WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy goals embedded

  1. Goal Selection for Embedded Systems with Oversubscribed Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  2. Exposure diversity as a policy goal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helberger, N.

    2012-01-01

    The protection and promotion of media diversity is one of the primary goals of national media laws and policies. Existing laws and policies are typically concerned with the supply of a wide range of content from diverse sources. Law and policy makers have been until now far more cautious about

  3. Transformation of Croatian Disabled Policy: Analysis of Policy Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Petek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the idea of transformation of the policy-making mode of Croatian disabled policy, from the medical model, through the social model to the human rights model. The paper highlights 7 elements according to which these models differ, and which are structured into categories of problem-definition, goal-determination and then implementation of disabled policy. The analysis is focused on the goals of Croatian disabled policy, and is based on an interdisciplinary research project of political science, special education and social work. Empirical data were collected by document analysis, by interviewing relevant policy actors and by a survey with the members of representative bodies on all government levels. With the discourse analysis of documents, open coding of interviews and statistical analysis of data collected in the survey, the paper attempts, through the indicator of activity of persons with disability, to answer to what extent Croatian disabled policy is transformed into human rights policy.

  4. Goals and Principles of Environmental Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zylicz, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at how contemporary environmental (including climate) policy problems are phrased in terms of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity. The latter three concepts have served as foci of theoretical discussions among economists who analyse these issues and identify criteria that determine relevant regulations and programmes adopted by governments. The paper starts with a discussion of Pigouvian taxation as model instrument used in order to solve policy problems. It analyses to what extent and under what circumstances alternative instruments - such as marketable pollution permits - can achieve environmental and climate goals while serving other purposes too. Coase theorem is used as a reference for discussing what government interventions are indeed indispensable to achieve both explicit and tacit policy goals. Popular principles and practically applied 'rules of thumb' - such as the Polluter Pays Principle - are then reviewed. The next part is devoted to examining market structures as they influence environmental outcomes of economic activities. This is followed by a discussion of Environmental Tax Reforms which seems to inspire much of the economic thinking about contemporary policies. An outlook for the 21st century concludes the paper.

  5. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation.

  6. Policy Goals and Outcomes In "Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Headey, B.; Muffels, R.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Measures of income mobility should be valuable for assessing performance in achieving national policy goals. We propose a portfolio of measures to assess policy goals relating to 1. economic growth and rising living standards 2. equality of opportunity 3. equality of outcomes 4. income security and

  7. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    at all up front. This means that banning embedded commissions would lead to a reduction in demand for advice from modest-income households. The U.K. provides an example which should not be followed. Regulators there have banned embedded commissions, forcing clients to pay directly for financial advice. The result is that modest-income clients have decided not to seek financial advice, even though that decision will likely negatively affect their portfolios. The dangers of this “advice gap” are being downplayed by those who believe that robo-advisors and banks can fill the need instead. In fact, robo-advisors and banks are mostly not equipped to step into the gamma role of coaching their clients. A ban would also mean less choice in the market for a service that needs to be competitive and innovative to serve the broad spectrum of clients’ circumstances, risk appetites and needs. In addition, smaller and independent product manufacturers and distributors would be squeezed out, creating a market concentration in the hands of the bigger players. Pricing transparency might very well be another victim of a ban as a market with significant disparities in fee levels is created. In crafting their policies, regulatory authorities should bear in mind that people need to have wide access to financial advice and to have an opportunity to become more financially literate. Keeping the market for financial services and products competitive, innovative and transparent is the path to continued success. A ban on embedded sales commissions would severely hamper these goals.

  8. Embedded promotions in online services: how goal-relevance ambiguity shapes response and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasel, S Adam

    2010-09-01

    Adding promotions to online services is increasingly commonplace, yet consumers may have difficulty determining whether service-embedded promotions are goal-relevant, due to the linear and transactional nature of online services. This contextual effect of goal-relevance ambiguity on promotions is explored across three studies. An exploratory study utilizing actual service websites and a broad range of consumers as participants showed promotional elements in online services generated considerable confusion, and instructions labeling promotions as optional did little to relieve goal-relevance ambiguity. A second study using student participants inserted promotions into an online airline ticket service, a shopping site, a local news blog, and a news headline aggregator, to explore how linear and transactional sites such as online services compared to more exploratory or informational online environments. Results showed that service-embedded promotions enjoyed initial compliance far beyond promotions in traditional websites but also generated increased confusion, frustration, and anger. A third study utilizing student participants explored how varying levels of online service experience created differing responses to promotions in services; novices were less able to judge promotional goal-relevance and experienced more confusion, whereas experienced searchers were more likely to respond with frustration and anger. Many participants complied with promotional offers at the time of the service transaction, but stated intentions to use the promotion postservice were very low. The overall results spotlight goal-relevance ambiguity as an important driver of consumer response to online promotions, and highlight the role website context can play in the processing of online promotional elements. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. Voluntary agreement for the new energy and environmental policies goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaro, G.

    1998-01-01

    In the field of public policies innovative instruments based on market mechanisms and voluntary action by economical subjects meet a growing favour. This emerges also from the proceedings of the recent National Conference on Energy and the Environment, held in Rome in November 1998. From a planning policy, directly implemented by public bodies and often characterised by a strong rigidity, we are now passing to a new policy style, based on main trends and principles and implemented, at least in a priority way, through a mechanism of pacts and agreements among a variety of actors. This article, starting from an introduction on the nature and the functioning limits of voluntary agreements and, on these bases, presents some hypothesis on the ways and the necessary conditions to develop a concrete system of voluntary agreements in the country, in order to reach the new energy and environmental policies goals [it

  10. The portfolio of renewable energy sources for achieving the three E policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Yung-Chi; Chou, Chiyang James; Lin, Grace T.R.

    2011-01-01

    Renewable energy is considered by many policy-makers to contribute to achieving at least three major policy goals: the energy goal, the environmental goal, and the economic goal (3E goals). As an innovation-oriented island country with scarce natural resources, Taiwan announced the Sustainable Energy Policy Principles in 2008 that stated that Taiwan's renewable energy policy should accomplish the 3E goals. Several studies point out that specific renewable energy policy goals lead to specific renewable energy sources and technologies because each type of renewable energy has different features. In order to achieve the renewable energy policy goals, this research aims to examine how different policy goals lead to corresponding renewable energy sources. The relative importance of each goal is evaluated by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). The weight of each policy goal is adjusted separately to construct policy scenarios by the sensitivity analysis. According to the results, non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy are three sources that could meet the three policy goals at the same time. -- Highlights: →This study aims to propose a portfolio of renewable energy sources to achieve energy, environmental, and economic policy goals for Taiwan. →Non-pumped storage hydropower performs best to achieve energy and environmental goals. →Wind energy performs well to accomplish environmental goal. →Solar energy is the most preferred alternative to achieve economic goal. →The portfolio of non-pumped storage hydropower, wind energy, and solar energy can accomplish the three E policy goals at the same time.

  11. Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2016-01-01

    “Embedding” as a technical concept comes from linguistics, more precisely from grammar. The present paper investigates whether it can be applied fruitfully to certain questions that have been investigated by historians (and sometimes philosophers) of mathematics: 1. The construction of numeral...... systems, in particular place-value and quasi place-value systems. 2. The development of algebraic symbolisms. 3. The discussion whether “scientific revolutions” ever take place in mathematics, or new conceptualizations always include what preceded them. A final section investigates the relation between...... spatial and linguistic embedding and concludes that the spatio-linguistic notion of embedding can be meaningfully applied to the former two discussions, whereas the apparent embedding of older within new theories is rather an ideological mirage....

  12. Global Goal Setting for Improving National Governance and Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biermann, F.; Stevens, C.; Bernstein, S.; Gupta, A.; Kanie, N.; Nilsson, M.; Scobie, M.

    2017-01-01

    Can better governance, in itself, be a subject for global goal setting? This question stands at the center of this chapter, which focuses on the inclusion of “governance goals” in global goal-setting mechanisms, especially the Sustainable Development Goals agreed upon by the UN General Assembly in

  13. Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Jens

    2015-01-01

    to become the starting point not only for theoretical algebra, but for the whole transformation of mathematics from his time onward: the possibility of embedding, that is, of making a symbol or an element of a calculation stand not only for a single number, determined or undetermined, but for a whole...

  14. In pursuit of change: youth response to intensive goal setting embedded in a serious video game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Tom; Buday, Richard; Baranowski, Janice; Juliano, Melissa; Frazior, McKee; Wilsdon, Jon; Jago, Russell

    2007-11-01

    Type 2 diabetes has increased in prevalence among youth, paralleling the increase in pediatric obesity. Helping youth achieve energy balance by changing diet and physical activity behaviors should decrease the risk for type 2 diabetes and obesity. Goal setting and goal review are critical components of behavior change. Theory-informed video games that emphasize development and refinement of goal setting and goal review skills provide a method for achieving energy balance in an informative, entertaining format. This article reports alpha-testing results of early versions of theory-informed goal setting and reviews components of two diabetes and obesity prevention video games for preadolescents. Two episodes each of two video games were alpha tested with 9- to 11-year-old youth from multiple ethnic groups. Alpha testing included observed game play followed by a scripted interview. The staff was trained in observation and interview techniques prior to data collection. Although some difficulties were encountered, alpha testers generally understood goal setting and review components and comprehended they were setting personal goals. Although goal setting and review involved multiple steps, youth were generally able to complete them quickly, with minimal difficulty. Few technical issues arose; however, several usability and comprehension problems were identified. Theory-informed video games may be an effective medium for promoting youth diabetes and obesity prevention. Alpha testing helps identify problems likely to have a negative effect on functionality, usability, and comprehension during development, thereby providing an opportunity to correct these issues prior to final production.

  15. The Impact of Organizational Diversity Policies on Minority Employees’ Leadership Self-Perceptions and Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gündemir, S.; Dovidio, J.F.; Homan, A.C.; De Dreu, C.K.W.

    2017-01-01

    We examined how formal organizational diversity policies affect minorities’ leadership-relevant self-perceptions and goals in two experiments. Organizational mission statements were manipulated to reflect policies acknowledging and valuing subgroup differences (Multiculturalism), de-emphasizing

  16. The Elusive Goal: The Quest for a Credible Immigration Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Vernon M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    For more than 30 years the United States has unsuccessfully struggled to reform its often maligned and massively abused immigration policies. Matters went awry following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965. There were unexpected consequences. Intended to remove the overtly discriminatory features of the "national origins"…

  17. Indonesian Housing Policy and Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saddam Rassanjani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Indonesia is to bring accelerated development in all aspects so that the poverty rate is expected to decrease even disappear. One of the programs that aimed to reduce poverty rates in Indonesia is the provision of housing for the community, especially the underprivileged. Moreover, it is a the million houses program that proclaimed by the Ministry of Public Works and People's Housing, and this program is correlated with the SDGS, especially goal 11 (sustainable cities and communities. The research is relying on secondary data basis primarily from books, journals, published reports and online news. It is expected that this study is able to provide a new insight for the government in building a community residential area, which is to integrate development plans into three dimensions (social, economic, and environment which are the pillars of sustainable development. Unfortunately, nowadays the government is relying too hard on achieving quantity and a little focus on quality. Furthermore, an experience on the MDGs edition can be an important lesson for the government in realizing SDGs, especially now that SDGs are in line with the points that contained in the RPJMN. Therefore, if the government is able to maximise this global development agenda, it is not impossible that the million houses program can be one of the leading programs in overcoming the problem of poverty, especially housing shortage in Indonesia.

  18. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W.; Krzywicka, Adrianna E.; Cohen, Dora B.; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L.; Stevenson, Natalie A.; Matthews, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  19. National-Level Wetland Policy Specificity and Goals Vary According to Political and Economic Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peimer, Alex W; Krzywicka, Adrianna E; Cohen, Dora B; Van den Bosch, Kyle; Buxton, Valerie L; Stevenson, Natalie A; Matthews, Jeffrey W

    2017-01-01

    Growing recognition of the importance of wetlands to human and ecosystem well-being has led countries worldwide to implement wetland protection policies. Different countries have taken different approaches to wetland protection by implementing various policies, including territorial exclusion, market-based offsetting, and incentive programs for land users. Our objective was to describe the relationship between components of national-level wetland protection policies and national characteristics, including natural resource, economic, social, and political factors. We compiled data on the wetland policies of all 193 countries recognized by the U.N. and described the relationships among wetland policy goals and wetland protection mechanisms using non-metric multidimensional scaling. The first non-metric multidimensional scaling axis strongly correlated with whether a country had a wetland-specific environmental policy in place. Adoption of a comprehensive, wetland-specific policy was positively associated with degree of democracy and a commitment to establishing protected areas. The second non-metric multidimensional scaling axis defined a continuum of policy goals and mechanisms by which wetlands are protected, with goals to protect wetland ecosystem services on one end of the spectrum and goals to protect biodiversity on the other. Goals for protecting ecosystem services were frequently cited in policy documents of countries with agriculture-based economies, whereas goals associated with wetland biodiversity tended to be associated with tourism-based economies. We argue that the components of a country's wetland policies reflect national-level resource and economic characteristics. Understanding the relationship between the type of wetland policy countries adopt and national-level characteristics is critical for international efforts to protect wetlands.

  20. Policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. Peer discussions on regulatory practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This publication pertains to future planning for enhancement of good practices and it describes the experience to date in developing and implementing the policy for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals for nuclear facilities in 22 Member States. Senior regulators from these 22 Member States participated in four Peer Group discussions in 1993/94 which considered the policy used for setting and assessing regulatory safety goals. This publication presents the consensus views reached by the majority of these senior regulators

  1. Assessing the influence of knowledge translation platforms on health system policy processes to achieve the health millennium development goals in Cameroon and Uganda: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Lavis, John N; Tomson, Goran; Sewankambo, Nelson K

    2018-05-01

    There is a scarcity of empirical data on the influence of initiatives supporting evidence-informed health system policy-making (EIHSP), such as the knowledge translation platforms (KTPs) operating in Africa. To assess whether and how two KTPs housed in government-affiliated institutions in Cameroon and Uganda have influenced: (1) health system policy-making processes and decisions aiming at supporting achievement of the health millennium development goals (MDGs); and (2) the general climate for EIHSP. We conducted an embedded comparative case study of four policy processes in which Evidence Informed Policy Network (EVIPNet) Cameroon and Regional East African Community Health Policy Initiative (REACH-PI) Uganda were involved between 2009 and 2011. We combined a documentary review and semi structured interviews of 54 stakeholders. A framework-guided thematic analysis, inspired by scholarship in health policy analysis and knowledge utilization was used. EVIPNet Cameroon and REACH-PI Uganda have had direct influence on health system policy decisions. The coproduction of evidence briefs combined with tacit knowledge gathered during inclusive evidence-informed stakeholder dialogues helped to reframe health system problems, unveil sources of conflicts, open grounds for consensus and align viable and affordable options for achieving the health MDGs thus leading to decisions. New policy issue networks have emerged. The KTPs indirectly influenced health policy processes by changing how interests interact with one another and by introducing safe-harbour deliberations and intersected with contextual ideational factors by improving access to policy-relevant evidence. KTPs were perceived as change agents with positive impact on the understanding, acceptance and adoption of EIHSP because of their complementary work in relation to capacity building, rapid evidence syntheses and clearinghouse of policy-relevant evidence. This embedded case study illustrates how two KTPs influenced

  2. Long-Range Goals in International Telecommunications and Information: An Outline for United States Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

    This report presents a comprehensive delineation of the principal issues in the field of international telecommunications and information, as well as an overview of United States policy in this area. The first part discusses international trends in protectionism and the politicization of international forums; it also outlines United States goals,…

  3. Energy-environment policy goals and instruments and electricity demand response. A framework for the analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, Pablo del; Hernandez, F.

    2004-01-01

    The environment and energy realms have traditionally been two major focus of attention of EU and Member State (MS) policy. This attention has intensified in recent years as a response to, both, internal and external events and strategies (i.e., the Kyoto Protocol). In this context, the EU and its MS have set ambitious goals in the environmental and energy contexts and are already implementing packages of policies and measures. Both policies interact. Although there might be conflicts between both, there are also mutually reinforcing effects with significant policy implications. Actually, as stated in the Amsterdam Treaty, environmental protection is one of the major goals of energy policy (together with 'security of supply' and 'competitive energy systems'). On the other hand, the energy sector is instrumental in the success of environmental policy. In this context, a wide array of measures are currently being implemented in the EU and its MS which have a more or less direct impact on the electricity market. Particularly, Demand Side Management (DSM) activities, promotion of electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E) and measures aimed at the mitigation of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions are arguably three major instruments which have the potential to contribute to energy and environmental goals. The effectiveness and impact of there measures depends to a large extent on the demand response in the electricity market. Some of there measures affect the electricity demand curve, while others do not have a direct impact on the demand curve but affect the quantity of electricity demand by displacing the electricity supply curve. In turn, the effectiveness of energy and environmental policies may be different when electricity demand response varies (i.e., different elasticity demand). This paper entails an initial effort to provide a theoretical framework for the analysis of the interactions between electricity demand response and the above mentioned energy

  4. A goal programming model for environmental policy analysis: Application to Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Cristóbal, José Ramón

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable development has become an important part of international and national approaches to integrate economic, environmental, social and ethical considerations so that a good quality of life can be enjoyed by current and future generations for as long as possible. However, nowadays sustainable development is threatened by industrial pollution emissions which cause serious environmental problems. Due to a lack of adequate quantitative models for environmental policy analysis, there is a strong need for analytical models in order to know the effects of environmental policies. In the present paper, a goal programming model, based on an environmental/input–output linear programming model, is developed and applied to the Spanish economy. The model combines relations between economic, energy, social and environmental effects, providing valuable information for policy-makers in order to define and examine the different goals that must be implemented to reach sustainability. - Highlights: ► In this paper a goal programming model is developed. ► The model considers environmental, energy, social and economic goals. ► The model shows the effects of a reduction in greenhouse gasses emission and energy requirements. ► The model is applied to the Spanish economy.

  5. EU language policy and the language goals and gains of exchange students in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim

    To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains.......To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...

  6. Remembering the ultimate goal of environmental protection: including protection of impoverished citizens in China's environmental policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Zhu, Qingke

    2010-01-01

    The life of impoverished people can be damaged by adverse environmental conditions, but these people can also be harmed by environmental conservation programs, particularly when the guiding policy ignores their needs. To improve the social and economic effectiveness of environmental protection, governments must understand that the ultimate goal of environmental protection is to improve human livelihoods, not just restore vegetation. The elimination of poverty by the development of sustainable, long-term enterprises is a precondition for successful ecological restoration.

  7. An evaluation of China's new rural cooperative medical system: achievements and inadequacies from policy goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengyue; Hou, Yilin; Sun, Mei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Ying; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Hao, Mo

    2015-10-23

    Although much public scrutiny and academic attention has focused on the evaluations of system implementation since the beginning of New Rural Cooperative Medical System (NRCMS) in China, few studies have systematically evaluated the achievements of the stated policy goals. The purpose of this study is to examine to what extent the policy goals of NRCMS have been achieved. Using multistage sampling processes, two rounds of cross-sectional household surveys including 9787 and 7921 rural households were conducted in Eastern China in year 2000 and year 2008, respectively. A pre- and post-implementation comparison was used to evaluate the achievement of policy goals in three measures: impoverishment from major health hazards, household financial risk from medical expenses, and rural income inequity. Intention surveys were also applied to find out potential obstacles in the implementation of NRCMS. The rate of re-impoverishment from health hazard was reduced from 2.69 % ex ante to 2.12 % ex post, a decrease of 21.13 %. The severity of impoverishment fell from a previous 4.66 % to 3.02 %, a decline of 35.18 %. Economic risk of medical treatment population relative to the whole population fell from 2.62 ex ante to 2.03 ex post, a 22.52 % reduction. As indication of effect on improving income equity, the Gini coefficient fell from 0.4629 to 0.4541. The effects of NRCMS were significantly better than those of RCMS. Despite the preliminary achievements, our intention survey of key respondents identified that technical difficulties in actuarial funding and more sustainable reimbursement schedules has become the most challenging barriers in achieving the goals of NRCMS, while raising the insurance premium on NRCMS was no longer as big a barrier. With NRCMS, China has established a medical security system to reduce the financial burden of healthcare on rural residents. NRCMS has achieved some positive though limited effects; but technical difficulties in the implementation of

  8. Policy Goals of European Integration and Competitiveness in Academic Collaborations: An Examination of Joint Master's and Erasmus Mundus Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatsiba, Vassiliki

    2014-01-01

    This study examines policy goals pertaining to joint Master's in Europe as presented in Bologna-related and Erasmus Mundus (EM) policy texts. The profile of joint programmes has risen in the aftermath of the Bologna Process (BP), together with the launch of the EU EM. Despite a European policy tradition of cooperation in higher education (HE),…

  9. Facing policy challenges with inter- and transdisciplinary soil research focused on the UN Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouma, Johan; Montanarella, Luca

    2016-04-01

    Our current information society, populated by increasingly well-informed and critical stakeholders, presents a challenge to both the policy and science arenas. The introduction of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) offers a unique and welcome opportunity to direct joint activities towards these goals. Soil science, even though it is not mentioned as such, plays an important role in realizing a number of SDGs focusing on food, water, climate, health, biodiversity, and sustainable land use. A plea is made for a systems approach to land use studies, to be initiated by soil scientists, in which these land-related SDGs are considered in an integrated manner. To connect with policy makers and stakeholders, two approaches are functional. The first of these is the policy cycle when planning and executing research, which includes signaling, design, decision making, implementation, and evaluation. Many current research projects spend little time on signaling, which may lead to disengagement of stakeholders. Also, implementation is often seen as the responsibility of others, while it is crucial to demonstrate - if successful - the relevance of soil science. The second approach is the DPSIR approach when following the policy cycle in land-related research, distinguishing external drivers, pressures, impact, and responses to land use change that affect the state of the land in the past, present, and future. Soil science cannot by itself realize SDGs, and interdisciplinary studies on ecosystem services (ESs) provide an appropriate channel to define contributions of soil science in terms of the seven soil functions. ESs, in turn, can contribute to addressing the six SDGs (2, 3, 6, 12, 13, and 15) with an environmental, land-related character. SDGs have a societal focus and future soil science research can only be successful if stakeholders are part of the research effort in transdisciplinary projects, based on the principle of time-consuming "joint learning". The

  10. Global, National, and Local Goals: English Language Policy Implementation in an Indonesian International Standard School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Haryanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the achievement of students in math and science subjects as the impact of using English as a medium of instruction at an international standard school. A questionnaire was used as a research instrument to 190 students at one international standard school in Jambi Province, Indonesia. A focus group discussion (FGD approach was undertaken to validate and verify the data gathered through the questionnaire and clarify some issues raised in the questionnaire. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and Pearson Product Moment Correlation. It was found that the students’ demographic profile, attitude toward English and grades in math and science subjects were significantly related with their academic achievement. However, students’ perception on methods and techniques was not significantly related with their academic achievement in English, math, and the science subjects. The result showed that the implementation of English as a medium of instruction was not done well in the international standard school. This is perhaps due to the difficulty of learning science and math in English. This study provided information for policy makers, school leaders, researchers, and teacher educators to understand how the policy is implemented at the school level. The challenges of attempting too ambitious linguistic and academic goals in the school were discussed as were policy implications and future research.

  11. Convergence on Policy Goals: Character Education in East Asia and England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of character building in east Asian countries is often presented as a shared cultural construct and positioned within an east-west dichotomy. However, it is not at all clear that east Asian forms of character education are identifiable and distinct or that they always transcend national and cultural values. Jeynes (2008 has cautioned us to remember that cultural differences limit the extent to which we can learn lessons from another country, but how authoritative is this caution? The English Secretary of State for Education, Nicky Morgan, announced in December 2014 that she intended to secure England’s place as a global leader by expanding the nation’s provision and evidence base for character education. In this context, this article asks whether England shares any commonalities in the so-called east-west dichotomy on character education – are they mutually exclusive or are they compatible. Is there a west–individual view and an east - collective view? Is the character education movement in east Asia more of an ideological and political movement? As the British government looks for policy solutions to new and challenging problems, including character education, what answers can it find from abroad? What can it learn, borrow or pinch from these east Asian countries and is there a convergence on policy goals for character education within and across these countries? The paper is based on the work (translated of prominent east Asian academics and builds on the author’s personal interface with officials in the Ministry of Education in Japan and Singapore as well as meetings and conferences with numerous academics in universities across east Asian countries to address these questions.

  12. Meeting targets or saving lives: maternal health policy and Millennium Development Goal 5 in Nicaragua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvernflaten, Birgit

    2013-11-01

    In support of maternal health, disease-specific and target-oriented global policy initiatives, such as in Millennium Development Goal 5, have led to a prioritisation of narrow indicators at the expense of more comprehensive approaches. In line with global policy, Nicaragua has made skilled attendants and institutionalised delivery central to its efforts to achieving MDG5 on maternal health. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork in Nicaragua, involving participant observation and interviews with hospital and community health workers, and women and their families, this paper critically discusses how target-oriented maternal health strategies were manifested in local realities. It shows that Nicaragua's brigadistas (community health workers) and parteras (traditional birth attendants) have been driven to narrowing their own roles to identifying pregnant women and advocating that they have an institutional delivery as one their most important tasks, making them agents of MDG 5 target achievement. This has engendered fear among brigadistas and parteras of being held individually responsible in the event of a maternal death, creating dissatisfaction with their role and reducing their motivation. While intended to improve maternal health, the pressure to reach targets has unintended negative implications for the relationship between women, the local volunteers and the formal health system, which needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Social goals, health policy and the dynamics of development as bases for health education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, V L

    1977-01-01

    professionals and decision-makers are important strategies in this connection. The fostering of community capabilities for health planning and citizen responsibility in health matters is a priority in health education. This represents an investment in health resource development since the basic resources for collaboration in health improvement are people themselves, both professional and lay. Through community participation, all of us become both shapers of societal goals and governmental policies concerning health and health care, and recipients of the fruits of those goals and policies.

  14. Different accounting approaches to harvested wood products in national greenhouse gas inventories: their incentives to achievement of major policy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Seiji

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories provide four accounting approaches to harvested wood products (HWP). These differ in the way they define system boundaries. Therefore, reported national carbon emissions differ according to the accounting approach used, and the implications of each accounting approach differ for different countries. This paper investigates four IPCC accounting approaches, as well as the 1996 IPCC default approach, to determine whether they provide incentives to achievement of major policy goals related to climate, forest, trade, and waste, taking into account indirect effects of wood use change (i.e., the effects on forest carbon stocks and on carbon emissions from the use of other fuels and materials). Conclusions are as follows: (1) The analyses produced many different results from those of previous studies. These differences appear to be attributable to whether or not the indirect effects of wood use change are taken into account and the reference scenarios that are assumed; (2) The best approaches for achieving each policy goal differ, and the best approaches for particular policy goals might pose problems for other policy goals; (3) Overall, the IPCC default approach is the best accounting approach from the viewpoint of greater compatibility with, or integration across, the array of policy goals, although it does not address the issue of an increasing global carbon stock in HWP

  15. Contemporary Russian Policy In The Middle East: Strategic Goals And Tactic Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kolobov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the features of the situation in the Middle East in the modern world. Special emphasis is placed on consideration of the peculiarities of the perception of the region by representatives of the great powers in historical retrospect. To put these peculiarities objectively, the author uses comparative and historical-descriptive methods. The article also reveals specific causes and consequences of the strategic interest of the great powers towards the Middle East. Later the author explains the possibilities of a new approach to the region on the part of modern Russia and presents the analysis of archival materials shedding light on the actions of the great powers in relation to the Middle East in retrospect and in the near future. This allows to consider a new Concept of Russia’s foreign policy and the possibility of its implementation in the Greater Middle East in the foreseeable future. The article describes new technologies of political actions of the Russian Federation in the Middle East region, taking into account the factor of peacemaking and the creation of normal living conditions for the countries and peoples of the Greater Middle East. The specific peacekeeping efforts of the Russian Federation are compared with the policies of other great powers in the region. This allow to forge the assessment of the broad interpretation of the Greater Middle East in contemporary world politics. Furthermore, an attempt is made to clearly define strategic goals and characterize the patterns of tactical actions of the Russian government within the entire Middle East territory. This preconditions the need to expand the Russian presence not only in the Greater Middle East as well as in other turbulent zones. The article underlines the importance of consistency in the actions of effective crisis diplomacy and multilateral cooperation of the Russian Federation in the region and throughout the world.

  16. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...

  17. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  18. How embedded is public involvement in mainstream health research in England a decade after policy implementation? A realist evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patricia; Mathie, Elspeth; Poland, Fiona; Keenan, Julia; Howe, Amanda; Munday, Diane; Kendall, Sally; Cowe, Marion; Staniszewska, Sophie; Goodman, Claire

    2018-04-01

    Objectives To explore how embedded patient and public involvement is within mainstream health research following two decades of policy-driven work to underpin health research with patient and public involvement in England. Methods Realist evaluation using Normalization Process Theory as a programme theory to understand what enabled patient and public involvement to be embedded as normal practice. Data were collected through a national scoping and survey, and qualitative methods to track patient and public involvement processes and impact over time within 22 nationally funded research projects. Results In research studies that were able to create reciprocal working relationships and to embed patient and public involvement this was contingent on: the purpose of patient and public involvement being clear; public contributors reflecting research end-beneficiaries; researchers understanding the value of patient and public involvement; patient and public involvement opportunities being provided throughout the research and ongoing evaluation of patient and public involvement. Key contested areas included: whether to measure patient and public involvement impact; seeking public contributors to maintain a balance between being research-aware and an outsider standpoint seen as 'authentically' lay; scaling-up patient and public involvement embedded within a research infrastructure rather than risk token presence and whether patient and public involvement can have a place within basic science. Conclusions While patient and public involvement can be well-integrated within all types of research, policy makers should take account of tensions that must be navigated in balancing moral and methodological imperatives.

  19. Organization of Electricity Transmission in View of Long Term Energy Policy Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2011-01-01

    European electricity transmission industry is facing both organizational reform due to the 3 r d Package implementation, and more structural challenges related to electricity system greenification. Relying on literature, I will first analyze the contemporary TSO repositioning, avoiding dogmatic attitudes which have been prevailing in public debates over the last several years, to conclude that: (a) there is not a way to actually prove that either of the three organizational forms from the 3 r d Package has clear advantages over any of the others, and thus (b) the debate should be ended pragmatically in a political arena following a decision on what the goal really is (or, what kind of interests should be pursued). After analyzing the organizational issues I will turn to what I believe is the most important challenge in front of TSOs: gradual greenification of the electricity supply industry, with technical and economic difficulties related to it. I will stress the importance of sound and accountable policy making and enforcement. (author)

  20. Embedding energy saving policies in the Dutch non-profit housing sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, N.; Kroese, R.; Straub, A.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on policy implementation have emphasized the difficulties of putting policies into practice. The paper presents several ways in which Dutch non-profit housing providers incorporate their energy saving policies in their ‘regular’ housing management regarding the existing stock, such as

  1. A goal programming approach for a joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies: a methodological proposal and an application to the Spanish economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Francisco J; Cardenete, M Alejandro; Romero, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The economic policy needs to pay increasingly more attention to the environmental issues, which requires the development of methodologies able to incorporate environmental, as well as macroeconomic, goals in the design of public policies. Starting from this observation, this article proposes a methodology based upon a Simonian satisficing logic made operational with the help of goal programming (GP) models, to address the joint design of macroeconomic and environmental policies. The methodology is applied to the Spanish economy, where a joint policy is elicited, taking into consideration macroeconomic goals (economic growth, inflation, unemployment, public deficit) and environmental goals (CO(2), NO( x ) and SO( x ) emissions) within the context of a computable general equilibrium model. The results show how the government can "fine-tune" its policy according to different criteria using GP models. The resulting policies aggregate the environmental and the economic goals in different ways: maximum aggregate performance, maximum balance and a lexicographic hierarchy of the goals.

  2. In Law and Policy: AAMR Legislative and Social Goals: 1988-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckasson, Ruth, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    1988-1989 legislative and social goals of the American Association on Mental Retardation (AAMR) are outlined. Priorities focus on Medicaid reform, constitutional and civil rights, capital punishment and the criminal justice system, and staff compensation rates. Twenty additional goals in such areas as family support and tax reform are also…

  3. Energy Policy Act of 1992 : limited progress in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reaching fuel goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    Since the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, some, albeit limited, progress has been made in acquiring alternative fuel vehicles and reducing the consumption of petroleum fuels in transportation. DOE estimates about 1 million alternative fuel ...

  4. Education Service Contracting in the Philippines: Human Rights as Trumps, Goals, or Policy Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Donald R.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the goals and purposes of education within the international development discourse have shifted significantly away from education for productivity or human capital development and towards education for the fulfillment of the individual through human rights. The current global education climate provides governments with an…

  5. Racial Discrimination in Urban Housing Markets and Goals for Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kain, John F.

    The diverse effects of racial discrimination in urban housing markets are discussed in this paper. It also outlines a number of programs and policies that would ameliorate these effects in the short run and would help eradicate racial discrimination and segregation in the long run. The paper's emphasis reflects the opinion that housing market…

  6. The International Baccalaureate Career Programme: A Case Study of College and Career Readiness Policy Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakes, Richard D.; Donovan, Martha K.

    2018-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate (IB) is noted in school reform policy circles as the gold standard of academic excellence. While the presence of IB as a sought-after education vendor has grown in the past decade, the organization has attempted to shake off its image as an elite agency serving only private international schools with its…

  7. Is health workforce sustainability in Australia and New Zealand a realistic policy goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, James M; Naccarella, Lucio; Brooks, Peter M

    2011-05-01

    This paper assesses what health workforce 'sustainability' might mean for Australia and New Zealand, given the policy direction set out in the World Health Organization draft code on international recruitment of health workers. The governments in both countries have in the past made policy statements about the desirability of health workforce 'self-sufficiency', but OECD data show that both have a high level of dependence on internationally recruited health professionals relative to most other OECD countries. The paper argues that if a target of 'self-sufficiency' or sustainability were to be based on meeting health workforce requirements from home based training, both Australia and New Zealand fall far short of this measure, and continue to be active recruiters. The paper stresses that there is no common agreed definition of what health workforce 'self-sufficiency', or 'sustainability' is in practice, and that without an agreed definition it will be difficult for policy-makers to move the debate on to reaching agreement and possibly setting measurable targets or timelines for achievement. The paper concludes that any policy decisions related to health workforce sustainability will also have to taken in the context of a wider community debate on what is required of a health system and how is it to be funded.

  8. Technology assessment and technology policy in Europe : New concepts, new goals, new infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, R.; Leyten, J.; Hertog, P. den

    1995-01-01

    Starting from the observation that the technological potentials are underutilized in economic and in social tems, this article raises the question of what role technology assessment (TA) can play in technology policy to address this problem. The causes of the problem of underutilization are analyzed

  9. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-01-01

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  10. Challenges of the Energiewende from a policy analysis perspective. Understanding the goals and improving the policy instruments of Germany's energy transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joas, Fabian

    2017-05-19

    Germany is currently restructuring its energy system, an endeavor its chancellor, Angela Merkel, called the project of the century. This Energiewende has moved into rough waters in recent years. The relatively high and rapidly growing shares of fluctuating renewable energy sources (mainly wind and photovoltaic) have led to numerous technical and socio-economic challenges. The unclear and sometimes contradictory policy goals of the Energiewende as well as suboptimally designed policy instruments in key areas of the Energiewende are the two major areas of concerns of this dissertation. The aim of this dissertation is to contribute to the solution of selected challenges of the Energiewende in the context of goals and policy instruments. In this regard, the following four research questions are addressed: 1. What are the goals of the Energiewende and how do they interact with the design of policy instruments? 2. What are the impacts of the German nuclear phase-out on the electricity market and the security of supply? 3. How do different designs of support mechanisms for renewable energy affect the riskdistribution between society, investors in renewable energy and investors in conventional power plants? 4. What is the impact of ex-post transaction costs on the cost-effectiveness of selected climate policy instruments? The main results and the subsequent policy conclusions of this thesis can be summarized as follows: The research on the goals of the Energiewende was based on a survey among elite policy actors, which showed that climate protection is the most important goal of the Energiewende. However, climate protection is neither the only goal, nor an indispensable one. Additional goals such as the nuclear phase-out, import independence from fossil fuels and job creation also play an important role. A large majority agrees that the Energiewende would make sense even if climate change did not exist. The following policy conclusions can be derived: first, there should

  11. 'India - Solar cells' : trade rules, climate policy, and sustainable development goals

    OpenAIRE

    KARTTUNEN, Marianna B.; MOORE, Michael O.

    2017-01-01

    India – Solar Cells is one of a growing number of WTO disputes that highlight the continuing tensions between climate change polices (and renewable energy manufacturing initiatives in particular) and established multilateral trading rules. The United States alleged that Indian policies discriminated against foreign solar cell suppliers operating in the Indian market. The Appellate Body broadly rejected India’s arguments to justify the measure either under Article III.8 public procurement dero...

  12. European climate policy between ambitious goals and reality; Europaeische Klimapolitik: Zwischen Anspruch und Wirklichkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehringer, Christoph [Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftspolitik, Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    In order to restrict the risks of anthropogenic climate change to a 'tolerable' extent, the fourth assessment report of the United Nations' International Panel on Climate Change calls for a trend reversal towards globally decreasing greenhouse gas emissions within the next two decades which ultimately must lead to i a reduction of carbon dioxide emissions until the mid of the century by 50 percent as compared to 2000 emission levels. The European Union claims a lead of a role in climate policy with the objective to push forward international negotiations on far-reaching emission reduction commitments with other important industrialized and developing regions.The EU's credibility as a leading force will hinge crucially on how successfully it can fulfill its emission reduction obligations under the Kyoto Protocol by means of market-based environmental policy, in particular the exemplary operation of the EU emission trading system. Against this background, the following article provides a critical assessment of the EU's climate policy. (orig.)

  13. Energy for road passenger transport and sustainable development: assessing policies and goals interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meza, Maria Josefina Figueroa; Ribeiro, Suzana Kahn

    2013-01-01

    environmental problems, energy security concerns and dangerous climate change. This review explores a systematic approach to describe interactions documented in the literature, between policies targeting energy use in road passenger transport to reduce petroleum consumption and greenhouse gas emissions......Development that is sustainable requires an operational, efficient and safe transportation system fueled by clean, low-carbon, secure and affordable energy. The energy used in road passenger transport enables social and economic development and is the target of interventions to fight pressing urban...

  14. Ensuring an optimal environment for peer education in South African schools: Goals, systems, standards and policy options for effective learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Sharlene; Deutsch, Charles; Moolman, Benita; Arogundade, Emma; Isaacs, Dane; Michel, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    Peer education has long been seen as a key health promotion strategy and an important tool in preventing HIV infection. In South African schools, it is currently one of the strategies employed to do so. Based on both a recent research study of peer education across 35 schools and drawing on multiple previous studies in South Africa, this paper examines the key elements of peer education that contribute to its effectiveness and asks how this aligns with current educational and health policies. From this research, it summarises and proposes shared goals and aims, minimum standards of implementation and reflects on the necessary infrastructure required for peer education to be effective. In light of these findings, it offers policy recommendations regarding who should be doing peer education and the status peer education should have in a school's formal programme.

  15. The unexpected challenges of using energy intensity as a policy objective: Examining the debate over the APEC energy intensity goal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelson, Ralph D.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Energy intensity (energy demand per unit of economic output) is one of the most widely used indicators of energy efficiency in energy policy discussions. Yet its application in real-world policymaking can be surprisingly problematical. This paper aims to provide guidance to governments and organizations considering using energy intensity as a policy objective. Scope: In 2007 the APEC community adopted, then in 2011 revised, an APEC region-wide energy intensity improvement goal. This paper presents a case study of that experience, focusing on three key ‘lessons learned’. These lessons are not original findings. However, none of them have received the recognition they deserve, and consequently, they came as a surprise to many of those involved in APEC's policy discussions. Conclusions: The three lessons are as follows: (1) Energy intensity improvement is happening surprisingly quickly, but not quickly enough to meet the world's energy challenges. (2) It is difficult to find a definition of energy intensity that can make it suitable for use as an indicator of regional energy efficiency. (3) Whether the GDP's of individual economies are converted to common currency using market exchange rates or purchasing power parity (PPP) can dramatically change regional energy intensity improvement calculations. - Highlights: • APEC adopted, then subsequently revised, an energy intensity reduction goal. • This is a case study of APEC's use of energy intensity as a policy objective. • Energy intensity is declining more rapidly than many policymakers realized. • The definition of energy intensity adopted can dramatically change the incentives. • Currency conversion methodologies can dramatically change the calculations

  16. Money-back guarantee warranty policy with preventive maintenance strategy for sensor-embedded remanufactured products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqahtani, Ammar Y.; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2018-01-01

    In today's global environment, technology is constantly evolving. Being able to stay up-to-date with the very latest technological advances can be extremely hard to accomplish. As a result of these changes and developments in technology, which often come unexpectedly, consumers are frequently tempted to update their devices to the very latest model. The result is that the life cycle of a product is becoming shorter and shorter than before. Manufacturers attempt to respond to consumers' concerns involving environmental issues as well as the more governmentally stringent environmental legislations by establishing facilities which include the minimization of the totality of waste relocated to landfills by recovering materials and components from returned, or End-Of-Life products and reuse them to build a remanufactured product, and/or novel components. With the rapid growth of interest in remanufactured products' market, offering warranty for remanufactured products and components is becoming a necessity for remanufacturer in order to meet customers' requirement and as a marketing mechanism. During that process, maintenance policies are of great importance in order to reduce the warranty cost on the remanufacturer. In this paper, an optimization simulation model for remanufactured items sold with one-dimensional non-renewing money-back guarantee (MBG) warranty policy is proposed from the view of remanufacturer, in which, an End-Of-Life product is subjected to upgrade action at the end of its past life and during the warranty period, preventive maintenance actions are carried out when the remaining life of the product reaches a pre-specified value so that the remanufacturer's expected profit can be maximized. Finally, a numerical example and design of experiment analysis are provided to demonstrate the proposed approach.

  17. Optimizing two-dimensional renewable warranty policies for sensor embedded remanufactured products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alqahtani, Ammar; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2017-01-01

    Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO) system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that evaluates in a

  18. Optimizing two-dimensional renewable warranty policies for sensor embedded remanufactured products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar Alqahtani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Remanufactured products, in addition to being environment friendly, are popular with consumers because they can offer the latest technology with lower prices in comparison to brand new products. However, some consumers are hesitant to buy remanufactured products because they are skeptical about the quality of the remanufactured product and thus are unsure of the extent to which the product will render services when compared to a new product. A strategy that remanufacturers may employ to entice customers is to offer warranties on remanufactured products. To that end, this paper studies and scrutinizes the impact of offering renewing warranties on remanufactured products. Specifically, the paper suggests a methodology which simultaneously minimizes the cost incurred by the remanufacturers and maximizes the confidence of the consumers towards buying remanufacturing products. Design/methodology/approach: This study uses discrete-event simulation to optimize the implementation of a two-dimensional renewing warranty policy for remanufactured products. The implementation is illustrated using a specific product recovery system called the Advanced Remanufacturing-To-Order (ARTO system. The experiments used in the study were designed using Taguchi’s Orthogonal Arrays to represent the entire domain of the recovery system so as to observe the system behavior under various experimental conditions. In order to determine the optimum strategy offered by the remanufacturer, various warranty and preventive maintenance scenarios were analyzed using pairwise t-tests along with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA and Tukey pairwise comparisons tests for every scenario. Findings: The proposed methodology is able to simultaneously minimize the cost incurred by the remanufacturer, optimize the warranty price and period, and optimize the preventive maintenance strategy resulting in increased consumer confidence. Originality/value: This is the first study that

  19. The Tobacco-Free Village Program: Helping Rural Areas Implement and Achieve Goals of Tobacco Control Policies in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Nilesh; Patil, Deepak; Kadam, Rajashree; Fernandes, Genevie

    2017-09-27

    India has 274 million tobacco users and a tobacco use prevalence of 38% in rural areas. Tobacco consumption causes 1 million deaths and costs the health system nearly US$23 billion annually. Tobacco control policies exist but lack proper implementation. In this article, we review the Tobacco-free Village (TfV) program conducted in Maharashtra state in India and describe its process to help villages in rural India achieve "tobacco-free" status (i.e., the sale and use of tobacco are prohibited by law). We reviewed program documents and conducted 22 qualitative interviews with program staff and village-level stakeholders. From 2008 to 2014, Salaam Mumbai Foundation implemented the TfV program in 60 villages in Maharashtra state. The program used a number of strategies to help villages become tobacco free, including collaborating with a community-based organization, leveraging existing health workers, conducting a situation analysis, training health workers, engaging stakeholders, developing TfV assessment criteria, mobilizing the community, conducting health education, imposing sanctions, and offering incentives. By 2014, 4 villages had achieved tobacco-free status according to 11 assessment criteria. Successful villages demonstrated strong local leader involvement, ownership of the program, and commitment to the cause by residents. The TfV program faced barriers including poor motivation of health workers, difficulty in changing social norms of tobacco use, and refusal of local vendors to stop tobacco sales due to financial losses. This low-cost, community-driven program holds promise for helping public health practitioners and governments implement and achieve the goals of tobacco control policies, especially in resource-scarce settings. © Chatterjee et al.

  20. Goals for Sustainable Development: Focusing on Children and Youth. Social Policy Report Brief. Volume 30, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgman, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals, ratified by all 193 member states of the U.N. General Assembly in 2015, outline 17 goals considered central to sustainable development in all countries. Building on and broadening the Millennium Development Goals adopted in 2005, the new goals offer a more holistic vision of child and youth…

  1. Leveraging U.S. nuclear weapons policy to advance U.S. nonproliferation goals : implications of major theories of international relations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Andrew

    2009-06-01

    National policymakers are currently considering a dilemma of critical importance to the continued security of the United States: how can U.S. nuclear weapons policies be leveraged to benefit U.S. nuclear nonproliferation goals in the near-term, without sacrificing U.S. national security? In its role supporting U.S. nuclear weapons policy, Sandia National Laboratories has a responsibility to provide objective technical advice to support policy deliberations on this question. However, to best fulfill this duty Sandia must have a broader understanding of the context of the problem. To help develop this understanding, this paper analyzes the two predominant analytical perspectives of international relations theory to explore their prescriptions for how nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policies interact. As lenses with which to view and make sense of the world, theories of international relations must play a crucial role in framing the trade-offs at the intersection of the nuclear weapons and nonproliferation policy domains. An analysis of what these theories suggest as courses of action to leverage nuclear weapons policies to benefit nonproliferation goals is then offered, with particular emphasis on where the policy prescriptions resulting from the respective theories align to offer near-term policy changes with broad theoretical support. These policy prescriptions are then compared to the 2001 Nuclear Posture Review to understand what the theories indicate policymakers may have gotten right in their dealing with the nuclear dilemma, and where they may have gone wrong. Finally, a brief international relations research agenda is proposed to help address the dilemma between nuclear deterrence and nuclear nonproliferation policies, with particular emphasis on how such an agenda can best support the needs of the policy community and a potential 'all things nuclear' policy deliberation and decision-support framework.

  2. To curve or not to curve? The effect of college science grading policies on implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structures, and self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, James M.

    There is currently a shortage of students graduating with STEM (science, technology, engineering, or mathematics) degrees, particularly women and students of color. Approximately half of students who begin a STEM major eventually switch out. Many switchers cite the competitiveness, grading curves, and weed-out culture of introductory STEM classes as reasons for the switch. Variables known to influence resilience include a student's implicit theory of intelligence and achievement goal orientation. Incremental theory (belief that intelligence is malleable) and mastery goals (pursuit of increased competence) are more adaptive in challenging classroom contexts. This dissertation investigates the role that college science grading policies and messages about the importance of effort play in shaping both implicit theories and achievement goal orientation. College students (N = 425) were randomly assigned to read one of three grading scenarios: (1) a "mastery" scenario, which used criterion-referenced grading, permitted tests to be retaken, and included a strong effort message; (2) a "norm" scenario, which used norm-referenced grading (grading on the curve); or (3) an "effort" scenario, which combined a strong effort message with the norm-referenced policies. The dependent variables included implicit theories of intelligence, perceived classroom goal structure, and self-efficacy. A different sample of students (N = 15) were randomly assigned a scenario to read, asked to verbalize their thoughts, and responded to questions in a semi-structured interview. Results showed that students reading the mastery scenario were more likely to endorse an incremental theory of intelligence, perceived greater mastery goal structure, and had higher self-efficacy. The effort message had no effect on self-efficacy, implicit theory, and most of the goal structure measures. The interviews revealed that it was the retake policy in the mastery scenario and the competitive atmosphere in the norm

  3. Embedded Leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    find that asset classes with embedded leverage offer low risk-adjusted returns and, in the cross-section, higher embedded leverage is associated with lower returns. A portfolio which is long low-embedded-leverage securities and short high-embedded-leverage securities earns large abnormal returns...

  4. Discourse, ideas and power in global health policy networks: political attention for maternal and child health in the millennium development goal era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-05-18

    Maternal and child health issues have gained global political attention and resources in the past 10 years, due in part to their prominence on the Millennium Development Goal agenda and the use of evidence-based advocacy by policy networks. This paper identifies key factors for this achievement, and raises questions about prospective challenges for sustaining attention in the transition to the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, far broader in scope than the Millennium Development Goals. This paper relies on participant observation methods and document analysis to develop a case study of the behaviours of global maternal and child health advocacy networks during 2005-2015. The development of coordinated networks of heterogeneous actors facilitated the rise in attention to maternal and child health during the past 10 years. The strategic use of epidemiological and economic evidence by these networks enabled policy attention and promoted network cohesion. The time-bound opportunity of reaching the 2015 Millennium Development Goals created a window of opportunity for joint action. As the new post-2015 goals emerge, networks seek to sustain attention by repositioning their framing of issues, network structures, and external alliances, including with networks that lay both inside and outside of the health domain. Issues rise on global policy agendas because of how ideas are constructed, portrayed and positioned by actors within given contexts. Policy networks play a critical role by uniting stakeholders to promote persuasive ideas about policy problems and solutions. The behaviours of networks in issue-framing, member-alignment, and strategic outreach can force open windows of opportunity for political attention -- or prevent them from closing.

  5. Public Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Four Nordic Countries: Harmony of Goals and Conflict of Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Midttun, A.; Gjølberg, M.; Kourula, A.; Sweet, S.; Vallentin, S.

    2015-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility (CSR) was historically a business-oriented idea that companies should voluntarily improve their social and environmental practices. More recently, CSR has increasingly attracted governments’ attention, and is now promoted in public policy, especially in the European

  6. The Kenyan national response to internationally agreed sexual and reproductive health and rights goals: a case study of three policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oronje, Rose N

    2013-11-01

    While priorities for, and decision-making processes on, sexual and reproductive health and rights have been determined and led mainly at the international level, conflicting power dynamics and responses at the national level in some countries have continued to pose challenges for operationalising international agreements. This paper demonstrates how these conflicts have played out in Kenya through an analysis of three policy-making processes, which led to the Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Policy (2003), the Sexual Offences Act (2006), and the National Reproductive Health Policy (2007). The paper is based on data from a broader study on the drivers and inhibitors of sexual and reproductive health policy reform in Kenya, using a qualitative, case study design. Information was gathered through 54 semi-structured, in-depth interviews with governmental and civil society policy actors and an extensive review of policy documents and media reports. The paper shows that the transformative human rights framing of access to sexual and reproductive health, supported by both a strong global women's rights movement and progressive governmental and inter-governmental actors to defeat opposition to sexual and reproductive health and rights at the international level, has not been as influential or successful at the national level in Kenya, and has made comprehensive national reforms difficult to achieve. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Health Matters. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Getting out of the perfect storm: towards coherence between electricity market policies and EU climate and energy goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedinger, Andreas; Spencer, Thomas; Sartor, Oliver; Mathieu, Mathilde; Colombier, Michel; Ribera, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the EU power market has been hit by a 'perfect storm', combining multiple interacting factors: revision of demand expectations, growth of both conventional and renewable capacities, a drastic shift from gas to coal power plants and a lack of visibility on future evolutions. Some of these factors are related to the climate agenda, but mostly, they show the inherent and structural difficulties of the current design of the EU power market itself. Within the debate on EU's 2030 framework for climate and energy policies, this situation raises the question: how can the EU's policies address current difficulties of the power market while simultaneously achieving the structural targets of security, affordability and sustainability of supply in the context of decarbonization? Hitherto, the two agendas of internal electricity market policy and climate policy have been largely considered in isolation or even as conflicting agendas. However, a secure low-carbon transition will require significant policy intervention in the electricity sector, including in electricity market design. And, vice versa, an ambitious and coherent package on climate and energy policy can help restore an efficient and competitive electricity market, by strengthening investment signals, improving coordination among member states and providing a sound market framework to improve the technical and economic integration of new low-carbon technologies. Against this background, future challenges for the European policy framework should be considered along two lines: the balance between market forces and regulatory intervention, and the interplay between national and regional approaches. A reinforced EU ETS will have an important role to play, but will not be sufficient on its own to guide both dispatching and investment decisions. Complementary policies will be needed, to provide visibility on the retirement of old carbon intensive plants as well as enhanced coordination

  8. The Interaction Between FX and Credit Risk as an Example of Intersection of Monetary and Financial Stability Policy Goals – The Case of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Željko

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The financial system of Serbia is highly bank-centric and euroised, which is a common specific feature of financial systems in developing countries. High level of euroisation represents an adequate environment for the development of emphasized interaction of foreign exchange and credit risks; therefore, creation of the spillover mechanism of foreign exchange risk to credit risk is immanent for euroised systems. Although maintaining the stability of the dinar exchange rate is a secondary goal of the National Bank of Serbia in relation to price and financial stability as the primary goals, in terms of existence of the aforesaid spillover mechanism, maintaining stability of the dinar exchange rate represents the area where there is an interaction between the goals of monetary policy (price stability and those of financial stability policy (maintaining and strengthening the financial system’s stability. In order to explore whether the spillover mechanism of foreign exchange risk to credit risk exists in Serbia’s financial system, the vector autoregressive (VAR model is applied on data from the Serbian banking sector to quantify the impact of changes in the dinar exchange rates on the rate of non-performing loans (NPLs; the sample was formed in the period of increased instability of the dinar exchange rate, from 31 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. As we have quantitatively confirmed the impact of increase in the dinar exchange rate on the increase of 90-120 days past due NPLs, we can conclude that the existence of expressed interaction between foreign exchange risk and credit risk in the Serbian financial system represents a paradigm of the regulator’s need to achieve contemporary goals of monetary and financial stability policy by maintaining relative stability of the dinar exchange rates. Depreciation of the local currency has inflationary pressure on price stability and simultaneously influences the achievement of financial stability goals

  9. FULFILMENT OF GOALS OF THE INTEGRATED PRODUCT POLICY IN POLAND IN COMPARISON TO OTHER EUROPEAN UNION MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna SŁONIMIEC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the progress of implementation of the Integrated Product Policy in Poland in comparison to other European Union member states. It provides a detailed evaluation of certain IPP instruments, i.e. taxes and green premi-ums, EMAS scheme, eco-labeling and green public procurements. The paper also provides an assessment of the progress of implementation activities and requests further studies in this respect.

  10. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sumer electronic systems, they are cost sensitive. Thus their cost must be low. Robustness: Embedded systems should be robust since they operate in a harsh environment. They should endure vibrations, power supply fluctuations and excessive heat. Due to limited power supply in an embedded system, the power ...

  11. How well are the links between education and other sustainable development goals covered in UN flagship reports? A contribution to the study of the science-policy interface on education in the UN system

    OpenAIRE

    Katia Vladimirova; David Le Blanc

    2015-01-01

    In 2015, a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will succeed the Millennium Development Goals as reference goals for international development for the period 2015-2030. Education was identified as a standalone goal (SDG4). Epistemic communities have documented a number of links between education and other SDG areas, and policy makers have long recognized many of them. Based on an exhaustive content analysis of 40 global reports, this paper examines how well such links are represented i...

  12. Call for revision of policy and regulatory concepts and return to the early, major goals. A rational appraisal of current national energy policy; Konzeptionelle Neuorientierung und ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung gefordert. Rationale Bestandsaufnahme nationaler Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, D. [Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft, Univ. Essen (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    Times of serious changes such as the present time always have been a challenge with two faces to dynamic enterprise and personalities with entrepreneurial spirit, confronting them with increasing uncertainties on the one hand, and with growing need to open up and try innovative action. Success of the latter is decisively influenced by the approach chosen by policy, in this case energy and environmental policy, and whether policy tends towards cutting back regulatory intervention in the energy sector not specifically targeting energy aspects, thus supporting innovative action, or rather towards putting up additional burdens and barriers, thus fostering hesitation to invest in innovative action. This is the background and the starting point of the article, presenting an appraisal of the current situation and achievements of energy policy so far in some of the relevant sectors and branches, supplemented by a look back on initial goals of regulatory policy. (orig.) [Deutsch] Zeiten gravierender Veraenderungen wie diese bedeuten trotz des eher zunehmenden Ausmasses an Ungewissheiten fuer dynamische Unternehmen und Unternehmerpersoenlichkeiten immer auch die Eroeffnung neuer Chancen. Entscheidend hierfuer ist jedoch, ob die Energie- und Umweltpolitik in dieser Phase nichtenergiespezifische Eingriffe im Energiesektor ebenfalls abbaut und den Anpassungsprozess flankierend unterstuetzt oder die Energiewirtschaft mit neuen Belastungen konfrontiert und die ohnehin wachsenden Ungewissheiten und damit einen moeglicherweise nicht auszuschliessenden Investitionsattentismus noch verstaerkt. Vor diesem Hintergrund soll im folgenden anhand einiger als besonders relevant erachteter Bereiche der Versuch einer energiepolitischen Bestandsaufnahme vorgelegt werden, bevor abschliessend eine ordnungspolitische Rueckbesinnung erfolgt. (orig.)

  13. Meeting human resources for health staffing goals by 2018: a quantitative analysis of policy options in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schroder Kate

    2010-06-01

    training school enrolment. Supplemental interventions targeting attrition, graduation and public sector entry rates can help close the gap. HRH modelling can help MOH policy makers determine the relative priority and level of investment needed to expand Zambia's workforce to target staffing levels.

  14. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    system programmers should take into consideration all possi- bilities and write programs that do not fail. Responsiveness: Embedded systems should respond to events as soon as possible. For example, a patient monitoring system should process the patient'S heart signals quickly and immedi- ately notify if any abnormality ...

  15. Embedded defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriola, M.; Vachaspati, T.; Bucher, M.

    1994-01-01

    We give a prescription for embedding classical solutions and, in particular, topological defects in field theories which are invariant under symmetry groups that are not necessarily simple. After providing examples of embedded defects in field theories based on simple groups, we consider the electroweak model and show that it contains the Z string and a one-parameter family of strings called the W(α) string. It is argued that although the members of this family are gauge equivalent when considered in isolation, each member becomes physically distinct when multistring configurations are considered. We then turn to the issue of stability of embedded defects and demonstrate the instability of a large class of such solutions in the absence of bound states or condensates. The Z string is shown to be unstable for all values of the Higgs boson mass when θ W =π/4. W strings are also shown to be unstable for a large range of parameters. Embedded monopoles suffer from the Brandt-Neri-Coleman instability. Finally, we connect the electroweak string solutions to the sphaleron

  16. Goal Definition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Anders; Laurent, Alexis; Owsianiak, Mikołaj

    2017-01-01

    The goal definition is the first phase of an LCA and determines the purpose of a study in detail. This chapter teaches how to perform the six aspects of a goal definition: (1) Intended applications of the results, (2) Limitations due to methodological choices, (3) Decision context and reasons...... for carrying out the study, (4) Target audience , (5) Comparative studies to be disclosed to the public and (6) Commissioner of the study and other influential actors. The instructions address both the conduct and reporting of a goal definition and are largely based on the ILCD guidance document (EC...

  17. Compression embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Handel, T.G.; Bradley, J.N.

    1998-07-07

    A method and apparatus for embedding auxiliary information into the digital representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique and a method and apparatus for constructing auxiliary data from the correspondence between values in a digital key-pair table with integer index values existing in a representation of host data created by a lossy compression technique are disclosed. The methods apply to data compressed with algorithms based on series expansion, quantization to a finite number of symbols, and entropy coding. Lossy compression methods represent the original data as ordered sequences of blocks containing integer indices having redundancy and uncertainty of value by one unit, allowing indices which are adjacent in value to be manipulated to encode auxiliary data. Also included is a method to improve the efficiency of lossy compression algorithms by embedding white noise into the integer indices. Lossy compression methods use loss-less compression to reduce to the final size the intermediate representation as indices. The efficiency of the loss-less compression, known also as entropy coding compression, is increased by manipulating the indices at the intermediate stage. Manipulation of the intermediate representation improves lossy compression performance by 1 to 10%. 21 figs.

  18. Moving past the rhetoric: Policy considerations that can make Sino-African relations to improve Africa's climate change resilience and the attainment of the sustainable development goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Chirambo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a threat to the attainment of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in sub-Saharan Africa as its impacts can lead to increased incidences of poverty and inequality which can subsequently lead to a 12% decline in the Human Development Index (HDI for sub-Saharan Africa. Emerging countries such as China have the potential to support Africa to achieve the SDGs by pioneering South–South Climate Finance (SSCF modalities. In order to increase knowledge on climate informed development and the role of China in global climate governance, the paper examined various research articles, case studies, policy briefs and project reports. Sino-African aid, investments and trade were noted as essential in mitigating Africa's climate change vulnerabilities which induce poverty traps and inequality. Some African countries were noted to have a comparative advantage in environmental standards over China but lacked the initiative to use this comparative advantage to enhance the Forum on China–Africa Cooperation (FOCAC and assist China to have a sustainable growth trajectory. The paper concludes that SSCF modalities can enhance climate risk management in Africa if they focus on improving financial inclusion and improving climate finance flows towards climate change adaptation activities in Africa. Additionally, to increase the effectiveness and impact of Chinese climate finance support to Africa, African policymakers should not allow political and market forces to decide how climate related support from China should be allocated as decisions based on political and market forces could potentially promote an inequitable distribution of funds and ignore the most vulnerable countries and regions.

  19. Children, Youth and Developmental Science in the 2015-2030 Global Sustainable Development Goals. Social Policy Report. Volume 30, Number 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Abbie; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Britto, Pia Rebello; Iruka, Iheoma

    2017-01-01

    In September 2016, the member states of the United Nations completed the process of adopting and defining indicators for the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs; United Nations, 2015). Developed through a three-year, worldwide participatory process, these 17 goals and 169 targets represent a global consensus on the part of U.N. member nations…

  20. GOAL Agents Instantiate Intention Logic

    OpenAIRE

    Hindriks, Koen; van der Hoek, Wiebe

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly believed there is a big gap between agent logics and computational agent frameworks. In this paper, we show that this gap is not as big as believed by showing that GOAL agents instantiate Intention Logic of Cohen and Levesque. That is, we show that GOAL agent programs can be formally related to Intention Logic.We do so by proving that the GOAL Verification Logic can be embedded into Intention Logic. It follows that (a fragment of) Intention Logic can be used t...

  1. Industrial goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the third seminar on pellet-clad interaction, which held at Aix en Provence (France) from 9-11 march 2004, was to draw a comprehensive picture of current understanding of pellet clad interaction and its impact on the fuel rod under the widest possible conditions. This document provides the summaries of the five sessions: opening and industrial goals, fuel material behaviour in PCI situation, cladding behaviour relevant to PCI, in-pile rod behaviour, modelling of the mechanical interaction between pellet and cladding. (A.L.B.)

  2. Implementation of an embedded computer

    OpenAIRE

    Pikl, Bojan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to describe a production of an embedded computer. The thesis describes development and production of an embedded computer for the medical diode laser DL30 that is being developed in Robomed d.o.o.. The first part of the thesis describes the choice of hardware devices. I mostly describe the technologies that one can buy on the market. Moreover for every part of the computer installed and developed there is an argument why we selected that exact part. The second part ...

  3. Embedded Processor Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Embedded Processor Laboratory provides the means to design, develop, fabricate, and test embedded computers for missile guidance electronics systems in support...

  4. Safety goals for nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischhoff, B.

    1984-02-01

    The key policy question in managing hazardous technologies is often some variant of How safe is safe enough. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has recently broached this topic by adopting safety goals defining acceptable risk levels for nuclear power plants. These goals are analyzed here with a general theory of standard setting (Fischhoff, 1983) which asks: (1) Are standards an appropriate policy tool in this case. (2) Can the Commission's safety philosophy be defended. (3) Do the operational goals capture that philosophy. The anlaysis shows the safety goals proposal to be sophisticated in some respects, incomplete in others. More generally, it points to difficulties with the concept of acceptable risk and any attempt to build policy instruments around it. Although focused on the NRC's safety goals, the present analysis is a prototype of what can be learned by similarly detailed consideration of other standards, not only for nuclear power but also for other hazardous technologies, as well as for issues unrelated to safety

  5. Polymorphic Embedding of DSLs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofer, Christian; Ostermann, Klaus; Rendel, Tillmann

    2008-01-01

    propose polymorphic embedding of DSLs, where many different interpretations of a DSL can be provided as reusable components, and show how polymorphic embedding can be realized in the programming language Scala. With polymorphic embedding, the static type-safety, modularity, composability and rapid...... prototyping of pure embedding are reconciled with the flexibility attainable by external toolchains....

  6. We Have Goals. Now What?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensimon, Estela Mara; Dowd, Alicia C.; Longanecker, David; Witham, Keith

    2012-01-01

    The nation is in an era of policy reform aimed at improving the productivity and effectiveness of higher education. Major philanthropies and policy groups have converged around variations of the ambitious college completion goals announced by President Obama at the beginning of his administration. But at the same time, many state governments,…

  7. Is Deliberation a Laudable Goal When Policy Is a "Done Deal"? The Habermasian Public Sphere and Legitimacy in a Market Era of Education Policymaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Liza N.

    2016-01-01

    The state mandated public hearings concerning school closing proposals in New York City provide a window into a diverse set of policy actors and their deliberations. Opposition to school closures is often cast as entrenched interests, emotional attachment, support for the status quo or at worst negligence. However, content analysis reveals that…

  8. Sustainable embedded software lifecycle planning

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; In, Hoh Peter; Lee, Keun; Park, Sooyong; Hinchey, Mike

    2012-01-01

    peer-reviewed Time-to-market is a crucial factor in increasing market share in the consumer electronics (CE) market. Furthermore, fierce competition in the market tends to sharply lower the prices of brand-new CE products as soon as they are released. Software-intensive embedded system design methods such as hardware/software co-design have been studied with the goal of reducing development lead-time by designing hardware and software simultaneously. Many researchers, however, concentra...

  9. Moving forward with early childhood care and education (ECCE) post-2015 in the Asia Pacific region: an analysis of global and national policy goals

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, Emma

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a thematic analysis of documents produced during a recent ‘Regional Policy Forum on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE)’, attended by over 200 participants including representatives from key international donor organisations and high-level officials from over 30 countries across the Asia Pacific region. The paper begins by providing a brief overview of international developments in ECCE over the past two decades, highlighting a growing argument that points to the nee...

  10. The expansion of English-medium instruction in the Nordic countries: Can top-down university language policies encourage bottom-up disciplinary literacy goals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airey, John; Lauridsen, Karen M.; Räsänen, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Recently, in the wake of the Bologna Declaration and similar international initiatives, there has been a rapid increase in the number of university courses and programmes taught through the medium of English. Surveys have consistently shown the Nordic countries to be at the forefront of this trend...... towards English-medium instruction (EMI). In this paper, we discuss the introduction of EMI in four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden). We present the educational setting and the EMI debate in each of these countries and summarize relevant research findings. We then make some tentative...... the discussion of disciplinary literacy goals and require course syllabuses to detail disciplinaryspecific language-learning outcomes....

  11. The development and goals of the AAFP center for policy studies in family practice and primary care. American Academy of Family Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, L A; Fryer, G E

    1999-11-01

    In this article we describe the creation and role of the Center for Policy Studies in Family Practice and Primary Care established by the American Academy of Family Physicians in Washington, DC, this year. We recount the events leading to the decision to implement the Center, list its guiding assumptions, and explain its initial structure and function. We also identify the 3 themes that will guide the early work of the Center: sustaining the functional domain of family practice and primary care; investing in key infrastructures; and securing universal health coverage.

  12. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  13. Using Goal-Programming to Model the Effect of Stakeholder Determined Policy and Industry Changes on the Future Management of and Ecosystem Services Provision by Ireland’s Western Peatland Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Corrigan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have highlighted land-use conflicts between stakeholder groups in Ireland. Some of these conflicts can be attributed to European directives, designed with sustainable forest management principles in mind, but imposing incoherencies for land-owners and stakeholders at the local level. This study, using Ireland’s Western Peatland forests as a case study area, focused on the development and implementation of a goal programming model capable of analysing the long term impact of policy and industry changes at the landscape level. The model captures the essential aspects of the changes identified by local level stakeholders as influencing forest management in Ireland and determines the future impact of these changes on ecosystem services provisions. Initially, a business as usual potential future is generated. This is used as a baseline against which to compare the impact of industry and policy changes. The model output indicated that the current forest composition is only really suited to satisfy a single, financial objective for forest management. The goal programming model analysed multiple objectives simultaneously and the results indicated that the stakeholders’ desired ecosystem service provisions in the future will be more closely met by diversifying the forest estate and/or by changing to an alternative, non-forest land-use on less productive areas.

  14. Conceptualizing Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur; Hvam, Lars; Lysgaard, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Installing and servicing complex electromechanical systems is more tedious than is necessary. By putting the product knowledge into the product itself, which then would allow automation in constructing the product from modules, could solve that. It would support personnel in aftersales installation...... and services. The general idea can be named embedded configuration. In this article we intend to conceptualize embedded configuration, what it is and is not. The difference between embedded configuration, sales configuration and embedded software is explained. We will look at what is needed to make embedded...... configuration systems. That will include requirements to product modelling techniques. An example with consumer electronics will illuminate the elements of embedded configuration in settings that most can relate to. The question of where embedded configuration would be relevant is discussed, and the current...

  15. Embedded data representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willett, Wesley; Jansen, Yvonne; Dragicevic, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    We introduce embedded data representations, the use of visual and physical representations of data that are deeply integrated with the physical spaces, objects, and entities to which the data refers. Technologies like lightweight wireless displays, mixed reality hardware, and autonomous vehicles ......-situated, situated, and embedded data displays, including both visualizations and physicalizations. Based on our observations, we identify a variety of design challenges for embedded data representation, and suggest opportunities for future research and applications....

  16. Embedding beyond electrostatics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nåbo, Lina J.; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Holmgaard List, Nanna

    2016-01-01

    We study excited states of cholesterol in solution and show that, in this specific case, solute wave-function confinement is the main effect of the solvent. This is rationalized on the basis of the polarizable density embedding scheme, which in addition to polarizable embedding includes non-electrostatic...... repulsion that effectively confines the solute wave function to its cavity. We illustrate how the inclusion of non-electrostatic repulsion results in a successful identification of the intense π → π∗ transition, which was not possible using an embedding method that only includes electrostatics....... This underlines the importance of non-electrostatic repulsion in quantum-mechanical embedding-based methods....

  17. Embedded systems handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Embedded systems are nearly ubiquitous, and books on individual topics or components of embedded systems are equally abundant. Unfortunately, for those designers who thirst for knowledge of the big picture of embedded systems there is not a drop to drink. Until now. The Embedded Systems Handbook is an oasis of information, offering a mix of basic and advanced topics, new solutions and technologies arising from the most recent research efforts, and emerging trends to help you stay current in this ever-changing field.With preeminent contributors from leading industrial and academic institutions

  18. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  19. Energy-Aware Synthesis of Fault-Tolerant Schedules for Real-Time Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kåre Harbo; Pop, Paul; Izosimov, Viacheslav

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a design optimisation tool for distributed embedded real-time systems that 1) decides mapping, fault-tolerance policy and generates a fault-tolerant schedule, 2) is targeted for hard real-time, 3) has hard reliability goal, 4) generates static schedule for processes and messages......, 5) provides fault-tolerance for k transient/soft faults, 6) optimises for minimal energy consumption, while considering impact of lowering voltages on the probability of faults, 7) uses constraint logic programming (CLP) based implementation....

  20. The data embedding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandford, M.T. II; Bradley, J.N.; Handel, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    Data embedding is a new steganographic method for combining digital information sets. This paper describes the data embedding method and gives examples of its application using software written in the C-programming language. Sandford and Handel produced a computer program (BMPEMBED, Ver. 1.51 written for IBM PC/AT or compatible, MS/DOS Ver. 3.3 or later) that implements data embedding in an application for digital imagery. Information is embedded into, and extracted from, Truecolor or color-pallet images in Microsoft{reg_sign} bitmap (.BMP) format. Hiding data in the noise component of a host, by means of an algorithm that modifies or replaces the noise bits, is termed {open_quote}steganography.{close_quote} Data embedding differs markedly from conventional steganography, because it uses the noise component of the host to insert information with few or no modifications to the host data values or their statistical properties. Consequently, the entropy of the host data is affected little by using data embedding to add information. The data embedding method applies to host data compressed with transform, or {open_quote}lossy{close_quote} compression algorithms, as for example ones based on discrete cosine transform and wavelet functions. Analysis of the host noise generates a key required for embedding and extracting the auxiliary data from the combined data. The key is stored easily in the combined data. Images without the key cannot be processed to extract the embedded information. To provide security for the embedded data, one can remove the key from the combined data and manage it separately. The image key can be encrypted and stored in the combined data or transmitted separately as a ciphertext much smaller in size than the embedded data. The key size is typically ten to one-hundred bytes, and it is in data an analysis algorithm.

  1. Quantum Embedding Theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qiming; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic

    2016-12-20

    In complex systems, it is often the case that the region of interest forms only one part of a much larger system. The idea of joining two different quantum simulations-a high level calculation on the active region of interest, and a low level calculation on its environment-formally defines a quantum embedding. While any combination of techniques constitutes an embedding, several rigorous formalisms have emerged that provide for exact feedback between the embedded system and its environment. These three formulations: density functional embedding, Green's function embedding, and density matrix embedding, respectively, use the single-particle density, single-particle Green's function, and single-particle density matrix as the quantum variables of interest. Many excellent reviews exist covering these methods individually. However, a unified presentation of the different formalisms is so far lacking. Indeed, the various languages commonly used, functional equations for density functional embedding, diagrammatics for Green's function embedding, and entanglement arguments for density matrix embedding, make the three formulations appear vastly different. In this Account, we introduce the basic equations of all three formulations in such a way as to highlight their many common intellectual strands. While we focus primarily on a straightforward theoretical perspective, we also give a brief overview of recent applications and possible future developments. The first section starts with density functional embedding, where we introduce the key embedding potential via the Euler equation. We then discuss recent work concerning the treatment of the nonadditive kinetic potential, before describing mean-field density functional embedding and wave function in density functional embedding. We finish the section with extensions to time-dependence and excited states. The second section is devoted to Green's function embedding. Here, we use the Dyson equation to obtain equations that

  2. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Peter; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    and diffuse basis sets that are otherwise questionable-due to electron spill-out effects-in standard embedding models. Based on our analysis, we find the PDE model to be robust and much more systematic than less sophisticated focused embedding models, and thus outline the PDE model as a very efficient...

  3. Embeddings of Heyting Algebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, D.H.J. de; Visser, A.

    In this paper we study embeddings of Heyting Algebras. It is pointed out that such embeddings are naturally connected with Derived Rules. We compare the Heyting Algebras embeddable in the Heyting Algebra of the Intuitionistic Propositional Calculus (IPC), i.e. the free Heyting Algebra on countably

  4. Embedded engineering education

    CERN Document Server

    Kaštelan, Ivan; Temerinac, Miodrag; Barak, Moshe; Sruk, Vlado

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on the outcome of the European research project “FP7-ICT-2011-8 / 317882: Embedded Engineering Learning Platform” E2LP. Additionally, some experiences and researches outside this project have been included. This book provides information about the achieved results of the E2LP project as well as some broader views about the embedded engineering education. It captures project results and applications, methodologies, and evaluations. It leads to the history of computer architectures, brings a touch of the future in education tools and provides a valuable resource for anyone interested in embedded engineering education concepts, experiences and material. The book contents 12 original contributions and will open a broader discussion about the necessary knowledge and appropriate learning methods for the new profile of embedded engineers. As a result, the proposed Embedded Computer Engineering Learning Platform will help to educate a sufficient number of future engineers in Europe, capable of d...

  5. Embedded Web Technology: Applying World Wide Web Standards to Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponyik, Joseph G.; York, David W.

    2002-01-01

    Embedded Systems have traditionally been developed in a highly customized manner. The user interface hardware and software along with the interface to the embedded system are typically unique to the system for which they are built, resulting in extra cost to the system in terms of development time and maintenance effort. World Wide Web standards have been developed in the passed ten years with the goal of allowing servers and clients to intemperate seamlessly. The client and server systems can consist of differing hardware and software platforms but the World Wide Web standards allow them to interface without knowing about the details of system at the other end of the interface. Embedded Web Technology is the merging of Embedded Systems with the World Wide Web. Embedded Web Technology decreases the cost of developing and maintaining the user interface by allowing the user to interface to the embedded system through a web browser running on a standard personal computer. Embedded Web Technology can also be used to simplify an Embedded System's internal network.

  6. Case-Based Policy and Goal Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    hostiles in red. Lightened areas represent the radar observation cones of a single aircraft (other cones are not shown). at their target and attempt to...Cordier, A., Egyed-Zsigmond, E., Lamontagne, L., Mille , A.: Similarity measures to compare episodes in modeled traces. In: Proceedings of the Twenty

  7. Embedded Linux in het onderwijs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Ruud Ermers

    2008-01-01

    Embedded Linux wordt bij steeds meer grote bedrijven ingevoerd als embedded operating system. Binnen de opleiding Technische Informatica van Fontys Hogeschool ICT is Embedded Linux geïntroduceerd in samenwerking met het lectoraat Architectuur van Embedded Systemen. Embedded Linux is als vakgebied

  8. Moral Distress, Ethical Environment, and the Embedded Ethicist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massutta, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Interest in understanding the experience of moral distress has steadily gained traction in the 30 years since Jameton first described the phenomenon. This curiosity should be of no surprise, since we now have data documenting the incidence across most caregiver roles and healthcare settings, both in the United States and internationally. The data have also amplified healthcare providers' voices who report that the quality of the ethical environment is pivotal to preventing and containing the adverse effects caused by moral distress. Healthcare providers are asking for a moral space where ethics occurs at the bedside, in real time, applied to real cases. They are asking for ethics expertise to be available as part of the care team during their daily work, when treatment goals must be determined and decisions must be made. They are asking for an embedded ethicist who can help cultivate an ethical environment where formal ethics policy is properly applied to practice. This discussion advocates for an embedded ethics resource model that responds to contemporaneous ethics needs as a strategy to mitigate the effects of moral distress. Copyright 2017 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  9. Brauer type embedding problems

    CERN Document Server

    Ledet, Arne

    2005-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with Galois theoretical embedding problems of so-called Brauer type with a focus on 2-groups and on finding explicit criteria for solvability and explicit constructions of the solutions. The advantage of considering Brauer type embedding problems is their comparatively simple condition for solvability in the form of an obstruction in the Brauer group of the ground field. This book presupposes knowledge of classical Galois theory and the attendant algebra. Before considering questions of reducing the embedding problems and reformulating the solvability criteria, the

  10. Electronics for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bindal, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    This book provides semester-length coverage of electronics for embedded systems, covering most common analog and digital circuit-related issues encountered while designing embedded system hardware. It is written for students and young professionals who have basic circuit theory background and want to learn more about passive circuits, diode and bipolar transistor circuits, the state-of-the-art CMOS logic family and its interface with older logic families such as TTL, sensors and sensor physics, operational amplifier circuits to condition sensor signals, data converters and various circuits used in electro-mechanical device control in embedded systems. The book also provides numerous hardware design examples by integrating the topics learned in earlier chapters. The last chapter extensively reviews the combinational and sequential logic design principles to be able to design the digital part of embedded system hardware.

  11. Smart Multicore Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very...... specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention...... and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generation. Describes tools and programming models for multicore embedded systems Emphasizes throughout performance per watt scalability Discusses realistic limits of software parallelization Enables...

  12. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  13. FCJ-130 Embedding response:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Bech, Karin

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous computing positions a world where computation is embedded into our surrounding environment. Rather than retrieving information and communication from distinct devices (PCs) removed from contexts and activities, ubiquitous computing proposes that the mediated can become an integral part...

  14. Comparing Three Models of Achievement Goals: Goal Orientations, Goal Standards, and Goal Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senko, Corwin; Tropiano, Katie L.

    2016-01-01

    Achievement goal theory (Dweck, 1986) initially characterized mastery goals and performance goals as opposites in a good-bad dualism of student motivation. A later revision (Harackiewicz, Barron, & Elliot, 1998) contended that both goals can provide benefits and be pursued together. Perhaps both frameworks are correct: Their contrasting views…

  15. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  16. Smart multicore embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bertels, Koen; Karlsson, Sven; Pacull, François

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a single-source reference to the state-of-the-art of high-level programming models and compilation tool-chains for embedded system platforms. The authors address challenges faced by programmers developing software to implement parallel applications in embedded systems, where very often they are forced to rewrite sequential programs into parallel software, taking into account all the low level features and peculiarities of the underlying platforms. Readers will benefit from these authors’ approach, which takes into account both the application requirements and the platform specificities of various embedded systems from different industries. Parallel programming tool-chains are described that take as input parameters both the application and the platform model, then determine relevant transformations and mapping decisions on the concrete platform, minimizing user intervention and hiding the difficulties related to the correct and efficient use of memory hierarchy and low level code generati...

  17. On Embedding a Semigroup in a Group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    GENERAL ⎜ ARTICLE. Ends justify the means! Our goal of embedding necessitates Ore's conditions. two partial functions of interest to us is non-empty. In fact, the very idea and purpose of Ore's condition is to preclude the possibility of empty domains. Moreover, we may write f3 ◦ f3. −1. = f3. −1 ◦ f3 = iQ where Q = {3, 4, 5, .

  18. Goals and Psychological Accounting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We model how people formulate and evaluate goals to overcome self-control problems. People often attempt to regulate their behavior by evaluating goal-related outcomes separately (in narrow psychological accounts) rather than jointly (in a broad account). To explain this evidence, our theory...... of endogenous narrow or broad psychological accounts combines insights from the literatures on goals and mental accounting with models of expectations-based reference-dependent preferences. By formulating goals the individual creates expectations that induce reference points for task outcomes. These goal......-induced reference points make substandard performance psychologically painful and motivate the individual to stick to his goals. How strong the commitment to goals is depends on the type of psychological account. We provide conditions when it is optimal to evaluate goals in narrow accounts. The key intuition...

  19. Embedded-monolith armor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElfresh, Michael W.; Groves, Scott E; Moffet, Mitchell L.; Martin, Louis P.

    2016-07-19

    A lightweight armor system utilizing a face section having a multiplicity of monoliths embedded in a matrix supported on low density foam. The face section is supported with a strong stiff backing plate. The backing plate is mounted on a spall plate.

  20. Isometric embeddings of polyhedra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minemyer, Barry

    An indefinite metric polyhedron is a triple (X, T, g) where X is a topological space, T is a simplicial triangulation of X with edge set E, and g is a function from E to the reals. g assigns to each k-dimensional simplex S a unique quadratic form on Rk, denoted by G(S). An indefinite metric polyhedron is called a Euclidean polyhedron if the form G(S) is positive definite for every simplex S. Rpq denotes R p + q endowed with the inner product of signature (p, q). Our first result is that every compact n-dimensional indefinite metric polyhedron with vertex set V admits a simplicial isometric embedding into Rqq where q = max{d, 2n + 1} and d = max{deg(v) | v is in V}. We can use the compact case to extend to the non-compact case, but only if we assume that d = max{deg(v) | v is in V} is less than infinity. Specifically, every (non-compact) indefinite metric polyhedron admits a simplicial isometric embedding into Rpp where p = 2q(d3 - d2 + d + 1) and q and d are defined as above. Finally we use results of Akopyan and Greene to prove that every n-dimensional indefinite metric polyhedron admits a piecewise linear isometric embedding into Rn2n. In Chapter 2 we prove that every short (1-Lipschitz) map from an n-dimensional Euclidean polyhedron into EN is epsilon close to a pl isometric embedding (for anyepsilon > 0) provided N ≥ 3n. We can relax the dimensionality of the Euclidean space to 2n + 1 if we allow our map to be continuous instead of pl. These results are extensions of a result due to Akopyan. We provide a detailed proof of Akopyan's Theorem, as the only currently available proof is in Russian. The remaining results in this work are applications of our continuous isometric embedding theorem above. This result is used to prove that every Pro-Euclidean space of rank at most n admits an isometric embedding into E2n + 1. The result, as well as a theorem due to Bridson, also allows for an approximate isometric embedding theorem for geodesic metric spaces with

  1. Making Sustainable Consumption and Production the Core of Sustainable Development Goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewis Akenji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that sustainable consumption and production (SCP should play a prominent role in the formulation and implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDGs and discusses how this could be practically done. Unsustainable patterns of consumption and production have been declared the primary cause of environmental deterioration. This was clearly recognized already at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (or the Rio Summit in 1992; and this recognition has been reconfirmed in all high-level sustainability meetings since then. SCP aims to change these patterns; it is a policy agenda for addressing the root causes of our ecological predicament, while, at the same time, providing for human wellbeing and prosperity. Drawing from international agreements, practical policy experience and research from a range of disciplines, the paper provides a clarifying framework for scientifically robust, policy-relevant and practical goal-setting for SCP within the SDGs. Special attention is given to how SCP in the SDGs can create synergies with other international policy initiatives. The paper explores the advantages and disadvantages of two possible options for reflecting SCP in the SDGs framework: (i SCP as a stand-alone goal; and (ii SCP as a cross-cutting objective, embedded within relevant goals. While these two options are not necessarily mutually exclusive, given the competing number of issues for prioritization and the fact that a 10-Year Framework of Programs on SCP has also recently been established, it is hardly foreseeable that both options can be realized. The paper further proposes a set of basic principles for SCP at the global level and makes recommendations towards the formulation of indicators supporting SCP objectives in the SDGs.

  2. Goal conflict and goal facilitation as predictors of daily accelerometer-assessed physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presseau, Justin; Tait, Richard I; Johnston, Derek W; Francis, Jill J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2013-12-01

    To test whether perceptions of conflicting and facilitating personal goals, and actual daily time spent in their pursuit, predict accelerometer-assessed physical activity (PA). A prospective multilevel design with a daily accelerometer-based assessment of PA over 1 week was used (N = 106). Participants' personal goals were elicited using personal projects analysis. Participants then rated their personal goals in terms of how they were perceived to facilitate and conflict with their regular PA. Items assessing PA-specific intention and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were also embedded within the baseline measures. For the subsequent 7 consecutive days, participants completed a daily diary based on the day reconstruction method, indicating the time spent in daily episodes involving each of their personal goals, and wore an RT3 tri-axial accelerometer. The main outcome was accelerometer-assessed daily time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Random intercept multilevel models indicated that perceived goal facilitation, but not perceived goal conflict, predicted MVPA over and above intention and PBC. Daily time pursuing conflicting goals negatively predicted MVPA when subsequently added to the model and in so doing, attenuated the association between perceived goal facilitation and MVPA. Perceived goal facilitation predicts objectively measured PA over and above intention and PBC, but daily time spent in pursuit of conflicting personal goals provides a better account of how alternative goals relate to engaging in regular PA.

  3. Embedded Visual System and its Applications on Robots

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, De

    2010-01-01

    Embedded vision systems such as smart cameras have been rapidly developed recently. Vision systems have become smaller and lighter, but their performance has improved. The algorithms in embedded vision systems have their specifications limited by frequency of CPU, memory size, and architecture. The goal of this e-book is to provide a an advanced reference work for engineers, researchers and scholars in the field of robotics, machine vision, and automation and to facilitate the exchange of their ideas, experiences and views on embedded vision system models. The effectiveness for all methods is

  4. Shared goals and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Olle

    2015-01-01

    undemanding for children to engage in, and therefore has the potential to play a part in fostering their understanding of other minds. Part of the functional role of shared goals is to enable agents to choose means that are appropriate to realising a goal with others rather than individually. By offering...

  5. Motivational Goal Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nafziger, Julia; Koch, Alexander

    It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because th...... of the tasks. Narrow goals have a stronger motivational force and thus can be optimal. In particular, if one task outcome becomes known before working on the second task, narrow bracketing is always optimal.......It is a puzzle why people often evaluate consequences of choices separately (narrow bracketing) rather than jointly (broad bracketing). We study the hypothesis that a present-biased individual, who faces two tasks, may bracket his goals narrowly for motivational reasons. Goals motivate because...

  6. Threat to Freedom and the Detrimental Effect of Avoidance Goal Frames: Reactance as a Mediating Variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Graupmann, Verena; Fryer, James W.; Frey, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments examined how individuals respond to a restriction presented within an approach versus an avoidance frame. In Study 1, working on a problem-solving task, participants were initially free to choose their strategy, but for a second task were told to change their strategy. The message to change was embedded in either an approach or avoidance frame. When confronted with an avoidance compared to an approach frame, the participants’ reactance toward the request was greater and, in turn, led to impaired performance. The role of reactance as a response to threat to freedom was explicitly examined in Study 2, in which participants evaluated a potential change in policy affecting their program of study herein explicitly varying whether a restriction was present or absent and whether the message was embedded in an approach versus avoidance frame. When communicated with an avoidance frame and as a restriction, participants showed the highest resistance in terms of reactance, message agreement and evaluation of the communicator. The difference in agreement with the change was mediated by reactance only when a restriction was present. Overall, avoidance goal frames were associated with more resistance to change on different levels of experience (reactance, performance, and person perception). Reactance mediated the effect of goal frame on other outcomes only when a restriction was present. PMID:27242572

  7. Optimization of Hierarchically Scheduled Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2005-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimization of heterogeneous distributed embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organized in a hierarchy. In this paper, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We present algorithms for solving these problems....... Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilization of the system. The developed algorithms are evaluated using extensive experiments and a real-life example....

  8. Embedded software verification and debugging

    CERN Document Server

    Winterholer, Markus

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of verification and debugging techniques for embedded software, which is frequently used in safety critical applications (e.g., automotive), where failures are unacceptable. Since the verification of complex systems needs to encompass the verification of both hardware and embedded software modules, this book focuses on verification and debugging approaches for embedded software with hardware dependencies. Coverage includes the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software and all key approaches to debugging, dynamic, static, and hybrid verification. This book discusses the current, industrial embedded software verification flow, as well as emerging trends with focus on formal and hybrid verification and debugging approaches. Includes in a single source the entire flow of design, verification and debugging of embedded software; Addresses the main techniques that are currently being used in the industry for assuring the quality of embedded softw...

  9. Unsteady Flame Embedding

    KAUST Repository

    El-Asrag, Hossam A.

    2011-01-01

    Direct simulation of all the length and time scales relevant to practical combustion processes is computationally prohibitive. When combustion processes are driven by reaction and transport phenomena occurring at the unresolved scales of a numerical simulation, one must introduce a dynamic subgrid model that accounts for the multiscale nature of the problem using information available on a resolvable grid. Here, we discuss a model that captures unsteady flow-flame interactions- including extinction, re-ignition, and history effects-via embedded simulations at the subgrid level. The model efficiently accounts for subgrid flame structure and incorporates detailed chemistry and transport, allowing more accurate prediction of the stretch effect and the heat release. In this chapter we first review the work done in the past thirty years to develop the flame embedding concept. Next we present a formulation for the same concept that is compatible with Large Eddy Simulation in the flamelet regimes. The unsteady flame embedding approach (UFE) treats the flame as an ensemble of locally one-dimensional flames, similar to the flamelet approach. However, a set of elemental one-dimensional flames is used to describe the turbulent flame structure directly at the subgrid level. The calculations employ a one-dimensional unsteady flame model that incorporates unsteady strain rate, curvature, and mixture boundary conditions imposed by the resolved scales. The model is used for closure of the subgrid terms in the context of large eddy simulation. Direct numerical simulation (DNS) data from a flame-vortex interaction problem is used for comparison. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011.

  10. Embedded microcontroller interfacing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Gourab Sen

    2010-01-01

    Mixed-Signal Embedded Microcontrollers are commonly used in integrating analog components needed to control non-digital electronic systems. They are used in automatically controlled devices and products, such as automobile engine control systems, wireless remote controllers, office machines, home appliances, power tools, and toys. Microcontrollers make it economical to digitally control even more devices and processes by reducing the size and cost, compared to a design that uses a separate microprocessor, memory, and input/output devices. In many undergraduate and post-graduate courses, teachi

  11. Embedment of Employee?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buhl, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    and an empirical case study. My starting point will be a case study of a Danish ABB company which will form the framework of my discussion and reflect my present experience. This analysis will emphasize the possibilities of making employee participation a permanent part of the company at all levels.......The purpose of the paper is to discuss the influence of different approaches and work life conditions on the conception of embedment of employee participation. The discussion is based on three connected approaches: a theoretical research, a research into participation in working life...

  12. Setting goals in psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emiliussen, Jakob; Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the ethical dilemmas of setting goals in therapy. The main questions that it aims to answer are: who is to set the goals for therapy and who is to decide when they have been reached? The study is based on four semi-­‐structured, phenomenological interviews...... with psychologists, which were analyzed using the framework of the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), with minor changes to the procedure of categorization. Using Harré’s (2002, 2012) Positioning Theory, it is shown that determining goals and deciding if they have been reached are processes...... that are based on asymmetric collaboration between the therapist and the client. Determining goals and deciding when they are reached are not “sterile” procedures, as both the client and the therapist might have different agendas when working therapeutically. The psychologists that participated in this study...

  13. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.” Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc. Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page. Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark. Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create. Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  14. Citizen Goals Online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin Vrabie

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to give to public institution Web designers a better understanding of the citizens’ objectives when accessing a Web page. Understanding citizen online goals is critical because it gets to the heart of what the public institution website should or could “do.”Approach: The challenge for e-marketers is that for most agencies/institutions, there are likely to be multiple goals that represent the “reason why” citizens could come to the website. For example, a national theatre website might be very effective for people who have already been there, they know effectively what place is the best, who are the actors, etc.Research limitations: The nature of a public institution activity almost dictates the different types of goals that consumers have when visiting the site. It is clear that a citizen has a different goal when accessing a theatre Web page or when he’s accessing a municipality Web page. This is the biggest impediment for drawing a good conceptual model for a public institution Web page.Practical implications: there are likely to be many other goals that could lead people to visit the site, like receiving customer service or leaving a remark.Value: Since citizen online goals represent the starting point for Web design efforts (for public institutions, this article has attempted to highlight the nature and types of goals that e-marketers might consider when planning what their website should do in order to create.Findings: The goal a site visitor has when arriving at a website tends to be very action oriented. If the visitor has never visited the site before, the goal may simply be to evaluate the website and figure out what the site is and if it will help him. On the other hand, if the visitor has reached the site as the result of a directed search or is a repeat visitor, the user goal is likely to be specific and functional. If important citizen goals are not supported by the website, the public

  15. Development of safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathbun, D.; Modarres, M.

    1987-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the historical development of safety goals for nuclear power plants, including the July 30, 1986, safety goal policy. In the course of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's evaluation of safety goals, several issues have emerged. In particular, the benefit-cost guideline and the core-melt design objective have been subjects of continuing scrutiny and debate. These and other issues remaining to be resolved for completing the development of a final policy are discussed. Finally, the current status of the safety goals policy is discussed

  16. Making Choices, Setting Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes management and education is very important. The way information is provided influences people's behaviours and thus outcomes. The way information is presented can increase or reduce the individual's ability to make informed decisions about their treatment and influences whether they acti...... they actively participate in the discussion. Educators need to understand how people make decisions and the philosophy and science that underpins people's goals and the behaviours they serve, and conduct meaningful conversations to achieve SMARTER goals....

  17. Learning optimal embedded cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberian, Mohammad Javad; Vasconcelos, Nuno

    2012-10-01

    The problem of automatic and optimal design of embedded object detector cascades is considered. Two main challenges are identified: optimization of the cascade configuration and optimization of individual cascade stages, so as to achieve the best tradeoff between classification accuracy and speed, under a detection rate constraint. Two novel boosting algorithms are proposed to address these problems. The first, RCBoost, formulates boosting as a constrained optimization problem which is solved with a barrier penalty method. The constraint is the target detection rate, which is met at all iterations of the boosting process. This enables the design of embedded cascades of known configuration without extensive cross validation or heuristics. The second, ECBoost, searches over cascade configurations to achieve the optimal tradeoff between classification risk and speed. The two algorithms are combined into an overall boosting procedure, RCECBoost, which optimizes both the cascade configuration and its stages under a detection rate constraint, in a fully automated manner. Extensive experiments in face, car, pedestrian, and panda detection show that the resulting detectors achieve an accuracy versus speed tradeoff superior to those of previous methods.

  18. Onboard Run-Time Goal Selection for Autonomous Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; McLaren, David

    2010-01-01

    We describe an efficient, online goal selection algorithm for use onboard spacecraft and its use for selecting goals at runtime. Our focus is on the re-planning that must be performed in a timely manner on the embedded system where computational resources are limited. In particular, our algorithm generates near optimal solutions to problems with fully specified goal requests that oversubscribe available resources but have no temporal flexibility. By using a fast, incremental algorithm, goal selection can be postponed in a "just-in-time" fashion allowing requests to be changed or added at the last minute. This enables shorter response cycles and greater autonomy for the system under control.

  19. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Summary form only given. Embedded systems are everywhere: from alarm clocks to PDAs, from mobile phones to cars, almost all the devices we use are controlled by embedded systems. Over 99% of the microprocessors produced today are used in embedded systems, and recently the number of embedded systems...... in use has become larger than the number of humans on the planet. The complexity of embedded systems is growing at a very high pace and the constraints in terms of functionality, performance, low energy consumption, reliability, cost and time-to-market are getting tighter. Therefore, the task...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  20. Safety goals for nuclear power plants: a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This report includes a proposed policy statement on safety goals for nuclear power plants published by the Commission for public comment and a supporting discussion paper. Proposed qualitative goals and associated numerical guidelines for nuclear power-plant accident risks are presented. The significance of the goals and guidelines, their bases and rationale, and their proposed mode of implementation are discussed

  1. Gender and the millenium development goals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Njiro, E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available It has taken nearly half a century for the goals of poverty reduction and gender equality to achieve this prominence in mainstream policy concerns. In the process, the understanding of poverty has been transformed from the early equation with income...

  2. Articulation: how societal goals matter in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338018387

    2016-01-01

    Science policies try to steer scientists to conduct societally relevant research. This societal relevance is often expressed in large societal goals, such as addressing sustainability or helping with the problems that an ageing society might bring. Emerging technologies, like nanotechnology, are

  3. Embedded Systems Design with FPGAs

    CERN Document Server

    Pnevmatikatos, Dionisios; Sklavos, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This book presents methodologies for modern applications of embedded systems design, using field programmable gate array (FPGA) devices.  Coverage includes state-of-the-art research from academia and industry on a wide range of topics, including advanced electronic design automation (EDA), novel system architectures, embedded processors, arithmetic, dynamic reconfiguration and applications. Describes a variety of methodologies for modern embedded systems design;  Implements methodologies presented on FPGAs; Covers a wide variety of applications for reconfigurable embedded systems, including Bioinformatics, Communications and networking, Application acceleration, Medical solutions, Experiments for high energy physics, Astronomy, Aerospace, Biologically inspired systems and Computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

  4. Advances in embedded computer vision

    CERN Document Server

    Kisacanin, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    This illuminating collection offers a fresh look at the very latest advances in the field of embedded computer vision. Emerging areas covered by this comprehensive text/reference include the embedded realization of 3D vision technologies for a variety of applications, such as stereo cameras on mobile devices. Recent trends towards the development of small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with embedded image and video processing algorithms are also examined. The authoritative insights range from historical perspectives to future developments, reviewing embedded implementation, tools, technolog

  5. Communicating embedded systems networks applications

    CERN Document Server

    Krief, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Embedded systems become more and more complex and require having some knowledge in various disciplines such as electronics, data processing, telecommunications and networks. Without detailing all the aspects related to the design of embedded systems, this book, which was written by specialists in electronics, data processing and telecommunications and networks, gives an interesting point of view of communication techniques and problems in embedded systems. This choice is easily justified by the fact that embedded systems are today massively communicating and that telecommunications and network

  6. Embedded sensor systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Dharma Prakash

    2017-01-01

    This inspiring textbook provides an introduction to wireless technologies for sensors, explores potential use of sensors for numerous applications, and utilizes probability theory and mathematical methods as a means of embedding sensors in system design. It discusses the need for synchronization and underlying limitations, inter-relation between given coverage and connectivity to number of sensors needed, and the use of geometrical distance to determine location of the base station for data collection and explore use of anchor nodes for relative position determination of sensors. The book explores energy conservation, communication using TCP, the need for clustering and data aggregation, and residual energy determination and energy harvesting. It covers key topics of sensor communication like mobile base stations and relay nodes, delay-tolerant sensor networks, and remote sensing and possible applications. The book defines routing methods and do performance evaluation for random and regular sensor topology an...

  7. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapes, Jordi; Solsona, Francesc

    2016-02-06

    Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  8. FingerScanner: Embedding a Fingerprint Scanner in a Raspberry Pi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Sapes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, researchers are paying increasing attention to embedding systems. Cost reduction has lead to an increase in the number of platforms supporting the operating system Linux, jointly with the Raspberry Pi motherboard. Thus, embedding devices on Raspberry-Linux systems is a goal in order to make competitive commercial products. This paper presents a low-cost fingerprint recognition system embedded into a Raspberry Pi with Linux.

  9. Embedding potentials for excited states of embedded species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesolowski, Tomasz A.

    2014-01-01

    Frozen-Density-Embedding Theory (FDET) is a formalism to obtain the upper bound of the ground-state energy of the total system and the corresponding embedded wavefunction by means of Euler-Lagrange equations [T. A. Wesolowski, Phys. Rev. A 77(1), 012504 (2008)]. FDET provides the expression for the embedding potential as a functional of the electron density of the embedded species, electron density of the environment, and the field generated by other charges in the environment. Under certain conditions, FDET leads to the exact ground-state energy and density of the whole system. Following Perdew-Levy theorem on stationary states of the ground-state energy functional, the other-than-ground-state stationary states of the FDET energy functional correspond to excited states. In the present work, we analyze such use of other-than-ground-state embedded wavefunctions obtained in practical calculations, i.e., when the FDET embedding potential is approximated. Three computational approaches based on FDET, that assure self-consistent excitation energy and embedded wavefunction dealing with the issue of orthogonality of embedded wavefunctions for different states in a different manner, are proposed and discussed

  10. Energy policy after 2020 : Economic arguments to pursue energy policy for non-climate related reasons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocsis, V.; Koutstaal, P.; Tieben, B.; van Hout, M.; Hof, B.

    2012-01-01

    This research investigates the contribution of sustainable energy policy and energy saving policy to the public goals of energy policy in the Netherlands. Not surprisingly current discussion about sustainable energy policy focus on the contribution of energy policy to the goals of climate policy,

  11. Program spectra analysis in embedded software : A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abreu, R.; Zoeteweij, P.; Van Gemund, A.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Because of constraints imposed by the market, embedded software in consumer electronics is almost inevitably shipped with faults and the goal is just to reduce the inherent unreliability to an acceptable level before a product has to be released. Automatic fault diagnosis is a valuable tool to

  12. Design, implementation, and evaluation of the Resilient Smalltalk embedded platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Robert; Bak, Lars; Grarup, Steffen

    2005-01-01

    machine running on embedded systems. Programmers may connect to running virtual machines and service, monitor, or change the running systems. Furthermore, we present an evaluation of the Resilient platform in relation to the design goals through a case study of two development projects which successfully...

  13. Embedding loop quantum cosmology without piecewise linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    An important goal is to understand better the relation between full loop quantum gravity (LQG) and the simplified, reduced theory known as loop quantum cosmology (LQC), directly at the quantum level. Such a firmer understanding would increase confidence in the reduced theory as a tool for formulating predictions of the full theory, as well as permitting lessons from the reduced theory to guide further development in the full theory. This paper constructs an embedding of the usual state space of LQC into that of standard LQG, that is, LQG based on piecewise analytic paths. The embedding is well defined even prior to solving the diffeomorphism constraint, at no point is a graph fixed and at no point is the piecewise linear category used. This motivates for the first time a definition of operators in LQC corresponding to holonomies along non-piecewise linear paths, without changing the usual kinematics of LQC in any way. The new embedding intertwines all operators corresponding to such holonomies, and all elements in its image satisfy an operator equation which classically implies homogeneity and isotropy. The construction is made possible by a recent result proven by Fleischhack. Communicated by P Singh

  14. Learning Goals and Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Howard R.

    1978-01-01

    Excerpts from a recent landmark study of American higher education focus on goals of higher education, cognitive outcomes of college and impact on practical competence, and some conclusions about consequences of higher education. It is shown that in both monetary, but especially in nonmonetary terms, higher education is well worth the cost. (AF)

  15. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  16. Unreal Goal Bots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, K.V.; Korstanje, R.; Van Riemsdijk, M.B.; Kraayenbrink, N.; De Rijk, L.; Behrens, T.; Pasman, W.

    2010-01-01

    It remains a challenge with current state of the art technology to use BDI agents to control real-time, dynamic and complex environments. We report on our effort to connect the GOAL agent programming language to the real-time game UNREAL TOURNAMENT 2004. We focus in particular on the design of a

  17. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-05-01

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  18. Nullspace embeddings for outerplanar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lovász (László); A. Schrijver (Alexander)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractWe study relations between geometric embeddings of graphs and the spectrum of associated matrices, focusing on outerplanar embeddings of graphs. For a simple connected graph G=(V,E), we define a "good" G-matrix as a V×V matrix with negative entries corresponding to adjacent nodes, zero

  19. Nullspace embeddings for outerplanar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Lovász (László); A. Schrijver (Alexander); M. Loebl (Martin); J. Nešetřil (Jaroslav); R. Thomas (Robin)

    2017-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study relations between geometric embeddings of graphs and the spectrum of associated matrices, focusing on outerplanar embeddings of graphs. For a simple connected graph G = (V, E), we define a "good” G-matrix as a V × V matrix with negative

  20. Nullspace embeddings for outerplanar graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovász, L.; Schrijver, A.; Loebl, M.; Nešetřil, J.; Thomas, R.

    2017-01-01

    We study relations between geometric embeddings of graphs and the spectrum of associated matrices, focusing on outerplanar embeddings of graphs. For a simple connected graph G = (V, E), we define a “good” G-matrix as a V × V matrix with negative entries corresponding to adjacent nodes, zero entries

  1. Stylistic Embedding in Yoruba Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olabode, Afolabi

    The process of embedding, a term used in generative grammar to refer to a construction in which a sentence is included within another sentence, is examined as it occurs in Yoruba literature. Examples are drawn from Yoruba praise poetry, in both written and oral form and within Yoruba novels. Forms of embedding identified include those to draw…

  2. Selfish goals serve more fundamental social and biological goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D Vaughn; Kenrick, Douglas T

    2014-04-01

    Proximate selfish goals reflect the machinations of more fundamental goals such as self-protection and reproduction. Evolutionary life history theory allows us to make predictions about which goals are prioritized over others, which stimuli release which goals, and how the stages of cognitive processing are selectively influenced to better achieve the aims of those goals.

  3. Embedded human computer interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Christopher; Baumann, Konrad

    2002-05-01

    In this paper, human interaction with embedded or ubiquitous technology is considered. The techniques focus on the use of what might be termed "everyday" objects and actions as a means of controlling (or otherwise interacting with) technology. While this paper is not intended to be an exhaustive review, it does present a view of the immediate future of human-computer interaction (HCI) in which users move beyond the desktop to where interacting with technology becomes merged with other activity. At one level this places HCI in the context of other forms of personal and domestic technologies. At another level, this raises questions as to how people will interact with technologies of the future. Until now, HCI had often relied on people learning obscure command sets or learning to recognise words and objects on their computer screen. The most significant advance in HCI (the invention of the WIMP interface) is already some 40 years old. Thus, the future of HCI might be one in which people are encouraged (or at least allowed) to employ the skills that they have developed during their lives in order to interact with technology, rather than being forced to learn and perfect new skills.

  4. Translating Language Policy into Practice: Language and Culture Policy at a Dutch University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of internationalization at a Dutch university. We describe some the…

  5. Translating language policy into practice: Language and culture policy at a Dutch university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haines, Kevin; Dijk, Anje

    2016-01-01

    The CEFR will only achieve its potential in higher education if it is embedded in a meaningful way in the wider processes of the university. One means of embedding the CEFR is through policy, and in this article we report the development of a language policy in the broader context of

  6. How physicians teach in the clinical setting: The embedded roles of teaching and clinical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinert, Yvonne; Basi, Mandeep; Nugus, Peter

    2017-12-01

    Clinical teaching lies at the heart of medical education. However, few studies have explored the embedded nature of teaching and clinical care. The goal of this study was to examine the process of clinical teaching as it naturally, and spontaneously, unfolds in a broad range of authentic contexts with medical students and residents. This focused ethnographic study consisted of 160 hours of participant observation and field interviews with three internal medicine teams. Thematic analysis guided data organization and interpretation. Three overlapping themes emerged: the interconnectedness between clinical work and pedagogy; a multiplicity of teachers; and the influence of space and artifacts on teaching and learning. Clinical teaching, which was deeply embedded in clinical care, was influenced by the acuity of patient problems, learner needs, and the context in which teaching unfolded; it also occurred on a spectrum that included planned, opportunistic, formal, and informal teaching (and learning). Study findings suggest that clinical teaching, which is marked by an intersection between service and teaching, can be viewed as an example of work-based teaching. They also yield suggestions for the enhancement of clinical teaching in inpatient settings, faculty development, and educational policies that recognize clinical teaching and learning.

  7. Embedded systems circuits and programming

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Julio

    2012-01-01

    During the development of an engineered product, developers often need to create an embedded system--a prototype--that demonstrates the operation/function of the device and proves its viability. Offering practical tools for the development and prototyping phases, Embedded Systems Circuits and Programming provides a tutorial on microcontroller programming and the basics of embedded design. The book focuses on several development tools and resources: Standard and off-the-shelf components, such as input/output devices, integrated circuits, motors, and programmable microcontrollers The implementat

  8. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  9. Embedded Systems Design: Optimization Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul

    2005-01-01

    -to-market, and reduce development and manufacturing costs. In this paper, the author introduces several embedded systems design problems, and shows how they can be formulated as optimization problems. Solving such challenging design optimization problems are the key to the success of the embedded systems design...... of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time. New automated design optimization techniques are needed, which are able to: successfully manage the complexity of embedded systems, meet the constraints imposed by the application domain, shorten the time...

  10. IMPROVEMENTS IN EPOXY RESIN EMBEDDING METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, John H.

    1961-01-01

    Epoxy embedding methods of Glauert and Kushida have been modified so as to yield rapid, reproducible, and convenient embedding methods for electron microscopy. The sections are robust and tissue damage is less than with methacrylate embedding. PMID:13764136

  11. Tracking health-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs comprise of 17 goals and 169 targets. All SDGs are interlinked to produce synergetic eff ects and emphasize health in all policies. Among the 17 Goals, Goal 3 has a central focus on health, which is underpinned by 13 targets. The other 16 goals are also directly or indirectly related to health and will contribute to achieving the associated targets for Goal 3. The ambitious SDG agenda and their progress can be tracked by measuring numerous goals, targets, and indicators. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview about how health- related SDGs and their targets and indicators are being tracked in the national context of Nepal. Adequate investment in research for knowledge generation, capacity building and innovation, and continous research communication among policy makers, researchers and external development partners will contribute to tracking the progress of SDGs in Nepal.

  12. The 'Arc of Prosperity' Revisited: Homelessness Policy Change in North Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel Anderson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares continuity and change in homelessness policy in Ireland, Scotland and Norway with a particular focus on the period of post-crisis austerity measures (2008–2016. The analytical approach draws on institutional theory and the notion of path dependency, which has rarely been applied to comparative homelessness research. The paper compares welfare and housing systems in the three countries prior to presenting a detailed analysis of the conceptualisation and measurement of homelessness; the institutions which address homelessness; and the evidence of change in the post-2008 period. The analysis demonstrates that challenges remain in comparing the nature of homelessness and policy responses across nation states, even where they have a number of similar characteristics, and despite some EU influence towards homelessness policy convergence. Similarly, national-level homelessness policy change could not be interpreted as entirely a result of the external shock of the 2008 general financial crisis, as existing national policy goals and programmes were also influential. Overall, embedded national frameworks and institutions were resilient, but sufficiently flexible to deliver longer term policy shifts in response to the changing nature of the homelessness problem and national policy goals. Institutionalism and path dependency were found to be useful in developing the comparative analysis of homelessness policy change and could be fruitfully applied in future longitudinal, empirical research across a wider range of countries.

  13. Embedded mechatronic systems 1 analysis of failures, predictive reliability

    CERN Document Server

    El Hami, Abdelkhalak

    2015-01-01

    In operation, mechatronics embedded systems are stressed by loads of different causes: climate (temperature, humidity), vibration, electrical and electromagnetic. These stresses in components which induce failure mechanisms should be identified and modeled for better control. AUDACE is a collaborative project of the cluster Mov'eo that address issues specific to mechatronic reliability embedded systems. AUDACE means analyzing the causes of failure of components of mechatronic systems onboard. The goal of the project is to optimize the design of mechatronic devices by reliability. The projec

  14. Proposed goals for radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Frazier, D.H.; Hoos, I.R.; McGrath, P.E.; Metlay, D.S.; Stoneman, W.C.; Watson, R.A.

    1977-04-01

    Goals are proposed for the national radioactive waste management program to establish a policy basis for the guidance and coordination of the activities of government, business, and academic organizations whose responsibility it will be to manage radioactive wastes. The report is based on findings, interpretations, and analyses of selected primary literature and interviews of personnel concerned with waste management. Public concerns are identified, their relevance assessed, and a conceptual framework is developed that facilitates understanding of the dimensions and demands of the radioactive waste management problem. The nature and scope of the study are described along with the approach used to arrive at a set of goals appropriately focused on waste management

  15. Embedded System for Biometric Identification

    OpenAIRE

    Rosli, Ahmad Nasir Che

    2010-01-01

    This chapter describes the design and implementation of an Embedded System for Biometric Identification from hardware and software perspectives. The first part of the chapter describes the idea of biometric identification. This includes the definition of

  16. Hardware Support for Embedded Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The general Java runtime environment is resource hungry and unfriendly for real-time systems. To reduce the resource consumption of Java in embedded systems, direct hardware support of the language is a valuable option. Furthermore, an implementation of the Java virtual machine in hardware enables...... worst-case execution time analysis of Java programs. This chapter gives an overview of current approaches to hardware support for embedded and real-time Java....

  17. Molecular Properties through Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    We review the theory related to the calculation of electric and magnetic molecular properties through polarizable embedding. In particular, we derive the expressions for the response functions up to the level of cubic response within the density functional theory-based polarizable embedding (PE......-DFT) formalism. In addition, we discuss some illustrative applications related to the calculation of nuclear magnetic resonance parameters, nonlinear optical properties, and electronic excited states in solution....

  18. A Foundation for Embedded Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply...... be answered affirmatively for an idealized Haskell-like language and discuss to which extent Haskell can be used as a meta-language....

  19. Unsupervised Document Embedding With CNNs

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chundi; Zhao, Shunan; Volkovs, Maksims

    2017-01-01

    We propose a new model for unsupervised document embedding. Leading existing approaches either require complex inference or use recurrent neural networks (RNN) that are difficult to parallelize. We take a different route and develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) embedding model. Our CNN architecture is fully parallelizable resulting in over 10x speedup in inference time over RNN models. Parallelizable architecture enables to train deeper models where each successive layer has increasin...

  20. Predicting Subsequent Task Performance From Goal Motivation and Goal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catherine Healy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has demonstrated that the cognitive processes associated with goal pursuit can continue to interfere with unrelated tasks when a goal is unfulfilled. Drawing from the self-regulation and goal-striving literatures, the present study explored the impact of goal failure on subsequent cognitive and physical task performance. Furthermore, we examined if the autonomous or controlled motivation underpinning goal striving moderates the responses to goal failure. Athletes (75 male, 59 female, Mage = 19.90 years, SDage = 3.50 completed a cycling trial with the goal of covering a given distance in 8 minutes. Prior to the trial, their motivation was primed using a video. During the trial they were provided with manipulated performance feedback, thus creating conditions of goal success or failure. No differences emerged in the responses to goal failure between the primed motivation or performance feedback conditions. We make recommendations for future research into how individuals can deal with failure in goal striving.

  1. Motivational Goal Bracketing: An Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    a one-week period. Our theoretical model predicts (i) that weekly goals create incentives to compensate for a lower than desired performance today with the promise to work harder tomorrow, whereas daily goals exclude such excuses; (ii) that subjects with daily goals set higher goals in aggregate......We study in an online, real-effort experiment how the bracketing of non-binding goals affects performance in a work-leisure self-control problem. We externally induce the goal bracket - daily goals or a weekly goal - and within that bracket let subjects set goals for how much they want to work over...... and work harder than those with weekly goals. Our data support these predictions. Surprisingly, however, when goals are combined with an externally enforced commitment that requires subjects to spend less than a minute each day on the task to get started working, performance deteriorates because of high...

  2. Goals and Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuchlik Milan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of this paper I intend to argue that anthropologists have a predominantly causal conception of explanation and that the only feasible way to avoid this is to apply consistently the assumption of goal-orientation of behaviour, that is to hold what could broadly be called a teleological conception of explanation – a view that developments are due to the purpose or design that is served by them. Further on I will try to show that groups and norms do not exist and act independently of people. They have no existence as “things” apart from forming a part of the relevant stock of knowledge of the members of society. They can be brought to bear on actions only by people invoking them. Thus we have to make a sharp distinction between the conceptual or notional level of phenomena, and the transactional or processual level, sometimes known as cultural and social respectively.

  3. Different way, same goal

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso & Fabio Capello

    2012-01-01

    Radio-oncologists and radiotherapists represented a large proportion of the doctors and clinicians who attended the ICTR-PHE 2012 conference. With them were also biologists and doctors of nuclear medicine. They presented the state of the art of their research that touches on the genetics and biology of tumours as well as on futuristic drugs that selectively target malignant cells. The future of cancer treatment seems to lie in the personalised approach.   When the members of the life sciences community took over from the physicists, the focus remained basically the same. Just another sign of the fact that the different communities are leading the same battle and have the same goal. However, the methodologies and issues can be very different. The example of hadrontherapy illustrates the situation well: while for physicists this is a relatively well-established concept, medical doctors consider that the amount of patient data available is still very small. Several clinical trials are in progress ...

  4. BROOKHAVEN: Proton goal reached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On March 30 the 35-year old Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) exceeded its updated design goal of 6 x 10 13 protons per pulse (ppp), by accelerating 6.3 x 10 13 ppp, a world record intensity. This goal was set 11 years ago and achieving it called for the construction of a new booster and the reconstruction of much of the AGS. The booster was completed in 1991, and reached its design intensity of 1.5 x 10 13 ppp in 1993. The AGS reconstruction was finished in 1994, and by July of that year the AGS claimed a new US record intensity for a proton synchrotron of 4 x 10 13 ppp, using four booster pulses. Reaching the design intensity was scheduled for 1995. In 1994, the AGS had seemed to be solidly limited to 4 x 10 13 ppp, but in 1995 the operations crew, working on their own in the quiet of the owl shift, steadily improved the intensity, regularly setting new records, much to the bemusement of the machine physicists. The physicists, however, did contribute. A second harmonic radiofrequency cavity in the booster increased the radiofrequency bucket area for capture, raising the booster intensity from 1.7 to 2.1 x 10 13 ppp. In the AGS, new radiofrequency power supplies raised the available voltage from 8 to 13 kV, greatly enhancing the beam loading capabilities of the system. A powerful new transverse damping system successfully controlled instabilities that otherwise would have destroyed the beam in less than a millisecond. Also in the AGS, 35th harmonic octupole resonances were found

  5. Hybrid Security Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu CONSTANTINESCU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Policy is defined as the rules and regulations set by the organization. They are laid down by management in compliance with industry regulations, law and internal decisions. Policies are mandatory. Security policies rules how the information is protected against security vulnerabilities and they are the basis for security awareness, training and vital for security audits. Policies are focused on desired results. The means of achieving the goals are defined on controls, standards and procedures.

  6. A embedded Linux system based on PowerPC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Mei; Zhao Jingwei; Chu Yuanping

    2006-01-01

    The authors will introduce a Embedded Linux System based on PowerPC as well as the base method on how to establish the system. The goal of the system is to build a test system of VMEbus device. It also can be used to setup the small data acquisition and control system. Two types of compiler are provided by the developer system according to the features of the system and the Power PC. At the top of the article some typical embedded Operation system will be introduced and the features of different system will be provided. And then the method on how to build a embedded Linux system as well as the key technique will be discussed in detail. Finally a successful read-write example will be given based on the test system. (authors)

  7. Formal Specification Based Automatic Test Generation for Embedded Network Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Hye Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems have become increasingly connected and communicate with each other, forming large-scaled and complicated network systems. To make their design and testing more reliable and robust, this paper proposes a formal specification language called SENS and a SENS-based automatic test generation tool called TGSENS. Our approach is summarized as follows: (1 A user describes requirements of target embedded network systems by logical property-based constraints using SENS. (2 Given SENS specifications, test cases are automatically generated using a SAT-based solver. Filtering mechanisms to select efficient test cases are also available in our tool. (3 In addition, given a testing goal by the user, test sequences are automatically extracted from exhaustive test cases. We’ve implemented our approach and conducted several experiments on practical case studies. Through the experiments, we confirmed the efficiency of our approach in design and test generation of real embedded air-conditioning network systems.

  8. Can computational goals inform theories of vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Barton L

    2015-04-01

    One of the most lasting contributions of Marr's posthumous book is his articulation of the different "levels of analysis" that are needed to understand vision. Although a variety of work has examined how these different levels are related, there is comparatively little examination of the assumptions on which his proposed levels rest, or the plausibility of the approach Marr articulated given those assumptions. Marr placed particular significance on computational level theory, which specifies the "goal" of a computation, its appropriateness for solving a particular problem, and the logic by which it can be carried out. The structure of computational level theory is inherently teleological: What the brain does is described in terms of its purpose. I argue that computational level theory, and the reverse-engineering approach it inspires, requires understanding the historical trajectory that gave rise to functional capacities that can be meaningfully attributed with some sense of purpose or goal, that is, a reconstruction of the fitness function on which natural selection acted in shaping our visual abilities. I argue that this reconstruction is required to distinguish abilities shaped by natural selection-"natural tasks" -from evolutionary "by-products" (spandrels, co-optations, and exaptations), rather than merely demonstrating that computational goals can be embedded in a Bayesian model that renders a particular behavior or process rational. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  9. Embedded Linux projects using Yocto project cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    González, Alex

    2015-01-01

    If you are an embedded developer learning about embedded Linux with some experience with the Yocto project, this book is the ideal way to become proficient and broaden your knowledge with examples that are immediately applicable to your embedded developments. Experienced embedded Yocto developers will find new insight into working methodologies and ARM specific development competence.

  10. Trusted computing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Soudris, Dimitrios; Anagnostopoulos, Iraklis

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in trusted computing for embedded systems. It shows how a variety of security and trusted computing problems are addressed currently and what solutions are expected to emerge in the coming years. The discussion focuses on attacks aimed at hardware and software for embedded systems, and the authors describe specific solutions to create security features. Case studies are used to present new techniques designed as industrial security solutions. Coverage includes development of tamper resistant hardware and firmware mechanisms for lightweight embedded devices, as well as those serving as security anchors for embedded platforms required by applications such as smart power grids, smart networked and home appliances, environmental and infrastructure sensor networks, etc. ·         Enables readers to address a variety of security threats to embedded hardware and software; ·         Describes design of secure wireless sensor networks, to address secure authen...

  11. Embedding methods: application and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jin; Libisch, Florian; Carter, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Correlated-wavefunction/density functional theory (CW/DFT) embedding methods aim to combine the formally exact correlation treatment in CW methods with the high efficiency of DFT. By partitioning a system into a cluster and its environment, each part can be treated independently. Different embedding schemes have been proposed. The density-based scheme searches for a global embedding potential mediating the interaction on the DFT level. The potential can then be used in CW calculations, e.g., to investigate hot-electron assisted H2 dissociation on Al and Au surfaces. Experimentally, optical excitations of plasmons efficiently create the required hot electrons. The embedded CW calculations validates that the hot electrons play a key role. However, this method neglects the back-action of the cluster on the environment. To solve this problem, a potential-based scheme has been proposed [J. Chem. Phys., 135, 194104 (2011)] that allows for a self-consistent combination of different ab-initio methods. Such an embedding potential thus goes beyond the DFT level. The heterogeneity involved poses various numerical challenges. We report on efforts to construct appropriate basis sets and pseudopotentials as well as to optimize the numerical procedure.

  12. Embedded Systems Development Tools: A MODUS-oriented Market Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loupis Michalis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The embedded systems technology has perhaps been the most dominating technology in high-tech industries, in the past decade. The industry has correctly identified the potential of this technology and has put its efforts into exploring its full potential. Objectives: The goal of the paper is to explore the versatility of the application in the embedded system development based on one FP7-SME project. Methods/Approach: Embedded applications normally demand high resilience and quality, as well as conformity to quality standards and rigid performance. As a result embedded system developers have adopted software methods that yield high quality. The qualitative approach to examining embedded systems development tools has been applied in this work. Results: This paper presents a MODUS-oriented market analysis in the domains of Formal Verification tools, HW/SW co-simulation tools, Software Performance Optimization tools and Code Generation tools. Conclusions: The versatility of applications this technology serves is amazing. With all this performance potential, the technology has carried with itself a large number of issues which the industry essentially needs to resolve to be able to harness the full potential contained. The MODUS project toolset addressed four discrete domains of the ESD Software Market, in which corresponding open tools were developed

  13. Goal difficulty and openness to interpersonal goal support.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Righetti, F.; Kumashiro, M.; Campbell, S.

    2014-01-01

    When people pursue important goals, they are often surrounded by close others who could provide help and support for the achievement of these goals. The present work investigated whether people are more likely to be open to such interpersonal goal support from a romantic partner when they perceive

  14. Design Methodologies for Secure Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Biedermann, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems have been almost invisibly pervading our daily lives for several decades. They facilitate smooth operations in avionics, automotive electronics, or telecommunication. New problems arise by the increasing employment, interconnection, and communication of embedded systems in heterogeneous environments: How secure are these embedded systems against attacks or breakdowns? Therefore, how can embedded systems be designed to be more secure? And how can embedded systems autonomically react to threats? Facing these questions, Sorin A. Huss is significantly involved in the exploration o

  15. Embedded Processor Oriented Compiler Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DJUKIC, M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, research of special compiler techniques and algorithms for embedded processors broaden the knowledge of how to achieve better compiler performance in irregular processor architectures. However, industrial strength compilers, besides ability to generate efficient code, must also be robust, understandable, maintainable, and extensible. This raises the need for compiler infrastructure that provides means for convenient implementation of embedded processor oriented compiler techniques. Cirrus Logic Coyote 32 DSP is an example that shows how traditional compiler infrastructure is not able to cope with the problem. That is why the new compiler infrastructure was developed for this processor, based on research. in the field of embedded system software tools and experience in development of industrial strength compilers. The new infrastructure is described in this paper. Compiler generated code quality is compared with code generated by the previous compiler for the same processor architecture.

  16. ‘Rowing against the current’: the policy process and effects of removing user fees for caesarean sections in Benin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Jenny A; Makoutodé, Patrick; De Brouwere, Vincent; Witter, Sophie; Filippi, Veronique; Kanhonou, Lydie G; Goufodji, Sourou B; Lange, Isabelle L; Lawin, Lionel; Affo, Fabien; Marchal, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Background In 2009, the Benin government introduced a user fee exemption policy for caesarean sections. We analyse this policy with regard to how the existing ideas and institutions related to user fees influenced key steps of the policy cycle and draw lessons that could inform the policy dialogue for universal health coverage in the West African region. Methods Following the policy stages model, we analyse the agenda setting, policy formulation and legitimation phase, and assess the implementation fidelity and policy results. We adopted an embedded case study design, using quantitative and qualitative data collected with 13 tools at the national level and in seven hospitals implementing the policy. Results We found that the initial political goal of the policy was not to reduce maternal mortality but to eliminate the detention in hospitals of mothers and newborns who cannot pay the user fees by exempting a comprehensive package of maternal health services. We found that the policy development process suffered from inadequate uptake of evidence and that the policy content and process were not completely in harmony with political and public health goals. The initial policy intention clashed with the neoliberal orientation of the political system, the fee recovery principles institutionalised since the Bamako Initiative and the prevailing ideas in favour of user fees. The policymakers did not take these entrenched factors into account. The resulting tension contributed to a benefit package covering only caesarean sections and to the variable implementation and effectiveness of the policy. Conclusion The influence of organisational culture in the decision-making processes in the health sector is often ignored but must be considered in the design and implementation of any policy aimed at achieving universal health coverage in West African countries. PMID:29564156

  17. Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2014-01-01

    The Certifiable Java for Embedded Systems (CJ4ES) project aimed to develop a prototype development environment and platform for safety-critical software for embedded applications. There are three core constituents: A profile of the Java programming language that is tailored for safety......-critical applications, a predictable Java processor built with FPGA technology, and an Eclipse based application development environment that binds the profile and the platform together and provides analyses that help to provide evidence that can be used as part of a safety case. This paper summarizes key contributions...

  18. Morphware - Fremtidens Embedded System Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    FPGA'er bliver i stigende grad brugt som komponenter i embedded systemer. Faldende priser, større kapacitet og en større felksibilitet har gjort FPGA'en til en attraktiv og konkurrencedygtig teknologi der tillader en stadig stigende grad af system integration, hvor traditionel hardware og software...... kombineres og rekonfigureres. Muligheden for at rekonfigurere systemet, og specielt rekonfigurerer det medens det kører, giver nogle helt nye muligheder for at designe og programmere embedded systemer. Dette foredrag vil give et indblik i disse nye og fremtidige muligheder....

  19. Knowledge Engineering for Embedded Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddsson, Gudmundur Valur

    2008-01-01

    usability of the installation. In our case, we have rationalized that this should be done with embedded configuration, and the expected result is enhanced usability. The suggested method is deeply rooted in system theory. It draws on the emergent properties expected from the system, and tries to embed...... step can be said to be two-fold: first, to construct a system based on this philosophy and to show that it actually leads to the expected results. And second, to further develop the modelling tools and methods for supporting the making of embedded configuration systems, or in essence, a distributed...

  20. Homogeneous Spaces and Equivariant Embeddings

    CERN Document Server

    Timashev, DA

    2011-01-01

    Homogeneous spaces of linear algebraic groups lie at the crossroads of algebraic geometry, theory of algebraic groups, classical projective and enumerative geometry, harmonic analysis, and representation theory. By standard reasons of algebraic geometry, in order to solve various problems on a homogeneous space it is natural and helpful to compactify it keeping track of the group action, i.e. to consider equivariant completions or, more generally, open embeddings of a given homogeneous space. Such equivariant embeddings are the subject of this book. We focus on classification of equivariant em

  1. A Foundation for Embedded Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhiger, Morten

    2002-01-01

    Recent work on embedding object languages into Haskell use "phantom types" (i.e., parameterized types whose parameter does not occur on the right-hand side of the type definition) to ensure that the embedded object-language terms are simply typed. But is it a safe assumption that only simply-typed...... terms can be represented in Haskell using phantom types? And conversely, can all simply-typed terms be represented in Haskell under the restrictions imposed by phantom types? In this article we investigate the conditions under which these assumptions are true: We show that these questions can...

  2. Achievement Goals and their Underlying Goal Motivation: Does it Matter Why Sport Participants Pursue their Goals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gaudreau

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined whether the good or bad outcomes associated with mastery-approach (MAP and performance-approach (PAP goals depend on the extent to which they are motivated by autonomous or controlled motivation. A sample of 515 undergraduate students who participated in sport completed measures of achievement goals, motivation of achievement goals, perceived goal attainment, sport satisfaction, and both positive and negative affect. Results of moderated regression analyses revealed that the positive relations of both MAP and PAP goals with perceived goal attainment were stronger for athletes pursuing these goals with high level of autonomous goal motivation. Also, the positive relations between PAP goals and both sport satisfaction and positive affect were stronger at high levels of autonomous goal motivation and controlled goal motivation. The shape of all these significant interactions was consistent with tenets of Self-Determination Theory as controlled goal motivation was negatively associated with positive affect and sport satisfaction and positively associated with negative affect. Overall, these findings demonstrated the importance of considering goal motivation in order to better understand the conditions under which achievement goals are associated with better experiential and performance outcomes in the lives of sport participants.

  3. Enabling Next-Generation Multicore Platforms in Embedded Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    or a preemptive resource. This gives rise to four different classes of allocation policies, depending upon whether the processor or the cache is...transitive closure of direct contention, D. We define each equivalence class in D+ to be a logical cache processor. By definition, all tasks on the same...J.V.B. Mataix. Static use of locking caches in multitask preemptive real-time systems. In Proceedings of the IEEE Real-Time Embedded Systems

  4. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  5. Embedding Sensors During Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbriglia, Lexey Raylene [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-10

    This PowerPoint presentation had the following headings: Fused deposition modeling (FDM); Open source 3D printing; Objectives; Vibration analysis; Equipment; Design; Material choices; Failure causes, such as tension, bubbling; Potential solutions; Simulations; Embedding the sensors; LabView programming; Alternate data acquisition; Problem and proposed solution; and, Conclusions

  6. Embedded, everywhere: a research agenda for networked systems of embedded computers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Committee on Networked Systems of Embedded Computers; National Research Council Staff; Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences; Computer Science and Telecommunications Board; National Academy of Sciences

    2001-01-01

    .... Embedded, Everywhere explores the potential of networked systems of embedded computers and the research challenges arising from embedding computation and communications technology into a wide variety of applicationsâ...

  7. RESLanjut: The learning media for improve students understanding in embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianto, Susanti, Meilia Nur Indah; Karina, Djunaidi

    2017-08-01

    The use of network in embedded system can be done with many kinds of network, with the use of mobile phones, bluetooths, modems, ethernet cards, wireless technology and so on. Using network in embedded system could help people to do remote controlling. On previous research, researchers found that many students have the ability to comprehend the basic concept of embedded system. They could also make embedded system tools but without network integration. And for that, a development is needed for the embedded system module. The embedded system practicum module design needs a prototype method in order to achieve the desired goal. The prototype method is often used in the real world. Or even, a prototype method is a part of products that consist of logic expression or external physical interface. The embedded system practicum module is meant to increase student comprehension of embedded system course, and also to encourage students to innovate on technology based tools. It is also meant to help teachers to teach the embedded system concept on the course. The student comprehension is hoped to increase with the use of practicum course.

  8. Some predictors of life goals in Slovenia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Poljšak Škraban

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Personal goals and interests play an important role in human development because they orient people's life planning, decision-making and also, therefore, their future life course. The article presents the findings of a research which explores the eventual differences between Slovenian and Croatian sample in agency-oriented and communion-oriented life goals and the analysis of significant predictors of above mentioned life goals on both samples. The research included 924 adults of both genders, aged between 21 and 70 years from Slovenia and Croatia. In the study we used the scale of Goals (Pohlman and Brunstein, 1997 and a set of questions regarding various participant's life domains and their perceived importance. The results show significant differences on agency- oriented and communion-oriented life goals between the Slovenian and Croatian sample; in both cases croatian participants reach higher results than those from slovenina sample. As significant predictors in both samples were identified (a age and importance of effective use of free time for agency-oriented goals, and (b and gender, parenthood, importance of parenthood and importance of effective use of free time for communion-oriented life goals. The differences in results are explained by respective levels of social modernisation and social welfare, given the fact the Slovenian respondents are embedded in the social environment that offers more possibilities for fullfilment of their life goals, and are closer to postmaterialism and individualism.a

  9. An embedded object approach to embedded system development

    OpenAIRE

    Vallius, T. (Tero)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Building an embedded system from an idea to a product is a slow and expensive process requiring a lot of expertise. Depending on the developer’s expertise, the required quantity and price level of the final product, and the time and money available for development, the developer can build a device from different granularity of components, ranging from ready-made platforms, kits, and modules to individual components. Generally, solutions requiring less expertise, time and money pro...

  10. Interactions of White Certificates for energy efficiency and other energy and climate policy instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oikonomou, V.

    2010-01-01

    The EU and its member states are developing their own policies targeting at energy supply, energy demand and environmental goals that are indirectly linked to energy use. As these policies are implemented in an already policy crowded environment, interactions of these instruments take place, which can be complementary competitive or self exclusive. As a starting point, we test White Certificates for energy efficiency improvement in the end-use sectors. Our main research questions are: (1) to provide a general explanatory framework for analyzing energy and climate policy interactions by employing suitable methods, and (2) to evaluate these methods and draw conclusions for policy makers when introducing White Certificates with other policy instruments stressing the critical condition that affect their performance. A core lesson is that when evaluating ex-ante instruments, a variety of economic and technological methods must be applied. Based on these methods, several endogenous and exogenous conditions affect the performance of White Certificates schemes with other policy instruments. Due to the innovative character of White Certificates and the uncertainty of hidden costs embedded into it, ex-ante evaluations should focus not only on the effectiveness and efficiency of the scheme, but on several other criteria which express the political acceptability and socioeconomic effects. We argue finally that White Certificates can make effective use of market forces and can assist in overcoming market barriers towards energy efficiency, and we expect that under certain preconditions, it can be integrated with other policy instruments and allows to achieve cost effectively multiple environmental objectives.

  11. Modeling Coherent Strategies for the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, B.; Obersteiner, M.; Herrero, M.; Riahi, K.; Fritz, S.; van Vuuren, D.; Havlik, P.

    2016-12-01

    The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) call for a comprehensive new approach to development rooted in planetary boundaries, equity and inclusivity. Societies have largely responded to this call with siloed strategies capable of making progress on selected subsets of these goals. However, agendas crafted specifically to alleviate poverty, hunger, deforestation, biodiversity loss, or other ills may doom the SDG agenda, as policies and strategies designed to accomplish one or several goals can impede and in some cases reverse progress toward others at national, regional, and global levels. We adopt a comprehensive modeling approach to understand the basis for tradeoffs among environmental conservation initiatives (goals 13-15) and food prices (goal 2). We show that such tradeoffs are manifestations of policy-driven pressure in land (i.e. agricultural and environmental) systems. By reducing total land system pressure, Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP, goal 12) policies minimize tradeoffs and should therefore be regarded as necessary conditions for achieving multiple SDGs. SDG strategies constructed around SCP policies escape problem-shifting, which has long placed global development and conservation agendas at odds. We expect that this and future systems analyses will allow policymakers to negotiate tradeoffs and exploit synergies as they assemble sustainable development strategies equal in scope to the ambition of the SDGs.

  12. Defensive Jurisprudence and Productivity Goals: Jabuticaba Consumerist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Luiz Barros Barreto de Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the application of so-called procedural defensive jurisprudence that values exacerbated rationalization of the judiciary activities, preventing the processing of judicial review in the higher courts, and its consequences in consumeristas indemnity processes. It analyzes the pressure to which judges are subjected, especially because of the need to comply with productivity goals. The construction work suggests the misconception of these imposed judicial policies to decrease the procedural stock since that attack the problem on screen superficially and do not solve the basic question.

  13. Poincare ball embeddings of the optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M A; Bengtsson, I; Karas, V; Rosquist, K

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the optical geometry of the Reissner-Nordstroem exterior metric can be embedded in a hyperbolic space all the way down to its outer horizon. The adopted embedding procedure removes a breakdown of flat-space embeddings which occurs outside the horizon, at and below the Buchdahl-Bondi limit (R/M=9/4 in the Schwarzschild case). In particular, the horizon can be captured in the optical geometry embedding diagram. Moreover, by using the compact Poincare ball representation of the hyperbolic space, the embedding diagram can cover the whole extent of radius from spatial infinity down to the horizon. Attention is drawn to the advantages of such embeddings in an appropriately curved space: this approach gives compact embeddings and it clearly distinguishes the case of an extremal black hole from a non-extremal one in terms of the topology of the embedded horizon

  14. (Goal Number 8) in achieving the Millennium Development Goals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In 2000, the United Nations (UN) made a Millennium Declaration that commits governments across the globe to develop the lives of the people by 2015. This declaration is known as Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper will examine the role that every government has to play in achieving the goals by focusing ...

  15. Introduction to Embedded Systems Using ANSI C and the Arduino Development Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, David

    2010-01-01

    Many electrical and computer engineering projects involve some kind of embedded system in which a microcontroller sits at the center as the primary source of control. The recently-developed Arduino development platform includes an inexpensive hardware development board hosting an eight-bit ATMEL ATmega-family processor and a Java-based software-development environment. These features allow an embedded systems beginner the ability to focus their attention on learning how to write embedded software instead of wasting time overcoming the engineering CAD tools learning curve. The goal of this text

  16. Achievement goals affect metacognitive judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kenji; Yue, Carole L.; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effect of achievement goals on metacognitive judgments, such as judgments of learning (JOLs) and metacomprehension judgments, and actual recall performance. We conducted five experiments manipulating the instruction of achievement goals. In each experiment, participants were instructed to adopt mastery-approach goals (i.e., develop their own mental ability through a memory task) or performance-approach goals (i.e., demonstrate their strong memory ability through getting a high score on a memory task). The results of Experiments 1 and 2 showed that JOLs of word pairs in the performance-approach goal condition tended to be higher than those in the mastery-approach goal condition. In contrast, cued recall performance did not differ between the two goal conditions. Experiment 3 also demonstrated that metacomprehension judgments of text passages were higher in the performance-approach goal condition than in the mastery-approach goals condition, whereas test performance did not differ between conditions. These findings suggest that achievement motivation affects metacognitive judgments during learning, even when achievement motivation does not influence actual performance. PMID:28983496

  17. Teachers' Understanding of Learning Goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Skott, Charlotte; Slot, Marie Falkesgaard; Carlsen, Dorthe

    The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use the prev......The national curriculum for Danish primary and lower secondary schools has recently changed in a goal-oriented direction. The intention is to increase the teachers´ and students´attention to learning outcome, by making learning goals visible. Danish surveys show that teachers did not use...

  18. Embedding Complementarity in HCI Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten; Tweddell Levinsen, Karin

    2007-01-01

    Differences in cultural contexts constitute differences in cognition, and research has shown that different cultures may use different cognitive tools for perception and reasoning. The cultural embeddings are significant in relation to HCI, because the cultural context is also embedded...... in the techniques and the tools that we apply. We lack a framework for discussing what and who we are, when we talk about a person as the user of an ICT system that has to be designed, developed and implemented. As a framework, we suggest a theory of complementary positions that insists on solid accounts from all...... observer posi-tions in relation to perspective, standpoint and focus. We need to develop com-plementary theories that embed complexity, and we need to reflect critically upon forty years of dominance by rationalistic, empirical understandings of the user as illustrated in the literature and practice within...

  19. A survey of embedded solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujioka, J.; Espinosa C, A.; Rodriguez, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    At the end of the nineties a brand-new type of soliton was discovered: the embedded solitons. Initially they were found in optical systems, and afterwards they were also found in hydrodynamic models, liquid crystal theory and discrete systems. These peculiar solitary waves are interesting because they exist under conditions in which, until recently, the propagation ol solitons was thought to be impossible. At first these nonlinear waves were believed to be necessarily isolated and unstable, but later on it was found that they can be stable and may exist in families. This paper explains what these embedded solitons are, in which models they have been found, and what variants exist (stable, unstable, continuous, discrete, etc.) (Author)

  20. The embedded operating system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    This progress report describes research towards the design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications. The applications concerned require reliable operating system support that must accommodate networks of computers. The report addresses the problems of constructing such operating systems, the communications media, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of realtime processing. A discussion is included on suitable theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based systems. In particular, this report addresses: atomic actions, fault tolerance, operating system structure, program development, reliability and availability, and networking issues. This document reports the status of various experiments designed and conducted to investigate embedded operating system design issues.

  1. Graph Embedded Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosifidis, Alexandros; Tefas, Anastasios; Pitas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel extension of the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm for single-hidden layer feedforward neural network training that is able to incorporate subspace learning (SL) criteria on the optimization process followed for the calculation of the network's output weights. The proposed graph embedded ELM (GEELM) algorithm is able to naturally exploit both intrinsic and penalty SL criteria that have been (or will be) designed under the graph embedding framework. In addition, we extend the proposed GEELM algorithm in order to be able to exploit SL criteria in arbitrary (even infinite) dimensional ELM spaces. We evaluate the proposed approach on eight standard classification problems and nine publicly available datasets designed for three problems related to human behavior analysis, i.e., the recognition of human face, facial expression, and activity. Experimental results denote the effectiveness of the proposed approach, since it outperforms other ELM-based classification schemes in all the cases.

  2. Perturbation Theory of Embedded Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelmann, Matthias

    We study problems connected to perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues in two different setups. The first part deals with second order perturbation theory of mass shells in massive translation invariant Nelson type models. To this end an expansion of the eigenvalues w.r.t. fiber parameter up...... project gives a general and systematic approach to analytic perturbation theory of embedded eigenvalues. The spectral deformation technique originally developed in the theory of dilation analytic potentials in the context of Schrödinger operators is systematized by the use of Mourre theory. The group...... of dilations is thereby replaced by the unitary group generated y the conjugate operator. This then allows to treat the perturbation problem with the usual Kato theory....

  3. An Embedded Reconfigurable Logic Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.; Klenke, Robert H.; Shams, Qamar A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A Miniature Embedded Reconfigurable Computer and Logic (MERCAL) module has been developed and verified. MERCAL was designed to be a general-purpose, universal module that that can provide significant hardware and software resources to meet the requirements of many of today's complex embedded applications. This is accomplished in the MERCAL module by combining a sub credit card size PC in a DIMM form factor with a XILINX Spartan I1 FPGA. The PC has the ability to download program files to the FPGA to configure it for different hardware functions and to transfer data to and from the FPGA via the PC's ISA bus during run time. The MERCAL module combines, in a compact package, the computational power of a 133 MHz PC with up to 150,000 gate equivalents of digital logic that can be reconfigured by software. The general architecture and functionality of the MERCAL hardware and system software are described.

  4. Corrosion Monitors for Embedded Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Alex L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pfeifer, Kent B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Casias, Adrian L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorensen, Neil R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We have developed and characterized novel in-situ corrosion sensors to monitor and quantify the corrosive potential and history of localized environments. Embedded corrosion sensors can provide information to aid health assessments of internal electrical components including connectors, microelectronics, wires, and other susceptible parts. When combined with other data (e.g. temperature and humidity), theory, and computational simulation, the reliability of monitored systems can be predicted with higher fidelity.

  5. Characterization of Embedded BPM Collimators

    CERN Document Server

    VALENTINO, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    During LS1, 16 tertiary collimators (TCTs) and 2 secondary collimators (TCSGs) in IR6 were replaced by new embedded BPM collimators. The BPM functionality allows the possibility to align the collimators more quickly and therefore be able to respond faster to machine configuration changes, as well as a direct monitoring of the beam orbit at the collimators. Following an initial commissioning phase, an MD was carried out to test the new collimators and acquisition electronics with beam in the LHC.

  6. Embedded multiprocessors scheduling and synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Sriram, Sundararajan

    2009-01-01

    Techniques for Optimizing Multiprocessor Implementations of Signal Processing ApplicationsAn indispensable component of the information age, signal processing is embedded in a variety of consumer devices, including cell phones and digital television, as well as in communication infrastructure, such as media servers and cellular base stations. Multiple programmable processors, along with custom hardware running in parallel, are needed to achieve the computation throughput required of such applications. Reviews important research in key areas related to the multiprocessor implementation of multi

  7. Bilipschitz embedding of homogeneous fractals

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Fan; Lou, Man-Li; Wen, Zhi-Ying; Xi, Li-Feng

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a class of fractals named homogeneous sets based on some measure versions of homogeneity, uniform perfectness and doubling. This fractal class includes all Ahlfors-David regular sets, but most of them are irregular in the sense that they may have different Hausdorff dimensions and packing dimensions. Using Moran sets as main tool, we study the dimensions, bilipschitz embedding and quasi-Lipschitz equivalence of homogeneous fractals.

  8. Embedding graphs in Lorentzian spacetime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Clough

    Full Text Available Geometric approaches to network analysis combine simply defined models with great descriptive power. In this work we provide a method for embedding directed acyclic graphs (DAG into Minkowski spacetime using Multidimensional scaling (MDS. First we generalise the classical MDS algorithm, defined only for metrics with a Riemannian signature, to manifolds of any metric signature. We then use this general method to develop an algorithm which exploits the causal structure of a DAG to assign space and time coordinates in a Minkowski spacetime to each vertex. As in the causal set approach to quantum gravity, causal connections in the discrete graph correspond to timelike separation in the continuous spacetime. The method is demonstrated by calculating embeddings for simple models of causal sets and random DAGs, as well as real citation networks. We find that the citation networks we test yield significantly more accurate embeddings that random DAGs of the same size. Finally we suggest a number of applications in citation analysis such as paper recommendation, identifying missing citations and fitting citation models to data using this geometric approach.

  9. Embedding of the radiation cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.Z.

    1986-01-01

    The embedding of the Friedmann manifold into a higher dimensional Minkowski space is investigated. As solutions of the Friedmann equation with vanishing cosmological term, Friedmann models describe a first expanding, then contracting universe and predict a big bang singularity. For cosmic time t → 0, R(t) → 0, there is an infinite scalar, curvature in the matter cosmos, and an infinite eigenvalue corresponding to the unique timelike eigenvector of the energy-momentum tensor in the radiation cosmos. The big bang, therefore, is an intrinsic singularity of the space time. To investigate the singularity one resorts to the embedding of the Friedmann manifold into a higher dimensional Minkowski space. For the matter cosmos such an investigation has already been done (Lauro and Schucking, 1984). However, the matter cosmos is not a suitable model to discuss the very early universe where the radiation dominates. Geometric properties, such as the Riemann tensor, the Guassian curvature and the global behavior of the geodesics of the embedded manifold, are discussed in detail

  10. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  11. Embedding capacity estimation of reversible watermarking schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Estimation of the embedding capacity is an important problem specifically in reversible multi-pass watermarking and is required for analysis before any image can be watermarked. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for estimating the embedding capacity of a given cover image under multi-pass embedding, ...

  12. Embedding initial data for black hole collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Romano, Joseph D.; Price, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss isometric embedding diagrams for the visualization of initial data for the problem of the head-on collision of two black holes. The problem of constructing the embedding diagrams is explicitly presented for the best studied initial data, the Misner geometry. We present a partial solution of the embedding diagrams and discuss issues related to completing the solution.

  13. Isometric embeddings in cosmology and astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In purely geometric embedding theory, a given spacetime (or 'brane') is embedded in a higher-dimensional spacetime (or 'bulk'), and the bulk field equations solved. This is dual to the ... The embedding will be unique for all Ricci equivalent tensors S and R: Rab(xγ ) = ...... I V Lavrinenko, H Lü and C N Pope, Class. Quant.

  14. Usackas reveals future foreign policy goals / Adam Mullett

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mullett, Adam

    2008-01-01

    Tulevane Leedu välisminister Vygaudas Usackas teatas, et riigi välispoliitika on tulevikus suunatud Euroopa Liidu ja NATO liikmelisusele ning koostööle naaberriikide ja USA-ga. samuti kavatseb Usackas muuta poliitikat Venemaa suunal

  15. Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David A.; Phillips, Prudence

    1984-01-01

    Presents viewpoints of two teachers about the importance of kinetics and how it contributes to students' understanding of chemistry. Discusses reaction rates, concentration effects, and temperature effects related to an understanding of dynamic equilibrium, molecular structure, and control of reacting systems. (JM)

  16. Goal!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the story of his son, Joshua Pauls. Josh is an energetic young man who learned at a very young age not to let anything stop him from achieving his dreams. Born with a birth defect known as bilateral bibia hemimelia, which means he was born without his tibia bone in both of his legs, Josh was only 10 months old…

  17. Alcohol myopia and goal commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Timur Sevincer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available According to alcohol-myopia theory, acute alcohol consumption leads people to disproportionally focus on the salient rather than the peripheral aspects of a situation. We summarize various studies exploring how myopic processes resulting from acute alcohol intake affect goal commitment. After consuming alcohol student participants felt strongly committed to an important personal goal even though they had low expectations of successfully attaining the goal. However, once intoxicated participants were sober again (i.e., not myopic anymore they failed to act on their goal commitment. In line with alcohol-myopia theory, strong goal commitment as a result of alcohol intake was mediated by intoxicated (vs. sober participants disproportionally focusing on the desirability rather than the feasibility of their goal. Further supporting alcohol-myopia theory, when the low feasibility of attaining a particular goal was experimentally made salient (either explicitly or implicitly by subliminal priming, intoxicated participants felt less committed than those who consumed a placebo. We discuss these effects of acute alcohol intake in the context of research on the effects of chronic alcohol consumption on goal commitment.

  18. Financial Planning with Fractional Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Goedhart; J. Spronk (Jaap)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWhen solving financial planning problems with multiple goals by means of multiple objective programming, the presence of fractional goals leads to technical difficulties. In this paper we present a straightforward interactive approach for solving such linear fractional programs with

  19. Goals and Personality in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz de Acedo Lizarraga, M. L.; Ugarte, M. D.; Lumbreras, M. Victoria; Sanz de Acedo Baquedano, M. T.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of personality factors in the value allotted by adolescents to various groups of goals. For this purpose, the "Cuestionario de Personalidad Situacional, CPS" (Situational Personality Questionnaire) and the "Cuestionario de Metas para Adolescentes, CMA" (Goals for…

  20. Analysis and Optimization of Heterogeneous Real-Time Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    2005-01-01

    . The success of such new design methods depends on the availability of analysis and optimization techniques. In this paper, we present analysis and optimization techniques for heterogeneous real-time embedded systems. We address in more detail a particular class of such systems called multi-clusters, composed......An increasing number of real-time applications are today implemented using distributed heterogeneous architectures composed of interconnected networks of processors. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling...... policies. Each network has its own communication protocol, each processor in the architecture can have its own scheduling policy, and several scheduling policies can share a processor. In this context, the task of designing such systems is becoming increasingly important and difficult at the same time...

  1. Analysis and Optimisation of Hierarchically Scheduled Multiprocessor Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Traian; Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru

    2008-01-01

    We present an approach to the analysis and optimisation of heterogeneous multiprocessor embedded systems. The systems are heterogeneous not only in terms of hardware components, but also in terms of communication protocols and scheduling policies. When several scheduling policies share a resource......, they are organised in a hierarchy. In this paper, we first develop a holistic scheduling and schedulability analysis that determines the timing properties of a hierarchically scheduled system. Second, we address design problems that are characteristic to such hierarchically scheduled systems: assignment...... of scheduling policies to tasks, mapping of tasks to hardware components, and the scheduling of the activities. We also present several algorithms for solving these problems. Our heuristics are able to find schedulable implementations under limited resources, achieving an efficient utilisation of the system...

  2. Scheduling with Bus Access Optimization for Distributed Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eles, Petru; Doboli, Alex; Pop, Paul

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we concentrate on aspects related to the synthesis of distributed embedded systems consisting of programmable processors and application-specific hardware components. The approach is based on an abstract graph representation that captures, at process level, both dataflow and the flow...... of control. Our goal is to derive a worst case delay by which the system completes execution, such that this delay is as small as possible; to generate a logically and temporally deterministic schedule; and to optimize parameters of the communication protocol such that this delay is guaranteed. We have...... have to be considered during scheduling but also the parameters of the communication protocol should be adapted to fit the particular embedded application. The optimization algorithm, which implies both process scheduling and optimization of the parameters related to the communication protocol...

  3. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  4. Permutation entropy with vector embedding delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Douglas J.; Kane, Deb M.

    2017-12-01

    Permutation entropy (PE) is a statistic used widely for the detection of structure within a time series. Embedding delay times at which the PE is reduced are characteristic timescales for which such structure exists. Here, a generalized scheme is investigated where embedding delays are represented by vectors rather than scalars, permitting PE to be calculated over a (D -1 ) -dimensional space, where D is the embedding dimension. This scheme is applied to numerically generated noise, sine wave and logistic map series, and experimental data sets taken from a vertical-cavity surface emitting laser exhibiting temporally localized pulse structures within the round-trip time of the laser cavity. Results are visualized as PE maps as a function of embedding delay, with low PE values indicating combinations of embedding delays where correlation structure is present. It is demonstrated that vector embedding delays enable identification of structure that is ambiguous or masked, when the embedding delay is constrained to scalar form.

  5. Career Goals in Young Adults: Personal Resources, Goal Appraisals, Attitudes, and Goal Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haratsis, Jessica M.; Hood, Michelle; Creed, Peter A.

    2015-01-01

    We tested a model based on the dual-process framework that assessed the relationships among personal resources, career goal appraisals, career attitudes, and career goal management, which have not been previously assessed together. The model (tested on a sample of 486 young adults: 74% female, M[subscript]age = 22 years) proposed that personal…

  6. Path-Goal Models as a Basis for the Design of Organization Reward Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith, Jay R.

    The purpose of this paper has been to argue the usefulness of path-goal models in theoretical research and practical design of organization reward systems. The reasoning is that the policy choices can be easily related to path-goal attitudes which, in turn, are related to behavior. The major policy choices were identified and related to path-goal…

  7. Simulation and Embedded Smart Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Fan, Zhun; Sørensen, Torben

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents results obtained from a Danish mechatronic research program focusing on intelligent motion control, simulation and embedded smart controllers for hydraulic actuators and robots as well as results from the EU projects. A mechatronic test facility with digital controllers...... for a hydraulic robot was implemented. The controllers apply digital signal processors (DSPs), and Field Programmable Gate Array, short named as FPGA, respectively. The DSP controller utilizes the dSPACE System that is suitable for real-time experimentation, evaluation and validation of control laws...

  8. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  9. Neurology of widely embedded free will.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Bauke M

    2011-01-01

    Free will is classically attributed to the prefrontal cortex. In clinical neurology, prefrontal lesions have consistently been shown to cause impairment of internally driven action and increased reflex-like behaviour. Recently, parietal contributions to both free selection at early stages of sensorimotor transformations and perception of specifically self-intended movements were demonstrated in the healthy brain. Such findings generated the concept that 'free will' is not a function restricted to the prefrontal cortex but is more widely embedded in the brain, indeed including the parietal cortex. In this paper, a systematic re-interpretation of parietal symptoms, such as apraxia and reduced sense of agency, is given with reference to the consequences of reduced freedom of selection at early stages of sensorimotor transformation. Failed selection between possible movement options is argued to represent an intrinsic characteristic of apraxia. Paradoxical response facilitation supports this view. Perception of self-intended movement corresponds with a sense of agency. Impaired parietal distinction between predicted and perceived movement sensations may thus equal a restricted repertoire for selection between possible movement options of which intention is attributed to either oneself, others or an alien hand. Sense of agency, and thus perception of free will, logically fits a model of the parietal cortex as a neuronal interface between the internal drive to reach a goal and a body scheme required to select possible effectors for motor preparation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  10. Embedded mean-field theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornace, Mark E; Lee, Joonho; Miyamoto, Kaito; Manby, Frederick R; Miller, Thomas F

    2015-02-10

    We introduce embedded mean-field theory (EMFT), an approach that flexibly allows for the embedding of one mean-field theory in another without the need to specify or fix the number of particles in each subsystem. EMFT is simple, is well-defined without recourse to parameters, and inherits the simple gradient theory of the parent mean-field theories. In this paper, we report extensive benchmarking of EMFT for the case where the subsystems are treated using different levels of Kohn-Sham theory, using PBE or B3LYP/6-31G* in the high-level subsystem and LDA/STO-3G in the low-level subsystem; we also investigate different levels of density fitting in the two subsystems. Over a wide range of chemical problems, we find EMFT to perform accurately and stably, smoothly converging to the high-level of theory as the active subsystem becomes larger. In most cases, the performance is at least as good as that of ONIOM, but the advantages of EMFT are highlighted by examples that involve partitions across multiple bonds or through aromatic systems and by examples that involve more complicated electronic structure. EMFT is simple and parameter free, and based on the tests provided here, it offers an appealing new approach to a multiscale electronic structure.

  11. Audio Steganography with Embedded Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teck Jian, Chua; Chai Wen, Chuah; Rahman, Nurul Hidayah Binti Ab.; Hamid, Isredza Rahmi Binti A.

    2017-08-01

    Audio steganography is about hiding the secret message into the audio. It is a technique uses to secure the transmission of secret information or hide their existence. It also may provide confidentiality to secret message if the message is encrypted. To date most of the steganography software such as Mp3Stego and DeepSound use block cipher such as Advanced Encryption Standard or Data Encryption Standard to encrypt the secret message. It is a good practice for security. However, the encrypted message may become too long to embed in audio and cause distortion of cover audio if the secret message is too long. Hence, there is a need to encrypt the message with stream cipher before embedding the message into the audio. This is because stream cipher provides bit by bit encryption meanwhile block cipher provide a fixed length of bits encryption which result a longer output compare to stream cipher. Hence, an audio steganography with embedding text with Rivest Cipher 4 encryption cipher is design, develop and test in this project.

  12. Drilling azimuth gamma embedded design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Yi Ren

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded drilling azimuth gamma design, the use of radioactive measuring principle embedded gamma measurement while drilling a short section analysis. Monte Carlo method, in response to the density of horizontal well logging numerical simulation of 16 orientation, the orientation of horizontal well analysed, calliper, bed boundary location, space, different formation density, formation thickness, and other factors inclined strata dip the impact by simulating 137Cs sources under different formation conditions of the gamma distribution, to determine the orientation of drilling density tool can detect window size and space, draw depth of the logging methods. The data 360° azimuth imaging, image processing method to obtain graph, display density of the formation, dip and strata thickness and other parameters, the logging methods obtain real-time geo-steering. To establish a theoretical basis for the orientation density logging while drilling method implementation and application of numerical simulation in-depth study of the MWD azimuth and density log response factors of horizontal wells.

  13. Testing framework for embedded languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskó, Dániel; Tejfel, Máté

    2012-09-01

    Embedding a new programming language into an existing one is a widely used technique, because it fastens the development process and gives a part of a language infrastructure for free (e.g. lexical, syntactical analyzers). In this paper we are presenting a new advantage of this development approach regarding to adding testing support for these new languages. Tool support for testing is a crucial point for a newly designed programming language. It could be done in the hard way by creating a testing tool from scratch, or we could try to reuse existing testing tools by extending them with an interface to our new language. The second approach requires less work, and also it fits very well for the embedded approach. The problem is that the creation of such interfaces is not straightforward at all, because the existing testing tools were mostly not designed to be extendable and to be able to deal with new languages. This paper presents an extendable and modular model of a testing framework, in which the most basic design decision was to keep the - previously mentioned - interface creation simple and straightforward. Other important aspects of our model are the test data generation, the oracle problem and the customizability of the whole testing phase.

  14. Dismissing the goals: A comparison of four goal-dismissive goal-free evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youker, Brandon W; Ford, Ken; Bayer, Nicholas

    2017-10-01

    This article provides a descriptive review of four goal-free evaluations (GFE). GFE is an evaluation model where the evaluator conducts the evaluation without knowledge of or reference to the evaluand's stated goals. The four non-randomly sampled evaluation approaches represent articulated evaluation models in which the evaluators ignore the goals of the intervention or project. Data collection consisted of document analyses supplemented by semi-structured interviews with the models' creators. The findings from these case studies include descriptions of the evaluation models, the models' relationship to GFE, and eight commonalities shared among the four models. The conclusion of this study is that these GFEs are similar to other GFEs described in the literature in that they examine outcomes as reported by the intervention's consumers, focus on collecting qualitative data, and use their evaluations to supplement a larger goal-based evaluation strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Image Capture and Display Based on Embedded Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigong, Zhang; Suran, Di; Yongxiang, Zhang; Liming, Li

    For the requirement of building a highly reliable communication system, SpaceWire was selected in the integrated electronic system. There was a need to test the performance of SpaceWire. As part of the testing work, the goal of this paper is to transmit image data from CMOS camera through SpaceWire and display real-time images on the graphical user interface with Qt in the embedded development platform of Linux & ARM. A point-to-point mode of transmission was chosen; the running result showed the two communication ends basically reach a consensus picture in succession. It suggests that the SpaceWire can transmit the data reliably.

  16. Learning for Development: The Commonwealth of Learning and the Millennium Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commonwealth of Learning, 2011

    2011-01-01

    World leaders, meeting at the United Nations in 2000, set eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that aim to transform the condition of humankind in the 21st century. These Goals now guide the policies of governments and the priorities of development agencies. These eight goals are: (1) Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger; (2) Achieve…

  17. Cross functional organisational embedded system development

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed Embedded system development is continuing to grow. Medical, automotive and Internet of Things are just some of the market segments. There is a tight coupling between hardware and software when developing an embedded system, often needing to meet strict performance targets, standards requirements and aggressive schedules. Embedded software developers need to consider hardware requirements in far greater detail as they can have a significant impact on the quality and value of t...

  18. Homomorphic embeddings in n-groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Cristescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We prove that an cancellative n-groupoid A can be homotopic embedded in an n-group if and only if in A are satisfied all n-ary Malcev conditions. Now we shall prove that in the presence of associative law we obtain homomorphic embeddings. Furthermore, if A has a lateral identity a such embeddings is assured by a subset of n-ary Malcev conditions - unary Malcev conditions.

  19. Equivariant embeddings into smooth toric varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Hausen, Juergen

    2000-01-01

    We characterize embeddability of algebraic varieties into smooth toric varieties and prevarieties. Our embedding results hold also in an equivariant context and thus generalize a well known embedding theorem of Sumihiro on quasiprojective G-varieties. The main idea is to reduce the embedding problem to the affine case. This is done by constructing equivariant affine conoids, a tool which extends the concept of an equivariant affine cone over a projective G-variety to a more general framework.

  20. Book Review Millennium Development Goals: Looking Beyond 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    progress made towards the MDGs in the Asia-Pacific region and critically evaluates the policy framework used to pursue the MDGs. The book is a compilation of seven papers that were first presented at a 2009 conference for development practitioners and academics entitled 'Meeting the Millennium. Development Goals: ...

  1. The Challenge of Implementing the Sustainable Development Goals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    example, promoting increased consumption to alleviate poverty may lead to the failure of other goals, such as the ... immunisation8. The successful implementation of the SDGs depends on standardised and accurate data. ... A significant policy innovation with the. SDGs is the creation of the UN's High-Level. Political Forum ...

  2. A goal programming model for planning management of Miombo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study used a Goal Programming approach to investigate the effects of changes in agricultural policies and labour supply due to deaths in farming households, on use of woodlands under two regimes; namely one where utilization of forest resources was restricted to within sustainable levels and under another where ...

  3. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    R. Brian Jenkins; Peter Joyce; Deborah Mechtel

    2017-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initia...

  4. A Goal Congruity Model of Role Entry, Engagement, and Exit: Understanding Communal Goal Processes in STEM Gender Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekman, Amanda B; Steinberg, Mia; Brown, Elizabeth R; Belanger, Aimee L; Clark, Emily K

    2017-05-01

    The goal congruity perspective provides a theoretical framework to understand how motivational processes influence and are influenced by social roles. In particular, we invoke this framework to understand communal goal processes as proximal motivators of decisions to engage in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). STEM fields are not perceived as affording communal opportunities to work with or help others, and understanding these perceived goal affordances can inform knowledge about differences between (a) STEM and other career pathways and (b) women's and men's choices. We review the patterning of gender disparities in STEM that leads to a focus on communal goal congruity (Part I), provide evidence for the foundational logic of the perspective (Part II), and explore the implications for research and policy (Part III). Understanding and transmitting the opportunities for communal goal pursuit within STEM can reap widespread benefits for broadening and deepening participation.

  5. Embedded Fiber Optic Sensors for Integral Armor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fink, Bruce

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the work performed with Production Products Manufacturing & Sales (PPMS), Inc., under the "Liquid Molded Composite Armor Smart Structures Using Embedded Sensors" Small Business Innovative Research...

  6. Embedding complementarity in HCI methods and techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten; Tweddell Levinsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Differences in cultural contexts constitute differences in cognition, and research has shown that different cultures may use different cognitive tools for perception and reasoning. The cultural embeddings are significant in relation to HCI, because the cultural context is also embedded in the tec......Differences in cultural contexts constitute differences in cognition, and research has shown that different cultures may use different cognitive tools for perception and reasoning. The cultural embeddings are significant in relation to HCI, because the cultural context is also embedded...... the HCI paradigm in system development....

  7. Embedded Diagnostics & Prognostics Wireless Sensing Platforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ousachi, Mark; Scott, Andrew; Yee, David; Hosmer, Thomas; Daniszewski, Dave

    2004-01-01

    An embedded diagnostics and prognostics architecture affects several aspects associated with military ground vehicles such as improved safety, reduction in maintenance times, weapon system readiness...

  8. Aspect Suite Automation for Embedded Mission Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellis, Brian J; Stankovic, John A

    2005-01-01

    .... The toolkit focuses on using language independent notions of aspects to deal with distributed embedded system issues that include application domain specific code, middleware, the OS, prescriptive...

  9. The embedded operating system project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R. H.

    1985-01-01

    The design and construction of embedded operating systems for real-time advanced aerospace applications was investigated. The applications require reliable operating system support that must accommodate computer networks. Problems that arise in the construction of such operating systems, reconfiguration, consistency and recovery in a distributed system, and the issues of real-time processing are reported. A thesis that provides theoretical foundations for the use of atomic actions to support fault tolerance and data consistency in real-time object-based system is included. The following items are addressed: (1) atomic actions and fault-tolerance issues; (2) operating system structure; (3) program development; (4) a reliable compiler for path Pascal; and (5) mediators, a mechanism for scheduling distributed system processes.

  10. Evolution of Deeply Embedded Protostars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren

    to the resolution of the simulation. We also study the distribution of protostellar luminosities in the simulation, and find that both median and spread matches the observed distribution well. Both of these tests are important benchmarks of the simulation since they show that the overall evolution of the protostars...... of this comparison is both to benchmark the simulations by testing if observational results can be reproduced, and to use the simulations to aid in the interpretation of the observations. The research deals with the earliest stages of star formation – the protostellar phase – where the protostars are still embedded...... in the simulation matches the observational results. We also study the occurrence of circumstellar disks in the same simulation and find that they are ubiquitous at all stages of the protostellar evolution. A special emphasis is put on the study of protostellar accretion, which may have important physical...

  11. Embedded EZ-Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang; Gao, F.

    2008-01-01

    Z-source inverters are recent topological options proposed for buck-boost energy conversion with a number of possible voltage and current-type circuitries already reported in the literature. Comparing them, a common feature noted is their inclusion of a LC impedance network, placed between the dc...... input source and inverter bridge. This impedance network allows the output end of a voltage-type Z-source inverter to be shorted for voltage-boosting without causing a large current flow, and the terminal current of a current-type inverter to be interrupted for current boosting without introducing over......-voltage oscillations to the system. Therefore, Z-source inverters are in effect safer and less complex, and can be implemented using only passive elements with no additional active semiconductor needed. Believing in the prospects of Z-source inverters, this paper contributes by introducing a new family of embedded EZ-source...

  12. Defining safety goals. 2. Basic Consideration on Defining Safety Goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakata, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop basic safety goals that are rational and consistent for all nuclear facilities, including nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities. Basic safety goals (risk limits) by an index of radiation dose are discussed, which are based on health effects of detriment and fatality and risk levels presumably accepted by society. The contents of this paper are the personal opinions of the author. The desirable structure of safety goals is assumed to be 'basic safety goals plus specific safety goals (or supplemental safety goals) for each sort of facility, which reflects their characteristics'. The requisites of the basic safety goals must include (a) rational bases (scientific and social), (b) comprehensiveness (common to all sorts of nuclear facilities covering from normal to accidental conditions), and (c) applicability. To meet the requirements, the basic safety goals might have to be a risk profile expression by an index of radiation dose. The societal rationality is consideration of absolute risk levels (10 -6 or 10 -7 /yr) and/or relative risk factors (such as 0.1% of U.S. safety goals) that the general public accepts as tolerable. The following quantitative objectives are adopted in this study for protection of average individuals in the vicinity of a nuclear facility: 1. The additive annual radiation dose during normal operation must be -4 /yr (health detriment), 2x10 -6 /yr (latent cancer and severe hereditary effects), and 10 -7 /yr (acute fatality) from the statistics in Japan. The radiation effects on human beings are determined by recommendations of UNSCEAR (Ref. 1) and ICRP. The health effects considered are non-severe stochastic health detriment, i.e., detectable opacities of lens of eye (threshold 5 0.5 to 2 Sv), depression of hematopoiesis of bone marrow (0.5 Sv), and depression of reproductive capability (temporary sterility of testes ) (0.15 Sv). The LD 50/60 of acute fatality is ∼4 Sv, and fatalities by latent

  13. Multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia D, A.; Hernandez D, V. M.; Vega C, H. R.; Ordaz G, O. O.; Bravo M, I.

    2017-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has different applications, so it is a very significant and useful tool, which in turn can be dangerous for living beings if they are exposed to uncontrolled doses. However, due to its characteristics, it cannot be perceived by any of the senses of the human being, so that in order to know the presence of it, radiation detectors and additional devices are required to quantify and classify it. A multichannel analyzer is responsible for separating the different pulse heights that are generated in the detectors, in a certain number of channels; according to the number of bits of the analog to digital converter. The objective of the work was to design and implement a multichannel analyzer and its associated virtual instrument, for nuclear spectrometry. The components of the multichannel analyzer were created in VHDL hardware description language and packaged in the Xilinx Vivado design suite, making use of resources such as the ARM processing core that the System on Chip Zynq contains and the virtual instrument was developed on the LabView programming graphics platform. The first phase was to design the hardware architecture to be embedded in the FPGA and for the internal control of the multichannel analyzer the application was generated for the ARM processor in C language. For the second phase, the virtual instrument was developed for the management, control and visualization of the results. The data obtained as a result of the development of the system were observed graphically in a histogram showing the spectrum measured. The design of the multichannel analyzer embedded in FPGA was tested with two different radiation detection systems (hyper-pure germanium and scintillation) which allowed determining that the spectra obtained are similar in comparison with the commercial multichannel analyzers. (Author)

  14. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-01-01

    Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online ...

  15. Exploring Exploration: A Tutorial Introduction to Embedded Systems Design Space Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pimentel, A.D.

    As embedded systems grow more complex and as new applications such as IoT require many design constraints, sophisticated design space exploration techniques are essential in order to find the best compromise between different design goals and their tradeoff. This tutorial gives a structured insight

  16. Five Ways the Sustainable Development Goals Are Better than the Millennium Development Goals and Why Every Educationalist Should Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprani, Lily

    2016-01-01

    For 15 years the millennium development goals (MDGs) were a guiding force for many issues affecting the lives of children and young people around the world. Agreed by UN member states in 2001, the eight MDGs were designed as a framework around which states were expected to develop policy priorities and shape their overseas aid spending plans. The…

  17. Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Heather

    2017-01-01

    This article explores goal setting as a teacher development practice in higher education. It reports on a study of college teacher goal setting informed by goal setting theory. Analysis of study participants' goal setting practices and their experiences with goal pursuit offers a framework for thinking about the kinds of goals teachers might set…

  18. The Best of Two Worlds. Article 6 mechanisms shall contribute to Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Holm; Soezer, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    The Paris Agreement and the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) were two milestone achievements in 2015. The Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) put forward by Parties before the Climate Conference in Paris will have to be fully embedded in the 2030 agenda to achieve truly...

  19. Performance goals for roadway bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stipanovic, Irina; Klanker, Giel

    2016-01-01

    During the implementation of asset management strategies, maintenance actions are required in order to keep assets at a desired performance level. It is verified that there is a large disparity in Europe regarding the way performance indicators are quantified and how performance goals are specified.

  20. The institutional framework of Industrial policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sandrine Labory; Patrizio Bianchi

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the institutional framework of industrial policies derives from the analysis of industries as systems. Industries are embedded in specific institutional frameworks with which they co-evolve. However, industrial systems are primarily organised at local level: industries may be global but in the sense that they constitute global networks of local systems. The institutional framework of industrial policy derives from this result: industrial policy acts at different levels,...

  1. Virtual Network Embedding via Monte Carlo Tree Search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Soroush; Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    2018-02-01

    Network virtualization helps overcome shortcomings of the current Internet architecture. The virtualized network architecture enables coexistence of multiple virtual networks (VNs) on an existing physical infrastructure. VN embedding (VNE) problem, which deals with the embedding of VN components onto a physical network, is known to be -hard. In this paper, we propose two VNE algorithms: MaVEn-M and MaVEn-S. MaVEn-M employs the multicommodity flow algorithm for virtual link mapping while MaVEn-S uses the shortest-path algorithm. They formalize the virtual node mapping problem by using the Markov decision process (MDP) framework and devise action policies (node mappings) for the proposed MDP using the Monte Carlo tree search algorithm. Service providers may adjust the execution time of the MaVEn algorithms based on the traffic load of VN requests. The objective of the algorithms is to maximize the profit of infrastructure providers. We develop a discrete event VNE simulator to implement and evaluate performance of MaVEn-M, MaVEn-S, and several recently proposed VNE algorithms. We introduce profitability as a new performance metric that captures both acceptance and revenue to cost ratios. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms find more profitable solutions than the existing algorithms. Given additional computation time, they further improve embedding solutions.

  2. Self generation, small generation, and embedded generation issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The New Brunswick Market Design Committee for electric power restructuring has been directed to examine issues regarding cogeneration and small-scale, on-site generation and how they will fit within the framework of the bilateral contract market. The Committee will also have to deal with issues of generation embedded in a distribution system. The Committee has defined cogeneration as the simultaneous production of electricity and useful thermal energy. Self-generation has been defined as small-scale power generation by an end-user, while embedded generation has been defined as a generation facility that is located within a distribution utility but is not directly connected to the transmission system. The Committee has postponed its decision on whether embedded generation will be eligible to participate under the bilateral contract market for electricity. This report discusses general issues such as the physical support of generation, market support of generation, transition issues and policy issues. It also discusses generation support issues such as operating reserves, transmission tariff issues, and distribution tariffs. Market support issues such as transmission access for generation sales were also considered, along with market access for generation sales, and net metering for behind the meter generation. 7 refs., 1 tab

  3. Building Staff Capacity through Reflecting on Collaborative Development of Embedded Academic Literacies Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Linda C.

    2016-01-01

    Most Australian universities articulate some policies around the integration of graduate learning outcomes in courses. This paper draws on a Federal Government funded project that adopted a developmental approach to students' acquisition of course learning outcomes, through the embedding of academic literacies in course curricula. The project was…

  4. Embedded Advertising on Television: Classic Legal Environment and Business Law Content "Brought to You by ..."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Rita Marie

    2010-01-01

    Students are familiar with some or all depictions of branded products in popular television shows. But they probably have no idea the number of legal and public policy issues these product appearances are generating. This article explains how embedded advertising in television shows can be the attention-grabbing vehicle for teaching numerous…

  5. Why embedding Health ICT in daily practice is not that easy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prospects of information and communication technologies (ICT) seem endless. In daily life ICT is fully embedded, but in healthcare its uptake and use does not reach its potential yet despite high expectations. Policymakers promote Health ICT widely, e.g. by policy letters, investing

  6. Qualitative analysis of the dynamics of policy design and implementation in hospital funding reform.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S Palmer

    Full Text Available As in many health care systems, some Canadian jurisdictions have begun shifting away from global hospital budgets. Payment for episodes of care has begun to be implemented. Starting in 2012, the Province of Ontario implemented hospital funding reforms comprising three elements: Global Budgets; Health Based Allocation Method (HBAM; and Quality-Based Procedures (QBP. This evaluation focuses on implementation of QBPs, a procedure/diagnosis-specific funding approach involving a pre-set price per episode of care coupled with best practice clinical pathways. We examined whether or not there was consensus in understanding of the program theory underpinning QBPs and how this may have influenced full and effective implementation of this innovative funding model.We undertook a formative evaluation of QBP implementation. We used an embedded case study method and in-depth, one-on-one, semi-structured, telephone interviews with key informants at three levels of the health care system: Designers (those who designed the QBP policy; Adoption Supporters (organizations and individuals supporting adoption of QBPs; and Hospital Implementers (those responsible for QBP implementation in hospitals. Thematic analysis involved an inductive approach, incorporating Framework analysis to generate descriptive and explanatory themes that emerged from the data.Five main findings emerged from our research: (1 Unbeknownst to most key informants, there was neither consistency nor clarity over time among QBP designers in their understanding of the original goal(s for hospital funding reform; (2 Prior to implementation, the intended hospital funding mechanism transitioned from ABF to QBPs, but most key informants were either unaware of the transition or believe it was intentional; (3 Perception of the primary goal(s of the policy reform continues to vary within and across all levels of key informants; (4 Four years into implementation, the QBP funding mechanism remains

  7. Embedded Java security security for mobile devices

    CERN Document Server

    Debbabi, Mourad; Talhi, Chamseddine

    2007-01-01

    Java brings more functionality and versatility to the world of mobile devices, but it also introduces new security threats. This book contains a presentation of embedded Java security and presents the main components of embedded Java. It gives an idea of the platform architecture and is useful for researchers and practitioners.

  8. Multithreading for Embedded Reconfigurable Multicore Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaykov, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this dissertation, we address the problem of performance efficient multithreading execution on heterogeneous multicore embedded systems. By heterogeneous multicore embedded systems we refer to those, which have real-time requirements and consist of processor tiles with General Purpose Processor

  9. Embedding methods for phi4-interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanckowiak, J.

    1985-01-01

    The idea of embedding a given theory in a class of similar theories is applied to quantum field theory in the case of phi 4 -interaction to derive different equations for the generating functional. The number of possible embeddings has been restricted by demanding that for the defined projections of the generating functional a closed system of equations be obtained

  10. Teaching Embedded System Concepts for Technological Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzker, M.; Schwandt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A basic understanding of technology is recognized as important knowledge even for students not connected with engineering and computer science. This paper shows that embedded system concepts can be taught in a technological literacy course. An embedded system teaching block that has been used in an electronics module for non-engineers is…

  11. Embedded Systems Design with 8051 Microcontrollers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakahayov, Zdravko; Winther, Ole; Christensen, Knud Smed

    Textbook on embedded microcontrollers. Example microcontroller family: Intel 8051 with special emphasis on Philips 80C552. Structure, design examples and programming in C and assembler. Hardware - software codesign. EProm emulator.......Textbook on embedded microcontrollers. Example microcontroller family: Intel 8051 with special emphasis on Philips 80C552. Structure, design examples and programming in C and assembler. Hardware - software codesign. EProm emulator....

  12. Embedding capacity estimation of reversible watermarking schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Estimation of the embedding capacity is an important problem specif- ically in reversible multi-pass watermarking and is required for analysis before any image can be watermarked. In this paper, we propose an efficient method for estimating the embedding capacity of a given cover image under multi-pass embed-.

  13. Isometric embeddings in cosmology and astrophysics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent interest in higher-dimensional cosmological models has prompted some signifi-cant work on the mathematical technicalities of how one goes about embedding spacetimes into some higher-dimensional space. We survey results in the literature (existence theorems and simple explicit embeddings); briefly outline our ...

  14. Properties of Vector Embeddings in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Salehi Rizi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Embedding social network data into a low-dimensional vector space has shown promising performance for many real-world applications, such as node classification, node clustering, link prediction and network visualization. However, the information contained in these vector embeddings remains abstract and hard to interpret. Methods for inspecting embeddings usually rely on visualization methods, which do not work on a larger scale and do not give concrete interpretations of vector embeddings in terms of preserved network properties (e.g., centrality or betweenness measures. In this paper, we study and investigate network properties preserved by recent random walk-based embedding procedures like node2vec, DeepWalk or LINE. We propose a method that applies learning to rank in order to relate embeddings to network centralities. We evaluate our approach with extensive experiments on real-world and artificial social networks. Experiments show that each embedding method learns different network properties. In addition, we show that our graph embeddings in combination with neural networks provide a computationally efficient way to approximate the Closeness Centrality measure in social networks.

  15. Embedded Picture Mnemonics to Learn Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidman, Adina; Ehri, Linnea

    2010-01-01

    Can embedded mnemonics ease the task of learning a foreign alphabet? English-speaking preschoolers (N = 36, M = 5;2 years) were taught 10 Hebrew letter-sound relations. Experimental letters were learned with mnemonics that embedded letter shapes in drawings of objects whose shapes resembled the letters and whose English names began with the…

  16. An investigation of embeddings for spherically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Embeddings into higher dimensions are very important in the study of higher- dimensional theories of our Universe and in high-energy physics. Theorems which have been developed recently guarantee the existence of embeddings of pseudo-Riemannian manifolds into. Einstein spaces and more general ...

  17. TTCN-3 for Distributed Testing Embedded Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, Stefan; Deiß, Thomas; Ioustinova, Natalia; Kontio, Ari; van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Rennoch, Axel; Sidorova, Natalia; Virbitskaite, I.; Voronkov, A.

    TTCN-3 is a standardized language for specifying and executing test suites that is particularly popular for testing embedded systems. Prior to testing embedded software in a target environment, the software is usually tested in the host environment. Executing in the host environment often affects

  18. Trees and Water: Mainstreaming Environmental Policy in the Graduate Public Policy Curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil); D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn this article, we describe and evaluate a teaching project embedded within a core policy analysis course that allows students to engage with a major public policy issue—in our case, environmental policy—without a corresponding cost in terms of reducing curricular space for developing

  19. Inlet Flow Control and Prediction Technologies for Embedded Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Michelle L.; Mackie, Scott A.; Gissen, Abe; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Lakebrink, Matthew T.; Glezer, Ari; Mani, Mori; Mace, James L.

    2011-01-01

    Fail-safe, hybrid, flow control (HFC) is a promising technology for meeting high-speed cruise efficiency, low-noise signature, and reduced fuel-burn goals for future, Hybrid-Wing-Body (HWB) aircraft with embedded engines. This report details the development of HFC technology that enables improved inlet performance in HWB vehicles with highly integrated inlets and embedded engines without adversely affecting vehicle performance. In addition, new test techniques for evaluating Boundary-Layer-Ingesting (BLI)-inlet flow-control technologies developed and demonstrated through this program are documented, including the ability to generate a BLI-like inlet-entrance flow in a direct-connect, wind-tunnel facility, as well as, the use of D-optimal, statistically designed experiments to optimize test efficiency and enable interpretation of results. Validated improvements in numerical analysis tools and methods accomplished through this program are also documented, including Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of steady-state flow physics for baseline, BLI-inlet diffuser flow, as well as, that created by flow-control devices. Finally, numerical methods were employed in a ground-breaking attempt to directly simulate dynamic distortion. The advances in inlet technologies and prediction tools will help to meet and exceed "N+2" project goals for future HWB aircraft.

  20. Graphical Model Debugger Framework for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Kebin

    2010-01-01

    Model Driven Software Development has offered a faster way to design and implement embedded real-time software by moving the design to a model level, and by transforming models to code. However, the testing of embedded systems has remained at the code level. This paper presents a Graphical Model...... Debugger Framework, providing an auxiliary avenue of analysis of system models at runtime by executing generated code and updating models synchronously, which allows embedded developers to focus on the model level. With the model debugger, embedded developers can graphically test their design model...... and check the running status of the system, which offers a debugging capability on a higher level of abstraction. The framework intends to contribute a tool to the Eclipse society, especially suitable for model-driven development of embedded systems....

  1. [Treatment goals in FACE philosophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime

    2017-03-01

    The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  2. Treatment goals of pulmonary hypertension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McLaughlin, Vallerie V

    2013-12-24

    With significant therapeutic advances in the field of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the need to identify clinically relevant treatment goals that correlate with long-term outcome has emerged as 1 of the most critical tasks. Current goals include achieving modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance >380 m, normalization of right ventricular size and function on echocardiograph, a decreasing or normalization of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), and hemodynamics with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 mg\\/kg\\/min(2). However, to more effectively prognosticate in the current era of complex treatments, it is becoming clear that the "bar" needs to be set higher, with more robust and clearer delineations aimed at parameters that correlate with long-term outcome; namely, exercise capacity and right heart function. Specifically, tests that accurately and noninvasively determine right ventricular function, such as cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and BNP\\/N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, are emerging as promising indicators to serve as baseline predictors and treatment targets. Furthermore, studies focusing on outcomes have shown that no single test can reliably serve as a long-term prognostic marker and that composite treatment goals are more predictive of long-term outcome. It has been proposed that treatment goals be revised to include the following: modified New York Heart Association functional class I or II, 6-min walk distance ≥ 380 to 440 m, cardiopulmonary exercise test-measured peak oxygen consumption >15 ml\\/min\\/kg and ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide <45 l\\/min\\/l\\/min, BNP level toward "normal," echocardiograph and\\/or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging demonstrating normal\\/near-normal right ventricular size and function, and hemodynamics showing normalization of right ventricular function with right atrial pressure <8 mm Hg and cardiac index >2.5 to 3.0 l\\/min\\/m(2).

  3. Field tests on partial embedment effects (embedment effect tests on soil-structure interaction)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurimoto, O.; Tsunoda, T.; Inoue, T.; Izumi, M.; Kusakabe, K.; Akino, K.

    1993-01-01

    A series of Model Tests of Embedment Effect on Reactor Buildings has been carried out by the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC), under the sponsorship of the Ministry of International Trade and lndustry (MITI) of Japan. The nuclear reactor buildings are partially embedded due to conditions for the construction or building arrangement in Japan. It is necessary to verify the partial embedment effects by experiments and analytical studies in order to incorporate the effects in the seismic design. Forced vibration tests, therefore, were performed using a model with several types of embedment. Correlated simulation analyses were also performed and the characteristics of partial embedment effects on soil-structure interaction were evaluated. (author)

  4. American energy policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldmuntz, L.

    1982-02-22

    US energy policy has oscillated between public- and private-sector responsibility for many years. The history of energy policies reflects the differences in consumption and production of six competing regional interests as well as strong philosophical and economic differences, which allow changes in voting patterns to bring abrupt changes in policy. Other factors affecting US policy are the quality of energy forecasts, the religious fervor of the proponents of a sustainable society, and conflict with some environmental regulations. Energy policies should address a broad range of possible scenarios, with a goal of providing adequate energy at the lowest possible cost and with reasonable security. The Reagan administration will support an expansion of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve, the reform of overseas investment regulations, and the reform of gas and electric utility regulations. It will not support the World Bank energy facility or bilaterial long-term minimum purchase agreement. It may support oil tariffs or price guarantees for domestic prototype facilities. 7 tables.

  5. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  6. The contribution of goal specificity to goal achievement in collaborative goal setting for the management of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lorraine; Alles, Chehani; Lemay, Kate; Reddel, Helen; Saini, Bandana; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Emmerton, Lynne; Stewart, Kay; Burton, Debbie; Krass, Ines; Armour, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Goal setting was investigated as part of an implementation trial of an asthma management service (PAMS) conducted in 96 Australian community pharmacies. Patients and pharmacists identified asthma-related issues of concern to the patient and collaboratively set goals to address these. Although goal setting is commonly integrated into disease state management interventions, the nature of goals, and their contribution to goal attainment and health outcomes are not well understood. To identify and describe: 1) goals set collaboratively between adult patients with asthma and their pharmacist, 2) goal specificity and goal achievement, and 3) describe the relationships between specificity, achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Measures of goal specificity, and goal achievement were developed and applied to patient data records. Goals set were thematically analyzed into goal domains. Proportions of goals set, goals achieved and their specificity were calculated. Correlational and regression analyses were undertaken to determine the relationships between goal specificity, goal achievement, asthma control and asthma-related quality of life. Data were drawn from 498 patient records. Findings showed that patients set a wide range and number of asthma-related goals (N = 1787) and the majority (93%) were either achieved or being working toward by the end of the study. Goal achievement was positively associated with specific and moderately specific goals, but not non-specific goals. However, on closer inspection, an inconsistent pattern of relationships emerged as a function of goal domain. Findings also showed that goal setting was associated with end-of-study asthma control but not to asthma-related quality of life. Pharmacists can help patients to set achievable and specific asthma management goals, and these have the potential to directly impact health outcomes such as asthma control. Goal specificity appears to be an important feature in the

  7. The Quest for Transformative Partnerships in STEM Education: A Comparison of Policies, Structures and Evaluation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, G.

    2004-12-01

    One of the frequent policy prescriptions offered by federal officials for improving science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education in the United States is to encourage the development of partnerships between higher education, elementary and secondary education, and informal education. This prescription is not unique to STEM education. Rather stimulating the creation and development of partnerships has become one of the preferred strategies for reforming governmental programs through several administrations. This research presents a comparison of several policies designed to stimulate partnerships across multiple organizations. In doing so we examine assumptions about the nature of partnerships embedded in policies and the consequences of these assumptions on the organization and the evaluation of the partnerships. A recurring theme we observe among policies is the quest for transformative partnerships where changing the strategies and behaviors of the participating partners is seen as a necessary, if not sufficient, condition for producing the desired policy outcomes (usually articulated as improving the performance of the school, teacher, student, and even all three). While the goal of policy makers is to achieve transformation, the goal of participating organizations seems to be more instrumental, anchored in their own institutional goals and missions. In this analysis define partnership as voluntary arrangements between organizations, anchored by agreements, to promote the exchange, sharing, or co-development of products and/or programs. The analysis first examines the degree to which policies produce such inter-organizational relationships. Six concepts are drawn for organizational and inter-organizational relations research as a framework for examining the influence of policy upon the pre-conditions for partnership, partnering activities, and the evaluation of partnership performance outcomes. We examine the degree to which policy addresses

  8. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  9. A Potentially Heteroglossic Policy Becomes Monoglossic in Context: An Ethnographic Analysis of Paraguayan Bilingual Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Katherine S.

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographic and discursive approaches to educational language policy (ELP) that explore how policy is appropriated in context are important for understanding policy success/failure in meeting goals of educational equity for language-minoritized students. This study describes how Paraguayan national policy for universal bilingual education…

  10. The art of designing embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganssle, Jack G

    2000-01-01

    Art of Designing Embedded Systems is apart primer and part reference, aimed at practicing embedded engineers, whether working on the code or the hardware design. Embedded systems suffer from a chaotic, ad hoc development process. This books lays out a very simple seven-step plan to get firmware development under control. There are no formal methodologies to master; the ideas are immediately useful. Most designers are unaware that code complexity grows faster than code size. This book shows a number of ways to linearize the complexity/size curve and get products out faster

  11. Secure smart embedded devices, platforms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Markantonakis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    New generations of IT users are increasingly abstracted from the underlying devices and platforms that provide and safeguard their services. As a result they may have little awareness that they are critically dependent on the embedded security devices that are becoming pervasive in daily modern life. Secure Smart Embedded Devices, Platforms and Applications provides a broad overview of the many security and practical issues of embedded devices, tokens, and their operation systems, platforms and main applications. It also addresses a diverse range of industry/government initiatives and consider

  12. Embedded Solenoid Transformer for Power Conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    A resonant power converter for operation in the radio frequency range, preferably in the VHF, comprises at least one PCB-embedded transformer. The transformer is configured for radio frequency operation and comprises a printed circuit board defining a horizontal plane, the printed circuit board...... comprising at least two horizontal conductive layers separated by an isolating layer, a first embedded solenoid forming a primary winding of the transformer and a second embedded solenoid being arranged parallel to the first solenoid and forming a secondary winding of the transformer, wherein the first...

  13. Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions

    OpenAIRE

    WAHL, M; BERNOCCHI, M; JUST, P; WEISS, AH; GOIKOETXEA, J; BILLION, J; NEMORIN, J

    2007-01-01

    Deliverable D3D.3.1 Technology report on Railway Embedded Network solutions is a deliverable of Work Package SP3D_WP3 ICOM Specification & Telecom Interfaces of Onboard and Train Train Networks. It takes place within the InteGRail Task 3D_03.1 State of the Art in Embedded Networks. The objectives of this deliverable are: - to consider which embedded communication network technologies are already into ser-vice within the trains; - to analyse Ethernet-based technologies; - to evaluate how Ethe...

  14. An Embedded Real-Time Red Peach Detection System Based on an OV7670 Camera, ARM Cortex-M4 Processor and 3D Look-Up Tables

    OpenAIRE

    Teixid?, Merc?; Font, Davinia; Pallej?, Tom?s; Tresanchez, Marcel; Nogu?s, Miquel; Palac?n, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes the development of an embedded real-time fruit detection system for future automatic fruit harvesting. The proposed embedded system is based on an ARM Cortex-M4 (STM32F407VGT6) processor and an Omnivision OV7670 color camera. The future goal of this embedded vision system will be to control a robotized arm to automatically select and pick some fruit directly from the tree. The complete embedded system has been designed to be placed directly in the gripper tool of the future...

  15. AdS2 models in an embedding superspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Sherry, T.N.

    2003-01-01

    An embedding superspace, whose bosonic part is the flat (2+1)-dimensional embedding space for AdS 2 , is introduced. Superfields and several supersymmetric models are examined in the embedded AdS 2 superspace

  16. UNFPA committed to ICPD goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    In April 1996, at the 52nd Session of the UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), a UNFPA representative told participants that recent series of international conferences have acknowledged that development must focus on meeting human needs. The increasing urban population is in need of education, housing, employment, health care, improved water supply, sanitation, and public transportation. Countries of the Asia-Pacific region must deal with meeting these urban needs over the next quarter century. Urban population growth and urban poverty are part of the global agenda for the 21st century. Future UNFPA aid will center on helping individual countries achieve the goals of the International Conference on Population and Development by 2015. These goals revolve around education (especially for girls); reducing infant, child, and maternal mortality; and providing universal access to reproductive health services. UNFPA aims to continue to work with governments, ESCAP, and nongovernmental organizations in reducing poverty through sustainable development in Asia and the Pacific.

  17. Power for Vehicle Embedded MEMS Sensors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Embedded wireless sensors of the future will enable flight vehicle systems to be "highly aware" of onboard health and performance parameters, as well as the external...

  18. Costs and benefits of embedded generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    This project sought to evaluate the costs and benefits of embedded generation in the light of the UK government's consultation paper on the future of green generation, the government's aim to increase the levels of generation from renewable energy sources and cogeneration, the current Review of the Electricity Trading Arrangements, and the form of the Distribution Price Control. Definitions are given for embedded, centrally dispatched, and pooled generation, and licensed suppliers, and commercial and economic values. The commercial and economic value of embedded generation is examined in terms of generation prices, costs to electrical suppliers, losses (electrical, transmission, distribution), and effects on the national grid and distribution network. Diagrams showing the cost elements of trading through the Pool and the elements that are avoided by non-Pool embedded generator trading are presented

  19. Drill Embedded Nanosensors for Planetary Subsurface Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We have developed a carbon nanotube (CNT) sensor for water vapor detection under Martian Conditions and the miniaturized electronics can be embedded in the drill bit...

  20. Verification and Performance Analysis for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2009-01-01

    This talk provides a thorough tutorial of the UPPAAL tool suite for, modeling, simulation, verification, optimal scheduling, synthesis, testing and performance analysis of embedded and real-time systems....

  1. Joint embeddings of scene graphs and images

    OpenAIRE

    Belilovsky, Eugene; Blaschko, Matthew; Kiros, Jamie Ryan; Urtasun, Raquel; Zemel, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Belilovsky E., Blaschko M., Kiros J.R., Urtasun R., Zemel R., ''Joint embeddings of scene graphs and images'', 5th international conference on learning representations workshop track - ICLR 2017, 5 pp., April 24-26, 2017, Toulon, France.

  2. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  3. A Randomized Model for Communicating Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, M.C.; Bujorianu, L.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, there is an intense research activity in designing systems that operate in real life, physical environments. This research is spanned by various areas in computer science and engineering: embedded systems, reactive systems, wireless communications, hybrid systems, stochastic processes,

  4. Embedding Moodle into Ubiquitous Computing Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glahn, Christian; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Glahn, C., & Specht, M. (2010). Embedding Moodle into Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In M. Montebello, et al. (Eds.), 9th World Conference on Mobile and Contextual Learning (MLearn2010) (pp. 100-107). October, 19-22, 2010, Valletta, Malta.

  5. Multidimensional artificial field embedding with spatial sensitivity

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lunga, D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available to existing graph embedding tools. Robust parameter estimation is often difficult when the image pixels contain several hundreds of bands. In addition, finding a corresponding high quality lower dimensional coordinate system to map signature relations remains...

  6. Embedded Face Detection and Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Göksel Günlü

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its

  7. Goals? What goals? Europeans to hear more about the world's millennium development goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, S.

    2005-01-01

    The European Union (EU) is quickly becoming the front-runner of development aid to regions in Africa and other developing countries. However, over three-quarters of EU citizens are unaware of development efforts being made on the part of the Union to Third World countries, according to a public opinion poll released by Eurobarometer. In light of the low awareness of the EU's development agenda and the United Nations's Millennium Development Goals, the EU Humanitarian Aid and Development Commission has employed a campaign to raise the level of awareness among the EU's 460 million citizens

  8. Operating system concepts for embedded multicores

    OpenAIRE

    Horst, Oliver; Schmidt, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    Currently we can see an increasing adoption of multi-core platforms in the area of embedded systems. While these new hardware platforms offer the potential to satisfy the ever increasing demand for computational power, they pose considerable challenges with regard to software development. This affects the application software itself, but also the system design and architecture. Here, we address the consequences for operating system architecture in embedded systems. After dis-cussing current a...

  9. Embedded Lattice and Properties of Gram Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Futa Yuichi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we formalize in Mizar [14] the definition of embedding of lattice and its properties. We formally define an inner product on an embedded module. We also formalize properties of Gram matrix. We formally prove that an inverse of Gram matrix for a rational lattice exists. Lattice of Z-module is necessary for lattice problems, LLL (Lenstra, Lenstra and Lov´asz base reduction algorithm [16] and cryptographic systems with lattice [17].

  10. Goal motives and multiple-goal striving in sport and academia: A person-centered investigation of goal motives and inter-goal relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Laura C; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2016-12-01

    This investigation extended the goal striving literature by examining motives for two goals being pursued simultaneously. Grounded in self-determination theory, we examined how student-athletes' motives for their sporting and academic goals were associated with inter-goal facilitation and interference. Cross-sectional survey. UK university student-athletes (n=204) identified their most important sporting and academic goals. They then rated their extrinsic, introjected, identified and intrinsic motives for these goals and completed questionnaires assessing inter-goal facilitation and interference. Using a person-centered approach via latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct profiles of goal motives. Auxiliary analyses showed that the profile with high identified motives for both goals reported greater inter-goal facilitation. Extending the previous literature, the findings demonstrate the benefits of autonomous motives when simultaneously pursing goals in sport and academia. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. COMBINATION OF GOALS STRATEGY REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Yu. Lapigin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently the tools to identify strategicallyimportant objectives of regional development is not enough to build a developmentperspective, relying on something special,what distinguishes each region from therest. The article discusses approaches to the formation of the regional developmentstrategy, which is based on goals set by the results of the analysis of the main factors inthe development of the region. The study is based on the methodology of systems theoryand methods of strategic management. The most important results should include tools tobuild the tree of strategic objectives resultingfrom the implementation of the algorithm forconstructing planes of analysis and development of the region. The results can be used to develop a strategy for the developmentof socio-economic systems of various typesand forms.

  12. Goal directed behavior and dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Giuseppe Augusto

    Goal directed behavior is explained by two approaches: the first, which can be named as cybertetic (behavior is wieved as homeostatic and reflexive), and second, as cognitive approach, a learned response, (skills developed by whaching the behavior of another individual). The aim of the paper is to present a noninvasive method described as an interaction of human beings with environment, recording the electrical activity of the brain from the human scalp. Obtained results are in agreement of psychological theories that place at determined levels of age the acquisition of the capacities of abstract thinking and with the functional neuroanatomic studies according to which biological maturation is necessary for learning processes to develop. An acquired level of learning is in close relationship with the maturation level of the cerebral structures.

  13. Accurate basis set truncation for wavefunction embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Taylor A.; Goodpaster, Jason D.; Manby, Frederick R.; Miller, Thomas F.

    2013-07-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) provides a formally exact framework for performing embedded subsystem electronic structure calculations, including DFT-in-DFT and wavefunction theory-in-DFT descriptions. In the interest of efficiency, it is desirable to truncate the atomic orbital basis set in which the subsystem calculation is performed, thus avoiding high-order scaling with respect to the size of the MO virtual space. In this study, we extend a recently introduced projection-based embedding method [F. R. Manby, M. Stella, J. D. Goodpaster, and T. F. Miller III, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 8, 2564 (2012)], 10.1021/ct300544e to allow for the systematic and accurate truncation of the embedded subsystem basis set. The approach is applied to both covalently and non-covalently bound test cases, including water clusters and polypeptide chains, and it is demonstrated that errors associated with basis set truncation are controllable to well within chemical accuracy. Furthermore, we show that this approach allows for switching between accurate projection-based embedding and DFT embedding with approximate kinetic energy (KE) functionals; in this sense, the approach provides a means of systematically improving upon the use of approximate KE functionals in DFT embedding.

  14. Through economics to Noble goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The winner of the 2015 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences, Angus Deaton, is the economist most famous for his work related to health, welfare and economic development. In its press release the Nobel Prize Committee highlighted: 'To design economic policy that promotes welfare and reduces poverty, we must first understand individual consumption choices. More than anyone else, Angus Deaton has enhanced this understanding. By linking detailed individual choices and aggregate outcomes, his research has helped transform the fields of microeconomics, macroeconomics, and development economics. Deaton's focus on household surveys has helped transform development economics from a theoretical field based on aggregate data to an empirical field based on detailed individual data.'.

  15. Policy Capacity in the Learning Healthcare System; Comment on “Health Reform Requires Policy Capacity”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Gardner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pierre-Gerlier Forest and his colleagues make a strong argument for the need to expand policy capacity among healthcare actors. In this commentary, I develop an additional argument in support of Forest et al view. Forest et al rightly point to the need to have embedded policy experts to successfully translate healthcare reform policy into healthcare change. Translation of externally generated innovation policy into local solutions is only one source of healthcare system change. We also need to build learning healthcare systems that can discover new health solutions at the frontline of care. Enhanced policy capacity staffing in those organizations will be key to building continuously learning health systems.

  16. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  17. Policy in Conflict: The Struggle Between Environmental Policy and Homeland Security Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    powered plants or uses diesel as fuel. Nearly all pesticides and many fertilizers are made from oil.  Most plastics, used in everything from...gas and methane, such as by a garbage dump or large farm , where methane can be harvested as a waste product. Rudolf Diesel (the inventor of the...industrial economies. In the 1970s, a reduction of just 5% caused a price increase of more than 400%.  Most farming equipment is either built in oil

  18. Evaluation and Policy Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana; Højlund, Steven

    2015-01-01

    emanating from them are examined. The findings are that only two types of actors involved in the evaluation are actually learning (programme units and external evaluators), that learners learn different things (programme overview, small-scale programme adjustments, policy change and evaluation methods......This article examines how evaluation induces policy learning – a question largely neglected by the scholarly literature on evaluation and policy learning. Following a learner's perspective, the article attempts to ascertain who the learners are, and what, and how, learners actually learn from...... evaluations. In so doing, it focuses on what different types of learners actually learn within the context of the evaluation framework (the set of administrative structures defining the evaluation goals and process). Taking the empirical case of three EU programme evaluations, the patterns of policy learning...

  19. Hierarchical extreme learning machine based reinforcement learning for goal localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlDahoul, Nouar; Zaw Htike, Zaw; Akmeliawati, Rini

    2017-03-01

    The objective of goal localization is to find the location of goals in noisy environments. Simple actions are performed to move the agent towards the goal. The goal detector should be capable of minimizing the error between the predicted locations and the true ones. Few regions need to be processed by the agent to reduce the computational effort and increase the speed of convergence. In this paper, reinforcement learning (RL) method was utilized to find optimal series of actions to localize the goal region. The visual data, a set of images, is high dimensional unstructured data and needs to be represented efficiently to get a robust detector. Different deep Reinforcement models have already been used to localize a goal but most of them take long time to learn the model. This long learning time results from the weights fine tuning stage that is applied iteratively to find an accurate model. Hierarchical Extreme Learning Machine (H-ELM) was used as a fast deep model that doesn’t fine tune the weights. In other words, hidden weights are generated randomly and output weights are calculated analytically. H-ELM algorithm was used in this work to find good features for effective representation. This paper proposes a combination of Hierarchical Extreme learning machine and Reinforcement learning to find an optimal policy directly from visual input. This combination outperforms other methods in terms of accuracy and learning speed. The simulations and results were analysed by using MATLAB.

  20. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Implementation gaps between policy goals and outcomes are of increasing concern in practice and research. We explore the translation chains through which urban policies become mobile and are translated into practice. Informed by the city management and policy mobility literature, we conduct a cas...

  1. Unexpected Translations in Urban Policy Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zapata, Patrik; Zapata Campos, Maria José

    Implementation gaps between policy goals and outcomes are of increasing concern in practice and research. We explore the translation chains through which urban policies become mobile and are translated into practice. Informed by the city management and policy mobility literature, we conduct a cas...

  2. 14 CFR 313.2 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.2 Policy. (a) General. It is the policy of DOT to view the conservation of energy and the energy efficiency improvement goals of Chapter... extent practicable and consistent with DOT's authority under the Statute and other law, energy...

  3. Illegitimacy Improves Goal Pursuit in Powerless Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Willis , Guillermo B.; Guinote , Ana; Rodríguez-Bailón , Rosa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The effects of power legitimacy on self-regulation during goal pursuit were examined. Study 1 focused on goal-setting and goal-striving. Specifically, it examined how much time legitimate and illegitimate powerless individuals needed to set goals, and how many means they generated to pursue these goals. Study 2 examined persistence in the face of difficulties. Consistently across these studies illegitimacy improved self-regulation in powerless individuals. Illegitimate pow...

  4. The Relation Between Goals and Autobiographical Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Kim Berg; Rasmussen, Anne Scharling; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The present study examines involuntary (spontaneously retrieved) versus voluntary (deliberately retrieved) autobiographical memories in relation to earlier registered goals measured by the Personal Concern Inventory (Cox & Klinger, 2000). We found that the important and not yet planned goals...... facilitate recall of goal congruent autobiographical memories which supports the idea of autobiographical memory facilitating goal attainment. Further, no differences between involuntary and voluntary memories with regard to frequency or characteristics of goal related content were found. Yet memories...

  5. Institutional implications of establishing safety goals for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, F.A.; Hooper, R.L.

    1983-07-01

    The purpose of this project is to anticipate and address institutional problems that may arise from the adoption of NRC's proposed Policy Statement on Safety Goals for Nuclear Power Plants. The report emphasizes one particular category of institutional problems: the possible use of safety goals as a basis for legal challenges to NRC actions, and the resolution of such challenges by the courts. Three types of legal issues are identified and analyzed. These are, first, general legal issues such as access to the legal system, burden of proof, and standard of proof. Second is the particular formulation of goals. Involved here are such questions as sustainable rationale, definitions, avoided issues, vagueness of time and space details, and degree of conservatism. Implementation brings up the third set of issues which include interpretation and application, linkage to probabilistic risk assessment, consequences as compared to events, and the use of results

  6. Supporting global health goals with information and communications technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boman, Magnus; Kruse, Erik

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study is to critically assess the possible roles of information and communications technology (ICT) in supporting global health goals. This is done by considering privilege and connectibility. In short, ICT can contribute by providing health information via four different kinds of access, each with its own history and prospective future. All four are analyzed here, in two perspectives: business-as-usual and disruptive. Health data analytics is difficult since the digital representation of past, current, and future health information is lacking. The flow of analytics that may prove beneficial to the individual and not just meet abstract population-level goals or ambitions is analyzed in detail. Sensemaking is also needed, to meet the minimum requirement of making prospective future services understandable to policymakers. Drivers as well as barriers for areas in which policy decisions have the potential to drive positive developments for meeting the Sustainable Development Goals are identified. PMID:28838300

  7. Do Economic Theories Inform Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    Adopting the (institutionalist) premise that ideas and the economic theories within which they are embedded influence policy, the dissertation investigates the influence of the Chicago School of antitrust analysis on the competition policy of the European Union (EU). The dissertation encapsulates...... three articles. The first article employs qualitative content analysis to assess whether and the extent to which the European Commission incorporates Chicago School theory into EU competition policy. It does so on the basis of current Commission Guidelines, Notices, and Block Exemption Regulations...... the Harvard School, the Freiburg School, and considerations for Single Market integration underpin EU merger control, in addition to the influence of the Chicago School. The analysis presented in the articles suggests that the Chicago School has exerted considerable influence over EU competition policy...

  8. Self-generated goals and goal process appraisals: relationships with sociodemographic factors and well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Emma K; Gebhardt, Winifred A; Garnefski, Nadia

    2009-06-01

    In this study the full array of personal goals pursued by adolescents was examined using an idiographic goal-elicitation procedure. The aims of the study were twofold. Firstly, we investigated individual differences in self-generated goals and goal process appraisals based on sociodemographic characteristics. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between goal content, goal process appraisals and well-being. Questionnaires were completed by 438 high-school students aged 12 to 19. Girls reported more school, relationship, self and body goals and older students reported more future trajectory goals. In addition, girls and ethnic minority adolescents were more likely to report goal frustration. Well-being was positively associated with goal related self-efficacy and negatively associated with endorsement of self goals, perceived difficulty in goal attainment and goal frustration. These results extend previous findings and suggest that goal-related efficacy, attainment beliefs and impediment to goal pursuit are important factors in adolescent well-being.

  9. EMBEDDED LINUX BASED ALBUM BROWSER SYSTEM AT MUSIC STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryadiputra Liawatimena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research is the creation of an album browser system at a music store based on embedded Linux. It is expected with this system; it will help the promotion of said music store and make the customers activity at the store simpler and easier. This system uses NFS for networking, database system, ripping software, and GUI development. The research method used are and laboratory experiments to test the system’s hardware using TPC-57 (Touch Panel Computer 5.7" SA2410 ARM-9 Medallion CPU Module and software using QtopiaCore. The result of the research are; 1. The database query process is working properly; 2. The audio data buffering process is working properly. With those experiment results, it can be concluded that the summary of this research is that the system is ready to be implemented and used in the music stores.

  10. Embedded computer systems for control applications in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, R.B.; Start, S.E.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the embedded computer systems approach taken at Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) for non-safety related systems. The hardware and software structures for typical embedded systems are presented The embedded systems development process is described. Three examples are given which illustrate typical embedded computer applications in EBR-II

  11. Goal conflicts, attainment of new goals, and well-being among managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehr, Hugo M

    2003-07-01

    Researchers widely understand that conflicts among goals inhibit the attainment of these goals. However, this notion comes close to tautological reasoning. To avert this problem, this study examined whether preexisting goal conflict also inhibits success in newly set goals. Using the context of management training, in which managers collectively set new goals, the study variables were assessed at 3 testing periods covering 5 months. Results indicate that goal conflicts that persevere over time were associated with inhibited attainment of new goals but not with decreased subjective well-being (SWB). Goal attainment, however, was positively related to SWB. Interactions of residual changes in goal conflict and goal attainment were associated with positive affect.

  12. Are Brief Alcohol Interventions Adequately Embedded in UK Primary Care? A Qualitative Study Utilising Normalisation Process Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen

    2017-03-28

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness, the adoption of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in routine primary care remains inconsistent. Financial incentive schemes were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage their delivery. We used Normalisation Process Theory-informed interviews to understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by 14 general practitioners (GPs) as they implemented ASBI during this period. We found multiple factors shaped provision. GPs were broadly cognisant and supportive of preventative alcohol interventions (coherence) but this did not necessarily translate into personal investment in their delivery (cognitive participation). This lack of investment shaped how GPs operationalised such "work" in day-to-day practice (collective action), with ASBI mostly delegated to nurses, and GPs reverting to "business as usual" in their management and treatment of problem drinking (reflexive monitoring). We conclude there has been limited progress towards the goal of an effectively embedded preventative alcohol care pathway in English primary care. Future policy should consider screening strategies that prioritise patients with conditions with a recognised link with excessive alcohol consumption, and which promote more efficient identification of the most problematic drinkers. Improved GP training to build skills and awareness of evidence-based ASBI tools could also help embed best practice over time.

  13. Discriminative graph embedding for label propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Canh Hao; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi

    2011-09-01

    In many applications, the available information is encoded in graph structures. This is a common problem in biological networks, social networks, web communities and document citations. We investigate the problem of classifying nodes' labels on a similarity graph given only a graph structure on the nodes. Conventional machine learning methods usually require data to reside in some Euclidean spaces or to have a kernel representation. Applying these methods to nodes on graphs would require embedding the graphs into these spaces. By embedding and then learning the nodes on graphs, most methods are either flexible with different learning objectives or efficient enough for large scale applications. We propose a method to embed a graph into a feature space for a discriminative purpose. Our idea is to include label information into the embedding process, making the space representation tailored to the task. We design embedding objective functions that the following learning formulations become spectral transforms. We then reformulate these spectral transforms into multiple kernel learning problems. Our method, while being tailored to the discriminative tasks, is efficient and can scale to massive data sets. We show the need of discriminative embedding on some simulations. Applying to biological network problems, our method is shown to outperform baselines.

  14. Autonomous Multicamera Tracking on Embedded Smart Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bischof Horst

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a strong trend towards the deployment of advanced computer vision methods on embedded systems. This deployment is very challenging since embedded platforms often provide limited resources such as computing performance, memory, and power. In this paper we present a multicamera tracking method on distributed, embedded smart cameras. Smart cameras combine video sensing, processing, and communication on a single embedded device which is equipped with a multiprocessor computation and communication infrastructure. Our multicamera tracking approach focuses on a fully decentralized handover procedure between adjacent cameras. The basic idea is to initiate a single tracking instance in the multicamera system for each object of interest. The tracker follows the supervised object over the camera network, migrating to the camera which observes the object. Thus, no central coordination is required resulting in an autonomous and scalable tracking approach. We have fully implemented this novel multicamera tracking approach on our embedded smart cameras. Tracking is achieved by the well-known CamShift algorithm; the handover procedure is realized using a mobile agent system available on the smart camera network. Our approach has been successfully evaluated on tracking persons at our campus.

  15. IDE Support of String-Embedded Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Grigorev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex information systems are often implemented by using more than one programming language. Sometimes this variety takes a form of one host and one or few string-embedded languages. Textual representation of clauses in a string-embedded language is built at run time by a host program and then analyzed, compiled or interpreted by a dedicated runtime component (database, web browser etc. Most general-purpose programming languages may play the role of the host; one of the most evident examples of the string-embedded language is the dynamic SQL which was specified in ISO SQL standard and is supported by the majority of DBMS. Standard IDE functionality such as code completion or syntax highlighting can really helps the developers who use this technique. There are several tools providing this functionality, but they all process only one concrete string-embedded language and cannot be easily extended for supporting another language. We present a platform which allows to easily create tools for string-embedded language processing.

  16. Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings and Its Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang H.; Yoo S.; Yu, D.; Qin, H.

    2014-12-14

    Abstract—Spectral Embedding is one of the most effective dimension reduction algorithms in data mining. However, its computation complexity has to be mitigated in order to apply it for real-world large scale data analysis. Many researches have been focusing on developing approximate spectral embeddings which are more efficient, but meanwhile far less effective. This paper proposes Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings (DPIE), which not only retains the similar efficiency of power iteration methods but also produces a series of diverse and more effective embedding vectors. We test this novel method by applying it to various data mining applications (e.g. clustering, anomaly detection and feature selection) and evaluating their performance improvements. The experimental results show our proposed DPIE is more effective than popular spectral approximation methods, and obtains the similar quality of classic spectral embedding derived from eigen-decompositions. Moreover it is extremely fast on big data applications. For example in terms of clustering result, DPIE achieves as good as 95% of classic spectral clustering on the complex datasets but 4000+ times faster in limited memory environment.

  17. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  18. Relational consequences of personal goal pursuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderDrift, Laura E; Agnew, Christopher R

    2014-06-01

    Individuals balance tasks necessary to fulfill personal goals and to maintain their interpersonal relationships. In the current studies, we examined the impact of personal goal pursuits on how individuals process and respond to events in their romantic relationships. In 5 experiments, we examined consequences of motivationally active personal goals for relationships. Results indicated that when individuals focused on pursuing a personal goal, they processed relationship information in an evaluatively polarized (Study 1), one-sided (Study 2) fashion. Relative to those deliberating about a personal goal, those focused on a personal goal reported less willingness to engage in some kinds of pro-relationship behaviors (Study 3) and were more likely to forego an opportunity to improve their relationship (Study 4). We attribute this pattern of findings to processing that shielded the personal goal from goal-irrelevant influence (Study 5). These findings provide a greater understanding of how pursuing a personal goal can undermine relationships.

  19. Scientific goals of SCHOOLS & QUAKES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brückl, Ewald; Köberl, Christian; Lenhardt, Wolfgang; Mertl, Stefan; Rafeiner-Magor, Walter; Stark, Angelika; Stickler, Gerald; Weber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In many countries around the world seismometers are used in schools to broaden the knowledge in seismology in a vivid way and to take part in the observation of the current worldwide seismic activity. SCHOOLS & QUAKES is a project within the Sparkling Science program (http://www.sparklingscience.at), which not only pursues the given educational goals but also integrates scholars in seismological research permitting their own contributions. Research within SCHOOLS & QUAKES concentrates on the seismic activity of the Mürz Valley - Semmering - Vienna Basin transfer fault system in Austria because of its relatively high earthquake hazard and risk. The detection of low magnitude local earthquakes (magnitude ≤ 2), precise location of hypocenters, determination of the focal mechanisms, and correlation of hypocenters with active geological structures are the main scientific goals in this project. Furthermore, the long term build-up of tectonic stress, slip deficit and aseismic slip, and the maximum credible earthquake in this area are issues to be addressed. The scientific efforts of SCHOOLS & QUAKES build on the work of the Seismological Service of Austria at the Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG), and benefit from the findings on the lithospheric structure of the Eastern Alps gained by the CELEBRATION 2000 and ALP 2002 projects. Regional Vp and Vs-models were derived from this data covering the SCHOOLS & QUAKES target area. Within the ALPAACT project (Seismological and geodetic monitoring of ALpine-PAnnonian ACtive Tectonics) the seismic network of the target area was densified by 7 broadband und 2 short period stations. Relocations based on a 3D-velocity model and the densified seismic network yielded substantially higher spatial resolution of seismically active structures. A new method based on waveform stacking (GRA, 16, EGU2014-5722) allowed for focal mechanism solutions of low magnitude (Ml ~2.5) events. Data from 22 GNSS stations have been

  20. IMB3-Miner: Mining Induced/Embedded Subtrees by Constraining the Level of Embedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H.; Dillon, T.S.; Hadzic, F.; Chang, E.; Feng, L.

    Tree mining has recently attracted a lot of interest in areas such as Bioinformatics, XML mining, Web mining, etc. We are mainly concerned with mining frequent induced and embedded subtrees. While more interesting patterns can be obtained when mining embedded subtrees, unfortunately mining such

  1. An open and configurable embedded system for EMG pattern recognition implementation for artificial arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun Liu; Fan Zhang; Huang, He Helen

    2014-01-01

    Pattern recognition (PR) based on electromyographic (EMG) signals has been developed for multifunctional artificial arms for decades. However, assessment of EMG PR control for daily prosthesis use is still limited. One of the major barriers is the lack of a portable and configurable embedded system to implement the EMG PR control. This paper aimed to design an open and configurable embedded system for EMG PR implementation so that researchers can easily modify and optimize the control algorithms upon our designed platform and test the EMG PR control outside of the lab environments. The open platform was built on an open source embedded Linux Operating System running a high-performance Gumstix board. Both the hardware and software system framework were openly designed. The system was highly flexible in terms of number of inputs/outputs and calibration interfaces used. Such flexibility enabled easy integration of our embedded system with different types of commercialized or prototypic artificial arms. Thus far, our system was portable for take-home use. Additionally, compared with previously reported embedded systems for EMG PR implementation, our system demonstrated improved processing efficiency and high system precision. Our long-term goals are (1) to develop a wearable and practical EMG PR-based control for multifunctional artificial arms, and (2) to quantify the benefits of EMG PR-based control over conventional myoelectric prosthesis control in a home setting.

  2. Isometric embeddings of 2-spheres by embedding flow for applications in numerical relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasiulek, Michael; Korzyński, Mikołaj

    2012-01-01

    We present a numerical method for solving Weyl's embedding problem which consists in finding a global isometric embedding of a positively curved and positive-definite spherical 2-metric into the Euclidean 3-space. The method is based on a construction introduced by Weingarten and was used in Nirenberg's proof of Weyl's conjecture. The target embedding results as the endpoint of an embedding flow in R 3 beginning at the unit sphere's embedding. We employ spectral methods to handle functions on the surface and to solve various (non)linear elliptic PDEs. The code requires no additional input or steering from the operator and its convergence is guaranteed by the Nirenberg arguments. Possible applications in 3 + 1 numerical relativity range from quasi-local mass and momentum measures to coarse-graining in inhomogeneous cosmological models. (paper)

  3. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    2011-01-01

    of self-regulation through goals. Goals increase an individual's motivation - but only up to a certain point. And they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems may result in tougher goals; but for a severe present bias goals either lack motivating force, or are too painful......Goals are an important motivator. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address this issue in a model based on two stylized facts. i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create self-control problems. We show the power and limits...

  4. Laser assisted embedding of nanoparticles into metallic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Dong; Suslov, Sergey; Ye Chang; Liao Yiliang; Liu, C. Richard; Cheng, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a methodology of half-embedding nanoparticles into metallic materials. Transparent and opaque nanoparticles are chosen to demonstrate the process of laser assisted nanoparticle embedding. Dip coating method is used to coat transparent or opaque nanoparticle on the surface of metallic material. Nanoparticles are embedded into substrate by laser irradiation. In this study, the mechanism and process of nanoparticle embedding are investigated. It is found both transparent and opaque nanoparticles embedding are with high densities and good uniformities.

  5. Polarizable Density Embedding Coupled Cluster Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hršak, Dalibor; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2018-01-01

    by an embedding potential consisting of a set of fragment densities obtained from calculations on isolated fragments with a quantum-chemistry method such as Hartree-Fock (HF) or Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) and dressed with a set of atom-centered anisotropic dipole-dipole polarizabilities......). In the PDE-CC method, the smaller, but chemically important core region is described with a high-level CC method. The environment surrounding the core region can be separated into two levels of description: an inner and an outer region. The effect of the inner region on the core region is described......We present the theory and implementation of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model in combination with coupled cluster (CC) theory (PDE-CC). This model has been implemented in the Dalton quantum chemistry program by adapting the CC code to the polarizable embedding library (PElib...

  6. Design Technology for Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    O'Connor, Ian; Piguet, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Designing technology to address the problem of heterogeneous embedded systems, while remaining compatible with standard “More Moore” flows, i.e. capable of handling simultaneously both silicon complexity and system complexity, represents one of the most important challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. While the micro-electronics industry has built its own specific design methods to focus mainly on the management of complexity through the establishment of abstraction levels, the emergence of device heterogeneity requires new approaches enabling the satisfactory design of physically heterogeneous embedded systems for the widespread deployment of such systems. This book, compiled largely from a set of contributions from participants of past editions of the Winter School on Heterogeneous Embedded Systems Design Technology (FETCH), proposes a broad and holistic overview of design techniques used to tackle the various facets of heterogeneity in terms of technology and opportunities at the physical ...

  7. Heterogeneous Multicore Processor Technologies for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uchiyama, Kunio; Kasahara, Hironori; Nojiri, Tohru; Noda, Hideyuki; Tawara, Yasuhiro; Idehara, Akio; Iwata, Kenichi; Shikano, Hiroaki

    2012-01-01

    To satisfy the higher requirements of digitally converged embedded systems, this book describes heterogeneous multicore technology that uses various kinds of low-power embedded processor cores on a single chip. With this technology, heterogeneous parallelism can be implemented on an SoC, and greater flexibility and superior performance per watt can then be achieved. This book defines the heterogeneous multicore architecture and explains in detail several embedded processor cores including CPU cores and special-purpose processor cores that achieve highly arithmetic-level parallelism. The authors developed three multicore chips (called RP-1, RP-2, and RP-X) according to the defined architecture with the introduced processor cores. The chip implementations, software environments, and applications running on the chips are also explained in the book. Provides readers an overview and practical discussion of heterogeneous multicore technologies from both a hardware and software point of view; Discusses a new, high-p...

  8. Embedded and real-time operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, K C

    2017-01-01

    This book covers the basic concepts and principles of operating systems, showing how to apply them to the design and implementation of complete operating systems for embedded and real-time systems. It includes all the foundational and background information on ARM architecture, ARM instructions and programming, toolchain for developing programs, virtual machines for software implementation and testing, program execution image, function call conventions, run-time stack usage and link C programs with assembly code. It describes the design and implementation of a complete OS for embedded systems in incremental steps, explaining the design principles and implementation techniques. For Symmetric Multiprocessing (SMP) embedded systems, the author examines the ARM MPcore processors, which include the SCU and GIC for interrupts routing and interprocessor communication and synchronization by Software Generated Interrupts (SGIs). Throughout the book, complete working sample systems demonstrate the design principles and...

  9. Determining the age of young embedded clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, J. J.; Hoare, M. G.

    2011-12-01

    A new Monte Carlo method has been developed in order to derive ages of young embedded clusters in massive star-forming regions where there is strong differential reddening. After foreground and infrared excess source candidates are removed, each cluster candidate star is individually dereddened. Simulated clusters are constructed using isochrones, an initial mass function, realistic photometric errors, simulated background field populations and extinction distributions. These synthetic clusters are then dereddened in the same way as the real data, obtained from a deep near-infrared survey, and used to derive the ages of three embedded clusters. Results were found to be consistent with those determined using spectrophotometric methods. This new method provides way to determine the ages of embedded clusters when only photometric data are available and there is strong differential reddening.

  10. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-10-30

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  11. Advanced embedded nonlinear observer design and HIL validation using a Takagi-Sugeno approach with unmeasurable premise variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olteanu, S C; Belkoura, L; Aitouche, A

    2014-01-01

    The article's goals are to illustrate the feasibility of implementing a Takagi Sugeno state observer on an embedded microcontroller based platform and secondly to present a methodology for validating a physical embedded system using a Hardware In The Loop architecture, where a simulation software replaces the process. As an application, a three water tank system was chosen. For the validation part, LMS AMESim software is employed to reproduce the process behaviour. The interface to the embedded platform is assured by Simulink on a Windows operating system, chosen as it is the most commonly used operating system. The lack of real time behaviour of the operating system is compensated by a real time kernel that manages to offer deterministic response times. The Takagi-Sugeno observer in the case of this process has the complex form that considers the premise variables to be unmeasurable. The embedded system consists of two Arduino boards connected in parallel, thus offering distributed resources

  12. Feasibility study on embedded transport core calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.; Zikatanov, L.; Ivanov, K.

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop an advanced core calculation methodology based on embedded diffusion and transport calculations. The scheme proposed in this work is based on embedded diffusion or SP 3 pin-by-pin local fuel assembly calculation within the framework of the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) diffusion core calculation. The SP 3 method has gained popularity in the last 10 years as an advanced method for neutronics calculation. NEM is a multi-group nodal diffusion code developed, maintained and continuously improved at the Pennsylvania State University. The developed calculation scheme is a non-linear iteration process, which involves cross-section homogenization, on-line discontinuity factors generation, and boundary conditions evaluation by the global solution passed to the local calculation. In order to accomplish the local calculation, a new code has been developed based on the Finite Elements Method (FEM), which is capable of performing both diffusion and SP 3 calculations. The new code will be used in the framework of the NEM code in order to perform embedded pin-by-pin diffusion and SP 3 calculations on fuel assembly basis. The development of the diffusion and SP 3 FEM code is presented first following by its application to several problems. Description of the proposed embedded scheme is provided next as well as the obtained preliminary results of the C3 MOX benchmark. The results from the embedded calculations are compared with direct pin-by-pin whole core calculations in terms of accuracy and efficiency followed by conclusions made about the feasibility of the proposed embedded approach. (authors)

  13. Embedding operational research into national disease control programme: lessons from 10 years of experience in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yodi Mahendradhata

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that operational research (OR should be embedded into national disease control programmes. However, much of the current OR capacity building schemes are still predominantly driven by international agencies with limited integration into national disease control programmes. We demonstrated that it is possible to achieve a more sustainable capacity building effort across the country by establishing an OR group within the national tuberculosis (TB control programme in Indonesia. Key challenges identified include long-term financial support, limited number of scientific publications, and difficulties in documenting impact on programmatic performance. External evaluation has expressed concerns in regard to utilisation of OR in policy making. Efforts to address this concern have been introduced recently and led to indications of increased utilisation of research evidence in policy making by the national TB control programme. Embedding OR in national disease control programmes is key in establishing an evidence-based disease control programme.

  14. Density Functional Theory Embedding for Correlated Wavefunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    agua , and A. Aguado, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 184104 (2008). [32] O. Roncero, A. Zanchet, P. Villarreal, and A. Aguado, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 234110 (2009...Morrison, and R. G. Parr, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2138 (1994). [32] O. Roncero, M. P. de Lara-Castells, P. Villarreal, F. Flores, J. Ortega, M. Pani- agua , and A...systems with low-lying virtual orbitals, such as transition metal complexes. 67 3.3.1 Embedding for Open-Shell Systems For an open-shell embedded

  15. Application of invariant embedding to reactor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Shimizu, Akinao; Parsegian, V L

    1972-01-01

    Application of Invariant Embedding to Reactor Physics describes the application of the method of invariant embedding to radiation shielding and to criticality calculations of atomic reactors. The authors intend to show how this method has been applied to realistic problems, together with the results of applications which will be useful to shielding design. The book is organized into two parts. Part A deals with the reflection and transmission of gamma rays by slabs. The chapters in this section cover topics such as the reflection and transmission problem of gamma rays; formulation of the probl

  16. Embedding Complementarity in HCI Methods and Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Janni; Yssing, Carsten; Tweddell Levinsen, Karin

    Differences in cultural contexts constitute differences in cognition, and research has shown that different cultures may use different cognitive tools for perception and reasoning. The cultural embeddings are significant in relation to HCI, because the cultural context is also embedded...... in the techniques and the tools that we apply. We lack a framework for discussing what and who we are, when we talk about a person as the user of an ICT system that has to be designed, developed and implemented. As a framework, we suggest a theory of complementary positions that insists on solid accounts from all...... the HCI paradigm in system development....

  17. Tools for Embedded Computing Systems Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A workshop was held to assess the state of tools for embedded systems software and to determine directions for tool development. A synopsis of the talk and the key figures of each workshop presentation, together with chairmen summaries, are presented. The presentations covered four major areas: (1) tools and the software environment (development and testing); (2) tools and software requirements, design, and specification; (3) tools and language processors; and (4) tools and verification and validation (analysis and testing). The utility and contribution of existing tools and research results for the development and testing of embedded computing systems software are described and assessed.

  18. Embedded Operating System for MicroBlaze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Šimek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a work in progress on experiments with embedded operating systems for the MicroBlaze processor. Modern embedded systems based on a configurable platform incorporating a similar processor core are gaining importance with the ongoing effort to minimize cost and development time. After an overview of the configurable platform based on this processor core, we devote our attention to uClinux OS. This OS has been successfully ported for the MicroBlaze processor, and we present our current experience with it. At the end of the paper we discuss several possible booting strategies and recommend further development of U-BOOT. 

  19. Model-based testing for embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zander, Justyna; Mosterman, Pieter J

    2011-01-01

    What the experts have to say about Model-Based Testing for Embedded Systems: "This book is exactly what is needed at the exact right time in this fast-growing area. From its beginnings over 10 years ago of deriving tests from UML statecharts, model-based testing has matured into a topic with both breadth and depth. Testing embedded systems is a natural application of MBT, and this book hits the nail exactly on the head. Numerous topics are presented clearly, thoroughly, and concisely in this cutting-edge book. The authors are world-class leading experts in this area and teach us well-used

  20. Physical Activity Recognition from Smartphone Embedded Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudêncio, João; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of smartphones has motivated efforts to use the embedded sensors to detect various aspects of user context to transparently provide personalized and contextualized services to the user. One relevant piece of context is the physical activity of the smartphone user. In this paper, we...... propose a novel set of features for distinguishing five physical activities using only sensors embedded in the smartphone. Specifically, we introduce features that are normalized using the orientation sensor such that horizontal and vertical movements are explicitly computed. We evaluate a neural network...

  1. Embedded adhesive connection for laminated glass plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Poulsen, S.H.; Bagger, A.

    2012-01-01

    The structural behavior of a new connection design, the embedded adhesive connection, used for laminated glass plates is investigated. The connection consists of an aluminum plate encapsulated in-between two adjacent triple layered laminated glass plates. Fastening between glass and aluminum...... is ensured using a structural adhesive. At first, the elastic and viscoelastic material properties of the adhesive are identified where the influence of load-rate and failure properties are also examined. Through an inverse analysis using the finite element method, the experimental observations...... usage in a design situation. The embedded connection shows promising potential as a future fastening system for load-carrying laminated glass plates....

  2. The art of programming embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ganssle, Jack

    1992-01-01

    Embedded systems are products such as microwave ovens, cars, and toys that rely on an internal microprocessor. This book is oriented toward the design engineer or programmer who writes the computer code for such a system. There are a number of problems specific to the embedded systems designer, and this book addresses them and offers practical solutions.Key Features* Offers cookbook routines, algorithms, and design techniques* Includes tips for handling debugging management and testing* Explores the philosophy of tightly coupling software and hardware in programming and dev

  3. Communicating embedded systems software and design

    CERN Document Server

    Jard, Claude

    2013-01-01

    The increased complexity of embedded systems coupled with quick design cycles to accommodate faster time-to-market requires increased system design productivity that involves both model-based design and tool-supported methodologies. Formal methods are mathematically-based techniques and provide a clean framework in which to express requirements and models of the systems, taking into account discrete, stochastic and continuous (timed or hybrid) parameters with increasingly efficient tools. This book deals with these formal methods applied to communicating embedded systems by presenting the

  4. Excited States in Solution through Polarizable Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus; Aidas, Kestutis; Kongsted, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    We present theory and implementation of an advanced quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) approach using a fully self-consistent polarizable embedding (PE) scheme. It is a polarizable layered model designed for effective yet accurate inclusion of an anisotropic medium in a quantum...... a nonequilibrium formulation of the environmental response. In our formulation of polarizable embedding we explicitly take into account the full self-consistent many-body environmental response from both ground and excited states. The PE-DFT method can be applied to any molecular system, e.g., proteins...

  5. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  6. EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Corporate GHG Goal Evaluation Model provides companies with a transparent and publicly available benchmarking resource to help evaluate and establish new or existing GHG goals that go beyond business as usual for their individual sectors.

  7. The Millennium Development Goals : chances and risks

    OpenAIRE

    Loewe, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Contents: 1 Introduction; 2 Historical background and genesis of the Millennium Development Goals; 3 Significance of the Millennium Declaration; 4 Evaluation of the Millennium Development Goals; 5 The Millennium process; 6 Implications for German development cooperation.

  8. State policy as a driver of innovation to support economic growth: California energy-efficiency policy (1975-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klementich, Eloisa Y.

    2011-12-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to identify whether a relationship exists between state energy-efficiency policy and innovation in the State of California and to shed light on the impact that energy-efficiency policy can have on supporting statewide economic development goals. Theoretical Framework. The theoretical framework drew from foundations in neoclassical economic theory, technology change theory, and new growth theory. Together these theories formed the basis to describe the impacts caused by the innovations within the market economy. Under this framework, policy-generated innovations are viewed to be translated into efficiency and productivity that propel economic benefits. Methodological Considerations. This study examined various economic indices and efficiency attainment indices affecting four home appliances regulated under Title 20's energy-efficiency standard established by the California Energy Commission, Warren Alquist Act. The multiple regression analysis performed provided an understanding of the relationship between the products regulated, the regulation standard, and the policy as it relates to energy-efficiency regulation. Findings. There is enough evidence to show that strategies embedded in the Warren Alquist Act, Title 20 do drive innovation. Three of the four product categories tested showed statistical significance in the policy standard resulting in an industry efficiency improvement. Conclusively, the consumption of electricity per capita in California has positively diverged over a 35-year period from national trends, even though California had mirrored the nation in income and family size during the same period, the only clear case of divergence is the state's action toward a different energy policy. Conclusions and Recommendations. California's regulations propelled manufacturers to reach higher efficiency levels not otherwise pursued by market forces. The California effort included alliances all working together to make

  9. Industrial policy formation in the Altai territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Borodin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the basic approaches to the current industrial policy, its substance, goals, methods and instruments of realization. Industrial policy classification is presented. Peculiarities of industrial policy formation at a regional level are considered. The estimate of the state of industrial production in the Altai territory and its competitiveness in various activities are assessed. The basic principles of industrial policy formation in the Altai territory and priorities of industrial production development are suggested.

  10. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  11. The actual goals of geoethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    The most actual goals of geoethics have been formulated as results of the International Conference on Geoethics (October 2013) held at the geoethics birth-place Pribram (Czech Republic): In the sphere of education and public enlightenment an appropriate needed minimum know how of Earth sciences should be intensively promoted together with cultivating ethical way of thinking and acting for the sustainable well-being of the society. The actual activities of the Intergovernmental Panel of Climate Changes are not sustainable with the existing knowledge of the Earth sciences (as presented in the results of the 33rd and 34th International Geological Congresses). This knowledge should be incorporated into any further work of the IPCC. In the sphere of legislation in a large international co-operation following steps are needed: - to re-formulate the term of a "false alarm" and its legal consequences, - to demand very consequently the needed evaluation of existing risks, - to solve problems of rights of individuals and minorities in cases of the optimum use of mineral resources and of the optimum protection of the local population against emergency dangers and disasters; common good (well-being) must be considered as the priority when solving ethical dilemmas. The precaution principle should be applied in any decision making process. Earth scientists presenting their expert opinions are not exempted from civil, administrative or even criminal liabilities. Details must be established by national law and jurisprudence. The well known case of the L'Aquila earthquake (2009) should serve as a serious warning because of the proven misuse of geoethics for protecting top Italian seismologists responsible and sentenced for their inadequate superficial behaviour causing lot of human victims. Another recent scandal with the Himalayan fossil fraud will be also documented. A support is needed for any effort to analyze and to disclose the problems of the deformation of the contemporary

  12. Linking Course-Embedded Assessment Measures and Performance on the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test in Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barboza, Gustavo A.; Pesek, James

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of the business curriculum and its learning goals and objectives has become a major field of interest for business schools. The exploratory results of the authors' model using a sample of 173 students show robust support for the hypothesis that high marks in course-embedded assessment on business-specific analytical skills positively…

  13. FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING IN SUDANESE UNIVERSITIES: GOALS, ATTITUDES, AND REALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Rahim Hamid Mugaddam

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The goals and means of language study continue in the very center of debates among specialists in language teaching/learning. Different views relating to language and its functions are reflected in two main approaches to language teaching/learning. On the one hand, language is considered to be principally instrumental, a means of communicating thought and information. One the other hand, language is viewed as an important element of human being’s thought processes, perceptions, and self-expressions; and as such, it is placed at the core of translingual and transcultural competence. This paper investigates the current situation of teaching/learning foreign languages in the Sudanese universities with special focus on the goals of teaching these languages and their role in students’ future. Goals of language teaching and students’ attitudes towards the process will be related to the job opportunities available for the students on graduation. Data for the paper have been collected using questionnaires and interviews administered to students and teachers from five language departments at Khartoum University: English, French, German, Russian, and Chinese. Questionnaires and interviews on language attitude will be administered among Four-year language majors representing the four departments. The central question the paper tries to answer is whether there is a realistic match between the goals of language teaching/learning set by policy makers and students’ interests and expectations. Results are expected to contribute to the efforts made to restructure language-in-education curriculum at university level in a way that addresses the expectations of both policy makers and students. Keywords: Foreign language teaching and learning, goals, attitude.

  14. From Desires, Obligations and Norms to Goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Kinny, D.; Sonenberg, L.

    2002-01-01

    Traditional models of agents based on Beliefs, Desires and Intentions usually only include either desires or goals. Therefore the process whereby goals arise from desires is given scant attention. In this paper we argue that the inclusion of both desires and goals in the same model can be

  15. Achievement Goals and Means: A Cultural Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Sushila

    1998-01-01

    Achievement goals and means were examined with 259 Anglo Australian adults (individualist culture) and 300 Sri Lankans (collectivist culture). Results reflect an individualist orientation in preferred achievement goals among Australians. Sri Lankans, although predominantly more family and group oriented, also have important individual goals. Both…

  16. Setting Goals for Urban Scale Climate Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, J. K.; Brunner, E.

    2007-12-01

    The impacts of climate change on temperate urban areas may include the increase in frequency and intensity of damaging extreme weather events, such as heat waves, hurricanes, heavy rainfall or drought, and coastal flooding and erosion, and potential adverse impacts on infrastructure, energy systems, and public health. Warmer average summertime temperatures are also associated with environmental and public health liabilities, such as decreased air quality and increased peak electrical demand. Simultaneously, a strong global trend towards urbanization of poverty exists, with increased challenges for local governments to protect and sustain the well-being of growing cities and populations currently stressed by poverty, health and economic inequities. In the context of these trends, research at the city scale has sought to understand the social and economic impacts of climate change and variability and to evaluate strategies in the built environment that might serve as adaptive and mitigative responses to climate change. We review the goals and outcomes of several municipal climate protection programs, generally categorized as approaches based on technological innovation (e.g., new materials); changes in behavior and public education (e.g., neighborhood watch programs and cooling centers); improvements in urban design (e.g., zoning for mixed land-use; the use of water, vegetation and plazas to reduce the urban heat island effect); and efforts to incentivize the use of non-fossil-fuel based energy sources. Urban initiatives in European and American cities are assessed within the context of the global collective efforts enacted by the Kyoto Protocol and United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our concern is to understand the active networked role of urban managers in climate policies and programs in relation to supranational objectives and non-state actors.

  17. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  18. Monetary Policy Analysis in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Vesna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on analysing monetary policy in Serbia. The National Bank of Serbia chose inflation targeting, which sets price stability as the main objective of monetary policy. To achieve this goal, the central bank uses different monetary policy instruments which analysis can provide us with the understanding of the main directions of their actions but also of the limitations of its application. Only through improvement of both instruments and monetary policy the central bank will create a better foundation for achieving monetary stability. In addition, the implementation of exchange rate policy is entrusted to the National Bank of Serbia, as the main regulator of the financial system. A mere use of managed floating exchange rate, as the chosen exchange rate regime, is an appropriate solution in the current economic circumstances and in accordance with the desired objective of monetary policy.

  19. Embedded Evaluation: Blending Training and Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Richard J.; McCowan, Sheila C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an evaluation model called embedded training evaluation (ETE) which can be used to evaluate different types of training ranging from basic skills through constructed learning. The model was developed for the New York State Child Welfare/Child Protection Services Common Core training program. ETE is particularly effective in…

  20. Code Compression Schems for Embedded Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horti, Deepa; Jamge, S. B.

    2010-11-01

    Code density is a major requirement in embedded system design since it not only reduces the need for the scarce re-source memory but also implicitly improves further important design parameters like power consumption and performance. Within this paper we have introduced a novel and an efficient approach that belongs to statistical compression schemes as well as dictionary based compression schemes.

  1. On Embedding a Semigroup in a Group

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ias

    algebra textbook, as well as one on number theory, and also had an interest in the history of mathematics”. Mal- cev gave an example to show that there are cancella- tive semigroups which cannot be embedded in a group. Commenting on Sushkevich's persistence with his erro- neous ideas even after being proved wrong ...

  2. Concurrent Design of Embedded Control Software

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groothuis, M.A.; Frijns, Raymond; Voeten, Jeroen; Broenink, Johannes F.; Margaria, T.; Padberg, J.; Taentzer, G.; Levendovszky, T.; Lengyel, L.; Karsai, G.; Hardebolle, C.

    2009-01-01

    Embedded software design for mechatronic systems is becoming an increasingly time-consuming and error-prone task. In order to cope with the heterogeneity and complexity, a systematic model-driven design approach is needed, where several parts of the system can be designed concurrently. There is

  3. Are Central European countries’ financial institutions embedded?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, E. de; Hooijdonk, C.J.J. van

    2010-01-01

    The fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989 was one of the causes of an increased interest in the relation between economics and culture. An important idea of this literature is that social and economic systems will function properly if they are embedded in a corresponding value system. Although some

  4. Securing Embedded Software using Software Dynamic Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    including disruption of critical services , financial loss, and loss of life. Because critically functionality in embedded systems is increasingly...SeuigEbdddSfwr 4usin Sofwar Dynamic Tanslatio lac W, Daido an -o i Unvrst of Virginia~ Proble " Emedde sytemskeybuilingblocs o naton’ Threat model

  5. The Embedding Theorems of Whitney and Nash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    We begin by briefly motivating the idea of a manifold and then discuss the embedding the- orems of Whitney and Nash that allow us to view these objects inside appropriately large Eu- clidean spaces. 1. Introduction. Let us begin by motivating the concept of a manifold. Start with the unit circle C in the plane given by x2.

  6. Web Service Architecture Framework for Embedded Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzick, Paul David

    2009-01-01

    The use of Service Oriented Architectures, namely web services, has become a widely adopted method for transfer of data between systems across the Internet as well as the Enterprise. Adopting a similar approach to embedded devices is also starting to emerge as personal devices and sensor networks are becoming more common in the industry. This…

  7. Embedding Fonts in MetaPost Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    files. This article addresses a specific technique for performing such an embedding. 1 Introduction MetaPost is one of the most elegant means for gen...other with the process described in Sec- tion 3. Both figures will be defined in a MetaPost source file .1 In order to use LATEX to process the text

  8. Integrated Design Tools for Embedded Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jovanovic, D.S.; Hilderink, G.H.; Broenink, Johannes F.; Karelse, F.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, computer-based control systems are still being implemented using the same techniques as 10 years ago. The purpose of this project is the development of a design framework, consisting of tools and libraries, which allows the designer to build high reliable heterogeneous real-time embedded

  9. Structuring Problem Analysis for Embedded Systems Modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marincic, J.; Mader, Angelika H.; Wieringa, Roelf J.; Lucas, Yan

    Our interest is embedded systems validation as part of the model-driven approach. To design a model, the modeller needs to obtain knowledge about the system and decide what is relevant to model and how. A part of the modelling activities is inherently informal - it cannot be formalised in such a way

  10. Approximate Orthogonal Sparse Embedding for Dimensionality Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Xu, Yong; Yang, Jian; Zhang, David

    2016-04-01

    Locally linear embedding (LLE) is one of the most well-known manifold learning methods. As the representative linear extension of LLE, orthogonal neighborhood preserving projection (ONPP) has attracted widespread attention in the field of dimensionality reduction. In this paper, a unified sparse learning framework is proposed by introducing the sparsity or L1-norm learning, which further extends the LLE-based methods to sparse cases. Theoretical connections between the ONPP and the proposed sparse linear embedding are discovered. The optimal sparse embeddings derived from the proposed framework can be computed by iterating the modified elastic net and singular value decomposition. We also show that the proposed model can be viewed as a general model for sparse linear and nonlinear (kernel) subspace learning. Based on this general model, sparse kernel embedding is also proposed for nonlinear sparse feature extraction. Extensive experiments on five databases demonstrate that the proposed sparse learning framework performs better than the existing subspace learning algorithm, particularly in the cases of small sample sizes.

  11. On Verification Modelling of Embedded Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Hendrik; Mader, Angelika H.

    Computer-aided verification of embedded systems hinges on the availability of good verification models of the systems at hand. Such models must be much simpler than full design models or specifications to be of practical value, because of the unavoidable combinatorial complexities in the

  12. Sharp embeddings of Besov-type spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gurka, P.; Opic, Bohumír

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 208, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-43 ISSN 0377-0427 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/05/2033 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Besov spaces with slowly varying smoothness * Lorentz-Karamata spaces * sharp embeddings Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.943, year: 2007

  13. The Embedding Theorems of Whitney and Nash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by briefly motivating the idea of amanifold and then discuss the embedding theorems of Whitney and Nash that allow us toview these objects inside appropriately large Euclidean spaces. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 2. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 2. February 2018.

  14. The Embedding Theorems of Whitney and Nash

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We begin by briefly motivating the idea of amanifold and then discuss the embedding theorems of Whitney and Nash that allow us toview these objects inside appropriately large Euclidean spaces. Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Current Issue : Vol. 23, Issue 4. Current Issue Volume 23 | Issue 4. April 2018.

  15. Adaptive Embedded Digital System for Plasma Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Angel; Rodríguez, Othoniel; Mangual, Osvaldo; Ponce, Eduardo; Vélez, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    An Adaptive Embedded Digital System to perform plasma diagnostics using electrostatic probes was developed at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory at Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico. The system will replace the existing instrumentation at the Laboratory, using reconfigurable hardware to minimize the equipment and software needed to perform diagnostics. The adaptability of the design resides on the possibility of replacing the computational algorithm on the fly, allowing to use the same hardware for different probes. The system was prototyped using Very High Speed Integrated Circuits Hardware Description Language (VHDL) into an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) board. The design of the Embedded Digital System includes a Zero Phase Digital Filter, a Derivative Unit, and a Computational Unit designed using the VHDL-2008 Support Library. The prototype is able to compute the Plasma Electron Temperature and Density from a Single Langmuir probe. The system was tested using real data previously acquired from a single Langmuir probe. The plasma parameters obtained from the embedded system were compared with results computed using matlab yielding excellent matching. The new embedded system operates on 4096 samples versus 500 on the previous system, and completes its computations in 26 milliseconds compared with about 15 seconds on the previous system.

  16. An investigation of embeddings for spherically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These results provide a technique that can be used to determine solutions for such embeddings. Here we consider local isometric ... Jothi Moodley1 Gareth Amery1. Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa ...

  17. Embedding capacity estimation of reversible watermarking schemes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    human visual system, the embedding in this case is done based on an adpative algoithm. Predic- tion based techniques (Thodi & Rodriquez 2007; Sachnev et ...... stage and additional memory to store the total or the stage-wise expectation for every possible pixel pair combination, i.e., a total of L2 trees. 3.2 Compressed bit- ...

  18. A Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.; Sukumar, V.; Bhasin, P. S.; Arun Kumar, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel scheme called "Laboratory Testbed for Embedded Fuzzy Control of a Real Time Nonlinear System." The idea is based upon the fact that project-based learning motivates students to learn actively and to use their engineering skills acquired in their previous years of study. It also fosters initiative and focuses…

  19. Is Embedded Librarianship Right for Your Institution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Gordon; Heller-Ross, Holly

    2010-01-01

    Embedded librarians, connected with students and faculty inside the classroom, lab and studio, have new opportunities for preparing students for research and for collaborating with faculty on course-integrated information literacy, research assignment design, teaching, assignment interpretation, and timely student assistance. What makes embedded…

  20. Feature-based component model for design of embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xuan Fang; Sriram, Ram D.

    2004-11-01

    An embedded system is a hybrid of hardware and software, which combines software's flexibility and hardware real-time performance. Embedded systems can be considered as assemblies of hardware and software components. An Open Embedded System Model (OESM) is currently being developed at NIST to provide a standard representation and exchange protocol for embedded systems and system-level design, simulation, and testing information. This paper proposes an approach to representing an embedded system feature-based model in OESM, i.e., Open Embedded System Feature Model (OESFM), addressing models of embedded system artifacts, embedded system components, embedded system features, and embedded system configuration/assembly. The approach provides an object-oriented UML (Unified Modeling Language) representation for the embedded system feature model and defines an extension to the NIST Core Product Model. The model provides a feature-based component framework allowing the designer to develop a virtual embedded system prototype through assembling virtual components. The framework not only provides a formal precise model of the embedded system prototype but also offers the possibility of designing variation of prototypes whose members are derived by changing certain virtual components with different features. A case study example is discussed to illustrate the embedded system model.

  1. Quantitative HTGR safety and forced outage goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, W.J.; Parme, L.L.; Silady, F.A.

    1985-05-01

    A key step in the successful implementation of the integrated approach is the definition of the overall plant-level goals. To be effective, the goals should provide clear statements of what is to be achieved by the plant. This can be contrasted to the current practice of providing design-prescriptive criteria which implicitly address some higher-level objective but restrict the designer's flexibility. Furthermore, the goals should be quantifiable in such a way that satisfaction of the goal can be measured. In the discussion presented, two such plant-level goals adopted for the HTGR and addressing the impact of unscheduled occurrences are described. 1 fig

  2. Self-regulation through Goal Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Goals are an important source of motivation. But little is known about why and how people set them. We address these questions in a model based on two stylized facts from psychology and behavioral economics: i) Goals serve as reference points for performance. ii) Present-biased preferences create...... self-control problems. We show how goals permit self-regulation, but also that they are painful self-disciplining devices. Greater self-control problems therefore lead to stronger self-regulation through goals only up to a certain point. For severely present-biased preferences, the required goal...

  3. Improving health through policies that promote active travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M

    2011-01-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding ...

  4. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  6. Statewide evaluation of local wellness policies in Georgia: an examination of policy compliance, policy strength, and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Rodney; O'Meara, Sandra; Hepburn, Valerie A; Potter, Anna

    2012-01-01

    To analyze relationships between demographic characteristics of Georgia school systems and: (1) compliance with the Child Nutrition and WIC Reauthorization Act (CNRA); and (2) strength of wellness policy goals in nutrition, physical activity, and other school-based activities. Each local school district submitted their school-board-approved wellness policy to researchers. Each policy was reviewed and coded for compliance with CNRA and evaluated on the strength of its goals. Public school districts. One hundred seventy-six of 180 Georgia public school systems participated. Independent variables were demographic characteristics of Georgia school systems. Dependent variables were ratings from the policy evaluation instrument, grouped into composite indices to compare the strength (ie, ratings) of wellness policy goals. Pearson correlation, cross-tabulation. Significant positive associations were found between academic performance and: strength of overall wellness policy goals (P policy goals and stronger goals in nutrition education and other school-based activities. Copyright © 2012 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fast and effective embedded systems design applying the ARM mbed

    CERN Document Server

    Toulson, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A hands-on introduction to the field of embedded systems; A focus on fast prototyping of embedded systems; All key embedded system concepts covered through simple and effective experimentation; An understanding of ARM technology, one of the world's leaders; A practical introduction to embedded C; Applies possibly the most accessible set of tools available in the embedded world.  This book is an introduction to embedded systems design, using the ARM mbed and C programming language as development tools. The mbed provides a compact, self-contained and low-cost hardware core, and the

  8. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...

  9. Self-regulation of unattainable goals in suicide attempters: the relationship between goal disengagement, goal reengagement and suicidal ideation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Rory C

    2009-02-01

    There is growing interest in models of adaptive self-regulation. Recent research suggests that goal disengagement and goal reengagement (i.e., goal adjustment) are implicated in the self-regulation of emotion. This study extends the self-regulation research to investigate the utility of goal adjustment in understanding suicidal risk. To this end, two hundred adults hospitalised following a suicidal episode completed a range of clinical and psychological measures in hospital and were followed up approximately 2.5 months after discharge (Time 2). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal reengagement predicted suicidal ideation at Time 2. In addition, the lack of goal reengagement was especially pernicious when reported concomitantly with high disengagement. These predictive effects were independent of baseline mood, attempt status and suicidal intent. The theoretical and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Japan's approach to monetary policy

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni P. Olivei

    2002-01-01

    The goal of monetary policy as conducted by the Bank of Japan is to contribute to the sound development of the national economy through the pursuit of price stability. The objective of price stability, however, is not precisely defined as it has been for other central banks. Following the implementation of the new Bank of Japan Law in 1998, the monetary policy framework is characterized by central bank independence, the primacy of the price stability objective, instrument independence, and po...

  11. Methods and strategies for future reactor safety goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Steven Andrew

    There have been significant discussions over the past few years by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), and others as to the adequacy of the NRC safety goals for use with the next generation of nuclear power reactors to be built in the United States. The NRC, in its safety goals policy statement, has provided general qualitative safety goals and basic quantitative health objectives (QHOs) for nuclear reactors in the United States. Risk metrics such as core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF) have been used as surrogates for the QHOs. In its review of the new plant licensing policy the ACRS has looked at the safety goals, as has the NRC. A number of issues have been raised including what the Commission had in mind when it drafted the safety goals and QHOs, how risk from multiple reactors at a site should be combined for evaluation, how the combination of a new and old reactor at the same site should be evaluated, what the criteria for evaluating new reactors should be, and whether new reactors should be required to be safer than current generation reactors. As part of the development and application of the NRC safety goal policy statement the Commissioners laid out the expectations for the safety of a nuclear power plant but did not address the risk associated with current multi-unit sites, potential modular reactor sites, and hybrid sites that could contain current generation reactors, new passive reactors, and/or modular reactors. The NRC safety goals and the QHOs refer to a "nuclear power plant," but do not discuss whether a "plant" refers to only a single unit or all of the units on a site. There has been much discussion on this issue recently due to the development of modular reactors. Additionally, the risk of multiple reactor accidents on the same site has been largely ignored in the probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) done to date, and in most risk

  12. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions. PMID:25593407

  13. Do They Need Goals or Support? A Report from a Goal-Setting Intervention Using Physical Activity Monitors in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Bronikowski

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the association between physical activity (PA and different goal setting and strategies in youth. The study took into consideration different sources of support as well as gender variations. Classmate and Teacher Support scales were used to evaluate support in physical education (PE classes, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA was reported. Garmin Vivofit® activity trackers were used during an 8 week-long intervention to count daily steps. Data was collected from 65 adolescents (mean age 17.2 ± 0.2, 74 young adolescents (mean age 15.3 ± 0.2 and 57 children (mean age 11.5 ± 0.4. An experimental design was employed, with “goal” and “do your best” groups given different step goal strategies. The results show that both groups achieved a comparable number of steps. Two-way ANOVA showed interactional effects between gender and teacher support. There were no such effects for MVPA and number of steps. Although classmate support in PE was reported to be reasonably high, the findings show that it does not play a significant role in increasing MVPA behaviors in youths. However, the problem of significantly lower support given to adolescent girls by PE teachers should be embedded into the teaching context of PE students and counteracted in school setting realities.

  14. Characterizing a sustainability transition: goals, targets, trends, and driving forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parris, Thomas M; Kates, Robert W

    2003-07-08

    Sustainable development exhibits broad political appeal but has proven difficult to define in precise terms. Recent scholarship has focused on the nature of a sustainability transition, described by the National Research Council as meeting the needs of a stabilizing future world population while reducing hunger and poverty and maintaining the planet's life-support systems. We identify a small set of goals, quantitative targets, and associated indicators that further characterize a sustainability transition by drawing on the consensus embodied in internationally negotiated agreements and plans of action. To illustrate opportunities for accelerating progress, we then examine current scholarship on the processes that influence attainment of four such goals: reducing hunger, promoting literacy, stabilizing greenhouse-gas concentrations, and maintaining fresh-water availability. We find that such analysis can often reveal "levers of change," forces that both control the rate of positive change and are subject to policy intervention.

  15. Establishing a greenhouse gas inventory and reduction goal: case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carli, G.A.; Richardson, S.L.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Since 1976, Conestoga-Rovers & Associates (CRA) has grown from a small, regional engineering company, to one of the world's most sought-after, multi-disciplinary engineering and consulting firms with over 90 offices and more than 2,700 people working on projects worldwide. CRA is committed to helping its clients meet or exceed their environmental performance goals while achieving its own sustainability objectives. CRA is continuously striving to implement social and environmental performance improvements in each and every work place where CRA conducts business. CRA's Corporate Sustainability, Social Responsibility, and Environmental Policy reflects this commitment. CRA is working to reduce its environmental footprint and invest in the communities in which we live and conduct business. CRA undertook a corporate-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory and set aggressive GHG reduction goals. This presentation provides an overview of the steps CRA has taken to quantify corporate GHG emissions, including establishing boundary conditions, data collection activities, calculation of GHG emissions, and development of and inventory management plant consistent with the U.S. EPA Climate Leaders program. The presentation discusses the primary challenges addressed in developing a GHG inventory for multiple facilities located throughout North America, including obtaining verifiable data, addressing corporate travel, and communicating climate change goals within the organization. The presentation concludes with an overview of the key considerations necessary to establish a credible reduction goal. (author)

  16. A Seat at the Table: How the Work of Teaching Impacts Teachers as Policy Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Annalee G.; Fox Barocas, Sadie; Chávez-Moreno, Laura C.; Feldman, Rachel; Canela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Policy reflects and shapes society's beliefs about schools, teachers, children, learning, and society, as well as the power structures embedded in our communities and decision-making processes. Although teachers may be central to the "implementation" of education policy, they are marginal to the "design" of policy agendas and…

  17. Policies to promote the waste management hierarchy : with special attention to the paper cycle in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukering, van P.J.H.; Brander, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to review policy instruments available to promote aspects of the waste management hierarchy. The motivation of this review is embedded in two questions: (1) What policy instruments are most effective in promoting the waste hierarchy? and, (2) Should EU policies

  18. Safety goals for future nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todreas, Neil E.

    2001-01-01

    This talk presents technology goals developed for Generation IV nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier. These goals are defined in the broad areas of sustainability, safety and reliability, and economics. Sustainability goals focus on fuel utilization, waste management, and proliferation resistance. Safety and reliability goals focus on safe and reliable operation, investment protection, and essentially eliminating the need for emergency response. Economics goals focus on competitive life cycle and energy production costs and financial risk. Future reactors fall in three categories - those which are: Certified or derivatives; Designed to a reasonable extent and based on available technology; In conceptual form only with potential to most fully satisfy the GENIV goals

  19. Jamaica is Without a National Sexual Harassment Policy: Challenges, Consequences, Health Problems and the Need for a National Policy Framework

    OpenAIRE

    R. Peters; P.A. Bourne

    2012-01-01

    Humans are sexual as they are physical beings. Simply put, sexual relations are embedded in their composition and so legislations are needed to protect vulnerable groups such as children, poor, women, orphans, elderly, mentally and physically disabled people and adolescents from sexual exploitations. The current study will explore why Jamaica needs a national sexual harassment policy, the challenges without a policy and the difficulties in formulating a policy in such a highly sexed culture. ...

  20. Perencanaan Produksi Agregat Dengan Metode Goal Programing

    OpenAIRE

    Tamjidillah, Mastiadi

    2003-01-01

    A Production planning is very important to all activities in manufacturing company. For a company producing a variety of product the production planning will be complicated. In this case it's necessary to make an aggregate production planning. A Company has goals to achieve the products, althought there differenciate between each other. Other wise, if needs to make a production planning that accommodate such goals.Goal programming model can be used for aggregate production planning. This mul...

  1. Rotating embedded black holes: Entropy and Hawking's radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ibohal, Ng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we derive a class of rotating embedded black holes. Then we study Hawking's radiation effects on these embedded black holes. The surface gravity, entropy and angular velocity are given for each of these black holes.

  2. Achievement goals and interpersonal behaviour: How mastery and performance goals shape information exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortvliet, P.M.; Janssen, O.; Van Yperen, N.W.; Van de Vliert, E.

    2007-01-01

    The present research examines the impact of achievement goals on task-related information exchange. Studies 1 and 2 reveal that relative to those with mastery goals or no goal, individuals pursuing performance goals were less open in their information giving to exchange partners. Study 2 further

  3. Achievement Goals, Social Goals, and Students' Reported Persistence and Effort in High School Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jianmin; Xiang, Ping; McBride, Ron; Bruene, April

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between achievement goals and social goals and explored how students' achievement goals and social goals might affect their reported persistence and effort expended toward physical education in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southwest U.S. Multiple regression…

  4. Goals of care: a concept clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, Susan

    2017-06-01

    To report an analysis and clarification of the concept of goals of care. Goals of care have been used by healthcare providers since 1978, but no operationalized, consensual definition exists. Norris's method of concept clarification was used to create an operational definition, conceptual model and testable hypotheses of goals of care from the healthcare provider's perspective. Data came from current research reports, interviews with experts and web sites of professional organizations. Research reports were published between 2003-2013. Antecedents, definitions and consequences were systematized and organized into coherent and more abstract groups to define goals of care. A conceptual model and testable hypotheses were created from this process. Goals of care are desired health expectations that are formulated through the thoughtful interaction between a human being seeking medical care and the healthcare team in the healthcare system and are appropriate, agreed on, documented and communicated. Development of clear goals of care can increase patient satisfaction and quality of care while decreasing costs, hospital length of stay and hospital readmission. Goals of care are dynamic and should be reassessed regularly. How and when goals of care transition from implicit to explicit should be explored further, and what prompts this transition. Nurses, physicians and healthcare providers need education on how to best fill their roles in the development of goals of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Modelling and Analyses of Embedded Systems Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekling, Aske Wiid

    We present the MoVES languages: a language with which embedded systems can be specified at a stage in the development process where an application is identified and should be mapped to an execution platform (potentially multi- core). We give a formal model for MoVES that captures and gives......-based verification is a promising approach for assisting developers of embedded systems. We provide examples of system verifications that, in size and complexity, point in the direction of industrially-interesting systems....... semantics to the elements of specifications in the MoVES language. We show that even for seem- ingly simple systems, the complexity of verifying real-time constraints can be overwhelming - but we give an upper limit to the size of the search-space that needs examining. Furthermore, the formal model exposes...

  6. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  7. Engineering embedded systems physics, programs, circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Hintenaus, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for graduate and final-year-undergraduate computer-science and electrical-engineering students interested in the hardware and software aspects of embedded and cyberphysical systems design. It is comprehensive and self-contained, covering everything from the basics to case-study implementation. Emphasis is placed on the physical nature of the problem domain and of the devices used. The reader is assumed to be familiar on a theoretical level with mathematical tools like ordinary differential equation and Fourier transforms. In this book these tools will be put to practical use. Engineering Embedded Systems begins by addressing basic material on signals and systems, before introducing to electronics. Treatment of digital electronics accentuating synchronous circuits and including high-speed effects proceeds to micro-controllers, digital signal processors and programmable logic. Peripheral units and decentralized networks are given due weight. The properties of analog circuits and devices like ...

  8. Constraint Embedding for Multibody System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Abhinandan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a constraint embedding approach for the handling of local closure constraints in multibody system dynamics. The approach uses spatial operator techniques to eliminate local-loop constraints from the system and effectively convert the system into tree-topology systems. This approach allows the direct derivation of recursive O(N) techniques for solving the system dynamics and avoiding the expensive steps that would otherwise be required for handling the closedchain dynamics. The approach is very effective for systems where the constraints are confined to small-subgraphs within the system topology. The paper provides background on the spatial operator O(N) algorithms, the extensions for handling embedded constraints, and concludes with some examples of such constraints.

  9. A ferroelectric memory technology for embedded LSI

    CERN Document Server

    Kunio, T

    1999-01-01

    We have developed an FeRAM (Ferroelectric Random Access Memory) embedded smart card LSI by using double metal 0.8- mu m CMOS technology. The smart-card has a 256-byte FeRAM macro and an 8-bit microcontroller. The FeRAM macro has the $9 performance of 10/sup 8/ endurance cycles and is half the size of an EEPROM macro. We have also developed a new CMVP (Capacitor on Meta/Via Stacked Plug) cell for an advanced FeRAM embedded LSI by using 0.25- mu m CMOS technology. $9 The ferroelectric capacitors of this cell are fabricated after the multiple interconnect is formed, and a cell area of 3.2 mu m/sup 2/ is obtained. (8 refs).

  10. Embedding of reactor wastes in plastic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    STEAG Kernenergie GmbH is so far the only firm commercially to condition radioactive bead ion exchange resins by embedding in polystyrene resins. The objective of the work reported here was to study and develop methods for immobilization of other reactor wastes in plastic resins. Comparison studies on high quality cement however showed favourable results for cement with respect to process safety and economy. For this reason STEAG interrupted its work in the field of resin embedding after about one year. The work carried out during this period is surveyed in this report, which includes a comprehensive literature study on reactor wastes and their solidification in plastic resins as well as on regulations with regard to radioactive waste disposal in the member states of the European Communities

  11. Nonlinear dimensionality reduction by locally linear embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweis, S T; Saul, L K

    2000-12-22

    Many areas of science depend on exploratory data analysis and visualization. The need to analyze large amounts of multivariate data raises the fundamental problem of dimensionality reduction: how to discover compact representations of high-dimensional data. Here, we introduce locally linear embedding (LLE), an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs. Unlike clustering methods for local dimensionality reduction, LLE maps its inputs into a single global coordinate system of lower dimensionality, and its optimizations do not involve local minima. By exploiting the local symmetries of linear reconstructions, LLE is able to learn the global structure of nonlinear manifolds, such as those generated by images of faces or documents of text.

  12. Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction by Locally Linear Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweis, Sam T.; Saul, Lawrence K.

    2000-12-01

    Many areas of science depend on exploratory data analysis and visualization. The need to analyze large amounts of multivariate data raises the fundamental problem of dimensionality reduction: how to discover compact representations of high-dimensional data. Here, we introduce locally linear embedding (LLE), an unsupervised learning algorithm that computes low-dimensional, neighborhood-preserving embeddings of high-dimensional inputs. Unlike clustering methods for local dimensionality reduction, LLE maps its inputs into a single global coordinate system of lower dimensionality, and its optimizations do not involve local minima. By exploiting the local symmetries of linear reconstructions, LLE is able to learn the global structure of nonlinear manifolds, such as those generated by images of faces or documents of text.

  13. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.,; Seagle, Christopher T; Ao, Tommy

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes LDRD project number 151365, \\Dynamic Temperature Measurements with Embedded Optical Sensors". The purpose of this project was to develop an optical sensor capable of detecting modest temperature states (<1000 K) with nanosecond time resolution, a recurring diagnostic need in dynamic compression experiments at the Sandia Z machine. Gold sensors were selected because the visible re ectance spectrum of gold varies strongly with temperature. A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible connection between static calibrations and dynamic measurements was found. With re nements to the model and diagnostic upgrades, embedded gold sensors seem capable of detecting minor (<50 K) temperature changes under dynamic compression.

  14. Embedding nursing and therapy consultantship: the case of stroke consultants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher R; Bennett, Bev; Gibbon, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    As the basis for the design of career development opportunities for current and aspiring nursing and therapy consultants, we aimed to explore the factors that shape how these roles have embedded in UK stroke services. The non-medical consultant role has been introduced into UK health care services to provide opportunities for experienced practitioners to progress their careers in clinical practice. Whilst there have been evaluations of the impact of the role on service delivery, little attention has been paid to the pathways towards consultantship. An exploratory design, incorporating focus group discussions, was used to address the research questions. Participating consultants, both nurses and allied health professionals, worked in stroke services, although it is anticipated that the results will have wider application. Two focus groups were held with non-medical consultants in stroke from across the UK. Participants had the opportunity to comment on an interim paper prior to publication of the results. Thirteen consultants took part in the study. A lack of consensus about the nature of clinical expertise and a diverse range of pathways towards consultantship were identified. Health care policy had presented the opportunity for consultants to be entrepreneurial in the development of stroke services, although this had limited the scope for the development of professional knowledge. Inflexible programmes to support aspiring consultants may limit the opportunities to develop these entrepreneurial skills. This study challenges health care organizations and the education and research departments that support them to think creatively in the way that the non-medical consultant role is embedded, and that this should draw on the commitment of existing consultants to support succession planning. The identification of those aspects of career pathways that current consultants have found to be helpful will be useful in designing opportunities for aspiring consultants.

  15. Goal Attainment and Goal Adjustment of Older Adults During Person-Directed Cancer Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Newman, Robin M; Kaufman, Peter A; Bruce, Martha L; Stearns, Diane M; Lansigan, Frederick; Chamberlin, Mary; Bartels, Stephen J; Whipple, Jessica; Hegel, Mark T

    In this pilot study of a home-based occupational therapy intervention intended to reduce disability and improve quality of life, our objective was to identify rates of goal attainment and patterns of goal adjustment of participants. Thirty older adults with cancer were randomized to the intervention arm, and 24 participants identified goals and completed the six-session intervention. An exploratory content analysis of qualitative and quantitative session data was performed. Participants set 63 6-wk goals and attained 62% of them. Most of the goals addressed walking (28%), sedentary leisure (24%), exercising (16%), or instrumental activities of daily living (14%). When 6-wk goals were not attained (n = 24), there were 10 instances of goal disengagement and 14 instances of goal reengagement. Although most participants were able to meet their goals, many also changed their goals and priorities after reflection and attempts to resume or initiate meaningful activities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  16. Learning Word Sense Embeddings from Word Sense Definitions

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Qi; Li, Tianshi; Chang, Baobao

    2016-01-01

    Word embeddings play a significant role in many modern NLP systems. Since learning one representation per word is problematic for polysemous words and homonymous words, researchers propose to use one embedding per word sense. Their approaches mainly train word sense embeddings on a corpus. In this paper, we propose to use word sense definitions to learn one embedding per word sense. Experimental results on word similarity tasks and a word sense disambiguation task show that word sense embeddi...

  17. Development of an Erlang System Adaopted to Embedded Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Fredrik; Bergström, Fabian

    2011-01-01

    Erlang is a powerful and robust language for writing massively parallel and distributed applications. With the introduction of multi-core ARM processors, the embedded market will be looking for ways of taking advantage of the newfound opportunities for parallelism. To support the development of embedded applications using Erlang we want to provide Erlang and Embedded developers with a run-time system suited for embedded devices. We have managed to shrink the disk size of the Erlang runtime sy...

  18. Research about Memory Detection Based on the Embedded Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hao; Chu, Jian

    As is known to us all, the resources of memory detection of the embedded systems are very limited. Taking the Linux-based embedded arm as platform, this article puts forward two efficient memory detection technologies according to the characteristics of the embedded software. Especially for the programs which need specific libraries, the article puts forwards portable memory detection methods to help program designers to reduce human errors,improve programming quality and therefore make better use of the valuable embedded memory resource.

  19. Critical points in an algebra of elementary embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Dougherty, Randall

    1992-01-01

    Given two elementary embeddings from the collection of sets of rank less than $\\lambda$ to itself, one can combine them to obtain another such embedding in two ways: by composition, and by applying one to (initial segments of) the other. Hence, a single such nontrivial embedding $j$ generates an algebra of embeddings via these two operations, which satisfies certain laws (for example, application distributes over both composition and application). Laver has shown, among other things, that thi...

  20. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared...... busses, our partitioning algorithm finds the partitioning with the smallest hardware cost and is able to predict and guarantee the performance of the system in terms of worst case delay....

  1. Consistent Alignment of World Embedding Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-02

    MIT Lincoln Laboratory 244 Wood Street Lexington, MA 02421, USA ABSTRACT Word embedding models offer continuous vector representations that can...generated synthetic data points. This generative process is inspired by the observation that a variety of linguistic relationships is captured by simple...as images , and genomic data. In Wang et al. (2016) manifold alignment techniques are used to discover logical relationships in supervised settings. We

  2. Embedding Versus Immersion in General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Monte, Edmundo M.

    2009-01-01

    We briefly discuss the concepts of immersion and embedding of space-times in higher-dimensional spaces. We revisit the classical work by Kasner in which he constructs a model of immersion of the Schwarzschild exterior solution into a six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean manifold. We show that, from a physical point of view, this model is not entirely satisfactory since the causal structure of the immersed space-time is not preserved by the immersion.

  3. Embedded silicon nanocrystal interface structure and strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry; Hegde, G. M.; Mahapatra, D. Roy

    2018-01-01

    The structure of nanocrystal-matrix interface and strain in embedded nanocrystals are studied using large-scale atomistic simulations, with the examples of Si nanocrystal embedded in amorphous matrix of SiO2. Photoluminescence from silicon nanocrystals embedded in a dielectric matrix like SiO2 and Si3N4 are promising for Si-based optical devices. The nanocrystal-matrix interface plays a crucial role in understanding its optical and electrical properties. Nanocrystals with diameters varying from 2.17 to 4.56 nm are studied. A detailed quantitative analysis of the variation of Si/SiO2 interface structure and strain distribution with nanocrystal diameter is reported. A linear variation of the interface width with nanocrystal diameter is observed with thinner interfaces for larger nanocrystals. Local deformation analysis reveals that the smaller nanocrystals are highly strained, whereas the strain in the larger ones shifts to the interface. This is in accordance with observed increase in total percentage of defect states in the interface from 39 to 70 % for diameter increasing from 2.17 to 4.56 nm. Moreover, based on the atomic arrangements at the interface, optically active defects like Pb centres, E centres and non-bridging oxygen centres are identified and a dominance of Pb centres is observed for all the nanocrystals. The detailed structural characterization-related investigations using the proposed simulation approach will find useful application in designing system-level response of embedded nanocrystals and also to correlate various experimental observations.

  4. Smooth embeddings with Stein surface images

    OpenAIRE

    Gompf, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    A simple characterization is given of open subsets of a complex surface that smoothly perturb to Stein open subsets. As applications, complex 2-space C^2 contains domains of holomorphy (Stein open subsets) that are exotic R^4's, and others homotopy equivalent to the 2-sphere but cut out by smooth, compact 3-manifolds. Pseudoconvex embeddings of Brieskorn spheres and other 3-manifolds into complex surfaces are constructed, as are pseudoconcave holomorphic fillings (with disagreeing contact and...

  5. Dimensionality Reduction via Euclidean Distance Embeddings

    OpenAIRE

    Šarić, Marin; Ek, Carl Henrik; Kragić, Danica

    2011-01-01

    This report provides a mathematically thorough review and investigation of Metric Multidimensional scaling (MDS) through the analysis of Euclidean distances in input and output spaces. By combining a geometric approach with modern linear algebra and multivariate analysis, Metric MDS is viewed as a Euclidean distance embedding transformation that converts between coordinate and coordinate-free representations of data. In this work we link Mercer kernel functions, data in infinite-dimensional H...

  6. Mycobacterium avium Infection after Acupoint Embedding Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Zhang, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary:. Nontuberculous mycobacterium is a ubiquitous environmental organism that is unusual to cause a true infection, but it can cause severe cutaneous infections. In this case report, we present a successful treatment for a Chinese patient with Mycobacterium avium cutaneous infection after acupoint embedding therapy. We managed to conduct pathogenic detection, drug sensitive test, and multidisciplinary consultation. Finally, a systematic treatment strategy of nontuberculous mycobacterium was performed. Twenty-two-month follow-up revealed excellent outcome without any recurrence.

  7. Equivariant embeddings of Hermitian symmetric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is natural to expect these to be preserved. The embedding of the symmetric space for. SU(p, 1), Xp,1, into XP ,Q where P = (p k. ) , Q = ( p k−1. ) [8] gives a very graphic example. Another strong motivation for the theorem is given by Mok's rigidity results. Assume for simplicity that H is irreducible over Q and rk(H) > 1 (this is ...

  8. 2-surface twistors, embeddings and symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffryes, B.P.

    1987-01-01

    2-Surface twistor space was introduced in connection with a proposal for a quasi-local definition of mass and angular momentum within general relativity. Properties of the 2-surface twistor space are related to the possibilities for embedding the 2-surface in real and complex conformally flat spaces. The additional properties of the twistor space resulting from symmetries of the 2-surface are discussed, with particular detail on axisymmetric 2-surfaces. (author)

  9. The MNC as an Externally Embedded Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nell, Phillip Christopher; Ambos, Björn; Schlegelmilch, Bodo B.

    2011-01-01

    MNCs have been conceptualized as differentiated networks that, in turn, are embedded in external networks. Previous research has predominantly focused on the embeddedness of established subsidiaries into their local environment, omitting to shed light on the phenomenon of headquarters linkages...... more overlapping network ties when subsidiaries are high performers, hold important resources, operate in turbulent environments, and are closely connected to multinational actors as opposed to purely domestic firms....

  10. Intelligent Machine Parts with Surface Embedded Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Østbø, Niels Peter

    2009-01-01

    A surface embedded temperature sensor has successfully been fabricated on a customized industrial bolt. The aluminum substrate of the bolt was electrically isolated by plasma electrolytic oxidation followed by the fabrication of a type T thermocouple and finally covered by a wear resistant DLC coating. This bolt is part of our work to develop smart machine parts that are capable of reporting their current physical status under real working conditions enabling both new tools for condition base...

  11. Fast nonlinear embeddings via structured matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Choromanski, Krzysztof; Fagan, Francois

    2016-01-01

    We present a new paradigm for speeding up randomized computations of several frequently used functions in machine learning. In particular, our paradigm can be applied for improving computations of kernels based on random embeddings. Above that, the presented framework covers multivariate randomized functions. As a byproduct, we propose an algorithmic approach that also leads to a significant reduction of space complexity. Our method is based on careful recycling of Gaussian vectors into struc...

  12. Intelligence for embedded systems a methodological approach

    CERN Document Server

    Alippi, Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Addressing current issues of which any engineer or computer scientist should be aware, this monograph is a response to the need to adopt a new computational paradigm as the methodological basis for designing pervasive embedded systems with sensor capabilities. The requirements of this paradigm are to control complexity, to limit cost and energy consumption, and to provide adaptation and cognition abilities allowing the embedded system to interact proactively with the real world. The quest for such intelligence requires the formalization of a new generation of intelligent systems able to exploit advances in digital architectures and in sensing technologies. The book sheds light on the theory behind intelligence for embedded systems with specific focus on: ·        robustness (the robustness of a computational flow and its evaluation); ·        intelligence (how to mimic the adaptation and cognition abilities of the human brain), ·        the capacity to learn in non-stationary and evolv...

  13. Societal embedding of climate-friendly innovations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeyrynen, E.; Kivisaari, Sirkku; Lovio, R.

    2002-01-01

    This project assesses the possibilities of constructing a market for climate-friendly energy technologies by applying the process of 'societal embedding of innovations'. The term refers to an interactive learning process amongst three groups of key actors: producers, users and societal actors. Their co-operation shapes the innovation to fit the needs of the market and contributes to creation of conditions in which the innovation can be adopted. The project consists of two case studies: (1) Shaping of the ESCO energy service concept in Finnish municipalities and (2) Increasing the use of wood pellets in single-family houses. The case studies have illustrated the possibilities and limitations concerning the application of societal embedding in the energy sector. The project indicates that societal embedding may promote the implementation of climate-friendly energy technologies in at least three ways. Firstly, the process mobilises key actors to cooperation. This generates interactive learning on the problem and its solving. Market construction is forged ahead by mutual adaptation of the innovation and its environment. Secondly, this approach offers a tool to examine the societal quality of the innovation, a question related vitally to climate change. Thirdly, by producing new knowledge of the needs on the market this approach supports the societal actors in choosing different instruments to induce the intended transition to sustainability. (orig.)

  14. Covariance tracking: architecture optimizations for embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Andrés; Lacassagne, Lionel; Gouiffès, Michèle; Zahraee, Ali Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Covariance matching techniques have recently grown in interest due to their good performances for object retrieval, detection, and tracking. By mixing color and texture information in a compact representation, it can be applied to various kinds of objects (textured or not, rigid or not). Unfortunately, the original version requires heavy computations and is difficult to execute in real time on embedded systems. This article presents a review on different versions of the algorithm and its various applications; our aim is to describe the most crucial challenges and particularities that appeared when implementing and optimizing the covariance matching algorithm on a variety of desktop processors and on low-power processors suitable for embedded systems. An application of texture classification is used to compare different versions of the region descriptor. Then a comprehensive study is made to reach a higher level of performance on multi-core CPU architectures by comparing different ways to structure the information, using single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) instructions and advanced loop transformations. The execution time is reduced significantly on two dual-core CPU architectures for embedded computing: ARM Cortex-A9 and Cortex-A15 and Intel Penryn-M U9300 and Haswell-M 4650U. According to our experiments on covariance tracking, it is possible to reach a speedup greater than ×2 on both ARM and Intel architectures, when compared to the original algorithm, leading to real-time execution.

  15. Costs and benefits of embedded generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Ilex Associates has been appointed by ETSU to examine the underlying costs and benefits of embedded generation (i.e. generation which is directly connected into a REF's distribution network instead of the national transmission network). The main impetus for this work stems from the need to understand the true value of embedded generation in time to review the development of further NFFO contracts following the expiry of the, so called, ''nuclear levy''. This is particularly important at this time because of the view expressed by the Director General of Electricity Supply (DGES) that to continue to receive support renewables technologies should be able to demonstrate good progress in converging towards a market price. The prime objectives of this study are to determine the costs and benefits of connecting and operating a generator that is embedded in a local Regional Electricity Company's (REC's) distribution network compared to the alternative option of providing electricity from a large generating station which is connected directly to the transmission system (and colloquially known as directly connected generation). (UK)

  16. Embedded I&C for Extreme Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    This project uses embedded instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies to demonstrate potential performance gains of nuclear power plant components in extreme environments. Extreme environments include high temperature, radiation, high pressure, high vibration, and high EMI conditions. For extreme environments, performance gains arise from moment-to-moment sensing of local variables and immediate application of local feedback control. Planning for embedding I&C during early system design phases contrasts with the traditional, serial design approach that incorporates minimal I&C after mechanical and electrical design is complete. The demonstration application involves the development and control of a novel, proof-of-concept motor/pump design. The motor and pump combination operate within the fluid environment, eliminating the need for rotating seals. Actively controlled magnetic bearings also replace failure-prone mechanical contact bearings that typically suspend rotating components. Such as design has the potential to significantly enhance the reliability and life of the pumping system and would not be possible without embedded I&C.

  17. USAID Policy: Gender equality and female empowerment policy

    OpenAIRE

    United States Agency for International Development (USAID)

    2012-01-01

    Metadata only record This report is an update on USAID's progress towards gender equity and female empowerment since 1982. This policy strives towards positive development that is beneficial to men, women, and children. The goals are to reduce gender disparity in access to resources, reduce gender-based violence, and increase women's agency, leadership, and decision-making.

  18. Applications of scenarios in early embedded system design space exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stralen, P.

    2014-01-01

    One of the challenges during embedded system design is the application driven design. Due to the application driven design, the objectives that are steering the design of an embedded system are mainly based on the needs of the application(s). Examples of embedded system objectives are performance,

  19. Programming Embedded Systems With C and GNU Development Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Barr, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Whether you're writing your first embedded program, designing the latest generation of hand-held whatchamacalits, or managing the people who do, this book is for you. Programming Embedded Systems will help you develop the knowledge and skills you need to achieve proficiency with embedded software.

  20. Rhombic embeddings of planar graphs with faces of degree 4

    OpenAIRE

    Kenyon, Richard; Schlenker, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    Given a finite or infinite planar graph all of whose faces have degree 4, we study embeddings in the plane in which all edges have length 1, that is, in which every face is a rhombus. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of such an embedding, as well as a description of the set of all such embeddings.

  1. Embedding research to improve program implementation in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Nhan; Langlois, Etienne V; Reveiz, Ludovic; Varallyay, Ilona; Elias, Vanessa; Mancuso, Arielle; Becerra-Posada, Francisco; Ghaffar, Abdul

    2017-06-08

    In the last 10 years, implementation research has come to play a critical role in improving the implementation of already-proven health interventions by promoting the systematic uptake of research findings and other evidence-based strategies into routine practice. The Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research and the Pan American Health Organization implemented a program of embedded implementation research to support health programs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) in 2014-2015. A total of 234 applications were received from 28 countries in the Americas. The Improving Program Implementation through Embedded Research (iPIER) scheme supported 12 implementation research projects led by health program implementers from nine LAC countries: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Panama, Peru, and Saint Lucia. Through this experience, we learned that the "insider" perspective, which implementers bring to the research proposal, is particularly important in identifying research questions that focus on the systems failures that often manifest in barriers to implementation. This paper documents the experience of and highlights key conclusions about the conduct of embedded implementation research. The iPIER experience has shown great promise for embedded research models that place implementers at the helm of implementation research initiatives.

  2. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Brian Jenkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber Bragg grating (FBG temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  3. Localized Temperature Variations in Laser-Irradiated Composites with Embedded Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, R Brian; Joyce, Peter; Mechtel, Deborah

    2017-01-27

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensors are embedded in composites to detect localized temperature gradients resulting from high energy infrared laser radiation. The goal is to detect the presence of radiation on a composite structure as rapidly as possible and to identify its location, much the same way human skin senses heat. A secondary goal is to determine how a network of sensors can be optimized to detect thermal damage in laser-irradiated composite materials or structures. Initial tests are conducted on polymer matrix composites reinforced with either carbon or glass fiber with a single optical fiber embedded into each specimen. As many as three sensors in each optical fiber measure the temporal and spatial thermal response of the composite to high energy radiation incident on the surface. Additional tests use a 2 × 2 × 3 array of 12 sensors embedded in a carbon fiber/epoxy composite to simultaneously measure temperature variations at locations on the composite surface and through the thickness. Results indicate that FBGs can be used to rapidly detect temperature gradients in a composite and their location, even for a direct strike of laser radiation on a sensor, when high temperatures can cause a non-uniform thermal response and FBG decay.

  4. Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jigneshkumar J.; Reddy, Nagaraj; Kumari, Praveena; Rajpal, Rachana; Pujara, Harshad; Jha, R.; Kalappurakkal, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The design and the development of data acquisition system on FPGA based reconfigurable hardware platform. • Embedded Linux configuration and compilation for FPGA based systems. • Hardware logic IP core and its Linux device driver development for the external peripheral to interface it with the FPGA based system. - Abstract: This scalable hardware–software system is designed and developed to explore the emerging open standards for data acquisition requirement of Tokamak experiments. To address the future need for a scalable data acquisition and control system for fusion experiments, we have explored the capability of software platform using Open Source Embedded Linux Operating System on a programmable hardware platform such as FPGA. The idea was to identify the platform which can be customizable, flexible and scalable to support the data acquisition system requirements. To do this, we have selected FPGA based reconfigurable and scalable hardware platform to design the system with Embedded Linux based operating system for flexibility in software development and Gigabit Ethernet interface for high speed data transactions. The proposed hardware–software platform using FPGA and Embedded Linux OS offers a single chip solution with processor, peripherals such ADC interface controller, Gigabit Ethernet controller, memory controller amongst other peripherals. The Embedded Linux platform for data acquisition is implemented and tested on a Virtex-5 FXT FPGA ML507 which has PowerPC 440 (PPC440) [2] hard block on FPGA. For this work, we have used the Linux Kernel version 2.6.34 with BSP support for the ML507 platform. It is downloaded from the Xilinx [1] GIT server. Cross-compiler tool chain is created using the Buildroot scripts. The Linux Kernel and Root File System are configured and compiled using the cross-tools to support the hardware platform. The Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) IO module is designed and interfaced with the ML507 through Xilinx

  5. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  6. Infants Generate Goal-Based Action Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Predicting the actions of others is critical to smooth social interactions. Prior work suggests that both understanding and anticipation of goal-directed actions appears early in development. In this study, on-line goal prediction was tested explicitly using an adaptation of Woodward's (1998) paradigm for an eye-tracking task. Twenty 11-month-olds…

  7. Cattle breeding goals and production circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of a study on the relationship between cattle breeding goals and production circumstances. The relationship between breeding goals and production circumstances mostly arises from the influences of production circumstances on the economic values of

  8. A 3 x 2 Achievement Goal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou; Pekrun, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    In the present research, a 3 x 2 model of achievement goals is proposed and tested. The model is rooted in the definition and valence components of competence, and encompasses 6 goal constructs: task-approach, task-avoidance, self-approach, self-avoidance, other-approach, and other-avoidance. The results from 2 studies provided strong support for…

  9. Quantitative analysis of wellbeing and personal goals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Jorien

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present data on 407 homeless adults who have just entered the Dutch social relief system. We examined their personal goals of homeless adults and the association between their perceived goal related self-efficacy and their quality of life. Based on a hierarchical regression analysis

  10. Industrial Arts Program Goals and Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974

    The first section of the manual on secondary level industrial arts goal and competencies concerns the ALIVE (Allied Learning Vocational Exploration) Program, a student-managed, individualized learning program involving art, home economics, and industrial arts in a team instruction approach. It provides goals, competencies, and performance…

  11. Goal Pursuit in Youth with Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Fisher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children and adolescents frequently experience chronic pain that can disrupt their usual activities and lead to poor physical and emotional functioning. The fear avoidance model of pain with an emphasis on the maladaptive behaviors that lead to activity avoidance has guided research and clinical practice. However, this model does not take into consideration variability in responses to pain, in particular the active pursuit of goals despite pain. This review aims to introduce a novel conceptualization of children’s activity engagement versus avoidance using the framework of goal pursuit. We propose a new model of Goal Pursuit in Pediatric Chronic Pain, which proposes that the child’s experience of pain is modified by child factors (e.g., goal salience, motivation/energy, pain-related anxiety/fear, and self-efficacy and parent factors (e.g., parent expectations for pain, protectiveness behaviors, and parent anxiety, which lead to specific goal pursuit behaviors. Goal pursuit is framed as engagement or avoidance of valued goals when in pain. Next, we recommend that research in youth with chronic pain should be reframed to account for the pursuit of valued goals within the context of pain and suggest directions for future research.

  12. Aligning Executive Coaching with Strategic Business Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumata, Ellen

    2002-01-01

    Explains executive coaching, which is traditionally focused on individual executives, and how it can help align individual development with an organization's strategic goals. Describes a counseling model of identifying an individual's goals, challenges, and development needs and then helping him or her gain insight on how to address these needs.…

  13. Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparing the achievement goal orientation of mathematics learners with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. ... in recognising methods to direct learners' goals for better engagement with and improved results in mathematics, which could support learners to develop to their full potential in the subject.

  14. Implementation of Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the year 2000, Nigeria joined the 189 member states at the United Nations Millennium Summit to set the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), which were related to various aspects of development targeted for realization in year 2015. This paper is a strategic thought on the implications the implementation of the goals ...

  15. The role of partnerships in U.S. Food Policy Council policy activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Clayton

    Full Text Available Food Policy Councils (FPC help to identify and address the priorities of local, state, and regional food systems with the goal of improving food systems through policy. There is limited research describing FPCs' strategies for accomplishing this goal. As part of a larger study examining FPC policy efforts, this paper investigates the role of partnerships in food systems policy change. We conducted interviews with representatives from 12 purposefully selected FPCs in the United States and 6 policy experts identified by the selected FPC representatives to document and describe their policy work. One theme that emerged from those interviews was the role of partners. Interviewees described a range of partners (e.g., stakeholders from government, business, and education and credited FPC partnerships with advancing their policy goals by increasing the visibility and credibility of FPCs, focusing their policy agenda, connecting FPCs to key policy inputs (e.g., local food community knowledge and priorities, and obtaining stakeholder buy-in for policy initiatives. Partnerships were also described as barriers to policy progress when partners were less engaged or had either disproportionate or little influence in a given food sector. Despite these challenges, partnerships were found to be valuable for FPCs efforts to effectively engage in the food policy arena.

  16. Global Policies and Local Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Gilbert, Dirk Ulrich

    networks that are embedded in a wider global network, I argue that tighter couplings (within local networks) and looser couplings (between local networks) coexist. Second, I suggest that this coexistence of couplings enables MSIs to generate policy outcomes which address the conditions of a transnational...... regulatory context. I argue that MSIs’ way of organizing enables them to cope with three challenges: the stability, flexibility, and legitimacy of governance. Reflecting on these challenges, the article identifies a number of problems related to MSIs’ role in transnational governance. Third, I discuss the UN...

  17. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on future Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy-Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how government policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that institutional policies favoring economic development contributing heavily to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  18. Ecosystem services for meeting sustainable development goals: Challenges and pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huq Nazmul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes four presentations of the session “Environment and Wellbeing: The Role of Ecosystems for Sustainable Development” at the international conference “Sustainability in the Water- Energy-Food Nexus” held on 19-20th May 2014 in Bonn, Germany. The aim of the session was to present current stresses on ecosystem services imposed by global development trajectory, potential impacts on Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs and pathways to achieve SDGs. All four presentations agreed that global ecosystem services are under increasing pressure from degradation and may not be able to meet the growing Water-Energy- Food (WEF demands especially for the developing world. Three examples from Tanzania, Cambodia and Niger made attempt to understand how governance policies attributed to natural resource depletion such as forestry and common grazing. The examples showed that governance policies favoring economic development are heavily contributing to clearing up natural resource bases. As a result, there were increasing conflicts among different resource user groups. Two other presentations introduce conceptual pathways to achieve the targets of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs under current resource stressed regime. The pathways suggested global technologies, decentralized solutions and consumption changes as the major means of achieving global sustainability and poverty eradication without any major trade-offs.

  19. Methodology and Supporting Toolset Advancing Embedded Systems Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stübert; Soler, José; Brewka, Lukasz Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is of primary importance in the development of embedded systems that are often used in safety-critical applications. Moreover, as the life cycle of embedded products becomes increasingly tighter, productivity and quality are simultaneously required and closely interrelated towards...... delivering competitive products. In this context, the MODUS (Methodology and supporting toolset advancing embedded systems quality) project aims to provide a pragmatic and viable solution that will allow SMEs to substantially improve their positioning in the embedded-systems development market. This paper...... will describe the MODUS project with focus on the technical methodologies that will be developed advancing embedded system quality....

  20. Projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces with small boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhantsev, Ivan V

    2009-01-01

    We study open equivariant projective embeddings of homogeneous spaces such that the complement of the open orbit has codimension at least 2. We establish a criterion for the existence of such an embedding, prove that the set of isomorphism classes of such embeddings is finite, and give a construction of the embeddings in terms of Geometric Invariant Theory. A generalization of Cox's construction and the theory of bunched rings enable us to describe in combinatorial terms the basic geometric properties of embeddings with small boundary