U.S. green power market result in additional wind power lack credibility

  11. Study of China green supply chain management policies and standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxin; Huang, Jin; Lin, Ling

    2017-11-01

    With the highlight of the environment issues, manufacturing industry needs to be environmentally managed with integrated methods in system aspect. Green supply chain management, integrating the environment aspect into each step of the implement of supply chain management, is the key measure to improve the efficiency of environmental management and to remit the pollution. It also helps to make best use and configuration of the resources and has been attracting much attention from our government, enterprises and academia in recent years. This paper introduced the definition and content of green supply chain management, concluded the research progress of green supply chain management by domestic scholars, stated the characteristic and achievement of the implement of green supply chain management in China as well as analyzed the current existing problems and suggestions in the future.

  12. Public participation in green urban policy: two strategies compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mabelis, A.A.; Maksymiuk, G.

    2009-01-01

    Governments can use three ways to maintain biodiversity: spatial planning, planning of processes (management) and communication. Good communication between scientists, planners, managers and users of urban green areas may be essential to achieve success in maintaining urban biodiversity. In this

  13. Implementing the Green City Policy in Municipal Spatial Planning: The Case of Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abongile Dlani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The term “eco-city,” and similar concepts such as “green” and “sustainable” cities, has evolved overtime concurrent to the development of the understanding of social change and mankind’s impact on environmental and economic health. With the advent of climate change impacts, modern economies developed the green city policy to create sustainable urban development, low emission, and environmentally friendly cities. In South Africa municipalities, including Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality (BCMM have been tasked to and implement the green city policy. However, BCMM is yet to develop the green city policy that clearly articulate how the municipality will combat climate change and reduce its Green House Gases (GHG emissions in its spatial planning designs. Against this background, this article reviews and analyses green policy landscape in Metropolitan Municipalities. It is envisaged that the research will provide the basis for the development of a comprehensive green policy strategies and programmes for the local transition to action in Buffalo City Metropolitan Municipality, in the Eastern Cape Province.

  14. Solar Power. Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Walters, Terri [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booth, Sarah [Booth Clean Energy LLC, Denver, CO (United States)

    2015-05-01

    As global electricity demand increases, governments are designing and implementing policies to scale up and catalyze renewable energy, which now meets 22% of global electricity demand (REN21 2014). Solar technologies are a critical component of this expanded deployment, and they have experienced unprecedented growth in recent years. As presented in Figure 1, solar prices have decreased significantly over the last decade (REN21 2014) and in 2013, new capacity installation of solar electricity from photovoltaics (PV) 1 surpassed all other renewable energy technologies worldwide—excluding hydropower—with 39 gigawatts installed that year. Concentrating solar thermal power,2 although it still represents a fairly nascent market, also continues to expand as installed capacity increased by 36% in 2013 compared to 2012. In addition to meeting energy demand in an increasingly cost-effective manner, solar deployment can also support critical economic, social, and environmental development goals (Flavin and Hull Aeck, n.d.).

  15. Guide to purchasing green power. Renewable electricity, renewable energy certificates and on-site renewable generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-09-30

    The Guide to Purchasing Green Power is intended for organizations that are considering the merits of buying green power as well as those that have decided to buy it and want help doing so. The Guide was written for a broad audience, including businesses, government agencies, universities, and all organizations wanting to diversify their energy supply and to reduce the environmental impact of their electricity use.The Guide provides an overview of green power markets and describes the necessary steps to buying green power. This section summarizes the Guide to help readers find the information they need.

  16. Tracking the implementation of green credit policy in China: top-down perspective and bottom-up reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bing; Yang, Yan; Bi, Jun

    2011-04-01

    The Chinese government has introduced the green credit policy to mitigate the environmental impact of industrialization by reining in credit loans to companies and projects with poor environmental performance. This research investigated the implementation of the green credit policy both at the national and provincial levels. Our results show that the green credit policy is not fully implemented. The wide-ranging impact on high-polluting and high energy-consuming industries, vague policy details unclear implementing standards, and lack of environmental information are the main problems in the implementation of the green credit policy in China. On the other hand, the practice at local level (Jiangsu Province) is more practical by integrating green credit policy with the environmental performance rating system. Finally, suggestions are outlined to improve China's green credit policy. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A green certificate market combined with a liberalised power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morthorst, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of renewable energy sources is expected to play an important role in the implementation of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets in the EU member states. Among the highly relevant instruments for promoting the renewable development is the establishment of a market for tradable green certificates (TGCs) and markets based on TGCs or equivalent instruments are already established a number of places, among these Australia, Holland, England, Italy and Texas. Other countries are in the preparation phase. Sweden and Belgium (Flanders) are moving fast towards certificate-schemes, while although an early mover the Danish Parliament has postponed the introduction in Denmark until 2004-2005. The initiatives for establishing national TGC-markets are very much in line with the fixed targets for renewable development launched by the EU-commission. Thus, although the different countries have not chosen the same concept for establishing national TGC-markets, nevertheless there seems to be a good starting point for establishing an international one. This paper discusses the separate introduction of an international tradable green certificate market into a liberalised power market, especially in relation to cost-effectiveness and the possible contributions to national GHG-reduction strategies. The combination of a TGC and a liberalised power market encounters a number of problems in relation to achieving national GHG-reduction targets. One of the main results from a three-country case study described in the paper is that those countries most ambitious in renewable target setting by increasing their TGC-quotas will only partly be gaining the CO 2 -reduction benefits themselves. How large a share they gain themselves will depend only on the marginal conditions at the spot market

  18. Analysis on Green Agriculture Policy during the Development of Eco-city in European Countries and United States and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    QIN, Li; QI, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Ecological agriculture is the important industrial foundation for building eco-cities, while green agriculture policy plays an essential role in promoting sustainable development of ecological agriculture. This paper analyzed the relationship between green agriculture policy and developing eco-cities and characteristics of green agriculture policies in European countries and the United States developing ecological cities. Besides, it summarized experience, in hope of providing beneficial refe...

  19. Urbanisation and greening of Indian cities: Problems, practices, and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, Aabshar U K; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Progress of the Indian economy is threatened by the impact of climate change. Generation of urban heat islands (UHIs), waning of urban green cover, increase in carbon emissions and air pollution deteriorate the living environment. Rise in urban temperatures and heat stress induced mortality remain major concerns. Although the National Action Plan on Climate Change emphasises the national missions of 'enhanced energy efficiency', and 'green India', little research has been devoted to explore the passive cooling potential of urban greenery in India, thus lending uniqueness to this study. The manifestations of unplanned urban development (UHIs, escalated carbon emissions, air pollution) are discussed and corroborated with identification of contributory factors. Contemporary greening practices and bye-laws in four major Indian cities (New Delhi, Pune, Chennai, and Visakhapatnam) are analysed and compared with global best practices. The findings are used to propose planning guidelines which are expected to assist in consolidating natural sustainability of emerging economies.

  20. The Evolution of Green Growth Policy: An Unwelcome Intrusion on Global Environmental Governance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongwon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The notion of green growth emerged in 2009. Since then, policy makers and practitioners have largely adopted the term. Although rather intermittently, there have been academic observations on green growth, with the term often being cited as a paradigm and a policy guide for generating new sources of growth. The most important reasons for the surge in green growth today as a new trend and an international agenda item are the rather unsatisfactory results and pitfalls of sustainable development, which has failed at promoting a tangible international environmental principle or a concrete policy framework. Green growth has been proposed as an alternative simultaneously to foster the dynamics of global environmental governance and to reinvigorate the world economy. This study examines to what extent green growth plays a complementary role in existing global environmental governance. Available evidence provides reasonable grounds for arguing that a positive outcome may well be expected from the evolution of green growth architecture and followed by practical policies. It became a global agenda out of a few influential national governments' control. However, decision makers in the leading countries, both developed and developing must be willing to continue implementing what has been discussed and agreed thus far, beyond changes in political leadership and administrations.

  1. A target group-specific approach to ''green'' power retailing: students as consumers of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossling, S.; Kunkel, T.; Schumacher, K.; Heck, N.; Birkemeyer, J.; Froese, J.; Naber, N.; Schliermann, E.

    2005-01-01

    An extensive body of literature exists on the obstacles that have to be overcome in green power retailing. In this article, target group-specific marketing is evaluated as a strategy to increase the share of residential customers of green power. A sample of students in the city of Freiburg, Germany was interviewed in order to assess their awareness of environmental issues, their willingness to change to green power products, and to better understand individual hindrances in changing the power supplier. The analysis shows that students are highly positive towards green power products, but for several reasons difficult to reach in marketing campaigns. Aspects to be considered in addressing this consumer-group include the students' particular expectations towards green products, their living-conditions, price sensitivity, and their perception of the relative effort involved in changing the power provider. (author)

  2. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  3. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  4. The Meaning of Green: Values and Energy Policy in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Maans

    2003-01-01

    Values, and the way they are represented, have strong implications for environmental policy. Mapping of how values, perceptions, scientific facts and professional judgments interact and function in the process will contribute to understanding the policy process. However, although a systematic, reasoned and critical examination of values underpinning policy choices and expressions is an essential part of policy analysis, values are rarely scrutinised (Dunn 1994). As a result, their role in environmental policy making is not well understood. This paper addresses this gap by asking: How are values represented in the policy arena and the processes within it? What changes do values undergo over time and as they go through the policy-making process? Value concepts are discussed as a basis to understand and describe the values at play in a process. The paper also draws on theories of the policy process to support the analysis of the empirical material. The analysis is then delimited to a selected set of value issues. The empirical material includes public debate documents such as bills, hearings, motions, presentation, statements and their commentaries. Semi-structured interviews, designed as in-depth interviews with open-ended probing, were held to complernent the material. Respondents were identified in the policy committees, career professionals and representatives of important interest groups

  5. Introduction: Greening the countryside? Changing frameworks of EU agricultural policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Philip; Feindt, Peter H; Vihinen, Hilkka

    2010-01-01

    In response to wide-ranging criticism of agricultural policy, especially within Western industrialized countries, new frameworks of justification are emerging and new hybrid policy fields have been established to tackle some of the ‘externalities’ of agricultural support. However, institutional frameworks are proving slower to change, partly because this would require coordinated action across different levels of governance. Nevertheless, previously marginalized environmental concerns have successfully gained entrance to agricultural policy networks, while the intersection of trade liberalization and rural diversification have undermined the dominance of the productivist mindset in government. This gives rise to a plurality of policy actors and actions which defy the conventional categories of analysis of agricultural policy, calling for changing frameworks on the polity of agriculture too.

  6. A Toolkit of Policy Options to Support Inclusive Green Growth

    OpenAIRE

    African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; United Nations; World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, the Mexican Presidency of the G20 introduced inclusive green growth as a cross-cutting priority on the G20 development agenda. The second meeting of the G20 Development Working Group (DWG), hosted by the Government of the Republic of Korea, took place in Seoul the 19th and 20th of March 2012. As agreed during the first DWG meeting, this second meeting focused on the priorities for ...

  7. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Fifth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swezey, B.; Bird, L.

    2000-08-04

    For the first time in many decades, consumers are being given a choice of who supplies their electric power and how that power is generated. One of these choices is to support electricity generation from more environmentally beneficial energy sources. The term green power generally refers to electricity supplied from renewable energy sources. By some estimates, nearly one-quarter of all U.S. consumers will have the option to purchase green power by the year 2000, either from their regulated utility provider or in competitive markets. As competition spreads in the electric power industry, more consumers will have this choice. The purpose of this brief is to provide electric industry analysts with information on green power market trends. Descriptive information on green power marketing activities in competitive and regulated market settings is included.

  8. Beyond blue pico laser: development of high power blue and low power direct green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierheilig, Clemens; Eichler, Christoph; Tautz, Sönke; Lell, Alfred; Müller, Jens; Kopp, Fabian; Stojetz, Bernhard; Hager, Thomas; Brüderl, Georg; Avramescu, Adrian; Lermer, Teresa; Ristic, Jelena; Strauss, Uwe

    2012-03-01

    There is a big need on R&D concerning visible lasers for projection applications. The pico-size mobile projection on the one hand awaits the direct green lasers with sufficiently long lifetimes at optical powers above 50mW. In this paper we demonstrate R&D-samples emitting at 519nm with lifetimes up to 10.000 hours. The business projection on the other hand requires high power operation and already uses blue lasers and phosphor conversion, but there is a strong demand for higher power levels. We investigate the power limits of R&D laser structures. In continuous wave operation, the power is limited by thermal roll-over. With an excellent power conversion efficiency of up to 29% the thermal roll-over is as high as 2.5W for a single emitter in TO56 can. We do not observe significant leakage at high currents. Driven in short pulse operation to prevent the laser from self heating, linear laser characteristics of optical power versus electrical current are observed up to almost 8W of optical power.

  9. Towards a green economy in Germany? The role of energy efficiency policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringel, Marc; Schlomann, Barbara; Krail, Michael; Rohde, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the latest energy efficiency policies of Germany. • We find tangible energy, climate and socioeconomic impacts by 2020. • Notably the building sector stands to benefit economically. • A ‘green energy economy’ needs to build on ambitious energy efficiency policies. - Abstract: Energy efficiency policies play a key role in the transformation to a ‘green energy economy’. In this paper, we take stock of the impacts of the existing energy efficiency policy instruments in Germany and review the energy, environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the country’s latest energy efficiency and climate strategies for the year 2020. We find evidence supporting the findings of other studies that enhanced green energy policies will trigger tangible economic benefits in terms of GDP growth and new jobs even in the short term. Whereas policy makers have already acknowledged and implemented this conclusion in the case of renewable energies, our paper shows that striving for more ambitious energy efficiency policies represents a similar win–win strategy, which should be exploited to a much larger extent.

  10. Environmental policies and risk finance in the green sector: Cross-country evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a detailed description of venture capital investment in the green sector across 29 countries over the period 2005–2010, and identifies the role that policies might play in explaining observed cross-country differences. The analysis is based on a deal-level database of businesses seeking financing, combined with indicators of renewable policies and government R&D expenditures. The econometric analysis relates the number of deals and their volumes in a country to deployment and supply policies using count data and limited dependent variable (Tobit) models. The results suggest that both supply side policies and environmental deployment policies, designed with a long-term perspective of creating a market for environmental technologies, are associated with higher levels of venture capital relative to more short-term fiscal policies. When focusing on policies related to renewable energy generation, the results confirm the positive association of generous feed-in tariffs (FITs) with venture capital investment. However, in the solar sector excessively generous FITs tend to discourage investment, perhaps reflecting a lack of credibility over the longer term. Thus, both sets of results point to long-term policy stability, sustainability and credibility as important policy features to ensure Venture capital backing of innovative and risky ventures in a country's green sector. -- Highlights: •Risk-finance in the green sector is likely to face more challenges than in other hi-tech sectors. •Supply and deployment policies are associated with more investments relative to fiscal policies. •FITs have a positive effect, but in the solar sector very generous FITs discourage investments

  11. Employment Policies for a Green Economy at the European Union Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mihaela Pociovălișteanu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable economic development requires ensuring economic growth and development in terms of environmental protection by providing a bridge between sustainable economic growth, improvement in human health, social justice, employment and environmental protection. Our paper aims to study the situation of green jobs at the European Union level and the relationship between environment and employment, by analysing the link between employment and environmental policies. It highlights the main trends recorded at the European Union level in the field of employment policy to promote green jobs for sustainable economic development. Although there is little effect from environmental policies on employment, the effects are positive, which shows that the relationship between environmental and employment policy should be continued and improved by measures taken at both the macro- and microeconomic levels.

  12. Greening the Danes? Experience with consumption and environment policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Toke Haunstrup; Godskesen, Mirjam Irene; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    of consumption as an inseparable part of daily practices with empirical analyses of three fields of consumption: Housing, transportation, and information and communication technology. It is pointed out that policies to promote sustainable consumption are successful only when technological development, economic...... structures, and information are all in accordance with each other, and this is only the case when sustainable consumption does not conflict with economic growth. A more fundamental critique thus concerns the failure of Danish consumer-oriented environmental policies to address consumption growth...

  13. Selecting Green Supplier of Thermal Power Equipment by Using a Hybrid MCDM Method for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiru Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing worldwide awareness of environmental protection and sustainable development, green purchasing has become an important issue for companies to gain environmental and developmental sustainability. Thermal power is the main power generation form in China, and the green supplier selection is essential to the smooth and sustainable construction of thermal power plants. Therefore, selecting the proper green supplier of thermal power equipment is very important to the company’s sustainable development and the sustainability of China’s electric power industry. In this paper, a hybrid fuzzy multi-attribute decision making approach (fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS is proposed for selecting the best green supplier. The fuzzy set theory is applied to translate the linguistic preferences into triangular fuzzy numbers. The subjective criteria weights are determined by using decision makers’ superiority linguistic ratings and the objective ones are determined by combining the superiority linguistic ratings and fuzzy-entropy weighting method. The fuzzy TOPSIS is employed to generate an overall performance score for each green supplier. An empirical green supplier selection is conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this proposed fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS approach. This proposed fuzzy entropy-TOPSIS approach can select the proper green supplier of thermal power equipment, which contributes to promoting the company’s sustainable development and the sustainability of China’s electric power industry to some extent.

  14. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Eighth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2005-10-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering "green power" options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. The second section provides brief descriptions of utility green pricing programs. The third section describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renewable energy certificates nationally or regionally. The final section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including businesses, universities, and government agencies.

  15. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report; Seventh Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2004-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent both from utilities and in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than 50% of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. This report provides an overview of green power marketing activity in the United States. The first section provides an overview of green power markets, consumer response, and recent industry trends. Section 2 provides brief descriptions of the utility green pricing programs available nationally. Section 3 describes companies that actively market green power in competitive markets and those that market renew able energy certificates nationally or regionally. The last section provides information on a select number of large, nonresidential green power purchasers, including governmental agencies, universities, and businesses.

  16. The "Green Lab": Power Consumption by Commercial Light Bulbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einsporn, James A.; Zhou, Andrew F.

    2011-01-01

    Going "green" is a slogan that is very contemporary, both with industry and in the political arena. Choosing more energy-efficient devices is one way homeowners can "go green." A simple method is to change home lighting from hot incandescent bulbs to compact fluorescent lights (CFLs). But do they really save energy? How do their illuminations…

  17. Methods for Procuring Power System Flexibility, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin; Miller, Mackay

    2015-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, introduces administrative and incentive-based mechanisms for procuring a cost-effective mix of flexibility sources.

  18. Market power in interactive environmental and energy markets: the case of green certificates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, Eirik S.; Nese, Gjermund

    2004-01-01

    Markets for environmental externalities are typically closely related to the markets causing such externalities, whereupon strategic interaction may result. Along these lines, the market for Green Certificates is strongly interwoven in the electricity market as the producers of green electricity are also the suppliers of Green Certificates. In this paper, we formulate an analytic equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning electricity and Green Certificate markets, and focus on the role of market power. We consider two versions of a Nash-Cournot game: a standard Nash-Cournot game where the players treat the market for Green Certificates and the electricity market as separate markets; and a Nash-Cournot game with endogenous treatment of the interaction between the electricity and Green Certificate markets with conjectured price responses. One result is that a certificate system faced with market power may collapse into a system of per unit subsidies, as the producers involved start to game on the joint functioning of markets. (author)

  19. The Compatibility of the habitats directive with the Novel EU Green Infrastructure Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgström, S.; Kistenkas, F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Green Infrastructure is a novel EU policy response to the continuous degradation of natural capital. The central idea behind this initiative is the recognition of environment as an infrastructure resource capable of delivering a wide range of ecosystem services. With its GI strategy, the European

  20. Customer choice and green power marketing in the United States: how far can it take us?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark; Holt, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This article explores whether and to what extent individuals are willing to voluntarily pay a premium for products that provide public environmental benefits. In particular, we critically review and analyze the status and impacts of U.S. green power marketing to date. Green power marketing - the business of selling electricity products distinguished by their environmental attributes - seeks to develop a private market for renewable energy driven by consumer demand for green products. Debate has centered on the ability of such a market to provide a significant level of support for renewable energy sources. This paper examines experience to date with green power markets in the United States, proving an historical overview, reviewing product offerings, assessing customer response, and calculating overall support for renewable energy. While market research shows that a majority of the populace states a willingness to pay a premium for renewable energy, early experience with green power marketing shows that those attitudes have not yet translated into large-scale behavior change, tracking experience in other environment product markets. While a niche market for green power does exist, the data presented in this paper indicate that the collective impact of customer-driven demand on renewable generation has been modest thus far. Much will need to be done if this market is to play a strong role in supporting renewable energy in the early part of the millennium. Several lessons on how to potentially improve the prospects of green power marketing are therefore discussed. (author)

  1. Presentation and persuasion: the meaning of evidence in Irish green infrastructure policy

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how meaning making influences the content and currency of the evidence used to shape and support policy proposals. It does this by answering three linked questions: (1) How does context influence the forms of evidence employed in policy advocacy? (2) What practices are initiated by reference to the perceived need for evidence in policy formulation? (3) What effects do these practices have on the location of power within policy debates? These questions are answered and illu...

  2. Towards a green economy in Europe. EU environmental policy targets and objectives 2010-2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    The 'green economy' has emerged as a priority in policy debate in recent years. But what does the concept mean in practice and how can decision-makers measure progress towards this strategic goal? This report provides some answers, presenting a detailed overview of the key objectives and targets in EU environmental policy and legislation for the period 2010-2050. It focuses on selected environmental and resource policy areas, specifically: energy; greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and ozone-depleting substances; air quality and air pollution; transport sector emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants; waste; water; sustainable consumption and production (SCP); chemicals; biodiversity and land use. (Author)

  3. Environmental Assessment for power marketing policy for Southwestern Power Administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Southwestern Power Administration (Southwestern) needs to renew expiring power sales contracts with new term (10 year) sales contracts. The existing contracts have been in place for several years and many will expire over the next ten years. Southwestern completed an Environmental Assessment on the existing power allocation in June, 1979 (a copy of the EA is attached), and there are no proposed additions of any major new generation resources, service to discrete major new loads, or major changes in operating parameters, beyond those included in the existing power allocation. Impacts from a no action plan, proposed alternative, and market power for less than 10 years are described

  4. 'Great Power Style' in China's Economic Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Yang

    2011-01-01

    China’s ascendance attracts concern, even though Beijing claims to be a responsible great power and tries to demonstrate its ‘great power style’ in economic diplomacy. This article therefore discusses the following questions: to what extent does the current notion and practice of Chinese ‘great...... power style’ in economic diplomacy comply with, or differ from, the criteria of benign hegemony; and what are the major constraining factors? Conceptually, China’s ‘great power style’ is rooted in ancient Chinese political philosophy and institution, but it highly resembles the Western notion of benign...... and economic interests....

  5. Green Ocean Treasure Hunting” Guided by Policy Support in a Transitional Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoshan Ge

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available For countries in the process of economic transition, improvement of industrialization is no longer the sole goal of their economic development. While upgrading the level of industrial development, these countries also gradually attach importance to resource utilization efficiency and environmental protection, which is why green entrepreneurship has become increasingly popular in recent years. With the intensification of policy guidance, a new “sea area” named green entrepreneurship ushers in more and more “treasure hunters” exploring “the treasure” therein. Based on this, this paper constructs the model of “Green Ocean Treasure Hunting” for green entrepreneurial enterprises to analyze the role played by their government’s relevant policies and puts forward the research proposition of this article based on the relevant literature. On this basis, this paper chooses and analyzes a medium-sized, high-tech enterprise in China which follows a certain typical green entrepreneurial process as evidence of the propositions we have put forward.

  6. Utility-Marketer Partnerships. An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Brown, E. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility’s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  7. Utility-Marketing Partnerships: An Effective Strategy for Marketing Green Power?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Brown, E. S.

    2006-04-01

    This paper explores whether partnerships between utilities and independent marketers are an effective strategy for marketing green power. We present case studies of voluntary and mandatory partnerships covering green power program design and implementation in both regulated and restructured electricity markets. We also include perspectives (based on interviews) from utilities, marketers, and regulators involved in developing and implementing these partnerships. From these case studies and interviews, we describe lessons learned about developing effective partnerships, including such issues as respective roles in marketing and administration, product branding, and contract and incentive structures. Based on experience to date, strategic partnerships between utilities and marketers can be an effective approach to marketing green power. Partnerships leverage the sales and resource procurement experience of marketers and the utility?s reputation and access to customers. Further, partnerships can create greater incentives for success because marketers have a vested financial interest in maximizing customer participation and green power sales.

  8. The nuclear power policy in Argentina (1965-2003)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreiro, Francisco M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to expose some outcomes of a larger research on the nuclear power plants public policy review in Argentine, between 1965 and 2003. It points out the relevance of institutional design as a main factor to explain the policy evolution, and offers unpublished statistic data of this nuclear energy sector. Finally, some comments are presented in order to highlight the importance of the unsolved policy aspects that concern the decision makers in this area. (author) [es

  9. Diminished States? National Power in European Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    The increasing research on international organisations' education policy lacks analyses of the relation between international organisations and nation states. This paper aims to analyse the power of nation states in international education policy. Focusing on the new degree system in higher education in Europe, partly from Foucault's…

  10. Hydroelectric power stations and ecological energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, R.

    1993-01-01

    The report discusses the place of hydroenergy in solving the power and ecological problems of Bulgaria: level of building up of the hydroelectric capacity of the country; possibilities for new hydro electric construction; environmental problems of design, construction and operation of the hydroelectric units; advantages of the hydroelectric engineering. The possibilities of the hydroelectric power plants as an alternative of the other more or less conventional electicity producers are shown in order to help in decision making as regards the problems of the economic, power and environmental crisis. (author)

  11. Green Power Marketing in the United States. A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kreycik, Claire [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Friedman, Barry [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  12. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (2008 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Kreycik, C.; Friedman, B.

    2009-09-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to buy electricity supplied from renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. In the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering 'green power' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from renewable energy marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets or offering renewable energy certificates (RECs) online. Today, more than half of all U.S. electricity customers have an option to purchase some type of green power product directly from a retail electricity provider, while all consumers have the option to purchase RECs. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States including utility green pricing programs offered in regulated electricity markets; green power marketing activity in competitive electricity markets, as well as green power sold to voluntary purchasers in the form of RECs; and renewable energy sold as greenhouse gas offsets in the United States. These sections are followed by a discussion of key market trends and issues. The final section offers conclusions and observations.

  13. Smart unconventional monetary (SUMO) policies: giving impetus to green investment. Climate Report no. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, Camille; Morel, Romain

    2014-07-01

    Today, given the amount of investment needed to reach a 2-degree emissions reduction target and the tight budgetary constraints of governments worldwide, public spending alone will not be sufficient alone. Therefore, there is a double need to not only shift private financial flows from 'brown' sectors to 'green' sectors, but also to leverage new sources of financing. Addressing the second challenge, this study reviews three families of proposed funding mechanisms based on unconventional monetary policies targeting 'green' or 'climate' investments. These 'Smart Unconventional Monetary' (or SUMO) policies include: (i) the use of Special Drawing Rights (SDRs) issued by the International Monetary Fund (IMF), (ii) green quantitative easing and (iii) the issuance of Carbon Certificates. Proponents of these mechanisms assert that they have a strong potential to provide substantial low-cost financing for green projects and reduce the risks linked to green investments for private investors. Furthermore, they could have further macro-economic co-benefits in specific circumstances. For example, implemented jointly with appropriate 'demand-side' mechanisms, a SUMO policy mechanism, even if short-term, could help trigger investment, bank lending and growth in Europe and pave the way for a longer-term green policies' framework. Nevertheless, this analysis has identified that the implementation of such mechanisms has a number of challenges to overcome. The first challenge is to convince policy makers that these mechanisms, even if they resort to unconventional monetary policies, will not lead to inflation. The second challenge is the difficulty to reach multilateral agreements in the short run, because of geopolitical and institutional barriers. The third challenge is the necessity to involve the private sector. Furthermore, to facilitate their contribution to low-carbon investment, this analysis suggests that

  14. Nuclear power phaseout policy and the economic implications for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfaffenberger, W.

    1999-01-01

    Implementation of Germany's nuclear power phaseout policy and the expected consequences are discussed in this paper, referring to environmental aspects and Germany's international commitments under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, implications for the national economy, the required structural transformation of the energy industry, and changes in the general legal setting for the energy sector. Proposals are discussed for modifying the planned nuclear power phaseout policy so as to make the process of winding down nuclear generation more compatible with economic, social, and environmental policy conditions. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Power, Politics and Transnational Policy-Making in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the relation between power and politics under the conditions of economic globalisation and transnational policy-making in education. The paper argues that power lies not only with the producers of the dominant educational discourse nor simply with the very discourse which is circulated and reproduced in national legislations,…

  16. The retirement cliff: Power plant lives and their policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rode, David C.; Fischbeck, Paul S.; Páez, Antonio R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines more than a century of U.S. power plant additions and retirements in conjunction with several decades of utility capital investment data. While policy analyses often invoke assumptions of power plant book life, relatively little analysis has focused on the physical life of power-generating assets. The average age of the U.S. generator fleet has increased significantly over time despite continued investment, in part because more recent investment has tended to focus on shorter-lived assets. This may be due in part to risk-averse power sector investors and lenders responding rationally to regulatory uncertainty in a deregulated market environment. Power plant retirement trends suggest that the pace of retirements will increase significantly in the decade after 2030 for most reasonable estimates of physical life. These capital investment trends have important consequences for carbon policy and highlight the importance of including consideration of the longer term—particularly when evaluating more significant decarbonization policies. - Highlights: • Many policy analyses neglect the physical lives of power plants. • A large database of U.S. power plant additions and retirements is examined. • The average age of power plants has steadily increased despite growing investment. • Long-term CO 2 reduction strategies are challenged by increases in plant retirements.

  17. Green electricity policy in the Netherlands. An analysis of policy decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooijen, Sascha van; Wees, Mark van

    2003-01-01

    Over the last decades, fundamental changes in both market conditions and the national and international policy framework in the Netherlands can be observed. The Dutch Government has intervened in markets regularly, demonstrating fundamental shifts in policy and approach. This study aims to analyse the developments in renewable energy policy making in the Netherlands. It assesses changes in the choice of policy instruments and target groups, the role of stakeholders and offers explanations behind policy successes and failures. The following conclusions can be drawn on the policy choices: First, the objectives and targets of Dutch renewable energy policy were frequently ambiguous. Although the government emphasised the importance of investments in local capacity, imports were always (implicitly) seen as an alternative option in meeting targets. Second, for a long period the government focused on reducing investment costs and dismantling administrative barriers. Only recently has the lack of a stable investment climate been identified as a potential barrier. Third, although many stakeholders have advocated a mandatory approach, Dutch policies stimulating renewable energy have always been voluntary. Finally, the Ministry of Economic Affairs has always played a very dominant role in renewable energy policy formulation and implementation, which may explain the fact that some unfavourable market reactions to policies have not been foreseen. (author)

  18. The Economics of Wind Power in China and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifa Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the implementation of feed-in tariff (FIT and attractive public subsidies for onshore wind farms aroused great investment enthusiasm and spurred remarkable development of wind power in China. Meanwhile, rapid learning-by-doing has significantly cut down the cost of wind turbines and the capital cost of wind farms as well. Therefore, it is the right time to examine the appropriateness of the existing FIT policy for wind power in China. In this paper, we employ the analytical framework for levelized cost of electricity (LCOE to model the generation cost of wind power. Results show that the existing FIT policy is attractive to investors, but serious curtailment and turbine quality issues could make wind power unprofitable. Meanwhile, rapid substantial decreases in the cost of wind power have made it competitive to coal power in 2013, implying that it is possible and necessary to reform the FIT policy for new wind farms. In the future, energy policies for onshore wind power in China could be concentrated on reducing the integration cost, so as to reduce the overall system cost.

  19. Power trip : stumbling toward a policy for NB power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, T.L.; Norris, B.A.

    2003-10-01

    New Brunswick Power has one of the highest debt burdens of any crown utility along with one of the highest operating costs of any publicly owned electric utility in Canada. NB Power has borrowed heavily to invest in capital projects such as the expansion of its aging Point Lepreau nuclear plant. The current assets will not generate sufficient revenues to recover the investment. Kyoto requirements to reduce emissions have placed additional financial strain on the utility. It must also ensure funds for the eventual decommissioning of its nuclear facility. The utility's high operating costs are due to the high cost of coal used in its thermal generating plants. Since the utility relies on nuclear energy for 40 per cent of its output, it must maintain a high and costly reserve capacity in case the nuclear facility shuts down. In 2002, the government of New Brunswick announced plans to reorganize NB Power by creating a parent holding company with separate business units responsible for power generation, nuclear generation, power transmission, power distribution and customer service. A system operator will supervise access to the transmission system. The author argued that the restructuring will not address the problem of excessive costs and high debt. The NB Electric Finance Corporation will be created to service and retire the province's portion of the utility's debt. Instead of taxes and dividends on its equity position, NB Power will make payments to achieve the debt repayment. The restructured utility will still have to generate sufficient revenues to meet expenses. The following recommendations were presented: the government should privatize NB Power to cap taxpayers' debt liability; the government should assume an appropriate protion of the stranded debt liabilities to attract private investors to purchase the utility; electricity rates should be allowed to rise over time to reflect the real cost of operating the system; and, the government should open both the

  20. Multinational firms and the internationalization of green R&D: A review of the evidence and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noailly, Joëlle; Ryfisch, David

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents novel empirical evidence on the internationalization of green R&D by multinational firms (MNCs), as measured by patents data. Using data on inventors’ addresses for the set of 1200 MNCs firms patenting in green technologies over the 2004–2009 period, we find that about 17% of green patents result from MNCs R&D investments conducted outside their home countries. MNCs tend to locate their foreign green R&D activities in other OECD markets and in China, in particular in lightings and solar technologies. The empirical analysis reveals that the probability of conducting green R&D abroad increases with the host country’s stringency of environmental regulation, market size and (green) R&D intensity. Also, relatively lower wages for scientists and engineers, and stronger protection for intellectual property rights in the host country increase the likelihood for MNCs to offshore green R&D. The paper concludes by discussing the policy implications of this changing global innovation landscape. -- Highlights: •Green R&D is becoming increasingly globalized. •17% of the green patents of our sample of 1200 MNCs have been invented abroad. •Most green R&D offshoring takes place among OECD countries, and towards China. •Environmental policy is key to attracting multinationals’ green offshoring activities

  1. Measuring Eco-Innovation: Towards Better Policies to Support Green Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozkrut Dominik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Green growth strategies thus need to be robust, what requires carefully designed tools. One of the prerequisites is the appropriate green growth measurement framework. It should allow discerning the effectiveness of policies in delivering green growth. This is where this paper tries to offer a new angle by searching for appropriate indicators that can capture different aspects of eco-innovation. Eco-innovation can be defined as innovation that results in a reduction of environmental impact. Country data from the 2008 Community Innovation Survey is used in the analysis. Dataset consist of 14 variables on environmental benefits and motivations. The aim of the presented study is to reduce the number of variables into factors to discover which of available variables form coherent subsets. It is argued here that such approach can help to construct appropriate indicators, that can capture different aspects of eco-innovation, that are crucial from the point of view of policy-making and policy evaluation.

  2. Green Power Marketing in the United States: A Status Report (Ninth Edition)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2006-11-01

    Voluntary consumer decisions to purchase electricity supplied by renewable energy sources represent a powerful market support mechanism for renewable energy development. Beginning in the early 1990s, a small number of U.S. utilities began offering ''green power'' options to their customers. Since then, these products have become more prevalent, both from traditional utilities and from marketers operating in states that have introduced competition into their retail electricity markets. Today, more than half of all U.S. consumers have an option to purchase some type of green power product from a retail electricity provider. Currently, more than 600 utilities, or about 20% of utilities nationally, offer green power programs to customers. These programs allow customers to purchase some portion of their power supply as renewable energy--almost always at a higher price--or to contribute funds for the utility to invest in renewable energy development. The term ''green pricing'' is typically used to refer to these utility programs offered in regulated or noncompetitive electricity markets. This report documents green power marketing activities and trends in the United States.

  3. 78 FR 62361 - Green Mountain Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Power Corporation; Vermont; Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project; Notice of Proposed Restricted Service... issuance of a new license for the Otter Creek Hydroelectric Project No. 2558. The programmatic agreement... Agreement would be incorporated into any Order issuing a license. Green Mountain Power Corporation, as...

  4. Large eddy simulation of the tidal power plant deep green using the actuator line method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksson, S. T.; Broström, G.; Jansson, M.; Nilsson, H.; Bergqvist, B.

    2017-12-01

    Tidal energy has the potential to provide a substantial part of the sustainable electric power generation. The tidal power plant developed by Minesto, called Deep Green, is a novel technology using a ‘flying’ kite with an attached turbine, moving at a speed several times higher than the mean flow. Multiple Deep Green power plants will eventually form arrays, which require knowledge of both flow interactions between individual devices and how the array influences the surrounding environment. The present study uses large eddy simulations (LES) and an actuator line model (ALM) to analyze the oscillating turbulent boundary layer flow in tidal currents without and with a Deep Green power plant. We present the modeling technique and preliminary results so far.

  5. Perspectives for hydropower in Switzerland - chances offered by the 'green power' market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, D.; Truffer, B.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2003-01-01

    This short article discusses the chances offered to operators of hydropower stations by 'green power' markets for the sale of power produced under strict conditions in environment-friendly power generation facilities. The development of these markets is discussed as are the interdependencies between the public's use of green power markets and measures taken by the state to promote the use of renewable forms of energy. The results of market research on customer willingness to purchase environment-friendly electricity are discussed and the important role of hydropower in this business is stressed. The differing interests of various customer segments are discussed and the part played by 'green stocks' and other sustainable investments in the financial market is looked at

  6. REDD+ policy networks: exploring actors and power structures in an emerging policy domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making is often neither rational nor solution-oriented, but driven by negotiations of interests of multiple actors that increasingly tend to take place in policy networks. Such policy networks integrate societal actors beyond the state, which all aim, to different degrees, at influencing ongoing policy processes and outcomes. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ can be considered as such an emerging policy domain, in which actors cooperate and conflict in network structures, build coalitions and try to control information and finance flows relevant for REDD+ decision making. This special feature is the result of an extensive comparative research effort to investigate national level REDD+ policy processes and emerging policy networks. This unique collection of seven country cases and a comparative study provides evidence on how power, coalitions, and different interactions among actors in policy networks enable the transformational change required for an effective, efficient, and equitable national REDD+ design. However, as we will see in most of the cases, where the dominant coalitions fail to tackle the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, they also hinder such major policy reforms required for REDD+. The aim of this editorial serves four purposes: first, we provide an argument about "why" policy network analysis is highly relevant to the study of REDD+ policy processes; second, we explain "how" policy network analysis is used in this special feature to investigate policy processes in this domain; and third, we explore the "so what?" or how a policy network lens helps us understand the political opportunities and challenges for REDD+. Finally, we provide an outlook for the relevance and future research design of policy network analysis when applied to REDD+ and to policy network structures more broadly.

  7. Perspectives for hydropower in Switzerland - The chances offered by Green Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spreng, D.; Wuestenhagen, R.; Truffer, B.

    2001-01-01

    This report made for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the question if the marketing of 'green' power, i.e. by marketing power on the basis of its environment-friendly production method, could be a viable way for owners of hydropower plant to assert themselves in a liberalised electricity market. The results of the studies made so far concerning the size of the market for 'green power' are discussed and the various types of customer are looked at, such as environmentally conscious and environmentally active consumers for example. The report presents the results of 11 'focus groups' held in Berne, Zurich and Stuttgart which looked at the consumers' general opinion on green power and their readiness to pay a surcharge for it. The report examines not only the situation in households but also in trade and industry, where the purchase of green power can play a role in environmental certification or be used as part of a company's marketing strategy. Also, the issuing of 'green shares' (sustainable investments) is discussed, which could improve the financial conditions for hydropower companies seeking credit and loans

  8. Film Policy, the Chinese Government and Soft Power

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Y

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how the Chinese ruling party understands the role of film and how film policy has been used to promote China’s soft power. It first explores shifts in policy over a period of 60 years in order to identify the government’s overall approach to the film industry. Then it investigates ‘Zou Chu Qu’, the so-called ‘Going-Out Policy’, specifically aimed at promoting soft power. This article argues that, although the role of the film industry has been adjusted in response to dev...

  9. An optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller by Water Cycle Algorithm for power management of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarvi, Mohammad; Avanaki, Isa Nasiri

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method to improve the performance of renewable power management is proposed. • The proposed method is based on Fuzzy Logic optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. • The proposed method characteristics are compared with two other methods. • The comparisons confirm that the proposed method is robust and effectiveness one. - Abstract: This paper aims to improve the power management system of a Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power generation based on the Fuzzy Logic Controller optimized by the Water Cycle Algorithm. The proposed Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power consists of wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems as primary power sources and a battery, fuel cell, and Electrolyzer as energy storage systems. Hydrogen is produced from surplus power generated by the wind energy conversion and photovoltaic systems of Stand-alone Hybrid Green Power and stored in the hydrogen storage tank for fuel cell later using when the power generated by primary sources is lower than load demand. The proposed optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller based power management system determines the power that is generated by fuel cell or use by Electrolyzer. In a hybrid system, operation and maintenance cost and reliability of the system are the important issues that should be considered in studies. In this regard, Water Cycle Algorithm is used to optimize membership functions in order to simultaneously minimize the Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance. The results are compared with the particle swarm optimization and the un-optimized Fuzzy Logic Controller power management system to prove that the proposed method is robust and effective. Reduction in Loss of Power Supply Probability and operation and maintenance, are the most advantages of the proposed method. Moreover the level of the State of Charge of the battery in the proposed method is higher than other mentioned methods which leads to increase battery lifetime.

  10. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  11. Review of wind power tariff policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zheng; Wang, Jianhui; Byrne, John; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2013-01-01

    In the past 20 years, China has paid significant attention to wind power. Onshore wind power in China has experienced tremendous growth since 2005, and offshore wind power development has been on-going since 2009. In 2010, with a total installed wind power capacity of 41.8 GW, China surpassed the U.S. as the country with the biggest wind power capacity in the world. By comparing the wind power situations of three typical countries, Germany, Spain, and Denmark, this paper provides a comprehensive evaluation and insights into the prospects of China’s wind power development. The analysis is carried out in four aspects including technology, wind resources, administration and time/space frame. We conclude that both German and Spanish have been growing rapidly in onshore capacity since policy improvements were made. In Denmark, large financial subsidies flow to foreign markets with power exports, creating inverse cost-benefit ratios. Incentives are in place for German and Danish offshore wind power, while China will have to remove institutional barriers to enable a leap in wind power development. In China, cross-subsidies are provided from thermal power (coal-fired power generation) in order to limit thermal power while encouraging wind power. However, the mass installation of wind power capacity completely relies on power subsidies. Furthermore, our study illustrates that capacity growth should not be the only consideration for wind power development. It is more important to do a comprehensive evaluation of multi-sectorial efforts in order to achieve long-term development. - Highlights: ► Key components to exam China’s wind power. ► Evaluation of Europe could be helpful. ► China has to remove institutional barrier.

  12. Soft Power, Hard Aspirations: the Shifting Role of Power in Brazilian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Valença

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and policy analysts have highlighted the emergence of Brazil as a regional power. However, little attention has been paid to its foreign policy strategies. Brazil's rise to prominence in world politics represents the historical culmination of a foreign policy featuring two main strategies – persuasion and consensus building – both of which emphasise the use of soft power. We analyse four current foreign policy initiatives: the campaign for a permanent seat on the UNSC; the development of a nuclear submarine; Brazil's leadership of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti; and government support for Brazilian multinationals. We suggest a growing tension between these initiatives and the two strategies identified above. These initiatives reflect the view current among some policymakers that if Brazil is to rise as a global power it must play by the rules of great power politics.

  13. Decline of Civilian power in Japan's Defense Policy

    OpenAIRE

    SEBATA, TAKAO; 瀬端, 孝夫

    2006-01-01

    Over the last thirty years, military official of Japan's Self-Defense Forces (SDF) have begun voicing their opinions more aggressively, exerting influence and power in such areas as: the right of personnel management, budget formulation, organization, and defense policy decision-making. Due to the enhanced status of military officials, change of power balance between civilians and military is taking place. This paper examines civil-military relations in the above areas and discusses how this ...

  14. Ethnic Identity and Power: Quilombos in Brazilian Public Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Peres Calheiros

    2010-06-01

    Extension Assistance (Pnater, this article examines the relation of power between public policies and ethnic identities. It discusses how the reformulated concept of development influences government activity in rural contexts and the adoption of compensatory actions for excluded portions of the population. It briefly presents the social, legal and conceptual trajectory of the quilombos, localizing the dynamics of power in the construction of quilombola identity, a project in constant re-elaboration by Brazilian society.

  15. Green high-power tunable external-cavity GaN diode laser at 515 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Mingjun; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    A 480 mW green tunable diode laser system is demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. The laser system is based on a GaN broad-area diode laser and Littrow external-cavity feedback. The green laser system is operated in two modes by switching the polarization direction of the laser beam...... incident on the grating. When the laser beam is p-polarized, an output power of 50 mW with a tunable range of 9.2 nm is achieved. When the laser beam is s-polarized, an output power of 480 mW with a tunable range of 2.1 nm is obtained. This constitutes the highest output power from a tunable green diode...... laser system....

  16. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources. Thermo-electric power generation...

  17. Nuclear power and post-2012 energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisser, Daniel; Howells, Mark; Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2008-01-01

    At present there is no binding agreement (at a global level) to address the risk of anthropogenic climate change after 2012. Disagreements abound with respect to a post-2012 climate change agreement, on issues such as economic development, policy criteria, environmental effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, equity, dynamic flexibility, complementarity, enforceability and so on. One such disagreement is whether or not nuclear power should play a role in a post-2012 climate change agreement. This qualitative analysis explores the conditions under which nuclear power could contribute to addressing climate change in post-2012 architectures. It reveals that - given the right framework conditions - some architectures, like 'cap and trade' regimes or 'policies and measures' can improve the competitiveness of nuclear power plants, while others are unlikely to provide incentives for nuclear energy development in the short to medium term, such as adaptation and technology cooperation. Overall, the study concludes that post-2012 climate change policy should aim at providing policy flexibility without compromising technology flexibility. For example, the provision of long-term commitment periods has the potential to enable better investments in existing low-carbon technologies but stifle the policy flexibility that political decision makers are often keen to retain so that they can respond more quickly to new scientific evidence or advances in clean technology development

  18. Effective policies for renewable energy - the example of China's wind power - lessons for China's photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO 2 , needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were adopted. In this paper, I review the main renewable energy policies regarding to China's wind power, including the Wind Power Concession Program, Renewable Energy Law, and a couple of additional laws and regulations. Such policies have effectively reduced the cost of wind power installed capacity, stimulated the localization of wind power manufacture, and driven the company investment in wind power. China is success in wind power installed capacity, however, success in wind-generated electricity has yet achieved, mainly due to the backward grid system and lack of quota system. The paper ends with the recommended best practice of the China's wind power installed capacity might be transferable to China's photovoltaic power generation. (author)

  19. A Fuzzy Logic Enhanced Environmental Protection Education Model for Policies Decision Support in Green Community Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Lin Hsueh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the promotion of environmental protection education among communities as a solution to the serious problems of high energy consumption and carbon emissions around the world. Environmental protection education has direct and lasting influences on everyone in society; therefore, it is helpful in our fight against many serious problems caused by high energy consumption. In this study, the Delphi method and the fuzzy logic theory are used to develop a quantizing assessment model based on qualitative analysis. This model can be used to assess the results and influences of community residents’ participation in environmental protection education on green community development. In addition, it can be used to provide references for governing authorities in their decision making of green community development policies.

  20. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  1. Certificate-Based Approach to Marketing Green Power and Constructing New Wind Energy Facilities: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Bird, L.; Swezey, B.

    2002-05-01

    The availability of wind energy certificates in Pennsylvania's retail electricity market has made a critical difference in the economic feasibility of developing 140 MW of new wind energy projects in the region. Certificates offer important benefits to both green power suppliers and buyers by reducing transaction barriers and thus lowering the cost of renewable energy. Buyers also benefit through the increased flexibility offered by certificate products. The experience described in this paper offers important insights for selling green power certificates and achieving new wind energy development in other areas of the country.

  2. Green Power Marketing - from Niches to Mass Markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf

    2000-01-01

    In the process of liberalization of the electricity market the customers are now in a position to participate in the decision on how their electricity is produced. In particular, many consumers have a preference for renewable energies. For the producers, marketing of 'eco-power' is an opportunity to achieve sustainable competitive advantage. However, the market share of these products is still quite small today, and 'eco-power' is usually marketed as an expensive niche product. From the perspective of sustainable development these niches are a necessary but not sufficient step. In this book, ways are discussed which could lead to a mass-market penetration of eco-power products. A theoretical analysis is combined with empirical evidence derived from the eco-power market in Germany, Switzerland, Great Britain and the U.S. as well as with a comparison with other market segments [de

  3. German "Soft power" Policies in the Muslim World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili R. Rustamova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a number of foreign policy concepts declared the importance of using the instruments of "soft power" to promote the national interests of a country. Soft power is the ability through political values, culture and foreign policy to influence others by forming attractiveness [18]. Germany is generally recognized as the leader in the resources of "soft power." The article discusses what kind of resources are deployed by Germany to increase its "soft power" in the Muslim direction of foreign policy. The Muslim world has its own specifics, which complicate the use of instruments of "soft power." Countries with large Muslim population are difficult to influence, as they differ from Europe in the civilizational respect, have their own customs and traditions which they strictly follow because of the nature of Muslim religion. The author notes that in the Muslim direction of foreign policy the problem for Germany lies in the fact that the formation of its attractiveness resulted in a significant flow of immigration of Muslims in the country. A part of immigrant Muslims tries to live isolated from European society, professes radical currents ofIslam and participates in military conflicts abroad, participation in which in the role of active player is ruled out by Germany. Failure to integrate them into German society and the lack of progress in the formation of its positive image in the Muslim countries resulted, on the one hand, in the split of German society, on the other hand, in the threat of absorption by foreign civilization, as it is observed now in Germany the presence of "soft power" of Muslim countries, which use its former and current citizens to influence German political course. The article was written within the constructivist methodology, which consider the "soft power" as a way of construction of social reality with the use of tangible and intangible resources for the formation of an attractive image of Germany in world

  4. How effective is greening policy in reducing GHG emissions from agriculture? Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solazzo, Roberto; Donati, Michele; Tomasi, Licia; Arfini, Filippo

    2016-12-15

    Agriculture contributes significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, accounting for more than 10% of total CO 2 emissions in the EU-28 area. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) plays an important role in promoting environmentally and climate friendly practices and needs to respond to the new environmental challenges by better integrating its objectives with other EU policies. In this respect, the recent CAP reform 2014-2020 made a further step, making a large part of direct payments conditional on new agricultural practices beneficial for the climate and the environment, i.e. "greening". In this study we estimate the potential environmental benefits from greening in terms of GHG emissions in four regions of Northern Italy, one of the major European agricultural areas in terms of emissions. The emissions were quantified and broken down into the three main GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) per production process. This information was subsequently used in a Positive Mathematical Programming (PMP) farm-based model on more than 3,000 farms, to estimate the effects of greening on regional land use and its contribution in reducing the total emissions. The new agri-environmental constraints produce a modest abatement of total emissions of greenhouse gases (-1.5%) in the analyzed area. The model estimates a reduction in CO 2 emissions of about 2%. Emissions from nitrous oxide show a decrease of 2.1% and the reduction in the methane is about 0.4% compared to the observed scenario. The process of "lightening" that affected the greening during the CAP negotiation has inevitably resulted in missing an opportunity to introduce a significant positive change of behaviour into agriculture, in line with the expectations and needs of society for EU agriculture as a provider of public goods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  6. Power Generation Technology Choice in the Presence of Climate Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Fredrik

    2005-01-01

    The overall purpose of this thesis is to analyze power generation technology choices in the presence of climate policy. Special attention is paid to the diffusion of renewable power technologies following a carbon pricing policy, and this topic is analyzed in two self-contained papers. The overall objective of paper 1 is to analyze how future investments in the Swedish power sector can be affected by carbon pricing policies following the Kyoto Protocol. In the first part we focus on the price of carbon following the Kyoto commitments and to what extent this policy will affect the relative competitiveness of the available investment alternatives. The second part pays attention to the possible impacts of technology learning - and the resulting cost decreases - on the economics of power generation in the presence of climate policy. The first part considers the majority of power generation technologies available in Sweden, while the second part focuses solely on the competition between combined cycle natural gas plants and the cheapest renewable power alternative, wind power. Methodologically, we approach the above issues from the perspective of a power generator who considers investing in new generation capacity. This implies that we first of all assess the lifetime engineering costs of different power generation technologies in Sweden, and analyze the impact of carbon pricing on the competitive cost position of these technologies under varying rate-of-return requirements. Overall the results indicate that in general it is not certain that compliance with the Kyoto commitments implies substantial increases in renewable power sources. If, therefore, renewable power sources are favored for reasons beyond climate policy additional policy instruments will be needed. The purpose of paper 2 is to analyze the costs for reducing CO 2 emissions in the power-generating sectors in Croatia, the European part of Russia, Macedonia, Serbia and the Ukraine in 2020 by using a linear

  7. A New Green Power Inverter for Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Klumpner, Christian; Kjær, Søren Bækhøj

    2002-01-01

    startup. The inverter is controlled as a power factor controller with resistor emulation.Experimental results of converter efficiency, grid performance and fuel cell response are shown for a 1 kW prototype. The proposed converter exhibits a high efficiency in a wide power range (higher than 92......This paper presents a new grid connected inverter for fuel cells. It consists of a two stage power conversion topology. Since the fuel cell operates with a low voltage in a wide voltage range (25 V-45 V) this volt- age must be transformed to around 350-400 V in order to invert this dc power into ac...... power to the grid. The proposed converter consists of an isolated dc-dc converter cascaded with a single phase H-bridge inverter. The dc-dc converter is a current-fed push-pull converter. A new dedicated voltage mode startup procedure has been developed in order to limit the inrush current during...

  8. Do green tech policies need to pass the consumer test? The case of ethanol fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collantes, Gustavo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates a question sometimes overlooked by policymakers and regulators, namely the need of a robust value proposition for green technologies to successfully enter the market. In particular, results from consumer choice models are used to develop measures of consumer acceptance of ethanol blends and flex-fuel vehicles is studied, a fuel-vehicle system that has received attention in a variety of federal and state policies. The analysis suggests that, under projected fuel prices and given the characteristics of the competing vehicle-fuel systems, consumers are unlikely to substitute ethanol blends for gasoline. The analysis also highlights the need for further research in this area. (author)

  9. Managing urban stormwater for urban sustainability: Barriers and policy solutions for green infrastructure application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Krishna P; Chevalier, Lizette R

    2017-12-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) revitalizes vegetation and soil, restores hydro-ecological processes destroyed by traditional urbanization, and naturally manages stormwater on-site, offering numerous sustainability benefits. However, despite being sustainable and despite being the object of unrelenting expert advocacy for more than two decades, GI implementation remains slow. On the other hand, the practice of traditional gray infrastructure, which is known to have significant adverse impacts on the environment, is still ubiquitous in urban areas throughout the world. This relationship between knowledge and practice seems unaccountable, which has not yet received adequate attention from academia, policy makers, or research communities. We deal with this problem in this paper. The specific objective of the paper is to explore the barriers to GI, and suggest policies that can both overcome these barriers and expedite implementation. By surveying the status of implementation in 10 US cities and assessing the relevant city, state and federal policies, we identified 29 barriers and grouped them into 5 categories. The findings show that most of the barriers stem from cognitive limitations and socio-institutional arrangements. Accordingly, we suggest 33 policies, also grouped into 5 categories, which span from conducting public education and awareness programs to changing policies and governance structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Knowledge, risk, and policy support: Public perceptions of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoutenborough, James W.; Sturgess, Shelbi G.; Vedlitz, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear energy was becoming increasingly popular as an alternative to air polluting fossil fuel technologies through the latter half of the 2000s. The tragic events of March 11, 2011 in Fukushima, Japan appear to have instantly killed any momentum the nuclear industry had gained. While unfortunate, many argue that nuclear power is still a safe alternative and that the Fukushima disaster resulted from insufficient safety regulations in Japan, a problem that does not exist in the United States. This project examines U.S. public support for nuclear energy one year after the Fukushima tragedy, seeking to understand the influence of knowledge and risk perceptions on policy support. We evaluate public support for nuclear energy policy from several perspectives using risk and attitudinal measurements that are more specific than often found in the literature to obtain a greater understanding of the connection between policy and risk. -- Highlights: •Paper evaluates US public support for nuclear energy1 year after Fukushima tragedy. •Attitudinal indicators are significant predictors of nuclear power policy support. •People more knowledgeable about energy issues are more supportive of nuclear energy. •Perceptions of risk exert varying influence on support for nuclear power. •Specific attitude and risk indicators permit nuanced insight into their influence

  11. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2013 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Belyeu, K.; Kuskova-Burns, K.

    2014-11-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. This report surveys utilities, competitive suppliers, renewable energy certificate (REC) marketers, and, for the first time, the community choice aggregation market. This report finds that the voluntary market totaled 62 million megawatt-hours in 2013. Approximately 5.4 million customers are purchasing green power. This report presents data and analysis on voluntary market sales and customer participation, products and premiums, green pricing marketing, and administrative expenses. The report also details trends in REC tracking systems, REC pricing in voluntary and compliance markets, community and crowd-funded solar, and interest in renewable energy by the information and communication technologies sector.

  12. Issuing certifications of conformity to 'green' power. International approaches and European perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truffer, B.; Markard, J.

    1999-01-01

    The deregulation of the power markets results in an increasing challenge to individual power generators and distributors to place their products in the market. To do so, they need to actively and credibly describe the advantages of their offers to customers. In the sector of the nascent market for power generated from renewable energy sources, independent product certification is an important factor of support. The article analyses international trends in certification procedures for green power with a view to the future of European labelling. (orig.) [de

  13. Renewable Energy Zones: Delivering Clean Power to Meet Demand, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, David; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2016-05-01

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document describes the renewable energy zone concept that has emerged as a transmission planning tool to help scale up the penetration of solar, wind, and other resources on the power system.

  14. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J.; Nicholas, T.

    2013-10-01

    Voluntary green power markets are those in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. These markets continued to exhibit growth and stimulate renewable energy development in 2012. This paper reviews the voluntary market and identifies market trends.

  15. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  16. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Hwa Meei, E-mail: liouhm@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: > Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.> There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.> In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.> In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.> Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  17. Words vs. deeds: Americans' energy concerns and implementation of green energy policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Garrett C.

    As the effects of climate change become increasingly clear, nations, international organizations, and corporations are working together to help mitigate these negative effects before they become irreversible. The United States, as the world's largest emitter per capita, has a responsibility to take quick and decisive action to decrease carbon emissions. And while an overwhelming majority of Americans believe that green energy policies are the right step forward, few have taken meaningful steps to actually implement these policies. Green and energy efficient technologies such as hybrid and electric cars, smart meters, and solar panels---technologies that would reduce our carbon footprint---are currently purchased or used by very few households. There is a clear gap between our words and deeds. Using the University of Texas at Austin Energy Poll dataset, this paper examines this gap and analyzes how income may influence what people say, versus how they act, seeking to better understand how income influences peoples' energy behaviors. Previous literature suggests that income has proven to be an inconsistent measure of concern for energy use. Through two OLS models, this paper finds that income is negatively correlated with Americans' concern for energy usage, while finding that there is a positive correlation between income and Americans' implementation of energy efficient technologies. Further, there is a nonlinear relationship between income groups and how Americans both think about their energy usage and actually implement more energy efficient measures.

  18. Wind power in Argentina: Policy instruments and economic feasibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recalde, M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite its great wind endowment, Argentina has not still succeeded in increasing wind power share in its wholesale market. However, the energy supply problem that this country is facing from 2004 on seems to open an opportunity for wind energy projects. A wide range of legislation has recently emerged. In this context, this paper discusses whether policy instruments in the Argentinean regulatory frame contribute to economic feasibility for wind power projects or not. To this purpose, we study wind installed capacity, Argentinean wind potential, the different promotion tools used worldwide and those employed in Argentina. Finally, we realize a feasibility study for a typical project. We found, that in spite of its high wind potential, economic feature, related to policy instruments, have been a boundary to the development of wind energy into the energy mix. (author)

  19. Decommissioning nuclear power plants. Policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The decommissioning of nuclear power plants is a topic of increasing interest to governments and the industry as many nuclear units approach retirement. It is important in this context to assess decommissioning costs and to ensure that adequate funds are set aside to meet future financial liabilities arising after nuclear power plants are shut down. Furthermore, understanding how national policies and industrial strategies affect those costs is essential for ensuring the overall economic effectiveness of the nuclear energy sector. This report, based upon data provided by 26 countries and analysed by government and industry experts, covers a variety of reactor types and sizes. The findings on decommissioning cost elements and driving factors in their variance will be of interest to analysts and policy makers in the nuclear energy field. (author)

  20. Gas to Power in China. Gas-fired Power in China. Clearing the policy bottleneck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xavier

    2005-12-01

    Policy for gas-fired power is the single most serious and common issue that needs urgent resolution for all China's current and future gas projects, including LNG projects. This was the main conclusion of a national seminar on gas industry development policy that was held in July 2004. At the time of writing this paper, such a policy is still missing. In order to reduce pollution, improve energy security and meet the needs of the ever-growing economy for high-quality energies, the Chinese government has declared its firm intention to develop a natural gas market. The official target is to develop a gas market of 200 bcm/a by 2020, five times of the current size of around 40 bcm/a. Domestic supply is expected to provide 120 bcm/a, with the rest (80 bcm/a) by gas imports either in the form of piped gas or LNG. Gas-fired power generation plays a critical role in developing a sizeable gas market, especially for large-scale pipeline and LNG projects. Similar to the Guangdong and Fujian LNG projects where gas-fired power accounts for approximately 60% and 70% respectively of the first phase gas volume, each of the proposed LNG projects has allocated a large portion of the gas off-take volume to the power sector. In addition to the first two commercial CCGT plants that were commissioned in 2005, there are over 20 projects totalling 18 GW of capacity under construction. By 2020, China's planners foresee a total gas-fired power capacity of 60 GW, accounting for around 6% of the total installed capacity in the country. Despite these impressive projections, gas-fired power faces significant uncertainties in China: (1) there is an ongoing debate on whether China should develop gas-fired power, given the relative scarcity and higher cost of gas; (2) high gas prices and imported equipment limit the competitiveness of gas-fired power relative to a coal-fired one; (3) it lacks policy support. For the moment, gas-fired power plants are required to participate in a yet

  1. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2012 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeter, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nicholas, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  2. Status and Trends in the U.S. Voluntary Green Power Market (2016 Data)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heeter, Jenny [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cook, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Volpi, Christina [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The "voluntary" or "green power" market is that in which consumers and institutions voluntarily purchase renewable energy to match all or part of their electricity needs. Voluntary action provides a revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raises consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. There are numerous ways consumers and institutions can purchase renewable energy. Historically, the voluntary market has consisted of three market sectors: (1) utility green pricing programs (in states with regulated electricity markets), (2) competitive suppliers (in states with restructured electricity markets), and (3) unbundled renewable electricity certificate (REC) markets, where RECs are purchased by consumers separately from electricity ("unbundled").

  3. High energy, high average power solid state green or UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Norton, Mary; Dane, C. Brent

    2004-03-02

    A system for producing a green or UV output beam for illuminating a large area with relatively high beam fluence. A Nd:glass laser produces a near-infrared output by means of an oscillator that generates a high quality but low power output and then multi-pass through and amplification in a zig-zag slab amplifier and wavefront correction in a phase conjugator at the midway point of the multi-pass amplification. The green or UV output is generated by means of conversion crystals that follow final propagation through the zig-zag slab amplifier.

  4. REALIZATIONS OF THE MUNICIPAL ECOLOGICAL POLICY: PROTECTION OF GREEN FUND OF THE CITY USING GIS-TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Morozova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Formation of legal documents for preservation of green fund of the city of Khabarovsk as a component of a municipal ecological policy is considered. The GIS ‘Green plantings of Khabarovsk’ is developed for information support of acceptance of administrative decisions in green building, storage of the information on city’s green fund, management of the planted trees and shrubs territories of city district. GIS is created in the environment of GIS MapInfo 7.5 Rus. It consists of a set of the vector cartographical layers characterising gardening of a city, created on base a raster topographical basis of scale 1:500. GIS is based on data of inventory of green plantings (2002–2014.

  5. Current status and analysis of renewable promotional policies in Indian restructured power sector - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randhir; Sood, Yog Raj

    2011-01-01

    Restructuring has changed the traditional mission and mandates of power utilities in complex ways, and had large impacts on environmental, social, and political conditions for any particular country. At the same time, new regulatory approaches are being found for reducing environmental impacts in restructured power sectors. India has a vast supply of renewable energy resources, and it has one of the largest programs in the world for deploying renewable energy based products and systems. So this paper attempts to review the various policies and measures undertaken by Indian government for promotion of renewable energy. The aim of this paper is also to review the current policy mechanisms, especially investment- or generation-based price-driven and capacity-driven mechanisms, ranging from investment incentives for the development of renewable energy projects, feed-in tariffs, production tax incentives, tradable green certificates, and their effects upon the prospects of encouraging as well as expanding the development of renewable energy in Indian restructured power sector. This will make renewable more attractive in the Indian future electricity market. (author)

  6. Energy Market Impacts of Nuclear Power Phase-Out Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-01-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  7. Energy market impacts of nuclear power phase-out policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glomsroed, Solveig; Taoyuan, Wei; Mideksa, Torben; Samset, Bjoern H.

    2013-03-01

    After the Fukushima disaster in March 2011 safety concerns have escalated and policies towards nuclear power are being reconsidered in several countries. This article presents a study of the effect of nuclear power phase-out on regional electricity prices. We consider 4 scenarios with various levels of ambition to scale down the nuclear industry using a multiple region, multiple sector global general equilibrium model. Non-nuclear power production follows the New Policies scenario of the World Energy Outlook (IEA, 2010). Phase-out in Germany and Switzerland increases electricity prices of OECD-Europe moderately by 2-3 per cent early on to 4-5 per cent by 2035 if transmission capacity within the region is sufficient. If all regions shut down old plants built before 2011, North America, OECD-Europe and Japan face increasing electricity prices in the range of 23-28 per cent in 2035. These price increases illustrate the incentives for further investments in renewable electricity or improved technologies in nuclear power production. (Author)

  8. [The green rural economy: challenges to research and to public health policies posed by agricultural modernization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotto, Raquel Maria; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Marinho, Alice Maria Correia Pequeno; Rocha, Mayara Melo; Ferreira, Marcelo José Monteiro; Pessoa, Vanira Matos; Teixeira, Ana Cláudia de Araújo; da Silva, Maria de Lourdes Vicente; Braga, Lara de Queiroz Viana; Teixeira, Maiana Maia

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we ask ourselves who should, can and has the will to promote health in the rural zone today. The fields of science and public policy were chosen as our primary focus of dialogue conducted from the perspective of the right to health and a healthy environment. Seven lessons emerged: (1) in addition to the surveillance of isolated chemical risks, the relation between agrochemicals and health should be investigated in the context of conservative agricultural modernization; (2) it is mandatory and urgent to discover the health problems related to the use of agrochemicals; (3) the State has been successful in its support of agribusiness, but highly inefficient at enforcing policies to safeguard social rights; (4) sectors of society linked to rural organizations have played an important role in the public policies combating agrochemicals and protecting health; (5) studies must help deconstruct the myths surrounding the Green Revolution model; (6) we are faced with the challenge of contributing to the construction of an emerging scientific paradigm founded on an ethical-political commitment to the most vulnerable social elements; (7) rural communities are creating agro-ecological alternatives for life in semiarid areas.

  9. When should green technology support policies supplement the carbon price? The case of the electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecuyer, Oskar

    2013-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the literature on optimal policy choice. It studies the use of policy combinations to mitigate greenhouse gases emissions from electricity production. One finding applies to cases where uncertainty is such that the risk of a nil carbon price cannot be excluded. A cap on emissions alone may then not trigger enough abatements, justifying the addition of e.g. a renewable subsidy. When considering a transition toward a carbon free electricity sector, capital accumulation causes complex dynamic effects to happen. We find that decisions taken by comparing the leveled costs of abatement technologies, even including carbon costs, would favor intermediate technologies (e.g. gas plants) to the detriment of more-expensive but lower-carbon technologies (renewable power), leading to a suboptimal investment schedule. This thesis also studies the effects of marginal policy changes in a mix comprising the main French instruments. We find that surprisingly, adding a tariff for renewables financed by a tax on electricity consumption to a cap on emissions and a subsidy for energy efficiency will reduce the consumer electricity price when the non-renewable production is fixed and does not depend on the carbon price. The assessment of the French climate policies in the electricity sector shows that overlapping policies for mitigation may be justified by multiple carbon price failures, even if the ideal long-term policy mix depends on the carbon price trajectory. (author)

  10. The role of bureaucratic expertise in nuclear waste policy: Agency power and policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henkels, M.

    1989-01-01

    The role of agency expertise in the nuclear waste policy process is explored during three periods: (1) 1957-1959 when nuclear wastes entered the public agenda, (2) 1970-1972 when the Atomic Energy Commission attempted to establish a waste repository in Kansas, and (3) 1984-1986 during the Department of Energy's implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The study evaluated whether the preconditions for dependence on or deference to agency expertise have become less favorable, weakening agency control of the policy process. Five factors of expertise power are evaluated, beginning with the agency's role in the nuclear-energy and radioactive-waste information system. Perspectives on nuclear energy generally and of waste issues specifically are examined next; both indicate attitudes on the tractability of the problem and the likelihood of policy success. References to agency behavior and policies are used to evaluate views of agency competency. Finally, views of agency trustworthiness are examined through the comparison of portrayals of agency priorities and motivations. Agency expertise is evaluated in four contexts: (1) Congressional hearings, (2) nationally prominent newspapers, (3) journals of the scientific community, and (4) state and local papers of affected areas. State and tribal officials involved in the 1980s' nuclear waste policy process were surveyed also

  11. green

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The “green” topic follows the “youngsters”, which is quite natural for the Russian language.Traditionally these words put together sound slightly derogatory. However, “green” also means fresh, new and healthy.For Russia, and for Siberia in particular, “green” architecture does sound new and fresh. Forced by the anxious reality, we are addressing this topic intentionally. The ecological crisis, growing energy prices, water, air and food deficits… Alexander Rappaport, our regular author, writes: “ It has been tolerable until a certain time, but under transition to the global civilization, as the nature is destroyed, and swellings of megapolises expand incredibly fast, the size and the significance of all these problems may grow a hundredfold”.However, for this very severe Siberian reality the newness of “green” architecture may turn out to be well-forgotten old. A traditional Siberian house used to be built on principles of saving and environmental friendliness– one could not survive in Siberia otherwise.Probably, in our turbulent times, it is high time to fasten “green belts”. But we should keep from enthusiastic sticking of popular green labels or repainting of signboards into green color. We should avoid being drowned in paper formalities under “green” slogans. And we should prevent the Earth from turning into the planet “Kin-dza-dza”.

  12. Decommissioning of nuclear power plants: policies, strategies and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, I.

    2004-01-01

    As many nuclear power plants will reach the end of their lifetime during the next 20 years or so, decommissioning is an increasingly important topic for governments, regulators and industries. From a governmental viewpoint, particularly in a deregulated market, one essential aspect is to ensure that money for the decommissioning of nuclear installations will be available at the time it is needed, and that no 'stranded' liabilities will be left to be financed by the taxpayers rather than by the electricity consumers. For this reason, there is governmental interest in understanding decommissioning costs, and in periodically reviewing decommissioning cost estimates from nuclear installation owners. Robust cost estimates are key elements in designing and implementing a coherent and comprehensive national decommissioning policy including the legal and regulatory bases for the collection, saving and use of decommissioning funds. From the industry viewpoint, it is essential to assess and monitor decommissioning costs in order to develop a coherent decommissioning strategy that reflects national policy and assures worker and public safety, whilst also being cost effective. For these reasons, nuclear power plant owners are interested in understanding decommissioning costs as best as possible and in identifying major cost drivers, whether they be policy, strategy or 'physical' in nature. National policy considerations will guide the development of national regulations that are relevant for decommissioning activities. Following these policies and regulations, industrial managers responsible for decommissioning activities will develop strategies which best suit their needs, while appropriately meeting all government requirements. Decommissioning costs will be determined by technical and economic conditions, as well as by the strategy adopted. Against this backdrop, the study analyses the relationships among decommissioning policy as developed by governments, decommissioning

  13. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  14. The nuclear power option in the Italian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Nucci, M.R.

    2006-01-01

    Italy took a pioneering role in the early development of nuclear power. This source of energy should have provided the answer to the lack of domestic fossil resources. Due to the cheap oil prices, the influence of the state hydrocarbons company ENI and an influential petroleum lobby, following the nationalisation of the electricity sector in the early sixties, the nuclear option was no longer consequently pursued. Italy became heavily dependent on imported oil. Although in the period 1974-1975 an intensive nuclear power development programme was launched, the share of nuclear power remained marginal. In the aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster and following the referendum phasing out nuclear power in 1987, the national energy policy was newly defined. Our analysis will follow the customary practice to subdivide the Italian nuclear power development into three phases: the pioneering years till the mid-1960s; the period between 1966 and 1987 and the post-Chernobyl phase. We discuss the early phase at a certain length, since it is symptomatic of the way in Italy technological and industrial matters are dealt with and well illustrates the alliance games and behaviour of still existing market players. Although disputes about the alleged advantages of nuclear power are revived with certain regularity and are justified with arguments such as climate change and dependence on imported fuel, we argue that a return to nuclear power in Italy is not foreseeable. Nonetheless, the country cannot be considered a nuclear-free area. Nuclear wastes still play a disquieting role and imported electricity is generated also by nuclear power. Moreover, another tendency has set through. Due to a large liquidity provided by the mandated divestments in the framework of the liberalisation of the electricity market, the previous monopolist ENEL is heavily investing in generating capacities, including stakes in nuclear plants abroad, especially in new EU countries. (author)

  15. Policy learning in the Eurozone crisis: modes, power and functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Claire A; Radaelli, Claudio M

    In response to the attacks on the sovereign debt of some Eurozone countries, European Union (EU) leaders have created a set of preventive and corrective policy instruments to coordinate macro-economic policies and reforms. In this article, we deal with the European Semester, a cycle of information exchange, monitoring and surveillance. Countries that deviate from the targets are subjected to increasing monitoring and more severe 'corrective' interventions, in a pyramid of responsive exchanges between governments and EU institutions. This is supposed to generate coordination and convergence towards balanced economies via mechanisms of learning. But who is learning what? Can the EU learn in the 'wrong' mode? We contribute to the literature on theories of the policy process by showing how modes of learning can be operationalized and used in empirical analysis. We use policy learning as theoretical framework to establish empirically the prevalent mode of learning and its implications for both the power of the Commission and the normative question of whether the EU is learning in the 'correct' mode.

  16. Adoption of green electricity policies: Investigating the role of environmental attitudes via big data-driven search-queries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Kim, Minki; Lee, Jungyoun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the rising influence of public opinion on government energy policy formulation and implementation, the roles of pro and/or anti-environmental attitudes among residents have not been empirically examined. To quantify time-varying environmental attitudes among local residents, we exploit geo-specific Google search-query data derived from Internet-based “big data” and verify through ordinary least squares regression outcomes regarding environmental behavior. For the purpose of drawing policy implications, we revisit decisions by state governments of the United States to adopt three well-known green electricity policies: renewable energy portfolio, net metering rules, and public benefit funds. As some states have not yet adopted some (or any) of these policies, unlike previous studies, we handle the issue by examining right-censored data and applying a duration-based econometric method called the accelerated failure time model. We found state residents’ environmental attitudes to have statistically significant roles, after controlling for other traditional time-varying policy adoption factors. Interestingly, the extent to which anti-environmental attitudes affect a state’s policy adoption differs across green energy policies, and knowing this can help a local government formulate better-tailored environmental policy. In particular, researchers can use our method of incorporating citizens’ environmental attitudes to discuss relevant issues in the field of energy policy.

  17. Yukon's green power initiative and support for wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, D. [Yukon Development Corp., Whitehorse, YK (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Yukon's green power initiative is aimed at increasing the production and sale of small-scale renewable energy to meet the requirements of communities and industry while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The territorial government has created a 10 year, $5 million investment fund including wind research and development. The objective is to replace diesel production and reduce emissions, provide consumers with green power options and improve the cost-effectiveness and long-term competitiveness. Targeted measures led by the Yukon Energy Corporation include: a commercial scale wind installation at Haeckel Hill near Whitehorse; a community wind resource assessment program; pilot and demonstration projects; technical capacity building; and, joint ventures with Yukon First Nations. The utility is providing leadership by allowing access to electricity markets through the generation of franchises and by providing flexible financing through corporate investment led by Yukon Development Corporation. 1 fig.

  18. Green Propellant Demonstration with Hydrazine Catalyst of F-16 Emergency Power Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Joel W.; Brechbill, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Some space vehicle and aircraft Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) use hydrazine propellant for generating power. Hydrazine is a toxic, hazardous fuel which requires special safety equipment and processes for handling and loading. In recent years, there has been development of two green propellants that could enable their use in APU's: the Swedish LMP-103S and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) AF-M315E. While there has been work on development of these propellants for thruster applications (Prisma and Green Propulsion Infusion Mission, respectively), there has been less focus on the application to power units. Beginning in 2012, an effort was started by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on the APU application. The MSFC plan was to demonstrate green propellants with residual Space Shuttle hardware. The principal investigator was able to acquire a Solid Rocket Booster gas generator and an Orbiter APU. Since these test assets were limited in number, an Air Force equivalent asset was identified: the F-16 Emergency Power Unit (EPU). In June 2013, two EPU's were acquired from retired aircraft located at Davis Monthan Air Force Base. A gas generator from one of these EPU's was taken out of an assembly and configured for testing with a version of the USAF propellant with a higher water content (AF-M315EM) to reduce decomposition temperatures. Testing in November 2014 has shown that this green propellant is reactive with the Hydrazine catalyst (Shell 405) generating 300 psi of pressure with the existing F-16 EPU configuration. This paper will highlight the results of MSFC testing in collaboration with AFRL.

  19. STATE POLICY FUNDAMENTALS IN FORMATION OF A NATIONAL STANDARD OF "GREEN CONSTRUCTION" FOR ASSESSMENT OF ITEMS OF REAL PROPERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolchigin Mikhail Aleksandrovich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze the problem of implementation of principles of "green construction" in the Russian Federation. Despite the availability of the appropriate legislation in the field of environmental safety of construction, there are no legal, social, or economic incentives that may boost development of "green" technologies. Until recently, fundamentals of the state policy in the field of environmental protection of real estate development have not succeeded in motivating market players to implement advanced green technologies. However, recently, the government has begun motivating the construction industry towards the use of "green" technologies. The first activity is aimed at improving the legislation and updating the international voluntary certification according to BREAM and LEED standards. The result is the acceptance of the National Green Building Standard for real estate valuation that will open up new opportunities and prospects to the participants of the construction market. However, at the initial phase of implementation of "Fundamentals of the State Policy in the Field of Environmental Development of the Russian Federation", government authorities should provide their support to proponents of green buildings, including financial inflows.

  20. Policies for closing down nuclear power plants. A Spanish review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Olmo, G.A.

    2000-01-01

    A review of policies concerned with closing down the Spanish nuclear power plants is described, together with the role of Spanish Group of Municipalities affected by NPPs (AMAC) since its establishment in 1988. Currently there are 9 nuclear reactors operating in seven cities, contributing to the national network bu 39.3% of gross power generation, and one reactor dismantled after the accident in Vandellos in 1989. The main objectives of AMAC activity are concerned with security, economic development and transparency. It has an important role in improvement of the quality of life of the population in municipalities with operating NPPs. It is involved in solving the problems related to radioactive waste management and disposal

  1. Multiplex Superconducting Transmission Line for green power consolidation on a Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, P.; Gerity, J.; Kellams, J.; Sattarov, A.

    2017-12-01

    A multiplex superconducting transmission line (MSTL) is being developed for applications requiring interconnection of multi-MW electric power generation among a number of locations. MSTL consists of a cluster of many 2- or 3-conductor transmission lines within a coaxial cryostat envelope. Each line operates autonomously, so that the interconnection of multiple power loads can be done in a failure-tolerant network. Specifics of the electrical, mechanical, and cryogenic design are presented. The consolidation of transformation and conditioning and the failure-tolerant interconnects have the potential to offer important benefit for the green energy components of a Smart Grid.

  2. Decision Network for Blue Green Solutions to Influence Policy Impact Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijic, A.; Theodoropoulos, G.; El Hattab, M. H.; Brown, K.

    2017-12-01

    Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) deliver ecosystems services that can potentially yield multiple benefits to the urban environment. These benefits can be achieved through optimising SUDS' integration with the local environment and water resources, creating so-called Blue Green Solutions (BGS). The BGS paradigm, however, presents several challenges, in particular quantifying the benefits and creating the scientific evidence-base that can persuade high-level decision-makers and stakeholders to implement BGS at large scale. This work presents the development of the easily implemented and tailored-made approach that allows a robust assessment of the BGS co-benefits, and can influence the types of information that are included in policy impact assessments. The Analytic Network Process approach is used to synthesise the available evidence on the co-benefits of the BGS. The approach enables mapping the interactions between individual BGS selection criteria, and creates a platform to assess the synergetic benefits that arise from components interactions. By working with Government departments and other public and private sector stakeholders, this work has produced a simple decision criteria-based network that will enable the co-benefits and trade-offs of BGS to be quantified and integrated into UK policy appraisals.

  3. Toward a New U.S. Chemicals Policy: Rebuilding the Foundation to Advance New Science, Green Chemistry, and Environmental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael P.; Schwarzman, Megan R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We describe fundamental weaknesses in U.S. chemicals policy, present principles of chemicals policy reform, and articulate interdisciplinary research questions that should be addressed. With global chemical production projected to double over the next 24 years, federal policies that shape the priorities of the U.S. chemical enterprise will be a cornerstone of sustainability. To date, these policies have largely failed to adequately protect public health or the environment or motivate investment in or scientific exploration of cleaner chemical technologies, known collectively as green chemistry. On this trajectory, the United States will face growing health, environmental, and economic problems related to chemical exposures and pollution. Conclusions Existing policies have produced a U.S. chemicals market in which the safety of chemicals for human health and the environment is undervalued relative to chemical function, price, and performance. This market barrier to green chemistry is primarily a consequence of weaknesses in the Toxic Substances Control Act. These weaknesses have produced a chemical data gap, because producers are not required to investigate and disclose sufficient information on chemicals’ hazard traits to government, businesses that use chemicals, or the public; a safety gap, because government lacks the legal tools it needs to efficiently identify, prioritize, and take action to mitigate the potential health and environmental effects of hazardous chemicals; and a technology gap, because industry and government have invested only marginally in green chemistry research, development, and education. Policy reforms that close the three gaps—creating transparency and accountability in the market—are crucial for improving public and environmental health and reducing the barriers to green chemistry. The European Union’s REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals) regulation has opened an opportunity for

  4. Wind power policy: Issues and challenges in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, C.J. [TMES Institute of Business Management and Computer Studies, Mandvi, Gujarat (India); Mistry, S.H. [C. K. Pithawalla Institute of Management, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    The energy policy of India is much concerned with the country's ever increasing energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of country's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels. Our nation is heavily dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands. It is estimated that by 2030; India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. So, renewable energy usage can be sustainable alternative to country's energy demand. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market. To promote the usage of wind energy, government have declared tax incentives and other incentives but still the most of the estimated wind potential is not realized for energy need of country. In this paper author tries to identify the issues and challenges for promotion of wind power promotion in India and will suggest for the correction in the existing energy policy. (Author)

  5. 76 FR 54751 - Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing With the Commission, Intent To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Green Power, LLC. e. Name of Project: Cargill Falls Hydropower Project. f. Location: On the Quinebaug.... Project description: The Cargill Falls Project would consist of: (1) Two existing concrete gravity dams...

  6. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  7. A Location Selection Policy of Live Virtual Machine Migration for Power Saving and Load Balancing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA. This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  8. A location selection policy of live virtual machine migration for power saving and load balancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jia; Ding, Yan; Xu, Gaochao; Hu, Liang; Dong, Yushuang; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-01-01

    Green cloud data center has become a research hotspot of virtualized cloud computing architecture. And load balancing has also been one of the most important goals in cloud data centers. Since live virtual machine (VM) migration technology is widely used and studied in cloud computing, we have focused on location selection (migration policy) of live VM migration for power saving and load balancing. We propose a novel approach MOGA-LS, which is a heuristic and self-adaptive multiobjective optimization algorithm based on the improved genetic algorithm (GA). This paper has presented the specific design and implementation of MOGA-LS such as the design of the genetic operators, fitness values, and elitism. We have introduced the Pareto dominance theory and the simulated annealing (SA) idea into MOGA-LS and have presented the specific process to get the final solution, and thus, the whole approach achieves a long-term efficient optimization for power saving and load balancing. The experimental results demonstrate that MOGA-LS evidently reduces the total incremental power consumption and better protects the performance of VM migration and achieves the balancing of system load compared with the existing research. It makes the result of live VM migration more high-effective and meaningful.

  9. Evolution of China's power dispatch principle and the new energy saving power dispatch policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciwei, Gao; Yang, Li

    2010-01-01

    With social economic reform in the past decades, the power industry of China is gradually evolving from a highly integrated one toward an electricity market, which can be characterized based on the transition of the power dispatch principle. To attract investment in the power generating industry, China introduced non-state-owned power plants to the original system of a highly vertically integrated power industry with annual power generation quota guarantees, which makes the traditional economic dispatch principle not applicable. The newly debuted energy saving power dispatch (ESPD) is an attempt to fully exploit the maximum energy savings and was implemented by an administrative code. Starting in August 2007, the pilot operation of the ESPD was implemented in five provinces, but after two years, it is still not widely applied all over the country. This paper details the transition of China's power dispatch principle with particular attention to its origin and content. Moreover, the factors that influence the ESPD's actual energy saving effect are discussed, as well as the sustainability of the policy. (author)

  10. Feasibility Study of Cargo Airship Transportation Systems Powered by New Green Energy Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jonathan R.; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Hyun Jung; Seaman, Shane T.; King, Glen C.; Choi, Sang H.; Song, Kyo D.; Yoon, Hargsoon; Lee, Kunik

    2014-01-01

    The development of transportation systems that use new and sustainable energy technologies is of utmost importance due to the possible future shortfalls that current transportation modes will encounter because of increased volume and costs. The introduction and further research and development of new transportation and energy systems by materials researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Department of Transportation are discussed in this Technical Memorandum. In this preliminary study, airship concepts were assessed for cargo transportation using various green energy technologies capable of 24-hour operation (i.e., night and day). Two prototype airships were successfully constructed and tested at LaRC to demonstrate their feasibility: one with commercially available solar cells for operation during the daytime and one with microwave rectennas (i.e., rectifying antennas) developed in-house for night-time operation. The test results indicate the feasibility of a cargo transportation airship powered by new green energy sources and wireless power technology. Future applications will exploit new green energy sources that use materials and devices recently developed or are in the process of being developed at LaRC. These include quantum well SiGe solar cells; low, mid-, and high temperature thermoelectric modules; and wireless microwave and optical rectenna devices. This study examines the need and development of new energy sources for transportation, including the current status of research, materials, and potential applications.

  11. Public and private attitudes towards 'green' electricity: the case of Swedish wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, Kristina

    2005-01-01

    There exists a political goal in Sweden and elsewhere to increase the use of renewable energy and wind power seems to be a favourable choice from an environmental perspective. However, although the public generally expresses a positive attitude towards wind power, the experience often shows that specific wind power projects face resistance from the local population. This paper analyses the attitudes towards wind power among the electricity consumers as well as the foundations of these attitudes. Results are based on a postal survey that was sent out to 1000 Swedish house owners. According to the results, the public is generally positive towards wind power. The probability of finding an average individual in support of wind power decreases with age and income. People with an interest in environmental issues are, however, more likely to be positive towards wind power than the average respondent and the results do not support the NIMBY-hypothesis. In addition, people that are more inclined to express public preferences are also more likely to be positive towards wind electricity than people who are less inclined to do so. These results imply, for instance, that the potential of markets for 'green' electricity may be limited, other support schemes is thus required if the politically stated goal to increase wind power capacity is to be fulfilled

  12. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  13. Policy integration and public involvement in the local policy process: lessons from local green planning in the Netherland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Agenda 21 explicitly recommends the use of existing planning experience when drawing up sustainable development strategies. Many local authorities all over the world have gained experience with so-called green planning, and green plans were already addressing the escalating environmental problems

  14. 77 FR 17472 - Putnam Green Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ... Power, LLC; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's regulations, 18 CFR Part 380... from licensing for the Cargill Falls Hydroelectric Project, to be located on the Quinebaug River, in...

  15. Power generation from thermoelectric system-embedded Plexiglas for green building technology

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-06-09

    Thermoelectric materials embedded through or inside exterior glass windows can act as a viable source of supplemental power in geographic locations where hot weather dominates. This thermoelectricity is generated because of the thermal difference between the high temperature outside and the relatively cold temperature inside. Using physical vapor deposition process, we experimentally verify this concept by embedding bismuth telluride and antimony telluride through the 5 mm Plexiglas to demonstrate 10 nW of thermopower generation with a temperature gradient of 21 °C. Albeit tiny at this point with non-optimized design and development, this concept can be extended for relatively large-scale power generation as an additional power supply for green building technology.

  16. Sustainable Development Plan for Korea through Expansion of Green IT: Policy Issues for the Effective Utilization of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Baek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government is providing full support for green IT as one of the growth engines of Korea. The purpose of this study is to derive policy issues needed for the sustainable development of Korea through utilizing Big Data by applying green IT. The analysis is done using a Delphi technique. Results show that the establishment of computing platforms that can easily share data and generate value is prioritized for the effective use of Big Data from the environment. In addition, the government-led publication of genetic information and electronic medical records for research purposes has been derived as an important policy issue for the use of bio-Big Data. Besides, a guideline concerning the standardization of machine to machine and Internet of Things communication and data security is needed to effectively use Big Data from machines/things. Moreover, a review of legislation related to the utilization of Big Data from digital media has been derived as an important policy issue. The results of this study propose the direction in which the Korean government should move for green growth through effective utilization of Big Data. The results can be also useful resources for establishing relevant policies for various countries that are accelerating sustainable development.

  17. Green laser pointers for visual astronomy: how much power is enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bará, Salvador; Robles, Marisol; Tejelo, Isabel; Marzoa, Ramón I; González, Héctor

    2010-02-01

    Green laser pointers with output powers in the tens to hundreds of milliwatt (mW) range, clearly exceeding the limiting 5 mW of American National Standards Institute class 3a (International Electrotechnical Commission class 3R), are now easily available in the global market. They are increasingly being used in public sky observations and other nighttime outreach activities by educators and science communicators in countries where their use is not well regulated, despite the fact that such high power levels may represent a potential threat to visual health. The purpose of this study was to determine the output power reasonably required to perform satisfactorily this kind of activities. Twenty-three observers were asked to vary continuously the output power of a green laser source (wavelength 532 nm) until clearly seeing the laser beam propagating skyward through the atmosphere in a heavily light-polluted urban setting. Measurements were conducted with observers of a wide range of ages (9 to 56 years), refractions (spherical equivalents -8.50 to +1.50 diopters), and previous expertise in using lasers as pointing devices outdoors (from no experience to professional astronomers). Two measurement runs were made in different nights under different meteorological conditions. The output power chosen by observers in the first run (11 observers) averaged to 1.84 mW (+/-0.68 mW, 1 SD). The second run (17 observers) averaged to 2.91 mW (+/-1.54 mW). The global average was 2.38 mW (+/-1.30 mW). Only one observer scored 5.6 mW, just above the class 3a limit. The power chosen by the remaining 22 observers ranged from 1.37 to 3.53 mW. Green laser pointers with output powers below 5 mW (laser classes American National Standards Institute 3a or International Electrotechnical Commission 3R) appear to be sufficient for use in educational nighttime outdoors activities, providing enough bright beams at reasonable safety levels.

  18. Are powerful females powerful enough? Acceleration in gravid green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scales, Jeffrey; Butler, Marguerite

    2007-08-01

    One demand placed exclusively on the musculoskeletal system of females is maintaining locomotor performance with an increasing load over the reproductive cycle. Here, we examine whether gravid (i.e., "pregnant") iguanas can increase their force and power production to support, stabilize, and accelerate the additional mass of a clutch of eggs. At any acceleration, gravid iguanas produced very high mechanical power (average total power = 673 w/kg; total peak power = 1175 w/kg). While the increase in total power was partly a result of greater propulsive power (average propulsive power = 25% higher, peak propulsive power = 38% higher), increased vertical power (roughly 200% increase) was the main contributor. Gravid iguanas were also able to increase peak forces (propulsive = 23%, mediolateral = 44%, vertical = 42%), and step duration (44%) resulting in greater impulses (i.e., the sum of force produced during a step) to accelerate, balance, and support their increased mass. The increase in step duration and smaller increase in peak propulsive force suggests that gravid iguanas may be force-limited in the direction of motion. We discuss how biomechanical constraints due to females' reproductive role may influence the evolution of the female musculoskeletal systems and contribute to the evolution and maintenance of ecological dimorphism in lizards.

  19. Towards the Development of Low Power Arcjet for Use with Green Propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Trevor M.

    2017-01-01

    Conventional arcjet propellants are hydrazine and ammonia. Both are toxic and environmentally unfriendly, requiring the use of complicated handling logistics and increased cost. If successfully demonstrated in arcjets, the use of green propellants would alleviate these issues. This paper details improvements made to the design of a low-power arcjet to be used in testing. Diagnostic tools to be used to assess thruster performance were also developed. These include emission spectroscopy for the detection of thruster insulator erosion and a two-cord heterodyne laser interferometer to measure electron number densities and estimate the exit velocity of the propellant.

  20. A Study on Green Shipping in Major Countries: In the View of Shipyards, Shipping Companies, Ports, and Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehee Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to define green shipping and eco-friendly vessels and identify the regulations and current market situation regarding eco-friendly vessels in major countries such as Europe, United States, Japan, China and South Korea within the framework of shipping companies, shipyards, ports, and policies. This conceptual study defines and analyzes the current market situation of green shipping based on the previous literatures as well as the cases of each stakeholder in major countries. As the results, this study identifies six major problems and proposes countermeasures to enhance strategic plans in preparation for green shipping in South Korea. The countermeasures are 1 the establishment of a shipping–shipbuilding collaborative network, 2 information sharing and joint cost reduction for shipping and shipbuilding industry, 3 investment in R&D in eco-friendly vessels by shipbuilding industry, 4 expanded support for LNG fueled ship.

  1. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  2. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  3. Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhoulu Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments.

  4. Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhoulu; Wang, Yaohui; Deng, Jinsong; Shen, Zhangquan; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jinxia; Gan, Muye

    2017-01-01

    Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments. PMID:28587309

  5. Dynamics of Hierarchical Urban Green Space Patches and Implications for Management Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhoulu; Wang, Yaohui; Deng, Jinsong; Shen, Zhangquan; Wang, Ke; Zhu, Jinxia; Gan, Muye

    2017-06-06

    Accurately quantifying the variation of urban green space is the prerequisite for fully understanding its ecosystem services. However, knowledge about the spatiotemporal dynamics of urban green space is still insufficient due to multiple challenges that remain in mapping green spaces within heterogeneous urban environments. This paper uses the city of Hangzhou to demonstrate an analysis methodology that integrates sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis to fully investigate the spatiotemporal pattern and variation of hierarchical urban green space patches. Firstly, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis was applied to time series Landsat data to derive green space coverage at the sub-pixel level. Landscape metric analysis was then employed to characterize the variation pattern of urban green space patches. Results indicate that Hangzhou has experienced a significant loss of urban greenness, producing a more fragmented and isolated vegetation landscape. Additionally, a remarkable amelioration of urban greenness occurred in the city core from 2002 to 2013, characterized by the significant increase of small-sized green space patches. The green space network has been formed as a consequence of new urban greening strategies in Hangzhou. These strategies have greatly fragmented the built-up areas and enriched the diversity of the urban landscape. Gradient analysis further revealed a distinct pattern of urban green space landscape variation in the process of urbanization. By integrating both sub-pixel mapping technology and landscape analysis, our approach revealed the subtle variation of urban green space patches which are otherwise easy to overlook. Findings from this study will help us to refine our understanding of the evolution of heterogeneous urban environments.

  6. High-power green light generation by second harmonic generation of single-frequency tapered diode lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Andersen, Peter E.; Sumpf, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    laser emits in excess of 9 W single-frequency output power with a good beam quality. The output from the tapered diode laser is frequency doubled using periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3. We investigate the modulation potential of the green light and improve the modulation depth from 1:4 to 1:50.......We demonstrate the generation of high power (>1.5W) and single-frequency green light by single-pass second harmonic generation of a high power tapered diode laser. The tapered diode laser consists of a DBR grating for wavelength selectivity, a ridge section and a tapered section. The DBR tapered...

  7. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening the Grid (Spanish Version)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors: Denholm, Paul; Cochran, Jaquelin; Brancucci Martinez-Anido, Carlo

    2016-04-01

    This is the Spanish version of the 'Greening the Grid - Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions'. Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro generators that have historically provided a majority of grid-supplied electricity. The unique characteristics of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources have resulted in many misperceptions regarding their contribution to a low-cost and reliable power grid. Common areas of concern include: 1) The potential need for increased operating reserves, 2) The impact of variability and uncertainty on operating costs and pollutant emissions of thermal plants, and 3) The technical limits of VRE penetration rates to maintain grid stability and reliability. This fact sheet corrects misperceptions in these areas.

  8. Performance of green LTE networks powered by the smart grid with time varying user density

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we implement a green heuristic algorithm involving the base station sleeping strategy that aims to ensure energy saving for the radio access network of the 4GLTE (Fourth Generation Long Term Evolution) mobile networks. We propose an energy procurement model that takes into consideration the existence of multiple energy providers in the smart grid power system (e.g. fossil fuel and renewable energy sources, etc.) in addition to deployed photovoltaic panels in base station sites. Moreover, the analysis is based on the dynamic time variation of daily traffic and aims to maintain the network quality of service. Our simulation results show an important contribution in the reduction of CO2 emissions that can be reached by optimal power allocation over the active base stations. Copyright © 2013 by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, Inc.

  9. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research

  10. Feasibility Assessment of Thermal Management System for Green Power Sources Using Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Hung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal management system using alumina (Al2O3/water as the nanofluid for green power sources was experimentally assessed in this paper. Basic thermal principles and formulas were utilized to evaluate the performance of an air-cooled heat exchanger. The Al2O3/water nanofluid was produced at the concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 wt.%. The testing conditions of this experiments were above three concentrations, five coolant flow rates (0.8, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 L/min., and three heating powers (50, 100, and 150 W. Firstly, basic properties of nanoparticles were analyzed. Fundamental relationships of the Al2O3/water nanofluid with respect to temperatures and concentrations were measured such as: viscosity, density, and specific heat. Next, an innovative concept named efficiency factor (EF was proposed to quantitatively evaluate the thermal system performance. The enhancement of thermal system performance compared with distilled water was then defined as an efficiency factor ratio (REF. The experimental results demonstrated that the efficiency factor ratios were optimal at low flow rate (0.8 L/min. and low concentration (0.5%. Values of REF were all below 1.0 at high flow rates (1.2–2.4 L/min.. This research points out the direction of optimizing a thermal management system for green energy sources in the near future.

  11. Environmental and health impacts of a policy to phase out nuclear power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qvist, Staffan A.; Brook, Barry W.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power faces an uncertain future in Sweden. Major political parties, including the Green party of the coalition-government have recently strongly advocated for a policy to decommission the Swedish nuclear fleet prematurely. Here we examine the environmental, health and (to a lesser extent) economic impacts of implementing such a plan. The process has already been started through the early shutdown of the Barsebäck plant. We estimate that the political decision to shut down Barsebäck has resulted in ~2400 avoidable energy-production-related deaths and an increase in global CO 2 emissions of 95 million tonnes to date (October 2014). The Swedish reactor fleet as a whole has reached just past its halfway point of production, and has a remaining potential production of up to 2100 TWh. The reactors have the potential of preventing 1.9–2.1 gigatonnes of future CO 2 -emissions if allowed to operate their full lifespans. The potential for future prevention of energy-related-deaths is 50,000–60,000. We estimate an 800 billion SEK (120 billion USD) lower-bound estimate for the lost tax revenue from an early phase-out policy. In sum, the evidence shows that implementing a ‘nuclear-free’ policy for Sweden (or countries in a similar situation) would constitute a highly retrograde step for climate, health and economic protection. -- Highlights: •The Swedish reactor fleet has a remaining potential production of up to 2100 TWh. •Forced shut down would result in up to 2.1 Gt of additional CO 2 emissions •50,000–60,000 energy-related-deaths could be prevented by continued operation. •A nuclear phase-out would mean a retrograde step for climate, health and economy

  12. Greening the CAP. An analysis of the effects of the European Commission's proposals for the Common Agricultural Policy 2014-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhoek, H.; Van Zeijts, H.; Witmer, M.; Van den Berg, M.; Overmars, K.; Van der Esch, S.; Van der Bilt, W.

    2012-02-15

    The impact of the proposed greening measures of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) on the sustainable development of agriculture appears to be relatively small. Member States must assign 30 percent of their Pillar I budget to these measures, a total annual amount of 13 billion euros. Greening measures could be made more effective by tailoring the proposed ecological focus areas to local conditions and by promoting the formation of a green infrastructure.

  13. The Exercise of Power: Developing Reasonable School Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers a lesson in which students examine the issue of mandatory drug and alcohol testing in public schools. Students develop a policy for their own school after considering a hypothetical policy statement and attendant legal issues. (JDH)

  14. "Green earth, women's power, human liberation": women in peasant movements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omvedt, G

    1992-01-01

    The experience of 2 peasant women's movements in India's state of Maharashtra--Stri Mukti Sangharsh and Shetkari Mahila Aghadi--highlights the potential power of women in resisting capitalist exploitation of peasant and forest-dwelling communities. The former organization is the women's branch of a movement that is resisting the ecological destruction and displacement of peasants and tribal people resulting from development projects such as dam construction; the latter addresses the demand for fair prices for agricultural produce and inequities created by a market economy. Both are mass-based, self-financed people's movements unconnected with any political party. Although women are under-represented in the formal decision-making bodies of the parent organizations, they are struggling to become a central force in the development of alternative technology and agriculture. In 1990, Stri Mukti Sangharsh activists devised a new slogan--green earth, women's power, human liberation--summarizing this process. Similarly, Shetkari Mahila Aghadi calls upon women to monopolize political power and runs all-women panels in district council elections. These campaigns have challenged women's exclusion from ownership of land in spite of laws granting property rights and placed the issues of women's health and nutrition on the political agenda. Moreover, peasant women have played a leading role in the current experimentation with energy-recycling, regenerative, low-input agricultural development. Together, these developments may provide Indian women with the power to recover their former centrality in agricultural decision-making and production.

  15. The governance of urban green spaces in selected EU-cities : Policies, Practices, Actors, Topics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buizer, I.M.; Elands, B.H.M.; Mattijssen, T.J.M.; Jagt, A.P.N.; Ambrose, B.; Geroházi, E.; Santos, E.

    2015-01-01

    In a time of continuing urbanization, there is an increasing focus on developing attractive and healthy urban environments. Green spaces, ranging from woodlands and parks to allotment gardens and green roofs, provide a range of ecosystem services that contribute to better cities (Lovell and Taylor,

  16. Analysis of recent policy developments in green education in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, H.A.E.; Laurentzen, R.M.B.; Mulder, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To present a description of recent developments in the Dutch green educational system (agriculture, living environment, food). The article builds on a previous 2006 contribution to "JAEE" where different scenarios for changes in green education were suggested. Design/methodology/approach:

  17. The Power of Folk Linguistic Knowledge in Language Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Nathan John

    2017-01-01

    Just as an expanded view of language policy now affords agency to many more actors across society than authorities and linguists alone, it also accepts that the dispositions these agents bring to language affairs influence language policy processes and outcomes. However, this paper makes the case that language policy may also be guided, to some…

  18. A Novel Multilevel DC - AC Converter from Green Energy Power Generators Using Step-Square Waving and PWM Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajingbesi, F. E.; Midi, N. S.; Khan, S.

    2017-06-01

    Green energy sources or renewable energy system generally utilize modular approach in their design. This sort of power sources are generally in DC form or in single cases AC. Due to high fluctuation in the natural origin of this energy (wind & solar) source they are stored as DC. DC power however are difficult to transfer over long distances hence DC to AC converters and storage system are very important in green energy system design. In this work we have designed a novel multilevel DC to AC converter that takes into account the modular design of green energy systems. A power conversion efficiency of 99% with reduced total harmonic distortion (THD) was recorded from our simulated system design.

  19. Green Supply Chain Collaboration for Fashionable Consumer Electronics Products under Third-Party Power Intervention—A Resource Dependence Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuh-Biing Sheu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Under third-party power intervention (TPPI, which increases uncertainty in task environments, complex channel power interplays and restructuring are indispensable among green supply chain members as they move toward sustainable collaborative relationships for increased viability and competitive advantage. From the resource dependence perspective, this work presents a novel conceptual model to investigate the influence of political and social power on channel power restructuring and induced green supply chain collaboration in brander-retailer bidirectional green supply chains of fashionable consumer electronics products (FCEPs. An FCEP refers to the consumer electronics product (e.g., personal computers, mobile phones, computer notebooks, and game consoles with the features of a well-known brand associated, a short product lifecycle, timely and fashionable design fit for market trends, and quick responsiveness to the variations of market demands. The proposed model is tested empirically using questionnaire data obtained from retailers in the FCEP brander-retailer distribution channels. Analytical results reveal that as an extension of political and social power, TPPI positively affects the reciprocal interdependence of dyadic members and reduces power asymmetry, thereby enhancing the collaborative relationship of dyadic members and leading to improved green supply chain performance. Therein, reciprocal interdependence underlying collaborative relationship is the key to reducing the external environmental uncertainties in the TPPI context.

  20. National campaign - 100 collectivities connected to the green electric power; Campagne nationale - 100 collectivites se branchent a l'electricite verte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Since july 2004, the local collectivities, the little and medium enterprises and the craft workers can choose their electric power supplier. This offer can be a chance for the renewable energy. The association ''eco maires'' with the help of the WWF began a campaign to obtain the involvement of 100 collectivities interested by the green electric power. The project is presented. The authors presents also the new European Network on the green electric power, Eugene (European Green Electricity Network), which aims to harmonize criteria on the green electric power and to deliver certificates of quality. (A.L.B.)

  1. Wind power: public policies; Energia eolica: politicas publicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Henrique Tavares; Faga, Murilo Tadeu Werneck [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Programa Interunidades de Pos-graduacao em Energia]. E-mail: henrique@iee.usp.br; murfaga@iee.usp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the incentive models to the wind power applied in Germany and Denmark, two countries with great participation of wind power in their energetic matrixes, analysing the barriers found to the wind power development.

  2. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  3. Green technology into nuclear industry Eligibility of Ambidexter nuclear complex for a generation IV nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kwangheon; Koh, Moosung; Ryu, Jeongdong; Kim, Yangeun; Lee, Bumsik; Park, Hyuntack

    2000-01-01

    Green power is being developed up to a point that is feasible not only in an environmental sense, but also in an economical viewpoint. This paper introduces two case studies that applied green technology into nuclear industry. 1) Nuclear laundry: A laundry machine that uses liquid and supercritical Co 2 as a solvent for decontamination of contaminated working dresses in nuclear power plants was developed. The machine consists of a 16 liter reactor, a recovery system with compressors, and storage tanks. All CO 2 used in cleaning is fully recovered and reused in next cleaning, resulting in no production

  4. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP

  5. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  6. Climate Change Policies in Australia: Gender Equality, Power and Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas K. Wanner

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the link between gender equality and climate change policies in Australia. It critically analyses the extent to which gender mainstreaming and gender dimensions have been taken into account in the national policy processes for climate change in Australia. The paper argues that climate change adaptation and mitigation policies in Australia neglect gender dimensions. This endangers the advances made in gender equality and works against socially equitable...

  7. Energy, economic and environmental discourses and their policy impact: The case of Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, Mark; Dolter, Brett

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the debates around the Ontario's Green Energy and Green Economy Act (GEGEA) as an energy and economic development strategy through comparative public policy and discourse analysis approaches. The evidence regarding the economic impacts of the GEGEA is found to be almost entirely based on the results of economic modeling exercises. Critics and supporters of the legislation have arrived at very different conclusions through such exercises. These outcomes are similar to those seen in other jurisdictions pursuing renewable energy initiatives, such as Feed In Tariffs (FITs), renewables obligations and portfolio standards. A discourse analysis approach is employed to examine the reasons for the different conclusions being reached over the impacts of renewable energy initiatives. Differences in modeling approaches and assumptions are found to reflect differences in ideational perspectives on the part of the modelers with respect to the appropriate roles of markets and the state and the relationship between economic development and environmental sustainability in public policy. The paper concludes with suggestions regarding the gathering and availability of information regarding economic development in the renewable energy sector, and a discussion of potential ways to strengthen future efforts to understand the economic and environmental impact of renewable energy initiatives. - Highlights: • The discourse surrounding renewable energy initiatives is embedded within wider ideological debates. • The information that underpins the debates in Ontario is the result of economic modelling, not empirical data. • All of the existing modelling efforts suffer from significant shortcomings. • FITS are seen as politically feasible mechanisms for correcting biases in favour of conventional technologies. • The province's long-term commitment of renewable energy development is now uncertain

  8. Inhibited-coupling HC-PCF based beam-delivery-system for high power green industrial lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafer, M.; Gorse, A.; Beaudou, B.; Lekiefs, Q.; Maurel, M.; Debord, B.; Gérôme, F.; Benabid, F.

    2018-02-01

    We report on an ultra-low loss Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF) beam delivery system (GLO-GreenBDS) for high power ultra-short pulse lasers operating in the green spectral range (including 515 nm and 532 nm). The GLOBDS- Green combines ease-of-use, high laser-coupling efficiency, robustness and industrial compatible cabling. It comprises a pre-aligned laser-injection head, a sheath-cable protected HC-PCF and a modular fiber-output head. It enables fiber-core gas loading and evacuation in a hermetic fashion. A 5 m long GLO-BDS were demonstrated for a green short pulse laser with a transmission coefficient larger than 80%, and a laser output profile close to single-mode (M2 <1.3).

  9. Green Growth and its Implications for Public Policy - The Case of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schers, Jules; Ghersi, Frederic; Lecocq, Franck; Grazi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    South Africa is a rapidly growing middle-income economy with a coal-based energy system that generates high greenhouse gases emissions, on a par with the richest economies in the world. The country has pledged to significantly reduce its emissions (by 34% in 2020 and by 42% in 2025 relative to business as usual, conditional on financing and technical support from the international community), and it is actively discussing policies to achieve this goal, including a carbon tax. Yet climate mitigation is hardly the only challenge that South Africa faces. Despite significant progress in overcoming the inequalities inherited from the apartheid era and in improving quality of life since the onset of the democratic regime in 1994, economic growth has slowed down in recent years, poverty remains high and large inequalities persist. Notably, the South African economy is still experiencing very high unemployment, particularly amongst low-skill individuals, while there is a shortage of high-skill workers. The present report aims to provide some insights on the articulation between South Africa's mitigation objectives and the key development challenges outlined above. It focuses in particular on economic growth and unemployment, with discussions about inequalities and education. It is relevant to the 'green growth' conversation in that it aims at exploring the conditions under which environmental objectives (here, climate mitigation) can be achieved alongside other key development objectives for South Africa. To do so, it uses the development of IMACLIM-SA, a recursive computable general equilibrium model of the South African economy. IMACLIM-SA represents the South African economy as a small, open economy with 10 sectors (5 energy, 5 non-energy) and 5 income classes. Calibrated on base year 2005 (the most recent data available at the time of its construction), the model projects a balanced South African economy through 2035 based on assumptions about the

  10. Can the Green Economy deliver it all? Experiences of renewable energy policies with socio-economic objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahle, Michael; Pachauri, Shonali; Steinbacher, Karoline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Open question if renewables achieve both environmental and socioeconomic objectives. • Two policies each assessed looking at energy access and employment respectively. • Important role of governments and need for monitoring capacity is confirmed. • Short-term socioeconomic benefits realized in two cases, but they may not sustain. • Cases underline need for methodologies to better assess multiple-objective policies. - Abstract: The Green Economy (GE) paradigm aims to reconcile environmental and socio-economic objectives. Policies to deploy renewable energy (RE) are widely perceived as a way to tap the potential synergies of these objectives. It is, however, still largely unclear whether the potential of simultaneously achieving both environmental and socio-economic objectives can be fully realized, and whether and how multiple objectives influence policy design, implementation, and evaluation. We aim to contribute to this aspect of GE research by looking at selected country experiences of renewable energy deployment with respect to the socio-economic goals of job creation or energy access. Across the cases examined, we find the following implications of relevance for the GE framework: First, we confirm the important role of governmental action for GE, with the specific need to state objectives clearly and build monitoring capacity. Second, consistent with the “strong” green growth variant of GE, some of the cases suggest that while renewable deployment may indeed lead to short-term socio-economic benefits, these benefits may not last. Third, we underline the urgent need for new methodologies to analyze and better understand multiple-objective policies, which are at the heart of the GE paradigm.

  11. Analysis of typical world countries' wind power and PV industry policies and their enlightenment to China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ming; Yang, Lijun; Qiu, Hongji; Li, Yuanfei; Peng, Lilin

    2017-01-01

    The wind power and PV are the key fields of clean energy development in China in recent years. However, there are still many aspects of problems in wind power and PV industries at present, such as the insufficient consumptive ability and the limitation of market competition capability. The effective leading and support of government in the aspect of policies is especially needed in order to solve these problems. Based on the analysis of main policies system of wind power and PV in our country, Spain, the United Kingdom and Germany are chosen as typical countries because of their wind power and PV industries are relatively developed. Their policies of wind power and PV industries are studied respectively from five aspects, namely macroscopic laws, development planning, administrative policies, fiscal and tax policies and price policies. Then the comparison among typical countries and China is made and the exiting problems in China's policies of wind power and PV industries are summed up. Finally, the suggestions to promote China's wind power and PV industries development are presented.

  12. Research on the Core Competitive Power Elements Evaluation System of Green Hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Hui LIANG

    2013-01-01

    Green hotel is a new type of hospitality industry development model based on the concept of circular economy and sustainable development. This paper makes an analysis and evaluation of the elements of green hotel core competence, on this basis, constructs the Green Hotel core competitive evaluation index system. The construction of the system is conducive to understand the green hotel’s own competitive advantage objectively, and explore ways to enhance its core competitiveness, providing obje...

  13. Energy policy in the Caribbean green economy context and the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) framework as a proposed tool for its development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Kalim U.; Niles, Keron

    2016-01-01

    Market integration efforts of Caribbean small island developing states have become transposed on the growing paradigm shift towards green economy pathways. Central to this is the challenge of implementing Caribbean energy policy in a manner that is aligned with green economy ideals and face the realities of regional indebtedness and environmental impacts. Here we analyze the current state of the Caribbean energy policy development arena and propose that the currently weak policy and institutional design regime might potentially benefit from the application of the Institutional Analysis and Design (IAD) model especially within the operational context of the green economy. It allows us to identify current policy dilemmas, bottlenecks and discrepancies and to disentangle some of them while offering up a way forward with others. We do not so much offer distinct recommendations but focus more on delineating how to clear the pathway for sound policy intervention and outcomes. By doing so we set forth a challenging agenda for future policy analysis research that will advance Caribbean energy policy in more robust ways. - Highlights: • Un-coordinated Caricom energy policy can benefit from an institutional analysis and design approach. • Policy reform hinges on the patterns of interaction among key actors in the regional context. • Regional policy remains weak across efficiency, equity, accountability and adaptability parameters.

  14. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Briones, Alfonso; Chamoso, Pablo; Yoe, Hyun; Corchado, Juan M

    2018-03-14

    The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user's energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  15. GreenVMAS: Virtual Organization Based Platform for Heating Greenhouses Using Waste Energy from Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso González-Briones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The gradual depletion of energy resources makes it necessary to optimize their use and to reuse them. Although great advances have already been made in optimizing energy generation processes, many of these processes generate energy that inevitably gets wasted. A clear example of this are nuclear, thermal and carbon power plants, which lose a large amount of energy that could otherwise be used for different purposes, such as heating greenhouses. The role of GreenVMAS is to maintain the required temperature level in greenhouses by using the waste energy generated by power plants. It incorporates a case-based reasoning system, virtual organizations and algorithms for data analysis and for efficient interaction with sensors and actuators. The system is context aware and scalable as it incorporates an artificial neural network, this means that it can operate correctly even if the number and characteristics of the greenhouses participating in the case study change. The architecture was evaluated empirically and the results show that the user’s energy bill is greatly reduced with the implemented system.

  16. Assuring Competency in Nuclear Power Plants: Regulatory Policy and Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durbin, Nancy E.; Melber, Barbara

    2004-06-01

    This report provides descriptive and comparative information on competency regulation and oversight in selected countries and identifies issues concerning competency. Interviews with competency experts in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Spain, Canada, and the United Kingdom were conducted and analyzed. The report provides a summary and comparison of the regulations used in these five countries. Regulations and policies in four areas are discussed: Licensing, certification and approvals; Educational qualifications; Training; Experience. Methods and tools used by regulators in the five countries are discussed with regard to how regulators: Assure that licensees determine the competencies needed for the safe operation of nuclear facilities and fill positions with competent staff; Oversee training and examinations in the areas of operations, engineering and maintenance; Assure competence of contractors; Oversee work group performance; Assure competency of managers; Assure competency of other personnel; Assure competency when modifications and other changes occur. Competency experts identified the following as the biggest challenges in regulating competency: The continued availability of qualified personnel; Determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met. Determining whether licensees have adequately identified and met training needs, especially evaluating systematic approaches to training (SAT); Overseeing contractors. The following issues related to competency are discussed in the report: The sufficiency of qualified personnel; The evaluation of personnel requirements (determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met); The effects of major organizational changes, including downsizing; Assurance of competency of contractors; International competency issues; The historical and current focus on technical and hardware issues over human factors issues; Selected examples illustrate regulatory

  17. Assuring Competency in Nuclear Power Plants: Regulatory Policy and Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Nancy E. [Nancy E. Durbin Consulting, Kirkland, WA (United States); Melber, Barbara [Melber Consulting, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2004-06-01

    This report provides descriptive and comparative information on competency regulation and oversight in selected countries and identifies issues concerning competency. Interviews with competency experts in five countries: Sweden, Finland, Spain, Canada, and the United Kingdom were conducted and analyzed. The report provides a summary and comparison of the regulations used in these five countries. Regulations and policies in four areas are discussed: Licensing, certification and approvals; Educational qualifications; Training; Experience. Methods and tools used by regulators in the five countries are discussed with regard to how regulators: Assure that licensees determine the competencies needed for the safe operation of nuclear facilities and fill positions with competent staff; Oversee training and examinations in the areas of operations, engineering and maintenance; Assure competence of contractors; Oversee work group performance; Assure competency of managers; Assure competency of other personnel; Assure competency when modifications and other changes occur. Competency experts identified the following as the biggest challenges in regulating competency: The continued availability of qualified personnel; Determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met. Determining whether licensees have adequately identified and met training needs, especially evaluating systematic approaches to training (SAT); Overseeing contractors. The following issues related to competency are discussed in the report: The sufficiency of qualified personnel; The evaluation of personnel requirements (determining appropriate criteria for competency and assuring those criteria are met); The effects of major organizational changes, including downsizing; Assurance of competency of contractors; International competency issues; The historical and current focus on technical and hardware issues over human factors issues; Selected examples illustrate regulatory

  18. Proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Southeastern Power Administration has prepared an Environmental Assessment (DOE/EA-0811) evaluating the proposed revision of the Cumberland System Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts. The findings of the Environmental Assessment (EA) are: the only significant change from the existing policy will be the term of the contracts executed under the revised policy; and there will be no addition of major new generation resources; there will be no new loads; there will be no major changes in the operating parameters of power generation resources. This paper discusses the need for action, the alternative and the environmental impacts

  19. Renaissance of nuclear power challenge for policy makers and industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroslav, I.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power industry being cost intensive, must be considered as a high-tech employer of highly qualified man power. Similar challenge is faced by manufacturers: the part of supply chain. Nuclear power plant is very complex equipment as far as technology and science is involved. Nuclear power can be the option for bigger share of balanced national or global energy mix, to meet growing demand for power, with stability of supply and reducing CO 2 emissions till the year 2050. Hence, there is need to treat nuclear power as a long-term program, with which all its positive features will be a stronger alternative to conventional fossil power plants as well as all renewables. (author)

  20. Green taxes, blue taxes: A comparative study of the use of fiscal policy to promote environmental quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Central governments are facing increasingly stringent demands to lead the clean-up of public resources. Historically, governments have chosen legislation and regulation to address these concerns and achieved mixed results, but another tool of public policy holds significant promise and is gaining ground in the policy debate: 'green' taxes. The potential of a tax system is to mitigate environmental externalities is explored. The theory of pollution tax is reviewed and a comparison of two country cases where taxes have been designed explicitly to reduce industrial effluents and improve the quality of fresh water resources is presented. If structures to approximate social costs are federally mandated and regionally implemented, a comprehensive tax system can constitute an integral part of an effective response to private spoliation of the commons. (author). 17 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Are Chinese Green Transport Policies Effective? A New Perspective from Direct Pollution Rebound Effect, and Empirical Evidence From the Road Transport Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Yi Qiu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution has become a serious challenge in China. Emissions from motor vehicles have been found to be one main sources of air pollution. Although the Chinese government has undertaken numerous green policies to mitigate harmful emissions from road transport sector, it is still uncertain for both policy makers and researchers to know whether the policies are effective in the short and long terms. We propose a new concept of “pollution rebound effect” (PRE to estimate the effectiveness of green traffic policies. We estimate direct air PRE as a measure of the effectiveness of the policies of reducing air pollution from the transport sector based on time-series data from the period 1986–2014. We find that the short-term direct air PRE is −0.4105, and the corresponding long-run PRE is −0.246. The negative results indicate that the direct air PRE does not exist in the road passenger transport sector in China, both in the short term and in the long term during the period 1986–2014. This implies that the Chinese green transport policies are effective in terms of harmful emissions reduction in the transport sector. This research, to the best of our knowledge, is the first attempt to quantify the effectiveness of the green transport policies in the transitional period that China is currently undergoing.

  2. Conserving water in and applying solar power to haemodialysis: 'green dialysis' through wiser resource utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, John W M

    2010-06-01

    Natural resources are under worldwide pressure, water and sustainable energy being the paramount issues. Haemodialysis, a water-voracious and energy-hungry healthcare procedure, thoughtlessly wastes water and leaves a heavy carbon footprint. In our service, 100 000 L/week of previously discarded reverse osmosis reject water--water which satisfies all World Health Organisation criteria for potable (drinking) water--no longer drains to waste but is captured for reuse. Reject water from the hospital-based dialysis unit provides autoclave steam for instrument sterilization, ward toilet flushing, janitor stations and garden maintenance. Satellite centre reject water is tanker-trucked to community sporting fields, schools and aged-care gardens. Home-based nocturnal dialysis patient reuse reject water for home domestic utilities, gardens and animal watering. Although these and other potential water reuse practices should be mandated through legislation for all dialysis services, this is yet to occur. In addition, we now are piloting the use of solar power for the reverse osmosis plant and the dialysis machines in our home dialysis training service. If previously attempted, these have yet to be reported. After measuring the power requirements of both dialytic processes and modelling the projected costs, a programme has begun to solar power all dialysis-related equipment in a three-station home haemodialysis training unit. Income-generation with the national electricity grid via a grid-share and reimbursement arrangement predicts a revenue stream back to the dialysis service. Dialysis services must no longer ignore the non-medical aspects of their programmes but plan, trial, implement and embrace 'green dialysis' resource management practices.

  3. System Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Generation System for Designing Wind Power Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impacts of renewable energy policy on a large-scale power generation system, including thermal power, hydropower, and wind power generation. As one of the most important clean energy, wind energy has been rapidly developed in the world. But in recent years there is a serious waste of wind power equipment and investment in China leading to many problems in the industry from wind power planning to its integration. One way overcoming the difficulty is to analyze the influence of wind power policy on a generation system. This paper builds a system dynamics (SD model of energy generation to simulate the results of wind energy generation policies based on a complex system. And scenario analysis method is used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. The case study shows that the combinations of lower portfolio goal and higher benchmark price and those of higher portfolio goal and lower benchmark price have large differences in both effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, the combinations of uniformly lower or higher portfolio goal and benchmark price have similar efficiency, but different effectiveness. Finally, an optimal policy combination can be chosen on the basis of policy analysis in the large-scale power system.

  4. Nuclear Power and Sustainable Energy Policy: Promises and Perils

    OpenAIRE

    Ioannis N. Kessides

    2010-01-01

    The author examines the challenges and opportunities of nuclear power in meeting the projected large absolute increase in energy demand, especially electricity, throughout the industrialized and developing world, while helping to mitigate the threat of climate change. A significant global nuclear power deployment would engender serious risks related to proliferation, safety, and waste disposal. Unlike renewable sources of energy, nuclear power is an unforgiving technology because human lapses...

  5. Energy policy study. Volume 10. Nuclear power regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodem, Z.D.; Reynolds, A.W.; Clark, R.G.

    1980-05-01

    This report examines the programs for regulating the safety, design, and operation of domestic nuclear power plants. The first part of the study describes the Federal and State regulatory procedures. It describes the legal foundations for the Federal licensing process and the associated State regulatory activities. It then analyzes the aspects of these procedures that affect the cost and supply of nuclear-generated electricity. The second part of this study examines the effects of nuclear safety regulations on the planning and construction lead time for nuclear power stations, the cost of nuclear power, and, ultimately, the decision to invest in nuclear power

  6. Research and Policy on Transracial Adoption: Comments on Park and Green.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Jeffrey J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses areas of disagreement with Park and Green's assertion that legal and scientific assessments of the success of transracial adoptions follow a Eurocentric bias. Considers issues of limitations in adoption research, the need for research to support cases against transracial adoption, Africentrism, and models for assessing transracially…

  7. Presentation and Persuasion: The Meaning of Evidence in Irish Green Infrastructure Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, Mick

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how meaning making influences the content and currency of the evidence used to shape and support policy proposals. It does this by answering three linked questions: (1) How does context influence the forms of evidence employed in policy advocacy? (2) What practices are initiated by reference to the perceived need for evidence…

  8. Greening Governance : An Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between

  9. In Search of Soft Power: Does Foreign Public Opinion Matter for U.S. Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Goldsmith; Yusaku Horiuchi

    2011-01-01

    Does 'soft power' matter in international relations? Specifically, when the U.S. seeks cooperation from countries around the world, do the views of their publics about U.S. foreign policy affect the actual foreign policy behavior of these countries? We examine this question using multinational surveys covering 58 countries, combined with information about their foreign policy decisions in 2003, a critical year for the U.S. We draw our basic conceptual framework from Joseph Nye, who uses vario...

  10. Connecting reason to power : Assessments, learning, and environmental policy integration in Swedish energy policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to understanding what makes a policymaking system better at integrating sustainability concerns into its processes. Three questions are in focus. First, how can policy integration be understood analytically and what is its actual status in sector policy?

  11. Scaling off grid power in Nigeria | Egbuche | Economic and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic and Policy Review. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 16, No 1 (2017) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected should ...

  12. The power and pain of market-based carbon policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, B.; Golub, A.; Pambudi, D.; Hertel, T.; Godde, C.; Herrero, M.; Cacho, O.; Gerber, P.

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to assess the greenhouse gas mitigation potential of carbon policies applied to the ruminant livestock sector [inclusive of the major ruminant species—cattle (Bos Taurus and Bos indicus), sheep (Ovis aries), and goats (Capra hircus)]—with particular emphasis on

  13. Climate policy and the social cost of power generation: Impacts of the Swedish national emissions target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik; Pettersson, Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss how the design of climate policy in a small open economy may affect the internalization of carbon-related external costs and ultimately the social choice between different power generation technologies. Empirically we focus on the Swedish case and analyze three climate policy regimes, out of which two represent different national goal formulations and thus compliance strategies. The results show that the social choice between power generation technologies in Sweden will be significantly influenced by the choice of climate policy regime. Most notably, if Sweden would abandon its present national target for carbon dioxide emissions and instead make full use of the country's participation in international emissions trading, natural gas-fired power would replace onshore wind power as the power generation source with the lowest social cost

  14. Information and communication technologies and gender in climate change and green economy: Situating women’s opportunities and challenges in Zambian policies and strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Namukombo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia’s 2012 report on the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (RIO +20 identifies existing opportunities on the country’s transitioning to green economy. The RIO +20 conference of 2012 has resulted in new momentum in addressing problems of sustainable development. However, this article argues that there are practical challenges that require paying attention to, especially those involving women. The article addressed one key question: To what extent can women participate in the transitioning process to green economy in Zambia and what opportunities and challenges exists? The study used document analysis to answer the above question. National policy documents were reviewed to understand interventions on environmental management. Whilst going through the documents, the study used gender analysis frameworks (education, skills, roles in family and society, access to infrastructure to bring out qualitative and quantitative information on women. Using suggested green economy interventions in the literature as benchmark, qualitative analysis was used to project possible participation of women in green economy activities and possible challenges to be faced. The study found that participation of women will be limited despite existing opportunities because of challenges of access to information and communication technology infrastructures, low educational levels and skills and financial constraints. As Zambia undergoes a transitioning process, these limitations should be addressed in planned green economy policies and interventions to maximise benefits. Keywords: Green economy; Gender; Policies; Strategies; ICT; Zambia

  15. Research on the Core Competitive Power Elements Evaluation System of Green Hotel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Green hotel is a new type of hospitality industry development model based on the concept of circular economy and sustainable development. This paper makes an analysis and evaluation of the elements of green hotel core competence, on this basis, constructs the Green Hotel core competitive evaluation index system.The construction of the system is conducive to understand the green hotel’s own competitive advantage objectively, and explore ways to enhance its core competitiveness, providing objective basis for sustainable development of China's Hotel industry.

  16. Urban greening supported by GIS: from data collection to policy implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Drake

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available While the multiple benefits of urban greening are known, implementing green projects in post-industrial urban centers—where economic development, community revitalization and job creation are prioritized—requires accurate data that are relevant to local advocates and decision-makers. Municipal tax rolls are often used to identify vacant properties but are not necessarily up-to-date or do not contain detailed attributes about vacant properties. The Rutgers University Center for Urban Environmental Sustainability (CUES partnered with the City of Trenton and Isles, Inc., a local non-governmental organization (NGO, to conduct a unique smart-phone based city-wide property survey that captured property data not available in the city's tax rolls. Spatial analysis of data was completed and compared to a baseline vacant property survey. Having current and accurate data has empowered Trenton to develop a strategy to redevelop their unproductive tax base, and has given an NGO the tools needed to draft a Master Plan Revision to institutionalize the need for green redevelopment. This paper discusses data collection and analysis methodology and recommendations to “green” the City of Trenton.

  17. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  18. Passive solar power in the shade of French energy policy, 1945-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The installation in 1949 of the LES (solar energy laboratory) on Mont Louis-Odeillo in the Pyrenees, was emblematic of public commitment to passive solar power. Throughout the 1950's solar furnaces were supported for research into materials and solar powered homes, moving in phase with colonial policy. Then, with the construction at Odeillo of a giant solar furnace as part of the 'policy of grandeur', policy swung in the opposite direction. The study concludes with the role that the LES played at the time of the energy crisis in the 1970's and questions the French model of not developing solar energy

  19. A perceptual survey of the S and P Purchased Power Credit Risk Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rittenhouse, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In November 1991, Standard and Poor's commissioned UtiliVentures Inc. to conduct a survey among experts in the purchased power industry in order to determine their views on its recently released Purchased power Credit Risk Policy and their general views on purchased power. Respondents for the survey were drawn from attendees to the S and P - sponsored seminars on Emerging Issues for Independent Power held in October 1991 in New York, Los Angeles and San Francisco. The seminars examined the rationale behind the new Purchased Power Credit Policy and how the policy is to be implemented. While the survey is not a scientifically drawn sample, it includes respondents from all key industry groups and is, the author believes, representative of the attendees. The survey findings make generalizations about industry practices which are based on the perceptions of these individuals. It thus identifies perceptual realities: what people believe about the issues underlying the buy vs. build debate, not what others in the industry are saying they should believe. This distinction is vital, because it is the beliefs of these individuals that will shape the evolving purchased power industry. The survey was designed to accomplish three principal goals: (1) To develop systematically a base of information about what people think of the risks and opportunities in the purchased power industry and to determine the extent to which the S and P purchased Power Credit Policy incorporates these views. (2) To identify whether and to what extent respondents value the S and P Policy and how they think it might affect the industry. (3) To use the survey findings to adjust and fine tune the S and P Policy and to develop new ways and improve existing ways to educate and inform the industry about what the Policy intends to accomplish

  20. Governance by green taxes: Implementing clean water policies in Europe 1970 - 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the use of economic instruments for environmental policy in four European countries. The study employs data from national and international sources for an ex post evaluation of the effects of economic policy instruments in the clean water programs of Denmark, France, Germany...... for the implementation of public policies; on the other hand it provides some unexpected findings regarding the significance of the institutional context for the design and operation of market-based instruments. It is argued that institutionalized practices of public policy making influenced the specific design...... to the significance of taking into account the institutional setting of the design and operation of market-based instruments, an observation with both theoretical and practical implications....

  1. American policy conflict in the greenhouse: Divergent trends in federal, regional, state, and local green energy and climate change policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, John; Hughes, Kristen; Rickerson, Wilson; Kurdgelashvili, Lado

    2007-01-01

    Climate change threatens significant impacts on global ecosystems and human populations. To address this challenge, industrialized nations have ratified the Kyoto Protocol and undertaken commitments to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, the primary agents linked to anthropogenic alteration of earth's climate. By contrast, the US government, led by the Bush Administration, has rejected mandatory targets for curbing emissions under the Protocol, and has instead pursued voluntary mitigation measures amid a larger push for clean coal and 'next generation' nuclear technologies. These actions in total have fueled global perceptions that the US is not acting in substantial ways to address climate change. Nevertheless, action within the US is indeed moving forward, with states, cities and regional partnerships filling the federal leadership vacuum. This paper reviews the diverse policies, strategies, and cooperative frameworks that have emerged at regional, state and local levels to guide climate protection, and identifies the environmental and economic benefits linked to such programs. The paper also attempts to explain the existing federal impasse on climate policy, with attention given to how sub-national efforts may ultimately obviate national governmental inaction

  2. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  3. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons: export policy and proliferation resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lodgaard, S.

    1979-01-01

    After briefly summing up the present extent of proliferation, and potential proliferation, the international nuclear markets, both the open and the grey, are considered. In the open market political pressure has led to cessation of the export of 'sensitive' plant. The grey market is very difficult to regulate and, while a reduction is possible, its elimination is improbable. The extent of IAEA safeguards is briefly presented. Revision of bilateral nuclear cooperation agreements by USA is in progress, the object being further to restrict possible proliferation, and Canada and Australia are adopting similar policies. The consequences of differences in safeguard requirements may be to ensure a supply of uranium which is not subject to strict safeguards. The influence of the INFCE study project is also discussed at some length. The non-aligned countries have pointed out that the new export policies of the supplying countries have undermined Article IV of the NPT and are also not in line with the basis of North-South cooperation, which is based on advanced tecknology transfer. It is concluded that it is time that such unilaterally restrictive policies were reevaluated and a basis prepared for agreement on mutually acceptable limitations. (JIW)

  4. Speaking truth to power revisited: science, policy and climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, Magdeburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Gewaesserforschung; Krueck, C. [VDI-Technologiezentrum Physikalische Technologien, Duesseldorf (Germany). Abt. Zukuenftige Technologien

    2000-07-01

    The issue of climate change from the perspectives of climate change scientists and climate policy makers is discussed using results from two survey questionnaires. Emphasis is given to the German context. Included is the self assessment of the state of the art of the climate sciences and the importance assigned to different sources of information by policy makers. Conclusions indicate that policy makers rely on a number of sources other than the direct results of science, and have assigned a greater sense of urgency to the issue of climate change than have scientists. (orig.) [German] Auf Grundlage der Ergebnisse zweier Fragebogenaktionen wird diskutiert, wie sich die Problematik von Klimaveraenderungen aus der Perspektive von Klimaforschern und aus der Perspektive von mit Klimapolitik befassten Entscheidungstraegern darstellt. Die Betonung liegt auf den Verhaeltnissen in Deutschland. Eingeschlossen ist eine Einschaetzung des aktuellen Standes der Klimaforschung durch die Wissenschaftler selbst sowie der Bedeutung, welche von politischen Entscheidungstraegern verschiedenen Informationsquellen beigemessen wird. Es zeigt sich, dass sich politische Entscheidungstraeger auf zahlreiche Informationsquellen verlassen, die nur indirekt die Resultate der Klimaforschung wiedergeben und, dass dieser Personenkreis das Problem der Klimaveraenderungen als draengender ansieht als die Wissenschaftler selbst. (orig.)

  5. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L. A.; Cory, K. S.; Swezey, B. G.

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  6. Renewable Energy Price-Stability Benefits in Utility Green Power Programs. 36 pp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cory, Karlynn S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Swezey, Blair G. [Applied Materials, Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    2008-08-01

    This paper examines utility experiences when offering the fixed-price benefits of renewable energy in green pricing programs, including the methods utilized and the impact on program participation. It focuses primarily on utility green pricing programs in states that have not undergone electric industry restructuring.

  7. Robust Allocation of Reserve Policies for a Multiple-Cell Based Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Lan, Tian; Heussen, Kai

    2018-01-01

    This paper applies a robust optimization technique for coordinating reserve allocations in multiple-cell based power systems. The linear decision rules (LDR)-based policies were implemented to achieve the reserve robustness, and consist of a nominal power schedule with a series of linear modifica...... in real time operation to make a trade off....

  8. Policies to Support Wind Power Deployment: Key Considerations and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baring-Gould, Ian [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Oteri, Frank A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Esterly, Sean [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Forsyth, Trudy [Wind Advisors Team, Golden, CO (United States); Baranowski, Ruth [High Desert Technical Communications LLC, Crestone, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Policies have played an important role in scaling up wind deployment and increasing its economic viability while also supporting country-specific economic, social, and environmental development goals. Although wind power has become cost-competitive in several contexts, challenges to wind power deployment remain. Within the context of country-specific goals and challenges, policymakers are seeking

  9. Wind power a victim of policy and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2010-01-01

    In December 2008, as part of the fight against climate change, the European Union adopted the Energy and Climate package that endorsed three objectives toward 2020: a 20% increase in energy efficiency, a 20% reduction in GHG emissions (compared to 1990), and a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption. Responsible for about 40% of European energy-related emissions, the power sector is key to the realization of these objectives. However, the inertia inherent in this sector highlights the importance of ensuring that public authorities and market incentives, whether to expand or replace capacity, establish an appropriate environment that will trigger low-carbon investments. Power plants built today have a lifetime of 30 to 60 years. Many options are available to de-carbonize the power sector: fuel shifting from coal to less-emitting energy sources, development of carbon capture and storage facilities, improvement of electricity end-use, and greater use of nuclear-power generation and renewable energy sources. In the EU, renewable energy sources amounted to 8.2% in primary energy consumption in 2008, of which 66.1% came from biomass, 21.2% from hydro and 6.9% from wind. To raise this number (8.2%) to 20%, individual targets are set for each member state. EU countries are free to decide their own preferred mix of renewables, allowing them to split the burden across three sectors: electricity, heating/cooling, and transport. Renewables in electricity generation are expected to grow to around 33% to meet the objective set by the European Commission, up from 16.3% in 2009. Since wind-power technology has matured and hydropower has limited additional potential due to geographical constraints, wind energy is expected to provide most of the extra renewable energy required in electricity generation to meet the objective. The share of wind power in EU 27 electricity production was 4.2% in 2008. This paper examines the main challenges facing the development of large

  10. Wind power a victim of policy and politics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaureguy-Naudin, M.

    2010-07-01

    In December 2008, as part of the fight against climate change, the European Union adopted the Energy and Climate package that endorsed three objectives toward 2020: a 20% increase in energy efficiency, a 20% reduction in GHG emissions (compared to 1990), and a 20% share of renewables in final energy consumption. Responsible for about 40% of European energy-related emissions, the power sector is key to the realization of these objectives. However, the inertia inherent in this sector highlights the importance of ensuring that public authorities and market incentives, whether to expand or replace capacity, establish an appropriate environment that will trigger low-carbon investments. Power plants built today have a lifetime of 30 to 60 years. Many options are available to de-carbonize the power sector: fuel shifting from coal to less-emitting energy sources, development of carbon capture and storage facilities, improvement of electricity end-use, and greater use of nuclear-power generation and renewable energy sources. In the EU, renewable energy sources amounted to 8.2% in primary energy consumption in 2008, of which 66.1% came from biomass, 21.2% from hydro and 6.9% from wind. To raise this number (8.2%) to 20%, individual targets are set for each member state. EU countries are free to decide their own preferred mix of renewables, allowing them to split the burden across three sectors: electricity, heating/cooling, and transport. Renewables in electricity generation are expected to grow to around 33% to meet the objective set by the European Commission, up from 16.3% in 2009. Since wind-power technology has matured and hydropower has limited additional potential due to geographical constraints, wind energy is expected to provide most of the extra renewable energy required in electricity generation to meet the objective. The share of wind power in EU 27 electricity production was 4.2% in 2008. This paper examines the main challenges facing the development of large

  11. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  12. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-04

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.

  13. Proposed Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina system power marketing policy and subsequent contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy

  14. Scaling off grid power in Nigeria | Egbuche | Economic and Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article addresses the imperative growth of power as the key solution to issues around production, storage, digital revolution and especially, the current job deficit in Nigeria led by children and youth. It equates the high costs, and sometimes unavailability of electricity in rural areas to the production of low quality goods, ...

  15. Technology in the policy process - controlling nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collingridge, D.

    1983-01-01

    The discussion in this book is built around nuclear power. The technology of nuclear power is shown to have features which make it inflexible in the sense that, once built, it is difficult and expensive to control. If inflexible technology is to be avoided, it is crucially important to be able to identify this failing at an early stage in the technology's development, before it has acquired an immunity to political control. Again, this problem is approached through the example of nuclear power, in particular the breeder reactor. The breeder is shown to be even less flexible than today's nuclear technology, because it will have higher capital costs, be of greater capital intensity, longer lead time, larger unit size, and will require more infrastructure for its operation. If this is developed, the breeder will be even less open to political control than the nuclear plant of the present. To put it another way, its planning will be even more open to errors and whatever errors are made will be even more costly than for existing nuclear technology. It is therefore even less of a socially and economically acceptable technology than today's nuclear power. (author)

  16. Transgenic rats with green, red, and blue fluorescence: powerful tools for bioimaging, cell trafficking, and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takashi; Kobayashi, Eiji

    2005-04-01

    The rat represents a perfect animal for broadening medical experiments, because its physiology has been well understood in the history of experimental animals. In addition, its larger body size takes enough advantage for surgical manipulation, compared to the mouse. Many rat models mimicking human diseases, therefore, have been used in a variety of biomedical studies including physiology, pharmacology, transplantation, and immunology. In an effort to create the specifically designed rats for biomedical research and regenerative medicine, we have developed the engineered rat system on the basis of transgenic technology and succeeded in establishing various transgenic rat strains. The transgenic rats with green fluorescent protein (GFP) were generated in the two different strains (Wistar and Lewis), in which GFP is driven under the chicken beta-actin promoter and cytomegalovirus enhancer (CAG promoter). Their GFP expression levels were different in each organ, but the Lewis line expressed GFP strongly and ubiquitously in most of the organs compared with that of Wistar. For red fluorescence, DsRed2 was transduced to the Wistar rats: one line specifically expresses DsRed2 in the liver under the mouse albumin promoter, another is designed for the Cre/LoxP system as the double reporter rat (the initial DsRed2 expression turns on GFP in the presence of Cre recombinase). LacZ-transgenic rats represent blue color, and LacZ is driven the CAG (DA) or ROSA26 promoter (Lewis). Our unique transgenic rats" system highlights the powerful performance for the elucidation of many cellular processes in regenerative medicine, leading to innovative medical treatments.

  17. Assessment of the Impacts of Green Mountain Power Corporation's Wind Power Facility on Breeding and Migrating Birds in Searsburg, Vermont: July 1996--July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerlinger, P.

    2002-03-01

    A 6-megawatt, 11 turbine wind power development was constructed by Green Mountain Power Corporation in Searsburg, southern Vermont, in 1996. To determine whether birds were impacted, a series of modified BA (Before, After) studies was conducted before construction (1993-1996), during (1996), and after (1997) construction on the project site. The studies were designed to monitor changes in breeding bird community (species composition and abundance) on the site, examine the behavior and numbers of songbirds migrating at night over the site and hawks migrating over the site in daylight, and search for carcasses of birds that might have collided with the turbines.

  18. Towards a Green Economy. Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication. A Synthesis for Policy Makers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Nearly 20 years after the Earth Summit, nations are again on the Road to Rio, but in a world very different and very changed from that of 1992. Then we were just glimpsing some of the challenges emerging across the planet from climate change and the loss of species to desertification and land degradation. Today many of those seemingly far off concerns are becoming a reality with sobering implications for not only achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goals, but challenging the very opportunity for close to seven billion people - rising to nine billion by 2050 - to be able to thrive, let alone survive. Rio 1992 did not fail the world - far from it. It provided the vision and important pieces of the multilateral machinery to achieve a sustainable future. But this will only be possible if the environmental and social pillars of sustainable development are given equal footing with the economic one: where the often invisible engines of sustainability, from forests to freshwaters, are also given equal if not greater weight in development and economic planning. Towards a Green Economy is among UNEP's key contributions to the Rio+20 process and the overall goal of addressing poverty and delivering a sustainable 21st century. The report makes a compelling economic and social case for investing two per cent of global GDP in greening ten central sectors of the economy in order to shift development and unleash public and private capital flows onto a low-carbon, resource-efficient path. Such a transition can catalyse economic activity of at least a comparable size to business as usual, but with a reduced risk of the crises and shocks increasingly inherent in the existing model. New ideas are by their very nature disruptive, but far less disruptive than a world running low on drinking water and productive land, set against the backdrop of climate change, extreme weather events and rising natural resource scarcities. A green economy does not favour one political perspective

  19. The Development and Application of Policy-Based Tools for Institutional Green Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupido, Anthony F.

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, APPA forwarded a Web-based survey on the author's behalf to all designated representatives of APPA member institutions. The purpose of the survey was to determine if institutional policies are an important criterion for an institution's sustainable building practices and the use of Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED[R]).…

  20. Captive power generation in Saudi Arabia—Overview and recommendations on policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul-Majeed, Mohammed Arif; Al-Hadhrami, Luai M.; Al-Soufi, Khaled Y.; Ahmad, Firoz; Rehman, Shafiqur

    2013-01-01

    The power sector in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is undergoing the restructuring process. Moreover, during the last decade the Kingdom has witnessed a phenomenal growth in the load demand, consequently a huge amount of generation is added to the electric utilities to meet the load. Up to now only the electric utility generation was taken in the planning of the electrical sector. The data regarding the captive power generation was not readily available. A survey is conducted regarding the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia based on its utilization pattern, fuel used and amount of excess energy available to the grid. The existing regulatory framework and institutional structure of the Saudi power industry was also reviewed. Based on the information collected in the survey of captive power, key guidelines that may be considered in developing the policy for the captive power generators are presented. Furthermore, these guidelines and later the policies will help promote the investors to come forward in developing the captive power generation in Saudi Arabia. -- Highlights: •Database of captive power generation in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. •Historical perspective of electrical power industry in the Kingdom. •Saudi Arabia′s power requirements. •Regulatory framework and key guidelines regarding captive power generation. •It is first of its kind study in the region

  1. Innovative approaches in European sustainable consumption policies: assessing the potential of various instruments for sustainable consumption practises and greening of the market (ASCEE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubik, F.; Scholl, G.; Biedenkopf, K.; Kalimo, H.; Mohaupt, F.; Söebech, Ó.; Stø, E.; Strandbakken, P.; Turnheim, B.

    2009-01-01

    The report summarises the outcomes of the project "Assessing the potential of various instruments for sustainable consumption practices and greening of the market" (ASCEE). The scope of the ASCEE project was to consider the latest trends in policies supporting sustainable consumption and production

  2. Is urban agriculture urban green space? A comparison of policy arrangements for urban green space and urban agriculture in Santiago de Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Contesse, Maria; Vliet, van B.J.M.; Lenhart, J.

    2018-01-01

    Urban green spaces are crucial for citizens’ wellbeing. Nonetheless, many Latin American cities struggle to provide sufficient and equitable green space distribution for their citizens. By looking at the Chilean capital Santiago as an example, this paper examines whether the growing urban

  3. Adjusting the fairshare policy to prevent computing power loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pra, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    On a typical WLCG site providing batch access to computing resources according to a fairshare policy, the idle time lapse after a job ends and before a new one begins on a given slot is negligible if compared to the duration of typical jobs. The overall amount of these intervals over a time window increases with the size of the cluster and the inverse of job duration and can be considered equivalent to an average number of unavailable slots over that time window. This value has been investigated for the Tier-1 at CNAF, and observed to occasionally grow and reach up to more than the 10% of the about 20,000 available computing slots. Analysis reveals that this happens when a sustained rate of short jobs is submitted to the cluster and dispatched by the batch system. Because of how the default fairshare policy works, it increases the dynamic priority of those users mostly submitting short jobs, since they are not accumulating runtime, and will dispatch more of their jobs at the next round, thus worsening the situation until the submission flow ends. To address this problem the default behaviour of the fairshare have been altered by adding a correcting term to the default formula for the dynamic priority. The LSF batch system, currently adopted at CNAF, provides a way to define its value by invoking a C function, which returns it for each user in the cluster. The correcting term works by rounding up to a minimum defined runtime the most recently done jobs. Doing so, each short job looks almost like a regular one and the dynamic priority value settles to a proper value. The net effect is a reduction of the dispatching rate of short jobs and, consequently, the average number of available slots greatly improves. Furthermore, a potential starvation problem, actually observed at least once is also prevented. After describing short jobs and reporting about their impact on the cluster, possible workarounds are discussed and the selected solution is motivated. Details on the

  4. The impacts of energy trends and policies on Taiwan's power generation systems

    OpenAIRE

    郭, 博堯; Po-Yao, Kuo

    2015-01-01

    Countries use greater quantities of electrical power as they develop economically.It is crucial to consider policies for Taiwan to realize available, economic, reliable and sustainable electricity systems in the future. The developments of global energy supply trends and the energy situations in various major economies, such as their energy self- sufficiency, electricity fuel mix and electricity carbon emission factors for electricity generation, are affecting the energy policy debate in Taiw...

  5. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Foreign Policy in the 21th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Beston Husen Arif

    2017-01-01

    The concept of soft power has recently become more integrated in China’s diplomatic strategy and foreign policy. China’s utilization of hard power only is insufficient if it wishes to be an active player on the international stage. It also needs to employ soft power to stimulate its influences and leadership in world politics. This study focuses on the argument that soft power can play a significant role in shaping China’s charm image among other countries. It also discusses that China’s aspi...

  6. Green electricity and biofuels in Germany and France. A comparison of policy-networks; Gruener Strom und Biokraftstoffe in Deutschland und Frankreich. Ein Vergleich der Policy-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand-Schock, Ruth

    2010-07-02

    In recent years, the renewable energy experienced a significant upturn in the field of power generation in Europe. The transport sector is one area in which the targets of improving security of supply and reducing greenhouse gas emissions can be accomplished very difficult. The energy supply of road transport almost is based entirely on oil. The contribution under consideration examines the evolution of the actors and policy areas of biofuel production and electricity production from renewable energy sources in Germany and France. The investigation period extends until the year 2006.

  7. Study of Green Shipping Technologies - Harnessing Wind, Waves and Solar Power in New Generation Marine Propulsion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Rutkowski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose and scope of this paper is to describe the complexity of the new generation marine propulsion technologies implemented in the shipping industry to promote green ships concept and change the view of sea transportation to a more ecological and environment-friendly. Harnessing wind, waves and solar power in shipping industry can help the ship’s owners reduce the operational costs. Reducing fuel consumption results in producing less emissions and provides a clean source of renewable energy. Green shipping technologies can also effectively increase the operating range of vessels and help drive sea transportation towards a greener future and contribute to the global reduction of harmful gas emissions from the world's shipping fleets.

  8. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden; Styrmedel foer vindkraftens utveckling i Sverige

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-07-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  9. Analysis on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant and its policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung

    1994-02-01

    In the current situation of requiring the public acceptance of nuclear power plant, it may be necessary to understand what the public think about this plant and to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, multi-attribute utility (MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception pattern for five power production systems. And the conjoint measurement technique was applied to measure quantitative values of public preferences for imaginary policy alternatives. To study the feasibility of these methods, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant

  10. Netherlands: Dutch policy centres on marrying green concerns and market forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This review of the Dutch energy policy covers the need for efficient use of their natural gas as a finite resource; natural gas reserves, production, and exports, refining in the Netherlands; Dutch oil production; the fragmented and decentralised electricity generation and supply sectors; and prospects for a single merged generating company. Multi service utilities, the White Paper focussing on energy efficiency, replacement of 10% of fossil fuels with renewable energy sources by the year 2020 and greater market orientation; and the liberalisation of the electricity market are discussed. (UK)

  11. Local policies around nuclear power plants in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffroy, D.

    2000-01-01

    Faced by the oil crisis, in 1973, France accelerated its program of building NPPs. The priority objective has been achieved: the rate of energy self sufficiency of France is almost 50%. The price of electricity is among the most stable and lowest in Europe. Nuclear energy is at the same time a good choice for environment meaning no emission of harmful gasses. In 1998, 57 PWR NPPs were in operation. Super Phenix fast-breeder (in Creys Malville) was shut down in 1998 by government decision. In order to achieve the public acceptance of nuclear power government has built in the following measures: tax provisions, land planning and employment based measures. Obligations imposed to the communities in France were concerned with security, information, health and safety issues. The municipalities with NPPs are still confronted with some problems as public acceptance, changes in local life, pressure of ecological political groups, security and health problems, preparation of crisis management, unemployment after the construction of the plant was finished, closure due to political decision, economic problems after the exploitation cycle is over, permanent control of the legislator. Respective associations were created to resolve these problems and avoid situations such as those arisen in Creys Malville

  12. Russian Approach to Soft Power Promotion: Conceptual Approaches in Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy is one of the instruments of promoting soft power of a state. According to Joseph Nye, civil society is the main source of a state's international attractiveness. The article analyses how Russian official foreign policy documents present interaction between the state and civil society in order to promote Russian soft power. At the present stage Russian civil society is perceived by state structures as an instrument and not a source of soft power. The article also analyses political values and models of developments as elements of soft power as they are presented in official documents. Russia has a coherent normative model of regional development for the post-Soviet space. For the global level Russia formulates rules of behavior that it would like to see at the international arena, but Russia does not formulate how Russian or regional post-Soviet models of development can contribute to world development.

  13. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  14. Power and Agenda-Setting in Tanzanian Health Policy: An Analysis of Stakeholder Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Sara Elisa; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2016-02-09

    Global health policy is created largely through a collaborative process between development agencies and aid-recipient governments, yet it remains unclear whether governments retain ownership over the creation of policy in their own countries. An assessment of the power structure in this relationship and its influence over agenda-setting is thus the first step towards understanding where progress is still needed in policy-making for development. This study employed qualitative policy analysis methodology to examine how health-related policy agendas are adopted in low-income countries, using Tanzania as a case study. Semi-structured, in-depth, key informant interviews with 11 policy-makers were conducted on perspectives of the agenda-setting process and its actors. Kingdon's stream theory was chosen as the lens through which to interpret the data analysis. This study demonstrates that while stakeholders each have ways of influencing the process, the power to do so can be assessed based on three major factors: financial incentives, technical expertise, and influential position. Since donors often have two or all of these elements simultaneously a natural power imbalance ensues, whereby donor interests tend to prevail over recipient government limitations in prioritization of agendas. One way to mediate these imbalances seems to be the initiation of meaningful policy dialogue. In Tanzania, the agenda-setting process operates within a complex network of factors that interact until a "policy window" opens and a decision is made. Power in this process often lies not with the Tanzanian government but with the donors, and the contrast between latent presence and deliberate use of this power seems to be based on the donor ideology behind giving aid (defined here by funding modality). Donors who used pooled funding (PF) modalities were less likely to exploit their inherent power, whereas those who preferred to maintain maximum control over the aid they provided (ie, non

  15. Exploring Resource Security Policy and Green Science and Technology in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    a “more pluralistic, non-European, non-Western world” where its dynamic economies have “retaken control of vast resources, huge assets, big markets...security and the dynamics of global politics cast within the Asian setting. Alongside the increasing urgency to extract and appropriate scarce...solar- powered microgrids that can provide clean light and charge phones to rural villagers. 18 Second, clean-energy is socialized as a critical

  16. What do human rights bring to discussions of power and politics in health policy and systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2017-12-13

    Scholarly interrogations of power and politics are not endemic to the disciplines primarily tasked with exploring health policy and planning in the domestic or global domains. Scholars in these domains have come late to investigating power, prompted in part by the growing focus in domestic and global health research on the intersections between governance, globalization and health inequities. Recent prominent reports in this area increasingly point to human rights as important norms capable of responding in part to power differentials that sustain and exacerbate health inequities. Yet human rights law is not traditionally incorporated into health policy scholarship or education, despite offering important normative and strategic frameworks for public and global health, with distinctive contributions in relation to identifying and challenging certain forms of power disparity. This paper overviews two of these reports and how they see power functioning to sustain health inequities. It then turns to investigate what human rights and the right to health in particular may offer in addressing and challenging power in the health policy context.

  17. Quality assurance program manual for nuclear power plants. Volume I. Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Consumers Power Company Quality Assurance Program Manual for Nuclear Power Plants consists of policies and procedures which comply with current NRC regulatory requirements and industry codes and standards in effect during the design, procurement, construction, testing, operation, refueling, maintenance, repair and modification activities associated with nuclear power plants. Specific NRC and industry documents that contain the requirements, including the issue dates in effect, are identified in each nuclear power plant's Safety Analysis Report. The requirements established by these documents form the basis for the Consumer Power Quality Assurance Program, which is implemented to control those structures, systems, components and operational safety actions listed in each nuclear power plant's Quality List (Q-List). As additional and revised requirements are issued by the NRC and professional organizations involved in nuclear activities, they will be reviewed for their impact on this manual, and changes will be made where considered necessary. CP Co 1--Consumers Power Company QA Program Topical Report is Volume I of this manual and contains Quality Assurance Program Policies applicable during all phases of nuclear power plant design, construction and operation

  18. Green Romania? Transition in renewable energy policy. An actor-focussed policy analysis, 1980-2010; Gruenes Rumaenien? Der Wandel in der Erneuerbaren Energien-Politik. Eine akteursfokussierte Policy-Analyse von 1980 bis 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievert, Anca Silvia

    2012-07-01

    In view of the impending shortage of petroleum and natural gas and the rapid global climate change, renewable energy sources are getting more relevant for economic stability of all nations world-wide. But what are the chances and restrictions of alternative energy sources in a country like Romania, a country that is currently facing all the many challenges involved in being a new EU member state? Is the country's renewables policy undergoing a change like other sectors of society and policy, or are alternative energy sources still in the state of development before 1989? This study attempts to answer these questions. It describes the current problems of Romania's power supply using the methods of policy analysis and Sabatier's advocacy coalition approache. Interesting constellations between the actors of policy and economy are outlined as well. (orig.)

  19. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Qi-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste trea...

  20. 77 FR 9229 - Green Island Power Authority; Notice of Meeting and Teleconference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... and Time of Meeting: Wednesday March 21, 2012, beginning at 10 a.m. EST. b. Place: Commission.... Army Corps of Engineers' (Corps) position on, proposed modifications to the facilities and operation of the Corps' Green Island Lock and Dam (see attached agenda for complete list of topics). e. All local...

  1. Knowledge, Power, and Social Policy: John M. MacEachran and Alberta's 1928 Sexual Sterilization Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puplampu, Korbla P.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how academic knowledge and power have shaped the discourse on human classification and how political authorities use academic knowledge producers to legitimize public policy. Specifically, the article draws on the role of John M. MacEachran, a former academic at the University of Alberta, in the implementation of the Alberta…

  2. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  3. Energy conservation and emission reduction policies for the electric power industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Li; Tan Zhongfu; Wang Jianhui; Xu Jun; Cai Chengkai; Hou Yong

    2011-01-01

    Because of China's increasingly limited energy supplies and serious environmental pollution, much attention has been paid to conserving energy and reducing emissions to help the country's economy achieve sustainable development. As the electric power industry is the largest consumer of coal resources in China and also emits high levels of air pollutants each year, the Chinese government has enacted many technical and economic policies for energy conservation and emission reduction in the last few years. These policies are summarized in this paper, along with relevant laws and medium- and long-term plans, all of which address ideas such as adjusting the power generation mix, promoting demand-side management, introducing energy-efficient scheduling, and installing desulfurization units. The paper also assesses the results of these policies by analyzing several key indicators of energy consumption and emissions. The analysis shows that although some progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emissions, substantial work is still required for China to catch up with developed countries. Some suggestions for future work are provided. - Highlights: → China has made many policies for reducing the power industries' energy consumption and emissions. → Progress has been made in conserving energy and reducing emission of the electric power industry. → Substantial works need to be done for China to catch up with the level of developed country. → Market mechanisms for conserving energy and reducing emission should be constructed in the future.

  4. Guideline of Cyber Security Policy for Digital I and C Systems in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Zeen; Kim, Jang Seong; Kim, Kwang Jo; Kang, Young Doo; Kim, Dai Il; Jeong, Choong Heui

    2007-01-01

    Recently computers and communication systems have been developed very fast and applied to various areas in many applications. This development has raised new vulnerabilities that may endanger the critical systems for nuclear safety and physical protection at the facilities. In order to protect the critical infrastructures from these new cyber attacks, we clearly need deep considerations on the risks and threats through the cyberspace. Based on these needs, many organizations which related to nuclear power plants suggested various cyber security protection methods based on regulation or technical safeguard. Even if security countermeasures against various cyber attacks are important, it is required to establish the best practices of cyber security policy by the vendor and licensee. Based on the policy they can evaluate their activities against various cyber attacks throughout the whole life cycle. In this paper, we discuss how to establish the cyber security policy for digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in nuclear power plants

  5. An inventory of innovative policies and measures for energy efficiency. Phase 1 of the EU SAVE 'White and Green' project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.; Patel, M.

    2004-12-01

    be considered and also modern regulatory approaches. Much attention is paid in this report to the modern market instruments, which are based on the concept of trading, with the most prominent representative being the European Emissions Trading scheme. Other more recent market based instruments discussed in this report are the White and Green Certificates. Encompassing the above, this report intends to provide an overview of all major P+M for energy efficiency improvement. The P+M are categorized according to some parameters such as a general description of the measure, the sector applied, the mechanism at work, the countries where this measure has been designed and/or implemented and the stakeholders they involve during their implementation. Furthermore, a critical assessment of each measure follows according to some criteria, like effectiveness, efficiency and goal achievement. The underlying motivation for the preparation of such an inventory of P+M is to establish the grounds for a comparative assessment of measures as they are currently discussed and/or applied in the European Union. Four P+M will then be chosen which will be then analyzed in depth in Phase II of the 'White and Green' project. In this phase simulation models will be used to study the impact of various solutions on the cost of saving energy (particularly electricity and gas), the role that different technologies could play and their expected diffusion, etc. In the context outlined above, it is clearly of interest to assess the various solutions for market-oriented policy measures aimed at increasing the efficiency in the final uses of energy, to identify the best practices and to present, to the European Commission and to the Member states, indications on the potential advantages of using such practices in the promotion of a common energy policy objective

  6. Safety and effective developing nuclear power to realize green and low-carbon development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi-Zhen Ye

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the role of nuclear power of China's energy structure and industry system. Comparing with other renewable energy the nuclear power chain has very low greenhouse gas emission, so it will play more important role in China's low-carbon economy. The paper also discussed the necessity of nuclear power development to achieve emission reduction, energy structure adjustment, nuclear power safety, environmental protection, enhancement of nuclear power technology, nuclear waste treatment, and disposal, as well as nuclear power plant decommissioning. Based on the safety record and situation of the existing power plants in China, the current status of the development of world nuclear power technology, and the features of the independently designed advanced power plants in China, this paper aims to demonstrate the safety of nuclear power. A nuclear power plant will not cause harm either to the environment and nor to the public according to the real data of radioactivity release, which are obtained from an operational nuclear plant. The development of nuclear power technology can enhance the safety of nuclear power. Further, this paper discusses issues related to the nuclear fuel cycle, the treatment, and disposal strategies of nuclear waste, and the decommissioning of a nuclear power plant, all of which are issues of public concern.

  7. Emergy evaluation of agricultural sustainability of Northwest China before and after the grain-for-green policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiuhong; Shen, Jianxiu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    China’s grain-for-green policy (GFGP) was implemented with the goal of improving ecological security. Consequently, agricultural energy and agrochemical inputs have been significantly increased to improve food security and to increase the income of farmers in the regions where the GFGP was implemented. In analysis of the sustainability of the agricultural system affected by the GFGP, it is essential to consider both economic profitability and environmental sustainability. Using Yanchi County as a case study area, this study used an emergy synthesis to examine the sustainability of the agricultural system before and after the GFGP in Northwest China. We found that the total emergy input and energy output of the agricultural system in the study area increased from 1991 to 2008; however, the sustainability of the system declined, and this decline was especially evident after the GFGP was launched in 2001. Increasing inputs of non-renewable purchased resources will not only reduce the effectiveness of the GFGP in Northwest China, but also hinder the implementation of the energy-saving and emission-reduction policy that China launched in 2005. We suggest that sustainable agricultural development in Northwest China should be based on effective use of renewable resources and development of a low-carbon agricultural economy. - Highlights: • The total emergy input and energy output of the study system increased from 1991 to 2008. • The change of each emergy index was more evident after the GFGP launched in 2001. • The increase in input of non-renewable purchased resources will gradually reduce the function of the GFGP in West China. • Agricultural development in West China should be based on organic agriculture

  8. Next power generation-mix for Bangladesh: Outlook and policy priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul; Tanin, Fahian

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh's strategy for economic development relies heavily on its energy and power policy, searching for an efficient implementation of planned power generation-mix of gas, oil, coal and hydro. At present, the contribution of gas is around 83% of total power generation, which is much higher than other traditional fuel sources. To reduce this single-source dependency on gas, Bangladesh needs to initiate alternative option to sustain its mid-term power generation-mix in addition to achieve its long-term energy security. Government of Bangladesh has already initiated a new master plan for the development of power generation under fuel-diversification scenario. In this view, local coal production and imported coal would assist the power planners to reduce the sole dependency on gas-driven power plants. In addition, cross-border hydropower import from Bhutan, Myanmar and Nepal would also be a vital policy imperative to maintain the country's long-term energy security. Nonetheless, adding extra power to production side is certainly essential, demand side management through efficient energy use and energy conservation could also be of assistance to the release the existing crisis to a greater extent. - Highlights: • In 2010, the contribution of gas in power generation is about 88% in Bangladesh. • Installed capacity (4.29%) and actual power generation (3.75%) from coal is very low. • Local coal-based power plants would be an alternative for next generation-mix. • Cross-border hydropower trade with Bhutan, Myanmar and Nepal would be another alternative. • Public-private partnership (PPP) could solve financing constraints to install new plants

  9. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from

  10. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from participation

  11. Green growth and improving preparedness to adapt to pollinator decline in Nigeria - Communicating results for policy and action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Aneni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Insect pollinators contribute to agricultural crop yield and beekeeping provides a major source of livelihoods for farmers in Nigeria. This study developed two survey questionnaires and collected data from beekeepers, researchers and government officials to generate quantitative indicators for the purpose of description as a guide to action. Evaluation and characterization of colony bee loses by beekeepers were assessed and surveys conducted in Osun State, Southern Nigeria, consisting of questions related to: the importance of pollinators, including managed honeybees (Apis mellifera, in agriculture and observations on factors associated with pollinator declines; and management of bee mortality. A majority of beekeepers were ignorant of the cause of the death of their colonies. Information from policy makers indicate that population abundance trends in honey bee and other pollinator populations have largely not been documented in Nigeria. This study emphasizes pollination and insect pollinators as drivers of agricultural crop production with a view to providing guidance for sustainable management of pollinators and achievement of green growth objectives.

  12. CO2 abatement policies in the power sector under an oligopolistic gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecking, Harald

    2014-01-01

    The paper at hand examines the power system costs when a coal tax or a fixed bonus for renewables is combined with CO 2 emissions trading. It explicitly accounts for the interaction between the power and the gas market and identifies three cost effects: First, a tax and a subsidy both cause deviations from the cost-efficient power market equilibrium. Second, these policies also impact the power sector's gas demand function as well as the gas market equilibrium and therefore have a feedback effect on power generation quantities indirectly via the gas price. Thirdly, by altering gas prices, a tax or a subsidy also indirectly affects the total costs of gas purchase by the power sector. However, the direction of the change in the gas price, and therefore the overall effect on power system costs, remains ambiguous. In a numerical analysis of the European power and gas market, I find using a simulation model integrating both markets that a coal tax affects gas prices ambiguously whereas a fixed bonus for renewables decreases gas prices. Furthermore, a coal tax increases power system costs, whereas a fixed bonus can decrease these costs because of the negative effect on the gas price. Lastly, the more market power that gas suppliers have, the stronger the outlined effects will be.

  13. Taking power, politics, and policy problems seriously: the limits of knowledge translation for urban health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kelly; Fafard, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    Knowledge translation (KT) is a growing movement in clinical and health services research, aimed to help make research more relevant and to move research into practice and policy. This paper examines the conventional model of policy change presented in KT and assesses its applicability for increasing the impact of urban health research on urban health policy. In general, KT conceptualizes research utilization in terms of the technical implementation of scientific findings, on the part of individual decision-makers who can be "targeted" for a KT intervention, in a context that is absent of political interests. However, complex urban health problems and interventions infrequently resemble this single decision, single decision-maker model posited by KT. In order to clarify the conditions under which urban health research is more likely or not to have an influence on public policy development, we propose to supplement the conventional model with three concepts drawn from the social science: policy stages, policy networks, and a discourse analysis approach for theorizing power in policy-making.

  14. Greens of the European Green Capitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cömertler, Seval

    2017-10-01

    Well established and maintained green areas have a key role on reaching the high quality of life and sustainability in urban environments. Therefore, green areas must be carefully accounted and evaluated in the urban planning affairs. In this context, the European Green Capitals, which attach a great importance to the green areas, have a great potential to act as a role model for both small and big cities in all around the world. These leading cities (chronologically, Stockholm, Hamburg, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Nantes, Copenhagen, Bristol, Ljubljana, Essen and Nijmegen) are inspiring for the other cities which seek to achieve more sustainable and environmentally friendly places through green areas. From this point of view, the aim of this paper was to investigate the green areas of the European Green Capitals. The paper covered whole European Green Capitals, and the application form of each Green Capital was used as a primary data source. Consequently, the paper put forwarded that the European Green Capitals have considerably large amount and high proportion of green areas. Further, these cities provide an excellent access to the public green areas. As a result of abundant provision and proper distribution, the almost all citizens in most of the Green Capitals live within a distance of 300 meters to a green area. For further researches, the paper suggested that these green capitals should be investigated in terms of their efforts, measures, goals and plans, policies and implications to administer, to protect, to enhance and to expand the green areas.

  15. A Green New Deal. Joined-up policies to solve the triple crunch of the credit crisis, climate change and high oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    Meeting since early 2007, the membership of the Green New Deal Group is drawn to reflect a wide range of expertise relating to the current financial, energy and environmental crises. This report is the first publication of the Group. The global economy is facing a 'triple crunch'. It is a combination of a credit-fuelled financial crisis, accelerating climate change and soaring energy prices underpinned by an encroaching peak in oil production. These three overlapping events threaten to develop into a perfect storm, the like of which has not been seen since the Great Depression. To help prevent this from happening the members of the Green New Deal Group are proposing a Green New Deal. In the first half of this report they examine the financial, economic and environmental landscapes that are the backdrop to this triple crisis. In the second half, they propose a series of policies that can be used to tackle the problems that are identified

  16. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: A Green and Clean Alternative for Sustained Power Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Chennault, Kimberly Ann; Thambi, Nithya; Bitetto, Mary Anne; Hameyie, E. B.

    2008-01-01

    Providing efficient and clean power is a challenge for devices that range from the micro to macro in scale. Although there has been significant progress in the development of micro-, meso-, and macro-scale power supplies and technologies, realization of many devices is limited by the inability of power supplies to scale with the diminishing sizes…

  17. China and India Going Green: The Power of Wind, International Norms, and National Commitments

    OpenAIRE

    Silvan Siefert

    2017-01-01

    India and China have established reputations in the international community for rapid economic development, innovative technology and exploitation of natural resources. Aside from the United States, China and India are the two major producers of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. At the same time China and India are two of the leading developing countries in promoting green energy and international climate change objectives. The local wind energy industry, as an alternative to replace fue...

  18. Generation of data base for on-line fatigue life monitoring of Indian nuclear power plant components: Part I - Generation of Green's functions for end fitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, N.K.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1994-01-01

    Green's function technique is the heart of the on- line fatigue monitoring methodology. The plant transients are converted to stress and temperature response using this technique. To implement this methodology in a nuclear power plant, Green's functions are to be generated in advance. For structures of complex geometries, Green's functions are to be stored in a data base to convert on-line, the plant data to temperature/stress response, using a personal computer. End fitting, end shield, pressurizer, steam generator tube sheet are few such components of PHWR where fatigue monitoring is needed. In the present paper, Green's functions are generated for end fitting of a 235 MWe Indian PHWR using finite element method. End fitting has been analysed using both 3-D and 2-D (axisymmetric) finite element models. Temperature and stress Green's functions are generated at few critical locations using the code ABAQUS. (author). 10 refs., 11 figs

  19. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  20. Policy planning for nuclear power: an overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. (NHA)

  1. The potential impacts of climate-change policy on freshwater use in thermoelectric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandel, Munish K.; Pratson, Lincoln F.; Jackson, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change policy involving a price on carbon would change the mix of power plants and the amount of water they withdraw and consume to generate electricity. We analyze what these changes could entail for electricity generation in the United States under four climate policy scenarios that involve different costs for emitting CO 2 and different technology options for reducing emissions out to the year 2030. The potential impacts of the scenarios on the U.S. electric system are modeled using a modified version of the U.S. National Energy Modeling System and water-use factors for thermoelectric power plants derived from electric utility data compiled by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Under all the climate-policy scenarios, freshwater withdrawals decline 2-14% relative to a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario of no U.S. climate policy. Furthermore, water use decreases as the price on CO 2 under the climate policies increases. At relatively high carbon prices (>$50/tonne CO 2 ), however, retrofitting coal plants to capture CO 2 increases freshwater consumption compared to BAU in 2030. Our analysis suggests that climate policies and a carbon price will reduce both electricity generation and freshwater withdrawals compared to BAU unless a substantial number of coal plants are retrofitted to capture CO 2 . - Highlights: → We analyze the impact of climate change policy on water use for electricity generation. → Water use decreases with an increase in CO 2 allowance price. → Retrofitting of coal plants with CCS could increase water use considerably.

  2. Analysis of policy alternatives on the public acceptance of nuclear power plant in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young-Sung; Lee, Byong-Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. A method reflecting public opinions in order to improve public acceptance is to find out the public preference values for its policy alternatives. In this study, the conjoint analysis was applied to find out the quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement the analysis, questionnaires of trade-off matrix form were mailed to the science teachers of middle or high school through-out the country who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. The quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives were estimated, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. It was revealed that the improvement of reactor safety 100 times and the establishment of civilian monitoring system for nuclear safety would be two best options to improve public acceptance of nuclear power in Korea. (author)

  3. The Military Power of Russia – a Means for Activating an Expansionist Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaukas Erikas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of scientific research on the international behavior of Russia has so far been largely grounded on political decisions made exceptionally by its political elite. However, in this article, the author is trying to prove that political decisions are first of all based on material resources of the state, and this, in turn, can likely determine the causality between the military power of the state and its foreign policy. Therefore, Russian military power is treated in this article as a means of carrying out expansionist foreign policy. The premise is raised that the growth of Russia‘s military power is related to its aspiration to strengthen its influence in the post-Soviet region. The analysis of Russia‘s security and defense policy, defense expenditure, military capabilities and military activeness reveals that the military power of Russia is growing with a dual aim: (1 to deter NATO and the EU from further enlargement; and (2 to retain and/or expand its influence in the post-Soviet states.

  4. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  5. Funding for universal service obligations in electricity sector: the case of green power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favard, P.; Mirabel, F.; Poudou, J.Ch.

    2002-07-01

    The process of deregulation in network industries, in particular in the electric sector, raises the problem of financing the Universal Service Obligations (USO) corresponding to the production, transport and distribution operations. In this paper, we study three ways of funding for an USO of production, especially the 'green' electricity development; the financing with cross-subsidies, the implementation of a fund (financing by a tax) and finally a voluntary funding system by direct subscriptions of consumers. We notably show that this last one Pareto dominates mostly, from a welfare point of view, the other scenarios. (authors)

  6. Going Green

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowsky, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    Going green saves money and can even make money. Sustainable practices promote better health, less absenteeism, and more productivity. They also attract students, who are paying increasing attention to schools' environmental policies. Beyond being the smart thing to do, administrators at the University of Washington say repeatedly, it's the right…

  7. Green computing: power optimisation of VFI-based real-time multiprocessor dataflow applications (extended version)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Execution time is no longer the only performance metric for computer systems. In fact, a trend is emerging to trade raw performance for energy savings. Techniques like Dynamic Power Management (DPM, switching to low power state) and Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS, throttling processor

  8. Green computing: power optimisation of vfi-based real-time multiprocessor dataflow applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, W.; Holzenspies, P.K.F.; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    Execution time is no longer the only performance metric for computer systems. In fact, a trend is emerging to trade raw performance for energy savings. Techniques like Dynamic Power Management (DPM, switching to low power state) and Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling (DVFS, throttling processor

  9. Catching Fire: An Analysis of Maine's Combined Heat and Power Energy Incentive Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Joshua A.

    This study qualitatively reviews and analyzes Maine's state-level incentive policies and regulations to catalyze the development of renewably fueled Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities by utilizing a framework developed by Janet Sawin. The results of the analysis indicate that additional opportunities exist to promote additional renewable CHP plant development through both strengthening existing state policies and passing new legislation. Maine's Renewable Portfolio Standard and Production-Based Incentive pilot program could be expanded in scope and in their level of support for renewable CHP. New policies could be enacted to further accelerate renewable CHP development in the state, such as a Production Tax Credit (PTC) and the creation of a grant program for level 2 feasibility studies within the existing Public Benefits Fund (PBF), Efficiency Maine Trust.

  10. Education and Research Policy as an Instrument of Soft Power in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Bolshova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper analyzes higher education and resarch policy in Germany as an important instrument in ensuring the competitiveness and influence of the state in the international arena. In today's global struggle for leadership Germany relies on "soft" and "smart" power («soft and smart power»: education, research, innovation and human capital. This article discusses the most important initiatives the federal government and lands in the past five years, aiming at strengthening the position of Germany as a world center of higher education and advanced research and the most attractive location for highly qualified specialists from around the world.

  11. EU’S POLICY OF DISARMAMENT AS PART OF ITS NORMATIVE POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana HINCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that EU’s policy of Disarmament, Non-Proliferation, and Arms Export Control can be conceptualised into the framework of the normative power. Despite the EU strategies on this policy, such as EU Strategy against the proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction (2003, or Strategy to combat illicit accumulation and trafficking of Small Arms and Light Weapons (2005, the EU is far from being a unitary actor. In the international arena most actions on Disarmament and Non-Proliferation are enhanced by the United Nations and individually by each country that is a nuclear power. The measures taken by the EU in the international forums on Disarmament are analysed with a short historic overview on the issue and with a closer view on the EU’s actions within the United Nations and those taken unilaterally.

  12. Nuclear Power Technology With and Without Policies to Limit Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, J.

    2002-12-01

    The 21st century will see dramatic changes in the global energy system. The precise nature of those changes is impossible to see clearly. Energy supply technologies may become more diverse as the century progresses. That diversity will be driven by both energy supply challenges and by policies such as those associated with climate change. Technology deployment will depend on the outcome of developments in both economic and non-economic dimensions. This paper will explore the economic dimension of the potential nuclear power technology deployment in a future with and without policies to limit fossil fuel CO2 emissions. The analysis is predicated on the presumption that issues associated with safety, health, waste, and weapons are successfully addressed. The potential role of nuclear power will be examined against a background in which other technologies compete for markets.

  13. Thinking Out of the Box: A Green and Social Climate Fund Comment on "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooms, Gorik; Pas, Remco van de; Decoster, Kristof; Hammonds, Rachel

    2016-12-28

    Solomon Benatar's paper "Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames" examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality reducing post World War II European welfare model, if implemented state-by-state, is unfit for reducing global inequality and respecting environmental boundaries. Second, we argue that to advance beyond the 'Westphalian,' human centric thinking integral to global inequality and climate change requires challenging the logic of global economic integration and exploring the politically infeasible. In conclusion, we propose social policy focused changes to the World Trade Organisation (WTO) and a Green and Social Climate Fund, financed by new global greenhouse gas charges, both of which could advance human and planetary health. Recent global political developments may offer a small window of opportunity for out of the box proposals that could be advanced by concerted and united advocacy by global health activists, environmental activists, human rights activists, and trade unions. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  14. Thinking Out of the Box: A Green and Social Climate Fund; Comment on “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorik Ooms

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Solomon Benatar’s paper “Politics, Power, Poverty and Global Health: Systems and Frames” examines the inequitable state of global health challenging readers to extend the discourse on global health beyond conventional boundaries by addressing the interconnectedness of planetary life. Our response explores existing models of international cooperation, assessing how modifying them may achieve the twin goals of ensuring healthy people and planet. First, we address why the inequality reducing post World War II European welfare model, if implemented stateby-state, is unfit for reducing global inequality and respecting environmental boundaries. Second, we argue that to advance beyond the ‘Westphalian,’ human centric thinking integral to global inequality and climate change requires challenging the logic of global economic integration and exploring the politically infeasible. In conclusion, we propose social policy focused changes to the World Trade Organisation (WTO and a Green and Social Climate Fund, financed by new global greenhouse gas charges, both of which could advance human and planetary health. Recent global political developments may offer a small window of opportunity for out of the box proposals that could be advanced by concerted and united advocacy by global health activists, environmental activists, human rights activists, and trade unions.

  15. Post-TMI developments in U.S. nuclear power siting and licensing policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The regulatory consequences of the Three Mile Island accident continue to exert a dominating influence on the American nuclear power programme, in particular on siting and licensing policies. The major regulatory and legislative measures are discussed and also listed in chronological order and summarized in the Appendices to the paper. These summaries illustrate the shift in focus of the regulatory measures from an initial emphasis on licensing constraints to a change so as to expedite the licensing procedure. (NEA) [fr

  16. Normative power and EU arms transfer policy: a theoretical critique and empirical test

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    "Arms transfers are both an economic necessity for the European arms industry and a potential obstacle for the emerging normative power role of the European Union (EU) in world affairs. Indeed, the biggest markets for arms exports in the post-Cold War era are often in states engaged in conflict or high levels of internal repression - precisely where the EU's normative policy agenda seeks to promote peace, stability, and respect for human rights. Despite these glaring contradictions, however, ...

  17. Policy planning for nuclear power: An overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This special report, Policy Planning for Nuclear Power: An Overview of the Main Issues and Requirements, has been prepared in response to the express request of a number of IAEA Member States for a document to assist makers in developing countries on the introduction of nuclear power. The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. Further information and details on the technical and other issues presented in this report are given in the list of related IAEA publications and documents at the end of this report

  18. Social movements, public spheres and the European politics of the environment: green power Europe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    This book examines how the European environmental movement, as part of an emerging European civil society, has impinged on the problem definitions and solution strategies in the European politics of the environment. Examining core case studies in European environmental policy - biodiversity politics

  19. Control Aspects of a LCL Grid-Connected Green Power Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Andersen, Gert Karmisholt; Klumpner, Christian

    2002-01-01

    grid current with low harmonic distortion and a high power factor, the inverter is controlled to emulate a negative resistance towards the grid. The size of the emulated resistor is determined by the dc-link voltage controller, which tries to maintain a constant dc-link voltage. This is however...... that the LCL filter is stable when the damping-resistor is added. The total harmonic current distortion was measured below 4.0 the power factor is better than 0.99 for an input power above 300 W....

  20. Power sector reform in Africa: Policy guidelines for the sustainability of the sector. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Since more than a decade and half, a number of African countries have embarked on implementing power sector reform programmes in a bid to address the deficiencies in the management and operations of their power utilities. The rationale for power sector reforms was to: (i) improve the technical, commercial and financial performance of utilities; (ii) boost sector cash flow and enhance utilities' creditworthiness; (iii) facilitate mobilization of resources for capital investment on a commercial basis, thereby releasing public funds for other investments; and (iv) extend access to electricity to poor and rural communities. However, one of the most critical drivers for power sector reform, which is linked to lack of capital to expand and rehabilitate existing systems, is probably pressure from the development finance institutions including the World Bank. Most African countries have thus decided to embark on reforming their power sectors following the announcement of the 1993 World Bank's Electric Power Lending Policy calling developing countries to demonstrate a clear indication to implement comprehensive power sector reform programmes as a precondition of the Bank's continued assistance in the sector. Under this Bank's new policy, developing countries were invited to: - Establish transparent regulatory processes; - Commercialize and corporatize the power enterprises; - Allow for importation of power services in some cases; and - Encourage private investment in the power sector. As a follow-up to its new electric power lending policy, the World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP) organized a symposium on 'Power Sector Reform and Efficiency Improvement in sub-Saharan Africa' in Johannesburg, South Africa, in December 1995 with a view to addressing the problem of inefficiencies in operations and management of the power utilities. The purpose of the symposium was to provide an open forum in which high-level decision-makers in the Ministries of

  1. Power line policy in practice. A pilot study; Hoogspanningslijnenbeleid in de praktijk. Een pilotonderzoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelfkens, G.; Pruppers, M.J.M.

    2008-07-01

    A Quick Scan performed by RIVM among twelve municipalities with an overhead power line revealed that half of these municipalities were not aware of the power line policy recommended by the Netherlands Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM). Those municipalities where power lines are an (openly) debated public issue are generally well-informed on the recommended policy. Due to public pressure, these latter municipalities often take more stringent measures than those advised by the VROM; these include implementing specific measures for existing neighbourhoods and/or postponing construction plans for new neighbourhoods that have already received council approval. None of the municipalities interviewed had an information service specifically aimed at providing their residents with information on power lines. Results from international epidemiological investigations point to the possibility that children living in the vicinity of overhead power lines may have an enhanced risk of developing childhood leukaemia. At the end of 2005 the VROM issued a policy advice for municipalities, provinces and grid companies. The aim of this policy advice is to prevent situations from developing where children can be subjected to long-term exposure to magnetic fields due to overhead power lines. In such new situations, the Ministry advises local governments to reserve a buffer zone near the power line that is to be kept empty of home residences, schools and day-care centres. As the policy advice focuses on the framing or changing of zoning plans - procedures which may take several years - it is currently impossible to evaluate if this policy advice issued in 2005 has been successful. The Quick Scan was performed by order of the Inspectorate of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment of the Northwest Region of the Netherlands. The aim of the Inspectorate was to evaluate the role of the policy advice at the municipal level and the degree to

  2. Natural gas, uncertainty, and climate policy in the US electric power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bistline, John E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how uncertainties related to natural gas prices and potential climate policies may influence capacity investments, utilization, and emissions in US electricity markets. Using a two-stage stochastic programming approach, model results suggest that climate policies are stronger drivers of greenhouse gas emission trajectories than new natural gas supplies. The dynamics of learning and irreversibility may give rise to an investment climate where strategic delay is optimal. Hedging strategies are shown to be sensitive to the specification of probability distributions for climate policy and natural gas prices, highlighting the important role of uncertainty quantification in future research. The paper also illustrates how this stochastic modeling framework could be used to quantify the value of limiting methane emissions from natural gas production. - Highlights: • This paper examines how uncertainty may impact natural gas in the power sector. • Uncertainties like gas prices, upstream emissions, and climate policy are modeled. • Climate policies are stronger drivers of emissions than gas supply conditions. • Lower gas prices are likely to spark greater utilization of existing capacity. • Irreversibility and uncertainty may make strategic delay optimal

  3. Development policy for non-grid-connected wind power in China: An analysis based on institutional change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yong; Li Jing; Wang Mingming

    2012-01-01

    Government policy continues to play a crucial role in the development of wind power industry in China. The 2005 “Renewable Energy Law” and related policies have driven the rapid increase in wind power installed capacity in China over the past half-decade, with capacity doubling annually since 2005. However, a large number of wind farms generate electricity well below their installed capacity, resulting in considerable wastage of resources. Non-grid-connected wind power theory proposes that large-scale wind power output does not necessarily have to be fed into the grid, but can be used directly in industrial production. Thus, the use of the theory can promote the sustainable development of the wind power industry by obviating the need for power grid. In this paper we analyze the influence of government policy on wind power industry from the perspective of institutional change, by employing the basic theories of new institutional economics. A development model for non-grid-connected wind power is proposed in order to implement institutional change in accordance with the specific characteristics of wind power industry in China. This model requires the government to play an active role in institutional development by increasing economic efficiency in order to promote the sustainable development of wind power. - Highlights: ► New institutional economics-based analysis paradigm for wind power policy proposed. ► Policies for China's wind power industry analyzed according to the paradigm. ► Hybrid development mode of institutional change is the best pathway for wind power. ► Potential development policy for China's wind power industry recommended.

  4. Methane for Power Generation in Muaro Jambi: A Green Prosperity Model Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriarty, K.; Elchinger, M.; Hill, G.; Katz, J.; Barnett, J.

    2014-07-01

    NREL conducted eight model projects for Millennium Challenge Corporation's (MCC) Compact with Indonesia. Green Prosperity, the largest project of the Compact, seeks to address critical constraints to economic growth while supporting the Government of Indonesia's commitment to a more sustainable, less carbon-intensive future. This study evaluates electricity generation from the organic content of wastewater at a palm oil mill in Muaro Jambi, Sumatra. Palm mills use vast amounts of water in the production process resulting in problematic waste water called palm oil mill effluent (POME). The POME releases methane to the atmosphere in open ponds which could be covered to capture the methane to produce renewable electricity for rural villages. The study uses average Indonesia data to determine the economic viability of methane capture at a palm oil mill and also evaluates technology as well as social and environmental impacts of the project.

  5. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  6. Impact of public policy uncertainty on renewable energy investment: Wind power and the production tax credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    2010-01-01

    It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the federal production tax credit (PTC) causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the US. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. It is often assumed that the severe downturn in investment during 'off' years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC. This assumption turns out to be unsubstantiated: this paper demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during 'off' years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement (PPA) negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. With contract negotiations prevalent in the renewable energy industry, this finding suggests that reducing uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from a survey of energy professionals, various policy instruments are compared in terms of their perceived stability for supporting long-term investment. - Research highlights: →The case of wind energy investment in the face of PTC uncertainty provides an important study in how industry structure, and in particular the process of contract negotiations, can amplify the impact of public policy uncertainty on corporate investment. →The finding that contract negotiations in the face of uncertainty are sufficient in themselves to hinder investment implies that the assumption that investment downturns reflect unfavorable economics is unfounded. This assumption falsely discourages interest and investment in wind energy. →Policy stability should be added to the list of criteria explicitly considered in designing policy

  7. The power and value of green in promoting sustainable transport behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaker, David; Vautin, David; Vij, Akshay; Walker, Joan L.

    2011-07-01

    While it is increasingly popular to broadcast information regarding environmental impact, little is known regarding the effects that this information has on human behavior. This research aims to provide insight into whether, and to what extent, presenting environmental attributes of transport alternatives influences individual transport decisions. We designed and conducted three experiments in which subjects (UC Berkeley undergraduates) were presented with hypothetical scenarios of transport decisions, including auto purchase choice, mode choice, and route choice. We analyzed their decisions via a choice model to determine how they value reducing their emissions relative to other attributes. We found that our subjects are willing to adjust their behavior to reduce emissions, exhibiting an average willingness to pay for emissions reduction, or value of green (VoG), of 15 cents per pound of CO2 saved. Despite concern that people cannot meaningfully process quantities of CO2, we found evidence to the contrary in our subject pool in that the estimated VoG was consistent across context (the wide range of transport decisions that we presented) and presentation (e.g., whether the information was presented in tons or pounds, or whether a social reference point of the emissions of an average person was provided). We also found significant heterogeneity in VoG, with most of the respondents valuing green somewhere between 0 and 70 cents per pound and with women, on average, willing to pay 7 cents more per saved pound than men. While the findings are encouraging, further work is required to determine whether they hold outside of a lab environment and with a more representative pool of subjects.

  8. Scaling Up Renewable Energy Generation: Aligning Targets and Incentives with Grid Integration Considerations, Greening The Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Cochran, Jaquelin

    2015-05-27

    Greening the Grid provides technical assistance to energy system planners, regulators, and grid operators to overcome challenges associated with integrating variable renewable energy into the grid. This document, part of a Greening the Grid toolkit, provides power system planners with tips to help secure and sustain investment in new renewable energy generation by aligning renewable energy policy targets and incentives with grid integration considerations.

  9. Microsatellite markers from tea green leafhopper Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii: a powerful tool for studying genetic structure in tea plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Dietrich, Christopher H; Qin, Daozheng

    2016-07-29

    Tea green leafhopper is one of the most dominant pests in Chinese tea plantations. Recent evidence, including morphological and molecular data, revealed that tea green leafhopper in China is the same species as in Japan, Empoasca (Matsumurasca) onukii Matsuda. Previous morphological study that revealed variation in the structure of the male genitalia within and among populations of this species suggested that there may be significant population-level genetic variation. To provide powerful molecular markers to explore the population genetic diversity and population genetic structure of this pest in China, microsatellite markers were obtained by AFLP of sequences containing repeats (FIASCO). Eighteen polymorphic markers were evaluated for five populations of E. (M.) onukii, Two related empoascine leafhopper species were selected to test the transferability of the markers. Population genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii was detected using Structure analysis, principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and variance analysis. The identified markers were polymorphic with total number of alleles ranging from 6 to 24 per locus, observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.133 to 0.9 and 0.183 to 0.926, respectively, and the polymorphic information content value over all populations varied from 0.429 to 0.911. This is the first study to demonstrate that microsatellite markers provide valuable information for genetic structure of E. (M.) onukii in Chinese tea plantations. There is obvious genetic differentiation between the two populations in the Southwest tea area. These microsatellite markers will be the powerful tools for genetic studies of E. (M.) onukii and improve understanding of the microevolution of this species.

  10. Power, Order, and the Politics of Social Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2009-01-01

    I discuss the use of power to safeguard political stability by policymakers in four post-communist cases: Hungary and Poland, and Estonia and Latvia. My treatment is in line with traditional path dependency and 'generous' or 'emergency' welfare state interpretations, but adds a more strategic....... Building on Laitin (1998, 2007), Bloom (2008), and others, my two Baltic cases in turn discuss the use of political power along yet another dimension - ethnicity. Recent advances in political economy (Alesina and La Ferera 2005) and social capital theory (Putnam 2007) have documented the manifold negative...... effects of ethno-linguistic heterogeneity on variables such as public good provision, and other forms of social solidarity. Here I point out how the new Baltic elites proactively remodeled the distribution of transition winners and losers along ethnic lines. Power-holders thereby designed public policies...

  11. Practitioner perspectives matter: Public policy and private investment in the U.S. electric power sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradale, Merrill Jones

    This dissertation examines the influence of attitudes, beliefs, and preferences of energy industry practitioners on investment decision-making with regard to fuel choice for new electric power plants. The conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and an extensive online survey I conducted of 600-800 energy professionals in the U.S. power sector. Chapter 1 analyzes the impact of policy uncertainty on investment decision-making in renewable energy, using the federal production tax credit (PTC) and wind energy investment as an example. It is generally understood that the pattern of repeated expiration and short-term renewal of the PTC causes a boom-bust cycle in wind power plant investment in the U.S. This on-off pattern is detrimental to the wind industry, since ramp-up and ramp-down costs are high, and players are deterred from making long-term investments. The widely held belief that the severe downturn in investment during "off" years implies that wind power is unviable without the PTC turns out to be unsubstantiated: this chapter demonstrates that it is not the absence of the PTC that causes the investment downturn during "off" years, but rather the uncertainty over its return. Specifically, it is the dynamic of power purchase agreement negotiations in the face of PTC renewal uncertainty that drives investment volatility. This suggests that reducing regulatory uncertainty is a crucial component of effective renewable energy policy. The PTC as currently structured is not the only means, existing or potential, for encouraging wind power investment. Using data from my survey, various alternative policy incentives are considered and compared in terms of their perceived reliability for supporting long-term investment. Chapter 2 introduces the concept of expected payment of carbon as a factor in investment decision-making. The notion of carbon risk (the financial risk associated with CO2 emissions under potential climate change policy) is usually incorporated into

  12. Transmit power optimization for green multihop relaying over Nakagami-m fading channels

    KAUST Repository

    Randrianantenaina, Itsikiantsoa

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the optimal transmit power strategy to maximize the energy efficiency of a multihop relaying network. Considering the communication between a source and a destination through multiple Amplify-and-Forward relays, we first give the expression of the total instantaneous system energy consumption. Then, we define the energy efficiency in our context and obtain its expression in closed-form when the communication is over Nakagami-m fading channels. The analysis yields to the derivation of a global transmit power strategy where each individual node is contributing to the end-to-end overall energy efficiency. Numercial results are presented to illustrate the analysis. Comparison with Monte Carlo simulation results confirms the accuracy of our derivations, and assesses the gains of the proposed power optimization strategy. © 2014 IEEE.

  13. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean: Approaches for the power policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean is a joint project of the Latin American Organization of Energia (OLADE), the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (Cepal) of the United Nations and the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammennarbeit (GTZ). The intention of this project is the one to fortify the processes of formulation of power policies to harmonize economic growth, social fairness and protection of the environment in order to contribute to that the reforms that come undertaking the countries from the region prohang to the sustainable development. The made work it is come off that the sustainability of the power development raises a series of challenges to future. Concordant with the reactivation of the economic growth in the Nineties a low power productivity is still pronounced. To this they add one reduced to cover of satisfaction of the power necessities and the forest deterioration, jointly with the low quality of the power consumption and the impacts in the level of transmissions that will have the incorporation of polluting sources in the expansion of the regional power systems. On the other hand, the work shows a preoccupation with respect to the sustainability of the expansion of the power systems. At the present time the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean do not have a significant responsibility in the global environmental problems, since single they generate 5% of the world-wide CO2 transmissions whereas the developed countries contribute around 70%. Nevertheless, the new power developments based on the greater hydrocarbon consumption will be able to increase the contribution from the region to the deterioration of the atmosphere. At the same time, the expansion based on the hydroelectric generation also has some limitations although it contributes positively to the mitigation of the transmissions, which raises new challenges to the reform of the power sector

  14. Outlooks for Wind Power in the United States: Drivers and Trends under a 2016 Policy Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ho, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stehly, Tyler [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heimiller, Donna [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Over the past decade, wind power has become one of the fastest growing electricity generation sources in the United States. Despite this growth, the U.S. wind industry continues to experience year-to-year fluctuations across the manufacturing and supply chain as a result of dynamic market conditions and changing policy landscapes. Moreover, with advancing wind technologies, ever-changing fossil fuel prices, and evolving energy policies, the long-term future for wind power is highly uncertain. In this report, we present multiple outlooks for wind power in the United States, to explore the possibilities of future wind deployment. The future wind power outlooks presented rely on high-resolution wind resource data and advanced electric sector modeling capabilities to evaluate an array of potential scenarios of the U.S. electricity system. Scenario analysis is used to explore drivers, trends, and implications for wind power deployment over multiple periods through 2050. Specifically, we model 16 scenarios of wind deployment in the contiguous United States. These scenarios span a wide range of wind technology costs, natural gas prices, and future transmission expansion. We identify conditions with more consistent wind deployment after the production tax credit expires as well as drivers for more robust wind growth in the long run. Conversely, we highlight challenges to future wind deployment. We find that the degree to which wind technology costs decline can play an important role in future wind deployment, electric sector CO2 emissions, and lowering allowance prices for the Clean Power Plan.

  15. Highly efficient solutions for smart and bulk power transmission of 'green energy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breuer, Wilfried; Retzmann, Dietmar; Uecker, Karl

    2010-09-15

    Environmental constraints, loss minimization and CO2 reduction will play an increasingly more important role in future. Security and sustainability of power supply as well as economic efficiency needs application of advanced technologies. Innovative solutions with HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current) and FACTS (Flexible AC Transmission Systems) have the potential to cope with these challenges. They provide the features which are necessary to avoid technical problems in power systems, they increase the transmission capacity and system stability very efficiently and help prevent cascading outages. Furthermore, they are essential for Grid Access of Renewable Energy Sources such as Hydro, Wind and Solar-Energy.

  16. Providing Efficient Network Access to Green Power Generators : A Long-term Property Rights Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petropoulos, G.; Willems, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Coordinating the timing of new production facilities is one of the challenges of liberalized power sectors. It is complicated by the presence of transmission bottlenecks, oligopolistic competition and the unknown prospects of low-carbon technologies. We build a model encompassing a late and early

  17. Joint cost of energy under an optimal economic policy of hybrid power systems subject to uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Planas, Estefanía; Andreu, Jon; Kortabarria, Iñigo

    2015-01-01

    Economical optimization of hybrid systems is usually performed by means of LCoE (levelized cost of energy) calculation. Previous works deal with the LCoE calculation of the whole hybrid system disregarding an important issue: the stochastic component of the system units must be jointly considered. This paper deals with this issue and proposes a new fast optimal policy that properly calculates the LCoE of a hybrid system and finds the lowest LCoE. This proposed policy also considers the implied competition among power sources when variability of gas and electricity prices are taken into account. Additionally, it presents a comparative between the LCoE of the hybrid system and its individual technologies of generation by means of a fast and robust algorithm based on vector logical computation. Numerical case analyses based on realistic data are presented that valuate the contribution of technologies in a hybrid power system to the joint LCoE. - Highlights: • We perform the LCoE calculation with the stochastic component jointly considered. • We propose a fast an optimal policy that minimizes the LCoE. • We compare the obtained LCoEs by means of a fast and robust algorithm. • We take into account the competition among gas prices and electricity prices

  18. Berta and Adelaide: the policy of consolidation of the royal power of Hugh of Arles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Vignodelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Both twins dowers made up by Hugh of Provence, king of Italic Kingdom, for his betrothal with Berta and that of his son Lothair with Adelaide, have to be understood within the policy of strengthening the royal power led by the king in the Thirties of the Tenth century: the dowers are in fact the crown of that policy. The double dower constitution supplies the king of Italy the opportunity to reserve for himself (and for the new formed young royal couple a strong control of the center of the Po valley around Pavia and dismantles (for the benefit of the royal domain ducal bases of power in Tuscia. The analysis of the work of Hugh allows us to understand its policy towards the aristocracy and the mechanisms for the promotion of new families (Aleramici, Obertenghi, Canossa. The original documents of dower were kept in the monastery of St. Salvatore of Pavia, founded by Adelaide; this locations isn’t due to the goods endowment of the monastery but to their importance as instrument of political legitimacy of the new Ottonian royal family.

  19. China and India Going Green: The Power of Wind, International Norms, and National Commitments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvan Siefert

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available India and China have established reputations in the international community for rapid economic development, innovative technology and exploitation of natural resources. Aside from the United States, China and India are the two major producers of carbon dioxide emissions in the world. At the same time China and India are two of the leading developing countries in promoting green energy and international climate change objectives. The local wind energy industry, as an alternative to replace fuel, witnessed a politically-sponsored take-off in both countries in terms of global market share as well as domestically-installed wind energy capacity in the late 2000s. In particular, the current governments have taken the issue seriously on both the local and international levels. China and India ratified the Paris Agreement in 2015 and their national climate objectives. The puzzle of rapidly growing and politically supported wind energy sectors in these two countries in which environmental protection is strategically ignored in favour for economic growth has to be understood in the terms of the bigger picture of Beijing and New Delhi fostering external and internal legitimation by transforming norms and values to measureable outcomes. To do so, the paper illuminates the development of renewed legislative commitments for wind energy, the increasing external pressure for emission reductions, institutional changes, and demands for legitimation in India and China.

  20. The Future of Nuclear Power in the Light of European Energy Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweickardt, Hans E.

    2014-01-01

    1. Energy policy post-Fukushima: • Following the initial shock: differentiated development, no cohesive European policy; • EU: Nuclear Power (NP) remains important in the context of climate policy; • Bulk of European countries: Keep or even expand share of NP (UK, Eastern Europe); • Germany and Switzerland (CH): Exit from NP, in Germany based on previously fixed shutdown deadlines for every facility, in CH based on exclusion of new builds. 2. Switzerland's focus: • Current CH electricity supply: twin pillars of NP + hydro power; high sustainability. • Federal Council's new energy strategy and its consequences: Strain on economy and companies due to market distortion and high renovation costs; plus growing environmental stress, dependency on imports and social inequality due to artificially high electricity prices. 3. Future of nuclear power in Switzerland: Conceivable possibilities: • Short-term: Relatively rapid ban on nuclear power (but poss. with back-door research/no ban on thinking about the technology); • Medium-term: Ban on new facilities but old plants continue to operate; • Long-term: Re-entry/new start, poss. even sanctioned by politicians, on the following grounds: rather new facilities than old, good for the climate, costeffectiveness, energy security. 4. A new look for nuclear power? HTR technology of particular interest due to the following benefits: • Disposal (less waste, recycling); • Technical controllability, core meltdown impossible; • Manageable dimensions (particularly important in CH); • Financial feasibility. Whether NP will remain on the agenda, and which technology wins through also depends heavily on external factors: climate policy, cost-effectiveness/financial feasibility, readiness for market, change in value, trends in other energy sources. 5. Summary: Future of NP difficult to predict. If technology is mature and launched on the market within a reasonable time frame, the potential is there

  1. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs

  2. Recommendations for NRC policy on shift scheduling and overtime at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, P.M.

    1985-07-01

    This report contains the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL's) recommendations to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for an NRC policy on shift scheduling and hours of work (including overtime) for control room operators and other safety-related personnel in nuclear power plants. First, it is recommended that NRC make three additions to its present policy on overtime: (1) limit personnel to 112 hours of work in a 14-day period, 192 hours in 28 days, and 2260 hours in one year; exceeding these limits would require plant manager approval; (2) add a requirement that licensees obtain approval from NRC if plant personnel are expected to exceed 72 hours of work in a 7-day period, 132 hours in 14 days, 228 hours in 28 days, and 2300 hours in one year; and (3) make the policy a requirement, rather than a nonbinding recommendation. Second, it is recommended that licensees be required to obtain NRC approval to adopt a routine 12-hour/day shift schedule. Third, it is recommended that NRC add several nonbinding recommendations concerning routine 8-hour/day schedules. Finally, because additional data can strengthen the basis for future NRC policy on overtime, five methods are suggested for collecting data on overtime and its effects. 44 refs., 10 tabs.

  3. Implementation of decentralized power generation by biogas digester: Policy and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalendunath Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evolve innovative system for fast track implementation of decentralized power generation by biogas digester across the country commensurate with estimated potential of this energy resource. The methodology is based on the principle that necessity of a process or facility for human liveli hood generates demand of a new system if that is competitive enough to impress society by its value to meet the standard of usability economically and technically in all respect. Firstly, the study described a network of communication to propagate knowledge about the benefit, cost and operation of biogas digester to serve multiple purposes among policy makers and other stakeholders all over the country through distance mode programme and training of the human resources by simulating the process for training programme. Secondly, analysis by cause and effect method focused on major issues related to implementation of power generation by biogas that identified factors corresponding to the problems. Next the study attempt to focus on supply chain management for controlling those factors supported by administration with financial, technical facilities ensuring trouble free dynamic process from procurement of substrate through input to digester till delivery of electricity to the consumers. The study identified driving variables between resource centre and delivery stage of the supply chain that has influence on methane production related to power generation. The mathematical analysis reveal that optimum yield of biogas is independent of daily feed stock and improving methane fraction of biogas is possible by monitoring temperature and pH value within limited span of Hydraulic Retention period (HRT.The study observed by mathematical analysis that cost of power generation from biogas digester is dependent on the cost of substrate for biogas generation and the other fixed cost of the process. Bio gas digester cum power generation policy has been

  4. Policy and regulatory framework conditions for small hydro power in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koelling, Fritz [Sustainable Energy and Environment, Karlsruhe (Germany); Gaul, Mirco; Schroeder, Miriam [SiNERGi Consultancy for Renewable Energies, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The vast potential of mini and micro hydro power (MHP) in Sub-Saharan African countries is one promising option to cover increasing energy demand and to enable electricity access for remote rural communities. Based on the analysis of 6 African countries (Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa), this study sheds light on some of the main barriers on the level of political and regulatory framework conditions which include gap between the national-level policies and regulations and local MHP project implementation, lack of financing and limited capacities for project planning, building and operation. The paper also identifies some promising practices employed in several SSA countries of how to overcome these barriers and concludes with recommendations of how to create positive feed-backs between ambitious policies and regulations and MHP financing and capacity development needs in order to scale up MHP deployment and MHP sector development. (orig.)

  5. Feasibility study of a green energy powered thermoelectric chip based air conditioner for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Á.G.; Chen, T.S.; Hong, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Traditional compressed-refrigerant air conditioning systems consume substantial energy that may reduce the driving performance and cruising mileage of electric vehicles considerably. It is crucial to design a new climate control system, using a direct energy conversion principle, to further aid in the commercialization of modern electric vehicles. A solid state air conditioner model consisting on TECs (thermoelectric chips) as the load, DSSCs (dye sensitized solar cells) as the renewable energy source and high power LiBs (lithium-ion batteries) as an energy storage device are considered for a personal mobility vehicle. The power management between the main power net and the solid state air conditioner interface is designed with an outer proportional-integral controller and an inner passivity based current controller with a loss included model for perfect tracking. This model is intended to comprise thermal and electrical elements which can be tunable for performance benchmarking and optimization of a solid state air conditioning system. Dynamic performance simulations of the solid-state air conditioner are performed, alongside guidelines for feasibility. - Highlights: • Alternative model extraction for dye sensitized solar cells. • Improved and computationally fast model for the cabin air temperature dynamics. • Euler–Lagrange loss included modeling of a buck converter. • Loss-included passivity based inner loop current control. • The thermoelectric chip air conditioner is tested in simulated cooling/heating scenarios

  6. CFD modeling of artificial vortex air generator for green electric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismaeel Ali A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD simulation of artificial vortex air generator as part of the preliminary of Solar Vortex Power Generator for an electrical power generation. A vortex air generator system was built, consisting of concentric cylinders. The inner cylinder was fitted with stationary air guide vanes and covered at the top by a transparent plate to capture the solar radiation and create swirling updraft flow which is able to rotate wind turbine and produces power. The influence of inlet air velocity and temperature on the swirling strength and mass flow generated has been evaluated by validated CFD simulation. ANSYS Fluent software was adopted to solve the 3-D, steady state of Navier-Stokes and energy equations in cylindrical coordinate system integrated with discrete ordinates (DO radiation model. For the preliminary vortex generator design, the CFD results were validated first with previous experimental measurements. Then the variable operation parameters were carried out on the proposed model. The simulation result demonstrated that inflow velocity is a key parameter for enhancing the system performance. By increasing the inflow velocity from 0.4 m/s to 0.6 m/s and inflow temperature 323°k the enhancement rate of the mass air flow generated reached to 26% compared with 7% when increase the inflow temperature to 328°k and inflow velocity 0.4 m/s.

  7. The sustainability of green funds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, B.

    This paper analyses the performance of the Dutch "Green Funds Scheme". This scheme is a policy instrument to advance green projects. The scheme relies on tax compensation for private investors who save or invest in green institutions below market returns. The green institutions select and monitor

  8. 75 FR 23262 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee... efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting May 12, 2010 (8 a.m.-12 p.m.), Hilton Baton Rouge...

  9. 75 FR 63168 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting and the Entergy Regional State Committee... ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting October 20, 2010 (8 a.m.-12 p.m...

  10. 75 FR 41858 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at the Southwest Power Pool ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July 12, 2010. The Federal Energy Regulatory... is part of the Commission's ongoing outreach efforts. ICT Stakeholder Policy Committee Meeting July...

  11. World bank's role in the electric power sector: Policies for effective institutional, regulatory, and financial reform. World Bank policy paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    The policy paper is based on the World Bank Industry and Energy Department's ongoing policy and research work, which (1) examines experiences of industrial countries and the Bank's borrowers in developing their power sectors, (2) analyzes issues facing these sectors, and (3) describes options for dealing with these issues in developing countries. The paper is supported by a large body of research.

  12. Tooth-to-Tail Greening: Energy and Climate Leadership and Policy Change at the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    environmental issue commu- nities, the effort appears to have been primarily motivated by recognition of the operational costs of a heavy logistics burden on...the policy process by categorizing key players as “streams” and “ entrepreneurs ” and action in conjunction with temporal issues, or “policy windows...Also important to the process, policy entrepreneurs can connect these streams during windows to bring about policy change. While possibly

  13. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  14. Automatically Green

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunstein, Cass R.; Reisch, Lucia

    reasons include the power of suggestion; inertia and procrastination; and loss aversion. If well-chosen, green defaults are likely to have large effects in reducing the economic and environmental harms associated with various products and activities. Such defaults may or may not be more expensive...

  15. Assessing the Impact of Wind/PV Power Generation and Market Policies on Decentralized Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    S.M. Arnoux, Luciana; Santiago, Leonardo

    In this paper, we offer a comprehensive approach to assess the impact of wind and photovoltaic power generation on decentralized hybrid systems. In particular, we focus on three performance measures of the energy system, namely reliability, costs, and efficiency. Most of the current studies focus...... technologies (e.g., smart metering) and policy design....... metering). Finally, we shed light on the performance metrics of the energy system: reliability, economy, and efficiency. We illustrate our approach by using data from a city in Brazil and analyze the behavior of system’s key parameters. We close by suggesting possible implications for managing new...

  16. The role of combined heat and power (CHP) in energy and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, F.

    1993-03-01

    In the energy- and environment context CHP is said to be especially energy saving and climate preserving. This report shows that from the standpoint of energy economics as well as under technical aspects this judgement holds true only under special conditions. Depending on the technical parameters, the concrete circumstances of operation and the characteristics of the power plants and heating systems compared to CHP-plants the range of realistic energy savings turns out to be very large. Related overstimations are to a good extend caused by the traditional practice of granting the energetic advantage of CHP exclusively to the district heating. If this advantage is credited to heat and power as equal shares space heating with cogenerated power of 80% efficiency reveals to be very energy conserving. The uno actu utilization of cogenerated heat and power, for the same purpose could facilitate the expansion of CHP, since the problems related to the feeding of cogenerated power into the grid for general purposes would disappear. The second main issue of this report concerns the abatement of CO 2 -emissions with the aid of CHP. Fuelled with natural gas, CHP-plants are attractive instruments for climate policy. This is especially true if CHP is compared to old coal-based power plants and oil-fuelled old heating systems. In the FRG, however, hard coal, and not natural gas, will be the main fuel for future CHP, lowering its CO 2 -advantage considerably. On the other hand high efficient combi-power plants (gas turbine plus condensing turbine) and gas heating systems have to be included in the comparative analyse. Compared to these advanced systems the CO 2 -characteristics of CHP are inferior. Moreover, the specific CO 2 -advantage of natural gas is better used by such modern mono systems rather than CHP-plants. (orig.) [de

  17. The Green Stamp in Power Supply Contracts - A proposal for the Brazilian Electricity Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrocio, Joao Paulo

    2010-09-15

    The insertion of a certification mechanism for discriminatory energy supply contracts aiming to make it possible to contract exclusively clean and renewable energy is presented. With the increasing interest for sustainability and carbon emissions reduction, there's a growing demand for clean energy reflected in people's choices for cleaner products. Electricity in a power grid, however, is result of a set of sources or plants, and its operation or dispatch. A proposal for clean energy contracts is presented, providing the market and the clients with the ability to choose to buy exclusively renewable energy through the grid.

  18. Wind and Solar on the Power Grid: Myths and Misperceptions, Greening the Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Jessica; Denholm, Paul; Pless, Jacquelyn

    2015-05-01

    Wind and solar are inherently more variable and uncertain than the traditional dispatchable thermal and hydro generators that have historically provided a majority of grid-supplied electricity. The unique characteristics of variable renewable energy (VRE) resources have resulted in many misperceptions regarding their contribution to a low-cost and reliable power grid. Common areas of concern include: 1) The potential need for increased operating reserves, 2) The impact of variability and uncertainty on operating costs and pollutant emissions of thermal plants, and 3) The technical limits of VRE penetration rates to maintain grid stability and reliability. This fact sheet corrects misperceptions in these areas.

  19. Purchase of power by State Electricity Boards from biomass gasifier systems: formulating a long term national policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, B.C.

    1992-01-01

    Current policy for purchase of power from renewable sources of energy by State Electricity Boards in India is examined and certain changes in that policy are suggested. State Electricity Boards are reluctant to buy power from renewables as such a purchase is seen by the Boards as being of against their economic interests. But if socio-environmental and climatological costs of power of thermal plants are taken into consideration, it becomes imperative that a long term policy for power purchase from renewables by electricity boards will have to be followed. Such a policy is outlined. After giving formulae for unit cost of generation from thermal power plants, diesel generation (DG) sets and biomass gasification, it is recommended that basis for the purchase price for power generated through biomass gas should be the cost of generation through DG sets or cost of generation through biomass gasification whichever is lower. A clause for automatic price escalation should also be a part of such policy. Some measures to compensate electricity boards for purchase of power from renewables are suggested. They include levying of a special surcharge by boards on their electricity sales and funding by the Central Government. (M.G.B.)

  20. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  1. Green Power Grids: How Energy from Renewable Sources Affects Networks and Markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Caldarelli, Guido; Chessa, Alessandro; Scala, Antonio; Damiano, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The increasing attention to environmental issues is forcing the implementation of novel energy models based on renewable sources. This is fundamentally changing the configuration of energy management and is introducing new problems that are only partly understood. In particular, renewable energies introduce fluctuations which cause an increased request for conventional energy sources to balance energy requests at short notice. In order to develop an effective usage of low-carbon sources, such fluctuations must be understood and tamed. In this paper we present a microscopic model for the description and for the forecast of short time fluctuations related to renewable sources in order to estimate their effects on the electricity market. To account for the inter-dependencies in the energy market and the physical power dispatch network, we use a statistical mechanics approach to sample stochastic perturbations in the power system and an agent based approach for the prediction of the market players' behavior. Our model is data-driven; it builds on one-day-ahead real market transactions in order to train agents' behaviour and allows us to deduce the market share of different energy sources. We benchmarked our approach on the Italian market, finding a good accordance with real data.

  2. Challenges of nuclear power for the sustainable role in Korean energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y. E.

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to introduce the current role of nuclear power of Korea as the economic and low carbon emitter in the long term expansion planning and to improve the public acceptance of nuclear as the environmentally friendliness energy source. Nuclear and coal have been selected as the major electricity sources due to the insufficient domestic energy resources, and will provide more than 60% of total electricity generation in Korea for quite some time. National energy policy addressing environmental friendliness, stable supply and least cost has made it difficult to decide which energy resource is the best for the long term energy planning. Climate change regime will diminish the coal power plants in generation amount, the public still keeps nuclear at a distance and insists to replace nuclear by renewable and renewable doesn't any guarantee of stable supply although its economics is fast being improved. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the long-term power expansion planning in various points of view such as environmental friendliness, benefit of carbon reduction and system reliability as well as least cost operation. The objective and approach of this study are to analyze the proper role of nuclear power by comparing the different types of scenarios in terms of the system cost changes, CO 2 emission reduction and system reliability. The results from this analysis are useful for the Korean government in charge of long-term energy policy to go over what kinds of role can each electric resources play and what are the best way to solve the triangular dilemma as economics, environmental friendliness, stable supply of the electricity

  3. The political economy of international green certificate markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soederholm, Patrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the political economy of establishing bilateral trade in green certificate markets as one step towards harmonization of European green electricity support systems. We outline some of the economic principles of an integrated bilateral green certificates market, and then discuss a number of issues that are deemed to be critical for the effectiveness, stability and legitimacy of such a market. By drawing on some of the lessons of the fairly recent intentions to integrate a future green certificate market in Norway with the existing Swedish one, we highlight, exemplify and discuss some critical policy implementation and design issues. These include, for instance, the system's connection to climate policy targets, the role of other support schemes and the definition of what green electricity technologies should be included. Furthermore, the establishment of an international market presumes that the benefits of renewable power (e.g., its impacts on the environment, diversification of the power mix, self-sufficiency, etc.) are approached and valued from an international perspective rather than from a national one, thus implying lesser emphasis on, for instance, employment and regional development impacts. A bilateral green certificate system thus faces a number of important policy challenges, but at the same time it could provide important institutional learning effects that can be useful for future attempts aiming at achieving greater policy integration in the European renewable energy sector

  4. A research-based commentary on the EC Green Paper "Audit Policy: Lessons form the Crisis": Governance and independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of ehe financial crisis, the EU Commision has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present article...... presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence. The Green...... Paper proposes that a solution could be to prohibit NAS to audit clients. Research results indecate alernative possibilitiers: e.g. banning the most harmful non-audeit sevices and / or limiting the relative share of fees from NAS....

  5. Green Development Status in Zhejiang Province and the City of Ningbo, China: Examination of Policies, Strategies and Incentives at Multiple Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheshmehzangi, Ali; Deng, Wu; Zhang, Yun; Xie, Linjun

    2017-05-01

    China is undergoing the largest scale of urbanization in history and at an unprecedented pace. The construction and operation of buildings have inevitably brought severe pressures on resource conservation and environmental protection. China has initiated policies, strategies and financial incentive schemes at national level to address these issues. It is also seen that there is a growing interest in recent years at local government level in promoting green buildings. This paper will examine the current national policies, targets and standards and then discuss how these national initiatives are reflected at provincial and city level by taking Zhejiang Province and Ningbo City as case studies. A comparison between different levels of initiatives is conducted by reviewing incentive mechanisms, technological development and compliance requirements. It is concluded that the national initiatives may be not effective without local enhancement.

  6. The mechanics of green power : emission benefits and credits in voluntary and commitment periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyndman, R.

    1998-01-01

    The challenge facing the electric power industry in reducing greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto Protocol was discussed. The paper illustrates the emission reduction incentives prior to and during the commitment period, with particular focus on pricing. It was noted that in the absence of greenhouse gas emission reduction incentives and prices, coal has a lower running cost and would be dispatched ahead of oil and natural gas. The same situation exists with respect to nuclear, hydro and wind, all of which have lower marginal running costs than fossil fuel plants, thus will run ahead of fossil fuel plants wherever they are available. Various models of the electricity market in North America were demonstrated. The issue of how to determine the amount of greenhouse gas offset and its significance was also addressed. figs

  7. Policies to Keep and Expand the Option of Concentrating Solar Power for Dispatchable Renewable Electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehos, Mark S [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lilliestam, Johan [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Barradi, Touria [MENARES; Caldes, Natalia [CIEMAT; Gomez, Marta [Dow Chemicals; Hanger, Susanne [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Kern, Jurgen [German Aerospace Center (DLR); Komendantova, Nadejda [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH); Hong, Wai Mun [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid; Wang, Zhifeng [Chinese Academy of Science; Patt, Anthony [Federal Swiss Institute for Technology (ETH)

    2018-02-16

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the few renewable electricity technologies that can offer dispatchable electricity at large scale. Thus, it may play an important role in the future, especially to balance fluctuating sources in increasingly renewables-based power systems. Today, its costs are higher than those of PV and wind power and, as most countries do not support CSP, deployment is slow. Unless the expansion gains pace and costs decrease, the industry may stagnate or collapse, and an important technology for climate change mitigation has been lost. Keeping CSP as a maturing technology for dispatchable renewable power thus requires measures to improve its short-term economic attractiveness and to continue reducing costs in the longer term. We suggest a set of three policy instruments - feed-in tariffs or auctions reflecting the value of dispatchable CSP, and not merely its cost; risk coverage support for innovative designs; and demonstration projects - to be deployed, in regions where CSP has a potentially large role to play. This could provide the CSP industry with a balance of attractive profits and competitive pressure, the incentive to expand CSP while also reducing its costs, making it ready for broad-scale deployment when it is needed.

  8. The Power of Economic Ideas: A Constructivist Political Economy of EU Trade Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Siles-Brügge

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The European Union’s (EU’s 2006 Global Europe communication established an offensive Free Trade Agreement (FTA agenda premised on serving the interests of the EU’s upmarket exporters at the expense of the EU’s remaining “pockets of protection”. This has remained in place with the advent of the 2010 Trade, Growth and World Affairs strategy. Such a development defies both rationalist International Political Economy (IPE explanations – which emphasise the protectionist bias of societal mobilisation – and accounts stressing the institutional insulation of policy-makers from societal pressures because the recent economic crisis and the increased politicisation of EU trade policy by the European Parliament have coexisted without leading to greater protectionism. Adopting a constructivist approach, we show that this turn of events can be explained by the neoliberal ideas internalised by policy-makers in the European Commission’s Directorate-General (DG for Trade. We then deploy a novel heuristic to illustrate how DG Trade acted upon these ideas to strategically construct a powerful discursive imperative for liberalisation.

  9. Development perspectives of the Polish power generation sector according to the climate preservation conference COP21 policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczerbowski Radosław

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Power generation policy equals the safety policy of a certain country. It should be reasonable and it should consider the access to available energy sources. The crucial issue revolves around minimizing the negative influence of power generation sector on the environment. At the same time, recent years have proven the united stand of world policies toward power generation. Poland has also attempted to determine a new model of power generation strategy. This strategy ought to consider the needs of both the recipients and climate challenges. But there is a crucial question of the shape of the new strategy for development of power system within the next years in the light of requirements of convention on climate change. During the Climate Conference in Paris in December 2015 – 195 countries accepted the first world agreement related to climate preservation. The agreement determines a world action plan, which is to prevent climate change as the result of climate warming. One of the goals is a quick reduction of emissions including power generation sector. This overview presents a current state of National Power System, availability of primary energy sources and various power technologies of future strategy for power system development. The technologies are described in view of their possible use for power generation and their applicability for the reduction of emissions of harmful substances to the atmosphere.

  10. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalam Adil

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined Heat and Power (CHP systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? Methods We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Results Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. Conclusion From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives

  11. Combined heat and power systems: economic and policy barriers to growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalam, Adil; King, Abigail; Moret, Ellen; Weerasinghe, Upekha

    2012-04-23

    Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems can provide a range of benefits to users with regards to efficiency, reliability, costs and environmental impact. Furthermore, increasing the amount of electricity generated by CHP systems in the United States has been identified as having significant potential for impressive economic and environmental outcomes on a national scale. Given the benefits from increasing the adoption of CHP technologies, there is value in improving our understanding of how desired increases in CHP adoption can be best achieved. These obstacles are currently understood to stem from regulatory as well as economic and technological barriers. In our research, we answer the following questions: Given the current policy and economic environment facing the CHP industry, what changes need to take place in this space in order for CHP systems to be competitive in the energy market? We focus our analysis primarily on Combined Heat and Power Systems that use natural gas turbines. Our analysis takes a two-pronged approach. We first conduct a statistical analysis of the impact of state policies on increases in electricity generated from CHP system. Second, we conduct a Cost-Benefit analysis to determine in which circumstances funding incentives are necessary to make CHP technologies cost-competitive. Our policy analysis shows that regulatory improvements do not explain the growth in adoption of CHP technologies but hold the potential to encourage increases in electricity generated from CHP system in small-scale applications. Our Cost-Benefit analysis shows that CHP systems are only cost competitive in large-scale applications and that funding incentives would be necessary to make CHP technology cost-competitive in small-scale applications. From the synthesis of these analyses we conclude that because large-scale applications of natural gas turbines are already cost-competitive, policy initiatives aimed at a CHP market dominated primarily by large-scale (and

  12. Savings serving energy transition Green finance: a powerful and citizen-oriented tool. Working paper no. 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergne, Frederique; Kerhoas, Mailys; Lety, Benoit; Lutzky, Ana

    2015-06-01

    The lack of funding is often considered, especially by public decision-makers, as one of the major reasons for the slow-down of implementation of energy transition. However, savings and cash flow have never been so abundant. With exclusive money creation, facilitated by very accommodating monetary policies implemented by central banks, financial markets are over-flown with cash flow. This paradox underlines that the issue is not caused by the lack of financial means but rather on the lack of tools favouring the allocation of such means to energy transition. Investments needs are considerable, ranging from 60 to 70 billion Euros each year, which represents approximately 3% of the European GDP. On the European level, expenses supposed to be dedicated to energy transition are valued around 350 to 400 billion Euros each year during 10 years, or, once again, around 3% of the European GDP. The issue is mainly to allocate investments differently rather than increasing their global volume. Public authorities are not able to manage such investments directly and on their own. However, while private players from the financial sector haven taken initiatives and commitments, these have so far proven insufficient in comparison with the scope of the challenge. It is true that public authorities have often avoided acting directly on financial players. However, finance is not a neutral tool and its players, being part of the economy, have a specific role to play. Beyond the necessary development of local and public funding mechanisms favouring sustainable development projects? Which were not dealt with by the working group? This memo focuses on essential tools to create an efficient mechanism which supports huge allocation of savings on energy transition. Thus, it stresses out a global and innovative proposal with strong potential consequences, involving the implementation and the generalization of an 'energy transition' label for financial products, in order to enable

  13. Wind power development in the United States: Effects of policies and electricity transmission congestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitaj, Claudia

    In this dissertation, I analyze the drivers of wind power development in the United States as well as the relationship between renewable power plant location and transmission congestion and emissions levels. I first examine the role of government renewable energy incentives and access to the electricity grid on investment in wind power plants across counties from 1998-2007. The results indicate that the federal production tax credit, state-level sales tax credit and production incentives play an important role in promoting wind power. In addition, higher wind power penetration levels can be achieved by bringing more parts of the electricity transmission grid under independent system operator regulation. I conclude that state and federal government policies play a significant role in wind power development both by providing financial support and by improving physical and procedural access to the electricity grid. Second, I examine the effect of renewable power plant location on electricity transmission congestion levels and system-wide emissions levels in a theoretical model and a simulation study. A new renewable plant takes the effect of congestion on its own output into account, but ignores the effect of its marginal contribution to congestion on output from existing plants, which results in curtailment of renewable power. Though pricing congestion removes the externality and reduces curtailment, I find that in the absence of a price on emissions, pricing congestion may in some cases actually increase system-wide emissions. The final part of my dissertation deals with an econometric issue that emerged from the empirical analysis of the drivers of wind power. I study the effect of the degree of censoring on random-effects Tobit estimates in finite sample with a particular focus on severe censoring, when the percentage of uncensored observations reaches 1 to 5 percent. The results show that the Tobit model performs well even at 5 percent uncensored observations

  14. Assessing EU’s Transatlantic Regulatory Powers Using the Choice of Policy Instruments as Measurement of Preference Attainment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfgren, Karl; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2015-01-01

    To what extent is the European Union exercising global regulatory power? This paper investigates this question through a comparative study of two significant global policy fields: data-protection and banking with a special focus on the preferences and choice of policy instruments. Of particular...... concern are the implications of the still present financial and economic crisis for global regulatory power. Both cases suggest that the actual role of the EU is more complex than either exercising or subject to global regulatory power. This concerns the relationship between the EU and the member states...

  15. The greenhouse index of sustainable development for metallurgical processes of production in aspect of green power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisienko Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The accounting of greenhouse gases (GHG according to plans of the Russian Federation becomes obligatory since 2016 for the enterprises with issue of GHG not less than 150 thousand tons of CO2, since 2017 – from 50 thousand tons of CO2. Introduction of a carbon tax (15 dollars/t of CO2 is planned. Voluntary inventory of GHG of the enterprises and territories which in the long term apply is carried out to be called clever. According to University of Cambridge (USA about 45% depreciation of joint-stock portfolios in the world markets, the expected climate change connected with are expected. Parameter for an assessment of the clever city with the developed metallurgy and need of decrease in greenhouse emissions in the atmosphere – the indicator of a sustainable development considering emission of carbon dioxide, prime cost of steel and its power consumption is offered. Its values for tandems blast furnace (BF + oxygen converter (OC, BF, Corex, Romelt, Midrex, Hyl-3 everyone with arc furnace (AF are defined.

  16. Sector-based political analysis of energy transition: Green shift in the forest policy regime in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    This article examines energy transition political process from a sector-based approach, through the analysis of recent shift in the French forest policy regime. We demonstrate that, since 2007, energy transition policies have led to a harvesting turn within the French forest policy framework, meaning that priority is given to wood mobilisation, mainly for biomass uses. In addition, our findings suggest that the political authority wielded by the state over forest policy has shifted from forest administrative services to energy agencies and local authorities. Finally, we show that, although implementation of the harvesting turn is a cause of sectoral and inter-sectoral tensions, energy transition challenge also contributes to a process of (re)institutionalisation of mediation relationships among forestry stakeholders and wood-based industries representatives. The article concludes by arguing that sectors should retain relevant institutional frameworks for actors when choosing political arrangements required for implementing energy transition policy. - Highlights: • Implementing energy transition policy potentially challenges sector-based politics. • We propose a policy regime framework and socio-political investigations. • We analyse the political impact of energy transition policy on French forest sector. • Shifts occur in sectoral policy framework, authority, and mediation relationships

  17. Foreign and Security Policy of the Newly Independent States: Balancing between Two Power Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy G. Fedunyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focusing on the interplay between foreign policy agenda of the post-Soviet states at the one hand and internal policy developments in these countries at the other hand. One of the main explanations why the post-Soviet elites in non-Russian republics are pursuing the so-called multi-vectorialism in the foreign policy is that it serves as a strategy to maximize the most from having good relations both with East and West, and thus trying to perpetuate the monopoly of the power. Uzbekistan is a country in case, as Ukraine (and Moldova is (or was indeed also. At the same time, the special relations between the elites of post-Soviet countries and Moscow are very important in shaping the foreign policy agenda of these countries as a result of the Soviet legacy, i.e. the ties of the former Communist nomenklatura with Moscow are still playing a very important role in the most of the former Soviet republics. Another relevant variable in explaining the current state of affairs in the foreign and security issues of the post-Soviet states and the still dominant role of Russia is the fact that the West (NATO and EU especially are not very successful in trying to limit Moscow’s ambitions in the “near abroad”. This is making the leaders of most NIS to be obedient to Russia’s pretensions in lack of real support from the West in order to counteract these neo-imperial claims from the part of the former metropolis.

  18. Comparing green power generation and marketing in Germany with the international situation; Gruene Angebote in Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreher, M.; Hoffmann, T.; Wietschel, M.; Rentz, O. [Karlsruhe Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Industriebetriebslehre und Industrielle Produktion

    1999-07-01

    The relevant data describing the situtation in Germany have been compiled on the basis of a recent survey among electric utilities, questionnaires returned showing that there are about 28 green power marketing concepts and offers available in the German market. Information describing the market in the USA has been drawn from a literature study, and represents the most advanced yardstick for comparative analysis. Information about the situation in Switzerland and the Netherlands has been collected through personal communication with electric utilities in these countries. (orig./CB) [German] In den letzten Jahren wurden von Energieversorgungsunternehmen zunehmend sogenannte 'gruene Angebote' auf dem Markt offeriert. Als Datenquelle fuer die Untersuchung 'gruener Angebote' in Deutschland dient eine aktuelle schriftliche Umfrage bei Versorgungsunternehmen, in deren Rahmen 28 Angebote erfasst werden konnten. Die USA wurden in die vergleichende Betrachtung einbezogen, weil aufgrund der grossen Anzahl und der fruehen Einfuehrung 'gruener Angebote' den USA eine Vorreiterrolle in diesem Bereich zukommt. Die fuer die durchgefuehrten Analysen notwendigen Informationen ueber Angebote in den USA wurden im Rahmen einer Literaturanalyse, die auf Swezey et al. (1998) und Holt (1997) aufbaut, gewonnen. In den Niederlanden sowie in der Schweiz gibt es ebenfalls umfangreiche Aktivitaeten in den Bereichen 'gruene Angebote' und Nutzung regenerativer Energien, sodass auch eine Integration dieser Laender in die Untersuchungen sinnvoll ist. Die notwendigen Daten zu Angeboten auf diesen Maerkten wurden im Rahmen direkter Kontakte zu den entsprechenden Versorgungsunternehmen erhoben. (orig./RHM)

  19. Alternative Green Technology for Power Generation Using Waste-Heat Energy And Advanced Thermoelectric Materials, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is interested in advancing green technology research for achieving sustainable and environmentally friendly energy sources for both terrestrial and space...

  20. Analysis on perception of nuclear power plant and the preference of its policy alternatives for public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Sung; Lee, Byong Whi

    1995-01-01

    Public acceptance has become an important factor in nuclear power program particularly after Chernobyl accident and recent rapid democratization in Korea. Methods reflection public opinions in order to improve public acceptance are firstly to understand what the public think about nuclear power plant and secondly to find out the public preference values for its policies. For this purpose, simplified multi-attribute utility(MAU) model was applied to analyze the public perception for five power production system. And the conjoint analysis was applied to find out he quantitative values of public preferences for twelve policy alternatives to improve the safety and support communities surrounding nuclear power plants in Korea. To implement these perception and preference analyses, mail survey was conducted to the qualified sample who had the experience of visiting nuclear power plant. Diagnosis of their perception pattern for five power production systems was made by the simplified MAU model. Estimation of the quantitative preference values for potential policy alternatives was made by the conjoint measurement technique, which made it possible to forecast the effectiveness of each option. The results from the qualified sample and the methods used in this study would be helpful to set up new policy of nuclear power plant. 4 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs. (Author)