WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy goals issues

  1. Goals for Sustainable Development: Focusing on Children and Youth. Social Policy Report Brief. Volume 30, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, ratified by all 193 member states of the U.N. General Assembly in 2015, outline 17 goals considered central to sustainable development in all countries. Building on and broadening the Millennium Development Goals adopted in 2005, the new goals offer a more holistic vision of child and youth…

  2. Vaccine Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thaul, Susan

    2005-01-01

    .... Whether a vaccine's target is naturally occurring or present because of hostile intent, the issues policy makers must deal with include vaccine development, production, availability, safety, effectiveness, and access...

  3. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  4. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about

  5. Handbook of critical issues in goal programming

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, C

    1991-01-01

    Goal Programming (GP) is perhaps the oldest and most widely used approach within the Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) paradigm. GP combines the logic of optimisation in mathematical programming with the decision maker's desire to satisfy several goals. The primary purpose of this book is to identify the critical issues in GP and to demonstrate different procedures capable of avoiding or mitigating the inherent pitfalls associated with these issues. The outcome of a search of the literature shows many instances where GP models produced misleading or even erroneous results simply because

  6. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation.

  7. Mining Process Variants: Goals and Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, J.; Li, C.; Reichert, M.U.; Wombacher, Andreas

    Recently, Process-Aware Information Systems (PAIS) were introduced, which allow for dynamic process and service changes. This, in turn, has led to a large number of process model variants, which are difficult to maintain and expensive to configure. This paper deals with goals and issues related to

  8. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  9. Policy issues in modern cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, DRF

    1998-01-01

    Policy Issues in Modern Cartography contains the views of national mapping agencies, legal scholars, the library community, the private sector and academia on these and many other important issues. The book begins with perspectives from national mapping agencies in Britain, Canada and the United States followed by a survey of the situation in Asia. The next three chapters deal primarily with legal issues such as copyright and intellectual property from both North American and European perspectives. Chapter 8 presents an important perspective on the key issues by a representative of the privat

  10. Policy Goals and Outcomes In "Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, B.; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Measures of income mobility should be valuable for assessing performance in achieving national policy goals. We propose a portfolio of measures to assess policy goals relating to 1. economic growth and rising living standards 2. equality of opportunity 3. equality of outcomes 4. income security and

  11. Family reunification: policies and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G

    1995-01-01

    "International standards provide for protection of the family as the fundamental unit of society. However, a consequent right to family reunification for migrants is not sanctioned and continues to be resisted. This article reviews the formulation of the possibility for family reunification as provided for in international and regional standards and by migration policies. It argues that family separation, if inherent in some forms of migration, should not be institutionalized by migration policies and that state sovereignty is limited when dealing with human rights. More specifically it argues that labor migration, as currently developing in Asia, will require appropriate family reunification policies, because it will evolve into some form of settlement." excerpt

  12. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  13. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  14. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  15. Energy issues and policies in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldemberg, J.

    1981-10-01

    Initiative taken in Brazil to achieve 'energy autonomy' in vien of the petroleum crisis is analyzed. The dynamics of the movement away from oil and the desire to base the development of the country on locally available resources such as hydroelectricity and biomass derived fuels are emphasized. Energy resources, energy comsumption, issues and policies, energy projections and social issues are discussed, as well as the relevance and applicability to other countries of policies followed in Brazil. (I.C.R.) [pt

  16. Critical Issues in Crime Control Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Edith Elisabeth, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Entire issue discusses crime control policy in the United States, including such issues as the relation of social and environmental variables to criminal activity, dealing with the career offender, biological correlates of criminal behavior, juvenile delinquency, and white collar crime. (CS)

  17. Application of diffusion research to solar energy policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roessner, J. D.; Posner, D.; Shoemaker, F.; Shama, A.

    1979-03-01

    This paper examines two types of information requirements that appear to be basic to DOE solar-energy-policy decisions: (1) how can the future market success of solar energy technologies be estimated, and (2) what factors influence the adoption of solar energy technologies, and what specific programs could promote solar energy adoption most effectively. This paper assesses the ability of a body of research, referred to here as diffusion research, to supply information that could partially satisfy these requirements. This assessment proceeds, first, by defining in greater detail a series of policy issues that face DOE. These are divided into cost reduction and performance improvement issues which include issues confronting the technology development component of the solar energy program, and barriers and incentives issues which are most relevant to problems of solar energy application. Second, these issues are translated into a series of questions that the diffusion approach can help resolve. Third, various elements within diffusion research are assessed in terms of their abilities to answer policy questions. Finally, the strengths and limitations of current knowledge about the diffusion of innovations are summarized, the applicability of both existing knowledge and the diffusion approach to the identified solar-energy-policy issues are discussed, and ways are suggested in which diffusion approaches can be modified and existing knowledge employed to meet short- and long-term goals of DOE. The inquiry covers the field of classical diffusion research, market research and consumer behavior, communication research, and solar-energy market-penetration modeling.

  18. Issues in Higher Education Budgeting Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Mary P.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews two papers appearing in this "Economics of Education Review" issue. Faults M.J. Bowman, B. Millot, and E. Schiefelbein's tax burden study for excluding background information on educational goals in France, Chile, and Malaysia. Criticizes L. R. Jones, F. Thompson, and W. Zumeta for viewing budgeting as limiting expenditures, rather than…

  19. Policy Issues in Gay and Lesbian Adoption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Notes that adoption agencies have developed few specific policies on the issue of lesbian and gay adoption. Provides an overview of key considerations about homosexual adopters, including beliefs and values of agency professionals, the legal and social ramifications of adoption into a relationship not based on marriage, and possible consequences…

  20. Public Policy Issues on the Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business Officer, 1997

    1997-01-01

    The National Association of College and University Business Officers (NACUBO) has identified public policy issues of interest to its membership in 1997, including those in budget and appropriations, college costs and pricing, distance learning and technology, environmental health and safety, federal audit and accounting standards, Higher Education…

  1. Translational medicine policy issues in infectious disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fears, R.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Meulen, V. ter

    2010-01-01

    The European Academies Science Advisory Council has published a series of reports on infectious disease policy issues, analyzing priorities for building the science base as part of public health strategy. Among current challenges facing the European Union are the needs to tackle antibiotic

  2. National Vaccine Policy: ethical equity issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishnan, T

    2013-01-01

    The ministry of health and family welfare published the national vaccination policy in April 2011. The policy document drew severe criticism from several public health experts. A review of the print and web-based literature on the national vaccine policy was done and the issues of ethics and equity involved in introducing new vaccines under the Universal Immunisation Programme (UIP) were studied. The average coverage of the UIP vaccines at the national level is below 50%. Despite this, the policy document did not state any concrete strategy for increasing the coverage. The main stumbling block for evidence-based vaccine policy in India is the lack of reliable epidemiological data, which makes it difficult for the National Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation to offer sound technical advice to the government. No attempts have been made to prioritise diseases or the selection of vaccines. The policy suggests the introduction of the following vaccines in the UIP: Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcal vaccine, rotavirus vaccines and human papillomavirus (HPV). This selection is on the grounds of the vaccines' availability, not on the basis of epidemiological evidence or proven cost-effectiveness. This is a critical review of the current vaccination policy and the move to include the rotavirus and HPV vaccines in the UIP.

  3. Integrated assessment of climate change: Characterizing key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, R.S.; O`Hara, F.M. Jr.

    1996-02-01

    A multidisciplinary, multiagency workshop was convened by the US Department of Energy in Washington, DC, June 29-30,1994. The goal of the workshop was to define key policy issues related to global climate change and the types of information pertaining to these issues that decision makers would find most useful. The workshop was organized by the Center for Global Environmental Studies and the Environmental Sciences Division, both of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, in cooperation with a steering committee composed of seven national laboratories.

  4. Advocacy and policy issues Tutorial 2

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    This tutorial is aimed at those who are new to the area of repositories and who want to learn more about key advocacy and policy issues. The tutorial will include information and advice on putting together an institutional advocacy campaign and developing policies for your repository. There will be opportunities for participants to share experiences and to ask questions. The tutorial will include a practical exercise in developing an advocacy presentation. Participants with experience of advocacy are welcome to attend the session to share their experiences, but should bear in mind that it is aimed primarily at those looking for help and advice in advocacy matters.

  5. Reducing Environmental Allergic Triggers: Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramson, Stuart L

    The implementation of policies to reduce environmental allergic triggers can be an important adjunct to optimal patient care for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. Policies at the local level in schools and other public as well as private buildings can make an impact on disease morbidity. Occupational exposures for allergens have not yet been met with the same rigorous policy standards applied for exposures to toxicants by Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Further benefit may be obtained through policies by local, county, state, and national governments, and possibly through international cooperative agreements. The reduction of allergenic exposures can and should be affected by policies with strong scientific, evidence-based derivation. However, a judicious application of the precautionary principle may be needed in circumstances where the health effect of inaction could lead to more serious threats to vulnerable populations with allergic disease. This commentary covers the scientific basis, current implementation, knowledge gaps, and pro/con views on policy issues in reducing environmental allergic triggers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Telerehabilitation: Policy Issues and Research Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine D. Seelman

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The importance of public policy as a complementary framework for telehealth, telemedicine, and by association telerehabilitation, has been recognized by a number of experts. The purpose of this paper is to review literature on telerehabilitation (TR policy and research methodology issues in order to report on the current state of the science and make recommendations about future research needs. An extensive literature search was implemented using search terms grouped into main topics of telerehabilitation, policy, population of users, and policy specific issues such as cost and reimbursement. The availability of rigorous and valid evidence-based cost studies emerged as a major challenge to the field. Existing cost studies provided evidence that telehomecare may be a promising application area for TR. Cost studies also indicated that telepsychiatry is a promising telepractice area. The literature did not reference the International Classification on Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF. Rigorous and comprehensive TR assessment and evaluation tools for outcome studies are tantamount to generating confidence among providers, payers, clinicians and end users. In order to evaluate consumer satisfaction and participation, assessment criteria must include medical, functional and quality of life items such as assistive technology and environmental factors. Keywords: Telerehabilitation, Telehomecare, Telepsychiatry, Telepractice

  7. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  8. Cloud Computing : Goals, Issues, SOA, Integrated Technologies and Future -scope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Madhu Viswanatham

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of networking infrastructure has provided a novel way to store and access resources in a reliable, convenient and affordable means of technology called the Cloud. The cloud has become so popular and established its dominance in many recent world innovations and has highly influenced the trend of the Business process Management with the advantage of shared resources. The ability to remain disaster tolerant, on-demand scalability, flexible deployment and cost effectiveness has made the future world technologies like Internet of Things, to determine the cloud as their data and processing center. However, along with the implementation of cloud based technologies, we must also address the issues involved in its realization. This paper is a review on the advancements, scopes and issues involved in realizing a secured cloud powered environments.

  9. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    Interview with Marsha Cooke of CBS, Ritz Carlton Hotel, Beijing, May 3, 2012. U.S.-China Relations: Policy Issues Congressional Research Service 6...none of China’s claims are eventually accepted, China could continue to apply its concept of its EEZ rights to the EEZ that it indisputably derives...system in Asia, U.S. plans to advance ballistic missile defense in the region, the U.S. “air-sea battle concept ”—an effort to increase the joint

  10. Overall program status and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1989-01-01

    Under the terms of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), the US Department of Energy (DOE) will permanently dispose of high-level radioactive waste from defense activities and spent fuel from commercial nuclear power plants. The waste management system authorized by the NWPA, as amended in 1987, is to include three major components: a geologic repository for permanent disposal, a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility for packaging and temporarily storing waste, and a system for transporting the waste to the MRS and to the repository. This paper discusses DOE's objectives for the waste management system, including the priority DOE places on maintaining and enhancing schedules for accepting waste; current policy and programmatic issues; and the strategies being employed for dealing with these issues. These strategies include efforts to ensure that site characterization activities support licensing requirements, the use of contingency planning, the application of systems integration, and systems studies of the role of an MRS. This paper reports briefly on the status of the site characterization program, including DOE's efforts to (a) strengthen quality assurance, (b) prepare for construction of the exploratory shaft facility that will be used to conduct underground tests, (c) clarify US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing requirements and expedite the licensing process, (d) comply with applicable environmental regulations, and (e) monitor and mitigate the environmental and socioeconomic impacts of site characterization activities

  11. Global Goal Setting for Improving National Governance and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, F.; Stevens, C.; Bernstein, S.; Gupta, A.; Kanie, N.; Nilsson, M.; Scobie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Can better governance, in itself, be a subject for global goal setting? This question stands at the center of this chapter, which focuses on the inclusion of “governance goals” in global goal-setting mechanisms, especially the Sustainable Development Goals agreed upon by the UN General Assembly in

  12. Livestock policy and trade issues in SADC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulman, B

    2009-03-01

    As from 2001, the Southern African Development Community (SADC) has embarked on a course to deepen regional integration through restructuring. Under the new structure SADC has centralised the coordination of its activities to the Secretariat in Gaborone. The former Sector Coordinating Units have been merged into four directorates, one of which is the Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources (FANR) Directorate, which comprises, amongst others, the Livestock Development Unit (LDU). The LDU, under the aegis of the FANR, formulates policies for regional livestock development in order to respond to the objectives of the Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan (RISDP), and which are mainly to: Contribute to improved food security, Promote wealth creation, Enhance rural livelihood, Enhance livestock as a tradable and consumable commodity. Following the launch of the SADC Economic Partnership Agreement (EPA) negotiations, the eight SADC EPA member states identified sanitary and phytosanitary and technical barriers to trade to be major trade barriers for access to international markets, especially the EU market where standards are normally set beyond international standards. SADC has already brought some of the issues related to beef exports to the OIE Regional Commission for Africa as SADC member states feel that a few of the present requirements do not have a scientific basis. The paper discusses the process that the LDU follows in the formulation of policies and strategies in regional livestock development with the objective of bolstering intra and extra regional trade in livestock and livestock products.

  13. Forcing the issue on radiation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwell, T.

    1999-01-01

    For those frustrated by an inability to get a fair hearing on evidence that challenges current radiation policy, the recent case of a group of tobacco interests suing the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in Federal court on its policy on second-hand smoke has important implications for radiation policy. The issue was only tangentially about tobacco; its main thrust was at EPA's arbitrary and capricious rule-making process. The EPA is at least as vulnerable to the same charges in the radiation area, particularly with respect to radon. Radiation protection is associated in many people's minds with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), but other agencies have also been involved. Radon, like second-hand smoke, has been tolerated for generations, and EPA has the burden of proving that it is a public hazard. The law and the unwritten rules of science are quite explicit in defining what must be done to make such a finding. In the case of radon, there is no prior basis for public concern. In fact, the public uses radium spas with radon concentrations up to one million times as high as the EPA permissible limit. In many countries, such spa usage is formally prescribed by physicians and paid for by national health insurance. The health effects, if any, from radon, as from second-hand smoke, are hard to quantify. But, this does not justify--in either case--the EPA's straying from its published criteria and procedures for testing whether such health effects occur. A Federal court has now demonstrated its willingness to judge and strike down the EPA's actions regarding second-hand smoke on their own merits, without attempting to be an arbiter of science. The result is a welcome breath of fresh air and an object lesson for those concerned about the mounting costs of treating radon as a major public health hazard

  14. A goal programming approach for a joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies: a methodological proposal and an application to the Spanish economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Francisco J; Cardenete, M Alejandro; Romero, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The economic policy needs to pay increasingly more attention to the environmental issues, which requires the development of methodologies able to incorporate environmental, as well as macroeconomic, goals in the design of public policies. Starting from this observation, this article proposes a methodology based upon a Simonian satisficing logic made operational with the help of goal programming (GP) models, to address the joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies. The methodology is applied to the Spanish economy, where a joint policy is elicited, taking into consideration macroeconomic goals (economic growth, inflation, unemployment, public deficit) and environmental goals (CO(2), NO( x ) and SO( x ) emissions) within the context of a computable general equilibrium model. The results show how the government can "fine-tune" its policy according to different criteria using GP models. The resulting policies aggregate the environmental and the economic goals in different ways: maximum aggregate performance, maximum balance and a lexicographic hierarchy of the goals.

  15. EU POLICY REGARDING THE COMPETITIVENESS ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bârsan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with one of the most important, but also challenging economic issues nowadays, which is economic competitiveness. The literature is not unanimous in recognizing the importance of competitiveness, especially where it concerns the state level. However, the relevance of international competitiveness is increasingly brought into light by theory, specific policy measures and by periodical evaluations made by international organizations. Against this background, the EU is one of the main players whose position is still lagging behind the USA, and, according to recent evaluations, behind the other OECD countries. The European Council in March 2000, held in Lisbon, had launched a very inciting challenge – that of transforming the EU economy into the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, by 2010. Such an ambitious target requires an evaluation of the competitiveness level and also new measures to be taken in order to accomplish this objective.The article presents opinions on the EU competitiveness issue, and on the main weak and strong points, concluding that even the target and especially the schedule seem to be unrealistic, the new direction of action, i.e. towards better business conditions for enterprises being correct.

  16. The Impact of Organizational Diversity Policies on Minority Employees’ Leadership Self-Perceptions and Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gündemir, S.; Dovidio, J.F.; Homan, A.C.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    2017-01-01

    We examined how formal organizational diversity policies affect minorities’ leadership-relevant self-perceptions and goals in two experiments. Organizational mission statements were manipulated to reflect policies acknowledging and valuing subgroup differences (Multiculturalism), de-emphasizing

  17. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities.

  18. Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Cheol-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Young; Lee, Na-Young; Hwang, Young-Soo

    2015-01-01

    The cyber-attack against computer systems causes the loss of function which brings about the big economic loss, and it becomes a national-wide issue. In recent days the cyber threat has occurred in the national critical infrastructure around the world. In the nuclear industry, while discussing responses to various threats against nuclear facilities since 2006, cyber-terrorism was also discussed. But at that time, cyber-attacks against control networks in nuclear facilities were not seriously considered because those networks were isolated from the Internet thoroughly and it was evaluated that cyber penetration would not be possible. However Stuxnet worm virus which attacked Iran's nuclear facilities confirmed that the cyber security problem could occur even in other nuclear facilities. The facilities were isolated from the Internet. After the cyber incident, we began to discuss the topic of NPP cyber security. It is very difficult to predict whether or when or how the cyber-attack will be occurred, which is a characteristic of cyber-attack. They could be always detected only after when an incident had occurred. This paper summarizes the report, 'Nuclear Cyber Security Issues and Policy Recommendations' by issue committee in the Korea Nuclear Society, which reviewed the cyber security framework for nuclear facilities in the Republic of Korea being established to prevent nuclear facilities from cyber-attacks and to respond systematically. As a result this paper proposes several comments to improve the security and furthermore safety of nuclear facilities Digital technology will be used more widely at the national critical infrastructure including nuclear facilities in the future, and moreover wireless technologies and mobile devices will be soon introduced to nuclear industry. It is therefore anticipated that the rapid advance in digital technology will accelerate the opportunity of hacking these facilities

  19. Top 10 Higher Education State Policy Issues for 2011. Policy Matters: A Higher Education Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Presented here are the top 10 issues most likely to affect public higher education across the 50 states in 2011, in the view of the state policy staff at the American Association of State Colleges and Universities (AASCU). This listing is informed by an environmental scan of the economic, political and policy landscape surrounding public higher…

  20. Language Policy for Education in Multilingual India: Issues and Implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, Kamal K.

    A discussion of language policy in India's educational system identifies substantive issues of both theoretical and comparative interest; presents a detailed account of the issues associated with policy-making for language in education in the Indian socio-political context; and discusses the current status of implementation of these policies, with…

  1. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  2. The Elusive Goal: The Quest for a Credible Immigration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years the United States has unsuccessfully struggled to reform its often maligned and massively abused immigration policies. Matters went awry following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965. There were unexpected consequences. Intended to remove the overtly discriminatory features of the "national origins"…

  3. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  4. Indonesian Housing Policy and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam Rassanjani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Indonesia is to bring accelerated development in all aspects so that the poverty rate is expected to decrease even disappear. One of the programs that aimed to reduce poverty rates in Indonesia is the provision of housing for the community, especially the underprivileged. Moreover, it is a the million houses program that proclaimed by the Ministry of Public Works and People's Housing, and this program is correlated with the SDGS, especially goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities. The research is relying on secondary data basis primarily from books, journals, published reports and online news. It is expected that this study is able to provide a new insight for the government in building a community residential area, which is to integrate development plans into three dimensions (social, economic, and environment which are the pillars of sustainable development. Unfortunately, nowadays the government is relying too hard on achieving quantity and a little focus on quality. Furthermore, an experience on the MDGs edition can be an important lesson for the government in realizing SDGs, especially now that SDGs are in line with the points that contained in the RPJMN. Therefore, if the government is able to maximise this global development agenda, it is not impossible that the million houses program can be one of the leading programs in overcoming the problem of poverty, especially housing shortage in Indonesia.

  5. California renewable energy policy and implementation issues: An overview of recent regulatory and legislative action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.; Goldman, C.

    1996-09-01

    This paper has three primary goals: (1) to provide a brief account of recent events in California renewables policy; (2) to outline the California State Legislature`s ultimate decision on renewable energy policy; and (3) to aid other states in their efforts with renewables policy by summarizing some of the key implementation issues and political conflicts that may occur when crafting some of the potential threats and opportunities that electricity restructuring presents to the development of renewable energy. We then outline the renewables policy debate in California since the California Public Utility Commission`s ``Blue Book``, including both regulatory and legislative developments. We also provide some insight into the minimum renewables purchase requirement (MRPR) versus surcharge-based renewables policy debate in California. Finally, we identify and discuss key renewables policy implementation issues that have driven the dialogue and recent decisions in California`s renewables policy.

  6. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement

  7. Public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nealey, S.M.; Radford, L.M.

    1978-10-01

    This document aims to raise issues and to analyze them, not resolve them. The issues were: temporal equity, geographic and socioeconomic equity, implementation of a nuclear waste management system, and public involvement.

  8. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  9. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy: Structures and Institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined issues pertaining to structures and institutional arrangement for agricultural extension policy. It highlighted the broad objectives of the new policy thrust in agriculture in Nigeria, and identified sub-policies that were expected to facilitate growth of the agricultural sector of the economy. Agricultural ...

  10. Private trouble, policy issue: people's noise annoyance and policy discours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröer, C.

    2008-01-01

    It is well know that social problems are defined as such in policy processes. Simultaneously, there is ample evidence for the construction of problem perception at an individual level. In this article, I shall report on a study on the relation between the two: how policy discourses affect problem

  11. Policy Studies on Bioethical Issues Advance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Describes the policies, operation, and some decisions of the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research instituted to study the ethical aspects of scientific research. (MLH)

  12. Scope of Policy Issues in eHealth: Results From a Structured Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrani, Hammad; Nayani, Parvez; Fahim, Ammad

    2012-01-01

    Background eHealth is widely used as a tool for improving health care delivery and information. However, distinct policies and strategies are required for its proper implementation and integration at national and international levels. Objective To determine the scope of policy issues faced by individuals, institutions, or governments in implementing eHealth programs. Methods We conducted a structured review of both peer-reviewed and gray literature from 1998–2008. A Medline search for peer-reviewed articles found 40 papers focusing on different aspects of eHealth policy. In addition, a Google search found 20 national- and international-level policy papers and documents. We reviewed these articles to extract policy issues and solutions described at different levels of care. Results The literature search found 99 policy issues related to eHealth. We grouped these issues under the following themes: (1) networked care, (2) interjurisdictional practice, (3) diffusion of eHealth/digital divide, (4) eHealth integration with existing systems, (5) response to new initiatives, (6) goal-setting for eHealth policy, (7) evaluation and research, (8) investment, and (9) ethics in eHealth. Conclusions We provide a list of policy issues that should be understood and addressed by policy makers at global, jurisdictional, and institutional levels, to facilitate smooth and reliable planning of eHealth programs. PMID:22343270

  13. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  14. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  15. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  16. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    Agriculture is the bedrock of economic development in Nigeria. However, the development of the ... This policy direction placed additional responsibilities on extension by including sustainable development ... years and the recent trends in agricultural development world wide have necessitated the formulation of more ...

  17. Issues in International Climate Policy: Theory and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Gupta, J.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2003-01-01

    Climate change is currently at the center of scientific and political debate, and the need for well-designed international climate policies is widely recognized. Despite this, the complexity of both the climate change problem and the international negotiation process has resulted in a large number

  18. Policy and Management Issues in Contemporary Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 2, No 4 (2013) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  19. Health care technology as a policy issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.

    1994-01-01

    Health care technology has become an increasingly visible issue in many countries, primarily because of the rising costs of health care. In addition, many questions concerning quality of care are being raised. Health care technology assessment has been seen as an aid in addressing questions

  20. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  1. Saving Behavior in Latin America: Overview and Policy Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Gavin; Ricardo Hausmann; Ernesto Talvi

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews and contributes to the policy debate on the issue of saving in Latin America, presenting an alternative perspective on the relationship between saving and growth, saving and inflation stabilization and structural reform, and saving and capital flows.

  2. Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-06

    decision on United States v. Windsor holding sections of DOMA unconstitutional , DOD issued a new policy extending all military benefits for married...situation, it would be hard to argue (as it was for justification of the USFPA), that one or the other had the primary responsibility for child care...Military Benefits for Former Spouses: Legislation and Policy Issues Kristy N. Kamarck Analyst in Military Manpower January 6, 2017

  3. On ethical issues at the foundation of the debate over the goals of psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blass, Rachel B

    2003-08-01

    In this paper the author points to ethical issues that underlie the debate over the nature of the goals of psychoanalysis. While it has been suggested that the lack of consensus and clarity in this debate may be partially explained in terms of opposing attitudes to the importance of therapeutic benefit and variance in core values of analysts and patients, the author shows that these explanations do not fully resolve the ambiguity. The examination of the limitations of the existing explanations points to the value of introducing an ethical dimension. She discusses two ethical issues: the complex nature of the ethical value of self-determination in psychoanalysis, and the ethical status of analytic change. The clarification of these two issues contributes to an understanding both of the inherently controversial nature of the debate over analytic goals, and of the place of ethical considerations in psychoanalytic theory and practice.

  4. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  5. Addressing Teachers' Feelings of Lack of Control over Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judson, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on how an American Education System course, traditionally taught with broad objectives, was contextualized for science teachers. Using pre-assessment data, specific policy issues were targeted with the objective of increasing teachers' feelings of influence over issues. The approach used was adapted from exposure therapy, a…

  6. Organization of Electricity Transmission in View of Long Term Energy Policy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2011-01-01

    European electricity transmission industry is facing both organizational reform due to the 3 r d Package implementation, and more structural challenges related to electricity system greenification. Relying on literature, I will first analyze the contemporary TSO repositioning, avoiding dogmatic attitudes which have been prevailing in public debates over the last several years, to conclude that: (a) there is not a way to actually prove that either of the three organizational forms from the 3 r d Package has clear advantages over any of the others, and thus (b) the debate should be ended pragmatically in a political arena following a decision on what the goal really is (or, what kind of interests should be pursued). After analyzing the organizational issues I will turn to what I believe is the most important challenge in front of TSOs: gradual greenification of the electricity supply industry, with technical and economic difficulties related to it. I will stress the importance of sound and accountable policy making and enforcement. (author)

  7. Regional and Special Issues in Social Policy & Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finer, Catherine Jones; Greve, Bent

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the emergence and elaboration of regional and special issues of Social Policy & Administration (SP&A) from the contrasting perspectives of the two editors principally involved in their production as a distinctive feature of the journal. Catherine Jones Finer, who retired fro......-to-date range of documents to trace trends and developments over time, not merely in the content of the regional and special issues themselves, but in the increasingly international and supra-national social policy environment to which they relate....

  8. Modeling policy issues in a world of imperfect competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1998-01-01

    General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model the beha......General equilibrium theory constitutes a sound basis for the discussion of policy issues if firms do not have market power. However, if firms influence prices strategically, the concept of profits loses its meaning due to the price normalization problem. Hence, it is unclear how to model...... as well as on shareholders' aggregate demand...

  9. Analysis of nuclear issue and development of policy alternatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Byungchool; Lee, Youngjoon; Yun, Sungwon; Yun, Keehwan; Ko, Wonil

    2012-08-01

    ? Promoted amicably passing a resolution on a general meeting of Atomic Energy Promotion Commission through the preliminary review and opinion gathering ? Mutual understanding and forming a social consensus on nuclear related issues through R and D reporting about the SMART, Decommission and Dis, Future Nuclear System etc Ο Promoted strengthening the work related to the nuclear policy through discovering the 8 policy initiatives prioritized Ο Analyzed the policy process as well as previous research results related to spent fuel for establishment of spent-fuel policy and presented the methods for legislation Ο Suggested the establishment and multi-step implementation strategies of 'Nuclear educational hurb center' Ο Germany, Switzerland, Belgium returned to their former phase-out strategies, except for these three countries, did not change nuclear promotion policies Ο Democratic United Party is currently taking the opposite stance on NPP but it is necessary to make an effort to analyze current domestic energy circumstances on objective and rational grounds

  10. Legalization of Educational Public Policies: Analysis of Controversial Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urá Lobato Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a critical analysis of the issue of legalization of public policies that deal with the right to education. Therefore, the literature review will be made, as well as an analysis of some precedents of the Supreme Court on the issue of legalization of this fundamental right. At the end, it will be shown that the right to education generates citizens the subjective rights of audience immediately, the effectiveness of this right.

  11. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  12. Proceedings of conference on public policy issues in nuclear waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    This conference was designed to provide a public forum in which to identify and discuss the legal, institutional, social, environmental, and other public policy issues relating to nuclear waste management. This volume is a comprehensive synthesis of the speeches, papers, and discussions during the plenary and luncheon sessions. Preliminary goals are proposed for nuclear waste management. Separate abstracts were prepared for the ten papers. (DLC)

  13. Assistance to States on Policies Related to Wind Energy Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Matthew, H; Decesaro, Jennifer; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2005-07-15

    This final report summarizes work carried out under agreement with the US Department of Energy, related to wind energy policy issues. This project has involved a combination of outreach and publications on wind energy, with a specific focus on educating state-level policymakers. Education of state policymakers is vitally important because state policy (in the form of incentives or regulation) is a crucial part of the success of wind energy. State policymakers wield a significant influence over all of these policies. They are also in need of high quality, non-biased educational resources which this project provided. This project provided outreach to legislatures, in the form of meetings designed specifically for state legislators and legislative staff, responses to information requests on wind energy, and publications. The publications addressed: renewable energy portfolio standards, wind energy transmission, wind energy siting, case studies of wind energy policy, avian issues, economic development, and other related issues. These publications were distributed to legislative energy committee members, and chairs, legislative staff, legislative libraries, and other related state officials. The effect of this effort has been to provide an extensive resource of information about wind information for state policymakers in a form that is useful to them. This non-partisan information has been used as state policymakers attempt to develop their own policy proposals related to wind energy in the states.

  14. Special Issue of Policy in Focus features IDRC supported projects ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-20

    Apr 20, 2016 ... These issues have been at the core of a series of projects supported by IDRC that have also been prioritised by The International Policy Centre for Inclusive Growth's (IPC-IG) research and knowledge-sharing activities. IDRC has supported research to examine how social protection impacts labour markets, ...

  15. A goal programming model for environmental policy analysis: Application to Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Cristóbal, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important part of international and national approaches to integrate economic, environmental, social and ethical considerations so that a good quality of life can be enjoyed by current and future generations for as long as possible. However, nowadays sustainable development is threatened by industrial pollution emissions which cause serious environmental problems. Due to a lack of adequate quantitative models for environmental policy analysis, there is a strong need for analytical models in order to know the effects of environmental policies. In the present paper, a goal programming model, based on an environmental/input–output linear programming model, is developed and applied to the Spanish economy. The model combines relations between economic, energy, social and environmental effects, providing valuable information for policy-makers in order to define and examine the different goals that must be implemented to reach sustainability. - Highlights: ► In this paper a goal programming model is developed. ► The model considers environmental, energy, social and economic goals. ► The model shows the effects of a reduction in greenhouse gasses emission and energy requirements. ► The model is applied to the Spanish economy.

  16. EU language policy and the language goals and gains of exchange students in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim

    To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains.......To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...

  17. International Policy Framework for Protecting Critical Information Infrastructure: A Discussion Paper Outlining Key Policy Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, B.; Goetz, E.; Verhoest, P.; Helmus, S.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Bruce, R.; Dynes, S.; Brechbuhl, H.

    2005-01-01

    Cyber security is a uniquely challenging policy issue with a wide range of public and private stakeholders within countries and beyond national boundaries. This executive summary and the full discussion paper delineate the need on a high priority basis to address cyber security issues and develop an

  18. Developing New Mexico Health Care Policy: An application of the Vital Issues Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engi, D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Icerman, L. [Icerman & Associates, Santa Fe, NM (United States)

    1995-06-01

    The Vital Issues Process, developed by the Sandia National Laboratories Strategic Technologies Department, was utilized by the Health Care Task Force Advisory Group to apply structure to their policy deliberations. By convening three expert panels, an overarching goal for the New Mexico health care system, seven desired outcomes, nine policy options, and 17 action items were developed for the New Mexico health care system. Three broadly stated evaluation criteria were articulated and used to produce relative rankings of the desired outcomes and policy options for preventive care and information systems. Reports summarizing the policy deliberations were submitted for consideration by the Health Care Task Force, a Joint Interim Committee of the New Mexico Legislature, charged with facilitating the development and implementation of a comprehensive health care delivery system for New Mexico. The Task Force reported its findings and recommendations to the Second Session of the 41st New Mexico State Legislature in January 1994.

  19. Remembering the ultimate goal of environmental protection: including protection of impoverished citizens in China's environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Zhu, Qingke

    2010-01-01

    The life of impoverished people can be damaged by adverse environmental conditions, but these people can also be harmed by environmental conservation programs, particularly when the guiding policy ignores their needs. To improve the social and economic effectiveness of environmental protection, governments must understand that the ultimate goal of environmental protection is to improve human livelihoods, not just restore vegetation. The elimination of poverty by the development of sustainable, long-term enterprises is a precondition for successful ecological restoration.

  20. Nuclear fuel assurance: origins, trends, and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neff, T.L.; Jacoby, H.D.

    1979-02-01

    The economic, technical and political issues which bear on the security of nuclear fuel supply internationally are addressed. The structure of international markets for nuclear fuel is delineated; this includes an analysis of the political constraints on fuel availability, especially the connection to supplier nonproliferation policies. The historical development of nuclear fuel assurance problems is explored and an assessment is made of future trends in supply and demand and in the political context in which fuel trade will take place in the future. Finally, key events and policies which will affect future assurance are identified

  1. Debatable Issues of Regulatory Policy of Russian Nanoindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frolov Daniil Petrovich

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article studies the debatable issues of regulatory policy in the sphere of nanoindustry. The nanotech industry has interindustry character that is caused by interdisciplinarity of a nanoscience therefore it is necessary to recognize objectively impossible exact definition of its branch structure. As a result of terminological uncertainty, the state support and regulation of nanotech industry is a difficult process. The substantial expansionism of the term “nanotechnology” and metaphorism of the concept “nanoindustry” is reasoned. The need of creating more detailed classification (by 1-2 orders of nanotechnologies and allocation of at least three subindustries of nanotech industry is proved. The deficiency of convergent orientation of policy of regulation of the Russian hi-tech industries is revealed. The conceptual discrepancy of nanoindustrial policy of the Russian Federation combining elements of traditional policy of import substitution and new industrial policy is shown. The expediency of transition from universal policy of nanoindustry regulation to the development of a package of the segment-focused strategies of development of different types of nanotechnologies and the nanotechnological activities is proved. The special attention is paid to a safety control problem (combination of obligatory certification and voluntary marking of nanoproduction, strengthening the role of nanotech industry self-regulation and active integration of stakeholders into the system of strategic planning.

  2. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  3. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  6. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    be a clear, transparent and public debate on the goals of the Energiewende, i.e. a debate on what the Energiewende is actually bound to achieve. Second, economic policy analysis of the Energiewende should acknowledge the multiplicity of political goals and take them into account in their models. Regarding the phase-out of the German nuclear power plants it is found that the precise date for the complete shut-down of Germany's nuclear power plants has a relatively small effect on the wholesale electricity price and security of supply. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the German nuclear phase-out will neither have a substantial effect on the wholesale electricity prices, nor on the security of supply. Regarding the design of RES-support schemes it is found that the distribution of long-term electricity price risk between society and investors strongly depends on various set ups. A design that exposes RES-investors to higher risks may result in more efficient investments. However, more risks for RES-investors means that small actors (e.g. cooperatives) have less opportunities to invest in the Energiewende, because they are less capable to hedge long-term price risks efficiently. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the question whether investors in RES, investors in conventional power plants or society should carry the long term electricity price risk is a political (i.e. distributional) issue, which crucially depends on political goals such as actor diversity. On the question of transaction costs of climate policy instruments: the ex-post transaction costs are relatively low for instruments such as emissions trading systems and affect the costeffectiveness only slightly. The following policy conclusion can be derived: Given the minor role of ex post transaction costs, they can be neglected as a source of significant distortions. However, this statement only refers to regions with strong institutions (such as the EU or the US). The focus

  7. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-05-19

    be a clear, transparent and public debate on the goals of the Energiewende, i.e. a debate on what the Energiewende is actually bound to achieve. Second, economic policy analysis of the Energiewende should acknowledge the multiplicity of political goals and take them into account in their models. Regarding the phase-out of the German nuclear power plants it is found that the precise date for the complete shut-down of Germany's nuclear power plants has a relatively small effect on the wholesale electricity price and security of supply. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the German nuclear phase-out will neither have a substantial effect on the wholesale electricity prices, nor on the security of supply. Regarding the design of RES-support schemes it is found that the distribution of long-term electricity price risk between society and investors strongly depends on various set ups. A design that exposes RES-investors to higher risks may result in more efficient investments. However, more risks for RES-investors means that small actors (e.g. cooperatives) have less opportunities to invest in the Energiewende, because they are less capable to hedge long-term price risks efficiently. The following policy conclusion can be derived: the question whether investors in RES, investors in conventional power plants or society should carry the long term electricity price risk is a political (i.e. distributional) issue, which crucially depends on political goals such as actor diversity. On the question of transaction costs of climate policy instruments: the ex-post transaction costs are relatively low for instruments such as emissions trading systems and affect the costeffectiveness only slightly. The following policy conclusion can be derived: Given the minor role of ex post transaction costs, they can be neglected as a source of significant distortions. However, this statement only refers to regions with strong institutions (such as the EU or the US). The focus

  8. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  9. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education (HE),…

  10. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    at all up front. This means that banning embedded commissions would lead to a reduction in demand for advice from modest-income households. The U.K. provides an example which should not be followed. Regulators there have banned embedded commissions, forcing clients to pay directly for financial advice. The result is that modest-income clients have decided not to seek financial advice, even though that decision will likely negatively affect their portfolios. The dangers of this “advice gap” are being downplayed by those who believe that robo-advisors and banks can fill the need instead. In fact, robo-advisors and banks are mostly not equipped to step into the gamma role of coaching their clients. A ban would also mean less choice in the market for a service that needs to be competitive and innovative to serve the broad spectrum of clients’ circumstances, risk appetites and needs. In addition, smaller and independent product manufacturers and distributors would be squeezed out, creating a market concentration in the hands of the bigger players. Pricing transparency might very well be another victim of a ban as a market with significant disparities in fee levels is created. In crafting their policies, regulatory authorities should bear in mind that people need to have wide access to financial advice and to have an opportunity to become more financially literate. Keeping the market for financial services and products competitive, innovative and transparent is the path to continued success. A ban on embedded sales commissions would severely hamper these goals.

  11. Interactions between health technology assessment, coverage, and regulatory processes: emerging issues, goals, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henshall, Chris; Mardhani-Bayne, Logan; Frønsdal, Katrine B; Klemp, Marianne

    2011-07-01

    The relationship between regulatory approval on the one hand and health technology assessment (HTA) and coverage on the other is receiving growing attention. Those responsible for regulatory approval, HTA, and coverage have different missions and their information requirements reflect these. There is nonetheless an increasingly popular view that improved communication and coordination between these functions could allow them all to be undertaken effectively with a lower overall burden of evidence requirements, thus speeding patient access to new products and reducing unnecessary barriers to innovation. This study summarizes the main points emerging from a recent discussion of this topic at the HTAi Policy Forum. After considering the roles of the various bodies, stakeholder perspectives and some current practical initiatives, those present at the Forum meeting discussed possible goals and challenges for improved interactions-in general and at specific stages of the product development life cycle. Opportunities for progress were seen in: continuing the dialogue to promote understanding and interaction between the different bodies and stakeholders; working to align scientific advice for manufacturers on the design and data requirements of pre- and post-marketing evaluation of products (specifically phase 2/3 and phase 4 trials for drugs); and extending the current dialogue to include discussion of product development to address unmet health needs.

  12. Public opinion on policy issues in genetics and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeling, Rene; Gadarian, Shana Kushner

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine public opinion on major policy issues in genetics and genomics, including federal spending on genetic research, the perceived significance of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008, and whether clinicians should be involved in direct-to-consumer genetic testing. This was a survey with a nationally representative sample of 2,100 American adults administered by the nonpartisan research firm YouGov in January 2011. The majority of the respondents (57%) believe that the federal government should spend more on genetic research, 82% rank the 2008 antidiscrimination law as "important," and 65% say that clinicians should be involved in explaining genetic test results (contra the practice of some direct-to-consumer companies). On all three policy issues, gender and political party affiliation were statistically significantly associated with respondents' views, whereas race/ethnicity and education were less consistently associated with policy opinions. Americans demonstrate widespread support for scientific research on genetics, laws protecting citizens against genetic discrimination, and the need to involve medical professionals in the process of genetic testing. These results are useful for scientists designing research projects, clinicians interacting with patients, professional organizations lobbying for resources, federal agencies setting budget priorities, and legislators designing regulation.

  13. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  14. Linking Housing and School Integration Policy: What Federal, State and Local Governments Can Do. Issue Brief No. 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegeler, Philip

    2015-01-01

    This Issue Brief states that, in spite of the obvious "reciprocal relationship" between housing and school policy, government housing and education agencies have rarely collaborated to promote the common goals of racial and economic integration. Recent efforts to promote collaboration among housing and school agencies have focused on…

  15. U.S. immigration reform: policy issues and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Mcdowell, J M

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the US immigration issue which has resurfaced in the last 10 years because the foreign born population grew by 4.5 million between 1970 and 1980. Because immigration accounts for 25% of the US population growth during the 1970s, reconsideration of US immigration policy by the government is underway. The Select Commission on Immigration and Refugee Policy was established in 1979 to evaluate existing laws and policies on admitting immigrants into the US. Presently, these policies focus on family reunification, as opposed to labor considerations. In 1984, the Senate and House passed the Simpson-Mazzoli Bill, but the bill died in the conference committee that was established to reconcile the differences between the 2 versions. 3 provisions of debate surround the proposed act: 1) control of illegal immigration - - the Senate arguing for the requirement of a national identification card to verify an individual is authorized for US employment; 2) legalization of alien status - - the House refusing to confer immediate permanent resident status on any alien; and 3) reform of legal immigration - - a provision that the House altogether ignores. Immigration takes jobs from Americans, depresses domestic wages, and worsens working conditions. On the other hand, immigrants fill the jobs which domestic workers find undesirable. The compromises reached by the conference committee concentrate on employer sanctions and the legalization of illegal aliens; reform of legal immigration failed to gain approval.

  16. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Millennium Development Goals; ensure that a higher priority is given to health in dealing with trade issues and in conforming to the Doha principles, affirming the right of each country to make full use of TRIPS flexibilities in order to ensure universal access to medicines; strengthen the place of health measures in conflict and crisis management and in reconstruction efforts. For this purpose, we have prepared a first set of actionable steps for raising the priority of health in foreign policy in an Agenda for Action. We pledge to pursue these issues in our respective regional settings and in relevant international bodies. We invite Ministers of Foreign Affairs from all regions to join us in further exploring ways and means to achieve our objectives.

  17. Educational innovations: Categories of bulletin board postings designed to increase awareness of contemporary pharmaceutical policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Jacob T; Fink, Joseph L

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this project was to categorize and classify bulletin board postings pertaining to pharmaceutical policy from both the professional and lay press. Bulletin board postings were used to supplement in-class discussion to keep students, faculty and staff up-to-date on emerging trends. A bulletin board located in the main classroom area of the College of Pharmacy Building where students would pass by on the way to class and congregate during break periods was used to display articles from various sources concerning topics related to pharmaceutical policy. Information is presented about the primary subject matters addressed in the articles, the types of publications from which they were drawn, and the top ten sources of articles displayed. This project showed that coverage of issues related to pharmacists is predominantly seen in newspapers and most pertinent issues are business related. It can be seen from this analysis that the issues facing pharmacists are varied. The pharmaceutical policy field is transforming and many of these changes are very relevant to the general population. This is seen from the coverage of all of these issues in the lay press.

  18. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  19. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  20. Institutional and legislative issues of emergency management policy in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porfiriev, B

    2001-12-14

    The emergency management policy as an organic component of the national development policy in contemporary Russia exists only for a slight more than a decade. However, its basic trends and directions could be revealed. In the legislative area covering technological accidents involving hazardous materials these include increasing differentiation of acts in terms of issue coverage, gradual integration of legislation via enforcement of the so-called systemic (umbrella) acts and increasing incorporation of specific acts, and keeping dominance of federal emergency acts. In addition, emergency legislation and policy programs on communities' protection against major hazards drift from alleviation-oriented towards more mitigation-focused. Meanwhile, the bulk of the existing acts are still specific laws and regulations, which consider most emergency response. In institutional realms the key direction of emergency policy development involved organization and progress of the Unified State System for Emergency Prevention and Elimination of the Russian Federation (USEPE) with EMERCOM as a key coordinator and actor in handling technological hazards and accidents. The detailed analysis of USEPE organizational pattern and operation modes including institutional structure, key functions, means and forces and operation routines is provided. It is argued that the system's logic and flexible organizational framework only to some extent contribute to effective mitigation of the major emergencies and/or disasters. In no less extent it depends on the existing socioeconomic conditions, which have been for a long time unfavorable in Russia and thus seriously constrain the USEPE effectiveness. This provides for ambiguous integral evaluation of the emergency management policy in the 1990s and early 2000s.

  1. Corporate political strategy: incorporating the management of public policy issues into hospital strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M

    1997-01-01

    Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.

  2. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  3. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-01-01

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution

  4. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  5. Convergence on Policy Goals: Character Education in East Asia and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of character building in east Asian countries is often presented as a shared cultural construct and positioned within an east-west dichotomy. However, it is not at all clear that east Asian forms of character education are identifiable and distinct or that they always transcend national and cultural values. Jeynes (2008 has cautioned us to remember that cultural differences limit the extent to which we can learn lessons from another country, but how authoritative is this caution? The English Secretary of State for Education, Nicky Morgan, announced in December 2014 that she intended to secure England’s place as a global leader by expanding the nation’s provision and evidence base for character education. In this context, this article asks whether England shares any commonalities in the so-called east-west dichotomy on character education – are they mutually exclusive or are they compatible. Is there a west–individual view and an east - collective view? Is the character education movement in east Asia more of an ideological and political movement? As the British government looks for policy solutions to new and challenging problems, including character education, what answers can it find from abroad? What can it learn, borrow or pinch from these east Asian countries and is there a convergence on policy goals for character education within and across these countries? The paper is based on the work (translated of prominent east Asian academics and builds on the author’s personal interface with officials in the Ministry of Education in Japan and Singapore as well as meetings and conferences with numerous academics in universities across east Asian countries to address these questions.

  6. Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernflaten, Birgit

    2013-11-01

    In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutionalised delivery central to its efforts to achieving MDG5 on maternal health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Nicaragua, involving participant observation and interviews with hospital and community health workers, and women and their families, this paper critically discusses how target-oriented maternal health strategies were manifested in local realities. It shows that Nicaragua's brigadistas (community health workers) and parteras (traditional birth attendants) have been driven to narrowing their own roles to identifying pregnant women and advocating that they have an institutional delivery as one their most important tasks, making them agents of MDG 5 target achievement. This has engendered fear among brigadistas and parteras of being held individually responsible in the event of a maternal death, creating dissatisfaction with their role and reducing their motivation. While intended to improve maternal health, the pressure to reach targets has unintended negative implications for the relationship between women, the local volunteers and the formal health system, which needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wind power policy: Issues and challenges in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lad, C.J. [TMES Institute of Business Management and Computer Studies, Mandvi, Gujarat (India); Mistry, S.H. [C. K. Pithawalla Institute of Management, Surat, Gujarat (India)

    2012-07-01

    The energy policy of India is much concerned with the country's ever increasing energy deficit and increased focus on developing alternative sources of energy, particularly nuclear, solar and wind energy. About 70% of country's energy generation capacity is from fossil fuels. Our nation is heavily dependent on fossil fuel imports to meet its energy demands. It is estimated that by 2030; India's dependence on energy imports is expected to exceed 53% of the country's total energy consumption. So, renewable energy usage can be sustainable alternative to country's energy demand. India has the world's fifth largest wind power market. To promote the usage of wind energy, government have declared tax incentives and other incentives but still the most of the estimated wind potential is not realized for energy need of country. In this paper author tries to identify the issues and challenges for promotion of wind power promotion in India and will suggest for the correction in the existing energy policy. (Author)

  8. Conservation agriculture in India – Problems, prospects and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Bhan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation agriculture (CA technologies involve minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover through crop residues or cover crops, and crop rotations for achieving higher productivity. In India, efforts to develop, refine and disseminate conservation-based agricultural technologies have been underway for nearly two decades and made significant progress since then even though there are several constraints that affect adoption of CA. Particularly, tremendous efforts have been made on no-till in wheat under a rice-wheat rotation in the Indo-Gangetic plains. There are more payoffs than tradeoffs for adoption of CA but the equilibrium among the two was understood by both adopters and promoters. The technologies of CA provide opportunities to reduce the cost of production, save water and nutrients, increase yields, increase crop diversification, improve efficient use of resources, and benefit the environment. However, there are still constraints for promotion of CA technologies, such as lack of appropriate seeders especially for small and medium scale farmers, competition of crop residues between CA use and livestock feeding, burning of crop residues, availability of skilled and scientific manpower and overcoming the bias or mindset about tillage. The need to develop the policy frame and strategies is urgent to promote CA in the region. This article reviews the emerging concerns due to continuous adoption of conventional agriculture systems, and analyses the constraints, prospects, policy issues and research needs for conservation agriculture in India.

  9. Social goals, health policy and the dynamics of development as bases for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, V L

    1977-01-01

    professionals and decision-makers are important strategies in this connection. The fostering of community capabilities for health planning and citizen responsibility in health matters is a priority in health education. This represents an investment in health resource development since the basic resources for collaboration in health improvement are people themselves, both professional and lay. Through community participation, all of us become both shapers of societal goals and governmental policies concerning health and health care, and recipients of the fruits of those goals and policies.

  10. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chongwha Lee

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The reason why questions related to Electronic Commerce are in the back of the spotlight is that US and major countries in EU lead the international research to maximize their own benefits. These researches are related to rectify legal system framework for protecting development of Electronic Commerce and to work out international standards. Also, enlarging Electronic Commerce on online resources is also regarded as the core issue by OECD, APEC and other international organization and it is inevitable to have multilateral negotiation regarding this issue. Based on the opinion above mentioned, we collect all the problems brought by Electronic Commerce Activeness in each area in this paper and try to find out corresponding solutions to face these problems.

  11. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  12. Future Public Policy and Ethical Issues Facing the Agricultural and Microbial Genomics Sectors of the Biotechnology Industry: A Roundtable Discussion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diane E. Hoffmann

    2003-09-12

    On September 12, 2003, the University of Maryland School of Law's Intellectual Property and Law & Health Care Programs jointly sponsored and convened a roundtable discussion on the future public policy and ethical issues that will likely face the agricultural and microbial genomics sectors of the biotechnology industry. As this industry has developed over the last two decades, societal concerns have moved from what were often local issues, e.g., the safety of laboratories where scientists conducted recombinant DNA research on transgenic microbes, animals and crops, to more global issues. These newer issues include intellectual property, international trade, risks of genetically engineered foods and microbes, bioterrorism, and marketing and labeling of new products sold worldwide. The fast paced nature of the biotechnology industry and its new developments often mean that legislators, regulators and society, in general, must play ''catch up'' in their efforts to understand the issues, the risks, and even the benefits, that may result from the industry's new ways of conducting research, new products, and novel methods of product marketing and distribution. The goal of the roundtable was to develop a short list of the most significant public policy and ethical issues that will emerge as a result of advances in these sectors of the biotechnology industry over the next five to six years. More concretely, by ''most significant'' the conveners meant the types of issues that would come to the attention of members of Congress or state legislators during this time frame and for which they would be better prepared if they had well researched and timely background information. A concomitant goal was to provide a set of focused issues for academic debate and scholarship so that policy makers, industry leaders and regulators would have the intellectual resources they need to better understand the issues and concerns at stake. The

  13. Contemporary Russian Policy In The Middle East: Strategic Goals And Tactic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kolobov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the situation in the Middle East in the modern world. Special emphasis is placed on consideration of the peculiarities of the perception of the region by representatives of the great powers in historical retrospect. To put these peculiarities objectively, the author uses comparative and historical-descriptive methods. The article also reveals specific causes and consequences of the strategic interest of the great powers towards the Middle East. Later the author explains the possibilities of a new approach to the region on the part of modern Russia and presents the analysis of archival materials shedding light on the actions of the great powers in relation to the Middle East in retrospect and in the near future. This allows to consider a new Concept of Russia’s foreign policy and the possibility of its implementation in the Greater Middle East in the foreseeable future. The article describes new technologies of political actions of the Russian Federation in the Middle East region, taking into account the factor of peacemaking and the creation of normal living conditions for the countries and peoples of the Greater Middle East. The specific peacekeeping efforts of the Russian Federation are compared with the policies of other great powers in the region. This allow to forge the assessment of the broad interpretation of the Greater Middle East in contemporary world politics. Furthermore, an attempt is made to clearly define strategic goals and characterize the patterns of tactical actions of the Russian government within the entire Middle East territory. This preconditions the need to expand the Russian presence not only in the Greater Middle East as well as in other turbulent zones. The article underlines the importance of consistency in the actions of effective crisis diplomacy and multilateral cooperation of the Russian Federation in the region and throughout the world.

  14. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  15. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...

  16. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  17. The issues of goal setting, interest, and reward in self-regulated learning

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Makiko; 岡崎, 万紀子

    2011-01-01

    Self-regulated learning (SRL) is the theory developed in the field of educational psychology. SRL is based on the idea that behaviours are regulated by the self-concept. This self-concept is the basis of the social cognitive theory which does not depend on students' innate motivation (intrinsic motivation) at the initial stage of learning. This study examines three motivation-related factors in the concept of SRL: goals, interest, and rewards followed by the suggestion of a students' learning...

  18. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education…

  19. Climate change and radical energy innovation: the policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Keith

    2009-01-15

    systems to electricity. We need environmental innovations on all three of these dimensions of innovation, but we have innovation programs and policy instruments for only the first two. There are no large integrated programs seeking regime-shifting innovation of the final type. Current policies instruments for environmental change have four basic forms - carbon taxes or emissions constraints, subsidy and procurement measures, regulatory instruments and R and D and commercialization programs. The first set of measures is likely to promote incremental innovation only. The second and third would also support the emergence of new technological functions. Each is important, and will frame a context in which further change can happen. But none will in themselves lead to fundamental innovation in the hydrocarbon regime. Regime-shifting innovation typically involves long-term and highly risky innovation programmes along multiple search paths. In the past, such programmes have usually rested on integrated public and private action. They consist of purposive, goal-oriented changes in the overall systems of knowledge, infrastructure and use patterns that make up technological regimes. In one form or another they entail methods for solving such problems as; the shared identification of opportunities among entrepreneurs and public agencies; substantial resource mobilization and commitment to develop new capabilities; methods for the management of innovation risk and uncertainty; sustained scientific and technological problem solving, and processes of 'collective invention'; 'patronage' of new technologies through long development periods before they reach commercial viability; new infrastructures and institutions; integration of public sector and business investment commitments. Most of the core technologies of the modern world have involved such processes, very often initiated or coordinated via public agencies of various kinds. The public-sector roles have been

  20. International price comparisons for pharmaceuticals. Measurement and policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzon, P M; Kim, J D

    1998-01-01

    Cross-national price comparisons for pharmaceuticals are commonly used for two purposes. Comparisons based on a sample of products are used to draw conclusions about differences in average price levels. Cross-national comparisons applied to individual products are also used by governments to set domestic prices. This paper examines the major methodological issues raised by international price comparisons, focusing on measurement of differences in average price levels and the validity of policy conclusions drawn from such price comparison studies. It argues that valid measures of average price levels can only be obtained from comparisons based on a comprehensive or representative sample of products, appropriately weighted, following standard index number methods. Comparisons of individual product prices should take into account the manufacturer's entire product portfolio over time rather than focus narrowly on a single product at a point in time. Because of the great variation across countries in both the range of drug compounds available and the dosage forms, strengths and pack sizes for each compound, obtaining a broadly comprehensive or representative sample is problematical. If products are required to match on all dimensions, including molecule, manufacturer, strength and pack, as is common in most international price comparisons, then only a very small and unrepresentative sample of the drugs available in each country can be included in the analysis. A trade-off between the desire to compare only identical products and the need to compare a truly representative sample of a country's pharmaceutical market is therefore necessary. A valid comparison of average drug prices should include generics and over-the-counter products that are good substitutes for branded prescription drugs, with all forms, strengths and packs. To achieve this broad representation, however, the requirements of same manufacturer, same brand, dosage form, strength and pack size must be

  1. Contextual assessment in science education: Background, issues, and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klassen, Stephen

    2006-09-01

    Contemporary assessment practices in science education have undergone significant changes in recent decades. The basis for these changes and the resulting new assessment practices are the subject of this two-part paper. Part 1 considers the basis of assessment that, more than 25 years ago, was driven by the assumptions of decomposability and decontextualization of knowledge, resulting in a low-inference testing system, often described as traditional. This assessment model was replaced not on account of direct criticism, but rather on account of a larger revolution - the change from behavioral to cognitive psychology, developments in the philosophy of science, and the rise of constructivism. Most notably, the study of the active cognitive processes of the individual resulted in a major emphasis on context in learning and assessment. These changes gave rise to the development of various contextual assessment methodologies in science education, for example, concept mapping assessment, performance assessment, and portfolio assessment. In Part 2, the literature relating to the assessment methods identified in Part 1 is reviewed, revealing that there is not much research that supports their validity and reliability. However, encouraging new work on selected-response tests is forming the basis for reconsideration of past criticisms of this technique. Despite the major developments in contextual assessment methodologies in science education, two important questions remain unanswered, namely, whether grades can be considered as genuine numeric quantities and whether the individual student is the appropriate unit of assessment in public accountability. Given these issues and the requirement for science assessment to satisfy the goals of the individual, the classroom, and the society, tentative recommendations are put forward addressing these parallel needs in the assessment of science learning.

  2. Annotated Bibliography on School Finance: Policy and Political Issues; Federal Government; State Issues; Non-Public Schools; Accountability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Joella

    Limited to periodical literature, this annotated bibliography on school finance contains 81 references grouped in 5 categories: (1) policy and politica issues, (2) federal government, (3) state issues, (4) aid to nonpublic schools, and (5) accountability. Following the bibliographic citations, annotations range from 4 to 15 lines and conclude by…

  3. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  4. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  5. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  6. Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University Libraries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper discusses the need and importance of serial policy statement as a guide to providing balanced, relevant and up to date information for quality academic exercise particularly in the area of teaching and research work. The paper formulated and presents a serial policy statement for adoption by Nigerian university ...

  7. Policy Issues in the Structure, Conduct and Performance of Banana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madukwe

    constrained from increased production by lack of capital, high yielding and disease resistant banana varieties. Policy recommendation to this effect was suggested. Key words: Policy, structure, conduct, performance and banana. INTRODUCTION. Cultivated bananas (cultivars) belong to the Euniusa of the family muraceae.

  8. Forest carbon trading : legal, policy, ecological and aboriginal issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elgie, S.

    2005-01-01

    Canada's forest ecosystems store 88 billion tonnes of carbon, with trees alone storing 13 billion tonnes, twice the global annual carbon emissions. Carbon trading could affect forest management. Certain types of forest carbon project will offer cost-effective carbon sequestration options. This paper addresses current concerns about forest carbon trading such as phony carbon gains, biodiversity impact and increased fossil fuel emissions. Statistics were presented with information on global carbon stocks. The Kyoto Protocol requires that Canada must count all changes in forest carbon stocks resulting from afforestation, reforestation or deforestation, and that Canada has the option of counting carbon stock changes from forest management. The decision must be made by 2006, and considerations are whether to present projected net source or sink, or whether to count current commercially managed areas or all timber productive areas. An outline of federal constitutional authority power regarding Kyoto was presented, including limits and risks of trade and treaty powers. The economics of forest carbon were outlined with reference to increasing forest carbon storage. A two-pronged approach was advised, with avoided logging and plantation and intensive management securing carbon and timber benefits. Examples of pre-Kyoto pilots were presented, including the SaskPower project, the Little Red River Cree project and the Labrador Innu project. The disadvantages of offset trading were presented. It was concluded that forest carbon markets are part of a larger vision for sustainable development in Canada's north, especially for aboriginal peoples, and may indicate a growing market for ecological services. Constitutional limits to federal power to regulate carbon trading are not insurmountable, but require care. Ownerships of forest carbon rights raises important policy and legal issues, including aboriginal right, efficiency and equity. An estimated cost of forest carbon projects

  9. The Capacity to Integrate and Deal with Environmental Issues in Local Transport Policy and Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2002-01-01

    The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes.......The article identifies and discuss the capacity to integrate and deal with environmental issues in local transport policy-making and planning processes....

  10. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues and policy options in industrial preparedness planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hardy, B.H.

    1990-03-01

    This paper is one of a set of working papers that serves as a background material to a FEMA-sponsored study of Industrial Mobilization planning. It identifies issues that will lead to policy alternatives in support of industrial preparedness. To do this, a simple framework cross classifying types of economic interaction between the DOD and the private sector, given peacetime, surge, and mobilization requirements. Next, policy recommendations from ten recent studies are examined. These came from a variety of different groups and focused on potential actions by DOD, FEMA, Congress, the Navy, and others. These are summarized and restated to match the cross classification framework. The planning framework is then used to organize a set of recommendations around three themes --- acquisition and public/private sector relationships technology and factor input enhancing activities, and offshore sourcing and international competitiveness. The DOD has already addressed the acquisition issue at great length and has implemented the bulk of its findings. These will undoubtedly increase the effectiveness and efficiency of its operations. It cannot, however, by itself fully rationalize the acquisition process so that incentives to achieve greater efficiency are fully passed on to contractors. DOD can, however, revise its acquisition process so that surge provisions are a deliberate step in the contract of each sensitive procurement, and could require a surge analysis for each action, steps that would highlight preparations for surge. DOD should consider the creation of a new institution similar to, but more generic than SEMATECH to handle its activities that directly enhance the defense industrial base. It should also support the creation of a body whose goal it is to identify non-neutralities in government policy. 23 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs.

  11. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics: Uncertainty, Values and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roeser, Sabine

    2017-10-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as feasible, policies, targeting climate change requires an interdisciplinary approach. This special issue will identify the main challenges that climate change poses from social, economic, methodological and ethical perspectives by focusing on the complex interrelations between uncertainty, values and policy in this context. This special issue brings together scholars from economics, social sciences and philosophy in order to address these challenges.

  12. Towards re-reforming the EU cohesion policy: Key issues in the debate and some thoughts on peripheral regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foutakis Dimitris

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Two years after the inception of the fourth programming period, the debate on post-2013 cohesion policy has already been launched. In fact, public consultation was launched in 2007 and considerable steps have followed since then, while others are about to start. At the same time, the new strategic guidelines and rules that guide cohesion policy have only been in place for a short period and as yet their impacts are not clear. Critical events and major political issues that concern the whole EU structure are the main factors behind this evolution. In particular, the economic recession in addition to the prospects for the new EU Treaty could be considered decisive elements in the launch of the debate on future cohesion policy. More specifically, among the issues highlighted in this context are the distinction between efficiency and equity objectives, the need for a place-based strategy, high growth sectors and their contribution to cohesion, and the potential for creativity and innovation. Overall, it seems like old dilemmas of spatial development recur, while contemporary ones also gain ground. The outcome of this debate is of significant importance for all EU regions not only in budgetary terms, but also in terms of strategic policy goals. This paper examines the above future policy issues with an emphasis on regions faced with particular difficulties such as less favored regions as well as those in the EU periphery.

  13. Social Policy Issues in Planning Major Development Projects: Rural Community Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)

  14. In Law and Policy: AAMR Legislative and Social Goals: 1988-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckasson, Ruth, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    1988-1989 legislative and social goals of the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are outlined. Priorities focus on Medicaid reform, constitutional and civil rights, capital punishment and the criminal justice system, and staff compensation rates. Twenty additional goals in such areas as family support and tax reform are also…

  15. State Outlook: Fiscal and State Policy Issues Affecting Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of State Colleges and Universities, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of the issues affecting postsecondary education in America. The contents of this issue include: (1) Overview of Economic and Fiscal Dynamics; (2) Global and Domestic Growth Prospects; (3) Snapshot of Economic Indicators--November 2010; (4) Labor Market Conditions and Post-Recession Economic Impacts; (5)…

  16. Constructing public oral health policies in Brazil: issues for reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Leite Matos Soares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the construction of public oral health policies in Brazil by reviewing the available literature. It includes a discussion of the social responses given by the Brazilian State to oral health policies and the relationship of these responses with the ideological oral health movements that have developed globally, and that have specifically influenced oral health policies in Brazil. The influence of these movements has affected a series of hegemonic practices originating from both Market Dentistry and Preventive and Social Dentistry in Brazil. Among the state activities that have been set into motion, the following stand out: the drafting of a law to regulate the fluoridation of the public water supply, and the fluoridation of commercial toothpaste in Brazil; epidemiological surveys to analyze the status of the Brazilian population's oral health; the inclusion of oral health in the Family Health Strategy (Estratégia de Saúde da Família - ESF; the drawing up of the National Oral Health Policy, Smiling Brazil (Brasil Sorridente. From the literature consulted, the progressive expansion of state intervention in oral health policies is observed. However, there remains a preponderance of hegemonic "dental" practices reproduced in the Unified Public Health Service (Sistema Único de Saúde - SUS and the Family Health Strategy.

  17. Energy Policy Act of 1992 : limited progress in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reaching fuel goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, some, albeit limited, progress has been made in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reducing the consumption of petroleum fuels in transportation. DOE estimates about 1 million alternative fuel ...

  18. Policy issues of transporting spent nuclear fuel by rail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spraggins, H.B.

    1994-01-01

    The topic of this paper is safe and economical transportation of spent nuclear fuel by rail. The cost of safe movement given the liability consequences in the event of a rail accident involving such material is the core issue. Underlying this issue is the ability to access the risk probability of such an accident. The paper delineates how the rail industry and certain governmental agencies perceive and assess such important operational, safety, and economic issues. It also covers benefits and drawbacks of dedicated and regular train movement of such materials

  19. 76 FR 40777 - Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 133... 3150-AG48 Interim Enforcement Policy for Certain Fire Protection Issues AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... issues to extend the enforcement discretion to correspond with a submittal schedule for new license...

  20. Security Issues and Resulting Security Policies for Mobile Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    military radiomen” [26] and nike + running shoes for tracking fitness. There is also “a new product category, the smartwatch, which is effectively a...be used to analyze the properties of such a system with a goal of providing assurances that the system will “behave as advertised .” C. CONCLUSION

  1. Issues for Agricultural Extension Policy in Nigeria | Koyenikan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper suggests as the goal; achievement of a well organized extension system for efficient and effective extension delivery in all aspects of sustainable agriculture and rural development to attain food security, poverty reduction, rural empowerment and environment management. It concludes with a summary of key ...

  2. Innovation Zones: Creating Policy Flexibility for Personalized Learning. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Susan; Gentz, Susan

    2016-01-01

    There is a new state education policy concept termed either innovation zones or districts of innovation. State education agencies interested in shifting their role from enforcing compliance to one of supporting innovation and building capacity in districts are working to spur new innovative instructional models and create space for…

  3. Elder Learning in Hong Kong: Policies, Programmes, Provisions, and Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the notions of active ageing and elder learning in Hong Kong where a strategic approach to elderly education is applied by the government to encourage lifelong learning. The paper outlines the policy development and support for elder learning in Hong Kong in two distinct periods: pre-1997 and post-1997. The post-1997 period is…

  4. Computer Viruses. Legal and Policy Issues Facing Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David R.; And Others

    Compiled by various members of the higher educational community together with risk managers, computer center managers, and computer industry experts, this report recommends establishing policies on an institutional level to protect colleges and universities from computer viruses and the accompanying liability. Various aspects of the topic are…

  5. 2008 Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Notwithstanding, Ola (2006) in her own studies, itemized the need to formulate and adopt every policy as thus:- i. Encourages advice from the academic staff regarding what materials to add to collection. ii. Encourages Input from students iii. Ensures participation of the collection development librarian iv. Defines clearly the ...

  6. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  7. Main Issues on Electronic Commerce and Policy Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Chongwha Lee; Seongbong Lee

    1998-01-01

    "Electronic Commerce" means that people sell and buy commodity, labor service and information through internet and now is mainly be used in commercial intercourse. The core of the international research related to Electronic Commerce is a tax-exemption, land tax, liberalization of encrypted technology and privacy protection policy, etc. Meanwhile, intellectual property, consumer protection and limitation of packing specification are also researched together with the business activeness. The r...

  8. MODELING MONETARY POLICY RULES IN THE MENACOUNTRIES: ISSUES AND EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Husam Helmi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the monetary policy reaction function for two sets of MENAcountries: The inflation target countries, (Turkeyand Israel and the exchange ratetarget countries, (Jordan and Morocco. We motivateour empirical analysis byanalyzing a simple Taylor rule. This model looks atthe effects of inflation andoutput on setting the interest rate by the centralbank. Furthermore, we extendedour model by adding the exchange rate and the foreign interest rate using similarmodel used by Clarida et al (1998 with using GMM estimator.Findings of this study yield some interesting results,all the central banks in thesample uses interest rate smoothing in managing their monetary policy. Inaddition, The Central bank in Turkey, Israel and Morocco focuses on achievinglow level of inflation. On the other hand, the Monetary Authority in Jordan caresabout stabilizing the output gap. Estimating the extended Taylor rule suggests thehighly significant effect of foreign interest rateon setting the interest rate inTurkey. Taken all together, the results lend support to the importance of followinga rule rather than discretionary in reducing the inflation rate and crediblemonetary policy. In addition, the simple Taylor rule can be applied on MENAcountries but it requires some modification such asadding the exchange rate andthe foreign interest rate.

  9. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  10. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J; Bellingham, Jim R; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H Charles J; Good, David A; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J; Guilliams, Tim T; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A; Lueshi, Leila M; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P; Watkinson, Andrew R; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K A; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  11. Identifying the science and technology dimensions of emerging public policy issues through horizon scanning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miles Parker

    Full Text Available Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security.

  12. Identifying the Science and Technology Dimensions of Emerging Public Policy Issues through Horizon Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Miles; Acland, Andrew; Armstrong, Harry J.; Bellingham, Jim R.; Bland, Jessica; Bodmer, Helen C.; Burall, Simon; Castell, Sarah; Chilvers, Jason; Cleevely, David D.; Cope, David; Costanzo, Lucia; Dolan, James A.; Doubleday, Robert; Feng, Wai Yi; Godfray, H. Charles J.; Good, David A.; Grant, Jonathan; Green, Nick; Groen, Arnoud J.; Guilliams, Tim T.; Gupta, Sunjai; Hall, Amanda C.; Heathfield, Adam; Hotopp, Ulrike; Kass, Gary; Leeder, Tim; Lickorish, Fiona A.; Lueshi, Leila M.; Magee, Chris; Mata, Tiago; McBride, Tony; McCarthy, Natasha; Mercer, Alan; Neilson, Ross; Ouchikh, Jackie; Oughton, Edward J.; Oxenham, David; Pallett, Helen; Palmer, James; Patmore, Jeff; Petts, Judith; Pinkerton, Jan; Ploszek, Richard; Pratt, Alan; Rocks, Sophie A.; Stansfield, Neil; Surkovic, Elizabeth; Tyler, Christopher P.; Watkinson, Andrew R.; Wentworth, Jonny; Willis, Rebecca; Wollner, Patrick K. A.; Worts, Kim; Sutherland, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Public policy requires public support, which in turn implies a need to enable the public not just to understand policy but also to be engaged in its development. Where complex science and technology issues are involved in policy making, this takes time, so it is important to identify emerging issues of this type and prepare engagement plans. In our horizon scanning exercise, we used a modified Delphi technique [1]. A wide group of people with interests in the science and policy interface (drawn from policy makers, policy adviser, practitioners, the private sector and academics) elicited a long list of emergent policy issues in which science and technology would feature strongly and which would also necessitate public engagement as policies are developed. This was then refined to a short list of top priorities for policy makers. Thirty issues were identified within broad areas of business and technology; energy and environment; government, politics and education; health, healthcare, population and aging; information, communication, infrastructure and transport; and public safety and national security. PMID:24879444

  13. Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets and Goals for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, John F.

    The diverse effects of racial discrimination in urban housing markets are discussed in this paper. It also outlines a number of programs and policies that would ameliorate these effects in the short run and would help eradicate racial discrimination and segregation in the long run. The paper's emphasis reflects the opinion that housing market…

  14. The International Baccalaureate Career Programme: A Case Study of College and Career Readiness Policy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.; Donovan, Martha K.

    2018-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) is noted in school reform policy circles as the gold standard of academic excellence. While the presence of IB as a sought-after education vendor has grown in the past decade, the organization has attempted to shake off its image as an elite agency serving only private international schools with its…

  15. Is health workforce sustainability in Australia and New Zealand a realistic policy goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James M; Naccarella, Lucio; Brooks, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses what health workforce 'sustainability' might mean for Australia and New Zealand, given the policy direction set out in the World Health Organization draft code on international recruitment of health workers. The governments in both countries have in the past made policy statements about the desirability of health workforce 'self-sufficiency', but OECD data show that both have a high level of dependence on internationally recruited health professionals relative to most other OECD countries. The paper argues that if a target of 'self-sufficiency' or sustainability were to be based on meeting health workforce requirements from home based training, both Australia and New Zealand fall far short of this measure, and continue to be active recruiters. The paper stresses that there is no common agreed definition of what health workforce 'self-sufficiency', or 'sustainability' is in practice, and that without an agreed definition it will be difficult for policy-makers to move the debate on to reaching agreement and possibly setting measurable targets or timelines for achievement. The paper concludes that any policy decisions related to health workforce sustainability will also have to taken in the context of a wider community debate on what is required of a health system and how is it to be funded.

  16. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  17. Resolving Governance Issues to Achieve Priority Sustainable Development Goals Related to Solid Waste Management in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Rodić

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available As a key utility service that more than 2 billion people are currently lacking, solid waste management (SWM is a crosscutting issue that can be directly linked to 12 out of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. Distinguishing between physical components and governance aspects of SWM, this research focuses on governance issues concerning basic solid waste collection services and controlled disposal, thus addressing the ‘How’ and the ‘Who’ dimensions of a SWM system. As a form of transdisciplinary research, the findings from the literature on governance issues in SWM were iteratively subjected to several rounds of commentary by a large group of stakeholders from six continents, within the authors’ work for the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP’s 2015 Global Waste Management Outlook. The study identifies a combination of complementary instruments required for extending collection to all and bringing disposal under control. While municipalities have a legal responsibility for providing services to their citizens, various service providers can contribute to an effective SWM system. Appropriate forms of funding are essential to secure financial sustainability of the services under the local conditions of affordability and willingness to pay. As new services require behavioural change on the part of citizens and municipal waste departments alike, communication and exchange with other stakeholders function as enabling and supporting factors. The significance of capacity development is highlighted.

  18. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  19. Heads in the clouds, feet in the sand: Multilateral policy coordination in global environmental issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This is a study of how issues that can only be solved through cooperation (such as commons issues) reach the international agenda and how states then form policy on those issues. Extensive primary data are used in analyzing (1) accession of stratospheric ozone depletion and global climate change to the international agenda and (2) the policy formation of ten states on these issues. This study shows that commons issues reach the international agenda through the actions of intergovernmental organizations in defining the problem, and the political activities of a leader state (such as the US on ozone) or a state acting as a policy entrepreneur. In the extensive literature on international cooperation most studies emphasize the importance of system level variables. Adapting the two-level games approach to multilateral issues, this study argues that, as commons issues do not directly threaten the security of most states, state policy on such issues primarily reflects domestic political necessities. In effect, foreign and domestic policy on such issues become unified. Through analysis of secondary and primary data, including more than 30 interviews with representatives of both developed states (the US, Canada, the UK, and Japan) and developing states (Brazil, India, Algeria, Mexico, and Thailand), and the Soviet Union, this study shows how domestic factors influenced foreign policy decisions and actions. The study shows that states seem to be less interested in absolute or relative gains in international negotiations that in maximizing domestic political rewards from its choice of foreign policy. Finally, through study of the accession of the global climate change issue it is appears that knowledge may be politically derived. States required a open-quotes consensusclose quotes among the technical experts before initiating the international negotiations. Politics seems to have played a large part in forming the technical consensus and in communicating it to states

  20. Environmental issues in Sweden 1973 1989: Science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwgren, Marianne; Segrell, Björn

    1991-09-01

    The aim of this study is to analyze the environmental agenda in Sweden during the last two decades. A content analysis was made of all articles in a Swedish journal, Miljö-Aktuellt. Further, to elucidate the evolutionary process of problem formulation and reformulation, two cases were investigated, dealing with the impact of plant nutrients and mercury on surface water quality. The transport of heavy metals is an essential component of the ecological process and problem of acidification, and similarly, plant nutrients are part of the concept of eutrophication. Two concepts, the research cycle and the policy cycle, are tentatively applied to the conceptualizations of acidification and eutrophication. Additional data for the latter part of the study is supplied from parliamentary motions during 1973 1989. The substance/media focus of the 1970s was connected to a point-source abatement strategy, which mainly aimed at removing negative effects at a local level. The development of a national preventive strategy is traced in problem formulations related to “processes” going on in the technosphere: wastes, noise, energy production, traffic, and toxic substances. This period lasted from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, and the need for improved resource management as a means to control environmental problems has been a generally accepted idea. However, this does not mean that measures actually taken are sufficient in a material balance perspective. Further, in the 1980s there was a strong emphasis upon processes in the ecosphere. This focus also implies source-related policies. To a certain extent, the remedies are within the scope of national capabilities, but the international dimension is becoming increasingly important. Scientific proofs of resource and environment degradation are essential to induce political action and to stimulate international cooperation. From this study, however, it is not possible to assess the existence of any particular policy

  1. OECD Trilog Plenary Symposium : public policy issues in global freight logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This is the fifth plenary symposium on public policy issues in global freight logistics conducted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). OECD's Trilateral Logistics Project, Trilog Project, is aimed at clarifying the pub...

  2. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    .... policy makers have adopted tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, concerned about the impact of the PRC's strong economic growth and a more assertive international diplomacy...

  3. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dumbaugh, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    .... policy makers appear to be adopting tougher stances on issues involving China and U.S.-China relations, expressing their concerns about strong PRC economic growth and a more assertive and influential diplomacy in the international...

  4. Ukraine: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-26

    current Ukrainian government is disbanding the Berkut, and the perceived weakness of the authorities in Kyiv could potentially be exploited by Crimea and...banned imports of Ukrainian chocolates from Roshen, a company owned by a strong supporter of the Association Agreement. Russian officials also briefly...reactor site. The two countries are cooperating on energy issues as well. U.S. officials have repeatedly stressed that Ukraine’s security depends on

  5. PRIORITIES OF REGIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY: THE ISSUES OF DIAGNOSTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Kudryavtseva

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Methods of eliciting priority ecological problems are analyzed in the article. The problem of air pollution is considered to be the foreground issue for both the Ural Federal District and Russia; that was due substantiated. An extended technique of setting priorities for air pollutants and techniques for integral ecological and social assessment of air pollution acuteness extent in the region have been offered; calculations for the Ural Federal District have been made according to the techniques mentioned.

  6. Pulses production in Italy: trade, marketing and policy issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rino Ghelfi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Italian pulses production has sharply fallen since the middle of the last century and the role that pulses played has diminished at both the agricultural and food levels. This is the result of several factors that are analysed in this article, among which the most important can be identified in the low profitability compared to other crops, mainly cereals, the historic collapse of domestic consumption and a strong competition from foreign producers. Conversely, in recent years, different signals appear to delineate a possible framework for recovery for legumes: the first of these is represented by the recent reversal trend in domestic consumption, due to healthy reasons and a fall in meat consumption. The favourable trend of organic consumption can also be considered as a positive factor for pulses. However, the focus point for pulses future perspective is the recent development of the European policy (2014-2020 that planned several actions in support of them, such as coupled payments and the provisions of greening rules. These policies aim to support the training effort needed to bring home to producers the importance of legumes in a proper crop rotation that maintains soil fertility and therefore better yields and profitability. In light of this and based on the general crisis in cereals prices, it is possible to be reasonably optimistic regarding the future of the legumes sector in Italy.

  7. Nutrient flows in international trade: Ecology and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, Ulrike; Craswell, Eric; Vlek, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Impacts of increasing population pressure on food demand and land resources has sparked interest in nutrient balances and flows at a range of scales. West Asia/North Africa, China, and sub-Saharan Africa are net importers of NPK in agricultural commodities. These imported nutrients do not, however, redress the widely recognized declines in fertility in sub-Saharan African soils, because the nutrients imported are commonly concentrated in the cities, creating waste disposal problems rather than alleviating deficiencies in rural soils. Countries with a net loss of NPK in agricultural commodities are the major food exporting countries-the United States, Australia, and some Latin American countries. In the case of the United States, exports of NPK will increase from 3.1 Tg in 1997 to 4.8 Tg in 2020. The results suggest that between 1997 and 2020, total international net flows of NPK in traded agricultural commodities will double to 8.8 million tonnes. Against this background, the paper analyses the impact of different policy measures on nutrient flows and balances. This includes not only the effects of agricultural trade liberalization and the reduction of subsidies, but also the more direct environmental policies like nutrient accounting schemes, eco-labeling, and nutrient trading. It finally stresses the need for environmental costs to be factored into the debate on nutrient management and advocates more inter-disciplinary research on these important problems

  8. RENEWABLE ENERGY: POLICY ISSUES AND ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulden Boluk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current energy policy of Turkey is to increase the renewable energy share in total energy and to maximize benefit from existing potential until next 15 years. It was planed that the share of renewable energy resources in electricity production would be at least 30% by 2023 and government ensured some incentives such as feed-in tariff, investment incentives etc. for renewable energy. Moreover Turkish Energy Regulatory Agency (EMRA announced that biofuel blending would be mandatory starting from 2013 and 2014 for bioethanol (2% and biodiesel (1%, respectively. This study examines the current situation and potential of renewable resources and evaluates the impacts of renewable energy policy both on the energy sector and whole national economy. Renewable energy targets can generate around 275-545 thousand direct jobs possibilities in energy sector and 7.9 thousand tones natural gas and 464 thousand cubic meters fossil fuel saving by 2023. Net trade impact of renewable energy targets will be aggravated due to mandatory biodiesel blending since Turkey has oilseed deficit. In Turkey, utilization of all type of resources will contribute to economy but most feasible and sustainable renewable energy is biomass. Between the other renewables, biomass would provide highest social well-being in the country.

  9. 'India - Solar cells' : trade rules, climate policy, and sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    KARTTUNEN, Marianna B.; MOORE, Michael O.

    2017-01-01

    India – Solar Cells is one of a growing number of WTO disputes that highlight the continuing tensions between climate change polices (and renewable energy manufacturing initiatives in particular) and established multilateral trading rules. The United States alleged that Indian policies discriminated against foreign solar cell suppliers operating in the Indian market. The Appellate Body broadly rejected India’s arguments to justify the measure either under Article III.8 public procurement dero...

  10. A report of the technological aspects of regulatory-policy issues of geostationary platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.

    1981-12-01

    Geostationary platforms and their possible application to low cost communication services are discussed. A number of regulatory technology, policy issues related to the introduction of a geostationary platform, e.g., organizational arrangements for platform operation, electromagnetic compatibility at orbit environment, sharing with terrestrial services and other satellites, diversity operation, frequency reuse, small orbit spacing and efficient modulation techniques are considered. Some technological policy issues may require demonstrated results before a commercially viable geostationary platform is implemented by investors and approved by regulators.

  11. European climate policy between ambitious goals and reality; Europaeische Klimapolitik: Zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik, Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In order to restrict the risks of anthropogenic climate change to a 'tolerable' extent, the fourth assessment report of the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change calls for a trend reversal towards globally decreasing greenhouse gas emissions within the next two decades which ultimately must lead to i a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions until the mid of the century by 50 percent as compared to 2000 emission levels. The European Union claims a lead of a role in climate policy with the objective to push forward international negotiations on far-reaching emission reduction commitments with other important industrialized and developing regions.The EU's credibility as a leading force will hinge crucially on how successfully it can fulfill its emission reduction obligations under the Kyoto Protocol by means of market-based environmental policy, in particular the exemplary operation of the EU emission trading system. Against this background, the following article provides a critical assessment of the EU's climate policy. (orig.)

  12. State policies affecting natural gas consumption (Notice of inquiry issued on August 14, 1992). Summary of comments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemon, R.; Kamphuis-Zatopa, W.

    1993-03-25

    On August 14, 1992, the United States Department of Energy issued a Request for Comments Concerning State Policies Affecting Natural Gas Consumption. This Notice of (NOI) noted the increasing significance of the role played by states and sought to gain better understanding of how state policies impact the gas industry. The general trend toward a. more competitive marketplace for natural gas, as well as recent regulatory and legislative changes at the Federal level, are driving State regulatory agencies to reevaluate how they regulate natural gas. State action is having a significant impact on the use of natural gas for generating electricity, as well as affecting the cost-effective trade-off between conservation expenditures and gas use. Additionally, fuel choice has an impact upon the environment and national energy security. In light of these dimensions, the Department of Energy initiated this study of State regulation. The goals of this NOI are: (1) help DOE better understand the impact of State policies on the efficient use of gas; (2) increase the awareness of the natural gas industry and Federal and State officials to the important role of State policies and regulations; (3) create an improved forum for dialogue on State and Federal natural gas issues; and, (4) develop a consensus on an analytical agenda that would be most helpful in addressing the regulatory challenges faced by the States. Ninety-seven parties filed comments, and of these ninety-seven, fifteen parties filed reply comments. Appendix One lists these parties. This report briefly syntheses the comments received. The goal is to assist parties to judging the extent of consensus on the problems posed and the remedies suggested, aid in identifying future analytical analyses, and assist parties in assessing differences in strategies and regulatory philosophies which shape these issues and their resolution.

  13. Introduction to the Special Issue on Climate Ethics : Uncertainty, Values and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeser, S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is a pressing phenomenon with huge potential ethical, legal and social policy implications. Climate change gives rise to intricate moral and policy issues as it involves contested science, uncertainty and risk. In order to come to scientifically and morally justified, as well as

  14. Introduction: Family migration as an integration issue? Policy perspectives and academic insights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.; Kraler, A.

    2015-01-01

    "Family migration" and "integration" are intimately related concepts in policy discourses in Europe today. Assumptions about the relation between "family migration" and "integration" play a crucial role in shaping policies. This special issue aims to examine the axis between "family migration,"

  15. Explaining How Political Actors Gain Strategic Positions: Predictors of Centrality in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamara V.; Wang, Yuling; Lewis, Wayne D.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from interviews with 111 reading policy actors from California, Connecticut, Michigan, and Utah, this study explains how individuals acquire central positions in issue networks. Regression analyses showed that the greater a policy actor's reputed influence was and the more similar their preferences were to other members in the network,…

  16. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  17. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump "older people" together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as "senior." This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active "young-old" and the potentially more impaired "old-old" (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old's plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population.

  18. Barriers to convergence: legislative, regulatory and policy issues in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyndman, R. [Alberta Energy and Natural Resources, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    1997-02-01

    The restructuring of Alberta`s electric power industry has created potential for convergence with the natural gas industry. This presentation outlined some of the key issues dealing with convergence, including (1) the existing regulatory structures, (2) areas of convergence, (3) a comparison of the state of transition in Alberta of the electricity and natural gas to commodity markets in terms of supply, market, and legislative and regulatory jurisdiction, (4) price convergence and limiting factors, (5) key elements in the restructuring of the electric industry in Alberta, (6) the influence of restructuring on convergence, and (7) the barriers and limits to convergence. 37 figs.

  19. Comment 4 - policy for sustainable development: Some unresolved issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruttan, V.W.

    1992-01-01

    We are now in the midst of the third wave of social concern since World War II about the implications of natural resource availability and environmental change for the sustainability of improvements in human well-being. The first wave of concern in the late 1940s and early 1950s focused primarily on the quantitative relationship between resource availability and economic growth. The response to this first wave of concern was technical change in raw material production. The second wave of concern, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, focused on the rising demand for assimilation by the environment of residuals derived from growth in commodity production and consumption - primarily at the local and regional level. Since the mid 1980s, these two early concerns have been supplemented by a third. This more recent concern centers around the implications for environmental quality, food production, and human health of a series of environmental changes such as global warming, ozone depletion, acid rain, and others that are occurring on a transnational scale. Before actions to resolve these more recent challenges to sustainable economic growth are taken, a number of unresolved issues must be confronted to allow a commitment to this resolution to be translated into an internally coherent reform agenda. In this note, he discuss three of these issues

  20. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    environmental problems, energy security concerns and dangerous climate change. This review explores a systematic approach to describe interactions documented in the literature, between policies targeting energy use in road passenger transport to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  1. The Teacher Workforce in Australia: Supply, Demand and Data Issues. Policy Insights, Issue #2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldon, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a brief overview of the current teacher workforce situation in Australia. It highlights workforce trends and projected growth, and areas where the collection and analysis of additional data may assist in the targeting of effective policy. Demand for teachers is on the rise. The population of primary students is set to increase…

  2. Legal and Policy Issues for LGBT Patients with Cancer or at Elevated Risk of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean R

    2018-02-01

    To understand the major legal and policy issues for lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) cancer patients. LGBT health policy research. Major policy issues include discrimination, lack of cultural competency and clinically appropriate care, insurance coverage, family recognition, and sexual orientation and gender identity data collection. Nurses play a major role in providing affirming and competent care to LGBT cancer patients. Using correct names and pronouns with transgender patients, and collecting sexual orientation and gender identity data can send an affirming message to LGBT patients, as well as inform decision support and preventive screenings, and improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  4. Improving Caregivers' Perceptions Regarding Patient Goals of Care/End-of-Life Issues for the Multidisciplinary Critical Care Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Brian T; Sona, Carrie; Schallom, Marilyn

    2017-01-01

    With population aging and growth, use of critical care medicine at the end of life continues to rise, while many critical care providers are not adequately trained regarding goals of care/end-of-life (GOC/EOL) issues. A multidisciplinary intensive care unit (ICU) team intervention regarding GOC/EOL communication will enhance the clinical abilities of all critical care providers when discussing GOC/EOL issues and increase ICU staff comfort level while improving transitions for patients to a comfort care approach. This study was a preintervention/postintervention survey evaluation. This study was conducted at an academic tertiary surgical burn trauma ICU. The intervention was provided to nursing, ancillary staff, house staff, and attending physicians. An initial survey was circulated among the critical care staff for baseline expectations, satisfaction, and understanding of GOC/EOL care. A robust intervention was begun including the creation of a multidisciplinary GOC/EOL team, communication tools for providers, patient-family pamphlets, standardized EOL order sets, and formalized didactic sessions. Subsequently, the same survey was circulated and compared to baseline data. Preintervention/postintervention survey data were reviewed and statistically analyzed. Our survey response rate for preintervention/postintervention was 50.4% and 36.1%, respectively. The intervention generated heightened interest in improving family communication and provided focal direction to foster this growth. Based on the serial surveys regarding our intervention, statistically significant staff improvements were seen in "work stress" (P = .04), "EOL information" (P = .006), and "space allotment" (P = .001). Improved congruence of families and health care providers regarding decision over intensity of care was also noted. We created a novel unit-based multidisciplinary program for improved EOL/GOC approaches in the critical care setting. A similarly formatted program could be adapted by

  5. POLICY ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH USING SIMULATION TO ASSESS ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchitel, Kirsten; Tanana, Heather

    2014-11-01

    This report examines the relationship between simulation-based science and judicial assessments of simulations or models supporting evaluations of environmental harms or risks, considering both how it exists currently and how it might be shaped in the future. This report considers the legal standards relevant to judicial assessments of simulation-based science and provides examples of the judicial application of those legal standards. Next, this report discusses the factors that inform whether there is a correlation between the sophistication of a challenged simulation and judicial support for that simulation. Finally, this report examines legal analysis of the broader issues that must be addressed for simulation-based science to be better understood and utilized in the context of judicial challenge and evaluation. !

  6. Using supervised machine learning to code policy issues: Can classifiers generalize across contexts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burscher, B.; Vliegenthart, R.; de Vreese, C.H.

    2015-01-01

    Content analysis of political communication usually covers large amounts of material and makes the study of dynamics in issue salience a costly enterprise. In this article, we present a supervised machine learning approach for the automatic coding of policy issues, which we apply to news articles

  7. The Public-Private Divide in Ethiopian Higher Education: Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nega, Mulu

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the current issues on the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education landscape and their policy implications. It critically examines issues related to legal and regulatory frameworks in order to understand the public-private divide in the Ethiopian higher education context. The article is based on two premises.…

  8. Subtyping Ageism: Policy Issues in Succession and Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2014-01-01

    Ageism research tends to lump “older people” together as one group, as do policy matters that conceptualize everyone over-65 as “senior.” This approach is problematic primarily because it often fails to represent accurately a rapidly growing, diverse, and healthy older population. In light of this, we review the ageism literature, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing between the still-active “young-old” and the potentially more impaired “old-old” (Neugarten, 1974). We argue that ageism theory has disproportionately focused on the old-old and differentiate the forms of age discrimination that apparently target each elder subgroup. In particular, we highlight the young-old’s plights predominantly in the workplace and tensions concerning succession of desirable resources; by contrast, old-old predicaments likely center on consumption of shared resources outside of the workplace. For both social psychological researchers and policymakers, accurately subtyping ageism will help society best accommodate a burgeoning, diverse older population. PMID:24523829

  9. The unexpected challenges of using energy intensity as a policy objective: Examining the debate over the APEC energy intensity goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Energy intensity (energy demand per unit of economic output) is one of the most widely used indicators of energy efficiency in energy policy discussions. Yet its application in real-world policymaking can be surprisingly problematical. This paper aims to provide guidance to governments and organizations considering using energy intensity as a policy objective. Scope: In 2007 the APEC community adopted, then in 2011 revised, an APEC region-wide energy intensity improvement goal. This paper presents a case study of that experience, focusing on three key ‘lessons learned’. These lessons are not original findings. However, none of them have received the recognition they deserve, and consequently, they came as a surprise to many of those involved in APEC's policy discussions. Conclusions: The three lessons are as follows: (1) Energy intensity improvement is happening surprisingly quickly, but not quickly enough to meet the world's energy challenges. (2) It is difficult to find a definition of energy intensity that can make it suitable for use as an indicator of regional energy efficiency. (3) Whether the GDP's of individual economies are converted to common currency using market exchange rates or purchasing power parity (PPP) can dramatically change regional energy intensity improvement calculations. - Highlights: • APEC adopted, then subsequently revised, an energy intensity reduction goal. • This is a case study of APEC's use of energy intensity as a policy objective. • Energy intensity is declining more rapidly than many policymakers realized. • The definition of energy intensity adopted can dramatically change the incentives. • Currency conversion methodologies can dramatically change the calculations

  10. [Food insecurity: associated variables and issues for public policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Castillo, Sara E; Patiño, Gonzalo A; Herrán, Oscar F

    2012-01-01

    The validity of the explanations change over time according to the state of demographic, epidemiological and nutritional transitions. Five methods were compared to establish t he magnitude of food insecurity and related variables. Four hundred and thirty-two households in Colombia were classified using five methods, including (1) the scale of perceptions of food safety (EPSA),(2) the Latin American and Caribbean scale (ELCSA), (3) the usual intake of energy from the head of household, (4) the usual consumption of energy of all members of the home, and (5) an algorithm based on consumption and status of children. Binomial regression established variables associated with food insecurity. Insecurity varied between 35.9% and 87.0%. According ELCSA and method 3, households with children have a lower risk of insecurity, 0.51 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.90) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.48 to 0.96). Under the EPSA and ELCSA, increased insecurity is associated with nonpayment of utilities, 1.75 (95% CI: 1.23 to 2.28) and the head of household declared limited access to food, 1.48 (95% CI: 1, 20 to 1.68). Sporadic income was associated with the method 3, 1.34 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.53) and method 4, 1.32 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.52). Paying rent, 1.12 (95% CI: 1.01 to 1.16), time spent in the municipality, 0.59 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.93) and not having sewer, 1.13 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.16) were associated with the food insecurity using method 5. Since the country has reliable information that is obtained routinely it is not relevant or useful to use these methods with the purpose of developing social policies.

  11. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for intelligent network flow optimization (INFLO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    The report documents policy considerations for the Intelligent Network Flow Optimization (INFLO) connected vehicle applications : bundle. INFLO aims to optimize network flow on freeways and arterials by informing motorists of existing and impen...

  12. Possible Role of Green Chemistry in Addressing Environmenal Plastic Debris: Scientific, Economic and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayha, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    Plastics have revolutionized modern life, replacing other raw materials in a vast array of products, due to their ease in molding and shaping, as well as superior recalcitrance to wearing and aging. However, this functional benefit makes plastic one of the most problematic pollutants, since they accumulate as environmental debris for decades and possibly for centuries. Rightfully so, programs addressing plastic debris typically involve efforts to reduce consumption, reuse plastic products and recycle them when usefulness is complete. However, some of these options can be problematic for certain applications, as well as in countries that lack efficient municipal solid waste or recycling facilities. The principles of Green Chemistry were developed to help scientists design chemical products that reduce or eliminate the use or generation of hazardous substances. These principles have also been applied to developing sustainable or greener polymers for use in consumer plastics. For instance, the EPA's Green Chemistry Program awards the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards each year, with a large percentage of awards having gone to developments in greener polymers. Many of these advancements involve the development of sustainable bio-based, more degradable or more recyclable polymers that deliver significant environmental benefits. This presentation is meant to address what role the development of truly greener polymers might have in addressing environmental plastic debris in parallel with efforts to reduce, reuse and recycle. The intention is to evaluate the issues posed by traditional polymer types, address the ultimate goals of alternative polymer development and evaluate research on current alternative polymer technologies, in order to objectively assess their usefulness in addressing environmental plastic debris accumulation. In addition, the scientific, policy and market issues that may be impeding accurate development, evaluation and implementation of

  13. Mandatory Reporting? Issues to consider when developing legislation and policy to improve discovery of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Davies

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Article by Dr Emma Davies (School of Law, Liverpool John Moores University, Associate Professor Ben Mathews (School of Law, Queensland University of Technology and Professor John Read (Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, University of Liverpool. In the United Kingdom, recent investigations into child sexual abuse occurring within schools, the Catholic Church and the British Broadcasting Corporation, have intensified debate on ways to improve the discovery of child sexual abuse, and child maltreatment generally. One approach adopted in other jurisdictions to better identify cases of severe child maltreatment is the introduction of some form of legislative mandatory reporting to require designated persons to report known and suspected cases. The debate in England has raised the prospect of whether adopting a strategy of some kind of mandatory reporting law is advisable. The purpose of this article is to add to this debate by identifying fundamental principles, issues and complexities underpinning policy and even legislative developments in the interests of children and society. The article will first highlight the data on the hidden nature of child maltreatment and the background to the debate. Secondly, it will identify some significant gaps in knowledge that need to be filled. Thirdly, the article will summarise the barriers to reporting abuse and neglect. Fourthly, we will identify a range of options for, and clarify the dilemmas in developing, legislative mandatory reporting, addressing two key issues: who should be mandated to report, and what types of child maltreatment should they be required to report? Finally, we draw attention to some inherently different goals and competing interests, both between and within the various institutions involved in the safeguarding of children and the criminal prosecution of some offenders. Based on this analysis we offer some concluding observations that we hope contribute to informed and careful

  14. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1984-02-01

    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  15. Reactivation of nuclear power plant construction projects. Plant status, policy issues and regulatory options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.B.

    1986-07-01

    Prior to the TMI-2 accident on March 28, 1979, four nuclear power plant units that had previously been issued a construction permit were cancelled, principally because of reduced projections of regional power demand. Since that time, an additional 31 units with CPs have been cancelled and eight units deferred. On December 23, 1985 one of the deferred units (Limerick-2) was reactivated and construction resumed. The primary objective of this policy study is to identify the principal issues requiring office-level consideration in the event of reactivation of the construction of one or more of the nuclear power plants falling into two categories: (1) LWR units issued a construction permit whose construction has been cancelled, and (2) LWR units whose construction has been deferred. The study scope is limited to identifying regulatory issues or questions deserving analysis rather than providing, at this time, answers or recommended actions. Five tasks are addressed: a tabulation and discussion of the status of all cancelled and deferred LWR units; and identification of potential safety and environmental issues; an identification of regulatory or policy issues and needed information to determine the desirability of revising certain rules and policies; and identification of regulatory options and decision criteria; and an identification of decision considerations in determining staff requirements and organizational coordination of LWR reactivation policy and implementation efforts. 41 refs

  16. Increasing adolescent vaccination: barriers and strategies in the context of policy, legal, and financial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Carol A; English, Abigail; Davenport, Amy F; Stinnett, Amy J

    2009-06-01

    To increase understanding of the policy, legal, and financial issues influencing efforts to achieve high rates of adolescent vaccination. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with 49 key informants in nine states, five jurisdictions, and at the national level. We elicited: (a) experiences with human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccine programs; (b) perspectives on policy, legal, and financing issues influencing adolescent vaccine program effectiveness; and (c) strategies to increase rates of adolescent vaccination. Common and informative themes were identified by content analyses. Participants reported that barriers to adolescent vaccination included: public concerns (insufficient knowledge, negative attitudes, safety concerns, controversy); practitioner concerns (insufficient knowledge or ambivalence about recommendations); delivery issues (insufficient access to or use of healthcare, vaccines not at healthcare site or part of routine care); minor consent issues; cost/financing issues; and lack of coordination in timing of vaccine recommendations, supply, and financing. Many barriers and promising strategies for overcoming them vary depending on adolescent age. For example, concerns about providing vaccines to prevent sexually transmitted diseases are less frequent with respect to older adolescents; issues of consent vary widely between 11 and 25 years of age; and financial barriers/potential solutions vary by age. We develop a framework to address policy, legal, and financial issues influencing adolescent vaccination based on adolescent age. A comprehensive description of factors influencing adolescent vaccination reveals variation based on age. A framework that incorporates this complexity may enhance strategies to increase rates of vaccine delivery to adolescent populations.

  17. Modelling issues on climate change policies. A discussion of the GTAP-E model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremers, H.; Nijkamp, P.; Wang, Shunli

    2000-01-01

    Ater the Kyoto agreements the need has arisen to trace the implications of various international environmental strategies. In this paper, we discuss relevant modelling issues of incorporating important environmental policy measures in one of the popular applied general equilibrium models for international trade, the so-called GTAP model. Special attention is paid to an extended version, the GTAP-E (Global Trade Analysis Project - Energy) by addressing the question how to include the widely discussed instruments of International Emission Trading, Joint Implementation, and Clean Development Mechanisms. The paper will be concluded with some policy issues. 10 refs

  18. Land & Development In Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research

    OpenAIRE

    Baranyi, S.; Deere, C. D.; Morales, M.

    2004-01-01

    This book suggests that Latin America may not be poised for a radical shift in land policy and administration, and that it is home to some worrisome trends and a rich array of initiatives on land issues. Researchers have a crucial role to play in illuminating policy alternatives and monitoring outcomes. The book also discusses how these lines of research could feed into policy debates in countries like Bolivia, Brazil, and Guatemala, as well as at the regional level and in the global sphere. ...

  19. Polish Housing Policy in Com parison with the Housing Policy in the UE – Selected Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Szelągowska

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to present the main principles of Polish housing policy and to compare it with the housing policy in the European Union. Poland, as an UE member, did not hammer out successful solutions which could facilitate the process of building new low-rental dwellings. The authors aim is to find the answer to research question: is it worth concentrating on fulfilling housing needs of low-income households in Poland and if yes, why? In order to do this the following hypothesis is put forward: on account of long-standing neglect connected with the Polish social housing finance there is an urgent need of housing reform oriented to the low-income housing growth.

  20. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-25

    Korea to drug trafficking . Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and...trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies in combating international drug trafficking . The challenge to policy makers...country’s chronic food shortages. Another issue of rising concern is the degree to which profits from any North Korean drug trafficking , counterfeiting

  1. Local Support for Alcohol Control Policies and Perceptions of Neighborhood Issues in Two College Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Anne M; DeJong, William; Wood, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    Although valuable, national opinion surveys on alcohol policy may be less informative for policy development at the local level. Using samples of adult residents in 2 college communities, the present study: (1) measured public support for local alcohol control policies to stem underage drinking and alcohol overservice in on-premise outlets, (2) assessed residents' opinions regarding neighborhood problems, and (3) identified factors associated with strong policy support. We administered random-sample telephone surveys to residents aged 21 years and older in college communities located in Community 1 (N = 501; mean age = 57.4 years, SD = 14.7) and Community 2 (N = 505; mean age = 56.0 years, SD = 15.2). The response rates were typical of telephone surveys (Community 1: 33.5%; Community 2: 29.9%). We assessed support for 16 alcohol control policies and the occurrence of specific types of neighborhood incidents (e.g., witnessing intoxicated people). We used multiple regression analyses to determine factors associated with policy support. Residents in Community 1 reported significantly higher weekly alcohol use, a greater number of witnessed neighborhood incidents, and a higher level of perceived neighborhood problems than did residents in Community 2. Residents in Community 1 perceived local alcohol control policies and their enforcement to be significantly stricter. Overall, policy support was high and did not differ between the communities. In both communities, higher policy support was significantly associated with being female, being older, less weekly alcohol use, and lower perceived strictness of alcohol control policies and enforcement. It is important for campus officials and community leaders to be aware of and publicize favorable public opinion when advocating for policy change, especially at the local level. Information on residents' perceptions of the neighborhood issues they face can also inform local policy and enforcement efforts.

  2. A Note on Tourism and Regional Development: some Policy Issues in the Post-crisis Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Mazzola

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this final note we offer some considerations about the current role of tourism for regional development by focusing mainly on two aspects, the impact of the economic crisis together with the institutional changes derived from it and the new policy issues arising from the new framework.

  3. Politics in India: A Research Bibliography on Indian Political Institutions, Behavior and Public Policy Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohapatra, Urmila

    This bibliography is a classified list of published research material on the contemporary Indian political system. The research references assembled have been organized under three broad categories: Indian political institutions, Indian political behavior, and public policy issues. The political institutions section focuses on the presidency,…

  4. Managing and Mobilising Talent in Malaysia: Issues, Challenges and Policy Implications for Malaysian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Norzaini; Sirat, Morshidi; Pang, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The future of Malaysia as a high-income and competitive nation largely depends on its pool of highly skilled human capital. Hence, the issue of human capital development has taken centre stage in numerous reform agendas of Malaysia. This paper seeks to provide examples of policy initiatives aimed at facilitating the management of highly educated…

  5. Screening Mental Health Problems in Schools. A Center Policy Issues Analysis Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Long-standing policy controversies have heated up as a result of increasing proposals for using schools to screen for mental health problems (e.g., depression screening). This brief highlights the following issues: (1) How appropriate is large-scale screening for mental health problems? (2) Will the costs of large-scale mental health screening…

  6. Transnational issue-specific expert networking: A pathway to local policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Cheryl

    2015-12-01

    This article reports on key findings from a study of subnational governments in Mexico and Nigeria (O'Brien, 2013). With empirical richness of the case study method and small-n statistical analysis across the subnational units for each country, this study asks: How can we push the needle toward more progressive policy change on violence against women in developing and democratizing contexts? This study finds that issue-specific expert networking is a civic pathway to subnational policy responsiveness in Mexico and Nigeria. The dynamics of this pathway illuminate local-global political connections, and this study shows how issue-specific expert networking is important for the diffusion of an international norm and policies on violence against women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinnagbe O. Matthew

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring and evaluation are important, yet, frequently neglected functions in most organisations. In Nigeria, many programmes have been established over the years but only little monitoring and evaluation have been carried out because of many implementation problems and lack of realistic and/or stable policy framework. This paper was designed to X-ray policy issues for improving monitoring and evaluation of agricultural programmes in Nigeria. Inductive and deductive reasoning through a review of relevant literature was used in this philosophical paper. To improve the performance of agricultural extension programmes in Nigeria, the following policy issues must be addressed: The questions of what should be monitored or evaluated, when should monitoring and/or evaluation be carried out and who should monitor and/or evaluate; and the methodology to be adopted in any project should be included in any agricultural programmes and/or policies. Manpower and financial resources, effective communication and the issue of accountability must be properly considered. The tools for monitoring and evaluation are also very crucial. The paper concluded that planning a good agricultural programme is not a problem in Nigeria but poor implementation is, as a result of poor monitoring and evaluation. Therefore, attention should be on when, how and who should be involved in monitoring and evaluation.

  8. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping Rural Areas Implement and Achieve Goals of Tobacco Control Policies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Patil, Deepak; Kadam, Rajashree; Fernandes, Genevie

    2017-09-27

    India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders. From 2008 to 2014, Salaam Mumbai Foundation implemented the TfV program in 60 villages in Maharashtra state. The program used a number of strategies to help villages become tobacco free, including collaborating with a community-based organization, leveraging existing health workers, conducting a situation analysis, training health workers, engaging stakeholders, developing TfV assessment criteria, mobilizing the community, conducting health education, imposing sanctions, and offering incentives. By 2014, 4 villages had achieved tobacco-free status according to 11 assessment criteria. Successful villages demonstrated strong local leader involvement, ownership of the program, and commitment to the cause by residents. The TfV program faced barriers including poor motivation of health workers, difficulty in changing social norms of tobacco use, and refusal of local vendors to stop tobacco sales due to financial losses. This low-cost, community-driven program holds promise for helping public health practitioners and governments implement and achieve the goals of tobacco control policies, especially in resource-scarce settings. © Chatterjee et al.

  9. Promoting Science-Policy Education on Global Environmental Issues: The Mercury Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selin, N. E.; Stokes, L. C.; Susskind, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    We present initial results from a project focusing on teaching science and engineering students about global environmental policy, funded by a NSF CAREER grant. Despite decades of growing global concern about issues such as ozone depletion, climate change, and toxic chemicals, linking science to policy is a continuing challenge, and few science students receive formal training for effective participation in global negotiations. The focus of the educational activity presented here is the development of a freely-available, interactive teaching tool in the form of a role-play simulation, called "The Mercury Game" (http://mit.edu/mercurygame). The simulation requires players to consider scientific information on an emerging global issue, mercury pollution, and collectively decide whether global policy action is appropriate and what the scope of such action might entail. Playing the game helps participants to explore the consequences of representing scientific uncertainty in various ways in a policy context. The game focuses on the credibility of various sources of technical information, strategies for representing risk and uncertainty, and the balance between scientific and political considerations. It also requires the players to grapple with political considerations, particularly the dynamic between the global "North" (the developed world) and the global "South" (the developing world) at the heart of most political conflicts. Simulation outcomes from running the simulation at two scientific conferences and as part of a graduate-level course on global environmental science and policy will be presented.

  10. Policy planning for nuclear power: an overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. (NHA)

  11. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2005-01-01

    and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...... to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary...

  12. Nuclear energy policy and atomic energy law. Issues and developmental aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Preuss, M.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear energy policy and the atomic energy law recurrently have been a focal point of interest and an issue of political debate in Germany. However, this time the political debate is gaining a new dimension in the wake of the general elections held in September 1998 and the resulting change of government. The contribution compares aspects of the history of atomic energy research and nuclear technology with the current political situation and assesses the impacts of announced changes in government policy and legislation. (orig./CB) [de

  13. Trends and Issues in California's Low Carbon Fuel Standard - Learning from Response to Existing Climate Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witcover, J.

    2015-12-01

    Debate over lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation has included heated discussion about appropriate policies and their cost and feasibility. One prominent policy mechanism, a carbon intensity standard, rates transport fuels based on analysis of lifecycle GHG emissions, and targets lower fuel pool carbon intensity through a market mechanism that uses a system of tradable, bankable credits and deficits. California instituted such a policy -- the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) - in 2010, which targets a 10% carbon intensity (CI) reduction by 2020. The program rolled out amid concerns over slow development of new fuels expected to be very low carbon (such as cellulosic) and has faced court challenges that added considerable policy uncertainty. Since the program's start, state transport energy mix has shifted modestly but noticeably. Looking ahead, emerging issues for the program include amendments and re-adoption in response to a court ruling, potential interaction with California's multi-sector cap on carbon emissions (which started covering transport fuels in 2015), and impacts from similar CI standards in other jurisdictions. This study provides an analysis of fuel mix changes since the LCFS was implemented in 2011, and a discussion of emerging issues focusing on policy interaction. Descriptive statistics on alternative fuel use, available fuel pathways, and CI ratings are presented based on data from the California Air Resources Board (which runs the program). They document a shift towards more alternative fuels in a more diverse mix, with lower average CI ratings for most alternative fuel types. Financial incentives for various fuels are compared under the LCFS and the US federal Renewable Fuel Standard; disincentives from conceptually different carbon pricing schemes under the LCFS and the Cap-and-Trade are also outlined. The results provide important information on response to an existing market-based policy mechanism for addressing GHG

  14. Issues in the Seclusion and Restraint of Juveniles: Policy, Practice and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney A. Ellis

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate use of seclusion and restraint (S/R is an important issue among juvenile justice professionals. Recent newspaper articles have brought the issue to the attention of the United States Senate, law enforcement agencies, and the general public. The result has been a series of investigations and publications by the Senate, law enforcement, and professional associations. Despite the attention this issue has received, professionals have yet to reach a definitive agreement as to what recent legislation and the professional and popular literature regarding the use of S/R. They identify major issues currently under discussion, highlight areas of consensus, and enumerate several dimensions that require further exploration. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of S/R for social work practitioners, including the importance of education and training, monitoring, hiring, policy advocacy, and ongoin research.

  15. Another issue comes out: gay rights policy voting in recent U.S. presidential elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodebeck, Laurie A

    2015-01-01

    Drawing from the theory of policy voting, this study examines the impact of opinions about gay rights on voting for presidential candidates. Qualitative analysis of the major party platforms and candidate campaign rhetoric from the six presidential elections held between 1988 and 2008 indicates that Democratic and Republican presidential candidates began openly expressing opposing positions on gay rights issues in 1992. Quantitative analysis of public opinion shows that, starting in 1992 and continuing through 2008, gay rights issues became more salient to the public, and opinions about gay rights began to exert a significant effect on vote choice. The study concludes with a discussion of the partisan forces that shaped the electoral significance of gay rights issues during the period from 1988 to 2008 and speculation about the role of gay rights issues in shaping future partisan electoral strategy.

  16. Addressing 2030 EU policy framework for energy and climate: Cost, risk and energy security issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llano-Paz, Fernando de; Martínez Fernandez, Paulino; Soares, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    The different energy sources, their costs and impacts on the environment determine the electricity production process. Energy planning must solve the existence of uncertainty through the diversification of power generation technologies portfolio. The European Union energy and environmental policy has been mainly based on promoting the security of supply, efficiency, energy savings and the promotion of Renewable Energy Sources. The recent European Commission communication “Towards an European Energy Union: A secure, sustainable, competitive and affordable energy for every European” establishes the path for the European future. This study deals with the analysis of the latest EU “Energy Union” goals through the application of Markowitz portfolio theory considering technological real assets. The EU targets are assessed under a double perspective: economic and environmental. The model concludes that implementing a high share of Renewable Energy target in the design of European Policies is not relevant: the maximization of Renewable Energy share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions of carbon dioxide policy. Additionally it is confirmed the need of Nuclear energy in 2030: a zero nuclear energy share in 2030 European Mix is not possible, unless the technological limits participation for Renewable Energy Sources were increased. - Highlights: • Implementing a high RES share target in European Policies could not be relevant. • Maximizing RES share could be achieved considering a sole Low Emissions policy. • The EU 2030 Nuclear energy 50% shutting down could be feasible. • Minimizing risk portfolio presents high diversification and energy security levels.

  17. Development of safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, D.; Modarres, M.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the historical development of safety goals for nuclear power plants, including the July 30, 1986, safety goal policy. In the course of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of safety goals, several issues have emerged. In particular, the benefit-cost guideline and the core-melt design objective have been subjects of continuing scrutiny and debate. These and other issues remaining to be resolved for completing the development of a final policy are discussed. Finally, the current status of the safety goals policy is discussed

  18. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  19. Policy Statements Issued by Scientific Societies: Why Less can be More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folger, P. F.

    2001-12-01

    The results of hydrological research are increasingly important to decision-makers grappling with problems as diverse as global climate change, non-point source pollution, extreme weather events, and damage from flooding. In some cases scientific aspects of these problems are interwoven with economic, political and social disputes, and policy makers often seek the consensus scientific opinion to help shape the debate. Policy or position statements issued by scientific societies like AGU can embody scientific consensus and thus inform the public and policy makers. But this is not always the case. The potential for creating public misunderstanding is ever present. Therefore, the process leading to a policy statement needs to be deliberative, inclusive to the extent possible, and circumspect. In contrast to advocacy organizations or trade groups, as a learned society AGU and members acting on its behalf should only advocate positions on political or social issues that are based solely on available geophysical data and recognized scientific debate. That does not mean that AGU and other scientific societies must refrain from entering a political debate. AGU has a responsibility to its members to adopt positions of advocacy on geophysical science issues based on their intrinsic merits and needs. However, a learned society like AGU should state only what is credible about the scientific aspects of a political debate and not overstep its authority as an objective source of analysis and commentary for the geophysical sciences. Before adopting an advocacy position, AGU's volunteers follow a process that includes checks and balances so that the final statement is based on sound scientific issues and reflects the interests of the Union as a whole. Any AGU member or committee can propose a position statement, but the Committee on Public Affairs (COPA) decides whether the proposal fall within the guidelines for advocacy. If it does and if COPA considers the issue worthy of an

  20. Nuclear energy policy issues after the 3.11 Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tatsujiro [Japan Atomic Energy Commission (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The Fukushima nuclear accident has become one of the worst accidents in nuclear history and it is not completely over yet. It will take at least 30 years or more to decontaminate and decommission the crippled nuclear reactors on site. Still, more than 140,000 people are away from home and restoring and assuring the life and welfare of those evacuated people is the top priority of Japanese government's nuclear energy policy. The government will release its new energy policy soon which will state that nuclear power is considered as an important base load electricity source, while committing to reduce its dependence as much as possible. For nuclear energy policy, there are certain important issues to be overcome regardless of future of nuclear power in Japan. They are: (1) spent fuel management and radioactive waste disposal, (2) restoring public trust (3) securing human resources and (4) plutonium stockpile management.

  1. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine Marie

    2005-01-01

    for policy making including educational, managerial, and regulatory interventions. The (often overlapping) concepts of medicines management, clinical pharmacy and pharmaceutical care are then discussed to show how professionals, sometimes in collaboration with policymakers, have tackled the problem......In this article the authors deal with issues of drug utilisation from a clinical and policy perspective. They address the difficulties of managing drug therapy on a population level, which is known among professionals, as the problem of rational use of medicines. Various definitions...... and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...

  2. Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    156 Prepared by Dick K. Nanto, Specialist in Industry and Trade, Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . 157 International Labour Office...security. The economy has always been there both to provide the funds and materiel for defense and to provide economic security for most households ...Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division . Economics and National Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy Congressional Research

  3. Policy issues for Australia's education systems: Evidence from international and Australian research

    OpenAIRE

    Gary N. Marks; Julie McMillan; John Ainley

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose here is to discuss education policy issues in the context of empirical evidence. We note that many commonly held beliefs about Australian education such as, the relative performance and participation levels of Australian students; the importance of socioeconomic background on educational outcomes both relative to other countries and changes over-time; gender differences in mathematics and science; and the labour market situation of early school leavers; are not supported by empiri...

  4. Environmental Issues in the Power Sector : Long-Term Impacts and Policy Options for Karnataka

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This study of the long-term environmental impacts and policy options for power sector development in Karnataka, is one of a series undertaken by the Bank, in cooperation with the Government of India and state governments. It is a follow-up to the broader study Environmental Issues in the Power Sector (EIPS) (ESMAP/World Bank 1998), and the general methodology developed for EIPS, is used fo...

  5. Policy planning for nuclear power: An overview of the main issues and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This special report, Policy Planning for Nuclear Power: An Overview of the Main Issues and Requirements, has been prepared in response to the express request of a number of IAEA Member States for a document to assist makers in developing countries on the introduction of nuclear power. The report contains information on the political, governmental, economic, financial and technical issues and requirements associated with planning and implementing a safe, economic and reliable nuclear power programme. It highlights the main areas in which policies must be developed and decisions taken, as well as the role and responsibilities of government, the plant owner and national industry. Also presented are the main criteria to assist policy planners in defining options and strategies which can achieve a balance among such objectives as cost effective and efficient electricity production, realistic and acceptable financing arrangements, national development requirements, safety and environmental protection. Further information and details on the technical and other issues presented in this report are given in the list of related IAEA publications and documents at the end of this report

  6. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Hurlimann

    Full Text Available The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc. contexts.The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise.A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications.The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented.The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these

  7. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo

    2017-01-01

    Background The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. Aim The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and “map” the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. Methods A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O’Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. Results The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. Discussion The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this

  8. Ethical issues in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health policies and interventions: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlimann, Thierry; Peña-Rosas, Juan Pablo; Saxena, Abha; Zamora, Gerardo; Godard, Béatrice

    2017-01-01

    The limited integration of ethics in nutrition-related public health policies and interventions is one major concern for those who have the task of implementing them. Ethical challenges that are overlooked during the development of such interventions could raise serious ethical issues during their implementation and even after. As a result, these decision makers need technical support and ethical guidance for adaptation of interventions to local (cultural, social, economic, etc.) contexts. The goal of this scoping review is to delineate and "map" the range of ethical issues in nutrition-related public health interventions, as well as the range of the various fields in which they may arise. A scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature was conducted following the framework of Arksey and O'Malley. Searches using PubMed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) categories and Advanced Search Builder as well as in the Global Health Library were performed. The final sample consists of 169 publications. The ethics of public health prevention or treatment of obesity and non-communicable diseases is the most explicitly and frequently discussed subject. In comparison, ethical issues raised by public health interventions in the fields of undernutrition, breastfeeding, vitamin/mineral supplementation and food fortification, food security, food sustainability and food safety are addressed in a lower proportion of the sample. The results illustrate the various natures, types, and scopes of existing public health nutrition-related interventions, and the various ethical issues that may be raised by these interventions, in addition to the numerous and different contexts in which they may be implemented. The ethical issues faced in the development and implementation of nutrition-related public health interventions are varied and cannot be equated with, nor generalized about, when dealing with specific activities in this field. More importantly, these ethical issues

  9. [Opening speech by President Suleyman Demirel for the meeting "Population Issues in Turkey: Policy Priorities"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S

    1994-01-01

    achieve these goals, but that it is possible if the State adopts these goals as a national policy and if the Turkish people adopt the same goals as their own.

  10. Analysis of federal and state policies and environmental issues for bioethanol production facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Chandra; Chan Hilton, Amy B

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate incentives and barriers to fuel ethanol production from biomass in the U.S. during the past decade (2000-2010). In particular, we examine the results of policies and economic conditions during this period by way of cellulosic ethanol activity in four selected states with the potential to produce different types of feedstocks (i.e., sugar, starch, and cellulosic crops) for ethanol production (Florida, California, Hawaii, and Iowa). Two of the four states, Iowa and California, currently have commercial ethanol production facilities in operation using corn feedstocks. While several companies have proposed commercial scale facilities in Florida and Hawaii, none are operating to date. Federal and state policies and incentives, potential for feedstock production and conversion to ethanol and associated potential environmental impacts, and environmental regulatory conditions among the states were investigated. Additionally, an analysis of proposed and operational ethanol production facilities provided evidence that a combination of these policies and incentives along with the ability to address environmental issues and regulatory environment and positive economic conditions all impact ethanol production. The 2000-2010 decade saw the rise of the promise of cellulosic ethanol. Federal and state policies were enacted to increase ethanol production. Since the initial push for development, expansion of cellulosic ethanol production has not happened as quickly as predicted. Government and private funding supported the development of ethanol production facilities, which peaked and then declined by the end of the decade. Although there are technical issues that remain to be solved to more efficiently convert cellulosic material to ethanol while reducing environmental impacts, the largest barriers to increasing ethanol production appear to be related to government policies, economics, and logistical issues. The numerous federal and state

  11. To curve or not to curve? The effect of college science grading policies on implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structures, and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, James M.

    There is currently a shortage of students graduating with STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) degrees, particularly women and students of color. Approximately half of students who begin a STEM major eventually switch out. Many switchers cite the competitiveness, grading curves, and weed-out culture of introductory STEM classes as reasons for the switch. Variables known to influence resilience include a student's implicit theory of intelligence and achievement goal orientation. Incremental theory (belief that intelligence is malleable) and mastery goals (pursuit of increased competence) are more adaptive in challenging classroom contexts. This dissertation investigates the role that college science grading policies and messages about the importance of effort play in shaping both implicit theories and achievement goal orientation. College students (N = 425) were randomly assigned to read one of three grading scenarios: (1) a "mastery" scenario, which used criterion-referenced grading, permitted tests to be retaken, and included a strong effort message; (2) a "norm" scenario, which used norm-referenced grading (grading on the curve); or (3) an "effort" scenario, which combined a strong effort message with the norm-referenced policies. The dependent variables included implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy. A different sample of students (N = 15) were randomly assigned a scenario to read, asked to verbalize their thoughts, and responded to questions in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that students reading the mastery scenario were more likely to endorse an incremental theory of intelligence, perceived greater mastery goal structure, and had higher self-efficacy. The effort message had no effect on self-efficacy, implicit theory, and most of the goal structure measures. The interviews revealed that it was the retake policy in the mastery scenario and the competitive atmosphere in the norm

  12. Energy policy and alternative energy in Malaysia: Issues and challenges for sustainable growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tick Hui; Pang, Shen Yee; Chua, Shing Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Energy is essential to the way we live. Whether it is in the form of oil, gasoline or electricity, a country's prosperity and welfare depends on having access to reliable and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices. However, it is also one of the benefits taken for granted by many people, knowing little about the impact of electricity on their lives. Having dependent mainly on oil and gas for half a century, Malaysia has started to realize the importance to adopt renewable energy in the energy mix and continuously reviewed its energy policy to ensure sustainable energy supply and security. This paper examines and discusses the intricacy of the existing and new energy policies, issues and challenges in Malaysia. The overall approach in addressing the energy issues and challenges will continue to focus on adequacy, quality, security and sustainability of both non-renewable and renewable energy supply in the country's development and the promotion and implementation of its energy efficiency programs. The recently launched National Green Technology Policy is also discussed. (author)

  13. Global energy issues and Swedish security policy; Globala energifraagor och svensk saekerhetspolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    An important part of the Swedish Energy Agency's world surveillance is to identify trends that may affect Sweden's security of energy supply. Sweden can not be considered in isolation with its own energy supply, but is affected much by what happens if the global energy flows are disturbed by conflicts or weather-related events. Several different policy areas influence the energy markets, in addition to the energy and environmental policy. Geopolitical events of the last few years have more and more focused on power over energy resources. To get a comprehensive picture of the global energy situation, the Agency has engaged the Royal Military Sciences to produce a report that describes the 'Global Energy Issues and Swedish Security Policy'. The report's starting point is to describe how global events affect European and Swedish energy supply and security policy. Descriptions and analysis in the report are the authors own conclusions and need not always be the Agency's official views. The political environment that the report deals with is constantly changing, why some facts and circumstances may have changed since the report was completed. During the final preparation of the report, the scene changed in Moscow. On May 8, Vladimir Putin once again was appointed a position as Russia's president. The former president Medvedev, at the same time, takes over as Prime Minister.

  14. Policy issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance in NRC proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the report presented is to focus and develop the myriad issues raised by intervenor requests for financial assistance for the NRC's proposed rulemaking proceeding. The report analyzes and assesses the various alternatives open to the Commission, and collects relevant data and material which may be informative to those participating in and conducting the rulemaking. Three major questions are examined: (1) should the Commission, as a matter of policy choice, provide financial assistance to intervenors in NRC proceedings; (2) are there preferable alternatives to direct intervenor financial aid, such as the establishment of an office of public counsel or provision of other forms of Commission assistance; and (3) what are the legal, administrative and policy considerations involved in implementing a determination to award financial assistance to intervenors, should the Commission so decide

  15. Policy issues in setting de minimis standards for latent cancer risks of radiation and chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the fuel cycles for the development and utilization of alternative energy resources, the risk of latent cancer arises from a number of sources. Included are ionizing radiation and the carcinogenic potential of polluting chemicals present in certain fuels or in materials associated with the construction, operation, maintenance or waste treatment processes of nuclear power, fossil fuels, synfuels, biomass, and other sources of energy. One aspect of developing a carcinogen guideline policy for a consistent and effective regulatory regime to use in dealing with these assorted carcinogenic risks is the setting of de minimis quantitative standards. In this report, 11 policy issues related to the setting of such regulatory standards are identified and a brief commentary is provided. 15 references, 1 table

  16. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  17. External determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells-Infrastructure and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Bongartz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the relevance of external determinants for the adoption of stationary fuel cells (FCs) by different user groups with respect to the marketability of this innovative technology. FCs allow electricity and heat to be decentrally generated in an energy-efficient and potentially environmentally friendly manner. European energy policy is undertaking efforts to increase the proportion of combined heat and power (CHP) plants. A series of studies have spoken of their considerable market potential. A qualitative study was conducted with six focus groups consisting of 49 commercial users and six focus groups with 54 private consumers. The results of the study show that the specific infrastructure required for decentralisation and policy issues are highly relevant for the user adoption of FCs. Security of supply when energy generation is more strongly decentralised, reliable maintenance of the system, and clear political objectives are examples of factors that are considered essential prerequisites for the adoption of this technology

  18. Taking Legislators to the Field: Communicating with Policy Makers about Natural Resource Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, R. S.; Buchanan, R. C.

    2006-12-01

    Policy makers are among the most important audiences for scientific information. In particular, legislators, legislative staff, governmental agency staff, business leaders, environmental leaders, and others need accurate, objective natural-resource information to make policy decisions. This audience is busy and difficult to reach with technical information. As part of its public outreach program, the Kansas Geological Survey (a division of the University of Kansas) communicates directly with policy makers through an annual field conference. Operated since 1995, the conference presents information by combining field experiences, presentations by experts, and participant interaction. The primary objective is to give policy makers first-hand, unbiased information about the state's natural resource issues. The field conference takes policy makers to locations where natural resources are produced or used, or where there are important environmental issues, introducing them to experts and others who carry out (or are affected by) their decisions. The conference consists of three days of site visits, presentations, hands-on activities, and panel discussions. Participation is by invitation. Participants pay a small fee, but most costs are covered by co-sponsors, usually other state or local agencies, that are recruited to help defray expenses. Participants receive a guidebook before the trip. Travel is by chartered bus; lodging and meals are provided. Conferences have focused on topics (such as energy or water) or regions of the state. The most recent conference focused on cross-boundary issues and included stops in Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri. Written, post-conference evaluations are extremely positive. Legislators report that they regularly use conference information and contacts during the law-making process; conference information played a direct role in decisions related to underground natural-gas storage rules, water-rights by-back legislation, and sand and gravel

  19. Introduction of a New National Currency; Policy, Institutional, and Technical Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hernán Cortés Douglas; Richard K. Abrams

    1993-01-01

    In the last few years, a number of countries in the Former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe have become independent or regained their independence. Many have chosen to issue their own currencies and more are likely to do so. This paper draws on these and earlier experiences in order to summarize the main policy and institutional arrangements necessary for the introduction of a new currency and to discuss the key features of, and procedures for, the conversion. The paper is designed as a workin...

  20. Italy's All-Volunteer Army: An Analytical Framework for Understanding the Key Policy Issues and Choices During the Transition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zanini, Michele

    2002-01-01

    This dissertation builds an analytical framework for understanding the key policy issues and tradeoffs affecting the Italian Army's transition from a mixed conscript/volunteer model to an All-Volunteer Force (AVF...

  1. The central bank issuing policy and Fisher´s equation of exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pospíšil

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The issue of money and establishing interest rates are the main activities of central banks. Through this, the banks immediately influence the behaviour of households, companies, financial markets and the state with the impact on real outcome, employment and prices. When monitoring the issue of money, it is necessary to focus not only on its volume, but also on the attributes and functions carried by money. Among the first economists who considered the quality monetary aspect were J. Locke, D. Hume, D. Ricardo and others. The founders of modern monetarism of the 20th century were I. Fisher and M. Friedman. Fisher was the first to define the equation of monetary equilibrium in the present-day form. The objective of the paper is to point out different approaches to the equation and its modifications and different meanings of its variables. As regards the monetary aggregate M – Money – the paper also deals with the denomination of the aggregate to its various elements, which is significant for fulfilling monetary policy targets. This approach is very important especially at present in the time of crisis when central banks are performing their policy considering contradictory targets of price stability and economic growth.

  2. Rethinking School Finance. A Policy Issues Paper Prepared for the Chief State School Officers of the Northwest and Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kenneth H.; And Others

    Ways of rethinking school financial policy issues are examined in this report. This rethinking has evolved from growing recognition of two related principles: school finance as part of public finance; and policy formation as a product of commitments and constraints. Principles of public finance, commitments and constraints are described. Five…

  3. The Global Financial Crisis: Countercyclical Fiscal Policy Issues and Challenges in Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Doraisami, Anita

    2011-01-01

    Several countries have employed countercyclical fiscal policy to ameliorate the impact of the global financial crisis. This study identifies some of the issues and policy implications associated with this policy response in developing countries. Included are case studies of four developing countries in the Asian region—Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore. The findings point to a rich diversity in both the size and composition of fiscal stimulus and the challenges which ar...

  4. Toward a national policy for managing low-level radioactive waste: key issues and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, C.J.; Mantell, M.; Thompson, G.P.

    1981-06-01

    The Conservation Foundation, a not-for-profit research and public education organization, asked individuals with diverse backgrounds and viewpoints to come together under Foundation leadership as a Dialogue Group on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management. The group, including persons who represent waste generators, concerned citizens, state regulators, and environmentalists, met over an 18-month period to discuss issues crucial to the development of a national policy on low-level wastes. The Dialogue Group agreed that three principles, if accepted broadly, would form the basis of a sound national policy for managing low-level radioactive wastes: with proper implementation, technology exists to manage low-level waste safely; generators and their customers should pay disposal costs; and greater public involvement at all stages can improve the disposal system. These principles acted as polestars for the group as it worked toward a series of policy recommendations in four main areas: (1) cleaning up closed commercial sites; (2) remodeling a system for defining and classifying low-level radioactive waste; (3) siting new low-level waste disposal facilities; and (4) decommissioning, long-term care, and liability. This report presents an extensive discussion of these recommendations covering qualifications, limitations, and alternatives

  5. How issue frames shape beliefs about the importance of climate change policy across ideological and partisan groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shane P; Swanson, Meili

    2017-01-01

    We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals' beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important. We conclude by discussing our findings relative to extant literature and considering the implications of our findings for those who seek to address the issue of climate change.

  6. How issue frames shape beliefs about the importance of climate change policy across ideological and partisan groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We use an experiment to examine whether the way in which climate change is framed affects individuals’ beliefs about its importance as a policy issue. We employ frames that emphasize national security, human rights, and environmental importance about the consequences of climate change. We find no evidence that issue frames have an overall effect on opinions about the importance of climate change policy. We do find some evidence that the effect of issue frames varies across ideological and partisan groups. Most notably, issue frames can lead Republicans and those on the political right to view climate change policy as less important. We conclude by discussing our findings relative to extant literature and considering the implications of our findings for those who seek to address the issue of climate change. PMID:28727842

  7. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries: Harmony of Goals and Conflict of Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midttun, A.; Gjølberg, M.; Kourula, A.; Sweet, S.; Vallentin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European

  8. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Integrating security issues in nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Classical vs policy approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putero, Susetyo Hario; Rosita, Widya; Sihana, Fnu; Ferdiansjah; Santosa, Haryono Budi; Muharini, Anung

    2015-01-01

    Recently, risk management for nuclear facilities becomes more complex due to security issue addressed by IAEA. The harmonization between safety, safeguards and security is still questionable. It also challenges to nuclear engineering curriculum in the world how to appropriately lecture the new issue. This paper would like to describe how to integrate this issue in developing nuclear engineering curriculum in Indonesia. Indonesia has still no nuclear power plant, but there are 3 research reactors laid in Indonesia. As addition, there are several hospitals and industries utilizing radioisotopes in their activities. The knowledge about nuclear security of their staffs is also not enough for handling radioactive material furthermore the security officers. Universitas Gadjah Mada (UGM) is the only university in Indonesia offering nuclear engineering program, as consequently the university should actively play the role in overcoming this issue not only in Indonesia, but also in Southeast Asia. In the other hand, students has to have proper knowledge in order to complete in the global nuclear industry. After visited several universities in USA and participated in INSEN meeting, we found that most of universities in the world anticipate this issue by giving the student courses related to policy (non-technical) study based on IAEA NSS 12. In the other hand, the rest just make nuclear security as a case study on their class. Furthermore, almost all of programs are graduate level. UGM decided to enhance several present related undergraduate courses with security topics as first step to develop the awareness of student to nuclear security. The next (curriculum 2016) is to integrate security topics into the entire of curriculum including designing a nuclear security elective course for undergraduate level. The first trial has successfully improved the student knowledge and awareness on nuclear security. (author)

  10. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  11. Legal and policy issues associated with monitoring employee E-mail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, M.A.; Rither, A.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper examines the legal issues involved with employer monitoring of employee e-mail. In addition to identifying pertinent legal issues, the paper provides guidelines that will help the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) establish a program for monitoring outgoing e-mail to insure compliance with company policies, particularly those regarding protection of trade secrets and proprietary information, and to comply with the Department of Energy`s (DOE) procedures for protecting Export Controlled Information (ECI). Electronic communication has allowed companies to enhance efficiency, responsiveness and effectiveness. E-mail allows employees to transmit all types of data to other individuals inside and outside of their companies. The ease with which information can be transmitted by e-mail has placed trade secrets, proprietary information, and other sensitive data at risk from inadvertent disclosure by employees. As employers attempt to protect their interests through measures such as monitoring e-mail, they may expose themselves to liability under federal and state laws for violating employee privacy. Business use of e-mail has proliferated so rapidly that the federal and state legal systems have not been able to adequately address the issues arising out of its use in the workplace.

  12. A Guide to Tax Policy and Higher Education. A Looseleaf Reference Service on Tax Issues Affecting Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council for Advancement and Support of Education, Washington, DC.

    The guide is intended to help presidents, trustees, and friends of higher education understand and act upon the many issues of tax policy that will affect their institutions. The contents include: (1) an introduction to the purpose, organization, and uses of the reference; (2) a paper on the principal tax issues affecting higher education most…

  13. Getting out of the perfect storm: towards coherence between electricity market policies and EU climate and energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas; Spencer, Thomas; Sartor, Oliver; Mathieu, Mathilde; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the EU power market has been hit by a 'perfect storm', combining multiple interacting factors: revision of demand expectations, growth of both conventional and renewable capacities, a drastic shift from gas to coal power plants and a lack of visibility on future evolutions. Some of these factors are related to the climate agenda, but mostly, they show the inherent and structural difficulties of the current design of the EU power market itself. Within the debate on EU's 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, this situation raises the question: how can the EU's policies address current difficulties of the power market while simultaneously achieving the structural targets of security, affordability and sustainability of supply in the context of decarbonization? Hitherto, the two agendas of internal electricity market policy and climate policy have been largely considered in isolation or even as conflicting agendas. However, a secure low-carbon transition will require significant policy intervention in the electricity sector, including in electricity market design. And, vice versa, an ambitious and coherent package on climate and energy policy can help restore an efficient and competitive electricity market, by strengthening investment signals, improving coordination among member states and providing a sound market framework to improve the technical and economic integration of new low-carbon technologies. Against this background, future challenges for the European policy framework should be considered along two lines: the balance between market forces and regulatory intervention, and the interplay between national and regional approaches. A reinforced EU ETS will have an important role to play, but will not be sufficient on its own to guide both dispatching and investment decisions. Complementary policies will be needed, to provide visibility on the retirement of old carbon intensive plants as well as enhanced coordination

  14. The Interaction Between FX and Credit Risk as an Example of Intersection of Monetary and Financial Stability Policy Goals – The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Željko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial system of Serbia is highly bank-centric and euroised, which is a common specific feature of financial systems in developing countries. High level of euroisation represents an adequate environment for the development of emphasized interaction of foreign exchange and credit risks; therefore, creation of the spillover mechanism of foreign exchange risk to credit risk is immanent for euroised systems. Although maintaining the stability of the dinar exchange rate is a secondary goal of the National Bank of Serbia in relation to price and financial stability as the primary goals, in terms of existence of the aforesaid spillover mechanism, maintaining stability of the dinar exchange rate represents the area where there is an interaction between the goals of monetary policy (price stability and those of financial stability policy (maintaining and strengthening the financial system’s stability. In order to explore whether the spillover mechanism of foreign exchange risk to credit risk exists in Serbia’s financial system, the vector autoregressive (VAR model is applied on data from the Serbian banking sector to quantify the impact of changes in the dinar exchange rates on the rate of non-performing loans (NPLs; the sample was formed in the period of increased instability of the dinar exchange rate, from 31 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. As we have quantitatively confirmed the impact of increase in the dinar exchange rate on the increase of 90-120 days past due NPLs, we can conclude that the existence of expressed interaction between foreign exchange risk and credit risk in the Serbian financial system represents a paradigm of the regulator’s need to achieve contemporary goals of monetary and financial stability policy by maintaining relative stability of the dinar exchange rates. Depreciation of the local currency has inflationary pressure on price stability and simultaneously influences the achievement of financial stability goals

  15. Issues Regarding the Conducting of the Euro Area Monetary Policy During the European Debt Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina O Criste

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article provides for the identification of the present challenges faced by the monetary policy of the European Central Bank, given that the sovereign debt crisis has complicated the pursuing of its primary objective of the maintaining the price stability. This research is a part of a larger framework, being a continuation of some previous works related to the issue of the sustainable functioning of a currency area. Based on the research of the international monetary institutions documents, we have presented "the route" of the financial shock and also the challenges facing the European Central Bank monetary policy in the current period and in the short-term perspective. The results reveal that the current crisis has been maintained and enhanced by the conflict occurrence between the “no bail out” clause provided in the Maastricht Treaty, and the “too big to fail” principle applied to the sovereign debt of the European countries. This discrepancy has undermined the confidence in the euro project at a level where the conventional channels of the monetary transmission mechanism do not work efficiently. This topical subject could be a reference for the academic research regarding the European monetary integration process and its new challenges.

  16. Policy and technical issues for international safeguards in nuclear weapons states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markin, J.T.; Stanbro, W.D.

    1994-01-01

    Expansion of international safeguards into the military and commercial fuel cycles of the nuclear weapons states (NWS) -- the subject of previous proposals in international safeguards discussions and of studies in the safeguards literature -- has been given impetus by recent US government initiatives for safeguards on excess weapons materials and a verified fissile materials production cutoff. These proposals, if implemented, would have implications on the safeguards objectives, approaches, and technologies that are traditionally employed in international safeguards. This paper examines the modifications and innovations that might be required to the current international safeguards regime in meeting these proposed new roles. Although the examples given are in the context of the US materials and facilities, many of the conclusions are valid for other NWS. None of the statements in this paper represent official US position on policy for international safeguards in weapons states. Instead, the purpose is to identify policy and technical issues and to offer, where possible, options for their resolution. This paper limits consideration to the potential role of the IAEA in verifying these proposed initiatives for declared facilities, recognizing that there may also be a role for bilateral, multilateral, or regional verification regimes. Indeed, in some cases verification of weapons materials may be more appropriate for a bilateral arrangement. Because traditional IAEA safeguards may not be admissible for weapons materials, the concept of ''transparency'' is suggested as a less intrusive alternative providing some confidence that materials are as declared

  17. Partner Country Series: Understanding Energy Challenges in India - Policies, Players and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    A combination of rapidly increasing energy demand and fuel imports plus growing concern about economic and environmental consequences is generating growing calls for effective and thorough energy governance in India. Numerous policy reforms over the past 20 years have shifted the country’s energy sector from a state-dominated system towards one that is based on market principles. However, with the reform process left unfinished, India now finds itself trapped halfway along the transition to an open and well-performing energy sector. India suffered from the largest power outage ever in late July 2012, affecting nearly half of the population. While this incident highlights the importance of modern and smart energy systems, it indicates that the country is increasingly unable to deliver a secure supply of energy to its population, a quarter of which still lacks access to electricity. Understanding Energy Challenges in India aims to provide an informative and holistic understanding of India’s energy sector to stakeholders in India as well as the broad public. The publication explores in detail the policies, players and issues of the country’s power, coal, oil and gas, renewables and nuclear sectors. It also highlights the key challenges India faces, challenges that must be resolved for the evolution of the fast-growing country’s energy sector towards a sustainable energy future and eventually critical for the prospects of the Indian and global economies.

  18. Policy and administrative issues for large-scale clinical interventions following disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheeringa, Michael S; Cobham, Vanessa E; McDermott, Brett

    2014-02-01

    Large, programmatic mental health intervention programs for children and adolescents following disasters have become increasingly common; however, little has been written about the key goals and challenges involved. Using available data and the authors' experiences, this article reviews the factors involved in planning and implementing large-scale treatment programs following disasters. These issues include funding, administration, choice of clinical targets, workforce selection, choice of treatment modalities, training, outcome monitoring, and consumer uptake. Ten factors are suggested for choosing among treatment modalities: 1) reach (providing access to the greatest number), 2) retention of patients, 3) privacy, 4) parental involvement, 5) familiarity of the modality to clinicians, 6) intensity (intervention type matches symptom acuity and impairment of patient), 7) burden to the clinician (in terms of time, travel, and inconvenience), 8) cost, 9) technology needs, and 10) effect size. Traditionally, after every new disaster, local leaders who have never done so before have had to be recruited to design, administer, and implement programs. As expertise in all of these areas represents a gap for most local professionals in disaster-affected areas, we propose that a central, nongovernmental agency with national or international scope be created that can consult flexibly with local leaders following disasters on both overarching and specific issues. We propose recommendations and point out areas in greatest need of innovation.

  19. Emission trading schemes: potential revenue effects, compliance costs and overall tax policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, Jeff; Owen, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    The case for the imposition of carbon (emission) taxes or tradable carbon permits in important tax jurisdictions is arguably strong, based upon the polluter pays principle first proposed by Pigou almost a century ago. This paper briefly reviews the arguments for and against these market-based instruments, and discusses their relative advantages and disadvantages in a practical context. In the case of Australia, the revenue effect of the proposed tradable carbon permits scheme is estimated to be A$11.5 billion in 2010-11. For comparison, this is roughly equivalent to a quarter of the revenue from the Goods and Services Tax. The paper focuses on three neglected aspects of climate change taxation discussion to date: how much tax revenue is likely to be raised, and the administrative and compliance costs of an emissions trading scheme, with particular reference to Australia. In discussing these issues, the paper draws upon selected and relevant international experience, particularly the European Union emissions trading scheme. The challenges of an emissions trading scheme, including integration with the existing tax system, particularly in an Australian context, are also discussed. The paper concludes by emphasising the key challenges and issues facing this 'ultimate externality' debate, particularly from a taxation policy perspective.

  20. Policy issues arising from the judgmental nature of risk-based decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcquaid, J.

    1998-01-01

    The regulation of risks is pervaded by the need to exercise judgement. The scientific basis for characterising risk problems and judging the effectiveness of possible controls is often uncertain, lacking information and understanding of the processes involved. However, the risk management measures adopted will not be determined by science alone, but must reflect sociological, economic, ethical and political considerations. These in turn are in themselves judgmental, informed to a greater or lesser extent by empirical evidence and influenced by the prevailing climate of public opinion. The overall process provides a rich source of confusion for the public as to the status of the eventual policy decision, with important implications for the manner in which the process of communication is managed. The important role of judgement, as distinct from formal analysis, at every stage needs to be reflected in risk communication. The engagement of those who bear the risks, and of other interested parties in the exercise of judgement must be tailored to nature of the judgement and to the decision to be made. Appropriate procedures need to be adopted to enable that engagement. Although the issue has come into particular prominence in recent years, it is not a new phenomenon. The presentation will describe the arrangements that have been developed in the UK over the past 25 years, and will be illustrated by some specific examples of risk decision making on issues of high public concern. (author)

  1. FULFILMENT OF GOALS OF THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO OTHER EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the progress of implementation of the Integrated Product Policy in Poland in comparison to other European Union member states. It provides a detailed evaluation of certain IPP instruments, i.e. taxes and green premi-ums, EMAS scheme, eco-labeling and green public procurements. The paper also provides an assessment of the progress of implementation activities and requests further studies in this respect.

  2. Critical Issues: Sounding Like More Than Background Noise to Policy Makers: Qualitative Researchers in the Policy Arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Cathy M.; Long, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    Addresses the relationships of qualitative researchers to the policy-making process. Uses the example of the Reading Excellence Act to demonstrate that qualitative researchers have many points of access to the policy-making process. Suggests qualitative researchers must provide relevant information, communicate in a straightforward manner,…

  3. Carbon dioxide capture and storage : public perception, policy and regulatory issues in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Huijts, N.M.A. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, Amsterdam (Netherlands)]|[Eindhoven Univ. of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands). Dept. of Human Technology Interactions

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage (CCS) is emerging as a viable option to mitigate global climate change. However, uncertainty exists on the public acceptance, a legal framework, and the policy incentives for CCS. These issues must be addressed before widespread adoption of CCS technology. This paper discussed the current situation in the Netherlands. Although CCS was mentioned as a cost-effective option in the Netherlands 1998 Option Document, it was not included in the country's 1999 Climate Change Action Plan because a Dutch research team identified several threats to the implementation of geological CCS in the Netherlands. The threats included lack of public acceptance, unplanned seepage of CO{sub 2} from the reservoir, and lengthy legal and regulatory procedures. A reported public perception study highlighted the results of an inquiry on the perception of CCS with 112 people in Alkmaar and surroundings in northwest Netherlands. Alkmaar is located above a gas storage field, which in the past has caused several small earthquakes. The average attitude towards CCS was not positive but also not rejecting. The public's perception of CCS seemed to be dominated by concern. Meanwhile, the legal framework in the Netherlands is developing in great strides, allowing CCS through policy incentives that include the European Union Emissions Trading System, Joint Implementation, and an electricity subsidy. As such, CCS appears to have good chances, even of short-term commercial implementation in the Netherlands. However, it was emphasized that public opinion should continue to be taken into account when CCS is planned in populated areas. Despite public concerns, and the not in my back yard syndrome (NIMBY), CCS was rated more favourable for deep reductions in greenhouse gas emissions than nuclear, intensive energy savings, or maintaining coal. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Climate policies in China, India and Brazil: current issues and future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellevrat, Elie

    2012-07-01

    Emerging countries will have to tackle different social and economic development challenges in the future, which translate nationally into the concepts of 'harmonious society' in China and 'inclusive growth' in India, and into the Brazilian slogan 'a wealthy country is a country without poverty'. Per capita (current US$), Brazil is more than two times richer than China, which in turn is three times richer than India. This graduation explains the variety of priorities of those countries: reducing inequalities and achieving the development processes in China and Brazil, alleviating poverty and enhancing energy access in India. Furthermore, these countries are increasingly linked internationally, along with the globalization process. Energy security is a key issue for China and India, while Brazil aims at playing a key role on future international energy markets. Emerging economies are progressively laying the foundations for low-carbon development strategies that will depend on their national contexts and priorities. Investments in building and transport infrastructures are increasingly important in all those countries, creating the conditions today for tomorrow's low-carbon economic development. China recently made important resolutions in the framework of its 12. Five-Year Plan, decoupling economic growth from GHG emissions. India has developed eight 'National Missions' on climate change and is now exploring future low-carbon strategies. And Brazil is affirming its position internationally, pushing for innovative 'green growth' concepts, within the framework of the Rio+20 Conference. All countries have already implemented several energy and climate policies and plan to develop them further, through innovative policy institutions and instruments. They are switching progressively from command- and-control to economic instruments. In particular, market-based mechanisms are increasingly used in all countries: mandatory pilot Emission Trading Systems (ETS) in China

  5. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part IV. Energy-efficient recreational travel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disaggregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. This report contains the design of a specific policy that addresses energy conservation in recreational travel. The policy is denoted as an ''Information System for the National Park Service.'' This work is based on prior examination of the characteristics of the recreational trip and decision making for the recreational experience. The examination revealed which aspects of the recreational travel system needed to be addressed to encourage energy-efficient modal decisions for recreational travel. This policy is briefly described in Section 1, the ''Summary of Initiative.'' A more detailed discussion of the policy follows. The material which led to the policy's formation is developed in Section 2: Importance and Impact of the Recreational Trip; Weekend Travel; The Flowchart: Decision Making for the Recreational Experience; Policy Development for Phase 1 ''Planning the Trip;'' and Objectives and Strategies for ''Planning the Trip.'' (MCW)

  6. Dynamic mobility applications policy analysis : policy and institutional issues for enabling advanced traveler information services (EnableATIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report documents policy considerations for Enabling Advanced Traveler Information Services, or EnableATIS. : EnableATIS is the traveler information element of the Dynamic Mobility Applications program, and it provides a framework to : develop mu...

  7. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E; King, E A

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategic environmental noise mapping: methodological issues concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive and their policy implications.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murphy, E

    2010-04-01

    This paper explores methodological issues and policy implications concerning the implementation of the EU Environmental Noise Directive (END) across Member States. Methodologically, the paper focuses on two key thematic issues relevant to the Directive: (1) calculation methods and (2) mapping methods. For (1), the paper focuses, in particular, on how differing calculation methods influence noise prediction results as well as the value of the EU noise indicator L(den) and its associated implications for comparability of noise data across EU states. With regard to (2), emphasis is placed on identifying the issues affecting strategic noise mapping, estimating population exposure, noise action planning and dissemination of noise mapping results to the general public. The implication of these issues for future environmental noise policy is also examined.

  9. How well are the links between education and other sustainable development goals covered in UN flagship reports? A contribution to the study of the science-policy interface on education in the UN system

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Vladimirova; David Le Blanc

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will succeed the Millennium Development Goals as reference goals for international development for the period 2015-2030. Education was identified as a standalone goal (SDG4). Epistemic communities have documented a number of links between education and other SDG areas, and policy makers have long recognized many of them. Based on an exhaustive content analysis of 40 global reports, this paper examines how well such links are represented i...

  10. Introduction to the Issue: “Promoting Children’s Participation in Research, Policy and Practice”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Aldridge

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is more than twenty years since the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child gave governments and states an international mandate to ensure the safety and wellbeing of children and young people and to promote their participation in decisions that affect their lives. Considerable advances have been made since that time that have, in some but not all instances, seen transformations in the status, roles and responsibilities of children and young people and in the ways in which they are perceived and treated. These advances have included greater inclusion of children’s voices in research, policy and practice underpinned by children’s rights to participation and ‘best interests of the child’ decision-making. Bringing together a unique collection of international articles from authors with considerable expertise in researching and working with children and young people, this thematic issue explores some of the ways in which facilitating constructive dialogues with children and young people, and engaging them more directly in consultation about their lives, has led to genuine improvements in the way they are treated and understood. It also considers some of the barriers that exist to prevent children and young people from full participation in public life, some of which occur as a result of structural or systemic factors, while others are the result of the decisions adults make on their behalf.

  11. Administrative and policy issues in reimbursement for nursing home capital investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerstler, H; Carlough, T; Schlenker, R E

    1991-01-01

    The way in which states reimburse for nursing home capital costs can create incentives for nursing home owners to use the home primarily as a vehicle for real estate speculation, with potentially adverse consequences for patient care. In order to help promote and control the stability, adequacy, and quality of capital investment in long-term care, an increasing number of states are using a fair-rental approach for calculating capital reimbursement. In this article we compare the fair-rental approach with traditional cost-based capital reimbursement in terms of administration and policy. We discuss issues of concern to the state (cost and reimbursement design options) and the investor (after-tax cash flows, rate of return, etc.). Our analysis suggests that fair-rental systems may be superior to traditional cost-based reimbursement in promoting and controlling industry stability, while at the same time providing an adequate return to investors, without incurring long-term increases in the costs of administering programs.

  12. End-use fuel substitution: Review of regulatory approaches and key policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiel, S.; Goldman, C.A. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Washington, DC (United States))

    1994-03-01

    Both customers and utilities can profit from properly conceived fuel substitution policies. This examination of existing practice may help state regulators grapple with a thorny issue. Some demand-side management advocates argue that state regulators should require electric utilities to pursue cost-effective fuel substitution to natural gas aggressively and have the utilities - i.e., electric ratepayers - finanace conversions. Others maintain that electric utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of electricity and that natural gas utilities should only promote and pay for incentives to encourage the use of natural gas, because this arrangement maintains the fundamental forces of competition on which a market system is based. This article explores the fuel substitution experiences of several state regulatory commissions. The authors conclude that: (1) opportunities for fuel substitution exist which are beneficial to the customers of both the gas company and the competing electric company, and (2) regulatory intervention can sometimes stimulate utilities to find win-win fuel substitution opportunities.

  13. Employer Policies and Practices to Manage and Prevent Disability: Conclusion to the Special Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Chris J; Shaw, William S

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Research of employer policies and practices to manage and prevent disability spans many disciplines and perspectives, and there are many challenges related to stakeholder collaboration, data access, and interventions. The purpose of this article is to synthesize the findings from a conference and year-long collaboration among a group of invited researchers intended to spur new research innovations in this field. Methods A multidisciplinary team of 26 international researchers with published research in employer-based disability management or related fields were invited to attend a 3-day conference in Hopkinton, Massachusetts, USA. The conference goals were to review the status of current research of workplace disability management and prevention, examine its relevance for employer decision-making, compare conceptual frameworks or theoretical perspectives, and recommend future research directions. In this paper, we summarize key points from the 6 resulting papers, compare them with an earlier 2005 conference on improving return-to-work research, and conclude with recommendations for further overarching research directions. Results/Conclusion In comparison with the 2005 conference, a greater emphasis was placed on organizational and social factors, employer roles and responsibilities, methods of implementation, non-clinical approaches, and facilitating stay-at-work as well as return-to-work. A special panel of employer consultants and representatives who were featured at the 2015 conference reinforced the importance of organizational culture, leadership style, and financial decision-making strategies at the employer level. Based on the conference proceedings, we recommend that future research in this area should strive for: (a) broader inclusion of workers and workplaces; (b) attention to multilevel influences in the workplace; (c) a focus on social as well as physical aspects of work; (d) earlier employer collaboration efforts; (e) more attention to

  14. Governing the transition to renewable energy: A review of impacts and policy issues in the small hydropower boom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly-Richards, Sarah; Silber-Coats, Noah; Crootof, Arica; Tecklin, David; Bauer, Carl

    2017-01-01

    The transition to renewable energy technologies raises new and important governance questions. With small hydropower (SHP) expanding as part of renewable energy and climate mitigation strategies, this review assesses its impacts and identifies escalating policy issues. To provide a comprehensive literature review of small hydropower, we evaluated over 3600 articles and policy documents. This review identified four major concerns: (1) confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting scholarship and policy-making; (2) there is a lack of knowledge and acknowledgement of small hydropower’s social, environmental, and cumulative impacts; (3) small hydropower’s promotion as a climate mitigation strategy can negatively affect local communities, posing contradictions for climate change policy; and (4) institutional analysis is needed to facilitate renewable energy integration with existing environmental laws to ensure sustainable energy development. For readers interested in small hydropower, we clarify areas of confusion in definition and explain the corresponding impacts for distinct system designs. For a broader readership, we situate small hydropower implementation within international trends of renewable energy development – the contradictory impacts of climate change policy, emerging dynamics in energy finance, and reliance on market mechanisms. Our paper provides a timely contribution to scholarship on small hydropower and the transition to renewable energy. - Highlights: • Confusion in small hydropower definitions is convoluting small hydropower debates. • Small hydropower’s negative impacts are largely overlooked in policy discussions. • Small hydropower exemplifies paradoxical problems with climate change policy. • Policies needed to integrate renewable energy development with national environmental institutions.

  15. Student Perceptions of Alcohol Policy Issues. Office for Student Affairs Research Bulletin; v15 n5 Jul74.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joel; And Others

    A mailed survey was conducted of students' opinions on issues relevant to the university's policy toward the consumption of alcoholic beverages on campus. Responses were received from 402 members of a random sample of 496 students from the Twin Cities Campus of the University of Minnesota. Key findings include: A majority of respondents believed…

  16. Reducing the Density and Number of Tobacco Retailers: Policy Solutions and Legal Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Amy; Etow, Alexis; Bartel, Sara; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-02-01

    Because higher density of tobacco retailers is associated with greater tobacco use, U.S. communities seek ways to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers. This approach can reduce the concentration of tobacco retailers in poorer communities, limit youth exposure to tobacco advertising, and prevent misleading associations between tobacco and health messaging. Communities can reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers by imposing minimum distance requirements between existing retailers, capping the number of retailers in a given geographic area, establishing a maximum number of retailers proportional to population size, and prohibiting sales at certain types of establishments, such as pharmacies, or within a certain distance of locations serving youth. Local governments use direct regulation, licensing, or zoning laws to enact these changes. We analyze each approach under U.S. constitutional law to assist communities in selecting and implementing one or more of these methods. There are few published legal opinions that address these strategies in the context of tobacco control. But potential constitutional challenges include violations of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment, which protects property owners from onerous government regulations, and under the Fourteenth Amendment's Equal Protection and Due Process Clauses, which protect business owners from arbitrary or unreasonable regulations that do not further a legitimate government interest. Because there is an evidentiary basis linking the density of tobacco retailers to smoking rates in a community, courts are likely to reject constitutional challenges to carefully crafted laws that reduce the number of tobacco retailers. Our review of the relevant constitutional issues confirms that local governments have the authority to utilize laws and policies to reduce the density and number of tobacco retailers in their communities, given existing public health data. The analysis guides policy

  17. Call for revision of policy and regulatory concepts and return to the early, major goals. A rational appraisal of current national energy policy; Konzeptionelle Neuorientierung und ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung gefordert. Rationale Bestandsaufnahme nationaler Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft, Univ. Essen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Times of serious changes such as the present time always have been a challenge with two faces to dynamic enterprise and personalities with entrepreneurial spirit, confronting them with increasing uncertainties on the one hand, and with growing need to open up and try innovative action. Success of the latter is decisively influenced by the approach chosen by policy, in this case energy and environmental policy, and whether policy tends towards cutting back regulatory intervention in the energy sector not specifically targeting energy aspects, thus supporting innovative action, or rather towards putting up additional burdens and barriers, thus fostering hesitation to invest in innovative action. This is the background and the starting point of the article, presenting an appraisal of the current situation and achievements of energy policy so far in some of the relevant sectors and branches, supplemented by a look back on initial goals of regulatory policy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zeiten gravierender Veraenderungen wie diese bedeuten trotz des eher zunehmenden Ausmasses an Ungewissheiten fuer dynamische Unternehmen und Unternehmerpersoenlichkeiten immer auch die Eroeffnung neuer Chancen. Entscheidend hierfuer ist jedoch, ob die Energie- und Umweltpolitik in dieser Phase nichtenergiespezifische Eingriffe im Energiesektor ebenfalls abbaut und den Anpassungsprozess flankierend unterstuetzt oder die Energiewirtschaft mit neuen Belastungen konfrontiert und die ohnehin wachsenden Ungewissheiten und damit einen moeglicherweise nicht auszuschliessenden Investitionsattentismus noch verstaerkt. Vor diesem Hintergrund soll im folgenden anhand einiger als besonders relevant erachteter Bereiche der Versuch einer energiepolitischen Bestandsaufnahme vorgelegt werden, bevor abschliessend eine ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung erfolgt. (orig.)

  18. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

  19. 'Implementation deficit' and 'street-level bureaucracy': policy, practice and change in the development of community nursing issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Ann; While, Alison

    2005-01-01

    The present paper examines the mechanisms by which health and social care policies put forward by the Government may be translated into community nursing practice. Data from a research project on community nurse case managers were re-examined in the light of two classic theories often cited by policy analysts (i.e. implementation theory and 'street-level bureaucracy'). It was found that the extent to which nurses adopted the case management role, and the model of choice, depended on four major interrelated variables, namely: (1) the clarity of policy guidance; (2) the extent to which it coincided with professional (nursing) values; (3) local practices and policies; and (4) the personal vision of the community nurse. It is argued that this framework may have wider relevance, and this was tested out in two ways. First, major change in one of these variables (Government policy) over time was analysed for its effect on case management practice via the remaining variables. Secondly, an unrelated, but policy-initiated, nursing issue (nurse prescribing) was briefly examined in the light of the framework. It is suggested that this framework may be of some use when considering the likely practice response to policy-related changes in community nursing.

  20. The Natural Gas Dilemma in New England's Electricity Sector: Experts' Perspectives on Long Term Climate Issues and Policy Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Steven

    This thesis is an interpretive analysis of experts' perspectives on the climate implications of New England's reliance on natural gas for electricity generation. Specifically, this research, conducted through interviews and literature review, examines experts' opinions on the desired role of natural gas within the regional electricity sector, alternative energy resources, and state and regional policy opportunities toward the achievement of New England's ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reduction goals. Experts expressed concern about the climate dilemma posed by a dependence on natural gas. However, interviews revealed that short-term reliability and cost considerations are paramount for many experts, and therefore a reliance on natural gas is the existing reality. To incentivize renewable generation technologies for the purposes of long-term climate stabilization, experts advocated for the expanded implementation of renewable portfolio standard, net metering, and feed-in tariff policies. More broadly, interviewees expressed the need for an array of complementary state and regional policies.

  1. Animal Welfare Policy: Implementation in the Context of Wildlife Research--Policy Review and Discussion of Fundamental Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Ellen; Sikes, Robert S; Beaupre, Steven J; Wingfield, John C

    2016-01-01

    The use of vertebrate animals in research and education in the United States is subject to a number of regulations, policies, and guidelines under the immediate oversight of Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs), which are charged with ensuring the ethical and appropriate use of the animal subjects. In almost all instances, this regulatory and oversight landscape of animal use has been developed around domesticated animals in biomedical research environments. When the research activities involve wild species, especially in their natural habitat rather than a laboratory, oversight personnel and investigators alike struggle with determining what constitutes ethical and appropriate activities. These difficulties stem from fundamental differences in biology between wild and domesticated animals and from the differences in research objectives and methods in wildlife compared with biomedical research. Here we discuss the various policies, regulations, and guidance documents for animal use in the context of wildlife research. We compare the expectations of the various oversight agencies and how these expectations are met when working with wild vertebrates. We make recommendations for how IACUCs can use available resources to ensure that activities involving wild species are conducted in compliance with existing regulations and policies and in ways that are biologically appropriate for these nondomesticated species. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Sustainable Development Plan for Korea through Expansion of Green IT: Policy Issues for the Effective Utilization of Big Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Baek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government is providing full support for green IT as one of the growth engines of Korea. The purpose of this study is to derive policy issues needed for the sustainable development of Korea through utilizing Big Data by applying green IT. The analysis is done using a Delphi technique. Results show that the establishment of computing platforms that can easily share data and generate value is prioritized for the effective use of Big Data from the environment. In addition, the government-led publication of genetic information and electronic medical records for research purposes has been derived as an important policy issue for the use of bio-Big Data. Besides, a guideline concerning the standardization of machine to machine and Internet of Things communication and data security is needed to effectively use Big Data from machines/things. Moreover, a review of legislation related to the utilization of Big Data from digital media has been derived as an important policy issue. The results of this study propose the direction in which the Korean government should move for green growth through effective utilization of Big Data. The results can be also useful resources for establishing relevant policies for various countries that are accelerating sustainable development.

  3. Political Terrorism in Southeast Asia and US Policy Issues: Case Studies of Thailand and Indonesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McDonald, George

    1998-01-01

    .... As a result, the possibility of an increase in terrorism, separatist violence, ethnic disputes, and stained regional relations takes on greater significance, both for United States foreign policy...

  4. The roots and routes of environmental and sustainability education policy research – an introduction to a virtual special issue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Van Poeck, Katrien; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the themes of a virtual special issue (VSI) of Environmental Education Research (http://explore.tandfonline.com/content/ed/ceer-vsi) focused on policy research in environmental and sustainability education (ESE). The broad purpose behind preparing the VSI was to consider...... the challenges involved in linking particular concepts of environment and sustainability with key themes in educational policy, and how this remains a heavily contested practice. Examples drawn from two decades of studies published in the journal show how these might be illustrated, addressed, problematized...

  5. Smart Specialisation, Entrepreneurship and SMEs : Issues and Challenges for a Results-Oriented EU Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways that European regional policy has been re-shaped in order to build on the role played by entrepreneurship in driving regional innovation. The various lines of re-thinking which have helped to reform the policy draw heavily on modern theories of entrepreneurship and

  6. Gender mainstreaming and rural development policy; the trivialisation of rural gender issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers gender mainstreaming of the EU Rural Development Programme. The EU promotes the gender mainstreaming of rural development policies because retaining women in rural areas is seen as crucial to the long-term viability of rural areas. A review of literature and scan of policy

  7. Expert views on scientific policy advice on complex environmental health issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, P.

    2016-01-01

    Fact-based policies grounded in solid uncontested scientific evidence: this may sound as the ideal relation between science and policy. However, this ideal rarely holds for complex environmental health risks. When scientific knowledge is contested or incomplete, scientists can take different roles

  8. Creating a High-Skills Society during Recession: Issues for Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotakopoulos, Antonios

    2015-01-01

    The present study looks at the skill formation policies adopted by policy makers in Greece in order to create a high-skills society. It examines empirically the demand side of the skill creation process within 300 small enterprises in order to understand how far supply-side measures have influenced the demand for well-trained staff within small…

  9. Coastal erosion and beach nourishment in Scania as issues in Swedish coastal policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bontje, L.E.; Frederiksson, Caroline; Wang, Zilin; Slinger, J.H.

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the dynamics of coastal policy change in Sweden, using erosion and beach nourishments as an example. The Multiple Stream Model is a theoretical model on agenda setting and policy change developed by the political scientist John Kingdon (1984, 2003). This paper applies Kingdon’s

  10. Labour migration from South and South-East Asia: some policy issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abella, M I

    1984-01-01

    The rise in migration for employment since the mid-1970s has had serious consequences for many Asian countries. This discussion examines the issues raised by the migration abroad of thousands of skilled workers and the efforts that sending countries have made in recent years to bring the effects of labor migration more closely into line with their development objectives. It also considers several problem areas requiring the attention of policymakers and authorities responsible for the administration of overseas employment policies. It is estimated that between 1976-81 annual labor migrant flows from the 8 major sending countries in Asia increased sevenfold, from a mere 146,400 to over 1 million. The Asian migrant workers tend to be young, male, married (with dependents in the sending country), and better educated than the average home population. Most of them come from rural areas and are predominantly employed in construction and labor. The most distinctive feature of these workers is their concentration in a few blue collar occupations--carpenters, masons, electricians, plumbers, lorry drivers, mechanics, and heavy equipment operators. These production and trnasport workers outnumber the professional and technical workers by anywhere from 3 to 1 (Philippines) to 17 to 1 (Pakistan and Sri Lanka). At the aggregate level labor emigration affects the sending country's economy through its impact on the labor market, on the financial market, and on the market for goods and services. It can be argued that the outflow of a significant proportion of the labor force should lead directly to a rise in labor projectivity in the sending country since capital per worker among those left behind will increase, yet it can also be argued that since migration sifts out the most skilled and experienced workers there will be an erosion of the country's human captial resources. Specific measures have been adopted in most labor sending Asian countries to protect the welfare of migrant

  11. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo J; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2014-08-01

    How has the interface between genetics and assisted reproduction technology (ART) evolved since 2005? The interface between ART and genetics has become more entwined as we increase our understanding about the genetics of infertility and we are able to perform more comprehensive genetic testing. In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and ART and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. An interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies and experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. In March 2012, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology and the EuroGentest2 Coordination Action Project met to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ART. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognized and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome prior to conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and PGD may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from RCTs to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving, but still remains very

  12. Massively parallel sequencing and the emergence of forensic genomics: Defining the policy and legal issues for law enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, Nathan; McNevin, Dennis; Kelty, Sally F; Walsh, Simon J; Robertson, James

    2018-03-01

    Use of DNA in forensic science will be significantly influenced by new technology in coming years. Massively parallel sequencing and forensic genomics will hasten the broadening of forensic DNA analysis beyond short tandem repeats for identity towards a wider array of genetic markers, in applications as diverse as predictive phenotyping, ancestry assignment, and full mitochondrial genome analysis. With these new applications come a range of legal and policy implications, as forensic science touches on areas as diverse as 'big data', privacy and protected health information. Although these applications have the potential to make a more immediate and decisive forensic intelligence contribution to criminal investigations, they raise policy issues that will require detailed consideration if this potential is to be realised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the scope of the issues that will confront forensic and user communities. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. All rights reserved.

  13. State policy towards indigenous peoples of Alaska: historical review and contemporary issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina S. Golomidova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes main stages of policy development towards indigenous peoples of Alaska and its influence on aboriginal cultures from the beginning of Russian colonization in the 18th century up to present time. The authors conclude that current policy towards indigenous peoples in Alaska can be generally evaluated as successful and supporting development of traditional cultures. The main achievements of this policy are: high level of self-organization and self-government of Alaska natives, legally secured rights for land and resources, progress in conservation of cultural heritage. However, social and economic challenges faced by indigenous people present a potential threat to the political stability in Alaska.

  14. Integrated primary health care in Greece, a missing issue in the current health policy agenda: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Lionis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past years, Greece has undergone several endeavors aimed at modernizing and improving national health care services with a focus on PHC. However, the extent to which integrated primary health care has been achieved is still questioned. Purpose: This paper explores the extent to which integrated primary health care (PHC is an issue in the current agenda of policy makers in Greece, reporting constraints and opportunities and highlighting the need for a policy perspective in developing integrated PHC in this Southern European country. Methods: A systematic review in PubMed/Medline and SCOPUS, along with a hand search in selected Greek biomedical journals was undertaken to identify key papers, reports, editorials or opinion letters relevant to integrated health care. Results: Our systematic review identified 198 papers and 161 out of them were derived from electronic search. Fifty-three papers in total served the scope of this review and are shortly reported. A key finding is that the long-standing dominance of medical perspectives in Greek health policy has been paving the way towards vertical integration, pushing aside any discussions about horizontal or comprehensive integration of care. Conclusion: Establishment of integrated PHC in Greece is still at its infancy, requiring major restructuring of the current national health system, as well as organizational culture changes. Moving towards a new policy-based model would bring this missing issue on the discussion table, facilitating further development.

  15. [The common issues of health policy in Russia concerning private system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimovskii, K K

    2016-01-01

    The article considers main principles of national policy specified in the constitution of the Russian Federation and other legislative acts concerning health care of population and development of private health care of Russia. The public policy intends wholeness and unity of national health care system and also state control of its functioning. All official documents and normative legislative acts relate to all sectors of national health care that substantiates unity of public policy. The important emphasis in actual policy is made on development of involvement of private sector in activities related to mandatory health insurance programs and implementation of various forms ofpublic-private partnership in health care. It is pointed out that omnipresent is delay of federal legislation from legislative base of regions, including its vagueness and incompleteness. The principle of self-regulation is described that is more and more implemented in private health care.

  16. Criminal Policy Challenges under Conditions of Hybrid War: Some Issues and Solutions from Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pysmenskyy Yevhen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the specifics of national criminal policy implementation under the influence of extraordinary geopolitical factors on it. Such policy will be reviewed with Ukraine serving as an appropriate example. This country has been recently forced to adjust its own ways of implementation of the state policy against crime based on atypical modern challenges and threats. This refers to the special nature of a hybrid war, which has been actively fought on the territory of Ukraine since 2014. The author examines two key areas of criminal policy (definition of the limits of criminal behavior and establishing criminal law consequences of the committed offenses, implemented under the extraordinary circumstances of hybrid war. Symptomatic features of the hybrid form of foreign aggression are defined in the piece. At the same time, options of criminal law in combating and preventing such aggression are researched.

  17. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion.

  18. Policy Paper 05: Regional Cooperation and Environmental Issues in Northeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Peter; Zarsky, Lyuba

    1993-01-01

    Hayes and Zarsky describe the rapidly emerging agenda for regional collaboration on environmental issues in Northeast Asia. In Part One, they describe briefly some of the major transfrontier or regional environmental issues in Northeast Asia that represent a menu of opportunities for cooperation (and potential conflict) between states. These issues include transfrontier air pollution (acid rain only), marine pollution (radionuclides and oil only), migratory species (fish only), and trade-envi...

  19. Arsenal of democracy in the face of change: Issues underlying the implementation of industrial mobilization policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkerhoff, J.R. (Brinkerhoff Associates, Burke, VA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    This paper reviews the background and current status of industrial preparedness in the United States and analyzes ways to implement new policy procedures. What will it take to assure that the United States can be mobilize its industry rapidly to support a major conventional war The report reaches nine important conclusions: (1) Mobilization and industrial preparedness policy must be linked and integrated with other aspects of national security policy and the national military strategy. (2) The United States cannot reverse the flow of time and go back to a period of industrial superiority and self-sufficiency. (3) The United States must come to grips with its responsibilities for providing war materiel for Allies. (4) Similarly, the United States must recognize the interdependency of international trade and industrial production. (5) Graduated Mobilization Response needs to be adopted by the government and DOD and integrated into industrial preparedness policy. (6) The DOD industrial surge program should be fully funded. (7) Industrial preparedness planning should be funded now on a priority basis. (8) Organizational responsibilities and relationships for industrial preparedness have to be clarified, strengthened, and supported. (9) Finally, it is necessary to pay attention to this problem now. The report concludes by suggesting that the United States must develop a unified, clear statement of preparedness policy, linked with other security/military policies and strategies. This must be accomplished with some swiftness, and with the cognizance of current (and most likely to continue) domestic an international economic interdependencies.

  20. Rapid issue tracking: A method for taking the pulse of the public discussion of environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Bengston; David P. Fan; Patrick Reed; Ashley. Goldhor-Wilcock

    2009-01-01

    Environmental communication professionals and other decision makers need to understand public sentiment toward environmental issues to effectively carry out their stewardship responsibilities. However, it is often difficult to obtain timely and reliable information about public discussion and debate regarding these issues. This paper describes an approach designed to...

  1. Introduction of Energy and Climate Mitigation Policy Issues in Energy - Environment Model of Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klavs, G.; Rekis, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present research is aimed at contributing to the Latvian national climate policy development by projecting total GHG emissions up to 2030, by evaluating the GHG emission reduction path in the non-ETS sector at different targets set for emissions reduction and by evaluating the obtained results within the context of the obligations defined by the EU 2030 policy framework for climate and energy. The method used in the research was bottom-up, linear programming optimisation model MARKAL code adapted as the MARKAL-Latvia model with improvements for perfecting the integrated assessment of climate policy. The modelling results in the baseline scenario, reflecting national economic development forecasts and comprising the existing GHG emissions reduction policies and measures, show that in 2030 emissions will increase by 19.1 % compared to 2005. GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030, compared to 2005, were researched in respective alternative scenarios. Detailed modelling and analysis of the Latvian situation according to the scenario of non-ETS sector GHG emissions stabilisation and reduction in 2030 compared to 2005 have revealed that to implement a cost effective strategy of GHG emissions reduction first of all a policy should be developed that ensures effective absorption of the available energy efficiency potential in all consumer sectors. The next group of emissions reduction measures includes all non-ETS sectors (industry, services, agriculture, transport, and waste management).

  2. Policy options for pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing: issues for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Knight, Rosemary; Roughead, Elizabeth Ellen; Brooks, Geoffrey; Mant, Andrea

    2015-03-01

    Pharmaceutical expenditure is rising globally. Most high-income countries have exercised pricing or purchasing strategies to address this pressure. Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), however, usually have less regulated pharmaceutical markets and often lack feasible pricing or purchasing strategies, notwithstanding their wish to effectively manage medicine budgets. In high-income countries, most medicines payments are made by the state or health insurance institutions. In LMICs, most pharmaceutical expenditure is out-of-pocket which creates a different dynamic for policy enforcement. The paucity of rigorous studies on the effectiveness of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing strategies makes it especially difficult for policy makers in LMICs to decide on a course of action. This article reviews published articles on pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies. Many policy options for medicine pricing and purchasing have been found to work but they also have attendant risks. No one option is decisively preferred; rather a mix of options may be required based on country-specific context. Empirical studies in LMICs are lacking. However, risks from any one policy option can reasonably be argued to be greater in LMICs which often lack strong legal systems, purchasing and state institutions to underpin the healthcare system. Key factors are identified to assist LMICs improve their medicine pricing and purchasing systems. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  3. Financial conflict-of-interest policies in clinical research: issues for clinical investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Elizabeth A; Cho, Mildred K; Bero, Lisa A

    2003-08-01

    As industry sponsorship of clinical research grows, investigators' personal financial relationships with those sponsors are under increasing scrutiny. The federal government, some states, and many universities have enacted conflict-of-interest policies to monitor and regulate investigators' financial relationships. Little is known, however, about investigators' awareness of or support for these policies or their attitudes toward regulatory efforts. To explore the possible implications of conflict-of-interest policies for clinical researchers, the authors interviewed active clinical investigators at two institutions where the conflict-of-interest policies differ. The most striking feature of the interviews was the range of perceptions and attitudes expressed by clinical investigators and their implications for administrators, professional societies, and policymakers concerned with conflicts of interest. Fewer than half of the interviewed investigators could accurately describe their campus' conflict-of-interest policy. Many investigators felt that professional societies, the public, and individual investigators were appropriate monitors of conflicts of interest. Many investigators recognized the general risks associated with conflicts of interest, but felt that they personally were not at risk. A fundamental challenge facing administrators and policymakers is to demonstrate to all investigators, both clinical and nonclinical, that the potential for bias, pressure and conflict is relevant to all investigators with industry relationships.

  4. Language Issues And The Attainment Of Education-For-All Policy In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the experiments carried-out on the use of mother-tongues in literacy and basic education in Nigeria. The paper was rounded-off by providing a justification for the choice of indigenous language(s) in the implementation of EFA goals in Nigeria. International Journal of Emotional psychology and sport ethics (IJEPSE) Vol.

  5. Women in Iraq: Background and Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pina, Aaron D

    2006-01-01

    The issue of women's rights in Iraq has taken on new relevance, following the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003, efforts to reconstruct Iraq, and recent elections for a Transitional National Assembly...

  6. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F

    2007-01-01

    .... Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large-scale state sponsorship of drug production and trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies...

  7. Drug Trafficking and North Korea: Issues for U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Perl, Raphael F

    2006-01-01

    .... Such events, in the context of credible, but unproven, allegations of large scale state sponsorship of drug production and trafficking, raise important issues for the United States and its allies...

  8. International Violence Against Women: U.S. Response and Policy Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blanchfield, Luisa; Margesson, Rhoda; Seelke, Clare R; Salaam-Blyther, Tiaji; Serafino, Nina M

    2008-01-01

    ...) as a significant human rights and global health issue. VAW, which can include both random acts of violence as well as sustained abuse over time, can be physical, psychological, or sexual in nature...

  9. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-04-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  10. Policy issues facing the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and prospects for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweeney, J.

    1999-01-01

    This report is divided into the following 5 sections: (1) Background; (2) Major Issues Facing Ratification of CTBT; (3) Current Status on CTBT Ratification; (4) Status of CTBT Signatories and Ratifiers; and (5) CTBT Activities Not Prohibited. The major issues facing ratification of CTBT discussed here are: impact on CTBT of START II and ABM ratification; impact of India and Pakistan nuclear tests; CTBT entry into force; and establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization

  11. Legal and Policy Issues Regarding Niche Charter Schools: Race, Religion, Culture, and the Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckes, Suzanne E.; Fox, Robert A.; Buchanan, Nina K.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of ethnocentric or culturally oriented niche charter schools have opened around the country. These ethnic or culture-oriented models raise legal and policy concerns about church/state entanglement as well as concerns about diversity. Indeed, there has already been litigation focused on racial and ethnic aspects of charter schools…

  12. School Transportation Costs, Policies and Practices: A Review of Issues in New York and Selected States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Educational Research Services Unit.

    To draw comparisons for assessing transportation costs and developing recommendations for legislative action in New York, this study compares school transportation policies and practices that may be related to differences in transportation costs in eight states having the largest public school enrollments for 1980. Data were obtained from existing…

  13. China and India: Different Educational Paths toward Prosperity. Policy Insight, Volume 2, Issue 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Kumar, Krishna B.

    2008-01-01

    Different educational approaches in China and India have been successful in stimulating economic growth. The two countries started building their national education systems under comparable conditions in the late 1940s; however, different policies, strategies, and historical circumstances have led them through different routes. China has…

  14. Teaching Information Policy in the Digital Age: Issues, Strategies, and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Paul T.; Gorham, Ursula; Taylor, Natalie Greene; Bertot, John C.

    2015-01-01

    As technology continues to advance at a rapid rate, it is increasingly important to consider how information policies are formulated and the impact that they have on both the public's access to information and the roles of information professionals. As such, current and future information professionals must be adequately prepared through education…

  15. Guiding Urban Growth: Policy Issues and Demographic Constraints. Paper Series No. 5212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Peter A.

    It is proposed in this document that the selectivity of migration, in terms of both people and places become a more imposing influence in urbanization as the role of natural increase as a source of urban growth diminishes. Recent U.S. growth policy proposals have frequently been marked by a simplistic view of how urban growth works, compounded by…

  16. Economic and policy issues of U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Craig D; Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge

    2013-09-01

    This paper discusses U.S. agricultural pesticide use trends from 1964 to 2010 based on estimates developed from USDA surveys, and the influence of economic factors, agricultural policy, and pesticide regulation on aggregate quantities and mix of pesticides used. Synthetic organic pesticide use grew dramatically from the 1960s to the early 1980s, as farmers treated more and more acreage. Use then stabilized, with herbicides applied to about 95% of corn, cotton, and soybean acres, annually. Subsequently, major factors affecting trends were: (1) changes in crop acreage and other economic factors, (2) use of new pesticides that reduced per-acre application rates and/or met more rigorous health and environmental standards, and (3) adoption of genetically engineered insect-resistant and herbicide-tolerant crops. The use of pesticides and other control practices responded to economic factors such as input and output markets and agricultural policies. Changing societal values toward pesticide risks and benefits profoundly affected pesticide policy, influencing the pesticides available for use, but only indirectly affecting aggregate quantities used. While the current pesticide regulatory process might have economic inefficiencies, it might be consistent with policy preferences held by much of the public-to reduce pesticide hazards rather than minimize regulatory costs. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Managing policy issues in the promotion of gender equality in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this paper is to explore ways and means through which policies could be made more impactful in the promotion of gender equality in the education. The paper is both conceptual and empirical in nature. Document study and interviewing techniques were used to collect data from the three contraveners of ...

  18. Education Policies and Practices to Address Cultural Diversity in Malaysia: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakolunthu, Suseela; Rengasamy, Nagappan C.

    2012-01-01

    The 1969 racial riot in Kuala Lumpur served as a historical landmark in the development of Malaysian education, as it raised concerns about the state of national unity in the country. Subsequently, education was coupled with the socioeconomic restructuring of Malaysian society in line with the New Economic Policy (NEP) that commenced in 1970.…

  19. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  20. Immigration and Multiculturalism in Britain: New Issues in Research and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Menski, Werner

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a revised and enlarged version of a lecture delivered at Osaka University of Foreign Studies, during the course of Dr. Menski's tenure as a Visiting Professor at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies. It provides a wide-ranging overview of the challenges for social policy currently being thrown up within Britain's ever more plural social order.

  1. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers. Policy Issue Series No. 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Scott; McCarthy, Martha

    The first section of this policy paper provides an overview of the historical development of early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs), the legal status of ERIPs under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), cost/benefit analyses involving ERIPs, and consideration of ERIPs in Indiana. The second section contains a brief synopsis of…

  2. Early Childhood Development Policy and Programming in India: Critical Issues and Directions for Paradigm Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Adarsh; Sen, Rekha Sharma; Gulati, Renu

    2008-01-01

    The critical importance of the early childhood years and the rights perspective to human development has made policy and programming for early childhood development an imperative for every nation. In India, poverty, changing economic and social structures resulting in the breakdown of traditional coping mechanisms and family care systems, and the…

  3. State Primary Stroke Center Policies in the US: Rural Health Issues.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, C.; O'Toole, Laurence J.; Rho, E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between state primary stroke center (PSC) designation policy implementation and access to optimal stroke care for residents of rural areas. Materials and Methods: Primary data were collected during the period September 2008–August 2009. Following content

  4. Issues and considerations on the development of an institutional controls policy for uranium mines within Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurdson, B.E.; Bilokury, M.R.; Snider, R.C.

    2002-01-01

    Institutional control of a mine site is required to ensure long-term public safety and environmental protection once responsibility for a decommissioned uranium mine site reverts back to the Crown. During the exploration, development, operation and decommissioning phases of a uranium mine's life cycle, public safety and environmental protection are ensured through the Federal and Provincial Environmental Assessment Review process, regulatory permitting and compliance monitoring by the province. However, at present, there is no clear provincial policy with respect to a proponent's application for release from a reclaimed and decommissioned site, and the resulting provincial responsibility for the long-term management and maintenance of the site once a release has been granted. Another policy issue has been identified with respect to the long-term institutional control of previously abandoned uranium mine sites. A number of issues are being considered by the Government of Saskatchewan in developing a policy which addresses the needs of the people of Saskatchewan and which is consistent with the intent of the commitments made by Canada through its ratification of the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Joint Convention on the Safety of Spent Fuel Management and on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management. (author)

  5. [A study of general public's trust in government and corporation in the issues of defense and nuclear power policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Katsuya

    2002-02-01

    This study examined general public's trust in national government and electric power companies in terms of nuclear power policies, and that in the government in terms of defense policies. A questionnaire was distributed to a sample of 560 Kobe citizens, and a total of 409 complete it. Covariance structure analysis was performed to test hypotheses of the present study. Results suggested that the more demanding of the government and corporations, the lower the person's trust. How well the person understood the difficulty of the work involved hardly affected his/her demand and trust in all three actors of the two issues. Results also indicated that the person who perceived the government to be under pressure to appear trustworthy tended to have lower trust in them, that Yamagishi's general trust (1998) did not influence the trust in the cases, and that awareness of popular political empowerment had a negative impact on the trust in the government.

  6. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  7. A Policy Analysis and Quantitative Assessment of Key Issues Arising from Climate Change Negotiations Following COP 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sager, J. M

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to assess the consequences of the amendments made to the Kyoto Protocol during COP 7 in Marrakech. Following a comprehensive policy analysis, the major issue of 'hot air' and CDM transaction costs is examined using the CERT model. This was done to show that primary supply regions, typically those with 'hot air' availability, might control the emissions reduction permit supply market and maximise net export revenues of permit supply by withholding 40 to 60% of available 'hot air' credits. The assumption that primary permit suppliers control permit price via a restriction of 'hot air' supply to the market will inadvertently leave a portion of the market share open to Non-Annex B CDM supply, despite potentially extreme variance in CDM transaction costs. A summary table of policy implications on the emissions reduction permit market is also included in the Appendix. (author)

  8. The issues of investment policy in the economy of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadejda NAZAR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The investment policy of the state is to develop a set of measures to attract investment into the economy. In this article, the basic directions of the investment policy in the Republic of Moldova to ensure the achievement of the strategic objectives of Moldova are reflected. Analyzing the situation in the republic investment sector, we can formulate the negative factors to attract investment in the development of entrepreneurship in Moldova: the unstable political situation, corruption and bureaucracy, lack of qualified human resources, poor infrastructure, etc. For developing the investment climate, it is necessary to improve the management of central and local administration, to help investors at every stage of the investment process. The following priority sectors of the national economy for attraction of investment of can be highlighted: services for entrepreneurs, development of information technology products, the development of the electronics industry, development of light industry, producing parts for self-services, the agro-industrial sector, tourism, transport logistics.

  9. Political economy of the energy-groundwater nexus in India: exploring issues and assessing policy options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tushaar; Giordano, Mark; Mukherji, Aditi

    2012-08-01

    Indian agriculture is trapped in a complex nexus of groundwater depletion and energy subsidies. This nexus is the product of past public policy choices that initially offered opportunities to India's small-holder-based irrigation economy but has now generated in its wake myriad economic, social, and environmental distortions. Conventional `getting-the-price-right' solutions to reduce these distortions have consistently been undermined by the invidious political economy that the nexus has created. The historical evolution of the nexus is outlined, the nature and scale of the distortions it has created are explored, and alternative approaches which Indian policy makers can use to limit, if not eliminate, the damaging impacts of the distortions, are analysed.

  10. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    smuggling, irregular migration, and the movement of asylum seekers . In 2000, the United Nations drafted two protocols, known as the Palermo Protocols...the Border: Immigrants in Detention and Victims of Trafficking, Part II, 110th Cong., 1 sess., March 20, 2007. 128 Personal communication with ICE...Liana Sun Wyler Analyst in International Crime and Narcotics Alison Siskin Specialist in Immigration Policy August 4, 2010 Congressional Research

  11. Take on the issue of chronic pain with comprehensive solutions, firm policies on prescribing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Patients who visit the ED frequently to obtain treatment for chronic pain can be frustrating and difficult to manage, but some EDs are making progress with this group by linking these patients to resources and establishing a firm policy on when narcotics will be prescribed. Experts say that while strict "no opioids" policies rarely work well, some patients can be helped when given access to more comprehensive treatment approaches. The ED at Methodist Hospital in Indianapolis has developed a multidisciplinary program that includes referrals to a primary care provider (PCP), as well as a chemical dependency specialist. All providers have access to care-management notes on the patient through the health system's electronic medical record. Patients who are non-complaint with the program risk losing access to narcotic medications when they visit the ED. The ED at Dosher Memorial Hospital in Southport, NC, has developed a policy that encourages all patients with chronic pain to seek treatment from a PCP. The hospital will help to link patients with a PCP and other resources in the region. The approach has curbed the incidence of drug-seeking behavior and helped to make the treatment of chronic pain uniform across all ED providers. Since the prevalence of pain is so high among patients in the ED, many emergency physicians are seeking added training in the treatment of pain.

  12. Domestic micro-generation: Economic, regulatory and policy issues for the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Jim; Sauter, Raphael [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, The Freeman Centre, University of Sussex, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Bahaj, Bakr; James, Patrick; Myers, Luke [Sustainable Energy Research Group, University of Southampton (United Kingdom); Wing, Robert [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    Micro-generation in individual homes has been the subject of increasing policy and industry attention in recent years. Whilst it has been estimated that micro-generation could meet 30-40% of UK electricity demand by 2050, deployment to date has been slow. In its Micro-generation Strategy the UK government has started to outline how deployment could be increased. Various technical, economic, behavioural and institutional changes are needed to establish a UK market for micro-generation. This article discusses how different deployment models for domestic micro-generation might attract investments in these technologies. It considers not only investments by individual households but also by energy companies. Starting from an economic analysis of payback times for three different technologies (micro-CHP, micro-wind and solar PV) it identifies policy and regulatory recommendations. It argues for technology-specific support policies in the short term. It also suggests that a 'level playing field' for micro-generation technologies as a result of fiscal and market reforms could considerably increase the attractiveness of micro-generation technologies. (author)

  13. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. Discussion The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive “combination prevention” programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. Conclusions The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers’ openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of Pr

  14. Implementation of pre-exposure prophylaxis for human immunodeficiency virus infection: progress and emerging issues in research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos F; Borquez, Annick; Klausner, Jeffrey D; Baggaley, Rachel; Beyrer, Chris

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present recent evidence from studies focused on the implementation, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV infection; discuss PrEP scale-up to date, including the observed levels of access and policy development; and elaborate on key emerging policy and research issues to consider for further scale-up, with a special focus on lower-middle income countries. The 2015 WHO Early Release Guidelines for HIV Treatment and Prevention reflect both scientific evidence and new policy perspectives. Those guidelines present a timely challenge to health systems for the scaling up of not only treatment for every person living with HIV infection but also the offer of PrEP to those at substantial risk. Delivery and uptake of both universal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and PrEP will require nation-wide commitment and could reinvigorate health systems to develop more comprehensive "combination prevention" programmes and support wider testing linked to both treatments and other prevention options for populations at highest risk who are currently not accessing services. Various gaps in current health systems will need to be addressed to achieve strategic scale-up of PrEP, including developing prioritization strategies, strengthening drug regulations, determining cost and funding sources, training health providers, supporting user adherence and creating demand. The initial steps in the scale-up of PrEP globally suggest feasibility, acceptability and likely impact. However, to prevent setbacks in less well-resourced settings, countries will need to anticipate and address challenges such as operational and health systems barriers, drug cost and regulatory policies, health providers' openness to prescribing PrEP to populations at substantial risk, demand and legal and human rights issues. Emerging problems will require creative solutions and will continue to illustrate the complexity of PrEP implementation.

  15. National Security Issues 1981 Symposium. Strategic Nuclear Policies, Weapons, and the C3 Connection, October 13-14, 1981,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    we’re dealing largely with elements that are ulations that probably every one of us would sign only partially known. In the Rorschach test that - that...electronic, industrial, civil and con.,nerial markets. degree (A.E.) and a Ph.D. in Aeronautics and Mathematics Dr DeLauer Joined TRW in 1958 following a !15...on defense, foreign policies and economic development issues. Born in 1922. Mr. Kahn holds a B.A. degree in physics and mathematics from the University

  16. Working paper Green Gas. Overview of policy issues on Green Gas; Werkdocument Groen Gas. Overzicht Beleidsvraagstukken Groen Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumont, M.

    2012-07-15

    Early 2010, the interdepartmental Accelerator Team Green Gas was established which deals with policy issues in the field of Green Gas. This working document reflects the current state of affairs. Via the website www.groengas.nl new versions will be made available on a regular basis [Dutch] Begin 2010 is het interdepartementale Versnellerteam Groen Gas opgericht dat zich bezighoudt met vraagstukken op het gebied van Groen Gas die op het terrein van de rijksoverheid liggen. Dit werkdocument geeft de huidige stand van zaken weer. Via www.groengas.nl komen geregeld nieuwe versies beschikbaar.

  17. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  18. Treatment or Involuntary Euthanasia for Severely Handicapped Newborns: Issues of Philosophy and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, T. Hennessy; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Recent reports have indicated that parents and/or physicians occasionally decide not to provide life-sustaining treatment (referred to as involuntary euthanasia), thus ensuring that the severely handicapped newborn will die. The issues involved relative to treatment or involuntary euthanasia are reviewed from two opposing perspectives…

  19. The 21st Century's Vision of the Korean Teaching Profession: Issues and Policy Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hwa

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of the current situation within the Korean teaching profession, highlighting major issues and problems (e.g., low professionalism; ineffective preservice and inservice teacher education; rigid, bureaucratic personnel management; legalization of the Teacher Union; and poor working conditions) and introducing the Ministry of…

  20. Asia and the Pacific: Issues of Educational Policy, Curriculum, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Donald C., Ed.; And Others

    The Pacific region is growing in worldwide importance in terms of politics, economics, and culture. The emergence of this area of the world provides an opportunity for new directions in social studies education. This book addresses the Pacific Rim issues from the viewpoints of educators from 9 Pacific nations: Australia, Canada, Fiji, Japan,…

  1. Outsourcing, Globalizing Economics, and Shifting Language Policies: Issues in Managing Indian Call Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brian; Ramanathan, Vaidehi

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a dialogic discussion about several issues concerning call centers, including globalizing surges, modernity tropes and educational practices. Based on a critical discourse analysis of a document offering to train west-based entrepreneurs to assume managerial positions in call centers in India, the paper explores ways in which…

  2. Cumulative exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting compounds: a review of the current issues and implications for policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaij MTM van; Ossendorp BC; Slob W; Pieters MN; SIR

    2005-01-01

    Cumulative exposure to various residues of pesticides in food is a potential area of concern. This issue is especially relevant for pesticides with a common mechanism of toxicity (e.g. organophosphates). Non-governmental organisations emphasis the need for inclusion of cumulative exposure in the

  3. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: An interim report on the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.; Burns, R.E.

    1992-08-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), conducted two workshops on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The first workshop was held in Charlotte, North Carolina for southern and eastern states in April 1992 and the second was held in St. Louis, Missouri for Midwestern states in May. The workshops had four objectives: (1) discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interest, (3) attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on some key issues, and (4) provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing rules, orders, and procedures in their state. Of primary interest from the federal perspective was for workshop participants to return to their states with additional background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and enable them to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. The basic format of the workshops was that invited speakers made presentations on specific issues. {open_quotes}Primary participants{close_quotes} from each state and other workshop attendees then discussed the issues raised by the speakers and other related concerns. The primary participants were state commissioners, commission staff, representatives from state consumer advocate organizations, EPA, DOE, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Other attendees were utility representatives, consultants, and other interested parties. All participants were given a workbook with excerpts from an NRRI report on CAAA implementation and papers or outlines from speakers.

  4. Carbon dioxide capture and storage. Public perception, policy and regulatory issues in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Coninck, H.C. [ECN Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Huijts, N.M.A. [Human Technology Interactions, Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    While CO2 capture and storage (CCS) projects are quickly emerging all over the world, uncertainty is prevailing on the public acceptance, a legal framework, and the policy incentives for CCS. Fulfilment of these requirements is essential for CCS deployment. This paper discusses the state of affairs in the Netherlands. The reported public perception study highlights the results of an inquiry on the perception of CCS with 112 people in the city of Alkmaar and surroundings in the Northwest of the Netherlands. Alkmaar is located above a gas storage field, which in the past has caused several small earthquakes. It can be concluded that the average attitude towards CO2 capture and storage is not positive but also not rejecting, although the drawbacks of the technology were regarded greater than the benefits, and significant NIMBY feelings could be distinguished. The public's feelings associated with storage of CO2 seem to be dominated by concern. Besides public perception of CCS, the legal and policy framework are key to implementation of CCS. The legal framework in the Netherlands is developing with a big step taken by the coming into force of a Mining Act allowing storage of CO2 in the underground under conditions for safety and environmental impacts. Policy incentives include the European Union Emissions Trading System, Joint Implementation, and an electricity subsidy of 7 eurocents/kWh for a Zero Emission Power Plant. All things combined, CCS appears to have good chances, even of short-term commercial implementation in the Netherlands. The occurrence of NIMBY feelings, however, should be taken into account when CCS is planned in populated areas.

  5. China-U.S. Relations: Current Issues and Implications for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    Although China alone has been the source of 40% of the world’s oil demand growth since 2000,66 its continued heavy dependence on soft coal in recent...international and multilateral family planning programs, such as the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA), that have programs in China . Section 660(c) of the...abuses of China’s population - growth policy,” Washington Post, August 27, 2005, p. A1. 79 Reported in Tung Fang Jih Pao, May 21, 2007, translated in

  6. U.S.-China Counterterrorism Cooperation: Issues for U.S. Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    addressed religious freedom and honored Uighur Muslims, Christians, and Tibetan Buddhists seeking religious freedom in China. He also met at the...Coordinator for Uighur affairs (Under Secretary of State for Democracy and Global Affairs also serves as the Special Coordinator for Tibetan Issues...dissent. Uighurs complain of forced assimilation, instead of “autonomy.” Like Tibetans , Uighurs resent the Communist controls on religion, military

  7. China’s Foreign Policy Toward North Korea: The Nuclear Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Dealing with the North Korean Nuclear Issue,” Korea Observer 36, no. 3 (Autumn 2005): 469. 40 Jianwei Wang and Zhimin Lin , “Chinese Perceptions in the...influence in the region through cooperation with neighboring countries. 53 Fei- Ling Wang...139 Wu, China Turns to Multilateralism, 106. 140 Yun -ju Do, “China`s Strategic Interest toward the SCO,” The Journal of Modern China

  8. Trafficking in Persons: U.S. Policy and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-10

    Briefing Kit,” 2002. 15 UNODC, April 2006, p. 38. 16 Terry Coonan and Robin Thompson, “ Ancient Evil, Modern Face: The Fight Against Human Trafficking...Persons,” August 8, 2007. 40 UNODC, April 2006. Within the region, victims from other African countries are trafficked to Egypt , Gabon, the Ivory Coast...health issues resulting from physical and sexual assault (unwanted pregnancies , HIV/AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases), and stigma and

  9. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives.

  10. Integrated resource planning for local gas distribution companies: A critical review of regulatory policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harunuzzaman, M.; Islam, M.

    1994-08-01

    According to the report, public utility commissions (PUCs) are increasingly adopting, or considering the adoption of integrated resource planning (IRP) for local gas distribution companies (LDCs). The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct) requires PUCs to consider IRP for gas LDCs. This study has two major objectives: (1) to help PUCs develop appropriate regulatory approaches with regard to IRP for gas LDCs; and (2) to help PUCs respond to the EPAct directive. The study finds that it is appropriate for PUCs to pursue energy efficiency within the traditional regulatory framework of minimizing private costs of energy production and delivery; and PUCs should play a limited role in addressing environmental externalities. The study also finds that in promoting energy efficiency, PUCs should pursue policies that are incentive-based, procompetitive, and sensitive to rate impacts. The study evaluates a number of traditional and nontraditional ratemaking mechanisms on the basis of cost minimization, energy efficiency, competitiveness, and other criteria. The mechanisms evaluated include direct recovery of DSM expenses, lost revenue adjustments for DSM options, revenue decoupling mechanisms, sharing of DSM cost savings, performance-based rate of return for DSM, provision of DSM as a separate service, deregulation of DSM service, price caps, and deregulation of the noncore gas market. The study concludes with general recommendations for regulatory approaches and ratemaking mechanisms that PUCs may wish to consider in advancing IRP objectives

  11. Taxation, revenue allocation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria: Issues, challenges and policy options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami Adeleke

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxation is one of the most important and easy sources of revenue to any government, as the government possesses inherent power to impose taxes and levies. Nigeria tax system has been weak due largely to inadequate data of the tax base and heavy reliance on oil revenue. With the volatility in oil prices and excruciating impacts of the recent global financial crisis, taxation deserves more attention now than ever before in Nigeria. One issue that is critical to domestic resource mobilization and utilization is the issue of fiscal federalism. Nigeria operates three tiers of government; Federal, State and Local Governments with separate revenue, expenditure, and assigned responsibilities each. However, all decisions including resources are controlled from the centre and the vertical revenue allocations tilt more towards the direction of federal government, contrary to the tenets of federalism the country is practicing. Both vertical and horizontal revenue in Nigeria is engulfed in controversy. The paper presents key issues, trend and challenges of taxation and fiscal federalism in Nigeria. In addition, the paper highlights a number of suggestions that would stimulate increase in tax revenue and guarantee fiscal assignment acceptable to the federal and sub-national government.

  12. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in sub-Saharan Africa as its impacts can lead to increased incidences of poverty and inequality which can subsequently lead to a 12% decline in the Human Development Index (HDI for sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging countries such as China have the potential to support Africa to achieve the SDGs by pioneering South–South Climate Finance (SSCF modalities. In order to increase knowledge on climate informed development and the role of China in global climate governance, the paper examined various research articles, case studies, policy briefs and project reports. Sino-African aid, investments and trade were noted as essential in mitigating Africa's climate change vulnerabilities which induce poverty traps and inequality. Some African countries were noted to have a comparative advantage in environmental standards over China but lacked the initiative to use this comparative advantage to enhance the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC and assist China to have a sustainable growth trajectory. The paper concludes that SSCF modalities can enhance climate risk management in Africa if they focus on improving financial inclusion and improving climate finance flows towards climate change adaptation activities in Africa. Additionally, to increase the effectiveness and impact of Chinese climate finance support to Africa, African policymakers should not allow political and market forces to decide how climate related support from China should be allocated as decisions based on political and market forces could potentially promote an inequitable distribution of funds and ignore the most vulnerable countries and regions.

  13. Of Horse Race and Policy Issues: A Study of Gender in Coverage of a Gubernatorial Election by Two Major Metropolitan Newspapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serini, Shirley A.; Powers, Angela A.; Johnson, Susan

    1998-01-01

    Examines media coverage of a gubernatorial election, suggesting that: (1) gender may be a larger factor in selecting policy stories over "horse race" stories; (2) coverage of the horse race has greater impact on election outcome than coverage of policy issues; and (3) a woman will be more successful in an election if she presents herself…

  14. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  15. Extending Recidivism Monitoring for Drug Courts: Methods Issues and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVall, Kristen E; Gregory, Paul D; Hartmann, David J

    2017-01-01

    A wealth of research has been amassed documenting the effectiveness of drug treatment courts in addressing the needs of substance-abusing individuals involved with the criminal justice system. However, there is a relative dearth of research that examines the long-term impact of these programs on recidivism rates for both drug treatment court graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged from the program. In this study, we examine which demographic and programmatic/legal factors influence program disposition and recidivism rates of participants (both graduates and those unsuccessfully discharged) across the 5 years following their discharge from a drug treatment court program located in a suburban city in the Midwest. The study sample consists of 249 (N = 249) male participants who have been out of the program for more than 5 years. Results from the univariate and multivariate analyses are provided, as well as policy implications, directions for future research, and study limitations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Status of the Japan`s regulatory policy on radioactive waste management. Cleanup and recycling issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Daiji [Science and Technology Agency, Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Safety Bureau

    1995-07-01

    Wastes from nuclear facilities are very diversified concerning that have different levels of radioactivity and include different kinds of radioactive materials. Besides some of those waste is not assumed as radioactive waste. The basic policy of the radioactive waste management is taking that diversity into full account for appropriate separate management of different types of radioactive waste and treatment and disposal of each type in a rational manner, including recycling. From the point, the disposal methods are considered or under consideration to that waste, (1) from nuclear reactor facility, (2) from nuclear fuel cycle facility--HLW, waste contaminated TRU nuclides, or contaminated uranium, (3) from RI utilization or research institute, and (4) from decommissioning of nuclear facility. Now in Japan, regulation framework for some kind of LLW from reactor facility, including waste from decommissioning of reactor is established. (J.P.N.).

  17. Policy issues related to substitution of the US dollar in oil pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essayyad, Musa; Algahtani, Ibrahim

    2005-01-01

    This policy paper attempts to evaluate the viability of switching from the US dollar to the euro in international oil pricing. If materialised, the switch would not impact only OPEC nations but would also have ramifications for other oil exporting as well as importing nations. It would also have considerable effect on US economy and international financial system. This paper recommends that in deciding which currency to use in oil pricing, OPEC member countries should not allow their positive or negative political rapport with the US Government to distort their rational choice. Switching to euro or any other currency will not eliminate loss of revenue, as the newly adopted currency will not be immune either from the exchange rate gyrations. In fact, there is no guarantee that the euro, yen, sterling pound, or any other major currency will be immune from fluctuations. As a way out, this paper recommends three alternatives. (Author)

  18. Overweight and obesity in India: policy issues from an exploratory multi-level analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Md Zakaria; Donato, Ronald

    2016-06-01

    This article analyses a nationally representative household dataset-the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in 2005 to 2006-to examine factors influencing the prevalence of overweight/obesity in India. The dataset was disaggregated into four sub-population groups-urban and rural females and males-and multi-level logit regression models were used to estimate the impact of particular covariates on the likelihood of overweight/obesity. The multi-level modelling approach aimed to identify individual and macro-level contextual factors influencing this health outcome. In contrast to most studies on low-income developing countries, the findings reveal that education for females beyond a particular level of educational attainment exhibits a negative relationship with the likelihood of overweight/obesity. This relationship was not observed for males. Muslim females and all Sikh sub-populations have a higher likelihood of overweight/obesity suggesting the importance of socio-cultural influences. The results also show that the relationship between wealth and the probability of overweight/obesity is stronger for males than females highlighting the differential impact of increasing socio-economic status on gender. Multi-level analysis reveals that states exerted an independent influence on the likelihood of overweight/obesity beyond individual-level covariates, reflecting the importance of spatially related contextual factors on overweight/obesity. While this study does not disentangle macro-level 'obesogenic' environmental factors from socio-cultural network influences, the results highlight the need to refrain from adopting a 'one size fits all' policy approach in addressing the overweight/obesity epidemic facing India. Instead, policy implementation requires a more nuanced and targeted approach to incorporate the growing recognition of socio-cultural and spatial contextual factors impacting on healthy behaviours. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  19. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  20. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme - Identifying Policy Translation Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2016-10-01

    Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders' views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. In the study, interviewees referred to both 'hard and soft' elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main 'hard elements' include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The 'soft' elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years, amounting to a process best conceived as germination as opposed

  1. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  2. Bank Finance For Small And Medium-Sized Enterprises In Sri Lanka: Issues And Policy Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamage Pandula

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Access to bank finance is necessary to create an economic environment that enables Small and Medium-sized enterprises (SMEs to grow and prosper. The SMEs in Sri Lanka, however, face significant constraints to access bank finance. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the access to bank finance and related issues in the SME sector of Sri Lanka. The paper is exploratory in nature and reviews the bank financing situation for SMEs in Sri Lanka, as well as provides an overview of constraints faced by the banks (supply-side and SMEs (demand-side. The paper also highlights some good practices in SME lending from international experience and outlines some recommendations to help overcome the constraints faced by the banks and SMEs. The recommendations discussed in this paper may be of importance to policymakers, not only in Sri Lanka, but in many other developing countries in a similar stage of economic growth.

  3. Opportunities for biotechnology and policy regarding mycotoxin issues in international trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendra, David F; Dyer, Rex B

    2007-10-20

    Despite being introduced more than a decade ago, agricultural biotechnology still remains framed in controversy impacting both the global economy and international regulations. Controversies surrounding agricultural biotechnology produced crops and foods commonly focus on human and environmental safety, intellectual property rights, consumer choice, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation. Originally, some consumers were reluctant to accept the first generation agricultural biotechnology products because they appeared to primarily benefit agricultural producers; however, it is clear from continued evaluations that these technologies also improved both the safety and wholesomeness of food and helped improve the environment. Plants engineered to resist insect pests and tolerate less toxic pesticides resulted in improved yields thereby enabling farmers to produce more food per acre while reducing the need for herbicides, pesticides, and water and tilling. An indirect benefit of reduced pest damage in transgenic corn expressing genes to control insect pests is lower levels of mycotoxins, most notably those caused by the genus Fusarium. Mycotoxins are an important regulatory issue globally because of their toxic and carcinogenic potential to humans and animals. Complicating this issue is the fact that toxicological databases for mycotoxins are relatively incomplete compared to other food contaminants. Current debates about agricultural biotechnology and mycotoxins reveal significant differences in perception of associated risks and benefits. When faced with uncertainty, regulators tend to set limits as low as possible. Additionally, some regulators invoke the "Precautionary Principle" when limited information is available or disputes over interpretation exist for possible contaminants, including mycotoxins. A major concern regarding use of the "Precautionary Principle" is the appearance that regulators can justify setting any limit on the

  4. Social integration and heath policy issues for international marriage migrant women in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Sil

    2010-01-01

    Until very recently, Korea was largely considered to be a homogenous, racially intolerant country that had little or no experience with large-scale immigration. However, this paradigm is in the process of changing. For the first time in the country's history, large numbers of foreigners are immigrating to work and live in Korea, and many are seeking to become Koreans. In particular, international marriage migrations, especially those of women entering the country through marriages to Korean men, have become common in South Korea. This has given rise to serious challenges within the country. Although conventional ideologies portray Korea as a country of a single race, culture, and language, the growing number of immigrants has disrupted this homogenous monoculture. Indeed, there are signs that Korea has reached a turning point, with an increasingly permanent and visible migrant population challenging the country's national identity. This article explores the statistics and trends related to international marriage migrant women in South Korea, particularly in terms of their social insecurities and health-related problems. In addition, some aspects of Korean governmental policies for the social integration and health promotion of these women are examined, and some suggestions are made for ways in which public health nursing and nursing education may be changed in response to the current trends. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Policy Analysis of Water Availability and Use Issues for Domestic Oil Shale and Oil Sands Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruple, John [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Keiter, Robert [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2010-03-01

    Oil shale and oil sands resources located within the intermountain west represent a vast, and as of yet, commercially untapped source of energy. Development will require water, and demand for scarce water resources stands at the front of a long list of barriers to commercialization. Water requirements and the consequences of commercial development will depend on the number, size, and location of facilities, as well as the technologies employed to develop these unconventional fuels. While the details remain unclear, the implication is not – unconventional fuel development will increase demand for water in an arid region where demand for water often exceeds supply. Water demands in excess of supplies have long been the norm in the west, and for more than a century water has been apportioned on a first-come, first-served basis. Unconventional fuel developers who have not already secured water rights stand at the back of a long line and will need to obtain water from willing water purveyors. However, uncertainty regarding the nature and extent of some senior water claims combine with indeterminate interstate river management to cast a cloud over water resource allocation and management. Quantitative and qualitative water requirements associated with Endangered Species protection also stand as barriers to significant water development, and complex water quality regulations will apply to unconventional fuel development. Legal and political decisions can give shape to an indeterminate landscape. Settlement of Northern Ute reserved rights claims would help clarify the worth of existing water rights and viability of alternative sources of supply. Interstate apportionment of the White River would go a long way towards resolving water availability in downstream Utah. And energy policy clarification will help determine the role oil shale and oil sands will play in our nation’s future.

  6. Ethics and policy issues for stem cell research and pulmonary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenthal, Justin; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    Stem cell research and related initiatives in regenerative medicine, cell-based therapy, and tissue engineering have generated considerable scientific and public interest. Researchers are applying stem cell technologies to chest medicine in a variety of ways: using stem cells as models for drug discovery, testing stem cell-based therapies for conditions as diverse as COPD and cystic fibrosis, and producing functional lung and tracheal tissue for physiologic modeling and potential transplantation. Although significant scientific obstacles remain, it is likely that stem cell-based regenerative medicine will have a significant clinical impact in chest medicine. However, stem cell research has also generated substantial controversy, posing a variety of ethical and regulatory challenges for research and clinical practice. Some of the most prominent ethical questions related to the use of stem cell technologies in chest medicine include (1) implications for donors, (2) scientific prerequisites for clinical testing and use, (3) stem cell tourism, (4) innovation and clinical use of emerging stem cell-based interventions, (5) responsible translation of stem cell-based therapies to clinical use, and (6) appropriate and equitable access to emerging therapies. Having a sense of these issues should help to put emerging scientific advances into appropriate context and to ensure the responsible clinical translation of promising therapeutics.

  7. Death by homeopathy: issues for civil, criminal and coronial law and for health service policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Homoeopathy has a significant clinical history, tracing its roots back to Hippocrates and more latterly to Dr Christian (Samuel) Hahnemann (1755-1843), a Saxon physician. In the last 30 years it has ridden a wave of resurgent interest and practice associated with disillusionment with orthodox medicine and the emergence of complementary therapies. However, recent years have seen a series of meta-analyses that have suggested that the therapeutic claims of homeopathy lack scientific justification. A 2010 report of the Science and Technology Committee of the United Kingdom House of Commons recommended that it cease to be a beneficiary of NHS funding because of its lack of scientific credibility. In Australia the National Health and Medical Research Council is expected to publish a statement on the ethics of health practitioners' use of homoeopathy in 2013. In India, England, New South Wales and Western Australia civil, criminal and coronial decisions have reached deeply troubling conclusions about homoeopaths and the risk that they pose for counter-therapeutic outcomes, including the causing of deaths. The legal decisions, in conjunction with the recent analyses of homoeopathy's claims, are such as to raise confronting health care and legal issues relating to matters as diverse as consumer protection and criminal liability. They suggest that the profession is not suitable for formal registration and regulation lest such a status lend to it a legitimacy that it does not warrant.

  8. Too hot to handle. Social and policy issues in the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.A.; Gould, L.C.; Woodhouse, E.J.

    1983-01-01

    Information about the management of radioactive wastes is provided in this book. Specifically, the book attempts to supply information to further the understanding of the history of radioactive waste management in this country and the role of nuclear energy in the future of the US; the science and technology of the processes that produce radioactive wastes and of the methods proposed for managing them; the biological effects of radiation; the public attitudes about nuclear power; the nature of risks resulting from technological developments and ways of managing them; and the political institutions and processes that govern radioactive waste management. The authors have attempted to present an objective view of nuclear waste management taking a stand neither for nor against nuclear power but placing special emphasis on radioactive waste management rather than nuclear power, because they feel that the latter aspect of the subject has received much more extensive coverage elsewhere. The contents of the book are divided into 7 chapters entitled: The Radioactive Waste Management Problem, Science and Technology of the Sources and Management of Radioactive Wastes, Nuclear Waste Management and Risks to Human Health, Public Attitudes toward Radioactive Wastes, How Safe Is Safe Enough; Determinants of Perceived and Acceptable Risk, The Politics of Nuclear Waste Management, and Value Issues in Radioactive Waste Management

  9. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results

  10. Malaysia; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper on Malaysia highlights quantitative assessment of additional measures required during the medium term to achieve fiscal targets. The authorities aim to lower the budget deficit to about 3 percent of GDP by 2015, down from 4.0 percent in 2013, and to balance the budget by 2020. It suggests that ranking fiscal instruments under different fiscal policy goals can help policymakers identify the composition of fiscal adjustment based on their preferences. By combining ran...

  11. Children, Youth and Developmental Science in the 2015-2030 Global Sustainable Development Goals. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Britto, Pia Rebello; Iruka, Iheoma

    2017-01-01

    In September 2016, the member states of the United Nations completed the process of adopting and defining indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; United Nations, 2015). Developed through a three-year, worldwide participatory process, these 17 goals and 169 targets represent a global consensus on the part of U.N. member nations…

  12. Energy access and transition to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies in Sri Lanka: Issues and policy limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wickramasinghe, Anoja

    2011-01-01

    Easy energy access is a trigger for human, social, and economic development. A research project was undertaken in Sri Lanka to broaden the understanding of human dimension of energy access and technologies. A questionnaire survey, covering 2269 households, gathered data on socio-economic contexts and issues influencing a transition towards clean cooking facilities. The findings reveal that the transition is impeded by four factors: the lack of motivation and the pressure for switching over to cleaner facilities, the lack of modern energy technology options, the financial risks, and the lack of financing and other support. The paper describes the delicate two-way interrelation between women earning wages and the transitions to cleaner cooking fuels and technologies. The findings suggest the need for a policy framework involving the stakeholders, financing and standardised technologies. To make a change it is proposed to introduce a national, integrated policy incorporating financing and energy governance. - Highlights: ► Households in Sri Lanka lack access to modern energy technology options for cooking. ► Cooking with fuel wood and residues is the norm in Sri Lanka, particularly in rural households. ► A survey of rural households revealed that most cannot afford to switch to cleaner cooking options. ► Most households have little awareness of the health impacts of biomass cooking. ► Women in regular formal employment are more likely to value cleaner cooking options that save time.

  13. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  14. POLICY ANALYSIS OF PRODUCED WATER ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH IN-SITU THERMAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Keiter; John Ruple; Heather Tanana

    2011-02-01

    Commercial scale oil shale and oil sands development will require water, the amount of which will depend on the technologies adopted and the scale of development that occurs. Water in oil shale and oil sands country is already in scarce supply, and because of the arid nature of the region and limitations on water consumption imposed by interstate compacts and the Endangered Species Act, the State of Utah normally does not issue new water rights in oil shale or oil sands rich areas. Prospective oil shale and oil sands developers that do not already hold adequate water rights can acquire water rights from willing sellers, but large and secure water supplies may be difficult and expensive to acquire, driving oil shale and oil sands developers to seek alternative sources of supply. Produced water is one such potential source of supply. When oil and gas are developed, operators often encounter ground water that must be removed and disposed of to facilitate hydrocarbon extraction. Water produced through mineral extraction was traditionally poor in quality and treated as a waste product rather than a valuable resource. However, the increase in produced water volume and the often-higher quality water associated with coalbed methane development have drawn attention to potential uses of produced water and its treatment under appropriations law. This growing interest in produced water has led to litigation and statutory changes that must be understood and evaluated if produced water is to be harnessed in the oil shale and oil sands development process. Conversely, if water is generated as a byproduct of oil shale and oil sands production, consideration must be given to how this water will be disposed of or utilized in the shale oil production process. This report explores the role produced water could play in commercial oil shale and oil sands production, explaining the evolving regulatory framework associated with produced water, Utah water law and produced water regulation

  15. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  16. Global research, practice, and policy issues on the care of infants and young children at risk: the articles in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Robert B; Groark, Christina J; Rygaard, Niels P

    2014-01-01

    This Special Issue includes articles that contribute to (a) the global research base pertaining to the development of infants and toddlers at risk, primarily those who are institutionalized in lower resource countries; (b) interventions in institutions and to promote family alternatives to institutionalization; and (c) attempts to create modern child welfare systems emphasizing family care in entire states and countries. This introduction places these articles into the broader contexts of the literature in these three domains of interest. Across the world, urbanization, migration, armed conflict, epidemics, and famine disrupt families. Add poverty, abuse, neglect, and parental incapacity due to substance abuse and mental health problems, and the result is millions of children without parental care who come under governmental responsibility, often to be reared in institutions, and at risk for long-term developmental deficiencies and problems. Over the last 2 decades and especially recently, national and international governments and nongovernment organizations have increased efforts to help such children, especially those in low-resource countries. Two types of efforts have been made: one to improve the quality of care provided by institutions and the other to minimize the use of institutions and promote family residential care alternatives. The latter effort includes preventing family separations in the first place, reunification of children with birth families, and developing systems of kinship care, foster care, and adoption. This Special Issue of IMHJ is devoted to reports pertaining to issues in the research knowledge base, program practices, and countrywide policies for infants and young children at risk. We attempt in this introduction to place these reports in the broader context of this field, identify their unique contributions, and highlight lessons learned that can contribute to improved care practices and better child welfare systems. © 2014 Michigan

  17. Different Welfare System—Same Values? How Social Work Educators in Norway, Chile and Argentina Comprehend Core Social Work and Social Policy Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolv Lyngstad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During 2013 and 2014, five focus-group interviews were conducted in Norway, Chile and Argentina in order to understand better how professors at social work programs understand professional issues and controversial social policy issues in their countries. In the focus groups, the participants were asked to reflect upon a vignette which was a fictitious discussion about professional issues and dilemmas in social work practices. Three themes were deployed in the vignette. The first related to different attitudes with respect to how social problems in society should be approached and treated (with a special focus on the relationship between the public, private and civil sectors in solving welfare problems. The second was about social work dilemmas in the contested space between universal equality values and local freedom values/discretion embedded in local self-determination. The third focused on welfare states’ principles distinguishing welfare benefits and services and how public welfare policies should be designed. The three countries are very different with respect to variables affecting welfare policies and social work practices. The most profound difference is likely that Chile (and to a lesser degree Argentina since the dictatorship is highly influenced by neo-liberal policies advocating small public involvement in social policy, whereas Norway is a typical social-democratic welfare state. This fact, however, does not affect the reflections and apprehensions of the issues in a substantial way. The professional attitudes of the professors are surprisingly equal in spite of their different backgrounds.

  18. The Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative (ACTIVE): purpose and goals for assessing important and salient issues for medications development in alcohol use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Raymond F; Litten, Raye Z; Falk, Daniel E; Palumbo, Joseph M; Bartus, Raymond T; Robinson, Rebecca L; Kranzler, Henry R; Kosten, Thomas R; Meyer, Roger E; O'Brien, Charles P; Mann, Karl; Meulien, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Although progress has been made in the treatment of alcohol use disorders, more effective treatments are needed. In the last 15 years, several medications have been approved for use in alcohol dependence but have only limited effectiveness and clinical acceptance. While academics have developed some 'standards' for the performance of clinical trials for alcohol dependence, they vary considerably, in the type of populations to be studied, the length of trials, salient outcome measures, and data analyses to be used (especially in the treatment of missing data). This variability impedes the commercial development of medications to treat alcohol dependence. Using a model similar to that used to develop an expert consensus for medications to improve cognitive aspects of schizophrenia (MATRICS) and in the treatment of pain (IMMPACT), a workgroup has been formed under the auspices of ACNP, known as the ACTIVE (Alcohol Clinical Trials Initiative) group, to evaluate data from completed clinical trials to develop a consensus on key issues in the conduct of clinical trials in alcohol dependence. ACTIVE consists of academic experts, industry representatives, and staff from the Food and Drug Administration, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This paper describes the rationale behind the effort, its history and organization, and initial key questions that have been identified as the primary focus of the workgroup. Future papers will focus on knowledge gained from the re-analysis of completed trials and provide consensus opinions regarding the performance of clinical trials that might be undertaken in the future.

  19. Eco-innovation, international trade, WTO and climate: Key issues for an ecological industrial policy. Documentation of a workshop on March 12, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, Jutta; Kahlenborn, Walter [Adelphi Research, Berlin (Germany); Gather, Corinna (eds.) [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2009-01-15

    Within the meeting of the German Federal Environment Agency (Dessau, Federal Republic of Germany) and the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Natural Safety (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) at 12th March, 2008, the following reports were held: (a) Trade Policy and Climate Change - An overview from the perspective of an ecological industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe et al.); (b) Kyoto, Post-Kyoto and the WTO (Malena Sell); (c) Climate change, trade and competitiveness (Aaron Cosby, John Drexhage); (d) Unilateral climate policy and implications for trade policy (Susanne Droege); (e) Trade in environmental goods and services relevant to climate-change mitigation: Opportunities and challenges for new industries in the European Union (Mahesh Sugathan); (f) The relevance of WTO activities and rules in the climate change debate (Ludivine Tamiotti); (g) Like-products, energy standards and labelling (Roland Ismer); (h) EC Trade policy and climate challenges: An overview of EC trade policy approaches to climate change (Ditte Juul-Joergensen); (i) Opportunities and constraints for an integrated European climate and trade policy (Ulrich Hoffmann); (j) Climate change, eco-innovation, and EU trade policy: a critical assessment (Daniel Mittler); (k) Resume: Key Issues for an Ecological Industrial policy (Jutta Hoppe, Walter Kahlenborn).

  20. Vaccine Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-05-19

    evidence “favors rejection” of the idea that either the measles- mumps-rubella vaccine or thimerosal-containing vaccines cause autism (IOM...that the vaccines or preservatives or packaging might cause autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders. One focus has been on thimerosal, a mercury...with the vaccinia virus that causes cowpox to provoke an immune response to protect against the smallpox virus. CRS-2 3A smallpox vaccine is available

  1. We Have Goals. Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Longanecker, David; Witham, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The nation is in an era of policy reform aimed at improving the productivity and effectiveness of higher education. Major philanthropies and policy groups have converged around variations of the ambitious college completion goals announced by President Obama at the beginning of his administration. But at the same time, many state governments,…

  2. Is Deliberation a Laudable Goal When Policy Is a "Done Deal"? The Habermasian Public Sphere and Legitimacy in a Market Era of Education Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Liza N.

    2016-01-01

    The state mandated public hearings concerning school closing proposals in New York City provide a window into a diverse set of policy actors and their deliberations. Opposition to school closures is often cast as entrenched interests, emotional attachment, support for the status quo or at worst negligence. However, content analysis reveals that…

  3. Strengthening the Profession? A Comparison of Recent Reforms in the UK and the USA. ACER Policy Briefs. Issue 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarson, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    Educational policy makers in many countries recognize the need to focus their policies more directly on factors affecting the quality of teachers. Common to these policies are attempts to reform teachers' pay systems and career paths to place greater value on teachers' work and give stronger incentives for professional development. Investing in…

  4. Who Are the Homeless? What Is Homelessness? The Politics of Defining an Emerging Policy Issue. U.B.C. Planning Papers: Discussion Papers #10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulchanski, J. D.

    Homelessness has emerged on the public agenda of economically advanced nations but not all such issues become recognized as "legitimate" social problems. National politicians and policymakers have an interest in defining the problem narrowly in order to avoid response and implied criticism of existing policies and institutions. Local…

  5. Chiropractic Health Care: A National Study of Cost of Education, Service Utilization, Number of Practicing Doctors of Chiropractic, and Other Key Policy Issues. Volumes I-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuster, Thomas, Jr.

    Results from the first federally sponsored study of the chiropractic health care profession are presented, and a broad range of facts and issues of concern to policy-makers, the profession, and the public are described. The two-year project included three national surveys of: service providers (doctors of chiropractic in practice more than two…

  6. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  7. The Workload for the Structural Implementation of eDemocracy: Local Government Policy Issues Combined With the Policy Cycle and Styles of Citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W. (Martijn) Hartog; A.W. (Bert) Mulder

    2011-01-01

    Today, governmental bodies in many countries acknowledge ICT applications to be powerful tools for increasing involvement of citizens in public policy-making, and as such a sound investment in better public policy (OECD 2003: 9). Within the Dutch governmental bodies a study by Prof. Dr. Kickert

  8. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  9. Moving forward with early childhood care and education (ECCE) post-2015 in the Asia Pacific region: an analysis of global and national policy goals

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thematic analysis of documents produced during a recent ‘Regional Policy Forum on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)’, attended by over 200 participants including representatives from key international donor organisations and high-level officials from over 30 countries across the Asia Pacific region. The paper begins by providing a brief overview of international developments in ECCE over the past two decades, highlighting a growing argument that points to the nee...

  10. Ethical and policy issues in cluster randomized trials: rationale and design of a mixed methods research study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhry Shazia H

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cluster randomized trials are an increasingly important methodological tool in health research. In cluster randomized trials, intact social units or groups of individuals, such as medical practices, schools, or entire communities – rather than individual themselves – are randomly allocated to intervention or control conditions, while outcomes are then observed on individual cluster members. The substantial methodological differences between cluster randomized trials and conventional randomized trials pose serious challenges to the current conceptual framework for research ethics. The ethical implications of randomizing groups rather than individuals are not addressed in current research ethics guidelines, nor have they even been thoroughly explored. The main objectives of this research are to: (1 identify ethical issues arising in cluster trials and learn how they are currently being addressed; (2 understand how ethics reviews of cluster trials are carried out in different countries (Canada, the USA and the UK; (3 elicit the views and experiences of trial participants and cluster representatives; (4 develop well-grounded guidelines for the ethical conduct and review of cluster trials by conducting an extensive ethical analysis and organizing a consensus process; (5 disseminate the guidelines to researchers, research ethics boards (REBs, journal editors, and research funders. Methods We will use a mixed-methods (qualitative and quantitative approach incorporating both empirical and conceptual work. Empirical work will include a systematic review of a random sample of published trials, a survey and in-depth interviews with trialists, a survey of REBs, and in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with trial participants and gatekeepers. The empirical work will inform the concurrent ethical analysis which will lead to a guidance document laying out principles, policy options, and rationale for proposed guidelines. An

  11. Mexican Americans' Educational Barriers and Progress: Is the Magic Key within Reach? PERSPECTIVAS: Issues in Higher Education Policy and Practice. Issue No. 5, Spring 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrana, Ruth Enid; Hurtado, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    This policy brief is based on the edited book "The Magic Key: The Educational Journey of Mexican Americans from K-12 to College and Beyond" (Zambrana & Hurtado, 2015a), which focuses on the experiences of Mexican Americans in education. Drawing from an interdisciplinary corpus of work, the authors move beyond the rhetoric of progress…

  12. Social equity issues in the distribution of feed-in tariff policy benefits: A cross sectional analysis from England and Wales using spatial census and policy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, David; Daniels, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The feed-in tariff has become a popular policy instrument globally for deploying clean energy, often involving substantial public spending commitments. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to how payments made under this policy type get distributed across socioeconomic groups. This paper links information on individual domestic photovoltaic (PV) installations registered under the feed-in tariff for England and Wales, to spatially-organised census data. This makes it possible to observe which socioeconomic groups are benefitting most and least under the policy. Comparing the observed benefit distribution to a counterfactual distribution of perfect equality, a moderate to high level of inequality is found. Cross-sectional regressions suggest that settlement density, home ownership status, physical dwelling type, local information spillovers, and household social class shaped this outcome. Greater sensitivity to these factors in policy design could improve distributional outcomes under feed-in tariff policies in England and Wales, and beyond. - Highlights: • Feed-in tariffs are subsidies involving substantial public spending commitments. • Payment distribution under the feed-in tariff in England and Wales has been substantially unequal. • Linking policy data to spatial census data can measure the degree of inequality. • Policy design that is more sensitive to participants’ socioeconomic characteristics can improve distributional outcomes.

  13. The role of fiscal instruments in environmental policy

    OpenAIRE

    Katri Kosonen; Gaëtan Nicodème

    2009-01-01

    Environmental protection is one of Europe's key values. The EU has set clear policy objectives to achieve its environmental goals. The EU has favoured market-based instruments, among which fiscal instruments to tackle the climate change problem. This paper takes a policy-making perspective and provides an overview of key issues on the role of fiscal instruments in energy and environmental policies. It describes fiscal instruments as cost-effective means to promote environmental goals and high...

  14. End-of-life care in the United States: policy issues and model programs of integrated care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Wiener

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: End-of-life care financing and delivery in the United States is fragmented and uncoordinated, with little integration of acute and long-term care services. Objective: To assess policy issues involving end-of-life care, especially involving the hospice benefit, and to analyse model programs of integrated care for people who are dying. Methods: The study conducted structured interviews with stakeholders and experts in end-of-life care and with administrators of model programs in the United States, which were nominated by the experts. Results: The two major public insurance programs—Medicare and Medicaid—finance the vast majority of end-of-life care. Both programs offer a hospice benefit, which has several shortcomings, including requiring physicians to make a prognosis of a six month life expectancy and insisting that patients give up curative treatment—two steps which are difficult for doctors and patients to make—and payment levels that may be too low. In addition, quality of care initiatives for nursing homes and hospice sometimes conflict. Four innovative health systems have overcome these barriers to provide palliative services to beneficiaries in their last year of life. Three of these health systems are managed care plans which receive capitated payments. These providers integrate health, long-term and palliative care using an interdisciplinary team approach to management of services. The fourth provider is a hospice that provides palliative services to beneficiaries of all ages, including those who have not elected hospice care. Conclusions: End-of-life care is deficient in the United States. Public payers could use their market power to improve care through a number of strategies.

  15. The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airey, John; Lauridsen, Karen M.; Räsänen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Recently, in the wake of the Bologna Declaration and similar international initiatives, there has been a rapid increase in the number of university courses and programmes taught through the medium of English. Surveys have consistently shown the Nordic countries to be at the forefront of this trend...... towards English-medium instruction (EMI). In this paper, we discuss the introduction of EMI in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). We present the educational setting and the EMI debate in each of these countries and summarize relevant research findings. We then make some tentative...... the discussion of disciplinary literacy goals and require course syllabuses to detail disciplinaryspecific language-learning outcomes....

  16. The development and goals of the AAFP center for policy studies in family practice and primary care. American Academy of Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L A; Fryer, G E

    1999-11-01

    In this article we describe the creation and role of the Center for Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care established by the American Academy of Family Physicians in Washington, DC, this year. We recount the events leading to the decision to implement the Center, list its guiding assumptions, and explain its initial structure and function. We also identify the 3 themes that will guide the early work of the Center: sustaining the functional domain of family practice and primary care; investing in key infrastructures; and securing universal health coverage.

  17. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 27: Knowledge diffusion and US government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in simulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  18. NASA/DoD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. XXVII - Knowledge diffusion and U.S. government technology policy: Issues and opportunities for sci/tech librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Hannah, Stan; Lawrence, Barbara; Kennedy, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Federal involvement in stimulating economic growth through the development and application of technology policy is currently the subject of serious debate. A recession and the recognition that an internationally competitive economy is a prerequisite for the attainment of national goals have fostered a number of technology policy initiatives aimed at improving the economic competitiveness of American industry. This paper suggests that the successful implementation of U.S. technology policy will require the adoption of a knowledge diffusion model, the development of user oriented information products and services, and a more 'activist' approach on the part of sci/tech librarians in the provision of scientific and technical information (STI). These changes will have a dramatic impact on the sci/tech library of the future and the preparation of sci/tech librarians.

  19. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  20. Energy and the global warming issue in developing countries: analyzing the incidence of the fuel carbon tax and its policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddayao, C.M.; Percebois, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    By changing the natural environment, energy resource use has repercussions for human welfare. So do policies that are proposed to deal with concerns over global climate warming, particularly with respect to carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Among the major policy options identified are reduction of emission from fossil fuel consumption, as well as more rigorous forest management to avoid further deforestation. The basic approach to reducing carbon emissions from fossil fuels is through the efficient use of energy. Fuel switching, pollution prevention technologies, and the 'polluter pays' principle are also among the policy strategies often discussed. One of the proposed economic policy instruments in the 'polluter pays' category that could lead to more efficient use of energy and at the same time deal with the CO 2 problem is the carbon tax. This paper will focus on the incidence of the tax in the different sectors of a developing country and suggest the key issues in analyzing this incidence. This introduction will include a brief background discussion on the greenhouse gas (GHG) issue which has led to the proposal for the carbon tax. In section II, the incidence of the carbon tax will be reviewed. In section III, the key analytical issues for analyzing incidence of the tax on a sector-by-sector analysis of a national tax will be raised. In this version of this paper, the intended quantitative analysis is not presented; we hope to have partial results by the time of conference. 31 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  2. Medium of Instruction Policies in Ghanaian and Indian Primary Schools: An Overview of Key Issues and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erling, Elizabeth J.; Adinolfi, Lina; Hultgren, Anna Kristina; Buckler, Alison; Mukorera, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a rigorous literature review of research into medium of instruction in Ghana and India, whose language-in-education policies represent two contrasting models of use of local languages and the development of competence in English. The paper begins by briefly overviewing the language-in-education policy in these two countries…

  3. An Examination of Internet Filtering and Safety Policy Trends and Issues in South Carolina's K-12 Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicks, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    School districts have implemented filtering and safety policies in response to legislative and social mandates to protect students from the proliferation of objectionable online content. Subject related literature suggests these policies are more restrictive than legal mandates require and are adversely affecting information access and…

  4. Environmental Consideration in Tax Policy Design

    OpenAIRE

    John Whalley

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal, which inevitably will involve the particular rather than the general. As a result, notions of neutrality which dominate current thinking on tax design will come ...

  5. Using Goal-Programming to Model the Effect of Stakeholder Determined Policy and Industry Changes on the Future Management of and Ecosystem Services Provision by Ireland’s Western Peatland Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Corrigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted land-use conflicts between stakeholder groups in Ireland. Some of these conflicts can be attributed to European directives, designed with sustainable forest management principles in mind, but imposing incoherencies for land-owners and stakeholders at the local level. This study, using Ireland’s Western Peatland forests as a case study area, focused on the development and implementation of a goal programming model capable of analysing the long term impact of policy and industry changes at the landscape level. The model captures the essential aspects of the changes identified by local level stakeholders as influencing forest management in Ireland and determines the future impact of these changes on ecosystem services provisions. Initially, a business as usual potential future is generated. This is used as a baseline against which to compare the impact of industry and policy changes. The model output indicated that the current forest composition is only really suited to satisfy a single, financial objective for forest management. The goal programming model analysed multiple objectives simultaneously and the results indicated that the stakeholders’ desired ecosystem service provisions in the future will be more closely met by diversifying the forest estate and/or by changing to an alternative, non-forest land-use on less productive areas.

  6. Health and environmental policy issues in Canada: the role of watershed management in sustaining clean drinking water quality at surface sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John-Mark; Mazumder, Asit

    2003-07-01

    Sustaining clean and safe drinking water sources is increasingly becoming a priority because of global pollution. The means of attaining and maintaining clean drinking water sources requires effective policies that identify, document, and reduce watershed risks. These risks are defined by their potential impact to human health. Health and risk are, therefore, indelibly linked because they are in part defined by each other. Understanding pathogen ecology and identifying watershed sources remains a priority because of the associated acute risks. Surface water quality changes resulting from inputs of human waste, nutrients and chemicals are associated with higher drinking water risks. Nutrient input can increase primary production and the resulting increase of organic matter results in greater disinfection by-product formation or requires greater treatment intensity. Many drinking water disease outbreaks have resulted from breaches in treatment facilities, therefore, even with greater treatment intensity poor source water quality intrinsically has greater associated health risks. Government and international agencies play a critical role in developing policy. The goal of maintaining water supplies whose availability is maximized and risks are minimized (i.e. sustainable) should be a vital part of such policy. Health risks are discussed in the context of a multi-barrier perspective and it is concluded that both passive (protection) and active (prescriptive management) management is necessary for sustainability. Canadian aboriginal water systems, British Columbian water policy and US EPA policies are given as examples. The basis for developing effective policies includes a strong reliance on sound science and effective instrumentation with careful consideration of stakeholders' interests. Only with such directed policies can the future availability of clean drinking water sources be ensured.

  7. Comparing the sustainability of different action policy possibilities: application to the issue of both household survival and forest preservation in the corridor of Fianarantsoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, C; Martin, S

    2013-10-01

    A sustainability issue for the rain forest in the corridor of Fianarantsoa (Madagascar) is to preserve the forest while ensuring the development of the local population. The aim of this paper is to determine whether the current situation is sustainable or not according to different action policy possibilities. We propose a general procedure based on viability analysis: Translation of sustainability issues into constraints on the system state; elaboration of a mathematical model of system evolution rules in the form of controlled dynamical system; computations of the viability kernels according to different action policy possibilities. Among control variables, we focus on monetary transfer. Without monetary transfer, we show that the current situation of the rain forest corridor is not sustainable in our mathematical modeling framework. We then estimate the minimal maximal amount per year necessary to make the current situation sustainable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Childhood Obesity and Nutrition Issues in the United States: An Update on School-based Policies and Practices. Education Policy Brief, Volume 10, Number 1, Spring 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradlin, Terry; Gard, Greta; Huang, Vivian; Kopp, Beth; Malik, Alanna

    2012-01-01

    This Education Policy Brief examines the latest research and statistics regarding childhood obesity. In addition to providing an overview of current trends and effects of childhood obesity, this brief considers the reasons for the increase in obesity rates among children, as well as the latest federal and state initiatives created to combat…

  9. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  10. Data Confidentiality and Integrity Issues and Role of Information Security Management Standard, Policies and Practices - An Empirical Study of Telecommunication Industry in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi, Syed Irfan; Nabi, Syed Waqar; Tipu, Syed Awais Ahmed; Haqqi, Bushra; Abid, Zahra; Alghathbar, Khaled

    The amount of data communications is increasing each day and with it comes the issues of assuring its security. This research paper explores the information security management issues with respect to confidentiality and integrity and the impact of Information Security Management Standards, Policies and Practices (ISMSPP) on information security. This research has been conducted on the telecommunication industry of Pakistan that was ranked 9th globally in 2009 in terms of subscription. The research methodology was case study based in which perceptions were gathered as well as thematic analysis of the interviews was done. The research focus is on breach of data integrity and confidentiality by the internal users in the industry and the perception of improvement, if any, of the data security due to implementation of security management policies and controls. The results show that information security measure are perceived to have a positive impact on reducing data confidentiality and integrity breaches but still falls short of what is required. It concludes that security policies might improve the situation provided, firstly, that the top managements takes information security seriously, and secondly, the non-technical human aspects of the issues are taken into consideration.

  11. U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Third Edition, Volume 2. National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    to Buddhist monks and nuns.7 Similarly, a sacred Jain text says, “One may not kill, ill-use, insult, torment, or persecute any kind of living being...While this power struggle illustrates direct conflict, how does the Congress routinely influence policy and strategy formulation in the national...logically flows from its appropriations role.7 The leaders of the foreign policy agencies routinely go to Capitol Hill to testify before various committees

  12. Attitudes of policy makers in Hawaii towards public health and related issues before and after an economic recession in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay E Maddock

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Legislation and regulation at the state and local level can often have a greater impact on the public’s health than individual-based approaches. Elected and appointed officials have an essential role in protecting and improving public health. Despite this important role, little systematic research has been done to assess the relative importance of public health issues compared to other policy issues in times of economic hardship. This study assessed attitudes of elected and appointed decision makers in Hawaii in 2007 and 2013 to determine if priorities differed before and after the economic recession. Methods: Elected and appointed state and county officials were mailed surveys at both time points. Respondents rated the importance of 23 specified problems, of which 9 asked about specific public health issues. Results: The survey was completed by 126 (70.4% respondents in 2007 and 117(60.9% in 2013. Among the public health issues, five saw significant mean decreases. These variables included: climate change, pedestrian safety, government response to natural disasters, access to healthcare, and pandemic influenza. Obesity was the only public health issue to increase in importance across the two time points. In terms of relative ranking across the time points, only drug abuse and obesity were among the top ten priorities. Lack of public health training, pandemic influenza, and government response to natural disasters were among the bottom five priorities. Conclusions: After the economic recession, many public health issues have a lower priority among Hawaii’s policy makers than before the downturn. Additional education and advocacy is needed to keep public health issues on the minds of decision makers during tough economic times.

  13. "The problem of the worst-off is dealt with after all other issues": the equity and health policy implementation gap in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry

    2008-03-01

    In West Africa, the famous "implementation gap" concept applies to health policies. During the implementation of the Bamako Initiative (BI), the actors were drawn to policies solely for their orientation towards efficiency, thereby neglecting the equity aspects. This paper aims to present an in-depth understanding of this situation, developed through a case study and socio-anthropological fieldwork. The study is informed by a policy framework of analysis that integrates streams theory and the anthropology of development. Multiple sources of data were used: concept mapping (2), in-depth interviews (24), informal interviews (60), focus groups (4), document analysis, and field observation (7 months). The results indicate that the equity aspect of health policies was omitted during training on the use of proceedings from drug sales and user fees; donor agencies and NGOs were more preoccupied with efficiency than equity; the peripheral actors were not driven to ensure that indigents had free access to health care; society was not concerned with the sub-groups of the population; centralized decisions were taken without consultation, remained vague, and were not followed-up; and the concept of equity was perceived differently from those who devised policies. I offer a threefold explanation of why equity was neglected. First, the "windows of opportunity" for achieving equity goals were not seized, at least at the point that led to real change. Second, the policy entrepreneurs did not take on the task of coupling the problem streams with the solutions streams, which is necessary for a successful implementation. Third, the situation of the indigents did not exhibit the necessary characteristics for them to be considered a public problem. For scientific and social reasons it is urgent that we find a solution to halt the exclusion to health care among the poorest groups.

  14. Genomics for public health improvement: relevant international ethical and policy issues around genome-wide association studies and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, T

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies and biobanks are at the forefront of genomics research and possess unprecedented potential to improve public health. However, for public health genomics to ultimately fulfill its potential, technological and scientific advances alone are insufficient. Scientists, ethicists, policy makers, and regulators must work closely together with research participants and communities in order to craft an equitable and just ethical framework, and a sustainable environment for effective policies. Such a framework should be a 'hybrid' form which balances equity and solidarity with entrepreneurship and scientific advances. A good balance between research and policy on one hand, and privacy, protection and trust on the other is the key for public health improvement based on advances in genomics science. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Tax systems and tax reforms in south and East Asia: Overview of the tax systems and main policy tax issues

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardi, Luigi; Fumagalli, Laura; Gandullia, Luca

    2005-01-01

    The paper discusses the main aspects of taxation in South and East Asia. Particolar attention is given to the main issues which emerge from the tax systems of China, India, Japan, Malysia, South Korea and Thailand

  16. Genetically modified animals from life-science, socio-economic and ethical perspectives: examining issues in an EU policy context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frewer, L.J.; Kleter, G.A.; Brennan, M.; Coles, D.G.; Fischer, A.R.H.; Houdebine, L.M.; Mora, C.; Millar, K.; Salter, B.

    2013-01-01

    The interdisciplinary EC consortium (the PEGASUS project) aimed to examine the issues raised by the development, implementation and commercialisation of genetically modified (GM) animals, and derivative foods and pharmaceutical products. The results integrated existing social (including existing

  17. The Future of U.S. Trade Policy: An Analysis of Issues and Options for the 111th Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    The deficit with Mexico was the second largest—$47.5 billion.18 Trade Issues The 111th Congress faces a number of trade issues. Some of these...negotiations with participants in the Trans-Pacific Partnership ( TPP ) Agreement—Australia, Brunei, Chile, New Zealand, Peru, Singapore, and Vietnam. The... TPP , see CRS Report R40502, The Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership Agreement, by Ian F. Fergusson and Bruce Vaughn. The Future of U.S

  18. Getting patent policy right: an introduction to a special issue on the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsmore, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions.......An editorial on the Special Issue: Dealing with the major questions confronting the basics of the European patent system; plus a look at the possible solutions; includes an overview of the article contributions....

  19. Environmental policy on the way to Brussels : the issue of acidicification between the Netherlands and the European community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liefferink, J.D.

    1995-01-01

    The process of European integration is marked by a dynamic and often controversial balance between member state autonomy and supranational. decision making. Within the European Community (EC), enviromnental policy has in the past 25 years emerged as one of the major fields of activity. This

  20. The Issue of Research Graduate Employability in Australia: An Analysis of the Policy Framing (1999-2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Tebeje; Cuthbert, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The prevalent knowledge economy discourse has direct implications for higher education policies and practices. It is expected that the higher education sector supports national economic competitiveness mainly through promoting scientific research, supporting technological transfer and innovation, and producing "knowledge workers" such as…

  1. Regulatory and policy issues for reuse and remanufacture of wood materials coated with lead-based paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Napier; Robert H. Falk; George B. Guy; Susan Drodz

    2005-01-01

    At present, there is no regulatory or policy guidance at the Federal level that permits, prohibits, or qualifies practice for salvaging and reusing building materials coated with lead-based paint (LBP). This paper describes the current regulations and standards relative to LBP in buildings (in particular LBP on lumber and timber products), LBP mitigation, and disposal...

  2. Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning: An Annual Review of Policy and Practice. 10 Year Anniversary Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, John; Murin, Amy; Vashaw, Lauren; Gemin, Butch; Rapp, Chris

    2013-01-01

    "Keeping Pace with K-12 Online & Blended Learning" (2013), the 10th in a series of annual reports that began in 2004, examines the status of K-12 online education across the country. The report provides an overview of the latest policies, practices, and trends affecting online learning programs across all 50 states. In this 10th…

  3. Early Childhood Education: Building a Strong Foundation for the Future. AFT Educational Issues Policy Brief Number 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Federation of Teachers, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This policy brief provides the context and the research supporting the American Federation of Teacher's call for universal early childhood education. It focuses on the current challenges the nation faces in achieving such a program; and it includes the signs of progress, a description of what other industrialized countries are doing, the features…

  4. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  5. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  6. An approach to developing the market for space shuttle payloads: Business/public policy issues and international marketing considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, W. A. W.

    1974-01-01

    The business and public policies were assessed that were determined to be important for NASA to consider in the design of a program for stimulating use of the space transportation system (STS) among potential users in the U.S. private sector and in foreign countries, in preparation for operations of the space shuttle in the early 1980's. Salient factors related to international cooperation in space are identified for special consideration in the development of user potential of the STS.

  7. The effects of national policy on refugee welfare and related security issues a comparative study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Cleary, Jessica E.

    2008-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited The growing and persistent nature of today's protracted refugee situations pose significant threats to the host countries and regions that support these vulnerable people. While stateless, refugees fall under the protection of the international community and its laws. However, it is the effects of state policy that actually shape the living conditions and the opportunities available for refugees, and in turn influence the security re...

  8. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results.

  9. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    hostiles in red. Lightened areas represent the radar observation cones of a single aircraft (other cones are not shown). at their target and attempt to...Cordier, A., Egyed-Zsigmond, E., Lamontagne, L., Mille , A.: Similarity measures to compare episodes in modeled traces. In: Proceedings of the Twenty

  10. Special Issue: Homelessness and Housing Insecurity in Higher Education--A Trauma-Informed Approach to Research, Policy, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Crutchfield, Rashida

    2017-01-01

    This monograph explores how homelessness intersects most social issues that marginalize individuals and negatively influence postsecondary completion, including poverty, foster care, and LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans*, queer/questioning, and others) discrimination. As becomes evident, students experiencing homelessness should be considered…

  11. Educational Policies for Integrating College Competencies and Workforce Needs: Cases from Brazil, Mongolia, Ukraine, and the United States. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastedo, Michael; Batkhuyag, Batjargal; Prates, Eufrasio; Prytula, Yaroslav

    2009-01-01

    In the past decade, the role of higher education in workforce development has emerged as a key issue around the world. Leading authorities inside and outside of government have begun questioning whether colleges and universities are preparing graduates with the competencies and skills necessary to compete in a dynamic global economy. As part of a…

  12. Helping Teachers to Help Children Living with a Mentally Ill Parent: Teachers' Perceptions on Identification and Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibou-Nakou, I.

    2004-01-01

    The material presented here is based on a pilot European project (Daphne Project, 2000/EU funding, collaboration of Greece and England) regarding parental mental illness and children's welfare and needs (1).The presentation focuses upon the responses of a group of teachers working in primary education in relation to identification issues and…

  13. The contribution of goal specificity to goal achievement in collaborative goal setting for the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the

  14. Amendment of Republic Act No. 5207 and creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission: a policy issue paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, G. Jr.

    1987-10-01

    In line with the government's reorganization and in view of the Philippine Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) being replaced by the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) with a different function, an assessment of the usefulness and relevance of RA 5207 is discussed and the different stakeholders identified. The policy problem is how to revive the provision of RA 5207 and create the agency which will implement the provision of the Act. The author's recommendation includes the amendment of RA 5207 and the creation of the Philippine Regulatory Commission with five members who would be responsible for protecting the public health and safety, the environment and safeguarding nuclear materials and nuclear installations. (ELC)

  15. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  16. Public Policy Issues Associated with Tsunami Hazard Mitigation, Response and Recovery: Transferable Lessons from Recent Global Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2004, a sequence of devastating tsunamis has taken the lives of more than 300,000 people worldwide. The path of destruction left by each is typically measured in hundreds of meters to a few kilometers and its breadth can extend for hundreds even thousands of kilometers, crossing towns and countries and even traversing an entire oceanic basin. Tsunami disasters in Indonesia, Chile, Japan and elsewhere have also shown that the almost binary nature of tsunami impacts can present some unique risk reduction, response, recovery and rebuilding challenges, with transferable lessons to other tsunami vulnerable coastal communities around the world. In particular, the trauma can motivate survivors to relocate homes, jobs, and even whole communities to safer ground, sometimes at tremendous social and financial costs. For governments, the level of concentrated devastation usually exceeds the local capacity to respond and thus requires complex inter-governmental arrangements with regional, national and even international partners to support the recovery of impacted communities, infrastructure and economies. Two parallel projects underway in California since 2011—the SAFRR (Science Application for Risk Reduction) tsunami scenario project and the California Tsunami Policy Working Group (CTPWG)—have worked to digest key lessons from recent tsunami disasters, with an emphasis on identifying gaps to be addressed in the current state and federal policy framework to enhance tsunami risk awareness, hazard mitigation, and response and recovery planning ahead of disaster and also improve post-disaster implementation practices following a future California or U.S. tsunami event.

  17. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan’s long-term care policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Morikawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to the long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care. Methods: This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care. Results: Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas. Conclusions: Japan’s experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures.

  18. Towards community-based integrated care: trends and issues in Japan’s long-term care policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mie Morikawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 2000, Japan implemented a mandatory long-term care insurance system. With the rapid growth of the system, problems became apparent. Several critical alterations were made to the long-term care insurance system, particularly with respect to integrated care.Methods: This paper elucidates the policy trends that led to the reforms of the long-term care insurance system, which included new concepts of ‘integrated care’ and ‘community-based care’, an agenda of cost containment and service streamlining, and coordination with medical care.Results: Community-based integrated care, as envisaged in the long-term care policy, includes not only the integration of medical care into service provision but also the inclusion of the informal mutual aid, oversight of for-profit providers by an administration that ensures users are not exploited and coordination between systems that cover different geographical areas.Conclusions: Japan’s experience in community-based care integration suggests that this project requires multi-faceted care integration in local communities. In the future, it will be necessary to conduct empirical assessments of the effectiveness of these measures.

  19. Does Joint Fact-finding work for Water-energy-food Nexus Issues? A Role of Scientific Evidence in Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.

    2014-12-01

    A quite famous phrase in risk management "How safe is enough safe?" implies there exists a framing gap among experts, the general public and stakeholders. Scientific evidence that experts provide usually contains uncertainty, while the public tends to have the other type of qualitative local knowledge. As there is no zero-risk society, we have to build consensus on acceptable level of risk and trade-offs of risks based on expert knowledge and local knowledge. Therefore having a dialogue among them in the early stage of the policy process such as problem definition and agenda setting is essential to cultivate trust and to integrate their knowledge. To this end, we especially pay attention to Joint Fact-finding (JFF). The tentative definition of JFF is that a promising strategy for experts, decision makers, and key public rights-holders and stakeholders from opposing sides of an issue to work together to resolve or narrow factual disputes over public policy issues. JFF process usually begins with identifying stakeholders and holding interviews with them to determine their interests. We call this step stakeholder analysis. Then we define the scope of the study including the required scientific evidence and the preliminary list of experts. After that, stakeholders jointly select experts to participate in the study, then they work together on what they would like to clear about scientific evidence. They finally get the common understanding and findings through these collaboration. We applied the stakeholder analysis to the issue of groundwater in Obama City and the issues of hot spring water and geothermal power in Beppu City in Japan. We drew conclusions from these case studies to some extent but at the same time we found that the analysis method has a limitation in applying it to multiple nexus issues because the method based on stakeholders' cognition. For example, in Obama case, we identified a lack of cooperation among stakeholders that especially agricultural

  20. Publishing on policy: trends in public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyler, Amy A; Dreisinger, Mariah

    2011-01-01

    Our goal was to explore the number and topics of policy articles published in general public health journals. We conducted an audit of articles in 16 public health journals from 1998 through 2008. Results showed no trends for the decade studied; only 3.7% of all articles published in these journals were policy-related, and the topics most represented were smoking/tobacco, health care, and school policy. As policy research on public health issues continues to develop, researchers have an opportunity to increase dissemination through publication in general public health journals.

  1. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  2. On the Issue of Regional Policy in the Sphere of Ecological Safety (Based on the Documents Concerning the Republic of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza I. Mantaeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The regional government should provide ecological safety in order to ensure stable social and economic development of the country. The article outlines theoretical approach and recommendations on practice concerning ecological issues, investigates state policy aiming to preserve nature and analyses sources of threat to ecological safety in the region. The modern paradigm of the country’s and region’s development is characterized by the combination of ecological and economic policy. The ecological policy providing measures for efficient use of natural resources, their protection and restoration is implemented in the economic strategy of highly developed countries and encourages stable social and economic development of the country and the region. Some researchers assert that Russia’s most regions do not possess sufficient resources necessary to implement structural shifts which can eliminate the main threats to ecological safety. The Republic of Kalmykia can be included into this list. It is rich in natural resources but they are not restored due to the lack of regulation for efficient consumption. The main concerns of the republic are water supply, desertification, and pollution of atmosphere, waste disposal, and protection of wildlife and environment, preservation of hunting ground, forest management. The republic generates no electricity so it is delivered by neighboring regions. The republic should use the renewable ways of producing energy which can contribute to the energy and ecological safety and can attract new investment funds. There is an urgent need for stricter state regulation to ensure socioeconomic development and ecological safety in Kalmykia.

  3. Non-medical sex-selective abortion in China: ethical and public policy issues in the context of 40 million missing females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2011-01-01

    The rapidly growing imbalance of the sex ratio at birth (SRB) in China since the late 1980s demonstrates that, despite an extensive official prohibition, sex-selective abortion has been widely practised there in the past two or three decades. Given the reality of 30-40 million missing females, China has a more challenging set of ethical and social policy issues to be addressed regarding sex-selective abortion than is the case in Western and many other countries. This article is based on a search and review of Chinese and English-language literature, including several very recent books in Chinese on the imbalance of the sex ratio at birth in China. It also draws on first-hand information gathered from the author's extensive fieldwork on Chinese views and experiences of abortion. The current female deficit is a real and serious problem in China-not a 'false alarm' as earlier alleged. It is a direct consequence of the widespread practice of sex-selective abortion and is chiefly caused by the strong socio-cultural preference for sons in China. Chinese academics-demographers and medical ethicists-in general agree with the official position that sex-selective abortion is morally wrong and should be legally prohibited. Some critical voices, mainly in the English-language literature, have asked whether coercive state intervention in this area is ethically justifiable. Another controversial question is whether and to what degree China's ambitious and rigorous population control programme, widely known as the 'one child' policy, is a contributing factor to the phenomenon of millions of missing females. Much further research on the ethical and social policy issues surrounding sex-selective abortion in the Chinese context needs to be done. Systematic quantitative and in-depth qualitative sociological investigations into Chinese people's attitudes toward the subject, and the role of medical professionals, are long overdue.

  4. Climate change mitigation policy paradigms — national objectives and alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Garg, Amit; Christensen, John M.

    2014-01-01

    to the achievement of large GHG emission reductions. Based on these experiences with policy implementation, the paper highlights a number of key coordination and design issues that are pertinent to the successful joint implementation of several energy and climate-change policy goals.......The aim of this paper is to assess how policy goals in relation to the promotion of green growth, energy security, pollution control and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions have been aligned in policies that have been implemented in selected countries during the last decades as a basis...... been widely applied for decades in both developing countries and industrialised countries. Many of these policies have a long history, and adjustments have taken place based on experience and cost effectiveness concerns. Various energy and climate-change policy goals have worked together...

  5. Improving Accountability in Public Education. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecher, Brian; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. The accountability systems put in place by No Child Left Behind have not produced enough improvement to meet the goal of all students meeting proficiency standards by 2014. While the current accountability system has…

  6. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusheini, Adam; Marnoch, Gordon; Gray, Ann Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650), in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods: Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices) located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results: In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the "success" of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity); and ownership and participation. Conclusion: Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period of years

  7. Stakeholders Perspectives on the Success Drivers in Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme – Identifying Policy Translation Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fusheini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Ghana’s National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS, established by an Act of Parliament (Act 650, in 2003 and since replaced by Act 852 of 2012 remains, in African terms, unprecedented in terms of growth and coverage. As a result, the scheme has received praise for its associated legal reforms, clinical audit mechanisms and for serving as a hub for knowledge sharing and learning within the context of South-South cooperation. The scheme continues to shape national health insurance thinking in Africa. While the success, especially in coverage and financial access has been highlighted by many authors, insufficient attention has been paid to critical and context-specific factors. This paper seeks to fill that gap. Methods Based on an empirical qualitative case study of stakeholders’ views on challenges and success factors in four mutual schemes (district offices located in two regions of Ghana, the study uses the concept of policy translation to assess whether the Ghana scheme could provide useful lessons to other African and developing countries in their quest to implement social/NHISs. Results In the study, interviewees referred to both ‘hard and soft’ elements as driving the “success” of the Ghana scheme. The main ‘hard elements’ include bureaucratic and legal enforcement capacities; IT; financing; governance, administration and management; regulating membership of the scheme; and service provision and coverage capabilities. The ‘soft’ elements identified relate to: the background/context of the health insurance scheme; innovative ways of funding the NHIS, the hybrid nature of the Ghana scheme; political will, commitment by government, stakeholders and public cooperation; social structure of Ghana (solidarity; and ownership and participation. Conclusion Other developing countries can expect to translate rather than re-assemble a national health insurance programme in an incomplete and highly modified form over a period

  8. The Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA in the Philippines: Insights on Issues of Sovereignty, Security and Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Anthony M. Velasco

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The study intends to compare the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Philippines and the United States of America and the VFA between the Philippines and Australia. The research piece is arranged in the following flow of ideas. The first and the second part provides the foundations by highlighting issues on definition, historical background, provisions of the agreement and concerns faced by the agreement of the Visiting Forces Agreement (VFA between the Republic of the Philippines and the United States of America and the Status of the Visiting Forces Agreement (SOVFA between the Republic of the Philippines and Australia. The third part is an analysis of the VFA and the SOVFA under the tutelage of the framework on the non-intervention principle. As a result, the provisions of SOVFA were in consonance with the legal arrangement in the Philippines than the VFA with the United States of America.

  9. Report: Searching for a way to sustainability: technical and policy analyses of solid waste issues in Kathmandu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Mohan B; Cohen, Ronald R H; Urynowicz, Michael A; Poudyal, Khem N

    2009-05-01

    Kathmandu Metropolitan City has attempted to reorganize its solid waste management a number of times. The German Technical and Financial Aid Organization led early efforts that were followed by a number of more recent experiments that left the city with an unsustainable solid waste management system following the termination of foreign aid. To examine this failure, the research team evaluated household surveys, field observations, interviews, and other primary and secondary information within the context of technical, social, and institutional analyses. The survey results show that the solid waste collection rates are far below the 90% claimed by the metropolis and street sweeping consumes approximately 51% of its solid waste budget. As a result of the relatively low collection rates the city residents are encouraged to dump waste into public lands. Consequently, too much of the city's resources are focused on sweeping rather than collection. Kathmandu needs to recognize informal waste picking, privatize, use local techniques, build capacity, promote bottom-up and participatory styles of management, and regulate policies to maintain solid waste management.

  10. Consultations to formulate a UK perspective for planning of the Sixth Framework Nuclear (Fission) Energy Programme. Policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.; Moscrop, R.; Smedley, C.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides advice to the DETR and the Health and Safety Executive on the policy aspects of the Sixth European Framework Programme (FP6) for research and technological development. This advice is based on a consultation within the UK and other Member States and covers the areas of reactor safety, decommissioning and radioactive waste management. It is concluded that there is general support for FP6 across the UK nuclear industry. The specific benefits are seen to be improvements in the competitiveness of the UK nuclear industry through research on plant life extension, improvements to the safety of existing plants and research on radioactive waste management. The broad structure of FP5 does not appear to require fundamental change for FP6 to meet the requirements of the UK, with funding staying at roughly the same level. There is agreement on the need to improve on programme organisation and management to ensure better quality of output and value for money. There is also scope for improving the organisation of UK participation to maximise the UK benefit. Further work has been undertaken under a parallel phase of this project to identify the technical requirements for FP6. (author)

  11. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    of self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful......Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits...

  12. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  13. The national sports policies and the sustainable development issue in a globalized world: 2007 – 2013, the experience of an Intergovernmental Organization (IGO-WSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Klein

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2007, the Intergovernmental Organization, the World Sports Alliance (IGO-WSA, was founded with the support of international civil society (AICESIS, UN-NGO-IRENE and the United Nations. It is entrusted with the mission of educating youth and training the executives of the national sports system to deal with human development issues (education, equity, health, gender, environment while also contributing to the economic development of its Member States (partnerships, poverty reduction.A number of lessons can be drawn from this experience about support to national sports policies in a globalized world, more generally about the contribution to national development by and through sport.  We identify seven engines of an integrated approach to a sustainable development of sport in the developing countries.For the foreseeable future, the WSA-IGO faces six challenges, as tools for a renewed program: sustainability, infrastructures, education, equity, employment and training.Key words:

  14. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  15. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  16. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  17. The Sustainable Development Goals – Pathways to Eco-innovation and a Global Green Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Maj Munch

    linked to the new Green Economy paradigm. I.e. they neglect a consistent alignment of economic and environmental issues. There is some overall reference to achieving such an alignment but this goal is not persistently pursued, nor given enough importance in the specific SDGs. This paper argues...... economy, arguing that green economic change is real and central for achieving environmental sustainability. The policy implications of this are considerable. The paper suggests revising selected core SDG goals to make them more in line with the green economy paradigm. For developing countries the paper......This paper offers a critical discussion of the influential UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) for 2015-2030. While the goals in many ways represent considerable progress in treating the sustainable development agenda in a comprehensive way this paper argues that the goals are insufficiently...

  18. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  19. Yesterday's war; tomorrow's technology: peer commentary on 'Ethical, legal, social and policy issues in the use of genomic technologies by the US military'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Nicholas G; Moreno, Jonathan D

    2015-02-01

    A recent article by Maxwell J. Mehlman and Tracy Yeheng Li, in the Journal of Law and the Biosciences , sought to examine the ethical, legal, social, and policy issues associated with the use of genetic screening and germ-line therapies ('genomic technologies') by the US Military. In this commentary, we will elaborate several related matters: the relationship between genetic and non-genetic screening methods, the history of selection processes and force strength, and the consequences and ethics of, as Mehlman and Li suggest, engineering enhanced soldiers. We contend, first, that the strengths of genomic testing as a method of determining enrollment in the armed forces has limited appeal, given the state of current selection methods in the US armed forces. Second, that the vagaries of genetic selection, much like other forms of selection that do not bear causally or reliably on soldier performance (such as race, gender, and sexuality), pose a systematic threat to force strength by limiting the (valuable) diversity of combat units. Third, that the idea of enhancing warfighters through germ-line interventions poses serious ethical issues in terms of the control and ownership of 'enhancements' when members separate from service.

  20. Assessment of Policy Integration of Sustainable Consumption and Production into National Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Koide

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP was adopted as a stand-alone goal and reflected as one of the cross-cutting objectives of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, with a central role to address global resource consumption and its associated environmental impacts, as well as numerous social and economic issues. With this broad characterization of SCP, policy integration is crucial in addressing it at national level. This paper analyzes characteristics of SCP policy integration based on a survey of national government policies. It reveals that SCP is not fully integrated in national policy-making; high resource consumption sectors such as urban planning, building, and tourism are not fully incorporated into national SCP policies, and there is only limited participation of relevant government ministries other than environment ministries. We find that among countries with horizontal policy integration, those with Green Economy/Green Growth frameworks tend to have better sectoral integration; and those with SCP-specific frameworks are likely to have broader coordination of ministries. By conducting cross-analysis using income level and region, the different characteristics of SCP policy-making approaches were identified. The results of this study provide a better understanding of how SCP is integrated into policy for effective national policy-making and measurement of the SDG Goal 12.

  1. Science and policy in substance abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Arndt

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy (SATPP is an open access, peer-reviewed international journal of original research and scholarship that focuses on policy issues in the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. Separate and often disparate public systems deal with substance use problems as well as provide treatment and prevention. This journal will provide an environment for the exchange of ideas, new research, consensus papers, and critical reviews that bridge fields that share a common goal of reducing the problems caused by drugs and alcohol. The agenda is simple; a new forum for integrating thoughts, issues, and developments.

  2. Addressing the Issue of Domestic Violence at the Workplace: A Review of the Implementation of the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy in Mauritius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim koodoruth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been widely acknowledged that the majority of persons affected by Gender-Based Violence (GBV are women and girls. The violence females are subject to can occur at each stage of their life with immediate and long-term effects. According to a World Bank publication, The Costs ofViolence, (2009 most estimates on the cost to society of GBV have focused on domestic violence. A study of the Extent, Nature and Costs of Domestice Violence to the Mauritian Economy (2010 reveals that there is a forty-six fold difference between the administrative data provided the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare. To scale up the fight against domestic violence the Government of Mauritius has launched the Victim Empowerment and Abuser Rehabilitation Policy (VEARP in 2013 whereby the workplace becomes a platform for primary prevention.This study aims to document the consultations held with stakeholders at the workplace (public and private sector and to make proposals to ensure that the VEARP is institutionalised at the workplace. It has been found that the Human Resource (HR function is not well developed in the mauritian society and among the three main models of prevention of domestic violence at the workplace, the partnerships model is the most appropriate.The organisation of training of trainers on GBV issues and the referrral system set up by the Ministry of Gender Equality, Child Development and Family Welfare will encourage employers to join the fight against domestic violence. To assist the HR department in implementing this workplace initiative, there is an urgent need to set up Employer Assistance Programs (EAP at the workplace. However, there is an urgent need to institutionalise work-family life balance policies, to adopt legislation to cater for violence at the workplace and to amend the Protection of Domestic Violence Act of 2011.

  3. An Analysis of the Policy Framework on Electricity in South Africa: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The policy framework on electricity in South Africa includes government's intention to provide quality and affordable electricity to the people. This article focuses on the issues that affect electrification and their impact towards the goal of achieving universal access to quality and affordable electricity in the country from a policy ...

  4. Greening Governance : An Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between

  5. Economic Stimulus: Issues and Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-09

    pressures after recovery. Alan S. Blinder, “Temporary Income Taxes and Consumer Spending ” The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 89, February 1981, pp. 26...Impact of the 2008 Tax Rebates on Consumer Spending : Preliminary Evidence,” Mimeo, University of Chicago and Northwestern University, July 29,2008: http

  6. Inside 'Inside View': reflections on stimulating debate and engagement through a multimedia live theatre production on the dilemmas and issues of pre-natal screening policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Gillian Lewando; Bryanston, Claudette; Lowe, Pam; Cross, Saul; Sandall, Jane; Spencer, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    The role of applied theatre in engaging both lay and professional publics with debate on health policy and practice is an emergent field. This paper discusses the development, production performance and discussion of 'Inside View'. The objectives were to produce applied theatre from research findings of a completed study on genetic prenatal screening, exploring the dilemmas for women and health professionals of prenatal genetic screening, and to engage audiences in debate and reflection on the dilemmas of prenatal genetic screening. 'Inside View' was developed from a multidisciplinary research study through identification of emergent themes from qualitative interviews, and development of these by the writer, theatre producer and media technologist with input from the researchers. Inside View was performed in London and the Midlands to varied audiences with a panel discussion and evaluation post performance. The audiences were engaged in debate that was relevant to them professionally and personally. Knowledge translation through applied theatre is an effective tool for engaging the public but the impact subsequently is unclear. There are ethical issues of unexpected disclosure during discussion post performance and the process of transforming research findings into applied theatre requires time and trust within the multidisciplinary team as well as adequate resourcing. © 2010 The Authors. Health Expectations © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy. European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-11-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation - ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide

  8. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  9. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  10. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  11. Policymakers' Reflections on Water Governance Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyeeta Gupta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The two cultures theory argues that policy makers and scientists have different cultures and difficulty in communicating with each other. Others argue that there is increasing co-production of knowledge. This essay aims to assess the concerns of policy makers based on our policy work, policy-related research work, and our day-to-day experiences in terms of three questions: What are the perceived major issues for water governance? What are the major challenges in the structure of the existing global water governance approach? What is the vision for improving global water governance? This essay combines views from governmental, hybrid, inter- and non-governmental policy makers. It argues that water covers so many issues, aspects, and sectors that a key challenge is whether water should be governed as a sector or as a cross-cutting issue. It looks at how this challenge plays out within the United Nations system and leads to specific goal setting, while missing an overall visionary approach and a legally binding system of governance; within the hybrid arena, where it leads to inclusive discussion but not necessarily triggering consensus decisions; within nation states, where it has led to a loss of focus and a multitude of gaps and overlaps; and within transnational cooperative projects, where it has led to multiple interpretations of what is good practice. It then identifies a series of research questions.

  12. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    There have been significant discussions over the past few years by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and others as to the adequacy of the NRC safety goals for use with the next generation of nuclear power reactors to be built in the United States. The NRC, in its safety goals policy statement, has provided general qualitative safety goals and basic quantitative health objectives (QHOs) for nuclear reactors in the United States. Risk metrics such as core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF) have been used as surrogates for the QHOs. In its review of the new plant licensing policy the ACRS has looked at the safety goals, as has the NRC. A number of issues have been raised including what the Commission had in mind when it drafted the safety goals and QHOs, how risk from multiple reactors at a site should be combined for evaluation, how the combination of a new and old reactor at the same site should be evaluated, what the criteria for evaluating new reactors should be, and whether new reactors should be required to be safer than current generation reactors. As part of the development and application of the NRC safety goal policy statement the Commissioners laid out the expectations for the safety of a nuclear power plant but did not address the risk associated with current multi-unit sites, potential modular reactor sites, and hybrid sites that could contain current generation reactors, new passive reactors, and/or modular reactors. The NRC safety goals and the QHOs refer to a "nuclear power plant," but do not discuss whether a "plant" refers to only a single unit or all of the units on a site. There has been much discussion on this issue recently due to the development of modular reactors. Additionally, the risk of multiple reactor accidents on the same site has been largely ignored in the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) done to date, and in most risk

  13. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  14. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  15. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  16. Making Choices, Setting Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes management and education is very important. The way information is provided influences people's behaviours and thus outcomes. The way information is presented can increase or reduce the individual's ability to make informed decisions about their treatment and influences whether they acti...... they actively participate in the discussion. Educators need to understand how people make decisions and the philosophy and science that underpins people's goals and the behaviours they serve, and conduct meaningful conversations to achieve SMARTER goals....

  17. Theme Issue: European Broadcasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howkins, John, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    In this document separate articles deal with the following topics: recommendations for future British broadcasting policies that recently were proposed to the British Parliament by the Committee on the Future of Broadcasting; specific media goals set by the Swedish Committee on Broadcasting; communications policy making in Austria; a new…

  18. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  19. How agro-ecological research helps to address food security issues under new IPM and pesticide reduction policies for global crop production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Birch, A Nicholas; Begg, Graham S; Squire, Geoffrey R

    2011-06-01

    Drivers behind food security and crop protection issues are discussed in relation to food losses caused by pests. Pests globally consume food estimated to feed an additional one billion people. Key drivers include rapid human population increase, climate change, loss of beneficial on-farm biodiversity, reduction in per capita cropped land, water shortages, and EU pesticide withdrawals under policies relating to 91/414 EEC. IPM (Integrated Pest Management) will be compulsory for all EU agriculture by 2014 and is also being widely adopted globally. IPM offers a 'toolbox' of complementary crop- and region-specific crop protection solutions to address these rising pressures. IPM aims for more sustainable solutions by using complementary technologies. The applied research challenge now is to reduce selection pressure on single solution strategies, by creating additive/synergistic interactions between IPM components. IPM is compatible with organic, conventional, and GM cropping systems and is flexible, allowing regional fine-tuning. It reduces pests below economic thresholds utilizing key 'ecological services', particularly biocontrol. A recent global review demonstrates that IPM can reduce pesticide use and increase yields of most of the major crops studied. Landscape scale 'ecological engineering', together with genetic improvement of new crop varieties, will enhance the durability of pest-resistant cultivars (conventional and GM). IPM will also promote compatibility with semiochemicals, biopesticides, precision pest monitoring tools, and rapid diagnostics. These combined strategies are urgently needed and are best achieved via multi-disciplinary research, including complex spatio-temporal modelling at farm and landscape scales. Integrative and synergistic use of existing and new IPM technologies will help meet future food production needs more sustainably in developed and developing countries, in an era of reduced pesticide availability. Current IPM research gaps are

  20. Uranium and nuclear issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    This seminar focussed on the major issues affecting the future of the entire nuclear fuel cycle. In particular it covered issues bearing on the formation of public policy in relation to the use of uranium as an energy source: economic risk, industrial risks, health effects, site selection, environmental issues, and public acceptance

  1. Policy Trends Impacting Community Colleges: An ECS Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Brian A.; Pingel, Sarah; Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of community and technical colleges to state education attainment and workforce development goals, policy addressing the two-year sector is of critical importance to state policymakers. Analysis of legislative issue trends suggests transfer and articulation, performance-based funding, and financial aid programs are substantial…

  2. Strategizing for Public Policy: The Information Literacy State Proclamation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Jackman, Lana W.; Prause, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a project designed to raise the awareness of policymakers about the importance of information literacy to achieve societal goals. Issues benefit from the governmental support, prioritization, mandates, and funding that can result when there is policy behind them. Studies indicate that many people lack the ability to draw on…

  3. The Effects of National Policy on Refugee Welfare and Related Security Issues: A Comparative Case Study of Lebanon, Egypt and Syria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cleary, Jessica E

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the relationship between the tendency of state policies regarding Palestinian refugees in Lebanon, Egypt, and Syria to create isolation or integration, and the relative extent...

  4. Safety goals for nuclear power plants: a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report includes a proposed policy statement on safety goals for nuclear power plants published by the Commission for public comment and a supporting discussion paper. Proposed qualitative goals and associated numerical guidelines for nuclear power-plant accident risks are presented. The significance of the goals and guidelines, their bases and rationale, and their proposed mode of implementation are discussed

  5. CLOUD COMPUTING SECURITY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin OGIGAU-NEAMTIU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “cloud computing” has been in the spotlights of IT specialists the last years because of its potential to transform this industry. The promised benefits have determined companies to invest great sums of money in researching and developing this domain and great steps have been made towards implementing this technology. Managers have traditionally viewed IT as difficult and expensive and the promise of cloud computing leads many to think that IT will now be easy and cheap. The reality is that cloud computing has simplified some technical aspects of building computer systems, but the myriad challenges facing IT environment still remain. Organizations which consider adopting cloud based services must also understand the many major problems of information policy, including issues of privacy, security, reliability, access, and regulation. The goal of this article is to identify the main security issues and to draw the attention of both decision makers and users to the potential risks of moving data into “the cloud”.

  6. Cyber security policy guidebook

    CERN Document Server

    Bayuk, nifer L; Rohmeyer, l; Sachs, cus; Schmidt, frey; Weiss, eph

    2012-01-01

    This book is a taxonomy and thesaurus of current cybersecurity policy issues, including a thorough description of each issue and a corresponding list of pros and cons with respect to identified stances on each issue. It documents policy alternatives for the sake of clarity with respect to policy alone, and dives into organizational implementation issues. Without using technical jargon, the book emphasizes the importance of critical and analytical thinking when making policy decisions.  It also equips the reader with descriptions of the impact of specific policy ch

  7. “Post-Feminist” Era of Social Investment and Territorial Welfare? Exploring the Issue Salience and Policy Framing of Child Care in U.K. Elections 1983-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Chaney

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Earlier work has tended to overlook the formative origins of child care policy in liberal democracies. Accordingly, this study examines mandate-seeking and parties’ envisioning of child care with reference to issue salience and policy framing in party manifestos in U.K. Westminster and regional elections. It reveals a significant increase in issue salience following its emergence as a manifesto issue in the 1980s, thereby confirming it as part of the wider rise of “valence politics.” The framing data reveal that a “post-feminist” discourse of “social investment” has generally displaced the political framing of child care as a gender equality issue. It is argued that this is inherently problematic and reflects parties’ failure to address ongoing gender inequality in the labor market. Notably, the data also illustrate the way devolution is leading to the territorialization of child care in the United Kingdom—no longer solely mandated in Westminster elections, policy is now contingent on the discursive practices of regional party politics and shaped by local socio-economic factors.

  8. Gender and the millenium development goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It has taken nearly half a century for the goals of poverty reduction and gender equality to achieve this prominence in mainstream policy concerns. In the process, the understanding of poverty has been transformed from the early equation with income...

  9. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  10. Definition of animal breeding goals for sustainable production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, I; Groen, A F; Gjerde, B

    2000-03-01

    What we do is determined by the way we "view" a complex issue and what sample of issues or events we choose to deal with. In this paper, a model based on a communal, cultural, or people-centered worldview, informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology, is considered. Definitions and interpretations of sustainable agriculture are reviewed. Common elements in published definitions of sustainable agriculture and animal production among those who seek long-term and equitable solutions for food production are resource efficiency, profitability, productivity, environmental soundness, biodiversity, social viability, and ethical aspects. Possible characteristics of future sustainable production systems and further development are presented. The impact of these characteristics on animal breeding goals is reviewed. The need for long-term biologically, ecologically, and sociologically sound breeding goals is emphasized, because animal breeding determined only by short-term market forces leads to unwanted side effects. Hence, a procedure for defining animal breeding goals with ethical priorities and weighing of market and non-market values is suggested. Implementation of non-market as well as market economic trait values in the aggregate genotype, as suggested, may allow for breeding programs that contribute to sustainable production systems. Examples of breeding goals in salmon, cattle, and pigs are given, and the resulting genetic responses are evaluated with respect to economic profit (or costs) and other criteria of sustainability. Important prerequisites for breeding programs for sustainable production are appropriate governmental policies, awareness of our way of thinking, and a more communal worldview informed by a subjective epistemology and a holistic ontology.

  11. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  12. Complexity of fiscal policy in Kosovo and their treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gani Asllani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy and monetary policy are two key instruments of economic policy of a country which are used to achieve macroeconomic goals. In Kosovo and in the new and consolidating countries the fiscal policy plays the primary role in the functioning of the state, its institutions and economic growth in general. In the study paper treated some of the most sensitive issues affecting fiscal and tax policies, theoretical approaches, modern trends of fiscal policy and addressed some of the reforms in neighboring countries. Special emphases is given fiscal policies applied in Kosovo, its reforms, actions to be taken on the occasion of the policymaking reforms and finally are given appropriate recommendations.

  13. The Wasteland Auction Policy in Northwest China: Solving Environmental Degradation and Rural Poverty? / Rural Development in Transitional China: A Special Issue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, P.P.S.

    2003-01-01

    In order to relieve rural poverty and solve the problem of soil and water erosion on marginal land, various provinces and regions throughout China proclaimed a new policy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This 'Four Wastelands Auction Policy' attempts to boost the development of land of low

  14. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  15. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki

    2006-01-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies

  16. Review of Policy Documents for Nuclear Safety and Regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woong Sik; Choi, Kwang Sik; Choi, Young Sung; Kim, Hho Jung; Kim, Ho Ki [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    The goal of regulation is to protect public health and safety as well as environment from radiological hazards that may occur as a result of the use of atomic energy. In September 1994, the Korean government issued the Nuclear Safety Policy Statement (NSPS) to establish policy goals of maintaining and achieving high-level of nuclear safety and also help the public understand the national policy and a strong will of the government toward nuclear safety. It declares the importance of establishing safety culture in nuclear community and also specifies five nuclear regulatory principles (Independence, Openness, Clarity, Efficiency and Reliability) and provides the eleven regulatory policy directions. In 2001, the Nuclear Safety Charter was declared to make the highest goal of safety in driving nuclear business clearer; to encourage atomic energy- related institutions and workers to keep in mind the mission and responsibility for assuring safety; to guarantee public confidence in related organizations. The Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) also issues Yearly Regulatory Policy Directions at the beginning of every year. Recently, the third Atomic Energy Promotion Plan (2007-2011) has been established. It becomes necessary for the relevant organizations to prepare the detailed plans on such areas as nuclear development, safety management, regulation, etc. This paper introduces a multi-level structure of nuclear safety and regulation policy documents in Korea and presents some improvements necessary for better application of the policies.

  17. Learning Goals and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Howard R.

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from a recent landmark study of American higher education focus on goals of higher education, cognitive outcomes of college and impact on practical competence, and some conclusions about consequences of higher education. It is shown that in both monetary, but especially in nonmonetary terms, higher education is well worth the cost. (AF)

  18. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  19. Unreal Goal Bots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.; Korstanje, R.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Kraayenbrink, N.; De Rijk, L.; Behrens, T.; Pasman, W.

    2010-01-01

    It remains a challenge with current state of the art technology to use BDI agents to control real-time, dynamic and complex environments. We report on our effort to connect the GOAL agent programming language to the real-time game UNREAL TOURNAMENT 2004. We focus in particular on the design of a

  20. Monetary Policy as Financial Stability Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Jeremy C. Stein

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a model that speaks to the goals and methods of financial stability policies. There are three main points. First, from a normative perspective, the model defines the fundamental market failure to be addressed, namely, that unregulated private money creation can lead to an externality in which intermediaries issue too much short-term debt and leave the system excessively vulnerable to costly financial crises. Second, it shows how in a simple economy where commercial banks...