WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy foreign aid

  1. United States Foreign Aid Policy for the 21st Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tisson, John

    2004-01-01

    .... The policy shift appears to be directly related to the Global War on Terrorism and acknowledges that foreign aid can play an important role in mitigating developmental deficits that can result in instability...

  2. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...... and institutions of the aid system; and (c) discusses whether aid has been effective. While much of the original optimism about the impact of foreign aid needed modification, there is solid evidence that aid has indeed helped further growth and poverty reduction...

  3. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  4. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  5. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  6. Why foreign aid fails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopijević Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main point of this paper is that foreign aid fails because the structure of its incentives resembles that of central planning. Aid is not only ineffective, it is arguably counterproductive. Contrary to business firms that are paid by those they are supposed to serve (customers, aid agencies are paid by tax payers of developed countries and not by those they serve. This inverse structure of incentives breaks the stream of pressure that exists on the commercial market. It also creates larger loopholes in the principle-agent relationship on each point along the chain of aid delivery. Both factors enhance corruption, moral hazard and negative selection. Instead of promoting development, aid extends the life of bad institutions and those in power. Proposals to reform foreign aid – like aid privatization and aid conditionality – do not change the existing structure of the incentives in aid delivery, and their implementation may just slightly improve aid efficacy. Larger improvement is not possible. For that reason, foreign aid will continue to be a waste of resources, probably serving some objectives different to those that are usually mentioned, like recipient’s development poverty reduction and pain relief.

  7. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  8. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  9. Remittances and the Effectiveness of Foreign Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minasyan, Anna; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We argue that donors could improve the effectiveness of foreign aid by pursuing complementary and coherent non-aid policies. In particular, we hypothesize that aid has stronger growth effects if recipients receive more aid from donors who allow for (temporary) worker mobility and (more permanent)

  10. Crafting AIDS policy in Brazil and Russia: State-civil societal ties, institutionalised morals, and foreign policy aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Eduardo J

    2016-10-01

    During the 1990s, Brazil and Russia diverged in their policy response to AIDS. This is puzzling considering that both nations were globally integrated emerging economies transitioning to democracy. This article examines to what extent international pressures and partnerships with multilateral donors motivated these governments to increase and sustain federal spending and policy reforms. Contrary to this literature, the cases of Brazil and Russia suggest that these external factors were not important in achieving these outcomes. Furthermore, it is argued that Brazil's policy response was eventually stronger than Russia's and that it had more to do with domestic political and social factors: specifically, AIDS officials' efforts to cultivate a strong partnership with NGOs, the absence of officials' moral discriminatory outlook towards the AIDS community, and the government's interest in using policy reform as a means to bolster its international reputation in health.

  11. Does Foreign Aid Increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

      The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show that the th......  The notion that foreign aid and foreign direct investment (FDI) are complementary sources of capital is conventional among governments and international cooperation agencies. This paper argues that the notion is incomplete. Within the framework of an open economy Solow model we show...... that the theoretical relationship between foreign aid and FDI is indeterminate. Aid may raise the marginal productivity of capital by financing complementary inputs, such as public infrastructure projects and human capital investment. However, aid may also crowd out productive private investments if it comes...

  12. Does Foreign Aid increase Foreign Direct Investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    2012-01-01

    We examine the idea that aid and FDI are complementary sources of foreign capital. We argue that the relationship between aid and FDI is theoretically ambiguous: aid raises the marginal productivity of capital when used to finance complementary inputs (like public infrastructure and human capital...

  13. Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wivel, Anders

    2017-01-01

    'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis.......'Realism in Foreign Policy Analysis' traces how realist thinking on foreign policy has developed over the years and discusses the challenges and opportunities faced by various strands of realism when applied to foreign policy analysis....

  14. The return to foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    We investigate the marginal productivity of investment across countries. The aim is to estimate the return on investments financed by foreign aid and by domestic resource mobilization, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop...... a correlated random coefficients model, to estimate the average aggregate return on ‘aid investments’ and ‘domestic investments’. Across different estimators and two different sources for GDP and investment data our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per...

  15. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    In addition, this chapter develops a microeconomic model to explore donors’ aid allocation decisions and their potential impact on aid effectiveness...the promotion of market-based principles to restructure macroeconomic policies in developing countries. The greater focus on...be explained by successful development 29 efforts of number of countries in the region, such as Republic of Korea, Malaysia , Singapore, and Peoples

  16. China’s and Japan’s Foreign Aid Policies vis-à-vis Lusophone Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Miguel Amakasu Raposo de Medeiros Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article compares the evolution of China’s and Japan’s foreign policies to Lusophone Africa, focusing on the period post-2000. The lack of analysis on Beijing’s and Tokyo’s respective aid policies towards Portuguese-speaking African countries (Países Africanos de Língua Oficial Portuguesa, PALOP makes this study relevant. Arguably, Japan’s development “edge” over China in terms of the “aid model” approach towards PALOP countries is under threat. This raises questions about China’s changing pattern of aid, characterised by an increasing amount of “soft” aid towards PALOP states outside of trade and investment relations, which is much in line with Japan’s aid philosophy and, according to observers, less neocolonialist than Japan’s previous aid practices. This paper asks which model of cooperation is morally better and which is more effective, as both donors have interests in PALOP countries beyond development assistance. It finds complementarities in the two countries’ aid allocation to PALOP states, such as poverty eradication given the sectoral diversity of Chinese aid, and the empowerment of local communities fostered by Japanese aid’s emphasis on grassroots and human-security projects.

  17. Kenya's Foreign Policy and Geopolitical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (i) Are Kenya's foreign policy interests vis-a-vis the Nile River question influenced by her internal demand for water? g ... This article examines Kenya's foreign policy interests on the Nile water question and the implications of the ...... Okodi, C. Odidi, 1980, 'Legal and Policy Regime of Lake Victoria and Nile Basins', Indian.

  18. Great Decisions 1988: Foreign Policy Issues Facing the Nation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoepli, Nancy, Ed.

    Eight selected U.S. foreign policy issues are explored in this study and discussion guide. Issue 1, "U.S. Foreign Policy: Projecting U.S. Influence," describes United States involvement in diplomacy, military power, intelligence, trade, and foreign aid since World War II. U.S.-Mexico relations are considered in issue 2, "Mexico and…

  19. Securitization: Conceptualizing Qatari Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Dogan, Betul

    2017-01-01

    The role of security in Qatari foreign policy is one of the central discussions in the literature on the Gulf security. This thesis represents Qatari foreign policy strategies through lenses of the Copenhagen School for security studies, established by seminal publications of Barry Buzan, Ole Waever and Jaap de Wilde. The research highlights the question of how can the dynamics of Qatari foreign policy be evaluated within the context of Copenhagen School's security sectors in seven chapters. ...

  20. Foreign aid, economic globalization, and pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim, S.; Menaldo, V.; Prakash, A.

    This paper explores how trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) condition the effect of foreign aid on environmental protection in aid-recipient countries. We suggest that (1) environmental protection should be viewed as a public good and (2) all else equal, resource flows from abroad (via aid,

  1. Public Opinion and Foreign Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daouda.thiam

    2009-02-26

    Feb 26, 2009 ... Taylor fights to the finish, there will be no peace' (Eze 2003:2). Taylor was removed via an asylum offer by Nigeria. If there is any Nigerian government foreign policy gesture that has in recent times generated considerable public outcry, it is the issue of. Nigerian involvement in Liberia. It is one foreign policy ...

  2. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from relevant literature, Larsen not only demonstrates how this concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor (that are not met by most other international actors) but also shows how this curtails analysis......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse. In this text, Larsen outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida and goes on to examine the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept...... of EU foreign policy. The author goes on to discuss how the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap' affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied; and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR. This volume offers new...

  3. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  4. Biotechnology's foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Carl

    2002-01-01

    From its inception, biotechnology has been a uniquely international enterprise. An American and an Englishman working together elucidated the structure of DNA almost 50 years ago; more recently, the Human Genome Project linked researchers around the world, from the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston to the Beijing Human Genome Center. Today our industry's researchers hail from African villages and Manhattan high rises; from Munich and Melbourne; from London, Ontario, and London, England; from Scotland and Nova Scotia--New Scotland; from Calcutta and Calgary. But in the beginning, the infrastructure that supported these efforts--intellectual property, venture capital, streamlined technology transfer--was less widely dispersed and the world's brightest biotech researchers clustered in only half a dozen scientific Meccas. Previous technological revolutions have spread around the world. Following in their footsteps, biotechnology's global diaspora seems inevitable, especially since governments are promoting it. But as our science and business emigrate from early strongholds in the United States, Canada and Europe across oceans and borders and into new cultures, international tensions over biotechnology continue to grow. In just the last few years, controversies have rolled over R&D spending priorities, genetic patents, bioprospecting, transgenic agriculture and drug pricing. My premise today is that our industry needs to formulate its first foreign policy, one which is cognizant of the miserable judgments and mistakes of other industries--and avoids them.

  5. Information Support of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Melnikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Informatization and modern information technologies cover the most various areas of social, spiritual and material human life and have become the dominating globalization factor with major impact on world events. Modern international relations present new challenges and threats ofcross-border nature, which fall within the area of information security. This brings issues of informational influence on international policy to the fore. In this context the question of improvement and modernization of policy instruments for more effective use of modern means of implementation of foreign policy priorities, including information support of international activities, achieves fundamental importance. Given the complexity of modern international relations and tasks facing foreign affairs departments, diplomatic success in many cases depends onthe efficiency of information support. The article analyses current objectives and methods of information support of foreign policy in the context of modern Russian legislation. The author examines the approach of the Information and Press Department of the Russian Ministryof Foreign Affairs,a subdivision responsible for information support and international cooperation in the media sphere. The article specifies the key role of new information technologies for informing the audience expeditiously and to the full extent in regard to Russian approaches to the solution of international problems, foreign policy initiatives and actions of the Russian Federation, and for counteracting attempts to discredit Russian foreign policy.

  6. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  7. Baseball and American Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Elias

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available While many have observed baseball’s longstanding resonance with U.S. domestic life, our national pastime has also figured prominently in how America has projected itself abroad—in its foreign, military, diplomatic and globalization policies. And vice versa: U.S. foreign policy has affected baseball, as well.For more than two centuries, baseball has shown up in surprising ways as America has emerged in the world, and then built itself into an empire. While baseball was played in America as far...

  8. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  9. Governance and Foreign Aid Allocation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akramov, Kamiljon T

    2006-01-01

    .... Specifically, the study explores how different categories of aid affect economic growth, whether the quality of governance is significant in explaining differences in economic growth, and whether...

  10. What we buy with foreign aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, C T

    1995-02-03

    Some in the US view foreign assistance as some type of wasteful international welfare program. To the contrary, US foreign aid is invaluable investment in both the country's future and that of the world. 43 of the top 50 customers of American agricultural products were, for example, once foreign aid recipients. South Korea imports three times as much in US goods each year as it received in aid during the entire 1960s. Furthermore, President Bill Clinton's recent bypass of Congress to bail Mexico from its economic morass serves both US and Mexican interests. Helping to help the economy of Mexico afloat protected 750,000 US jobs which come from trade with Mexico as well as billions of dollars of investments by middle-class Americans in Mexico and Latin America. It is unfortunate that the Republican-controlled Congress fails to understand that the continuation of US foreign aid serves US interests while at the same time helping other less fortunate populations. It is clear that US aid over the decades has made an enormous positive impact upon the health and welfare of populations in developing countries worldwide, especially in the area of population assistance. Congressional leaders are considering cutting US foreign aid to developing countries by 10-20%, but that won't save much money. The US in 1994 spent $12.3 billion on foreign assistance, less than 1% of the federal budget and the lowest amount in the history of the aid program. About half of that was in military assistance, which would not be cut.

  11. The Return to Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    We estimate the average rate of return on investments financed by aid and by domestic resource mobilisation, using aggregate data. Both returns are expected to vary across countries and time. Consequently we develop a correlated random coefficients model to estimate the average returns. Across...... different estimators and two different data sources for GDP and investment our findings are remarkably robust; the average gross return on ‘aid investments’ is about 20 per cent. This is in accord with micro estimates of the economic rate of return on aid projects and with aggregate estimates of the rate...

  12. Axis Shift in Turkish foreign policy during AKP administration: New fundamental foreign policy: Principles and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Mehtap

    2011-01-01

    Turkish foreign policy has evolved since 1923. The Second World War, the Cold War and the post-Cold War period externally and separatist and Islamist movements, military interventions and economic instabilities domestically designate Turkish foreign policy until new millennium. Since 2002, with arrival of the AKP, foreign policy decisions had a rapid transformation through new set of foreign policy principles. Ahmet Davutoğlu perceived as most influential person on this new foreign policy lin...

  13. Poder inteligente: a questão do HIV/AIDS na política externa Brasileira Smart power: the issue of HIV/AIDS in Brazilian foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giacomelli da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor discute a faceta internacional da política brasileira sobre HIV/AIDS e sua relação com outras áreas da política externa, como propriedade intelectual e direitos humanos. Para isso, utiliza-se dos conceitos de Joseph Nye Jr. de soft power e hard power. Este reflete a capacidade de um ator fazer com que outros sigam sua posição, mesmo contra a vontade. Aquele consiste na capacidade de um ator atrair outros livremente para sua posição. O ensaio analisa a importância, nas relações internacionais, dos meios de comunicação, das ONGs, da opinião pública e das instituições interestatais, que não somente possuem soft power próprio, mas também desempenham papel relevante no fortalecimento do soft power dos países. O autor avalia a influência desse tipo de poder nas relações entre o Brasil e os Estados Unidos, bem como em foros multilaterais como as Nações Unidas e a Organização Mundial do Comércio. O artigo analisa, igualmente, o papel do hard power nas relações internacionais e avalia por que os países não podem dispensá-lo. Embora o soft power venha de fato tornando-se cada vez mais importante nos últimos anos, a combinação dos dois tipos de poder continua sendo a política mais correta a ser seguida. A política externa brasileira de HIV/AIDS constitui exemplo ilustrativo.The paper discusses the international facet of the Brazilian policy on HIV/AIDS and its connection to other areas of foreign relations, such as intellectual property rights and human rights. In so doing, it takes into account Joseph Nye Jr. concepts of soft and hard power. The latter reflects the capacity of making others follow one's position, albeit against their will. The former consists in the capacity of freely attracting others to one's position. The author analyses the importance of the media, the nongovernmental organizations, the public opinion, and the international institutions in foreign affairs. Not only do they possess soft

  14. Advancing women's status: a foreign policy goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, M

    1997-01-01

    US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright asserted in a March 1997 speech to the State Department that integrating gender issues into foreign policy forwards the interests of the US government. Albright noted that advancing the status of women is necessary to build the kind of future the US wants for the world. This cannot happen unless women have the equal access, rights, and protection necessary to contribute to society to their full potential. Advancing the status of women is crucial for realizing the goals of building peace, expanding the circle of democracy, sustaining a growing global economy, and spreading US-endorsed values. The US is incorporating concerns relating to women into the mainstream of its foreign policy by supporting foreign aid programs that expand the political and economic participation of women, increase access for women to education and health care, and augment the ability of women to protect themselves from violence and disease. This integration process means that the US will be working with other governments as well as with nongovernmental organizations and other agents of progress. This gender perspective will affect every stage from policy-making to program implementation. The US will be seeking an end to the old era of injustice and repression to make way for a new era of opportunity and full participation.

  15. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural an...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  16. Telling Successes of Japanese Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Stakeholders of two success story events negotiated an idea of development as individual entrepreneurship. The sixty-five-year-old Japanese Foreign Aid history includes stories of successes told by professionals from developing countries throughout the world. Their stories reflect the cultural...... sector training programs partly financed by Japanese Official development Assistance (ODA)....

  17. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  18. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  19. The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pace, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    On 13 February 2015, the Middle East Centre at the London School of Economics and Political Science hosted the launch of a special Issue of the journal Mediterranean Politics on The Politics of Foreign Aid in the Arab World: The Impact of the Arab Uprisings. Bringing together academics, NGO...... representatives, journalists, policy makers and students, the event focused on the changing state of aid in the Arab world in the wake of the Arab Uprisings and its significance for the region. With the profound hope that accompanied the democratic revolutions across the Arab world since December 2010...

  20. Peculiarities of Modern Foreign Policy of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V I Yourtaev

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focuses on the analysis of the main peculiarities of modern foreign policy of iranian President M. Ahmadinejad, his constructive interaction concept in foreign policy. The formation of the nuclear gate for entering into world policy and basic problems of Iranian development as a new regional leader in the context of globalization and international relations transformation process are considered.

  1. NGOs, Foreign Aid, and Development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Comfort, Jude

    2016-01-01

    The number of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Nepal has grown significantly since the 1990s due to a range of factors. A total of 39,759 NGOs and 189 international non-governmental organizations were registered in Nepal between 1977 and 2014 in various sectors, including health, agriculture, poverty alleviation, and good governance. Despite thousands of NGOs and significant amounts of foreign aid, Nepal remains one of the poorest countries in South Asia. The case of Nepal indicates that aid and donor support alone are insufficient for sustained development.

  2. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    While the aid policies of these countries have garnered attention, there is, as yet, little understanding of their systems and strategies. This study addresses this gap by updating data on each country's foreign assistance and mapping the institutions involved, the beneficiaries, the sectors they are investing in, and their funding ...

  3. Foreign Language Education Policy on the Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Francis M.

    2018-01-01

    Language policy has developed into a major area of research that continues to expand and develop. This article examines potential directions for cross-pollination between the fields of language policy and foreign language education. First, publication trends are examined. Database searches were conducted for the journals "Foreign Language…

  4. Bridging the Gap: Pracademics in Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Ann Marie; Fulda, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In his seminal work "Bridging the Gap: Theory and Practice in Foreign Policy", Alexander George (1993) lamented the great divide between academia and the foreign policymaking community, arguing that greater interaction between scholars and policymakers would produce better policy. We share George's belief that scholars and practitioners each have…

  5. Policy consistency and the achievement of Nigeria's foreign policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study is an attempt to investigate the policy consistency of Nigeria‟s foreign policy and to understand the basis for this consistency; and also to see whether peacekeeping/peace-enforcement is key instrument in the achievement of Nigeria‟s foreign policy goals. The objective of the study was to examine whether the ...

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Aid Policies for Human Resource Development: United States and Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickert, Sarah; Kuroda, Kazuo

    Official Development Assistance (ODA) is an increasingly important part of foreign aid budgets. Countries that offer foreign aid to other nations do so for many, often contradictory reasons that range from national security and economic self-interest to humanitarian concerns. Every donor state uses ODA as an instrument of its foreign policy. This…

  7. Health in All (Foreign) Policy: challenges in achieving coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2014-06-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is generally perceived as an intersectoral approach to national or sub-national public policy development, such that health outcomes are given full consideration by non-health sectors. Globalization, however, has created numerous 'inherently global health issues' with cross-border causes and consequences, requiring new forms of global governance for health. Although such governance often includes both state and non-state (private, civil society) actors in agenda setting and influence, different actors have differing degrees of power and authority and, ultimately, it is states that ratify intergovernmental covenants or normative declarations that directly or indirectly affect health. This requires public health and health promotion practitioners working within countries to give increased attention to the foreign policies of their national governments. These foreign policies include those governing national security, foreign aid, trade and investment as well as the traditional forms of diplomacy. A new term has been coined to describe how health is coming to be positioned in governments' foreign policies: global health diplomacy. To become adept at this nuanced diplomatic practice requires familiarity with the different policy frames by which health might be inserted into the foreign policy deliberations, and thence intergovernmental/global governance negotiations. This article discusses six such frames (security, trade, development, global public goods, human rights, ethical/moral reasoning) that have been analytically useful in assessing the potential for greater and more health-promoting foreign policy coherence: a 'Health in All (Foreign) Policies' approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Complementarity of Foreign Aid and Domestic Savings as Drivers of Economic Growth: Evidence from WAMZ Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damilola Felix Arawomo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the impact of foreign aid and domestic savings on economic growth in the WAMZ countries, while including control variables: domestic investment, labour force, trade openness, financial liberalization and foreign direct investment. Panel Data Analysis and GMM were compared for the period 1980 and 2012. The paper found that economic growth obviously deteriorates with foreign aid and hence does not complement the role of saving on economic growth of the WAMZ countries. Savings on the other hand was found to be positively significant in increasing economic growth in the sub-region. Labour force and financial liberation (M2 and FDI exhibit economic growth. A policy implication of the result is that the countries in the West African Monetary Zone should be wary in soliciting for foreign aid. If foreign aids become expedient, then it should be channeled to productive ventures.

  9. Can foreign aid donors credibly threaten to suspend aid? Evidence from a cross-national survey of donor officials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swedlund, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    Under what conditions are foreign aid donors willing to suspend foreign aid to punish political transgressions, such as election fraud, corruption scandals or political repression? Prior scholarship has emphasized that political sanctions, including foreign aid suspensions, are constrained by the

  10. Trump's Abortion-Promoting Aid Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    On the fourth day of his presidency, Donald Trump reinstated and greatly expanded the "Mexico City policy," which imposes antiabortion restrictions on U.S. foreign health aid. In general, the policy has prohibited U.S. funding of any family-planning groups that use even non-U.S. funds to perform abortions; prohibited aid recipients from lobbying (again, even with non-U.S. money) for liberalization of abortion laws; prohibited nongovernment organizations from creating educational materials on abortion as a family-planning method; and prohibited health workers from referring patients for legal abortions in any cases other than rape, incest, or to save the life of the mother. The policy's prohibition on giving aid to any organization that performs abortions is aimed at limiting alleged indirect funding of abortions. The argument is that if U.S. money is used to fund nonabortion programs of an abortion-providing NGO, then the NGO can simply shift the money thus saved into its abortion budget. Outside the context of abortion, we do not reason this way. And the policy's remaining three prohibitions are deeply troubling. © 2017 The Hastings Center.

  11. Aid as Obstacle: Twenty Questions about Our Foreign Aid and the Hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappe, Frances Moore; And Others

    Reasons why U.S. foreign aid fails to alleviate hunger and poverty are discussed and a solution to the problem is presented. The United States now channels more foreign aid than ever to the world's poor and hungry through the Agency for International Development, food aid programs, the World Bank, and other multilateral aid agencies, which report…

  12. Reagan's Foreign Policy: An Assessment (I) Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Whittle

    1990-01-01

    Examines the relationship between former U.S. President Ronald Reagan's foreign policy and those of his predecessors. Focuses on the differences between Reagan's policies and those of former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Analyzes Reagan's policies of containment, human rights, and arms control. Discusses criticisms launched against Reagan's…

  13. Omnibalancing in Syria: Prospects for Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bergen, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    ...; who makes decisions irrespective of domestic political considerations in Syria. This thesis challenges that conceptualization by arguing that domestic concerns are the central element in the making of Syrian foreign policy...

  14. Globalization and US Foreign Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Amland, George

    2003-01-01

    .... Globalization is the force that in some instances is assisting US foreign policy. At the same time, other elements of globalization are eroding US desires with respect to Iranian programs in WMD...

  15. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Claud

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  16. Foreign Aid and Its Environmental Implication in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana Sahoo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study empirically investigates the impact of foreign aid on environmental quality in India with the presence of some linkage factors i.e. gross domestic product, trade liberalization, net forest depletion and total value added by the industrial sector. This study is based on the annual time series data covering the period from 1970-71 to 2010-11. By using the OLS technique, the study finds that impact of foreign aid on environment degradation is negative and statistically significant. However, aid helps in reduction of environment pollution in India. It concludes that deforestation, industrialization and economic growth are the major factors which responsible for environment degradation in India. This study suggests that, it is the responsibility of the government to make appropriate plans and programs to maintain a balance between growth challenges and environment challenges. Careful planning and systematic policies should be implemented to ensure that the green growth strategies do not result in a slow growth strategy.

  17. Foreign workers recruiting policies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, T

    1996-01-01

    "This article presents the basic characteristics of the foreign workers recruiting policy in Japan, which consists [of] barring entry to unskilled workers, and confronts it with the actual tolerance for a large number of illegal unskilled workers. After a historical overview of the reasons for the current policy, the article examines elements which reveal that a seclusionist policy is based on mistaken assumptions and reviews policy options to deal with the issue of illegal migration." excerpt

  18. A. Davutoglu's Ideology of Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alim Vidadievich Suleymanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the ideology of turkish foreign policy is analyzed, elaborated and successfully put into practice by the former Minister for Foreign Affairs, and nowadays by prime minister Ahmet Davutoglu. Foreign policy strategy of Davutoglu represents set of the interconnected theoretical (the flexible approach; consistency and systematic approach; new diplomatic style and practical principles directed on increase of a role of the Turkish state on international scene - balance between democracy and safety; “zero of problems with neighbours”; preventive and priority peace diplomacy; multidimensional foreign policy; rhythmical diplomacy. Each of principles possesses certain properties and characteristics which have always been presented as a certain purpose which is necessary for reaching Turkey in the difficult international environment. Undoubtedly, A. Davutoglu's ideology has brought the huge contribution to activization and expansion of foreign policy of Turkey last decade. The merit of Davutoglu consists that it has cardinally changed the approach of the Turkish state to the foreign policy which was based earlier on such postulate - “the best friend of a Turk is a Turk”. However the destructive events which have passed and occurring today as in the Turkish state (terrorism strengthening, instability of political system, and also in region of the Middle East - civil war in Syria, deterioration of relations with Russia, Greece, Syria, Iran and Iraq have called into question a number of positions of the concept of Davutoglu in this connection in article some attention to the critic of its approach is paid also.

  19. Theories and myths of European foreign policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2014-01-01

    Thinking about European foreign policy (EFP) can be frustrated by the uncertainties of terms and definitions, as well as by the exclusive tendencies of foreign policy analysis. The uncertainties over how to interpret EFP are multiplied in a more global era reconfigured by globalising...... and transnational policy processes. This analysis includes the consideration of the foreign policies of EU and non-EU states, as well as the impact of the European integration processes on both members and non-members alike. In a similar vein, the chapter seeks to review the literature on collective European......, multilateralising and multipolarising processes. In order to make greater sense of EFP in a global political-cultural context, this chapter will consider the ways in which political theories and cultural myths co-constitute each other in both symbolic and substantive terms. EFP is understood here to involve...

  20. Indian foreign policy during the cold war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, Cesar

    2010-01-01

    This article examines India's foreign policy priorities during the years of the Cold War with a focus on international relations. As in the rest of the world, the India's foreign policy was marked by the dynamics of continuity and change in world policy, associated with the historical period of the Cold War (1947-90) and its impact on the neighbouring and regional context of India. As its hypothesis this article argues that this period was characterized by the challenges of consolidating the autonomy of independence, which means: achieving development; solving disputes arising from conflicts with neighbours; and, presenting India as a country committed to peace, which explains not only its position against war and the use of nuclear weapons, but also, with respect to one of the most original aspects of Indian foreign policy, its status as a non-aligned country

  1. A fully feminist foreign policy? : A postcolonial feminist analysis of Sweden's Feminist Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nylund, Mia-Lie

    2017-01-01

    This thesis is a postcolonial feminist discourse analysis of Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy. Sweden’s Feminist Foreign Policy is unique to the world, but it is not the only case of incorporating a gender perspective as a central part of national or international politics. Feminism and gender perspectives are increasingly receiving attention and space in global politics. The Swedish case could therefore inform us about where politics are heading. Previous research on the Feminist Foreign Pol...

  2. Foreign aid or foreign investments: Call for a paradigm shift in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign aid or foreign investments: Call for a paradigm shift in mentality and nomenclature. ... Through these investments, lives were saved, many destinies recovered and some obsolete systems ... As long as these funds are seen as aids to developing countries, they will continue to fail to achieve their primary objectives.

  3. FOREIGN POLICY AND ETHNIC IDENTITIES IN CONSTRUCTIVISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jülide KARAKOÇ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethnic identities are becoming more salient in the field of international relations. Thus,it is important to take into account the effectiveness of ethnic identities in foreign policyanalysis. This article claims that Nicholas Onuf’s rule oriented constructivism, one of theconstructivist approaches, offers a useful framework for analyzing the impact of ethnicidentities on foreign policy. It argues that rule oriented constructivism demonstrates better,compared with mainstream constructivism, the ways ethnic identities affect foreign policythrough its epistemological and ontological approach.

  4. Modern Lithuanian foreign policy: the adjustment of traditional policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batorshina Irina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider the core areas of Lithuanian foreign policy. Special attention is paid to the adjustment of the major foreign policy vector, which concentrated earlier on the cooperation with the United States of America and strategic partnership with the Republic of Poland. The article analyses the attempts of Lithuanian president Dalia Grybauskaitė to formulate the so-called «new foreign policy» based on the multivector approach to the intergovernmental cooperation. This research is timely because of an increasing influence of small states on foreign policy decision-making within the European Union. It emphasizes the need to analyse foreign policy priorities of the Baltic States and Central and Eastern European countries and to identify the dominant trends in the international policy in the region in order to forecast further development at European and global levels. This objective is achieved with the help of an integrated approach with elements of interdisciplinary research. Special attention is paid to the comparative-historical approach, which facilitates the analysis of the relations between the Republic of Lithuania and the neighbouring states and its principal partners. Alongside traditional methods of historical research, this work employs such methods as participant observation, content and event analysis, and simultaneous and comparative analysis. The research and practical significance of this work is explained by its emphasis on the need to apply an additional theoretical framework to studies into the foreign policy initiatives of the Republic of Lithuania in the international arena. While earlier they were determined by the value (democratic approach, which was a reflection of American realism, today an increasingly important factor is the personality of the president, who does not always positively influence the changing policy of the country. The results of the research contribute substantially to the understanding of

  5. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behaviour of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. Only countries that tend to vote predominantly with the US in the UN General Assembly are not significantly discouraged from...... servicing their debt by inflows of foreign aid....

  6. Competition for export markets and the allocation of foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumayer, Eric; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We account for competition for export markets among donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. Employing sector-specific aid data, we find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods...... and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and production sectors. By contrast, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  7. An Alternative American Foreign Policy for Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    hyperinflation at any time. Ukraine was considered the most prosperuý,. of the Soviet Republics but the economy since independence has shown no ability to make...POLICY FOR UKRAINE by Randall G. Williams June 1993 Thesis Advisor: Roman Laba Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 93-27112...lProject No ITask No I Work Unit Accession No I I Title (include security classification) AN ALTERNATIVE AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY FOR UKRAINE (UNCLAS) 12

  8. 76 FR 45545 - Foreign Institutions-Federal Student Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Foreign Institutions--Federal Student Aid Programs AGENCY: Office of Postsecondary Education, Department of Education. ACTION: Announcement of submission date for calendar year 2010 U.S. Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) and citizenship data by foreign graduate medical schools...

  9. Identity politics: Exploring Georgian foreign policy behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornely Kakachia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the extent to which Georgia's pro-Western foreign policy orientation stems from ideas and identity rather than from materialist and systemic factors alone. Finding such narrow approaches insufficient for explaining small state behavior, and drawing on liberal and constructivist approaches to international relations theory, the article argues that Georgia's foreign policy orientation has a strong basis in the widespread ideological perception amongst the local political elite that Georgia “belongs” in the West. Based on this theoretical framework, this paper provides a historical overview of Georgia's foreign policy, tracing the evolution of Georgia's identity from seeing itself as “Christian” in contrast to its Islamic neighbors, to identifying as European in contrast to a modern, Russian “other”. As Georgia attempts to construct a collective international identity, the devotion to the idea of Euro-Atlantic integration as a “sacred destiny” amongst the country's elite has significant foreign policy implications. This article overviews the current challenges and dilemmas of self-identification and investigates the roles that national identity and the prevailing “European” identity play in Georgia's quest for “desovietization”.

  10. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contrary to expectation, the parameter estimate of foreign aid has a negative and insignificant relationship with agricultural output in the short and long run. On the contrary, savings and technological trend are significant and have positive relationship with agricultural output both in the short run and long run. A major policy ...

  11. Energy agreements in Italian foreign policy making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puri Purini, A.

    1992-01-01

    The growing complexity of international relations, involving nations with vastly diverse political and socio-economic frameworks, levels of technology, geography, and environmental policies, are necessitating new Italian government policies which favour multilateral as opposed to conventional bilateral cooperation, especially in that which regards energy agreements. This paper makes this point in examining Italy's vulnerable energy supply and demand situation, the current directions being taken in this nation's foreign policies, and in assessing the key political and socio-economic factors now influencing this nation's world competitiveness in light of pending European unification and the opening up, on a wide scale, of Russian markets to Western nations and Japan

  12. Morality under anarchy : neorealism and the foreign aid regime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamminga, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    This article argues that neorealist theory can be properly maintained against a neoidealist critique that stresses the moral impact of the ‘foreign aid regime’. Neoidealists have attacked neorealism, claiming that aid is best explained by considerations of humanity and distributive justice, rather

  13. The Gospel of Foreign Aid: A Theoretical Note | Byusa | Rwanda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Gospel of Foreign Aid: A Theoretical Note. ... Journal Home > Vol 26 (2012) > ... USD 1 trillion in aid packages – including charitable giving – to Africa over the last fifty years, only few countries are registering modestly improved Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth and are making some headway in reducing poverty.

  14. Toward a better union: improving the effectiveness of foreign policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A fundamental characteristic of state-state interaction in a globalized system is the explicitness with which states communicate their foreign policies to each other. In order to understand the role and the importance of foreign policy explicitness in the global foreign policy system, I first created a simple mesh model of the actors and institutions that form the U.S. foreign policy system. By optimizing this model with various system...

  15. Foreign Object in the Eye: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the bone at the base of your eye socket. Another way to flush a foreign object from ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  16. Foreign Policy and Public Opinion: An Assessment of Ijebu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much has been said on the nexus between public opinion and foreign policy. There are those who believe that public opinion is the primary, if not the sole, molder of foreign policy. On the other hand, there are those who hold that the elite, rather than the general public, determine foreign policy. There are also others who ...

  17. Competition for Export Markets and the Allocation of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthel, Fabian; Neumeyer, Erich; Nunnenkamp, Peter

    We account for the competition for export markets among the donor countries of foreign aid by analyzing spatial dependence in aid allocation. We employ sector-specific aid data, distinguishing between first and second stage decisions on the selection of recipient countries and the amount of aid...... allocated to selected recipients. We find that the five largest donors react to aid giving by other donors with whom they compete in terms of exporting goods and services to a specific recipient country at both stages of their allocation of aid for economic infrastructure and productive sectors. By contrast......, evidence for export competition driving aid allocation is lacking for more altruistic donors and for aid in social infrastructure....

  18. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byungwook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Noh, B. C.

    2008-12-01

    This study addresses four arenas to effectively assist national nuclear foreign policies under international nuclear nonproliferation regimes and organizations. Firstly, this study analyzes the trends of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime, and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Secondly, this study analyzes the trends of international nuclear organizations, which include the IAEA as a central body of international nuclear diplomacy and technical cooperation and the OECD/NEA as a intergovernmental organization to consist of nuclear advanced countries. Thirdly, this study predicts the nuclear foreign policy of Obama Administration and reviews U. S.-India nuclear cooperation. Lastly, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and current issues for regulation of nuclear materials.

  19. Perceived value congruence and attitudes toward international relations and foreign policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetherell, Geoffrey; Benson, Or'Shaundra; Reyna, Christine; Brandt, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Much of the justification for granting foreign aid is to support nations and international policies promoting one's national values. However, little to no research has examined how perceptions of similarity between nations, especially value similarity, drive feelings toward other nations and policy

  20. Turkish Foreign Policy towards the Arab Revolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ozkan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were going through significant turbulence. 2010 proved to be a particularly difficult year for Turkey's place in the transatlantic community. The Gaza flotilla crisis in June 2010 - ending with Israeli forces killing eight Turkish citizens - and Turkey's "no" vote to a new round of sanctions against Iran at the United Nations (UN Security Council that same month triggered a heated debate on Turkey's relations with the West, which led popular American columnists such as Tom Friedman to go as far as arguing that Ankara was now joining the "Hamas- Hezbollah-Iran resistance front against Israel." While this was a clear exaggeration, it indicated the scope of debate on the eve of the Arab Spring. Since the Arab Spring, the Western discourse about Turkey has dramatically changed. Instead of asking "who lost Turkey" or complaining about the Islamization of Turkish foreign policy, analysts began discussing whether the new regimes in the Arab world would follow the "Turkish model." This article aims to analyze the Turkish approach to the Middle East and the Arab revolutions, the main determinants of Turkish foreign policy and diplomacy in the Middle East and the debate on "Turkish Model. What has changed, or has not, during and after the Arab Spring?

  1. Are Debt Repayment Incentives Undermined by Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Schröder, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of inflows of foreign aid on the debt repayment behavior of developing countries. The paper first delineates the overall incentives to committing to timely debt repayment in a war of attrition-type model. A set of panel estimates including 93 developing countries...... shows that foreign aid is strongly negatively associated with repayment incentives. The findings pertain to both total debt service and service on publically guaranteed debt. A set of conditional estimates suggest that the main findings generalize to the majority of developing countries...

  2. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  3. Foreign Students and Government Policy: Britain, France, and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Alice

    The impact of European government policy on the movement of foreign students in Great Britain, France, and West Germany is discussed by a member of the American Council on Education Committee on Foreign Students. Foreign student enrollments have increased dramatically in these three countries in the 1960s and 1970s, and foreign students also make…

  4. FOREIGN POLICY OF EUROPEAN UNION: EURASIAN AGENDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksiy KANDYUK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available EU’s influence at so-called post-Soviet space gradually increases and becomes a significant factor of regional policy. Today we can already speak of the European Union as a full participant in the political processes occurring in the post-Soviet and broader – Eurasian area. Foreign policy of EU is evolving under impact of reasons stemming from both structural and political context and from external geopolitical trends. At the same time, challenges in the geopolitical environment in Europe today require the EU to develop new conceptual approaches helping to deal with the problems of relations with its eastern neighbours and the Russian impact. Only the development of a new Eurasian agenda could help to improve European eastern policy, consolidate the position of EU as a geopolitical actor in this region and foster Europeanization and integration of neighbour countries.

  5. Some Current Challenges to Nigeria's Foreign Policy Projections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It raises and analyses some of the challenges confronting Nigeria's foreign policy projection, and examines the possible options that are available to guide Nigeria's foreign policy direction in future, in an attempt to overcome these challenges, bearing in mind Nigeria's goal and aspirations to continue to play a global foreign ...

  6. Political elites and foreign policy : democratization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibisono, Aria Teguh Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    In the investigation, the domestic sources of foreign policy analytical framework were used to analyze the dynamics of elites in foreign policy making. After analyses of the results of mostly personal interviews and historical materials, it was determined that political elites do matter in foreign

  7. Effectiveness Of Foreign Direct Investment Policy In Nigeria (1986 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper dwells on an investigation of the effectiveness of foreign direct investment policy in Nigeria. Employing the ordinary least square regression technique, the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between foreign direct investment policy measures and foreign direct investment was tested. The null hypothesis ...

  8. Health as foreign policy: harnessing globalization for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, David P

    2006-12-01

    This paper explores the importance for health promotion of the rise of public health as a foreign policy issue. Although health promotion encompassed foreign policy as part of 'healthy public policy', mainstream foreign policy neglected public health and health promotion's role in it. Globalization forces health promotion, however, to address directly the relationship between public health and foreign policy. The need for 'health as foreign policy' is apparent from the prominence public health now has in all the basic governance functions served by foreign policy. The Secretary-General's United Nations (UN) reform proposals demonstrate the importance of foreign policy to health promotion as a core component of public health because the proposals embed public health in each element of the Secretary-General's vision for the UN in the 21st century. The emergence of health as foreign policy presents opportunities and risks for health promotion that can be managed by emphasizing that public health constitutes an integrated public good that benefits all governance tasks served by foreign policy. Any effort to harness globalization for public health will have to make health as foreign policy a centerpiece of its ambitions, and this task is now health promotion's burden and opportunity.

  9. Getting to grips with European Union Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, Alasdair

    2003-01-01

    What exactly is European Union foreign policy? For much of the last decade, EU foreign policy has often been regarded as being synonymous with the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) that was set out in the 1993 Maastricht Treaty on European Union. This policy was shaped by three dominant factors: first, the ending of the Cold War; second, the parallel reassessment of European security structures; and third, a realisation that despite the relative successes of European Political Coope...

  10. Avoiding a Hard Brexit in Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Whitman, Richard G.

    2017-01-01

    It cannot be assumed that the United Kingdom and European Union’s current shared foreign-policy interests will be saved from the broader disruption of Brexit.\\ud \\ud The current public image of the Brexit process is of a British government negotiating with itself while simultaneously making little progress in Article 50 talks with the EU. It is perhaps inevitable that disputes over money, borders, citizens and a future trading relationship should overshadow other areas where the EU and UK cou...

  11. Foreign Aid: Are We Increasing Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    1 II. LITERATURE REVIEW .....................................................................................5 III...aid-to-ukraine/2014/03/09/30adfba4-a623-11e3-84d4-e59b1709222c_story.html. 5 Ibid. 5 II. LITERATURE REVIEW To adequately analyze and determine...War successes in regions such as Eurasia and Latin America as archetypal examples of a near-universal ideology and desire for peace, security, and

  12. Morality, Ideology and the Disbursement of Foreign Aid | Adeniji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Especially since the end of the Second World War in 1945, the issue of the disbursement of foreign aid has become a major ingredient of the relationship between the rich nations of the North and the poor countries of the South. This paper has examined the position of various scholars and various schools of thought on the ...

  13. The Gospel of Foreign Aid: A Theoretical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 The foreign aid historical review starts with ancient Hebrew contrary to most academic literature, which considers ancient Greeks as the first civilised people to use their reason to think systematically about the world around them. The author prefers the approach for practical reason: the itinerary from Orient to West via.

  14. Aid Policy and the Macroeconomic Management of Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    , and coordination of donors); and the macroeconomic framework around aid. The studies in the special issue demonstrate the centrality of research methodology, the importance of disaggregation, and the need to account for country-specific situations and problems. This introduction concludes that the sometimes “over......This is an introduction to the UNU-WIDER special issue of World Development on aid policy and the macroeconomic management of aid. We provide an overview of the 10 studies, grouping them under three sub-themes: the aid–growth relationship; the supply-side of aid (including its level, volatility...... heated” debate on aid needs redirecting toward more rigorous analysis, in which the advantages—and disadvantages—of using aid for development can be evaluated in a calmer manner....

  15. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  16. Globalisation, health and foreign policy: emerging linkages and interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John Wyn; Roberts, Olivia

    2005-01-01

    A discussion of the growing links between the issues of globalisation, health and foreign policy. This article examines the effect this has on health, development and foreign policy communities in the UK and internationally and considers what steps the policy community must take to address the challenges and opportunities of this new relationship. PMID:16053520

  17. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    -religious extremists. Such securitization approaches imposed terror and counter terror warfare on peaceful civil society efforts (Kaldor, 2013). In the Horn of Africa, Africans fight each other in proxy wars apparently sponsored by external actors. The approach therefore undermined civic constituents trying to re......This paper discusses foreign aid complexities and understanding the war on terrorism. In the past decade the US strategically integrated foreign aid with the fight against extremism, particularly in war torn regions like the Horn of Africa. In analysing the Somali case the paper contends the 911......-state actors such as warlord militias and religious extremists. Such fragmented conflicting factions- most of them without clear national vision and project- have since received external aid. By instrumentally focusing and dealing with such divisive elements, donor countries aimed and hoped for potentially...

  18. Slovenia’s Foreign Policy Opportunities and Constraints: The Analysis of an Interplay of Foreign Policy Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenko Ana Bojinović

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the interconnectedness of foreign policy environments to explain Slovenia’s opportunities and constraints for foreign policy action. During the period of pre-independence para-diplomacy, the building of an internal and external domestic environment successfully turned constraints (no international recognition into opportunities (applying for membership of European and global intergovernmental organizations. In the second period - post-recognition - considering the absence of a strategic foreign policy document, the Slovenian internal foreign policy environment became a major constraint to seize foreign environment opportunities. This affected Slovenia’s accomplishments, notably after NATO and EU memberships were achieved in 2004. Although the Slovenian internal environment matured during the following period to adopt, in 2015, a comprehensive foreign policy strategy the recent turn in world politics (especially the European financial and economic crisis and the migration crisis created for the first time a foreign environment for Slovenia that offered many fewer opportunities and far more constraints.

  19. In Search of Soft Power: Does Foreign Public Opinion Matter for U.S. Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Goldsmith; Yusaku Horiuchi

    2011-01-01

    Does 'soft power' matter in international relations? Specifically, when the U.S. seeks cooperation from countries around the world, do the views of their publics about U.S. foreign policy affect the actual foreign policy behavior of these countries? We examine this question using multinational surveys covering 58 countries, combined with information about their foreign policy decisions in 2003, a critical year for the U.S. We draw our basic conceptual framework from Joseph Nye, who uses vario...

  20. SURVEY OF PERSONNEL POLICIES IN RELATION TO FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WELLEMEYER, JOHN F.

    THE PRINCIPLE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT AGENCIES THAT OPERATE IN FIELDS REQUIRING FOREIGN LANGUAGE COMPETENCIES, THE U.S. MILITARY SERVICES AND SOME PRIVATE ORGANIZATIONS, WERE SURVEYED TO DETERMINE THEIR OPERATING POLICIES THAT RELATE TO PERSONNEL WITH FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS. THE AGENCIES THAT HAVE THE GREATEST NEED FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE SKILLS…

  1. Overview of nuclear export policies of major foreign supplier nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The United States faces increased competition from foreign nuclear suppliers, including West Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Canada, and possibly, in the near future, Japan. This general overview shows the differences and similarities in foreign nuclear supplier export requirements. It is based on summaries furnished by the Department of State covering the nuclear export policies and procedures of the major foreign supplier nations

  2. The effect of foreign aid on corruption: A quantile regression approach

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Keisuke; Samreth, Sovannroeun

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of foreign aid on corruption using a quantile regression method. Our estimation results illustrate that foreign aid generally lessens corruption and, in particular, its reduction effect is larger in countries with low levels of corruption. In addition, considering foreign aid by donors, our analysis indicates that while multilateral aid has a larger reduction impact on corruption, bilateral aid from the world’s leading donors, such as France, the United King...

  3. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S

    2007-12-15

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society.

  4. A Study on the Nuclear Foreign Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Oh, K. B.; Yang, M. H.; Lee, K. S.

    2007-12-01

    This study approaches the international trends related to nuclear non-proliferation in four aspects. First, this study analyzes the trend of the international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which includes the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), the international nuclear export control regime and proposals for assurance of nuclear fuel supply. Second, this study analyzes the trend of international nuclear organizations, which includes the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), a central body of development of nuclear technology and international nuclear diplomacy, and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development/Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA), a intergovernmental organization to consist of a group of nuclear advanced countries. Third, this study analyzes the trends of the U.S.'s nuclear foreign policies, particularly nuclear non-proliferation. Fourth, this study analyzes the nuclear issues of North Korea and Iran as they cause serious concerns to a international society

  5. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  6. Global health in foreign policy--and foreign policy in health? Evidence from the BRICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Nicola F; Gomez, Eduardo J; McKee, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Amidst the growing literature on global health, much has been written recently about the Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa (BRICS) countries and their involvement and potential impact in global health, particularly in relation to development assistance. Rather less has been said about countries' motivations for involvement in global health negotiations, and there is a notable absence of evidence when their motivations are speculated on. This article uses an existing framework linking engagement in global health to foreign policy to explore differing levels of engagement by BRICS countries in the global health arena, with a particular focus on access to medicines. It concludes that countries' differing and complex motivations reinforce the need for realistic, pragmatic approaches to global health debates and their analysis. It also underlines that these analyses should be informed by analysis from other areas of foreign policy. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  7. Challenges of Nigeria's foreign policy | Enuka | AFRREV IJAH: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's foreign policy like those of every other elsewhere, is hoped to achieve for the benefit of Nigeria and Nigerians, the aspired goals and articulated interests of the Nigerian state. This expectation, by the judgment of many informed Nigerians, is yet to be fully realized. Nigeria's foreign policy inter alia, has failed to work ...

  8. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  9. Foreign Policy and Public-Private Partnership for Economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines foreign policy and public-private partnership for economic development in Nigeria. It proceeds from the assumption that foreign policy goes beyond spontaneous reaction to international issues and events, but an extrapolative and empirical attempt at achieving a state's short and long term goals ...

  10. Personality Traits and Foreign Policy Attitudes in German Public Opinion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoen, Harald

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the effects of personality traits on attitudes toward foreign policy issues among the German public. Building on previous research, it argues that personality characteristics shape an individual's motivation, goals, and values, thereby providing criteria to evaluate external stimuli and affecting foreign policy opinions. An…

  11. Human Rights and Foreign Policy: A Lesson Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiman, David

    1999-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan for grades 9 through 12 that examines the making of foreign policy based on human-rights concerns. Helps students to understand the complexities of international relations and to clarify the beliefs and values about the appropriate role of human rights when making foreign policy. Provides two handouts. (CMK)

  12. The root of Iranian foreign policy/Todd P. Macler.

    OpenAIRE

    Macler, Todd P.

    1999-01-01

    Iranian foreign policy, like any state's foreign policy, is the product of various pressures originating in domestic, international, cultural, historical, institutional, and even individual factors. However, the greatest amount of understanding and potential for prediction can be obtained using the historical institutional method, focusing on Iran's history of foreign domination, the role of Twelve Shia Islam, and the particular institutions of the Islamic Republic. These three factors both d...

  13. FOREIGN POLICY ON THE SLOPES OF CAUCASUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila IAKOB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The past years showed to the world and to the European Union that classical approaches are not enough to be a power breaker in the Caucasian region, where the overlap of history, myth, and cultures creates a unique geopolitical context marked by century old grudges and imaginary or real socio-economical issues. It is clear that concepts like “ring of friends” or Eastern Partnership need a rebranding and an upgrade due to contemporary context changes. Russian expansion, Turkish political shifts, Ukrainian crisis, Iranian ambitions, Kurd issues, energy policies and socio-economical convulsions are defining the new shape of the geographical areas on both side of the Caucasus Mountain. In this context the European leadership needs to rethink the foreign policy approach to the region and to create a new set of actions in this context. This difficult task is needed not only from the perspective of Europe’s energetic security but from the point of regional stability, because Europe and its global development depend on its involvement in the neighboring regions. From this perspective our paper would like to analyze and create a realistic image on the dynamic of the relations of EU with the countries in this region and the perspectives in the contemporary context where the overlapping geopolitical interests are making this region a key one for several future issues.

  14. Foreign Aid to Nigeria and Domestic Obstacles: A Review of Anambra State Education Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E.O Chukwuemeka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of foreign aid on the development of different sectors of the Nigerian economy. Particular emphasis was laid on the educational sector of Anambra State. Survey research method was adopted. Data collected were analyzed using Chi-square parametric statistics. Many factors were found to militate against the effectiveness of foreign aid in achieving development. Among the factors were corruption, poor policies and institutional framework as well as poor utilization of development fund. Based on the findings, recommendations were made. These include the need for the establishment of a sound institutional framework and infrastructural facilities; also there is the need for a reform of the educational sector of Anambra state as well as all sectors of the Nigerian economy.

  15. Foreign aid, governance quality, and economic growth in developing countries : foreign aid and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Biboh, Nkoumboh Henrietta

    2007-01-01

    Most poor developing countries, especially those with limited natural resources, low savings and investment levels, natural disaster stricken, need help from the affluent nations in order to meet some of their development objectives. Still, some that are rich in natural resources equally depend on some form of aid. Though most growth theories stress on investment as an important step to steady economic growth, they are mostly silent on the importance of aid as a component of in vestment and...

  16. Rising Value of Turkish Foreign Policy: Cultural Diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fırat Purtaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available “The 21st century is a period in which Turkey is going through deep changes not only in domestic policies, economic and social issues but also in foreign policies and diplomacy. The opening-up of Turkish people to the world in the 1990ies paved the way to their interaction with other countries which, in turn, played a major role in the transformation of the country. In this period, the parallel diplomacy practiced on a one-to-one basis by Turkish educational institutions, local governments and various NGOs through activities ranging from cultural events to humanitarian aid, has been the invisible power of Turkish foreign policy. As a country which has a universal narrative story of its own to tell the world, Turkey’s way to expressing itself in a correct and efficient way, goes through the development of individual rights and freedoms, the granting of a sense of belonging to its citizens which they will be proud of as well as the support of cultural diplomacy carried out by NGOs. Thus, a strategy to be developed by leading NGOs which are the main actors of cultural diplomacy, and providing them the resources they need, will not only strengthen the democratic structure of the country. Above all, through such a strategy, Turkey’s soft power which plays a leading role in the practice of cultural diplomacy on a global scale will become all the more so efficient and perceptible. Taking into consideration the changes currently occurring in the world, this article dealing with cultural diplomacy aims at shedding a light on the evolution which Turkish diplomacy is going through in terms of its enforcing institutions and practice.

  17. Regional changes in the distribution of foreign aid: An entropy approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salois, Matthew J.

    2013-07-01

    Foreign aid contributes significantly to the income levels and economic viability of many developing countries. This paper investigates the dispersion in the distribution of foreign aid using the Theil entropy measure of inequality. Results show that the inequality (dispersion) of foreign aid has increased substantially in recent years. The increased inequality in the total distribution of aid has been due to both increases in the regional inequality of aid and increases in the average inequality of aid within each region. As a result, the distribution of aid is becoming less alike between regions and between countries within regions.

  18. Foreign policy preaching and domestic practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    To most Americans who reflect on the matter, the further spread of nuclear weapons around the world is a profoundly disturbing prospect. Of those concerned with the foreign policy of the United States, many view the task of preventing nuclear weapons proliferation as transcending the national interest - even seeing it as a moral imperative. Though individual policymakers may be driven to act by an abhorrence of nuclear weapons and the possibility that they will be used, the United States as a nation can stake no claim to moral leadership in the struggle to prevent their spread. It pursues the goal of nonproliferation in parallel with its pursuit of a more effective national nuclear armament. Its government deplores the spread of nuclear weapons overseas while simultaneously stressing the military and political value of specific weapon systems for its own purposes. Its authority and influence in mitigating the risks of proliferation thus derive entirely from its standing as a global economic and military superpower. Its instruments are the tools of power, untempered by moral suasion: denial of technology; offers of economic cooperation, with political conditions attached; guarantees of security, often backed by its own nuclear forces. Inevitably, therefore, US nonproliferation efforts are seen overseas to bear the stamp of Realpolitik, as being intended first and foremost to serve American national interests, whatever the individual motivations of those responsible for them

  19. OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION POLICY AND CHILD FOREIGN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foreign language education, particularly in French, has taken root in Kenyan education institutions namely in secondary schools, universities, language schools and in other tertiary institutions. The subject has also, as it is, penetrated the learning system in primary schools in Kenya. However, learning of foreign languages ...

  20. India's Foreign Policy: Big Shift or Pragmatic Makeover?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Akanksha; Narain, Akanksha

    2015-01-01

    In light of recent events, especially President Obama’s visit to India and Indian Foreign Minister Sushma Swaraj’s visit to China, India’s foreign policy appears to have undergone a transformative shift since the heyday of Non-Alignment. Is this indeed the case?

  1. Strategic imperative formation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Borysenko

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Deep rethinking and thorough elaboration require a general plan for the development of the state management in the sphere of foreign economic processes - strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy of Ukraine. Formed in conditions of political and economic crisis, it is not aimed at providing qualitative change - innovation development, enhance national business investment, measuring asymmetry foreign trade balance, optimize the structure of imports, increasing competitiveness of Ukrainian goods and so on. Significant changes need in government regulation mechanisms of transformation processes, their system updates, meaningful transition to a model of a market transformations, which combined with effective self-governance. The purpose of the article is to explore the strategic principles of foreign economic policy formation, identifying directions Ukraine’s foreign economic strategy formation and ways to improve its effectiveness. Today in Ukraine needs logically consistent application of the basic model of strategy formation and implementation of foreign economic policy: strategy of protectionism, strategy of competitiveness and foreign economic trade integration strategy. The scale and fragmentation tasks are preventing their full implementation. For a targeted and effective state influence on the economy suggest to build a strategy of foreign economic policy on the principles of consistency, integrity, comprehensiveness, subordination, continuity, dynamism, system-creating relations.

  2. Militarism and American Foreign Policy: A Matter of Balance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fila, Brian D

    2000-01-01

    How could any serious student at the National War College assert that militarism is on the rise in American foreign policy in today's political environment characterized by military overutilization...

  3. Faultlines, Synergies and Frontiers of India’s Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    Paper and presentation for the International workshop “The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India: Exploring Culture and Ethnic Sensitivities”. Jadavpur University, Kolkata in Collaboration with Political Science Department, Aalborg University and Nordic Institute for Asian...

  4. Rethinking the National Interest: Putin's Turn in Russian Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medvedev, Sergei

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines the historical and political roots behind a transformation in Russian foreign policy undertaken by President Vladimir Putin in the wake of the terrorist acts of September 11, 2001...

  5. Un-National Normative Justification for European Union Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between descript......The European Union's foreign policy has traditionally been described in terms of national, supranational or transnational interests rather than being justified in terms of normative political theory. As European Commissioner Bonino declared over a decade ago, such differentiation between...

  6. Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America - Case Study Of Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-23

    RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America — Case Study Of Nicaragua 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...open arctic channel in the North and in reviving diplomatic contacts and military exercises in Latin America. In Central America specifically, Russia

  7. Current Trends in Foreign Trade Theory and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław W. Puślecki

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research work, Author focus on the current analysis trends in foreign trade theory and policy. Accordance with the foreign trade policy theory further trade liberalisation and improved framework policies would increase trade and promote growth. It must be emphasized that openness to trade is associated with higher incomes and growth and there is the need for new approaches to trade cooperation in light of the forces that are currently re-shaping international business. What indicates the importance and innovativeness of the research is the presentation of the new models of the foreign trade policy and trade interests. First of all, it must underline that in the new theoretical terms in demand for trade policy very important is factor specificity. The low specificity of factors means that factor returns are equalized throughout a region’s economy. On the other hand, some factors are stuck in their present uses; therefore, factor returns are not equalized throughout a region’s economy but are industry specific. The main objective of the research task is to give a comprehensive analysis of current trends in foreign trade theory and policy and in particular models of foreign trade policy, trade interests indicated by export orientation and import sensitivity, foreign trade policy in different types of authoritarian regimes, protectionist pressures in different political system, the level of protectionist pressures, the tendencies to bilateralism in the foreign trade policy. It should be stressed that free trade in itself is not responsible for economic growth, but more significant are the determining macroeconomic stability and increasing investment.

  8. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labonté Ronald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are

  9. Framing health and foreign policy: lessons for global health diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Gagnon, Michelle L

    2010-08-22

    Global health financing has increased dramatically in recent years, indicative of a rise in health as a foreign policy issue. Several governments have issued specific foreign policy statements on global health and a new term, global health diplomacy, has been coined to describe the processes by which state and non-state actors engage to position health issues more prominently in foreign policy decision-making. Their ability to do so is important to advancing international cooperation in health. In this paper we review the arguments for health in foreign policy that inform global health diplomacy. These are organized into six policy frames: security, development, global public goods, trade, human rights and ethical/moral reasoning. Each of these frames has implications for how global health as a foreign policy issue is conceptualized. Differing arguments within and between these policy frames, while overlapping, can also be contradictory. This raises an important question about which arguments prevail in actual state decision-making. This question is addressed through an analysis of policy or policy-related documents and academic literature pertinent to each policy framing with some assessment of policy practice. The reference point for this analysis is the explicit goal of improving global health equity. This goal has increasing national traction within national public health discourse and decision-making and, through the Millennium Development Goals and other multilateral reports and declarations, is entering global health policy discussion. Initial findings support conventional international relations theory that most states, even when committed to health as a foreign policy goal, still make decisions primarily on the basis of the 'high politics' of national security and economic material interests. Development, human rights and ethical/moral arguments for global health assistance, the traditional 'low politics' of foreign policy, are present in discourse but do

  10. Understanding Iranian Foreign Policy - The Case of Iranian Nuclear Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emir Hadzikadunic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the Iranian foreign policy through the case of Iranian nuclear program. The paper aims to assess foreign policy orientations and compares actions of the last three Iranian presidents, Mohammad Khatami, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad and current Hassan Rouhani in dealing with the international community (IC in pursuing its nuclear program. This assessment would not be complete without reference to the Iranian supreme leader Ali Khamenei who is actual head of the state and the most powerful political authority. This paper also relates Iranian foreign policy expectation to competing theories of international relations to identify the most dominant or the most consistent policy orientation. Its aim is to strengthen realist and power-based explanations that have dominated the discourse on Middle Eastern in general and Iranian foreign policy in particular. In this context, a number of questions will be addressed here. To what extend was Iranian negotiation with the IC over its nuclear program consistent throughout these three presidencies? What has changed, if anything, from Iranian foreign policy perspective and why? Can Iranian foreign policy behavior on this specific topic and in this specific time be explained through any international relations theory? As there are many other questions, so there are many theories to examine and explain true Iranian intentions, those below the surface of declared goals (Hadzikadunic, 2014. The methods employed in answering these questions are largely structured around a chronological account and comparative approach. It is also based on the analysis of foreign policy discourse and the assessment of key decision makers.

  11. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  12. The EU foreign policy toward the North Korea: its effects and limitation

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Seong Jung

    2012-01-01

    Jang, Seong Jung EU has been engaged in North Korean affairs since it started humanitarian aid in 1990s. EU has developed institutional grounds for the diplomatic relation and it has implemented foreign policy towards North Korea in the context of Asia strategy. Its approach to North Korea is connected with Neo-liberal thinking. It stressed the international cooperation to resolve the nuclear problem, and utilized political dialogues and international institution to improve the poor human rig...

  13. IRANIAN FOREIGN POLICY AFTER THE NUCLEAR DEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-16

    Iran’s strategic thinking through boosting nationalism and consolidated the feeling of isolation as well as a sensation of being vulnerable to...unpleasant memories of foreign governance have influenced the feeling of the need to preserve their independence. Having said that, although, the

  14. 75 FR 42189 - Foreign Institutions-Federal Student Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ..., foreign veterinary schools, foreign nursing schools and certification of foreign institutions, Brian Smith... (alternate), representing the International University of Nursing and the University of Medicine and Health.../negreg-summerfall.html . Summary of Proposed Changes These proposed regulations would implement...

  15. The Iranian Foreign Language Practitioners‟ Perspectives about Iran‟s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Rashidi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to identify the perceptions of the Iranian foreign language practitioners about Iran‟s foreign language education policy within a systemic functional linguistics approach. To this end, 8 Iranian male and female foreign language practitioners were interviewed and asked to talk about what they thought about Iran‟s foreign language policy. The findings obtained from analysing the process types and participants employed by the Iranian foreign language practitioners within a systemic functional linguistics approach point out that the FLEP document is heavily influenced by and draws on well entrenched ideological, historical, religious, economic, and political discourses. Further investigations within a systemic functional linguistics approach indicate that the Iranian teachers believed that while English is a tool for understanding cultural exchanges and transferring technological advances, achieving these goals through the teaching of English is sometimes problematic within an absolute Islamic framework. The findings obtained from a transitivity analysis for the Iranian foreign language practitioners by subjecting their responses to the questions on the interviews to a systemic functional linguistics approach are also indicative of the Iranian foreign language teachers‟ loyalty to the “the younger, the better” belief. Likewise, course content was a topic for controversy. Some of the practitioners believed that course content should be developed around a variety of topics. Whereas others asserted that the inclusion of different topics in the foreign language education policy document may increase the workload on the part of the teachers. Other issues such as culture, the Islamic ideology, and imperialism were identified as causes of different understandings among the Iranian foreign language practitioners as well.

  16. HIV and AIDS workplace interventions; Gaps between policy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction This study set out to identify gaps between policy and practice of HIV and AIDS workplace interventions in the University of Malawi, in particular College of Medicine in line with the UNIMA HIV and AIDS policy. Objectives The main objective was to establish whether the HIV and AIDS workplace interventions at ...

  17. U.S. Foreign Policy Interests towards the Kurds

    OpenAIRE

    Svecova, Renata; Scharmann, Eva Catharina Julia; Visholm, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project is to identify the underlying interests of U.S. foreign policy towards the Kurds over time and how they have influenced the Kurdish position in the Middle East. Furthermore, it shall be investigated how these interests have possibly shifted over time. In order to examine and explain U.S. foreign policy interests, the theoretical framework is mainly based on offensive and defensive realism theories - following the ideas of John J. Mearsheimer and Kenneth Waltz. On the b...

  18. Reforming Japan’s Foreign Exchange Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Masanaga Kumakura

    2012-01-01

    Among major advanced countries Japan stands out with its large-scale, one-sided exchange market interventions and enormous foreign exchange reserves. While the country’s exchange market activism is often attributed to its obsession with export-led growth, there are institutional reasons why such a policy remains unchecked. This paper discusses the problems of Japan’s Foreign Exchange Fund Special Account, their relationship with its exchange rate policy, and their implication for the inte...

  19. United States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-04-08

    more industry, energy, housing , services, and just about everything. l"Consider Australia ," The Economist, 30 May 1964, p. 967. 16 The availability of...BENEFIT TO THE USER AS MAY ACCRUE. 8 April 1966 UNITED STATES FOREIGN POLICY TOWARD AUSTRALIA IN THE NEXT DECADE By 2) i:ob i . 1RMY WAR COLI.IGF LOUIS J...States Foreign Policy Toward Australia in the Next Decade by Lt Col Louis J. Schelter, Jr. Infantry US Army War College Carlisle Barracks

  20. A Non-Conventional IR Approach to India's Foreign Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    that an alternative Critical IPE approach (CPE) contributes to a more nuanced understanding of India's foreign policy. In generic terms, shifting governments have a variety of options both in defining and refining what 'national interest' means, how security and threats are perceived, and which factors shape geo...... structure. The aim then is to explore the boundaries of the state in its current conjunctures, its historical dynamic and the process of social change. In this way, the paper seeks an understanding of the underlying and prevailing tensions between geo-politics and geo-economics in foreign policy...

  1. US foreign policy towards West Africa after September 11 attacks

    OpenAIRE

    Akinwande, FO

    2014-01-01

    The United States foreign policy towards West Africa experienced a significant shift after the terrorist attacks of US strategic institutions in September 11, 2001. This was marked by the securitization of US foreign policy beyond the military-security context of security into other aspects of US security strategy after the Cold War. In that context, political, economic and environmental sectors became part of US security agenda, as reflected in the post-9/11 US\\ud War on Terror in global reg...

  2. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2017-01-01

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and be determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there i...... and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and relate to India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and concluding remarks....

  3. The effects of nationality differences and work stressors on work adjustment for foreign nurse aides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Hsieh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to discuss the nationality differences of foreign nurse aides and the effect of work stressors influencing work adjustment. And of helping them adapt to Taiwanese society, we summarized the difficulties that foreign nurse aides face in Taiwan. Methods The subjects included 80 foreign nurse aides from the Philippines, Indonesia, and Vietnam who worked in long-term care facilities in Tao Yuan County. We recruited volunteers at the participating facilities to complete the anonymous questionnaires. The return rate of the questionnaire was 88.75%. The validated instruments of Hershenson's (1981 and Schaefer and Moos (1993 were adopted to measure work stressors and work adjustment, respectively. A forward-backward translation process was used in this study. Results Indonesian foreign nurse aides respect their work, and are better workers than Vietnamese and Filipino nurse aids in many respects, which shows how the nationality of the foreign nurse aides might affect work adjustment. The stress created from patient care tasks influenced the foreign nurse aides' personal relationships at work and also affected their attitude when they performed their tasks. In addition, pressure from their supervisors might have affected their work skills, work habits, personal relationships, self-concepts or work attitudes. Moreover, a heavy workload and improper scheduling might have affected the personal relationships and work attitudes of the foreign nurse aides. It was found that work stressors had a significant correlation with work adjustment. Conclusions The results of the present study indicate that training programs are important factors for work adjustment among foreign nurse aides. Furthermore, celebration and leisure activities could be provided to release them from work stressors. More effort should be put into improving the working environment, namely providing a more supportive and enriching

  4. Aiding violence or peace? The impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict in sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ree, de J.; Nillesen, E.E.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid flows on the risk of civil conflict. We improve on earlier studies on this topic by addressing the problem of the endogenous aid allocation using GDP levels of donor countries as instruments. A more structural addition to the literature is that we

  5. Aiding Violence or Peace? The Impact of Foreign Aid on the Risk of Civil Conflict in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ree, J.; Nillesen, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of foreign aid on the risk of civil conflict. Previous studies on this topic have not properly addressed the problem of endogeneity between aid and conflict as well as the distorting influences of country specific time invariant effects. We propose GDP levels of donor

  6. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT)

  7. Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Foreign Assistance Policies of India and China. International development assistance has traditionally been dominated by former colonial powers and wealthy industrialized nations. But today, emerging economies are beginning to make their mark: these new, emerging donors are an increasingly important source of ...

  8. Foreign migrant workers in Japan: trends and policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, H

    1995-01-01

    "This research note presents data on trends in foreign workers in Japan, and reviews recent policy changes relating to these workers. Trends from 1973-1993 are reviewed and data for recent years include disaggregation by country of origin, residence within Japan, status of residence, illegal workers, and gender." excerpt

  9. Culture and foreign policy: An introduction to approaches and theory

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Frode

    1993-01-01

    Culture is increasingly acknowledged to matter in foreign policy, but is rarely studied or used as an explanatory factor in the field. Frode Liland claims that the reason for this is that culture is seen as a dangerous subject where the researchers easily get lost. To ease the trouble he gives an introduction to relevant literature on the field.

  10. 'Gulliver's Troubles: Nigeria's Foreign Policy after the Cold War'

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This elegant book covers an expansive thematic mosaic. Its sixteen chapters provide incisive analytical coverage, conceptual insights and empirical richness, pointing to the factors and imperatives which have shaped Nigeria's foreign policy since the end of the Cold War. That it succeeds so admirably is a tribute to the ...

  11. History: An Analysis of the Former Soviet Union Foreign Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper attempts an appraisal of the FSU's foreign policy using Russia and Ukraine as case studies. The international context which Russia and Ukraine have confronted in view of the gravity of change, combined with the unique circumstances of their emergence through a process of the soviet state collapse, has ...

  12. Morality and Foreign Policy. A Symposium on President Carter's Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Ernest W., Ed.

    This monograph contains a critical examination of President Carter's view on ethics and foreign policy as expressed in his commencement speech at Notre Dame University on May 22, 1977. The book is organized into three parts. Part 1 contains Mr. Carter's speech entitled, "Power for Humane Purposes." Part 2 contains nine responses to the…

  13. The Bush Doctrine: The Foreign Policy of Republican Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    George W. Bush’s quixotic effort to impose democracy on the Middle East, the United States has normally adhered to the principles of foreign policy...Walker Howe, What Hath God Wrought: The Transformation of America, 1815- 1848 (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), pp. 111-116. 39 Adams to Don

  14. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    indicating how foreign aid and democracy can be associated with a more, not less, skewed income distribution. By using data on income quintiles derived from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, the results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated...... with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries....

  15. Ukraine's foreign policy after the orange Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Tolstov, Sergey

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, Ukraine balanced between the world's main centers of power in an effort to preserve its officially declared European and Euroatlantic course along with a high level of mutually advantageous economic cooperation with Russia and other CIS members. This policy meandered along with the changing conditions and the nature of bilateral relations with the country's key partners-America, Russia, the EU, and NATO. Nuclear disarmament and curbed hyperinflation (1994) helped Ukraine...

  16. A look at the European domestic and foreign energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesourne, J.

    2008-01-01

    After having defined the main characteristics of energy considered as a good (a private good, a product of first necessity, a redistributed product, a strategic good), the author presents the actors of the European energy policy: European authorities, member state governments, firms (operators and big consumers), and households. He presents the European domestic energy policy which comprises three main themes: the creation of a domestic market, the taking of government commitments for 2020 into account, and the emission trading scheme. He identifies and comments the three main objectives of the European foreign energy policy: supply security, struggle against climate change, and support to the less developed countries

  17. Challenges : adopting GIS for diplomacy and foreign policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Carol

    Foreign policy and diplomacy are, by definition, location specific. GIS-related tools can be useful to decision makers and problem solvers to merge diverse data that impinges on policy issues. While to a degree, such technologies have been adopted for natural disaster response, security, and environmental studies, widespread adoption of GIS into policy tasks has been slow. Decision makers and nonexperts are reluctant to assimilate new tools into old cultures because of a number of hurdles. Yet clearly, information sharing would be advantageous and allow visualization of information and situations in a more productive environment. This presentation will touch upon some of the challenges and stimulate discussion.

  18. A study on the nuclear foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Ko, H. S.

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze and foresee the international trends related to nuclear activities, especially nuclear non-proliferation activities among others, and to suggest desirable policy direction so as to mitigate hurdles that may hinder the expansion of utilization and development of nuclear energy in Korea. This study approaches the trends of international nuclear arena in five aspects as follows. First, this study analyzes the trends of the global multilateral nuclear non-proliferation regime in Chapter II, which includes the NPT, the IAEA safeguards system, the international export control regime, the CTBT, and the treaties on nuclear weapon-free zone. Second, this study analyzes the trends of various international nuclear organizations in Chapter III, which include IAEA, OECD/NEA, and CTBTO. Third, this study reviews and analyzes regional situations in the northeast Asia surrounding Korea in Chapter IV, inter alia, pending concerns over the North Korean nuclear activities and proposed Northeast Asian nuclear cooperatively bodies such as ASIATOM, etc. Fourth, in Chapter V, this study analyzes issues concerning bilateral nuclear relationship. Especially this study analyzes nuclear cooperating agreements in general, and suggests a model agreement for the government to use when negotiating nuclear cooperation agreements with other countries. Furthermore, this study analyzes the trends of bilateral cooperation with the U.S., Canada, and Australia focusing on the standing bilateral nuclear committees. Fifth, Chapter VI especially deals with the framework of the U. S.'s nuclear non-proliferation policy, focusing on the issues such as the disposition of weapons-usable excess plutonium and the nuclear cooperation with China. (author). 44 refs., 15 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Foreign aid and poverty reduction in sub-Saharan Africa: A cross-country investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GT Ijaiya

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the rate of poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa can be linked to the inadequate management and use of international financial assistance such as foreign aid. Using a cross-country data, this paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and poverty reduction in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA. The result obtained indicates that foreign aid has no significant influence on poverty reduction in SSA, because of the countries’ weak economic management evidenced by high levels of corruption, bad governance, and political and economic instability. To improve the performance of foreign aid directed at poverty reduction, the paper suggests the implementation of measures directed at good governance, macroeconomic and political stability.Incentives in Nigeria’s food manufacturing industries and their impact on output and prices

  20. U.S. Foreign Aid to East and South Asia: Selected Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-27

    to manage regional and country-specific aid primarily in mainland Southeast Asia , administers the following programs: Vulnerable Populations ...unspecified account. Burma has significant foreign aid needs. It has the largest population of displaced persons in East Asia and one of the world’s...East and South Asia : Selected Recipients Updated August 27, 2006 Thomas Lum Specialist in Asian Affairs Foreign Affairs, Defense, and Trade Division

  1. Why study EU foreign policy at all? A response to Keuleers, Fonck, and Keukeleire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Hylke; Vanhoonacker - Kormoss, Sophie

    In an important article on the state of EU foreign policy research, Keuleers, Fonck and Keukeleire show that academics prefer the study of the EU foreign policy system and EU implementation over the consequences of EU foreign policy for recipient countries. While the article is empirical, based on a

  2. 75 FR 67386 - Policy for Banning of Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Foreign Vessels From Entry into United States Ports AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of policy. SUMMARY: The U.S. Coast Guard announces release of policy letter 10-03, Banning of Foreign Vessels. This policy letter outlines U.S. Coast Guard procedures for denying entry of certain foreign flagged...

  3. INDIA: THE PERMANENT AGENDA OF ITS FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CÉSAR ROSS ORELLANA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The article tries to identify and explain the permanent subjects of the international agenda of India, from the perspective of its own intellectuality.  This set of ideas is considered by the Indian elite, as an structural key to understand its place in the world-wide, regional and local context. Also, allows us to understand and to explain the present and the future Indian foreign policy. This is a very interesting point of view, considering the increasing influence of India in the world-wide scene. The hypothesis stated by this article considers that the permanent international agenda of India has been composed by four main variables: foreign policy, geographic, historical and security and defense, those that were integrated as well by a total of 20 general subjects.

  4. Oil and the U.S. foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegburg, A.S.

    2001-01-01

    Oil and natural gas play a major role in the formulation and implementation of U.S. foreign oil policy. It was emphasized that the U.S. oil policy will adjust in response to market developments, both political and commercial. It will also adjust to structural changes and constituency pressures. U.S. foreign oil policy has been drastically different in each of the last 3 decades. The 1970s were a period of oil crisis and shortage when OPEC producers were in control of domestic pricing and production. The defining moment was the Arab oil embargo of the United States and the Netherlands in response to the U.S. military resupply of Israel. After that moment, production and depletion policy shifted to sovereign rule. This embargo prompted many responses, one of which was the short-lived notion that the world would have to rely mostly on synthetics and alternatives to oil. The embargo prompted a multilateral consumer country cooperation, and a staged deregulation of U.S. oil prices. It also prompted a strong U.S. denunciation of Arab producers' use of the oil weapon for foreign policy reasons. The author described the many lessons learned from the 1970s and discussed the use of sanctions against Libya, Cuba and Iran and how these have become a tool to pursue U.S. national security interests or accommodate a domestic constituency. It was predicted that forthcoming changes in U.S. energy policy will reflect unilateral, bilateral and multilateral cooperation. It was noted that beyond the extensive trade and investment links between Canada and the United States, the additional Canadian component is the Alaskan gas line which is currently being considered. It was also noted that early administrative attention should be given to improving the intergovernmental relationship within the International Energy Agency

  5. Toward a Better Union: Improving the Effectiveness of Foreign Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Convention on the Law of the Sea URL uniform resource locator USAID United States Agency for International Development USG United States government UTA ...its foreign policies and messaging toward China based on the wide variety of feedback it receives from social networks and internet traffic, UTA ...67  a.  Step One . Is it in the National Interest? If yes, continue. .....67  b.  Step Two. Communicating Diplomatic Intent: A

  6. Energy resources in foreign policy: a theoretical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Česnakas, Giedrius

    2010-01-01

    This article examines which theory of international relations is best suited for the analysis of energy resources in international relations. The article suggests that realism paradigm theories might provide a useful starting point from a descriptive method in the studies of energy resources in foreign policy. The idealism paradigm downplays the strategic importance of energy resources, and suggests simplified view that statesmen are economically rational actors. Realism suggests that energy ...

  7. Does Federal Financial Aid Policy Influence the Institutional Aid Policies of Four-Year Colleges and Universities? An Exploratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossler, Don; Kwon, Jihye

    2015-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical work that examines the relationships between federal financial aid policy and institutional financial aid priorities and expenditures. This study uses Resource Dependency Theory to explore whether changes the amount of financial aid awarded by colleges and universities during the last fifty years are best explained…

  8. Democracy Promotion and Nation Building in United States Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Chasserieau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available La journée d’études internationale « Democracy Promotion and Nation Building in United States Foreign Policy, Part I: Democracy from America? Historical Continuities in U.S. Nation Building Policies » organisée le 15 octobre 2011 par Annick CIZEL et Alexandra de HOOP SCHEFFER dans le cadre des activités de l’Observatoire de la Politique Américaine du Center for Research in the English-Speaking World (CREW – EA 4399 de l’Université Sorbonne Nouvelle – Paris 3, a fait dialoguer des chercheurs ...

  9. Rising Value of Turkish Foreign Policy: Cultural Diplomacy

    OpenAIRE

    Fırat Purtaş

    2013-01-01

    “The 21st century is a period in which Turkey is going through deep changes not only in domestic policies, economic and social issues but also in foreign policies and diplomacy. The opening-up of Turkish people to the world in the 1990ies paved the way to their interaction with other countries which, in turn, played a major role in the transformation of the country. In this period, the parallel diplomacy practiced on a one-to-one basis by Turkish educational institutions, local governments an...

  10. Continuity and Change in India’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Nadal

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation of foreign policy to the post-cold war era and the globalisation of the economy has not been easy for India, a country which occupies a key position in Asia and arguably the world due to its size, strategic position and economic potential. In Indiacontinuity and change coexist, manifesting dramatic contradictions, with the former gradually superseding the latter. The diplomacy of New Delhi has come under harsh criticism for its resistance to adapt to a changed and changing world - something rooted in its Britishcolonial heritage and its lack of enthusiasm for questioning traditional values and attitudes. An analysis of the fundamental basis underlining these traditional conceptions is necessary, as is an historical perspective on the evolution of India’s foreign policy which embraces vastly differing factors of influence such as the external environment and internal economic and political conditions. This study begins its historical perspective on the foreign policy of independent India in 1947, dividing the period up to the present decade into three phases: the period of Nehru (1947-65, including L.B.Shastri; that of Indira Ghandi and her successors (1965-1990; and the period following the end of the cold war, under an unstable and uncertain leadership.

  11. POLITICAL PSYCHOLOGY – NEW CHALLENGES IN ANALYZING FOREIGN POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin MEGHEȘAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The art of governance, the relationship between the governed and the governing, the impact of a social and political system on coherent foreign policy-building is significantly influenced by the distribution of power and the type of decisional unit existent within the state. New subjects of study, such as political psychology, have proved their utility both in theoretical and practical study of international relations. Being a frontier subject, political psychology tries to offer answers to a number of questions regarding different issues among which the way character features influence the decision maker’s behavior, the role of the operational code in foreign policy and the utility of psychological profiles in the international relationships and in intelligence. Leading from the types of power distribution and decisional units existent in the professional literature, the present paper narrows the narrative and focuses on examining the importance of the individual level of analysis in explaining foreign policy decisions, analyzing the decision of the Russian Federation to veto the intervention of the international community in the Syrian civil conflict.

  12. Financial Aid Policy: Lessons from Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynarski, Susan; Scott-Clayton, Judith

    2013-01-01

    In the nearly fifty years since the adoption of the Higher Education Act of 1965, financial aid programs have grown in scale, expanded in scope, and multiplied in form. As a result, financial aid has become the norm among college enrollees. Aid now flows not only to traditional college students but also to part-time students, older students, and…

  13. The Effect of Foreign Aid on Income Inequality: Evidence from Panel Cointegration

    OpenAIRE

    Dierk Herzer, Peter Nunnenkamp

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run effect of foreign aid on income inequality for 21 recipient countries using panel cointegration techniques to control for omitted variable and endogeneity bias. We find that aid exerts an inequality increasing effect on income distribution

  14. The Effect of Foreign Aid on Economic Growth in Ghana | Appiah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper uses time series data from 1972 to 2012 on Ghana to test the hypothesis that foreign aid can promote growth in developing countries. The ARDL approach to cointegration (bounds test) was employed to examine both the long run and short run relationships between aid and economic growth. The results of the ...

  15. The Development Dance: How Donors and Recipients Negotiate the Delivery of Foreign Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swedlund, H.J.

    2017-01-01

    In a book full of directly applicable lessons for policymakers, Haley J. Swedlund explores why foreign aid is delivered in different ways at different times, and why various approaches prove to be politically unsustainable. She finds that no aid-delivery mechanism has yet resolved commitment

  16. Effectiveness of Foreign Aid on the Growth of the Agricultural Sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic growth. Aid flows are meant to fill the gap between investment needs and domestic savings. Bacha (1990); Taylor (1994) also recognize that government(s) of some developing countries simply do not have the revenue raising capacity to cover a desired level of investment. Foreign aid provided directly to the ...

  17. Do Elites Benefit from Democracy and Foreign Aid in Developing Countries?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2010-01-01

    from the World Income Inequality Database for 88 developing countries, a set of results indicate that foreign aid and democracy in conjunction are associated with a higher share of income held by the upper quintile. It thus appears that foreign aid, contrary to popular beliefs, leads to a more skewed......A popular argument for the absence of any beneficial effects of foreign aid is that it is skimmed by political elites in recipient countries. However, studies also suggest that aid may be more effective in relatively democratic developing countries. By exploring data on income quintiles derived...... income distribution in democratic developing countries while the effects are negligible in autocratic countries. The paper closes with a discussion of potential mechanisms generating this perverse effect....

  18. From Foreign Aid to Foreign Trade: Developing Proactive Student Awareness and Understanding of the Economic and Political Growth and Influence of Nations within the Global Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Richard

    This paper discusses U.S. foreign aid to and international trade with developing countries. It also briefly discusses the need for social studies to infuse global education in its curriculum and presents a model to involve students in world problems. The first part of the paper describes the purposes of foreign aid to developing countries and…

  19. Business, Government and Foreign Policy: Brazilian Construction Firms Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Frossard Silva Rego

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the interaction between Brazilian companies and government in the context of foreign policy, observing the state's support for the internationalization of large Brazilian civil construction firms. The results show that over the years these companies had privileged access to the Federal Executive, including civil service agencies. One consequence of this system of channelling demands through the Executive was to demote the Legislative branch to a secondary role. This pattern of interaction changed following the restoration of Congress's decision-making capacity, prompting the sector to diversify its areas of influence, focusing in particular on the Congress. To expand internationally, construction firms interact with the government primarily through the Executive, specifically via the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Itamaraty, which provides technical and diplomatic support, and the Banco Nacional de Desenvolvimento Econômico, which supplies funding. The main argument of this article is that foreign policy should be examined through the relations between state and non-state actors in a multitude of decision-making arenas, taking into consideration both domestic and international factors.

  20. PUBLIC FINANCIAL AIDS - STATE FINANCIAL SUPPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPEANGĂ VASILE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available State aid represents selective measures of public financial support granted for activities or areas to achieve general objectives, such as environmental protection, development of SMEs, development of disadvantaged areas, rescue and restructuring strategic businesses, etc. But, even if the public authorities support economic development, the state aids can distort normal competitive environment. It is therefore necessary to develop and implement precisely rules on how the public authorities can intervene on market by providing state aids. State aid may be compatible if it pursues clearly defined objectives of common interest with the general beneficial effects on economic development, and does not affect the trade between European Union Member States.

  1. Unanswered Questions in Colombia’s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its multiple transitions over the past decades through a historical description that overviews all previous policies, the critical reception by scholars, and present-day initiatives. We then move on to analysing the choice of English as a synonym for bilingualism and conclude with emerging questions that are to be considered for future debates and reassessments of Colombia’s English-Spanish bilingual education policy.

  2. 10 CFR 1050.201 - Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DECORATIONS Guidelines for Acceptance of Foreign Gifts or Decorations § 1050.201 Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations. (a) The Constitution of the United States, Article I, section 9, clause 8... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy against accepting foreign gifts or decorations...

  3. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir, E-mail: lhadjisk@umich.edu; Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10{sup 9} annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  4. Computer aided detection of surgical retained foreign object for prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjiiski, Lubomir; Marentis, Theodore C.; Rondon, Lucas; Chan, Heang-Ping; Chaudhury, Amrita R.; Chronis, Nikolaos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Surgical retained foreign objects (RFOs) have significant morbidity and mortality. They are associated with approximately $1.5 × 10 9 annually in preventable medical costs. The detection accuracy of radiographs for RFOs is a mediocre 59%. The authors address the RFO problem with two complementary technologies: a three-dimensional (3D) gossypiboma micro tag, the μTag that improves the visibility of RFOs on radiographs, and a computer aided detection (CAD) system that detects the μTag. It is desirable for the CAD system to operate in a high specificity mode in the operating room (OR) and function as a first reader for the surgeon. This allows for fast point of care results and seamless workflow integration. The CAD system can also operate in a high sensitivity mode as a second reader for the radiologist to ensure the highest possible detection accuracy. Methods: The 3D geometry of the μTag produces a similar two dimensional (2D) depiction on radiographs regardless of its orientation in the human body and ensures accurate detection by a radiologist and the CAD. The authors created a data set of 1800 cadaver images with the 3D μTag and other common man-made surgical objects positioned randomly. A total of 1061 cadaver images contained a single μTag and the remaining 739 were without μTag. A radiologist marked the location of the μTag using an in-house developed graphical user interface. The data set was partitioned into three independent subsets: a training set, a validation set, and a test set, consisting of 540, 560, and 700 images, respectively. A CAD system with modules that included preprocessing μTag enhancement, labeling, segmentation, feature analysis, classification, and detection was developed. The CAD system was developed using the training and the validation sets. Results: On the training set, the CAD achieved 81.5% sensitivity with 0.014 false positives (FPs) per image in a high specificity mode for the surgeons in the OR and 96

  5. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  6. National policy measures. Right approach to foreign direct investment flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Emilian HUIDUMAC-PETRESCU

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 2011 was a difficult year for all the countries, developed and emerging ones. For overcoming the negative effects of the financial crisis, many economies have established as purpose to adopt new economic policies regarding the foreign direct investment flows (FDI, even to stimulate the flows or to reduce it (protectionism measures. So, there can be identified two categories of national policies: measures for the FDI flows stimulation and measures whose aim was the weighting of FDI developing, through restriction and regulation. In the first category we could include the liberalization measures and promotional and faciletation policies. In this study we evidenced that the fundament of the second category of policies is the belief that the FDI outward lead to job exports, to a raise of unemployment and a weakness of the industrial base.Many reports on FDI flows, here we talk about those made by UNCTAD, show that the regulation and restriction policies are seen as a possible protectionism, especially in the agricultural and extractive industries, where there have been required nationalization processes and divestments. Even more, the economies which adopted this kind of policies have been less interested in investing abroad, the outward of FDI being affected and globally the total outward decreased.

  7. HIV/AIDS policy agenda setting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodayari-Zarnaq, Rahim; Ravaghi, Hamid; Mohammad Mosaddeghrad, Ali; Sedaghat, Abbas; Mohraz, Minoo

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS control are one of the most important goals of the health systems. The aim of this study was to determine how HIV/AIDS control was initiated among policy makers' agenda setting in Iran. A qualitative research (semi-structured interview) was conducted using Kingdon's framework (problem, policy and politics streams, and policy windows and policy entrepreneurs) to analysis HIV/AIDS agenda setting in Iran. Thirty-two policy makers, managers, specialists, and researchers were interviewed. Also, 30 policy documents were analyzed. Framework analysis method was used for data analysis. the increase of HIV among Injecting drug users (IDUs) and Female Sex Workers (FSWs), lack of control of their high-risk behaviors, and exceeding the HIV into concentrated phase were examples of problem stream. Policy stream was evidence-based solutions that highlighted the need for changing strategies for dealing with such a problem and finding technically feasible and acceptable solutions. Iran's participation in United Nations General Assembly special sessions on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS), the establishment of National AIDS Committee; highlighting AIDS control in Iran's five years development program and the support of the judiciary system of harm reduction policies were examples of politics stream. Policy entrepreneurs linking these streams put the HIV/AIDS on the national agenda (policy windows) and provide their solutions. There were mutual interactions among these three streams and sometimes, they weakened or reinforced each other. Future studies are recommended to understand the interactions between these streams' parts and perhaps develop further Kingdon's framework, especially in the health sector.

  8. EU environmental state aid policy: wide implications, narrow participation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flaam, Karoline

    2008-11-15

    This article investigates the 2008 reform of the EU's environmental state aid guidelines, with an eye to determining the degree of external pressure and lobbyism towards environmental state aid policies. What is found is a strikingly low level of external pressure on the policy-field, not least on the part of the private sector. In fact, EU environmental state aid policy is largely the making of a few Commission officials, without much external 'interference'. The article discusses possible reasons for this, and asks whether state aid policy-making might be marked less by clear and established interests and utility maximising, and more by actors constrained by complexity and bounded rationality. (author). refs.,tab

  9. THE FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICIES OF THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Menon

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In only a decade the European Union has moved from being a new kid on the block in terms of foreign and security policies to being a high profile and surprisingly effective international actor. Certainly, it has failed to match the ambitions of some of its most enthusiastic proponents. Certainly, too, European publics know next to nothing about what the Union does in the international realm. It is because of this that, despite their potential and their effectiveness to date, EU policies in this sphere were widely derided as failures following the moment when the attacks of 11 September 2001 shook the western world to its core. The Convention on the Future of Europe and subsequent intergovernmental conference look set to make significant institutional changes to the Union’s foreign and security policy systems. In undertaking these reforms, Convention members, and national governments are doubtless motivated by the laudable objective of enabling the Union to do more on the international stage. One can only hope that these motives notwithstanding, they do not simply propose reforms for their own sake and, in the process, undermine a system that, to the surprise of many, has continued to function respectably in an ever more complex and ever more dangerous world.

  10. 75 FR 67169 - Foreign Institutions-Federal Student Aid Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... nursing schools, and certification of foreign institutions, Brian Smith. Telephone: (202) 502-7551, or via... Secretary discussed on pages 42191 through 42213 the major changes proposed in that document, including the... nursing schools; and Amending Sec. Sec. 600.52 and 668.13 to revise the maximum certification period for...

  11. The new aid paradigm: A case of policy incoherence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G. Dijkstra (Geske)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction At the end of the 1990s there was widespread disappointment with aid and with what aid had achieved. Poverty was still rampant, and growth rates in many poor countries were still low, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. The lack of coherence with other policies of the rich

  12. Foreign Assistance: North Korea Restricts Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures, and as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  13. Foreign Assistance: North Korean Constraints Limit Food Aid Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Benjamin

    1999-01-01

    .... However, the North Korean government has not allowed the World Food Program to fully implement its procedures and, as a result, it cannot be sure that the food aid is being shipped, stored, or used as planned...

  14. Spain and EU foreign policy after Lisbon ; still calling the tune in EU Latin America policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Saura, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Masteroppgave offentlig politikk og ledelse- Universitetet i Agder, 2014 Ever since its accession to the EU in 1986 Spain has been considered to be the main driver of the EU Latin America policy, regardless of government. This particular domain of EU foreign policy has for a long time been of relatively little interest among the other member states, which in other words left Spain as its undisputed leader, with permission from Portugal. Spain has therefore been quite successful...

  15. Does foreign aid crowd out government investments? Evidence from rural health centres in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chunling; Cook, Benjamin; Desmond, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Rural healthcare facilities in low-income countries play a major role in providing primary care to rural populations. We examined the link of foreign aid with government investments and medical service provision in rural health centres in Rwanda. Using the District Health System Strengthening Tool, a web-based database built by the Ministry of Health in Rwanda, we constructed two composite indices representing provision of (1) child and maternal care and (2) HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria services in 330 rural health centres between 2009 and 2011. Financing variables in a healthcare centre included received funds from various sources, including foreign donors and government. We used multilevel random-effects model in regression analyses and examined the robustness of results to a range of alternative specification, including scale of dependent variables, estimation methods and timing of aid effects. Both government and foreign donors increased their direct investments in the 330 rural healthcare centres during the period. Foreign aid was positively associated with government investments (0.13, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.19) in rural health centres. Aid in the previous year was positively associated with service provision for child and maternal health (0.008, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.014) and service provision for HIV, TB and malaria (0.014, 95% CI 0.004 to 0.022) in the current year. The results are robust when using fixed-effects models. These findings suggest that foreign aid did not crowd out government investments in the rural healthcare centres. Foreign aid programmes, conducted in addition to government investments, could benefit rural residents in low-income countries through increased service provision in rural healthcare facilities.

  16. Japanese Elites and Foreign Policy in the Era of Emerging Asian Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Louis J.

    1996-01-01

    Explicates the mercantilist ideology of the Japanese elite and its impact on Japanese trade policy. Offers a textured portrait of the world view of a particular elite: Japan's technocrats. Reveals a nationalist ideology that is not advertised by its adherents, especially to foreign observers such as in the United States. (MJP)

  17. The ambiguity of US foreign policy towards Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2017-01-01

    with the Pentagon and the State Department playing prominent roles. The paper argues that in the current century, evangelical Christian lobby groups have gained increasing influence on policymaking on Africa. Because policymaking has been influenced by a number of different actors, the American Africa policy may...... appear incoherent and ambiguous if judged narrowly on the expectation that it only aims to take care of US national security concerns and economic self-interests. The paper concludes that Africa was important to the United States during the presidencies of George W. Bush and Barack Obama because...... of the combination of strong security interests and strong domestic lobby groups that have pressured to place Africa on the US foreign policy agenda....

  18. China's Quest for Energy; Impact upon Foreign and Security Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiesow, Ingolf

    2004-11-01

    Contrary to Chinese intentions, the proportion of China's imports coming from potentially unstable countries is steadily increasing. As a response, China tries to diversify its sources of import and to own the oil when loaded in an export harbour. In spite of very high costs and political problems, China tries to import oil and gas from owned fields in Central Asia through pipelines. In the case of China, the competition is evident on the highest international level. Especially with Japan, this tends to make already previously sensitive relations deteriorate. China has territorial disputes with several neighbouring countries that are becoming more complicated by the fact that there is oil and gas on the bottom of the sea in the disputed area. Relations with Russia have been complicated. Since the 1990s they are on their way of being steadily improved, but they become strained, when Japan is given priority access to oil fields in Siberia. The sensitive relations with the U.S. tend to be impaired by China's ways of getting access to more secure supply of oil and gas. Chinese efforts to get a more attractive foreign policy profile is on the other hand alleviating but does not eliminate the potential of the energy issue to complicate. China's foreign and security policy relations. The European Union seems to be on its way to introduce energy questions as a field of common policy. This is a reason for Sweden to study the development. It is a matter of special interest that China has proposed an 'Energy Dialogue between Asia and Europe' about the resources and the Eurasian continent. The Chinese example illustrates the need for a Swedish energy security policy and plans for energy crisis preparedness

  19. AL JAZEERA AND QATARI FOREIGN POLICY: A CRITICAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Pourhamzavi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Our paper explores the Al-Jazeera network and its relationship to the state which set it up and continues to fund it.  We suggest that, while the network may provide perspectives for Western viewers that other large, but Western-owned networks do not, it is far from immune from the problems of state influence.  Behind a cultivated veneer of providing perspectives from 'the Arab street', the network reflects foreign policy perspectives of the Qatari state and the small elite which controls it.  This paper surveys Al-Jazeera Arabic news coverage (August 2014-August 2015 of conflict in Iraq and three AJA current affairs programmes coverage (January 2014-August 2015 of conflict in Iraq, Syria and Egypt.  The results indicate that, on foreign policy issues which the Qatari elite regards as particularly important, the network promotes the perspectives of the state.  The relationship between the Qatari state and Al-Jazeera also constrains the network's independence and objectivity.

  20. United States-China-Taiwan Foreign Policy and Economic Globalization: An Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-03

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT UNITED STATES-CHINA-TAIWAN FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION : AN ASSESSMENT by Colonel Jim Coates United...DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE United States-China-Taiwan Foreign Policy and Economic Globalization An Assessment 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...TITLE: UNITED STATES-CHINA-TAIWAN FOREIGN POLICY AND ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION : AN ASSESSMENT FORMAT: Strategy Research Project DATE: 19 March 2004 PAGES

  1. More than Words and Good Intentions: The Political Agenda-Setting Power Behind Foreign Aid Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Riaño Rodríguez, Juan Felipe

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, international aid is examined as a tool for political agenda-setting. A theoretical model is constructed for the analysis, incorporating the incentives created by foreign aid, on the political benefits of recipient governments. The model also incorporates the compensating benefits provided by these governments through the legitimization of the donor country's political agenda. The main results of this model indicate that governments which offer international assistance can infl...

  2. U.S. Foreign Aid to the Palestinians

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    Aid; Agency’s Screening Called Inadequate,” Chicago Tribune, November 16, 2007; See also Testimony of Henrietta Fore, then USAID Administrator and...maintain that it fulfills its mandate as well as can be expected under challenging circumstances (i.e., UNRWA’s lack of a robust policing capability

  3. New forms of development: branding innovative ideas and bidding for foreign aid in the maternal and child health service in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Radha; Smith, Pam; Sharma, Jeevan Raj; Chand, Obindra Bahadur

    2018-03-27

    Nepal has been receiving foreign aid since the early 1950s. Currently, the country's health care system is heavily dependent on aid, even for the provision of basic health services to its people. Globally, the mechanism for the dispersal of foreign aid is becoming increasingly complex. Numerous stakeholders are involved at various levels: donors, intermediary organisations, project-implementing partners and the beneficiaries, engaging not only in Nepal but also globally. To illustrate how branding and bidding occurs, and to discuss how this process has become increasingly vital in securing foreign aid to run MCH activities in Nepal. This paper is based on a qualitative study. The data collection method includes Key Informant Interviews, the review of relevant policy documents and secondary data, and finally field observation visits to four maternal and child health (MCH) projects, currently funded by foreign aid. Through these methods we planned to gain a comprehensive understanding of the aid dispersing mechanism, and the aid-securing strategies, used by organisations seeking funds to provide MCH services in Nepal. Study findings suggest that foreign aid for the provision of MCH services in Nepal is channeled increasingly to its beneficiaries, not through the Government system, but rather via various intermediary organisations, employing branding and bidding processes. These organisations adapt commercial models, seeking to justify their 'cost-effectiveness'. They argue that they are 'yielding good value for money', with short-term target oriented projects. This ethos is evident throughout the aid dispersing chain. Organisations use innovative ideas and intervention packages, branded internationally and nationally, and employ the appropriate language of commerce in their bid to secure funds. The paper raises an important question as to whether the current mechanisms of channeling foreign aid in the MCH sector, via intermediary organisations, can actually be cost

  4. Russia’s New Irredentist Foreign Policy Approach & Energy Card

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KÖSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Soon after Industrial Revolution fossil energy resources became extremely one of the irrevocable essentials of humankind. Nowadays, use of fossil energy resources paved the way of several problems. Throughout last two hundred years of human history disagreements to share energy resources led dramatic conflicts and wars broke out. Notably WWII and Cold War were a kind of proxy clashes over energy resources. In 1991 the long lasting Cold War came to an end yet neither energy disputes nor conflicts related to the sharing of energy resources have not ended. Starting with Industrial Revolution so far oil and coal are were unmatched basic energy sources to run the engines of industry. Especially after 1980’s hitherto natural gas and shale gas gained a new status in the energy need of humanity. Because both are more effective, clean and environment friendly. Beside shale gas, Europe and Turkey do not have natural gas reserves nowadays border neighborhood of Russian Federation has rich reserves. In other words Russian Federation is between rich reserves owing Central Asian countries and importer European countries. This fact led Russia to use energy card as a tool of foreign policy. Especially after the collapse of SU, the successor state Russia has not stopped intervening domestic affairs of post-communist countries. While intervening domestic affairs of former Iron-Curtain countries Russia uses numerous excuses such as to protect the rights of Russian originated people, to save its former citizens’ lives despite the fact nobody asked such a protection. Russia also argues that it has cultural and territorial rights in former Iron-Curtain countries. This kind of foreign policy aspects in international relations are called “irredentism” and European states could not force Russia to stop such conflict escalating policies. European dependency on Russian natural gas and energy problems one way or another affects European foreign policy priorities on

  5. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively analyse the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from the mid-1960s to 2007, using a well-specified cointegrated VAR model as statistical benchmark. Results provide broad support for a positive long-run impact...

  6. Foreign Aid, NGO's and the social contract: Wanting to help, ignoring ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to review and add to the academic literature criticizing how foreign aid acts as an obstacle to African states in the development of a social contract between state and citizens. In the model contract, the government provides social services in exchange for tax revenue, the right to call upon citizens for national ...

  7. Information Constraints and Financial Aid Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Scott-Clayton

    2012-01-01

    One justification for public support of higher education is that prospective students, particularly those from underprivileged groups, lack complete information about the costs and benefits of a college degree. Beyond financial considerations, students may also lack information about what they need to do academically to prepare for and successfully complete college. Yet until recently, college aid programs have typically paid little attention to students' information constraints, and the comp...

  8. Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    Global Communications: Opportunities for Trade and Aid examines the question of how telecommunication related aid policies might be designed to support both United States trade and foreign aid goals...

  9. 77 FR 50628 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... procedures the Commission uses for assessing foreign ownership of the controlling U.S.-organized parents of... policy framework for foreign ownership of the controlling U.S. parents of licensees under section 310(b..., under section 310(b)(4), greater than 25 percent foreign ownership in the controlling U.S.-organized...

  10. Foreign aid and extremism in the Horn of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farah, Abdulkadir Osman

    2014-01-01

    particularly the Somalis struggling in between strategic narrow minded external hegemony led by the US and powerful neighbouring countries and visionless internal extremism and warlordism. Such hawkish policy made Somalia a battlefield for external states confronting armed allusive and mobile religious and non...

  11. Interests and Values in Obama's foreign Policy: Leading from Behind?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA HELENA DE CASTRO SANTOS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study will exam the relative importance of values and interests in Obama's foreign policy, focusing on crucial cases: the military actions related to Afghanistan, Iraq, Libya, Non-Syria, Al-Qaeda and ISIL. We will argue that his "leading from behind" strategy is not very distant from the foreign and defense strategies of his post-Cold War predecessors, by which democracy is seen as an assurance to security. According to Obama's strategy, Americans will only provide support for the building of democracy in the target countries, while this task should be performed by the locals themselves. Americans will provide military training to the new governments as well so they can be responsible for their own security, including preventing regrouping of terrorists in their soil. If Obama opposes the imposing of democracy by the use of force, empirical data shows that his administration is "not prepared to accept" any option that threats US security or American liberal-democratic values, bringing in this way values and interests very close to each other.

  12. Burst Diplomacy The Diplomacies of Foreign Policy: Actors and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Devin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to diplomacy tend to be restrictive because of an exclusively interstate insight. Indeed, historically, the state monopoly over diplomacy has always been challenged by private actors. Today, it is defied both from the inside because of growing public fragmentation (every ministry tends to lead its own foreign policy; subnational authorities develop their diplomatic relations and from the outside (the business sector and civil society play a growing role on the international scene. This proliferation of actors has transformed diplomatic methods. Beyond the binary division between “old diplomacy” – bilateral, secret and resident – and “new diplomacy” – multilateral, public and itinerant – this article shows that diplomacy has to adapt to number and complexity. Therefore a more global conception need now be considered. Diplomacy today is a system of multiple actors using diverse methods in order to coordinate positions of common interest in a competitive and sometimes hostile environment.

  13. The impact of the International Monetary Fund's macroeconomic policies on the AIDS pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brook K

    2010-01-01

    Expansion of funding for HIV/AIDS, especially treatment, is under attack over concerns about cost effectiveness and financial constraints. The International Monetary Fund is deeply implicated in the history of the AIDS pandemic, the underlying weakness of health systems, and the ideology of constrained resources that underlies most attacks on AIDS funding. The IMF imposed structural violence on developing countries in the 1980s and 1990s through neoliberal and macroeconomic reforms that intensified individual and communal vulnerability to infection and dismantled already weak health systems. This same macroeconomic fundamentalism has recently been repackaged and renamed. IMF fundamentalist policies continue to prioritize low inflation, constricted government spending, robust foreign currency reserves, and prompt repayment of debt at the expense of investments in health and more expansionary, pro-growth and job-creation policies. Several recent surveys have concluded that the IMF reluctantly relaxed overly restrictive policy prescriptions in response to the global economic crisis, but this relaxation was temporary at best and only extended to countries previously acceding to IMF orthodoxy. AIDS activists are campaigning for billions of dollars to fulfill the promise of universal access. If IMF pressures persist, developing countries will continue to undermine the additionality of donor health financing by substituting donor for domestic financing, refusing to invest in recurrent costs for medicines and health workers, and neglecting needed investments in health infrastructure and health system strengthening.

  14. Constitutional Limits of the EU’s Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    The Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) of the European Union (EU) is a highly exceptional component of the EU legal order. This constitutionalised foreign policy regime, with legal, diplomatic and political DNA woven throughout its fabric, is a distinct sub-system of law on the outer...

  15. Branding technologies in the foreign policy of Ukraine: regulatory and organizational aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Maryna Ihorivna

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses regulatory and organizational components of the application of branding technology as a tool of foreign policy of Ukraine. Particular attention is paid to the activities of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine in this sphere, as well as to the problems impeding the full implementation of the branding policy.

  16. The Role of Regional, Geographical and Strategic Factors in Formulation the Turkish Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Rachida Mrassi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the study and analysis of regional, geographic and strategic factors that influence the Turkish foreign policy. The main task of this article is to show the role of these factors on the development of conceptual basis of Turkish foreign policy.

  17. Post-Cold War American Foreign Policy: What, When, and Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The Compulsive Empire,‖ Foreign Policy no. 137 (July/August 2003), 83. 8 Robert Gilpin, War and Change in World Politics (Cambridge: Cambridge...of the Twenty-First Century (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 2002), 203 & 120. 25 Robert Jervis, ―The Compulsive Empire,‖ Foreign Policy no...producing excess GHG. It also allowed an option for states unable to afford the cost of GHG reduction to buy carbon credits instead. 7 The Clinton

  18. Environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing of eco-technology under foreign penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Seung-Leul; Lee, Sang-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates environmental policy on the fixed-fee licensing strategy of clean eco-technology by an innovator having foreign ownership. We show that near-zero emission taxes accompanied by non-exclusive licensing regulation can improve social welfare when the cost gap is small or foreign penetration is high. However, when foreign ownership is not high, exclusive licensing regulations with an appropriate emission tax policy may improve social welfare.

  19. Gaps in EU Foreign Policy: the Role of Concepts in European Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    of Capability-Expectations Gap in the study of European foreign policy. Through examples from the literature, it is shown that the concept sets up standards for the EU as a foreign policy actor that are not met by most other international actors and that this curtails analysis of EU foreign policy......This book argues that theories of European foreign policy are performative: they create the objects they analyse.The book first outlines the performativity approach to the role of theories based on the work of Derrida. It then examines the performative role of Christopher Hill's concept....... It then demonstrates that the widespread use of the concept of ‘gap’ in different forms affects the way in which EU foreign policy has been studied and that it always produces the same result: the EU is an unfulfilled actor outside the realm of “normal” actors in IR....

  20. How the global and national levels interrelate in climate policymaking: Foreign Policy Analysis and the case of Carbon Capture Storage in Norway's foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roettereng, Jo-Kristian Straete

    2016-01-01

    States struggle to develop adequate climate change mitigation policies, especially when national energy interests conflict with collective environmental concerns. It is therefore crucial to understand how viable solutions may find political support on these terms. As one such case, this paper examines Norway's explicit foreign policy to promote Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as a mitigation measure. I suggest that a Foreign Policy Analysis framework with a norm-centered constructivist focus allows for new insights into how climate policies function as balancing strategies between external normative pressures and important domestic concerns. It reveals how Norway's CCS policy represents an extraordinary effort to bridge seemingly contradictory agendas. The Norwegian CCS case highlights how a state may engage in innovative foreign political engineering to promote solutions to its international climate commitments on terms that fit national energy needs. It shows that climate political success may depend on successfully linking the international and domestic levels by simultaneously appealing to established norms within each system. - Highlights: • A Foreign Policy Analysis framework is used to explain foreign policy in the energy-climate domain. • Norway's external strategy to promote CCS globally is traced and explained. • Both external and domestic factors influenced Norway's CCS policymaking. • Both ideational and material factors were important to legitimize this strategy.

  1. Civil Society Participation in Brazilian Foreign Policy: an Analysis of its Democratic Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Pomeroy

    Full Text Available Abstract Working from an analytical framework that emphasises the horizontalisation of the decision-making process of Brazilian foreign policy, considered as public policy and subject to democratic control, this article analyses the democratic quality of this policy’s participatory institutions, using the criteria established by democratic theory. Civil society participation is analysed in three areas of foreign policy: multilateral international negotiations, regional integration, and South–South development co-operation. It can be stated that civil society participation in Brazilian foreign policy is of a diffuse nature, discretionary, and with a high degree of informality.

  2. U.S. foreign policy traditions: multilateralism vs. unilateralism since 1776

    OpenAIRE

    Restad, Hilde Eliassen

    2010-01-01

    As the world’s most powerful state the foreign policy choices of the United States have affected global security for a century and will continue to do so for quite some time. The study of U.S. foreign policy traditions is therefore an important aspect of the study of international relations. The conventional assumption of several scholars of U.S. foreign policy is that the United States abandoned its policy of isolation and aloofness and adopted one of responsibility for international securit...

  3. Trump's foreign policy: A victory for the deep state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Srđa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Donald Trump, an outsider who won the Presidency against all odds and predictions, came to the White House apparently determined to chart a new strategic course in foreign affairs. His opponent, Hillary Clinton, was committed to a hegemonistic vision and to specific policies based on the decades-old globalist-liberal orthodoxy. As this paper points out, Trump's 'America First' approach in essence rejected the doctrine of America as a proposition nation, criticized its global engagement, questioned NATO's utility and core mission, advocated rapprochement with Russia, and condemned the regime-change focus of earlier administrations. It further emphasizes that Trump explicitly sought to reaffirm the raison d'état as the guiding principle of foreign policymaking. His biggest problem all along was that the American 'deep state' - key components of the national security apparat, the military-industrial complex, and the bipartisan political duopoly in Washington - rejected any realist criteria in their definition of 'interests' and 'threats.' They were intent on the maintenance of American global primacy, and they proved effective in imposing agenda contrary to Trump's stated positions on all key global issues. At the same time, as this paper documents, Trump himself has been stepping ever farther away from his campaign pledges. It would be incorrect to say that the permanent state has successfully subverted and undermined the chief executive. It would be more accurate, we conclude, to recognize that a mutinous president has tried, and failed, to alter the long-charted global course of the permanent state.

  4. Implementing AIDS policy in post-apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, H; Stein, J

    2001-03-01

    In common with the rest of the Southern African sub-continent. South Africa is currently experiencing a serious HIV epidemic. When it came into power in 1994, the new, Mandela-led government immediately mobilised funds and adopted a far-reaching AIDS Plan for the country. However, the implementation of AIDS policy in the first four years after 1994 has been characterised by a lack of progress and a breakdown of trust and co-operation, both within government and between government and NGOs. This paper outlines the political context which shaped the development of the AIDS Policy, then examines the difficulties of implementing a comprehensive response to AIDS in a country undergoing restructuring at every level. It questions the notion of "inadequate political will" as an explanation for lack of progress. Involvement by politicians has, in fact, been experienced as a double-edged sword in South Africa, with inappropriate, "quick-fix" actions creating conflict and hampering a more longer-term, effective response. The paper also highlights the importance of groupings outside of government in promoting effective policy actions, and the types of leadership required to mobilise a broad range of actors around a common vision. It concludes by emphasising the need to develop approaches to policy implementation rooted in the possibilities and constraints of the local situation, rather than relying on universal blue-prints developed out of context.

  5. 76 FR 27649 - HIV/AIDS Bureau Policy Notice 11-01 (Replaces Policy Notice 99-02)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS.../AIDS Bureau (HAB) Policy Notice 99-02 established policies for the use of Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program... White HIV/AIDS Program funded services to receive housing services. In response, HRSA's Administrator...

  6. Pakistan and Saudi Arabia: Towards Greater Independence in their Afghan Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Vandamme, Dorothée

    2014-01-01

    The following paper aims at studying the cases of Pakistani and Saudi’s Afghan policies, highlighting the development of their foreign policy as middle powers’ foreign policies. After explaining the limits of the constitutive approach to middle powers, we underline Islamabad’s and Riyadh’s interests and objectives in Afghanistan, by developing the perspectives of offensive realism as applied to Saudi Arabia, and defensive realism as applied to Pakistan. The third and final part of the analysi...

  7. Between Loyalty and Exit. Explaining the Foreign Policies of Industrialized Countries in the UNESCO Crisis (1978-87)

    OpenAIRE

    Kittel, Gabriele; Rittberger, Volker; Schimmelfennig, Frank

    1995-01-01

    The article starts out with the presentation of an analytical model for foreign policy analysis which integrates not only a great variety of causal factors proposed by different strands of International Relations research but also several competing causal pathways to the explanation of foreign policy: interest-oriented foreign policy behavior vs. foreign policy styles, structure vs. agency, and subsystemic vs. systemic causation. Furthermore, the model contains a dynamic element which allows ...

  8. The Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia in the Near East at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Kryuchkov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the formation of a new foreign policy strategy of Saudi Arabia in conditions of the changing situation in the Middle East after the “Arab spring” and the “nuclear deal” with Iran. It is shown in the article that the instability of domestic policy and economic problems connected with oil price drop have influence on the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. Struggle with Iran for domination in the region becomes the basis of its policy in the Middle East. The author notes that the complication of relations with the USA also greatly influences the foreign policy of Saudi Arabia. The Kingdom condemned the nuclear program agreement of Iran. Riyadh didn’t manage to neutralize the growth of influence of Iran in Iraq, Lebanon, Syria and Yemen. Riyadh places a bet on B. Asad opponents support in the Syrian conflict aiming to strengthen its positions in the country and to dislodge Iran and Russia from it. Confrontation with Iran forced Saudi Arabia to interfere with the civil war in Yemen and to carry out a successful operation in Bahrein. The article shows the aspiration of Saudi Arabia to withhold Egypt, Jordan and a number of other countries of the region in the sphere of its foreign policy through financial aid to these countries. It is proved that the reasons of the conflict of Saudi Arabia with Iran were of economic, geopolitical and religious nature, and that Saudi Arabia aspired to strengthen its positions in the Middle East and East Africa. A great breakthrough was acquisition of two islands in the Red Sea from Egypt by Riyadh.

  9. The Combined Teaching Methodology is One of the Training Intrsification Aids in Teaching a Foreign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Velička

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to motivate the combined methodology of foreign language teaching. The paper emphasizes that the main requirement for the structure of the combined teaching methodology is its adequate linguistic, psychological, didactic and methodical substantiation. It is very important to provide students of higher technical schools with proper textbooks. The article analyses all these problems and there are recommendations how to prepare training aids for those higher schools which do not train language teaching specialists.

  10. A limited toolbox: Explaining the constraints on Russia’s foreign energy policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Orttung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanations of Russia’s foreign energy policy typically focus on major events, such as the gas conflicts with Ukraine, and argue that these events represent simplistic patterns of behavior, reflecting the policy-makers’ emphasis on politics, commercial gain, corruption, or ad hoc opportunism. This analysis goes beyond these explanations to argue that the Russian leadership pursues a rational set of political and economic goals in its foreign energy policy, but that it is constrained in its efforts by the set of tools available to it. To understand the resulting patterns of behavior, it is necessary to devote more analytical attention to Russia’s foreign policy tools and their limits. The article draws on a new dataset of Russia’s policy tools in 31 energy conflicts with 20 countries from 2000 to 2010. These conflicts are defining moments in Russia’s foreign policy because they put to the test the toolkit that Russia has assembled to impose its will on a counterpart. The study finds increased use of transit pipelines, generally decreased use of subsidies and persistent use of efforts to purchase assets in foreign countries, cutoff pipeline supplies, and attempts to use energy to achieve specific political goals. By emphasizing the tools that Russian policy-makers use to conduct policies, the article provides a more nuanced analysis of the capacity and limits of Russian foreign energy policy than is currently available.

  11. 76 FR 50407 - Addition of Persons Acting Contrary to the National Security or Foreign Policy Interests of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... to the national security or foreign policy interests of the United States. These persons will be... national security or foreign policy interests of the United States) of the EAR. Second, this rule... security or foreign policy interests of the United States and those acting on behalf of such persons may be...

  12. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  13. The Arctic - A New Region for China's Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Yagiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article is devoted to foreign policy of China in the Arctic. Main attention is paid to strategic view of the China concerning the Arctic, to bilateral and multilateral cooperation on the Arctic issues, also to opinion of Russian experts about discussing of Russian-China economic partnership. It was shown interests of the People's Republic of China in the Arctic: use Arctic transport system from the Pacific Rim to Europe; possibility of access to the Arctic resources; seeks of partners for the realized of Arctic projects and programs. It was pointed six directions of China cooperation in the Arctic: a scientific researches, b natural minerals, oil and gas issues, c tourism, d routes of the Arctic navigation, e use of high technologies in development of regional economy, e cooperation in the cultural and educational spheres. Authors are summarized that at the initial stage of the international cooperation in the Arctic polar scientific researches become as the tool of “he soft power”, and in the long term - the Northern Sea Route of the Russian Federation is included in the Strategy of China Economic belt and the Maritime Silk Route in the XXI century.

  14. The Foreign Policy of Colombia, the OECD and the Peer R eview of the Public Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Tassara, Carlo; Universidad de Roma Sapienza

    2016-01-01

    After a period characterized by many criticalities, the foreign policy and the  international standing of Colombia has changed significantly. In this framework, the  accession process of Colombia to the OECD represents a relevant challenge and it is  aimed at consolidating Colombian new status of emerging country. Among other  things, this organisation is defined by the use of the peer review to improve the  quality of the formulation, implementation and monitoring of its Member States  publi...

  15. Private development aid in Europe: Foreign aid between the public and the private domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoebink, P.R.J.; Schulpen, L.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book which makes a detailed analysis of private aid organizations in Europe, their historical background and current position in six European countries - Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Ireland, the Netherlands and Spain. The authors investigate the relation between governments and

  16. An Ethical Foreign Policy? Globalism as a Threat to the US National Interest

    OpenAIRE

    Wassim Daghrir

    2015-01-01

    An ethical foreign policy can have no objectives other than those that are of service to its own people. An unethical foreign policy, however, may pursue objectives that enhance the nation as a power, seeking dominance for its own sake, for the honor, glory and wealth of the state or a minority within the state, or spreading its ideology out of missionary fervor. The mainstream wisdom in the United States is that the US foreign policy agendas are virtuous and ethical, since they are oriented ...

  17. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  18. Australia's Foreign Economic Policy: a 'State-Society Coalition' Approach and a Historical Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Jiro

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to explain the historical development of Australia's foreign economic policy by using an analytical framework called a 'state-society coalition' approach.This approach focuses on virtual coalitions of state and society actors that share 'belief systems' and hold similar policy ideas, goals and preferences, as basic units (policy subsystems) of policy making. Major policy changes occur when a dominant coalition is replaced by another.The paper argues that, in Australia, there h...

  19. Foreign Direct Investment and Government Policy in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Klaus E.; Jensen, Camilla

    2004-01-01

    , this chapter discusses how aspects of the institutional framework and FDI policy affect diverse types of investment projects. Acquisition and Greenfield investors are concerned with different aspects of government policy: privatization and regulatory policies for acquirers and investment incentives, regional...... policy and special economic zones for Greenfield investors. The shifting policy priorities have thus changed the types of projects undertaken by foreign investors in the region....

  20. The Long-Run Impact of Foreign Aid in 36 African Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Møller, Niels Framroze; Tarp, Finn

    . To investigate this we perform a comprehensive study of the long-run effect of foreign aid (ODA) on a set of key macroeconomic variables in 36 sub-Saharan African countries from mid-1960s to 2007. We use a well-specified (Cointegrated) VAR (CVAR) model as our statistical benchmark. It represents a much......Studies of aid effectiveness abound in the literature, often with opposing conclusions. Since most time-series studies use data from the exact same publicly available data bases, our claim here is that such differences in results must be due to the use of different econometric models and methods...... of ODA on investment in 33 of the 36 included countries, but hardly any evidence supporting the view that aid has been harmful. From a methodological point of view our study documents the importance of transparency in results reporting in particular when the statistical null does not correspond...

  1. DOMESTIC INFLUENCES ON U.S. FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST. THE VIEW FROM WASHINGTON,

    Science.gov (United States)

    organizations and the oil companies, is likely to decline in influence over day-to-day policy. Policy-makers in the 1970’s will find their actions toward Arabs ...capabilities of the Arab states will have a greater impact on U.S. foreign policy than will domestic factors. (Author)

  2. Confession and Carrying into Execution of Foreign Arbitration Courts' Decisions: Reciprocity and Public Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarina, Salima A.; Nukusheva, Aigul A.; Kalmagambetov, Kassym S.; Kumysbekova, Zhanara T.; Nesterova, Elena V.

    2016-01-01

    The article contains a comparative analysis of foreign arbitration courts' decisions, ensuring the reciprocity and public policy. The aim of the study is to explore such aspects as reciprocity and public policy of arbitration courts. The result is the view of the public policy, despite its apparent irrelevance in today's Kazakhstan, which is of…

  3. The foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic: new priorities and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ch Ndakissa Onkassa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the features of formation and realization of foreign policy and the basic characteristics of the international image of modern Gabon are considered. It is shown, that the foreign policy is the important direction in the state activity of Gabon and is intended to offer the General public all over the world complete and reliable information on the situation in the country on key international issues, activities and initiatives of Gabon in the field of political space and the processes and projects of socio-economic development, its cultural and scientific achievements. Foreign policy activity is aimed at creating favorable conditions for the realization of the historic choice of the Gabonese people to strengthen the rule of law, market economy and democratic society, to focus on the social dimension. Нerewith this article analyzes the main provisions of the foreign policy of the Gabonese Republic, considered in conjunction with the country's development objectives defined in the strategic plan “A prosperous Gabon”. Particular attention is paid to the role of the President in making foreign policy decisions and ideas about the prospects for the development of Gabon's foreign policy. Key value of principles of maintenance of the sovereignty and the international inclusiveness, influence of the factor of the French language and policy of multilateral diplomacy is underlined at definition of objectives and priorities of foreign policy of Gabon during an epoch of new international realities. It is noted, that foreign policy activity of Gabon is aimed at creation a wide range of the international partnership in interests of national development in in the context of globalization.

  4. Aid policy for peat from the EU's standpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, J.; Suvanto-Luomala, S.; Aeimae, K.

    2002-10-01

    The study analyses the restrictions that may be imposed by the European Union on our national taxation schemes supporting the energy use of peat. These restrictions would mainly relate to the EU and international climate policy, which may change the attitudes towards the energy use of peat. The taxation arrangements studied concern the refunds of the electricity tax granted to small peat-fired power plants and the tax on peat, which compared especially with coal, is light in heat production. The study aims to find out whether the arrangements included State aid prohibited by the European Community or whether they gave rise to prohibited tax discrimination of other Member States' energy products. It was concluded that the objectives of the Community, particularly the regional security of energy supply, promotion of combined electricity and heat production, and employment, favour the energy use of peat rather than oppose to it. As for the aid to small power plants, it can be considered that the grounds for obtaining an exemption from the EC State aid prohibition exist, because the benefits of the aid referred to are more important than the disadvantages brought by it for undistorted trade and competition. This situation cannot be expected to change in the near future, either, e.g. as a result of the climate policy. As regards heat production, peat taxation cannot be considered to include State aid or to lead to discrimination against exported fuels like coal. This is essentially based on the taxation sovereignty of Member States and the related right to enhance national goals by means of taxation. The current energy tax regulation by the Community or the Commission's Proposal for an Energy Tax Directive do not seem to pose any obstacles to continuing Finland's present energy taxation policy. (orig.)

  5. E-PR as an instrument of forming the foreign policy image of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereshchuk Vitaliy Ivanovych

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the role of the Internet as a global communication tool in the PR-support of the implementation of Ukraine's foreign policy. The article pays particular attention to the features of the websites of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and diplomatic missions of Ukraine as an image-forming tool.

  6. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Garrido de Barros

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989, based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields. A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers.

  7. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, Sandra Garrido; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. METHODS Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu’s genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. RESULTS AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. CONCLUSIONS The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. PMID:27463255

  8. The Impact of Environmental Policy on Foreign Trade: Tobey revisited with a Bilateral Flow Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beers, van Cees; Bergh, van den Jeroen C.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Whereas theoretical analyses of trade and environment indicate thatrelatively strict environmental policies can have a strong impact on foreign trade, empirical studies present mixed results. This study presents new empirical results that tie together two previous empirical studies employing a

  9. Foreign Policy and The Cultural Factor : A Research and Education Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. P. Ester; Pieter van Nispen tot Pannerden

    2013-01-01

    In this introduction we have outlined the vital importance of the role of culture (i.e.: the cultural factor) in the field of international relations, foreign policy, and diplomacy and the professional need for cultural competence among its practitioners.

  10. Observing the History of U.S. Foreign Cultural Policy Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Yu Filimonov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available U.S. popular culture was considered initially by American political establishment as a mean of entertainment rather than an instrument of foreign policy. Before the Cold War American politicians never seriously thought of creating a cultural institution in the federal government. The paradox is that country where cultural export became later so large-scaled and caused a lot of controversy worldwide, originally demonstrated almost no interest in organized foreign cultural policy making. In the late 1930's and especially after World War II American political elite discovered and confirmed its view of culture as an effective tool of foreign policy, particularly at the ideological level (meanwhile the Soviet Union was leading in that confrontation for a long time - up to Gorbachev`s perestroika - outpacing the USA in production of soft power. Ideological dimension has always been and still remains an integral part of the U.S. foreign cultural policy.

  11. (Inefficiency of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy: Ukraine, Brexit, Trump and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipec Ondřej

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to explore and analyze key determinants of EU Common Foreign and Security Policy efficiency. For this purpose a 3C analytical approach is used, exploring EU foreign and security policy consistency, capacities and the dimension of cooperation. Article analyzes both horizontal and vertical, consistency of EU Foreign and Security policy especially with connection to Ukraine crises and diverging interests of EU member states. EU capacities are explored with main focus on military spending and challenges related to limited spending. EU military decline is put in contrast with new emerging regional powers. In the area of cooperation article is dedicated mainly to ineffective partnership with Turkey, cold attitude of Trump administration towards Europe and the implications of Brexit for EU foreign and security policy.

  12. Changing foreign policy: the Obama Administration’s decision to oust Mubarak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Céu Pinto Arena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper analyses the decision of the Obama administration to redirect its foreign policy towards Egypt in the wake of the Arab Spring. It attempts to highlight the issue of how governments deal with decision-making at times of crisis, and under which circumstances they take critical decisions that lead to major shifts in their foreign policy track record. It focuses on the process that led to a reassessment of US (United States foreign policy, shifting from decades of support to the autocratic regime of Hosni Mubarak, towards backing his ouster. Specifically, the paper attempts to assess to what extent the decision to withdraw US support from a longstanding state-leader and ally in the Middle East can be seen as a foreign policy change (FPC. A relevant research question this paper pursues is: how can the withdrawal of US support to a regime considered as an ally be considered, in itself, as a radical FPC?

  13. A Strategic Assessment of South Asia: Prescription for US Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    national pnde m its status as a nuclear power and seeks global recogiutlon of its leadership role m South Asia With a burgeonmg population of 900...ASSESSMENT OF SOUTH ASIA PRESCRIPTION FOR US FOREIGN POLICY COURSE 5604 ESSAY Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...SUBTITLE A Strategic Assessment of South Asia Prescription for US Foreign Policy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  14. A Review of the Turnaround in Iranian Foreign Policy during President Hassan Rohani's Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Haghgoo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The transition of power in the Islamic Republic of Iran is not only a change of guards in the different political and executive institutions during each electoral cycle but it also radically redefines the fundamental aspects of self-identity and the very definition of national interests and priorities and even how they should be defined. Upon the assumption of power by President Hassan Rohani in Iran, foreign policy of the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been exposed to tremendous developments. Prevalence of conservatism over revolutionary mindset, nationalism over trans-nationalism, and structuralism over agent-oriented trends are considered as the three main pillars of these developments. In Rohani’s administration there is no longer any trace of the revolutionary behavior of Ahmadinejad’s era. This turnaround in the Islamic Republic of Iran’s foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. We have witnessed such a shift in Iranian foreign policy after the end of the 8-year war with Iraq, albeit with different dimensions. An assessment of this issue would greatly enhance our understanding of the country’s foreign policy. Accordingly, assessment of the real roots of these foreign policy shifts is the main objective of the present article. Evidently, the shift in foreign policy, more than anything else can be attributed to changes in the definition of the concept of national interests, and how each administration defines such national and transnational interests. Any shift or transformation in this concept, as the guiding principal of foreign policy, creates a context for the shift in the national priorities, orientations, and strategies in its interaction with its external environment. By highlighting the three concepts of “circulation of elites”, “perception towards national identity”, and “structural developments”, the present article endeavors to review the causes of differing understandings of the concept of

  15. The Uses of Sovereignty in Twenty First Century Russian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Deyermond, Ruth Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary Russian foreign policy demonstrates a dual approach to state sovereignty, using a Westphalian model of sovereignty outside the former Soviet region and a post-Soviet model inside it. This approach performs three functions in contemporary Russian foreign policy: securing Russian national interests at domestic, regional, and international levels; balancing against the United States; and acting as a marker of ‘non-Western’ power identity in an emergent multipolar order. The conflict...

  16. Foreign Military Sales: Shaping Foreign Policy and Enhancing the Industrial Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, Jacob

    2001-01-01

    The Foreign Military Sales (FMS) program, a Defense Department operation that manages sales of defense equipment as well as services and training to allied governments, is becoming a source of increasing dissatisfaction for the U.S...

  17. Final environmental statement: US Spent Fuel Policy. Storage of foreign spent power reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-05-01

    In October 1977, the Department of Energy (DOE) announced a Spent Fuel Storage Policy for nuclear power reactors. Under this policy, as approved by the President, US utilities will be given the opportunity to deliver spent fuel to US Government custody in exchange for payment of a fee. The US Government will also be prepared to accept a limited amount of spent fuel from foreign sources when such action would contribute to meeting nonproliferation goals. Under the new policy, spent fuel transferred to the US Government will be delivered - at user expense - to a US Government-approved site. Foreign spent fuel would be stored in Interim Spent Fuel Storage (ISFS) facilities with domestic fuel. This volume of the environmental impact statement includes effects associated with implementing or not implementing the Spent Fuel Storage Policy for the foreign fuels. The analyses show that there are no substantial radiological health impacts whether the policy is implemented or not. In no case considered does the population dose commitment exceed 0.000006% of the world population dose commitment from natural radiation sources over the period analyzed. Full implementation of the US offer to accept a limited amount of foreign spent fuel for storage provides the greatest benefits for US nonproliferation policy. Acceptance of lesser quantities of foreign spent fuel in the US or less US support of foreign spent fuel storage abroad provides some nonproliferation benefits, but at a significantly lower level than full implementation of the offer. Not implementing the policy in regard to foreign spent fuel will be least productive in the context of US nonproliferation objectives. The remainder of the summary provides a brief description of the options that are evaluated, the facilities involved in these options, and the environmental impacts, including nonproliferation considerations, associated with each option

  18. Foreign Language Faculty's Appropriation of an Academic Publishing Policy at a US University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Ronald; Gómez Soler, Inmaculada

    2018-01-01

    As a result of internationalisation, many universities have developed policies that encourage publications in English. This study explores this issue by examining multilingual scholars' experiences of publishing policies in an Anglophone context and more specifically within the discipline of foreign languages--an inherently plurilingual discipline…

  19. “Soft Power” of Foreign Policy Activity of the USA: Institutions and Mechanisms of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ольга Александровна Фролова

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main institutes and mechanism of soft power policy, its preconditions and formation are being considered in this article. In the end author comes to conclusion that nowadays it’s more appropriate to talk about smart power in context of US’ foreign policy.

  20. Foreign policy considerations in dealing with Afghanistan’s refugees: when security and protection collide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne van Selm

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The values of democracy, justice and freedom arestated goals of the foreign policies of Western states.These are the same values that the terrorist attacksof 11 September challenged. They are also the valuesthat should inform refugee protection policies.

  1. Review and Analysis of the Colombian Foreign Language Bilingualism Policies and Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Sará, Mary Mily

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews the background of the foreign language bilingualism in Colombia, as well as the Colombian bilingualism plans and the policy launched between 2004 and 2016. Then, these plans and policy are analyzed taking into account the most common criticisms from the academic community. In this sense, aspects such as the lack of continuity,…

  2. Border dimension of Chilean foreign policies: Immobility and urgency of new dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovando Santana

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The following article draws the priorities of border public policy that define the Chilean foreign policy. Through a theoretical framework from the rational–reflective approach of International Relations, we argue that despite of the increasing openness, internationalization of the country, and the emergence of new actors and subnational initiatives; the views and options between the actors of this new area and the definitions of foreign policy not always match. We propose the need to establish mechanisms that settle the positions among regional social–political actors, intermediate agencies and the central level.

  3. EU foreign policy after Lisbon - will the new high representative and the external action service make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    "The Lisbon treaty will fundamentally alter the foreign policy set-up of the European Union. Among the key innovations figure the establishment of the foreign affairs high representative and the European External Action Service (EAS). Their creation may well lead to a new era of European diplomacy, providing the Union with a genuine foreign policy chief and a full-fledged foreign service. Are these only high hopes, or will the Lisbon institutional engineering really make a difference? Will th...

  4. Soft Power, Hard Aspirations: the Shifting Role of Power in Brazilian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo M. Valença

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Journalists and policy analysts have highlighted the emergence of Brazil as a regional power. However, little attention has been paid to its foreign policy strategies. Brazil's rise to prominence in world politics represents the historical culmination of a foreign policy featuring two main strategies – persuasion and consensus building – both of which emphasise the use of soft power. We analyse four current foreign policy initiatives: the campaign for a permanent seat on the UNSC; the development of a nuclear submarine; Brazil's leadership of the UN peacekeeping mission in Haiti; and government support for Brazilian multinationals. We suggest a growing tension between these initiatives and the two strategies identified above. These initiatives reflect the view current among some policymakers that if Brazil is to rise as a global power it must play by the rules of great power politics.

  5. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enever, Janet

    2012-01-01

    The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education…

  6. Oslo Ministerial Declaration--global health: a pressing foreign policy issue of our time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-21

    Under their initiative on Global Health and Foreign Policy, launched in September, 2006, in New York, the Ministers of Foreign Affairs of Brazil, France, Indonesia, Norway, Senegal, South Africa, and Thailand issued the following statement in Oslo on March 20, 2007-In today's era of globalisation and interdependence there is an urgent need to broaden the scope of foreign policy. Together, we face a number of pressing challenges that require concerted responses and collaborative efforts. We must encourage new ideas, seek and develop new partnerships and mechanisms, and create new paradigms of cooperation. We believe that health is one of the most important, yet still broadly neglected, long-term foreign policy issues of our time. Life and health are our most precious assets. There is a growing awareness that investment in health is fundamental to economic growth and development. It is generally acknowledged that threats to health may compromise a country's stability and security. We believe that health as a foreign policy issue needs a stronger strategic focus on the international agenda. We have therefore agreed to make impact on health a point of departure and a defining lens that each of our countries will use to examine key elements of foreign policy and development strategies, and to engage in a dialogue on how to deal with policy options from this perspective. As Ministers of Foreign Affairs, we will work to: increase awareness of our common vulnerability in the face of health threats by bringing health issues more strongly into the arenas of foreign policy discussions and decisions, in order to strengthen our commitment to concerted action at the global level; build bilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation for global health security by strengthening the case for collaboration and brokering broad agreement, accountability, and action; reinforce health as a key element in strategies for development and for fighting poverty, in order to reach the

  7. Turkey in Search of Relevant Foreign Policy Strategy (2002-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmanov Dayan R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main idea of this article is to describe the process of Turkish foreign policy evolvement during the rule of Justice and Development party (JDP. From weak economy and unstable political situation in 2001, JDP quickly formulated a new strategy of foreign policy and stabilized economy. In the article the Turkish foreign policy in the 21st century is divided into several stages which respond to different international threats and circumstances. The first stage was a peacekeeping stage when Turkey tried to stabilize the situation near its borders and implement peace initiatives for the purpose to find new markets and allies. As a result, Turkey formulated a new strategy of foreign policy, called “Zero Problems Policy” which aimed to create a ring of friendly countries on the borders. On the second stage, Turkish foreign policy was more active – Turkey tried to balance among regional power centers and confront with one of the most powerful actors – Israel. Confrontation with Tel Aviv was a preface to the third stage, and today under the influence of “Arab Spring” and desire to change its role in international relations, Turkey refused “Zero Problems Policy” strategy and turned to a new aggressive and revanchist idea – neo- Ottomanism. Ankara tries to build a new regional set of rules where Turkey will play a leading role.

  8. Lessons for Japanese foreign aid from research on aid’s impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Tarp, Finn

    Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which infrastru......Japan has an impressive history when it comes to aid, industrial policy, and infrastructure development, both as a country that saw meteoric development of its own, and as a country that has been one of the world’s largest donors for decades. Looking towards an uncertain future in which...... infrastructure must be made resilient towards climate change, and the value of aid is questioned, few actors can offer more useful experience. Restoring structural transformation as a donor priority, and recognizing the critical role it played in the development of Japan, is a vital step towards making the real...... gains aid has provided in human security sustainable. Infrastructure investment can not only reduce spatial inequality, and provide the basis for growth through inter-connected regions and economic hubs, with enhanced national analytical capacity, and technical assistance to project preparation, it can...

  9. Policy responses to HIV/AIDS in Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The countries of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) are confronted with one of the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemics worldwide, largely driven through injecting drug use. This article, based on a review of academic and grey literature, explores how they have responded. We find major similarities and differences across the region. At one extreme is Turkmenistan, which denies that there is any problem, does not offer harm reduction services or HIV/AIDS treatment and does not report any meaningful data to the international community. Uzbekistan is also pretty closed to outside influences, has discontinued its opioid substitution project and shares with Turkmenistan the legal prohibition of male-to-male sex. Kyrgyzstan originally led many progressive approaches in the region and, like neighbouring Tajikistan, has received substantial assistance by international agencies, in particular the Global Fund. Kazakhstan, with a much higher gross domestic product per capita, has taken on the financing of harm reduction activities through its national budget and has liberalised its drug policies. Yet, across the region punitive approaches to injecting drug use and people living with HIV/AIDS persist as do stigma and discrimination, while coverage with harm reduction programmes and treatment services is still low although with substantial variation across countries.

  10. Coercion: A Credible and Capable United States Military Instrument of Power Key to Future US Foreign Policy Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-17

    Rubintstein, Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader: Presidential Speeches with Commentary (New York: M.E. Sharp, 2000), 166...Research Service, Kosovo: Review and Analysis, 4. 27 Alvin Z. Rubintstein, Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader...Rubintstein, Alvin Z., Albina Shayevich and Boris Zlotnikov, The Clinton Foreign Policy Reader: Presidential Speeches with Commentary. New York: M.E. Sharp

  11. Persia lost : how the foreign policy hawks of the George W. Bush administration blocked rapprochement with Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fagernes, Therese

    2011-01-01

    The presidency of George W. Bush was a period of controversy. The foreign policy that the administration implemented would be criticized both inside of the United States and across the world. The purpose of this thesis is to look at how the senior members of the Bush administration’s foreign policy team influenced the foreign policy process during President George Walker Bush’s first term. It will apply the interaction and bitter opposition between these individuals and the defining events th...

  12. Internet & Human Rights in foreign policy : comparing narratives in the US and EU internet governance agenda

    OpenAIRE

    WAGNER, Benjamin; GOLLATZ, Kirsten; CALDERARO, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The intricate relationship between Internet, on the one hand, and Human Rights, on the other, is increasingly becoming relevant in foreign policy. Discussions are animated by different actors, providing contributions from multiple perspectives, yet the debate on Internet and Human Rights is still fragmented and has not evolved into a unified agenda. This paper explores this on-going debate over competing perspectives, and frames the current discussion on Internet and Human Rights in foreign p...

  13. HIV/AIDS and Housing Policy Review in South Africa | Ndinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article discusses policy issues around HIV/ AIDS, through a review of international and. South African literature on housing. The article identifi es gaps in the existing housing and other sectoral policies and makes suggestions on the possible policy options that can be devised to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South

  14. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  15. Are Foreign IT Workers Cheaper? U.S. Visa Policies and Compensation of Information Technology Professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Sunil Mithas; Henry C. Lucas, Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The use of H-1B and other work visas to hire foreign information technology (IT) professionals in the United States has attracted significant controversy and policy debates. On one hand, hiring high-skill foreign IT professionals on work visas can be advantageous for U.S. firms and the overall economy. On the other hand, high-skill immigration can adversely impact the wages of foreign and American IT professionals. This study uses data on skills and compensation of more than 50,000 IT profess...

  16. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  17. The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon in the EU – Profiles, Threats & Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi van Ginkel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the widespread media attention for foreign fighters in Europe, very little is known about the phenomenon itself, something also evidenced by the lack of a single foreign fighter definition across the EU. In a study commissioned by the Netherlands National Coordinator for Security and Counterterrorism (NCTV, ICCT addresses this gap by analysing not only the numbers and characteristics of foreign fighters across the EU, but also how the Union and Member States assess the threat of foreign fighters as well as their policy responses regarding security, preventive and legislative measures. The Report also outlines a series of policy options aimed both at the EU and its Member States. Findings include: Of a total estimated 3,922 – 4,294 foreign fighters from EU Member States, around 30% have returned to their home countries. A majority of around 2,838 foreign fighters come from just four countries: Belgium, France, Germany, and the United Kingdom, with Belgium having the highest per-capita FF contingent. There is no clear-cut profile of a European foreign fighter. Data indicates that a majority originate from metropolitan areas, with many coming from the same neighbourhoods, that an average of 17% are female, and that the percentage of converts among foreign fighters ranges from 6% to 23%. The radicalisation process of foreign fighters is reported to be short and often involves circles of friends radicalising as a group and deciding to leave jointly for Syria and Iraq. EU1 In analysing the policies of Member States in response to the foreign fighter phenomenon, the authors recommend that strategies be implemented which encompass a suitable, proportional, context-specific and effective mix of policy responses, taken from a toolbox of security, legislative, and preventive measures. Their analysis reveals that, while many Member States have already bolstered security and legislative policy measures, a larger focus needs to be put on preventive

  18. EU foreign direct investment policy and human rights

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro, Sérgio

    2016-01-01

    The acquisition, through the Treaty of Lisbon, of the exclusive competence in the negotiation of trade and investment agreements , binding all European Union member states, represents a significant change in the role of the European Union as a global actor. The relationship between human rights and foreign direct investment is a search for the densification of the cosmopolitan ideal of human dignity in the reality of twentyfirst century. Being regarded as an iconic figure for the defense and ...

  19. Current Policy Issues in Early Foreign Language Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Enever

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of policy in relation to language learning at the early primary level of schooling has received only limited attention in the literature on policy studies in general, and within the framework of an emerging education policy space across Europe specifically. This paper offers an introductory discussion of the growth of education policy in Europe, identifying the extent to which the histories of national language policies are being re-shaped by the rise of numerical data and comparison within a newly-formed European education space. A summary review of key measures of particular relevance to early language learning illustrates thescale of “soft” policy mechanisms now available as tools in an on-going process of shaping, adapting and refining policy in response to the continuously shifting language priorities that arise particularly during periods of economic instability. This paper draws on key themes from a transnational, longitudinal study of early language learning in Europe to discuss the extent to which implementation in schools has so far been moulded by a plethora of recommendations, reports and indicators formulated in response to the step change in policy development that has occurred since the publication of the Lisbon Strategy (2000.

  20. The Concept of Fear and the Matter of Emotions in Lithuania’s Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunalas Benas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the concept of fear in theories of international relations and foreign policy. The text discusses the concepts of the phenomenon of fear and rational behavior emphasizing that the concept of fear, contrary to the concept of anarchy, has no emotional charge in the theory of international relations. Having surveyed the factor of emotions in the theory of international relations and foreign policy, the author suggests that the emotional meaningful charge be returned to the concept of fear. The study stresses that fear (if treated as an emotion can also have a destructive function disrupting the international system and disturbing the international communication. The third part of the article is devoted to an analysis of the ideas of Lithuania‘s foreign policy. The study explores the idea of Lithuania as a regional leader. The writer claims that the idea was irrational because it was based on the factor of the emotion of fear.

  1. Evolution of International Research Cooperation models in the Contemporary Foreign Policy Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukovsky I.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the principle models of international research and academic cooperation. The author divides international academic cooperation into periods and analyses the evolution of the connection between foreign policy and international cooperation in education and research aimed at raising the prestige and improving the position of a state in the international arena. The author focuses on the non-linear nature of periods stemming from the fact that different states are characterized by different (non-linear time cycles resulting from the differences in cultural and historical backgrounds and dissimilar foreign policy contents and formats. Through comparing a variety of foreign policy approaches (including that of the Russian Federation, the author answers the question about the contribution of universities to the development of mechanisms of cooperation and mutual understanding in the modern world — a world increasingly influenced by information and communication technologies.

  2. Setting the scene in Nuuk: Introducing the cast of characters in Greenlandic foreign policy narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Marc; Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2017-01-01

    policy strategy; “It is important that the interest in the Arctic and Greenland is converted into concrete opportunities for the Greenlandic people and its development as a nation” (2011:3). This chapter investigates how Greenland’s foreign policy supports the national self-image in combining indigenous...... international politics and foreign policy as driven by narratively structured discourses constructing nation state identities in relation to Others.......Greenland has for decades worked towards enhanced independent agency in international politics. The renewed global interest in the Arctic has given new impetus to a strategy of diversifying its dependency relations as a way to postcoloniality. As the Government of Greenland puts it in its foreign...

  3. Russian foreign policy in the realm of European security through the lens of neoclassical realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Kropatcheva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different views on (in-predictability and on (non-cooperation in Russian foreign policy towards the West, but also on the question about how - that is, through which theoretical framework - to interpret it. This essay aims at contributing to the debate around these three issues. Its goal is to demonstrate the expediency of using a neoclassical realist theoretical perspective, enhanced by the inclusion of such subjective factors as status/prestige and perceptions. While there are factors in Russian domestic and foreign policy which give it a certain degree of unpredictability, nevertheless, if it is studied in a comprehensive way, it turns out to be more consistent and predictable than it at first seems. Even though Russia is often accused of being anti-Western and non-cooperative, this argument does not hold true: Russian foreign policy is selective and includes both cooperative and non-cooperative tactics.

  4. Bollywoodization of foreign policy: How film discourse portrays tension between states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Rasul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As the nexus between film industry and state apparatus has grown critical and complex in the wake of war on terror, academic circle have paid attention to identify the patterns of relationship between entertainment industry of a country and its foreign policy. To understand the role of the soft power in assisting governments to secure their interests at international level, this article examines the relationship between Bollywood and the Indian foreign policy through the lens of critical political economy of communication approach. Popular films portraying tension and cooperation between the South Asian neighbors were critically analyzed, and the results indicated that Bollywood closely followed the foreign policy initiative of the Indian government.

  5. The October Revolution’s Foreign Policy Program: Origins and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Alekseevich Lantsov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the ideological origins of Soviet foreign policy practice after the victory of the October Revolution of 1917 are analysed. The Marxist and Liberal concepts of international politics had common roots. It predetermined the similarity of peaceful settlement's proposals made by the Russian Bolsheviks after the October Revolution; they corresponded to the proposals of the US President W. Wilson. The authors pay attention to the fact that the October revolution’s leaders initially viewed it as an integral part of the world revolution. So, the hope for success of the world revolution was a factor determining the Soviet Russia’s domestic and foreign policy. It is noticed that the Leninist conception of the world revolution supposed a close link between the labor movement and national liberation movements in colonial and semi-colonial countries. That link founded an important direction in Soviet foreign policy. In different periods of Soviet history, the attention to national liberation movements depended on the Soviet Union’s foreign policy situation. Despite all the contradictions in the foreign policy of the USSR, which was conditioned both by ideological and geopolitical factors, it always had willingness to support the principle of national self-determination, which in fact belonged to the legacy of the foreign policy platform of the October Revolution. As a result, the Soviet Union made a significant contribution to the elimination of the colonial system and thereby contributed to a change in the nature of world politics and international relations in the 20th century.

  6. India in the Arctic: Science, Geopolitics and Soft Power - Perspectives on Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gewelt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of contemporary Indian foreign policy from the vantage point of India’s recent engagements in the Arctic. By analysing what is argued to be an ‘Indian Arctic discourse’ that emerged between India’s first expedition to Svalbard in 2007 and the following accession to observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013, this thesis explores how this discourse frames the Arctic within a broader Indian foreign policy perspective. The Indian Arctic discourse establishes India a...

  7. "India’s Foreign Policy: Retrospect and Prospect” by Sumit Ganguly (ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2011-08-01

    reliable allies and a counterweight against the Pakistan- China alliance starting in the 1960s. Chapter 6 on India- Southeast Asia relations shows how difficult it has been in the past for India to exert influence in the region given its low economic integration due to its autarkic model. Despite these limitations, worries about Indian hegemony in the region have surfaced numerous times in the past decades. Chapter 7 (on India-Iran relations is among the most interesting, reflecting how challenging it has been for India to maintain warm ties to an important energy supplier despite sharp criticism by India’s other allies, namely the United States, Israel and the Arab nations. Chapter 8 (on India-Israel relations is a fascinating case study of how the Indian leadership used a brief window of opportunity after the Cold War to diversity its partnerships, making Israel into one of India’s most important providers of military equipment. Chapter 9 (on India-Korea ties is more normative and points to commonalities regarding the dependence on Middle Eastern energy and the exposure to piracy in the Indian Ocean, but it remains somewhat unclear why Korea deserves a full chapter, while other important countries such as Turkey, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia or the EU are left out. Chapter 10 (on India-Japan relations is yet another example of how the Cold War constrained India’s foreign policy, given that Japan regarded the Soviet Union as a threat in the region. Despite not standing on the same side in the “cauldron of East-West confrontation”, the two managed to cooperate during the Cold War, and by the 1980s Japan was India’s largest aid donor. While both countries stand divided over India’s refusal to sign the NPT, the rise of China is likely to strengthen ties between India and Japan. Chapter 11 describes India’s ties to Russia, its former stalwart ally which remains India’s most important provider of arms, with over 70%, although this figure is set to decline

  8. Foreign Aid and Security Sector Reform in Latin America: mapping donors and recipient countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maura Tomesani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: this article is part of a PhD thesis interested in confronting the demands of Latin American law enforcement institutions with programs in the security sector reform fostered by foreign agencies for international assistance on the continent. The guiding hypothesis of this study is that programs of international aid focused on the security sector reform in Latin America overlook law enforcement demands for institutional strengthening. I suggest that the international offering in this area follows a regional agenda, which is basically preventive and is very resistant to work with law enforcement organizations. Part of the work is mapping donor and recipient countries for analyzing programs implemented in Latin American countries. This article presents the literature review for this investigation and the first results of our empiric research.

  9. America's Credibility at Stake: Arab Perceptions of US Foreign Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meyer, Michael

    2002-01-01

    ... and Arab governments as biased against the Arabs and in favor of Israel From the Arab view, two lesser factors that contribute to Arab feelings that US policies are unjust include the long-term American...

  10. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix B, foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel characteristics and transportation casks. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix B of a draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. It discusses relevant characterization and other information of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel that could be managed under the proposed action. It also discusses regulations for the transport of radioactive materials and the design of spent fuel casks

  11. The EU’s Difficulty in Translating Interests into Effective Foreign Policy Action: A Look at the Ukraine Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Nicholas Ross

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The EU’s foreign policy response(s to the unfolding Ukraine crisis has further illustrated its difficulty in making effective foreign policy decisions. Using a neoclassical realist analytical framework, this paper argues that although the EU did have tangible collective interests in pursuing its Ukraine foreign policy, it was unable to adequately filter these through its domestic setting. Three key constraints to the EU’s Ukrainian foreign policy> were identified: decision-makers ’ miscalculations; rigid normative demands; and a reliance on consensus politics. Ultimately, the Ukraine crisis illustrated that the EU, in current incarnation, cannot translate interests into effective foreign policies, even when making policy for their direct neighbourhood.

  12. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  13. The genesis of the AIDS policy and AIDS Space in Brazil (1981-1989).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Sandra Garrido de; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2016-07-21

    To analyze the genesis of the policy for controlling AIDS in Brazil. Socio-historical study (1981-1989), based on Bordieu's genetic sociology, by document analysis, bibliographical review, and in-depth interviews. It consisted of a connection between the analysis of the paths of 33 agents involved in the creation of a social space focusing on AIDS-related issues and the historical possibility conditions of the drafting of a specific policy. AIDS Space is a gathering point for the paths of agents from several social fields (medical, scientific, political, and bureaucratic fields). A specific space for relationships, which enabled the drafting of a policy for controlling the AIDS epidemic, but also a place where the authority to talk about the meaning of the disease, the methods to prevent and treat it was under dispute. The analysis showed how the various structures (democratic administrations in Sao Paulo and at the national level, with public health officers taking important positions) and the lack of a specific therapy contributed to social agents of different ranks and backgrounds to initially set prevention as a priority. The rise of the sanitary movement, the organization of SUS, and the dominance of the medical field at the AIDS Space contributed to foster treatment as a part of the measures to control the epidemic. These conditions allowed drafting a policy based on the integrality of care, by linking prevention and treatment in the following decade, with important participation from state bureaucracy and researchers. Analisar a gênese da política de controle da aids no Brasil. Estudo sócio-histórico (1981-1989), orientado pela sociologia genética de Bourdieu, por meio de análise documental, revisão bibliográfica e entrevistas em profundidade. Consistiu na articulação entre a análise das trajetórias de 33 agentes envolvidos na criação de um espaço social voltado para as questões relativas à aids e as condições históricas de possibilidade

  14. Reinforcing Success: Using Lesson’s Learned from Foreign Aid Delivery to Plan Theater Security Cooperation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    April 2009 Thesis Advisor: Captain Joanne Fish , JFSC i Abstract Huge outlays of foreign aid...In Zanzibar , an Indian Ocean island that is now part of Tanzania, malaria infection rates have dramatically improved.16 This improvement is... industrial scale in the Niger Delta, near Port Harcourt. The theft, called bunkering, involves tapping into oil pipelines, usually at night, and

  15. American Foreign Policy Think Tanks and their Views on Baltic Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Jonathan A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent events have created a sense of urgency within the U.S. foreign policy establishment to update its strategy towards Russia. The Baltic states are seen to be particularly vulnerable and because of its NATO commitments and its history of underwriting security in the region, the U.S. is under pressure to develop an appropriate response. Policy and research institutes-or think tanks-are an important part of the U.S. foreign policy establishment, and given the influence they often have on American foreign policy, it is sensible for any student of Baltic security to evaluate the think tanks’ current perspectives on the viability and desirability of U.S. security commitments in the region. To that end, this article evaluates the outputs of twelve prominent U.S. foreign policy think tanks according to the views they expressed across four general groupings of issues: positions on U.S. grand strategy, perceptions of Moscow’s intentions and capabilities, assessments of NATO’s heath and its value to U.S. security, and the level of commitment to, and assessment of, the security vulnerabilities of the Baltic states. The findings dispel a common misperception that U.S. foreign policy think tanks are generally shifting towards a realist perspective on the Baltic states; they generally do not support U.S. retrenchment, most consider Russia as having revanchist motives, and as a whole support bolstering the defences of NATO’s easternmost flank. However, it would also be an exaggeration to conclude that the U.S. think tank community overall were staunch defenders of the Baltic states, as for many there is a prevailing inattentiveness to Baltic security issues.

  16. Kantei diplomacy?:Japan's hybrid leadership in foreign and security policy

    OpenAIRE

    Pugliese, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    This article operationalizes Japanese leadership in foreign and security policy, specifically the Abe administrations’ consistent China balancing. It will do so to dispel instances of Premier-centered diplomacy and posit that Abe's diplomatic agenda has rested on a ‘hybrid’ policy-making authority, where the leverage enjoyed by the Prime Minister's office (the Kantei) rested on little-appreciated politicized personnel appointments and demotions within the bureaucratic apparatus, specifically ...

  17. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. This is a summary of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel

  18. Populist-Nationalism and Foreign Policy: Cultural Diplomacy, International Interaction and Resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Higgott, Richard; Proud, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    The Report addresses resilience strategies as a response to nationalists as actors of foreign cultural policy. It focuses on the last several years, especially that period since the global financial crisis of 2008 that has seen a rise of nationalist populism as a political phenomenon across the globe - including the United States, Asia and Europe. The Report captures the essence of what we call the populist nationalist zeitgeist (PNZ) and its infiltration of the European political and policy ...

  19. Language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries: A recontextualization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vesa Peltokorpi; Eero Vaara

    2012-01-01

    This study adopts a recontextualization perspective on language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. Drawing on a field study of 101 subsidiaries in Japan, we develop a contingency model that distinguishes between four different types of recontextualization with characteristic language policies and practices: developing/locally adaptive, developing/globally integrated, established/locally adaptive, and established/globally integrated. Our analysis shows how each of the...

  20. Nigeria's Foreign policy: A problem analysis | Saliu | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for Researchers · for Journals · for Authors · for Policy Makers · about Open Access · Journal Quality. 521 African Journals. Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free To Read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Featuring journals from 32 Countries: Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana ...

  1. Currency Policy Coordination оf Asean Countries: Foreign Trade Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Valeryevna Dyomina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study estimates foreign trade effects of currency policy measures in ASEAN countries. On the base of exchange rate dynamics the author concludes that during the period of 2000-2014 ASEAN countries in general used competitive devaluation policy of national currencies to CNY, JPY, KRW and EUR and revaluation to USD. To eliminate negative effects of competitive devaluation policy the paper proposes currency policy coordination of ASEAN countries that could be done by pegging of national currencies to a common basket. Employing the SAC (Stable Aggregate Currency method the author suggests 4 options for a common currency basket. The researcher estimates foreign trade effects of currency policy coordination in ASEAN countries for every option of a currency basket in three following cases: ASEAN as a whole, ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4. The author concludes that the optimal form of currency policy coordination in ASEAN is pegging of exchange rates of national currencies to a common basket composed of 13 East Asian currencies. This currency basket option has maximum foreign trade effects for the Association as a whole and by sub-groups of ASEAN-6 and ASEAN-4 when it devaluates to the U.S. dollar

  2. Utility of Military Strategy as an Instrument of Foreign Policy | Ebaye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research has taken a critical appraisal of state actors in the international system, and the utility of military power as an instrument of foreign policy. The paper asserts as Osgood did, that one of the main prerequisite of a credible state actor is to develop the military compatibilities and political will, to back its diplomacy by ...

  3. 78 FR 54623 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 2139a). Under the provisions of section 6 of the EAA... proliferation controls. BIS is also interested in industry information relating to the following: 1. Information on the effect of foreign policy-based export controls on sales of U.S. products to third countries (i...

  4. Xenophobia in South Africa: Re-thinking the Nigeria foreign policy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    2013-07-14

    Jul 14, 2013 ... and foster regional cohesion. In contrast, African Renaissance experienced definitional re-conceptualization and re-evaluation to depict South Africa nationalism instead of. Pan-Africanism. This paper interrogates the outburst of xenophobia in South Africa in relation to Nigeria foreign policy of Afrocentrism, ...

  5. Ideals and Reality in Foreign Policy: American Intervention in the Caribbean. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Alfred

    Centering around case studies of American military intervention (1898 to 1933) in the Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Nicaragua, this unit invites the student to compare the results of such intervention with the foreign policy goals and ideals the interventions were intended to implement. It confronts him with the dilemma of power in international…

  6. Foreign investment: policies and effects on the petroleum industry in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tindill, P.

    1995-01-01

    The theme of this Conference is ''The Post Maui Challenge - Investment and Development Opportunities''. In order to ensure the development and exploitation of petroleum discoveries in New Zealand, considerable capital will be required, particularly from overseas. This paper briefly reviews the Government's foreign investment policies and procedures, and highlights some trends. (Author)

  7. The Experience of history for a new Nigerian foreign policy thrust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Experience of history for a new Nigerian foreign policy thrust. Amstrong Matiu Adejo. Abstract. No abstract available. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  8. Xenophobia in South Africa: Re-thinking the Nigeria foreign policy of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pervasive nature of xenophobia in South Africa interrogate the ethos of Africa Renaissance and provides alibi to the dysfunctional character of the Africa project. This paper interrogate the essence of Nigeria foreign policy of Afrocentrism against the backdrop of xenophobic manifestation in South Africa, it attempted to ...

  9. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In the international debate it is often argued that Denmark in its major foreign policy priorities has sided with the USA since the Cold War rather than with the EU or its European partners. The article examines whether this is correct, and if it is, why this is so, since 2001. The paper also asks...

  10. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    and outline the main approaches involved; to give an overview of how external factors impact foreign policy conduct and give an overview about India’s role in defining international norms and regulations; finally the paper gives some theoretical markers, suggestions and tentative concluding remarks....

  11. Saudi AWACS (Airborne Warning and Control System): American Foreign Policy in Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    Processes. New York. Praeger 1982. 325 p. (Saudi Foreign Policy Making, pp 195-238.) 3. Inbody , Donald S. "Saudi Arabia and the United States...Perceptions and Gulf Security/by Donald S. Inbody , Lt, USN." Monterey. CA, Naval Postgraduate School. June, 1984. 4. Pierre. Andrew J. The Global Politics of

  12. Business as Means of Foreign Policy or Politics as Means of Production?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reckendrees, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    and to use them efficiently building up an industrial empire that comprehended the German, Polish, and Austrian iron and steel industry. The interplay of German foreign policy and private business activities in the inter-war years is analyzed as an agency problem in a specific “public-private partnership...

  13. Regional integration and Brazilian Foreign Policy: Strategies in the South American space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Soreanu Pecequilo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present, based on theoretical studies of integration, the evolution of this process in Latin America and, most recently, in South America. Based on these studies, the goal is to analyze the role played by Brazil in the process, which defines as priorities of its foreign policy a regional and global framework for its international action that is based on both cooperation and power projection.The research has been conducted based on theories of integration, an historical background on Latin American integration and in Brazilian foreign policy, through its contemporary agenda. The answer was based on a comparative agenda and in a bibliographical critical analysis of the research material.The main findings of the paper point out that Latin American integration has specific features linked to the economic, political and stragetic realities of the continent that show the limitations of some theories applied to the European process, also that it depends on Brazilian foreign policy actions, that still sees the region as instrumental to its interests. So, Brazil sometimes fail to fulfill some requisites of integration that are essential to sustain its projects. Therefore, there is a cycle of enlargement and deepening of regional integration process in this political space that point out to the need of a more sustained compromise of Brazilian foreign policy towards these projects. If Brazil continues not to sustain these projects, they will lose momentum and significance once more, increasing power asymmetries in the region.

  14. Simulations for the Discipline Specific and Professional Education of Foreign Policy Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, Maryanne; Kingsmill, Verity

    2016-01-01

    Increasingly universities aim to provide students with opportunities to graduate with skills ready to perform in the workplace. However, workplace-based opportunities for students enrolled in foreign policy subjects are more limited due to the diplomatic and sensitive political nature of the professional work. Thus there exists a need for higher…

  15. H v Council: Another Court breakthrough in the Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    This summer alone, the Court of Justice (‘the Court’) has issued two important decisions that will further shape the legal dimension of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP). Despite this largely intergovernmental sphere of law (the former Second Pillar) being merged into the unified ‘EU...

  16. 76 FR 54426 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... (Embargoes and Other Special Controls). These controls apply to a range of countries, items, activities and..., production, or overhaul of commercial aircraft engines, components, and systems (Sec. 742.14); Encryption... Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request...

  17. 75 FR 54540 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ... and Other Special Controls). These controls apply to a range of countries, items, activities and..., production, or overhaul of commercial aircraft engines, components, and systems (Sec. 742.14); encryption.... 100719301-0303-02] Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security...

  18. 77 FR 55183 - Effects of Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-07

    ... and Other Special Controls). These controls apply to a range of countries, items, activities and..., production, or overhaul of commercial aircraft engines, components, and systems (Sec. 742.14); Encryption... Foreign Policy-Based Export Controls AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Request...

  19. Russian-South African Foreign Policy in Africa: The case of the DRC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the Cold War and apartheid eras, both Russia and South Africa practiced foreign policies based on dominance; which is characterised by the habitual use of force by a greater power against lesser states. This article uses the Democratic Republic of Congo as a case study to establish how the post-Cold War and ...

  20. U.S. Foreign Policy and the UN System. Special Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    John "Vienna and Beyond: U.S. Human Rights Diplomacy in the Post Cold War World," DISAM Journal 16.2 (Winter 1993-94): 79-84. Sikkink , Kathryn ...Downgraded." Foreign Policy Bulleti 4.4 & 5 (Jan.-Apr. 1994): 43-58. Sikkink , Kathryn "Human Rights, Principled Issue-Networks, and Sovereignty in Latin

  1. Foreign policy change in Brazil: comparing Castelo Branco (1964-1967 and Fernando Collor (1990-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Beltrão Sposito

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I intended to develop an analytical schema to analyze moments of redirection in Brazilian Foreign Policy. The schema encompasses the following logic: sources from national and international contexts may influence the domestic political arena, leading to the opening of a policy window and the rupture of stabilizers, which together may form a scenario prone to reform in terms of foreign guidelines. In this context, the decision makers may opt to promote a foreign policy change (FPC. To apply this model, we chose two administrations that are substantially different as to their international system and their political scope, even though both are considered by the Brazilian foreign policy literature as restructuration periods. By studying these administration's foreign policies, we tested the utility of this model and accomplished a comparative analysis seeking similarities amongst these chancing processes.

  2. ROMANIA AND THE EU'S COMMON FOREIGN AND SECURITY POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Călin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Within this article, the author tries to sum up the most salient steps undertaken by Romania on the way to the EU, with respect to an area of particular importance for the Union, i.e. CFSP. After a presentation on its actions in CFSP area, one reviews in short the stances adopted by Romania vis-à-vis the new child of EU policies, i.e. ESDP, as well as towards the Romanian involvement / participation in military crisis management. In the end, the European security policy and the enlargement of both the EU and NATO are assessed in the light of the coming IGC and against the background of the 9/11 events.

  3. Biafra Still Matters: Contested Humanitarian Airlift and American Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    utilization of Fernando Poo as an operating base immediately caused problems for the ICRC. Given they were Spanish subjects, the authorities at Fernando...materialize from the talks in July.20 Lindt did make progress in other critical areas. He convinced the Spanish authorities to acknowledge the...Fellow Emile Simpson senses a similar change in the landscape of conflict and the strategy-policy nexus. Simpson determines globalization and its

  4. Analysis of Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan (2003-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Latifi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Israel's Foreign Policy is one of the important issues concerned by the researchers of the international and regional affairs. Israel's Foreign Policy in years 2003-2015 has witnessed a lot of events. In these years, transformation of the Iraq's internal structures including the fall of the Baath Regime in Iraq and appearance of the terroristic group of Dashi (ISIS in this country has provided new opportunities and challenges for the Israel's Foreign Policy. In this regard, establishment of a republic system in Iraq and the reinforcement of the Kurdish streams, specially during the current transformations and the increasing desires for the independence in Iraqi's Kurdistan, have paved the way for Israel to intensify its activities in the region. In this regard, the current study has approach the issue of Israel's Foreign Policy concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan during the years 2003-2015 with a descriptive analytic method. The achieved results show that the political reasons (alliance of the periphery and development of the strategic depth in closeness to Iran, economic (accessing the energy and mineral resources in Iraqi's Kurdistan, the importance of the Kurdistan's hydro-politic resources for Israel and the Israel's economical influence from the Nile to the Euphrates, military-security (presence in the strategic environment of Iran and the external threats in the Middle East, creation of an environmental crisis un the Kurdish region of the Middle East, weakening the Iraqi's central government and disintegration of this country, Israel's security-intelligence expansion, acquiring a strategic territory and getting out of isolation and the resolving the its legitimacy crisis, controlling the currents of thought in this region, all have been influential in thein Israel's Foreign Policy Concerning Iraqi's Kurdistan.

  5. Chinese Foreign Policy in a Global Perspective: A Responsible Reformer "Striving For Achievement"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Weissmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the last four decades, China has moved from being an isolated country separated from the international community to having become one of the world’s major powers. It is vital to understand what is guiding Chinese foreign policy, why this is so, and not least what kind of power China is and will be in the future. This article analyses the vital elements and thinking that guides Chinese foreign policy, its priorities and decision making process. It is found that China's foreign policy is embedded in domestic issues. The foremost foreign policy objective is domestic political stability, which in turn is a necessity for the survival of one-party rule. Both are dependent on a combination of two key factors: continuing domestic economic growth and nationalism. The foreign policy is also closely linked to the Chinese self-perception, both its self-superiority/self-inferiority dualism and its multitude of confusing (overlapping identities about what China is and should be. A key turning year is 2008 when the "global" financial crisis severely affected the United States and Europe at a time of Chinese economic success, which gave China confidence to pursue a more active and aggressive/assertive stance on the international stage. It is concluded that China under Xi Jinping will not be a status que power accepting the world as it is, but nor are we to expect China to become a revisionist power aiming to remodel the global order. China is what can best be described as a responsible reformer "striving for achievements".

  6. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  7. 75 FR 6672 - HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration HIV/AIDS Bureau; Policy Notice 99-02 Amendment 1 AGENCY: Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). ACTION: Notice of rescinded Policy Notice 99-02, Amendment 1. SUMMARY: The HRSA HIV/AIDS Bureau (HAB...

  8. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  9. Sarkozysm: New European and foreign policy into old French bottles?

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    When Nicolas Zarkozy became president in 2007 he proclaimed a break with the past: France was no longer automatically to go it alone as during de Gaulle's presidency, but was to be integrated fully into NATO. Instead of competing with the strongest power on earth, France - as well as the EU - should in the future to a larger extent align it self with the interests of Washington. Sarkozy also promised a more active French European policy, after years of neglect. 'France was once again back in ...

  10. Foreign Policy of the USA and Russia in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Corsaro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available his paper analyzes the role of the Russian Federation as a world power in the East Asian area between 2000 and 2010, delving into its relations with major regional actors, namely: China, Japan, Taiwan, North Korea and South Korea. Russia’s policies and actions are compared to those of the United States as the arguably predominant superpower during most of the period in exam. Emphasis is put on the possible causes of escalation between the various actors within the Asian scenario, with a detailed comparison between the actions taken by Russia and the United States. 

  11. International terrorism in internal and foreign policy of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Shchyholev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexity of the problem of social radicalization that lead to terrorism, because it is the basis and the crisis in the socio ­economic, political and spiritual spheres , and the context of inter­ethnic and inter­religious relations , geopolitical and foreign influences. This is a problematic basis on which the transformation processes of radicalization in immediate threat of terrorist attacks, it becomes more tangible in some member states of the European Union. The global financial and economic crisis, which significantly affected the welfare of the population, especially in Greece, Spain , Italy, led to an increase in the number of terrorist acts organized by members of the radical left and anarchist groups. According to Europol, there has been increasing aggressiveness of these groups, which have become priority objectives authorities. Moreover, almost twice the share of terrorist attacks using explosive devices. Finding effective ways to counter radicalization, extremism and terrorism , without exaggeration, be called one of the most serious challenges of the XXI century for most of the leading countries of the world. In today no one doubts the fact that effective work in this area requires a systematic approach by the state, not limited by narrow national boundaries. International experience suggests that the threat of the spread of radicalism , extremism and terrorism is becoming more global scale. Thus it is not only the common (or similar roots , but also the general trends of transformation and adaptation to modern conditions , respectively ­ and similar systematic countermeasures .Experience of leading nations to set the most common          (conceptual approach to the formulation of guidelines , directions and forms of state activity in combating radicalism , extremism and terrorism.

  12. A study on the nuclear foreign policy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Keun Bae; Choi, Y. M.; Lee, D. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.; Cho, I. H.; Ko, H. S.

    1996-12-01

    This study aims to analyses recent trends of international situation relating to nuclear non-proliferation and the adverse conditions in Korea's pursuing self-support of such technology, so that it may map out effective strategies for the promotion of nuclear energy. This study analyses developments of international nuclear non-proliferation regime, which plays a main role in preventing the international proliferation of nuclear weapons. This study includes NPT, IAEA safeguards system, international export control regimes, CTBT, and NWFZs as the subjects of analysis. Second theme is international organizations concerning nuclear activities. This study mainly analyses IAEA activities which pursues the promotion of peaceful use of nuclear energy and nuclear non-proliferation simultaneously as a pivotal body of international nuclear cooperation. Third focus of this study is Northeast Asian circumstances pertaining to nuclear non-proliferation. The study looks into the DPRK nuclear issues, and reviews the developments of the proposed regional body for nuclear cooperation and the discussion on the Northeast Asian NWFZ. Fourth, but the most influential to Korean nuclear activities, is the U. S. nuclear policy, since U. S. takes the overwhelming initiative in the field of international nuclear non-proliferation. Therefore, this study gives much weight in analyzing the structure, procedures, recent trend, and pending issues of U. S. nuclear policy. (author). 78 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs

  13. Does Where You Stand Depend on When You Were Born? The Impact of Generation on Post-Vietnam Foreign Policy Beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Ole R.; Rosenau, James N.

    1980-01-01

    Indicates that the most salient differences on foreign policy exist between occupational groups and within generations. Discusses the prospects for early achievement of domestic consensus on issues of international politics and American foreign policy. (Author/RL)

  14. Notes on Colombian Foreign Policy Since the American Involvement in the Second World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Felipe Mesa Valencia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes Colombian foreign policy following the rupture of American neutrality. It focuses on the second stage of the Second World War, i.e., from the participation of the United States until the end of the conflict. The article also examines national defense as an indispensable mechanism to preserve national sovereignty, emphasizing the significance of the Third Meeting of Foreign Ministers, held in Rio de Janeiro, on continental security and strengthening of Pan-Americanism.

  15. HIV/AIDS Policy Making Process in Iran: Analysis of HIV/AIDS Agenda Setting Based on Kingdon's Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Agenda setting is the process by which certain issues come onto the policy agenda from the much larger number of issues potentially worthy of attention by policy makers. The aim of this study was to deeply understand about how AIDS entered to health policy agenda in Iran. Material and Methods: An exploratory qualitative retrospective study based on multiple streams framework to analyze AIDS agenda setting process, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and stakeholders in Iran and 30 policy documents were reviewed. Data were analyzed using framework analysis method and MAXQDA software. Results : Problem, policy and politics, the three streams of HIV/AIDS in context of Iran were identified and the advent and continuity of multiple streams and their interactions and combination by policy entrepreneurs in couple of streams in policy windows were explained. Conclusion: In this study, the assumption of independence of three streams from each other was doubted. Also, framework has ambiguities in explaining entrepreneurs' act when opening policy windows. Other researchers can modify the framework by learning-by-doing.

  16. Russia and the CIS: Relations of Foreign or Domestic Policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesáreo R. Aguilera de Prat

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available What role does the Community of Independent States (CIS currently have in the area that was once called the Soviet Union, in particular in Russia’s so-called “near abroad”? The CIS was, to start with, little more than a liquidating committee of Soviet inheritance.This hybrid entity may be defined as a specific type of union among officially sovereign States that have few decision making mechanisms. For Russia its policy towards the “near abroad” is a priority given this country’s geostrategic interests in this area. The paperanalyzes some of the economic imperatives and the military’s participation in peacekeeping missions that have favored, up to a point, a “russification” of the CIS.

  17. US International Environmental Policy. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Human Rights and International Organizations of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session, June 14 and September 12, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Nine witnesses spoke at a two-day hearing on global environmental concerns, which are interrelated to problems of poverty and political instability. At issue was US foreign assistance and the role of natural resources and environmental protection in foreign policy decisions. The Committee reviewed both bilateral and multilateral aid programs, treaties, and conventions, as well as current policy toward multilateral involvement. The witnesses represented the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, Office of Technology Assessment, companies concerned with industrial ecology, and several private organizations concerned with world resources. Material submitted for the record and 11 appendices with correspondence, statements, and recommendations follow the testimony.

  18. Principle Trajectories of the Domestic and Foreign Policy Crises in Modern Turkish Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Alekseevich Avatkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Republic of Turkey in the year of 2015 has gone through the period of critical transformation of its foreign and domestic policies. The main reason for this transformation is the inability of the Justice and Development Party to reach its goals to draft the new constitution and vest the president of the country with new powers. Nevertheless, the authors believe that there are also historic and demographic reasons for this transformation that have been developing for several decades. The basis of this transformation is the destructive foreign policy course pursued by the ruling elites aimed at fomenting crises inside and outside Turkey. The most tangible signs of that are the resumption of hostilities between the Turkish army and PKK and also regular shillings of the positions of Syrian Kurds by Turkish artillery. According to the authorities of Turkey such policy is likely to force the Turkish society and foreign partners to make concessions and give the Justice and Development Party the right to reform the country in its own way. However, such policy also increases the possibility that some internal and external actors will try to make everything possible to overthrow the ruling regime one way or another.

  19. Economic reform in Vietnam - the role of foreign direct investment and trade policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, D.L.

    1998-11-01

    Vietnam was one of the five poorest countries in the world in the 1980's. Since then, Vietnam has adopted a market economic policy, and she has made substantial economic progress. In the last 10 years Meanwhile Vietnam's per capita income has increased by 3 times, the volume of export doubled very two years, and the inflation rate was reduced to 4.5 % in 1997 from 775 % in 1986. The GDP also has increased, the exchange rate with the US$ was stabilized and foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade has increased. There was about US$35 billion were invested by the foreign investors between 1987 to the middle of June 1998. However, the current crisis in the economies of Southeast Asian countries has put pressure on Vietnam to rethink seriously her future reform program with respect to stabilization and sustainable current economic policies. Since FDI is an imperative for the development of a country like Vietnam, it is necessary to use this capital very careful for her economy. Thus, the main objective of this dissertation is to study the role of FDI in the development of Vietnam. To examine this objective, various investigations were made, especially focusing on development dimensions such as reforming state enterprises, foreign trade policy, foreign investment and so on. Therefore, in the future, FDI and privatization policies should be strengthened to maintain and create an international market. Moreover, there are some major reforms required to transform the state sector into a private sector with appropriate policy measures, such as improving management of financial companies, developing the agricultural sector and minimizing bureaucracy and red tapism of the government. This dissertation provides a set of recommendations how to strengthen Vietnams economic and market situation in the 21st century. (author)

  20. Identifying Special Operations as a Distinct Foreign Policy Instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Anton Asklund

    2017-01-01

    This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be ab...... on special operations, it is essential to have insight into the instrument’s capabilities and limitations, as this provides the prerequisites for sound contextual strategic analysis.......This chapter briefly discusses political premises for the question asked and secondly provides a condensed research review that relate to the question. The author discusses questions on civilian control and the advancement of special operations and finds it specifically important for SOF to be able...... to clarify and explain what special operations strategic qualities exactly are. The author then elaborates on specific elements of special operations with a point of departure in the “cognitive maps of SOF” as formulated in the research question. The author recommends that in order to influence policy...

  1. The dirty oil card and Canadian foreign policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chastko, P.

    2010-10-01

    This paper discussed Canada's oil sands industry in relation to its international reputation as the source of an unacceptable amount of pollution. Environmental lobbyists and awareness groups have targeted Canada's oil sands industry as an example of how the oil industry contributes to pollution during the production phase. Media attention has focused on the oil sands as a heavy grade of crude oil that requires significant upgrading and refining before it can be produced as a barrel of usable oil. Canadian exports of oil sands to the United States have been the target of consumer boycotts and proposed legislation. A lack of available alternative energy sources and infrastructure for the transportation sector, and the continued global demand for petroleum mean that oil sands will continue to be exported to the United States as well as to other export markets such as China and India. The United States is likely to remain the largest importer of Canadian crude oils. However, policy-makers must ensure that the discourse about oil sands does not devolve into an argument in which energy security is pitted against the need for increased environmental protection. 49 refs.

  2. The Centers of Strategic Research of Foreign Policy of the Republic of Turkey: the General Characteristic and Stages of Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Алим Видадиевич Сулейманов

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Changes and complication of an existing international political situation provide new challenges for diplomacy of every state. During making of foreign policy decisions complete and deep understanding of a subject of policy is required. Because of this matter in many countries of the world there are special nongovernmental organizations that provide the qualitative analysis of internal and foreign politics situation. In the given article the centers of strategic research which are carrying out the analysis of foreign policy of Turkish Republic are characterized. Their structure, level and scale of expertise and also stages of functioning are analyzed.

  3. Russian Approach to Soft Power Promotion: Conceptual Approaches in Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Nikitina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy is one of the instruments of promoting soft power of a state. According to Joseph Nye, civil society is the main source of a state's international attractiveness. The article analyses how Russian official foreign policy documents present interaction between the state and civil society in order to promote Russian soft power. At the present stage Russian civil society is perceived by state structures as an instrument and not a source of soft power. The article also analyses political values and models of developments as elements of soft power as they are presented in official documents. Russia has a coherent normative model of regional development for the post-Soviet space. For the global level Russia formulates rules of behavior that it would like to see at the international arena, but Russia does not formulate how Russian or regional post-Soviet models of development can contribute to world development.

  4. Multiple Choice English Grammar Test Items That Aid English Grammar Learning for Students of English as a Foreign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Adisutrisno, D. Wagiman

    2008-01-01

    In the teaching of English as a foreign language in Indonesia, the teaching and testing of English grammar are indispensable. To test English grammar mastery, the multiple choice test must be used due to its merit of guaranteeing the fulfillment of the content validity of achievement tests. Unfortunately, the construction of many multiple choice test items has not been based on a very important consideration to aid learning processes. This paper discusses the need to use multiple choice test ...

  5. An Initial Look at the Utility of Social Media as a Foreign Policy Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    a widely cited example of the art of the possible was exemplified by Target’s ability to predict the pregnancy of a teenage girl before her father...foreign policy 13 Casey Chan, “Did Chick-fil-A Pretend to Be a Teenage Girl on Facebook...Gizmodo, 25 July 2012. http://gizmodo.com/5928926/chick+fil+a-got-caught-pretending-to-be-a-fake- teenage -girl- on-facebook 7 professionals

  6. Globalization, constitution and foreign policy: comparative analysis of citizen participation in brasil, chile and colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Cademartori, Sérgio Urquhart de; Miranda, José Alberto Antunes de

    2016-01-01

    The sovereign state is, as a rule, the entity established under public law with representation and capacity for dialogue in an international level. There is consistent evidence that liberal and democratic institutions give primacy to the executive power when shaping foreign policy in presidential and parliamentary countries. This paper aims to conduct a comparative study of the constitutions of Brazil, Colombia, and Chile on the existing mechanisms that allow for civil society ?s participatio...

  7. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence , the Presidential Administration can encourage large state-owned companies and Russian oligarchs to direct advertising toward or away from...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  8. The Impact of Military and Political Situation in Iraq on Syrian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Salum Hossam Eddin

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the Syrian position towards the 2003 conflict in Iraq and the impact of the conflict on foreign and domestic Syrian policy. The author reveals the influence of the situation on the process of Middle East settlement, on the plan of Big Middle East building, as well as on U.S. plans on de-escalation of the USA presence in the region.

  9. Irish foreign policy in the United Nations and European Union: influence and participation

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, John; Connolly, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    The United Nations has had a central place in Irish foreign policy from the state’s accession in 1955. Both political discourse and public opinion polls indicate widespread support for the organisation as a source of international legitimacy and as the appropriate forum to make major decisions regarding peace and security; international human rights; and development. The EU has an equally central role in Ireland’s economic and social development in the last three decades, and w...

  10. Foreign and Security Policy of the Newly Independent States: Balancing between Two Power Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergiy G. Fedunyak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is focusing on the interplay between foreign policy agenda of the post-Soviet states at the one hand and internal policy developments in these countries at the other hand. One of the main explanations why the post-Soviet elites in non-Russian republics are pursuing the so-called multi-vectorialism in the foreign policy is that it serves as a strategy to maximize the most from having good relations both with East and West, and thus trying to perpetuate the monopoly of the power. Uzbekistan is a country in case, as Ukraine (and Moldova is (or was indeed also. At the same time, the special relations between the elites of post-Soviet countries and Moscow are very important in shaping the foreign policy agenda of these countries as a result of the Soviet legacy, i.e. the ties of the former Communist nomenklatura with Moscow are still playing a very important role in the most of the former Soviet republics. Another relevant variable in explaining the current state of affairs in the foreign and security issues of the post-Soviet states and the still dominant role of Russia is the fact that the West (NATO and EU especially are not very successful in trying to limit Moscow’s ambitions in the “near abroad”. This is making the leaders of most NIS to be obedient to Russia’s pretensions in lack of real support from the West in order to counteract these neo-imperial claims from the part of the former metropolis.

  11. Clashing frames: human rights and foreign policy in the Brazilian re-democratization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique Roriz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article deals with the use of rights in the Brazilian foreign policy in the late 1970s. Two main arguments are advanced: there was a novel understanding of rights that clashed with the traditional statist one, and the Brazilian strategies were less a complete rebuttal of rights language and more a reading of rights as a possible threat to the Abertura process.

  12. The EU Anti-dumping Policy towards China: Challenges for Chinese and Foreign Managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Rutkowski, Aleksander Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    This paper investigates the EU anti-dumping policy towards Chinese companies. It is based on the EU anti-dumping cases since 1990 and especially since July 1998. (Since then Chinese firms have been able to apply for market economy status). Based on this analysis, the paper presents some practical...... advice to Chinese or foreign managers in companies in China with export to the EU. First, the CELEX database may give some important information on how to formulate a price policy for exports to the EU so anti-dumping measures can be avoided. Secondly, the owner structure of the company is important...

  13. The Crucial Role of Educational Stakeholders in the Appropriation of Foreign Language Education Policies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peláez, Oscar; Usma, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on the concept of policy appropriation, this study investigates how different education stakeholders in a rural region of Colombia perceive foreign language education policies, and how these perceptions shape the way they recreate these reforms at the ground level. Contributing to the field of language policy analysis in Colombia and…

  14. The Internal and External Constraints on Foreign Policy in India - Exploring culture and ethnic sensitivities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force but there is n......The main argument of this contribution is that the distinction between internal and external is at best blurred and in reality does not make much sense in the case of India’s foreign policy. It may start and end at the border and determined by negotiations, diplomacy or brute force...... but there is no conclusive evidence in the literature to decide what determines what. There are important dynamics and interplays across the thin line between the domestic and international sphere especially in terms of understanding the reciprocal challenges related to how the factors of culture and ethnicity relate...... with the legitimacy of the state. The aim of the paper serves four purposes. To unpack and give a critical overview of the debates concerned with the internal and external aspects of India’s foreign policy; situate the literature dealing more specifically with domestic issues related to culture and ethnicity...

  15. The foreign policy of Poland and the Kaliningrad region in 1989—2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chełminiak Marcin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article sets out to analyse the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy after 1989. The analysis focuses on the political and regional determinants, which had the greatest impact on the Poland-Kaliningrad region relations. The methodology used in the article is not unusual for political science and is based on analysing original (documents and secondary (scholarly publications, press articles sources. The authors also use the system and decision analysis methods. The analysis covers the period after 1989, when the geopolitical changes brought about by the collapse of the Yalta-Potsdam order resulted in Poland redefine the priorities of its foreign policy. One of the most important challenges for the Polish diplomacy after 1989 was the development of economic and political relations with the Russian Federation. Cross-border cooperation between Poland and the Kaliningrad Region is conducted, inter alia, through euroregional structures functioning in the border areas. The analysis of this issue is vital for further cooperation in the Polish-Russian borderland, especially after the conclusion of the local border traffic agreement in 2012. The authors come to a conclusion that the implementation of the local border traffic agreement can improve cross-border relations but it will not significantly change the role of the Kaliningrad region in the Polish foreign policy.

  16. The Bulgarian Kingdom in the 13th century: Trends and factors in its foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gjuzelev Vasil

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made in the article in order to summarize the foreign policy of Bulgaria during the 13th century. The author's observations are based both on individual sources and on a number of studies (above all on Bulgarian medieval studies. It is stressed that, once the Latins had conquered Constantinople in 1204, the Bulgarian Kingdom emerged on the historical scene as the main support and defender of the Balkan Orthodox world. It played, having been the main ally of Nicaea, an important role in restoring of the Byzantine Empire in 1261. The Tatar Golden Horde was an extremely negative factor for the foreign policy of Bulgaria after 1242-1243. Special attention is devoted to rich Bulgarian-Serbian relations. The animosity between the two states was connected to the expansion of the Serbian Kingdom during the second half of the century in Macedonia, and in the areas of Belgrade, Braničevo and Vidin. A considerable place in the Bulgarian foreign policy was attributed to the relations with the Roman Church and the Catholic states (the Hungarian Kingdom, the Latin Empire in Constantinople, the Kingdom of Naples, etc, as well as with the merchant republics of Ragusa, Venice and Genoa.

  17. 77 FR 70400 - Reform of Rules and Policies on Foreign Carrier Entry Into the U.S. Telecommunications Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... of Rules and Policies on Foreign Carrier Entry Into the U.S. Telecommunications Market AGENCY... telecommunications services and facilities under section 214 of Communications Act of 1934, as amended (the ``Act... affiliates of foreign carriers for entry into the U.S. market for international telecommunications services...

  18. What Is the Aggregate Economic Rate of Return to Foreign Aid?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    of return to aid. Our results highlight the long run nature of aid-financed investments and the importance of channels other than accumulation of physical capital. We find the return to aid lies in ranges commonly accepted for public investments and there is little to justify the view that aid has had...

  19. The Effect of State Financial Aid Policies on College Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragland, Sheri E.

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, state legislatures provided $6 billion in financial aid to 2 million low-income young adults. When low-income young adults receive state financial aid and do not complete college, states lose their investment because fewer people with degrees will contribute to the state's economy. Declining states' budgets have led to (a) the rising cost…

  20. Percutaneous Retrieval of Foreign Bodies Around Vital Vessels Aided with Vascular Intervention: A Technical Note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xiu-Jun, E-mail: woothingyang2008@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of Radiology (China); Xing, Guang-Fu, E-mail: xgf8848@126.com [Shanghai Eighth People’s Hospital, Department of General Surgery (China)

    2015-10-15

    ObjectiveTo describe a new interventional technique to remove foreign bodies (FBs) embedded in soft tissues around vital vessels.MethodsUnder fluoroscopic guidance and using local anesthesia, percutaneous removal of FBs was performed using forceps in nine patients. All patients suffered from a metallic soft tissue FB located in close proximity to important vessels and one also had a small traumatic pseudoaneurysm adjacent to the FB. Prior to removal of the FB, the position of the nearest vessel was identified using a guide wire or catheter placed into the vessel. Balloon catheter was also simultaneously used to temporarily stop the blood flow of the nearest artery during the FB removal in three of the nine patients.ResultsAll of the nine FBs with 0–2 mm interval to the nearest vessel were successfully removed in the nine patients without any serious complications. The removed FBs measured 3–12 mm in length and 1–3 mm in width. The total fluoroscopic time of retrieval of each FB was 5–9 min (mean, 6.4 min). The volume of intraoperative bleeding ranged from 5 to 12 ml (mean, 7.5 ml). The length of hospital stay for each patient ranged from 4 to 8 days (mean, 5.5 days).ConclusionVascular intervention-aided percutaneous FB removal is minimally invasive and an effective method for removal of FBs around vital vessels.

  1. Iran and Syria, a changing foreign policy. A comparative analysis of their internal links and influence regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Guerrero Turbay

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there have been changes in the foreign policy of Syria and Iran, showing how their goals are far from immutable. Typically they have been associated and in some circles they talk of an alliance. However, this paper aims to show that although there is a convergence in a number of issues, their foreign policy priorities put them away. For this, the text is divided into two parts. First, there is a comparison of the internal links that condition the foreign policy in each state. Secondly, regional (and global? projection of the two nations is contrasted. Throughout the document, the notion of James Rosenau´s comparative study of foreign policy will be taken as a reference.

  2. A POLICY AT WAR WITH ITSELF? STATE AID AND REGIONAL COHESION IN THE EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phedon Nicolaides

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The entry of ten new countries in the EU raises a number of questions about the need and type of reform of EU policies on cohesion and regional state aid. This paper examines the impact of regional state aid on regional disparities. It finds that the effect of state aid on regional cohesion is ambiguous, partly because state aid is not proportionally granted to the most needy regions. In the context of the forthcoming debate on reform of regional policy it follows that member states should limit the geographic coverage of regional aid and should take into account the possible trade-offs between other types of state aid and regional development or cohesion.

  3. Greek National Security Concerns and the European Union’s Common Foreign and Security Policy: Consensus or Divergence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Theodore A. Couloumbis et al. (New York: Pella Publishing Co., 1976). 12 In a similar manner, Constantine Stephanopoulos asserted that: “National aims... Stephanopoulos , “Issues of Greek Foreign Policy,” in The Greek Paradox- Promise vs. Prerformance, ed. Graham T. Allison and Kalypso Nikolaidis...Opportunities. Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate Publishing Ltd., 2010. Stephanopoulos , Constantine. “Issues of Greek Foreign Policy.” In The Greek Paradox

  4. Iraqi Foreign Policy Between Theory and Practice: Studying the State of Iraqi-Saudi Relations Until 2014 And Future Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    AGWAN, Ali Bashar

    2017-01-01

    The Iraqi foreign policy was formed after 2003 in a difficult period in which Iraq experienced a destructive war and the state was reshaped numerous times. The Iraqi foreign policy consisted of a complex mix of conflicting interests of internal political forces and driven by external engines that wish to obtain a foothold in the new phase of Iraq. This complex situation has generated an unbalanced Iraqi political performance based on common interests between 2003 and 2014, constructed on the ...

  5. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  6. Language Policy and Development Aid: A Critical Analysis of an ELT Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, Ruanni; Tabiola, Honey

    2017-01-01

    This paper highlights the political and ideological entanglements of language policy and English language teaching with neocolonialism, neoliberalism, and development aid. It does so by examining the explicit and implicit goals and practices of an educational development aid project in Mindanao, Philippines. The US-funded Job Enabling English…

  7. Globalization, Public Policy, and "Knowledge Gap": Ethiopian Youth and the HIV/AIDS Pandemic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetene, Getnet Tizazu; Dimitriadis, Greg

    2010-01-01

    Set against trans- or supra-national policy initiatives which have framed the HIV/AIDS pandemic as in part a pedagogical issue, this paper critically explores local understandings of sexual practices (generally) as well as of HIV/AIDS (more specifically) among young people in the sub-Saharan African country of Ethiopia. Ethiopia has the third…

  8. A study on the effects of exchange rate and foreign policies on Iranians dates export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khalighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was studying the impact of exchange rate on date export as one of the most important and greatest foreign currency income earned horticultural products in agriculture sector in Iran. Selected time period in this study was chosen between 1991 and 2011. For this purpose, ordinary least squares (OLS method has used to estimate the relationships between the value of date export and the variables taken from stationary tests. Library research method has used for the analysis. In this regard, required data have collected from various scientific and research resources. The results indicated that, exchange rate is a crucial factor for dates export and also for exporters. In addition, other factors specially government policies have been placed in export model. In this field, short-term outsourcing foreign policy has decreased the export value. Results also showed that, applying exchange rate unification policy without an appropriate exchange rate to encourage exporters has negative impact on dates export. Therefore, by applying exchange rate stabilization policy, according to inflation in the country, the potential exporters’ income has reduced and production costs have increased alternately.

  9. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivien Runnels

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status.

  10. Past Fame, Present Frames and Future Flagship? An Exploration of How Health is Positioned in Canadian Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald; Runnels, Vivien; Gagnon, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Canada has been regarded as a model global citizen with firm commitments to multilateralism. It has also played important roles in several international health treaties and conventions in recent years. There are now concerns that its interests in health as a foreign policy goal may be diminishing. This article reports on a thematic analysis of key Canadian foreign policy statements issued over the past decade, and interviews with key informants knowledgeable of, or experienced in the interstices of Canadian health and foreign policy. It finds that health is primarily and increasingly framed in relation to national security and economic interests. Little attention has been given to human rights obligations relevant to health as a foreign policy issue, and global health is not seen as a priority of the present government. Global health is nonetheless regarded as something with which Canadian foreign policy must engage, if only because of Canada’s membership in many United Nations and other multilateral fora. Development of a single global health strategy or framework is seen as important to improve intersectoral cooperation on health issues, and foreign policy coherence. There remains a cautious optimism that health could become the base from which Canada reasserts its internationalist status. PMID:24977037

  11. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    2006-01-01

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... been effective in furthering economic growth and development is discussed in some detail. I add perspective and identify some critical unresolved issues. I finally turn to the current development debate and discuss some key concerns, I believe should be kept in mind in formulating any agenda for aid...

  12. China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cabestan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military’s role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP. However, China’s globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.. But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.

  13. The Nabucco project's economic failure - Lessons for the European Union's foreign gas policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article criticises the new strategy of the European Union's foreign gas policy. The new policy translates in the setting up of gas corridors to diversify importations in a context of increased political competition with Russia. The inherent limitations of the EU's plan to promote the Nabucco gas pipeline as merchant line without seeking exporter involvement in the project are analysed. Such limitations are analysed through various economic prospects. A micro-economic calculation shows the significance of the use rate of a gas pipeline for profitability. The competition theory shows the possibility for an existing dominating firm to compete with a newcomer's investment by building equipment likely to pre-empt access to the resources. The transaction cost saving shows how long term undertakings between producers and suppliers are necessary for the development of transit infrastructures and distant gas fields. The article ends with the need for economic relevance in the EU's gas policy actions. (author)

  14. Danish Foreign Policy and the Balance between the EU and the US

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    In the international debate it is often argued that Denmark in its major foreign policy priorities has sided with the USA since the Cold War rather than with the EU or its European partners. The article examines whether this is correct, and if it is, why this is so, since 2001. The paper also asks...... whether a different theoretical approach - namely, discourse analysis will lead to different findings than those of the dominant approaches. The article first presents different ways of explaining why a country chooses the balance that it does between the EU and the US. One particular approach......, poststructuralist discourse analysis, is applied. The balance between the EU and the US in the dominant Danish discourse is analysed. The article then outlines the policy level and attempts to map where Danish policies are conducted with the EU and the US respectively. It is shown that the EU is the most important...

  15. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  16. The foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East and the American strategy of “system containment”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Georgievitch Krasnov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In article features of forming and implementation of foreign policy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (IRI in the Middle East (Iraq, the Syria-Lebanese-Palestinian zone, Egypt, Gulf States and Yemen in the conditions of transformation of forms and methods of implementation of Washington’s strategy of “system containment” of the IRI are analyzed. Special attention is paid to identification of potential of IRI as one of leaders of the Middle East region. The main stages, the directions and implementation methods of strategy of “system containment” of the IRI as triangle complex of political, economic and military measures, performed by the USA and their allies for rendering multilateral pressure upon Tehran in order to change its foreign policy and the State power in the country, are shown. Change of a foreign policy line and approaches of Tehran to the solution of regional problems is considered in the context of escalation of pressure upon Iran from the USA and the states of the West. It is analyzed what forms and methods of the foreign policy and foreign economic activity implementation were used by Iran in the situation of increased political and economic risks, connected with toughening of the international and unilateral sanctions. In the conclusion, efficiency evaluations of Middle Eastern dimension of the Iranian foreign policy during the considered period are given and the tendencies of development of the situation around the IRI, that allow us to make the forecast for the medium term, are allocated.

  17. Brazilian new patterns of an industrial, technological and foreign trade policy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Matias Pereira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion about the unavoidable way Brazil has to go through in order to construct a modern industrial and technological policy, based on knowledge and technological innovation, which will work as a stimulator of economic development. The different theories about this subject (SCHUMPETER, 1985; PAVITT, 1998; FREEMAN, 1995; KRUGMAN, 1995; COUTINHO & FERRAZ, 1994; MATIAS-PEREIRA & KRUGLIANSKAS, 2005, so as the principles set by the Brazilian Development Ministry (“Diretrizes de Política Industrial, Tecnológica e de Comércio Exterior”, give support in the search for defining a new model of industrial, technological policy and foreign trade for the country. The strategic role of industrial policy seems to be very evident, if it takes on its co-ordination work involving the productive agents, which are responsible for crucial decisions, such as those related to investments and/or innovation, in a context of great incertitude about the consequences of their decisions in the future. Finally, the conclusion arising from this discussion demonstrates that it is crucial for the country to define a modern industrial policy, which could be able to integrate the incentive to innovation as well as to exports, in order to serve as a tool to foster development. The paper also argues that the feasibility to this policy depends on Government’s ability in supplying agents with a favorable context towards adequate regulation, purchasing policy, availability on financing facilities and fiscal incentives.

  18. Technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries: policy and market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seelman, Katherine D; Werner, Roye

    2014-09-01

    The competitive market advantages of industry and the balancing force of international governmental organizations (IGOs) are examined to identify market and policy in support of sustainable technology transfer of hearing aids to low and middle income countries. A second purpose is to examine the usefulness of findings for other assistive technologies (AT). Searches of electronic databases, IGO documents, industry reports and journals were supplemented by informal discussions with industry and IGO staff and audiologists. The value chain is used to examine the competitive advantage of industry and the balancing tools of certain IGOs. Both industry and IGOs engage in intellectual property (IP) and competition activities and are active in each segment of the hearing aid value chain. Their market and policy objectives and strategies are different. IGOs serve as balancing forces for the competitive advantages of industry. The hearing aid market configuration and hearing aid fitting process are not representative of other AT products but IP, trade and competition policy tools used by IGOs and governments are relevant to other AT. The value chain is a useful tool to identify the location of price mark-ups and the influence of actors. Market factors and reimbursement and subsidization policies drive hearing aid innovation. UN-related international government organization activities are responsive to the needs of disability populations who cannot afford assistive technology. Policy tools used by international governmental organizations are applicable across assistive technology. A partnership model is important to distribution of hearing aids to low and middle income countries.

  19. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    2017-01-01

    investigation. The focus is on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal factors to play a role in the macroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that when monetary and external factors are properly accounted for, then aid has been pivotal to growth in both real GDP and investment.......A recent study of 36 sub-Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in the majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aid recipients, aid did not seem to have been equally beneficial. This study singles out these two countries for a more detailed empirical...

  20. Effects of audio-visual aids on foreign language test anxiety, reading and listening comprehension, and retention in EFL learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lee, Shin-Da; Liao, Yuan-Lin; Wang, An-Chi

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the effects of audio-visual aids on anxiety, comprehension test scores, and retention in reading and listening to short stories in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms. Reading and listening tests, general and test anxiety, and retention were measured in English-major college students in an experimental group with audio-visual aids (n=83) and a control group without audio-visual aids (n=94) with similar general English proficiency. Lower reading test anxiety, unchanged reading comprehension scores, and better reading short-term and long-term retention after four weeks were evident in the audiovisual group relative to the control group. In addition, lower listening test anxiety, higher listening comprehension scores, and unchanged short-term and long-term retention were found in the audiovisual group relative to the control group after the intervention. Audio-visual aids may help to reduce EFL learners' listening test anxiety and enhance their listening comprehension scores without facilitating retention of such materials. Although audio-visual aids did not increase reading comprehension scores, they helped reduce EFL learners' reading test anxiety and facilitated retention of reading materials.

  1. The use of outer membrane proteins as an exposure surface for foreign antigens in AIDS vaccine methodology and AIDS diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soede WWD; Hegger I

    1992-01-01

    A live recombinant bacteria or virus with HIV determinants exposed at the outermembrane is one strategy for AIDS vaccine development. Two HIV determinants that showed neutralization capacity in in- vitro experiments were tested for their expression in PhoE outer membrane protein of E coli K12.

  2. American Polonia’s Resources Of Ifluence And Us Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Loshkariov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes resources of political influence on the foreign policy of the country of residence that Polish diaspora in the United States possesses. This analysis is useful for two reasons. Firstly, it will expand the focus of research in the study of pressure groups and their influence on the American foreign policy. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the United States is rarely the object of research in migrant and ethnic lobbying, despite its the significant share of the country’s population. Analysis of the given resources that the Polish diaspora (American Polonia has leads to the following. Firstly, the foreign policy agenda of the Polish diaspora in the United States faces no strong opponents. This fact means the diaspora has sufficiently developed structural resource. In addition, the Polish diaspora possesses an organizational resource: its institutions are in close cooperation and are coordinated by the Polish American Congress. Secondly, the Polish diaspora in the US is a significant group of the population, especially in the states of Wisconsin, Michigan, Connecticut, New York and Illinois. However, its electoral and financial capacities are not used to the fullest extent. Finally, there are certain difficulties with the discursive political resource of Polish diaspora. The social and political perception provides of Polonia in the USA two opposing narratives. The first one stresses that it is important for the Americans of Polish descent to share such values as democracy, defending his position, including by military means. The second narrative is a reproduction of widespread stereotypes about Poles, including in the popular culture. Thus, institutions of the American Polonia face several tasks. The most important tasks are the search for new ways of political mobilization of the diaspora and the formation of a balanced image of Polish Americans in the social and political perception in the United States.

  3. STRENGTHENING ROLE OF G20: TRANSFORMATION OF WORLD ORDER AND FOREIGN POLICY OF CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article studies the role of the G20 in the evolving world and foreign policy of China in this entity. In the current world the G20 emerges as a key global platform for economic dialogue among major powers of the world. Which role has it been playing during and after global crisis? Which forces does impact it and define its future? How does China view this entity? These questions were raised by international and Chinese scholars The current article attempts to provide reasonable answers for those questions.

  4. Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy form Sarney to Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielly Silva Ramos Becard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Resenha do Livro "Brazilian Foreign Policy in Changing Times: the quest for autonomy", de autoria de Tullo Vigevani e Gabriel Cepaluni. O tema central do livro é a busca brasileira por autonomia, desde a segunda metade dos anos 1980 até 2009. São apresentadas as grandes linhas da política externa brasileira dos pontos de vista teórico e empírico, a partir do estudo de literatura latino-americana sobre o tema.

  5. The Impact of Soviet Ethnicity and Demographic Changes on Soviet Foreign Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    more children, in addition to Qett:i1ij: the traditional mother-heroine designation, V40L’.Id nence oDrtii be eligible for a Glory of Motherhood ...political t r- the foreign policy 9(:)l-s OT* the USSR. LIST OF REFERENCES I. Farmer K. C., Ul:.rainian Nationaiism in the r-, sL-n5 _L Era: Myth . Symbols and...Crisostomo, R., "The 1tusliis c,, the 3o.Iet UL::7’, Current History. October . 38. Beloff, N., Inside the Soviet Empire: The Myth &nF t Reality, Times

  6. More of the same: Danish foreign and security policy after Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2016-01-01

    Two. The financial costs were also unprecedented as the total civilian and military expenditures on Afghanistan came to approximately €2.68 billion by the end of 2014. Although some politicians now regard the Afghan war as a mistake and more than half of the Danish population do not consider it worth...... the financial and human costs, the disappointing outcome of the ISAF mission has triggered remarkably little domestic debate and soul-searching and left little discernible impact on Danish foreign and security policy....

  7. The Role of Soft Power in China’s Foreign Policy in the 21th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Beston Husen Arif

    2017-01-01

    The concept of soft power has recently become more integrated in China’s diplomatic strategy and foreign policy. China’s utilization of hard power only is insufficient if it wishes to be an active player on the international stage. It also needs to employ soft power to stimulate its influences and leadership in world politics. This study focuses on the argument that soft power can play a significant role in shaping China’s charm image among other countries. It also discusses that China’s aspi...

  8. The foreign policy and security options of Romania in the vision of Klaus Johannis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu-Ioan Opriș

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available If a decade ago, Romania became a NATO member and it was enrolled in the accession process to the European Union, in 2014, the problem is radically different: Romania has a new status within NATO, it is part of the EU, it is in process of accession to the Schengen area and it has developed its strategic partnership with the United States of America. In this context, the aim of this paper is to bring into attention the vision of the new president of Romania, Klaus Iohannis, regarding the romanian foreign policy and security.

  9. The Interparliamentary Conference on the CFSP/CSDP: A new forum for the Oireachtas in Irish and EU foreign policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the Interparliamentary Conference (IPC) on the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) and the Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) since its establishment in 2012. In light of the increasing cavities and skewed power balances between executives and le...

  10. The Impact of Aid on Education Policy in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colclough, Christopher; De, Anuradha

    2010-01-01

    In the early 1990s, large numbers of children in India remained out of school. International commitments to achieve education for all (EFA) globally meant that India was an important case for donors. India was pressed to accept aid for primary education, and agreed with some reluctance. Although subsequent donor involvement was substantial and…

  11. Latin American vector in Russia’s Foreign Policy: Identities and interests in the Russian‑Venezuelan Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitenko Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Ukraine, that broke out in 2013 and escalated in 2014, has led to sanction policy and the emergence of significant political divergences between Russian Federation and the West. This has resulted in an intensification of Russia’s foreign and economic policy alliances with its neighboring countries as well as with the rest of the BRICS members. In his interview with Cuba’s Prensa Latina, Vladimir Putin further classified cooperation with Latin American states as one of the key and very promising lines of Russia’s foreign policy.

  12. Tax Sparing, FDI, and Foreign Aid: Evidence from Territorial Tax Reforms

    OpenAIRE

    Azémar, Céline; Dharmapala, Dhammika

    2016-01-01

    The governments of many developing countries seek to attract inbound foreign direct investment (FDI) through the use of tax incentives for multinational corporations (MNCs). The effectiveness of these tax incentives depends crucially on MNCs’ residence country tax regime, especially where the residence country imposes worldwide taxation on foreign income. Tax sparing provisions are included in many bilateral tax treaties to prevent host country tax incentives being nullified by residence coun...

  13. Foreign policy of leading countries from the viewpoint of realism and imperial policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Be. B.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available according to the author Imperial and imperialist policy led to war. The first and Second world wars led to the disappearance of the classical empires – Austro-Hungarian, British, French, German, Ottoman, Japanese. The post-Second world war bipolar world because of the logic of confrontation between two world systems largely continued to develop in international relations the logic of empires, the logic of the strict antagonism. The collapse of world socialist system led to the emergence of a unilateral world and the dominant role of one superpower, which is by the logic of Imperial policy pursued a policy of forced democratization. But such a condition could not last long, for neither the resources nor the capacity of this hegemony was not enough to ensure the peaceful development of mankind. More and more countries demanded a policy of non-interference in the internal affairs of other States, peaceful coexistence and cooperation within the framework of the cooperative strategy. Most people call it the multi-polar world. The transition from a unilateral to a multipolar world will require greater effort and resolution of international and inter-state matters on the basis of principles of equal security, compromises, and mutually beneficial cooperation.

  14. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  15. A hand in salvation or cool calculation? The role of the US humanitarian aid in shaping the American policy towards Poland (1956 -1965

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej STANECKI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article will present the role of the humanitarian aid in the process of creating the US foreign policy. The study will examine two interesting case studies: the Polish Medical Aid Project and the creation of the American Research Hospital for Children in Poland. The work will show the most important aspects of the planning and implementation of those initiatives. This approach will be aimed at answering the title question and will try to define the extent to which the humanitarian aid offered to Poland within a certain period was a political calculation. The final analysis of the congressional hearings conducted in 1962 presents and confirms the complexity of the process of helping the “Captive Nations” in Central Eastern Europe.

  16. The Real Exchange Rate, Foreign Aid and Macroeconomic Transmission Mechanisms in Tanzania and Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina; Reshid, Abdulaziz Abrar; Tarp, Finn

    empirical investigation. The focus is now on the effect of aid when allowing external and nominal facors to play a role in the maccroeconomic transmission mechanism. We conclude that aid played a signi…cantly positive - but very different - role in the two countries. Due in part to generous aid infl......A recent study of 36 Sub Saharan African countries found a positive impact of aid in the absolute majority of these countries. However, for Tanzania and Ghana, two major aid recipients, aid did not seem to have been equally bene…cial. This paper singles out these two countries for a more detailed......‡ows Tanzania experienced positive investment and GDP growth from the late 1960s to 2007. But, until the mid-1980s, the impact of aid on growth was well below its potential as the large in‡ows of aid facilitated a serious overappreciation of the real exchange rate. In Ghana, declining aid in the 1970s...

  17. Foreign direct investment and policy framework: New Granger causality evidence from African countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiu Adewale Aregbeshola

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The strategic importance of foreign direct investment in the contemporary economies has been tremendous.While various countries (developed and developing economies have benefitted from the direct and spillovereffects of FDI, which range from improved technology and knowledge diffusion through to individual andcorporate capability enhancement, FDI outflow remains largely channelled to the developed countries, andthe rapidly developing countries in Asia and South America. Evidence suggests that the developmentenhancingeffects of FDI are felt more highly in the developing economies, such as economies in Africa.However, FDI inflow to the developing economies has been very low. Using data generated from the AfricanDevelopment Indicators (ADI between 1980 and 2008 in econometric estimations, this paper finds thatgovernment policies (especially fiscal and monetary policies play significant roles in facilitating FDI inflow tothe African countries studied. The study thereby suggests an improved regulatory framework to make Africamore attractive to inflow of FDI.

  18. France, Russia and USA in Foreign Policy of Armenia: Quantitative Analysis of Voting in the UN General Assembly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Давид Анатольевич Хачатурян

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available France, Russia and the United States definitely take a priority position in the foreign policy of Armenia. French-Armenian relationships have a privileged character, Russian-Armenian relations have elevated to the level of allied partnership. To clarify the structure of relations between the countries the author resorts to the method of applied analysis: the study of voting in the United Nations General Assembly. The author analyzes the voting of Armenia in the UN General Assembly, and the Armenian position is compared with the voting of France, USA and Russia on various foreign policy issues. The comparison of positions helps to detect adherent points of foreign policy, to talk about the impact on the country’s foreign policy and to assess the degree of independence in the foreign policy of the Armenian leadership. Statistical analysis of voting is supplemented by qualitative analysis of resolutions of the UN GA. These issues are one of the most urgent on the international agenda. Countries that have relation to the resolutions are in the vicinity of Armenia; therefore, for every resolution Armenia has a clearly defined position.

  19. SPECIFICS OF GERMAN FOREIGN POLICY IN THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Ханнанова

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to an analysis of the main factors, determining German policy in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA. More active German military-technical engagement in the settlement of the crises in the region on the modern stage determines relevance of this article’s topic. Based on historical method, author considers the development of German foreign policy in the Arab world, examining the main aspects of the colonial policy of German empire on the threshold of the First and Second World Wars, as well as the prerequisites of the intensification of German-Arabic contacts in the period of Cold War. In accordance with the principals of system analysis Germany’s Middle East policy was investigated in complex, given geopolitical, economic and military aspects. Special emphasis is put on the problem of transformation of Middle East regional order as a factor of political instability. Notwithstanding the rea-sonableness of Germany’s standing for stable and predictable regional order, these goals were challenged owing to the fact that Germany benefits from the regional disorder in terms of increase of its influence. In reliance on the German goals in the Middle East and North Africa, mentioned in the Coalition Agreement of 2013, the author points out the priority of crisis management. At the same time the ethno-confessional conflict potential of the region meets the interests of German military-industrial complex. Increase of Germany’s export of weapons to the Arab states as well as neglecting the restrictions on export go to prove that Germany backs the armaments race in the Middle East. In this regard, German policy is characterized by “double standards” and inconsistency. These specifics can be explained by the ongoing process of Middle East policy shift and searching for new priorities on a long-term horizon. In the conclusion, the author analyzes the specifics and prospects of German policy in MENA region.

  20. INDIA’S FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: CURRENT STATUS, ISSUES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Ranga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as an important driver of growth. It is an important source of non debt financial resources for country for economic development. Besides it is a means of achieving technical know-how and employment generation of employment. However, many are of the view that FDI is a big threat to sovereignty of host and domestic business houses. Faster exploitation of natural resources for profit may deprive host from such resources in long run. Midst of debate on pros and cons of FDI, world economy has observed a phenomenal change in volume and pattern of FDI. There is clearly an intense global competition of FDI. India is not behind this global race of attracting foreign investment. India emerged as an attractive FDI destination in services but has failed to evolve a manufacturing hub which has greater economic benefit. FDI though one of the important sources of financing the economic development, but not is not a solution for poverty eradication, unemployment and other economic ills. India needs a massive investment to achieve the goals of vision 20-20. Policy makers need to ensure transparency and consistency in policy making along with comprehensive long term development strategy.

  1. Competing Variables in Turkey’s Multi-Vector Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Nicolescu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A certain shift in the Turkish foreign policy has been noticeable over the last decade, especially after the AKP (Justice and Development Party came to power in 2002, which manifested in closer relations with its Arab neighbours and simultaneously a more aggressive stance towards Israel. These developments have led many researchers to say that Turkey’s activism in the Middle East represents its return towards the East, at the expense of its Europeanisation aspirations. The current research paper aims to study the validity of this claim by looking at different sets of interactions between Turkey and its neighbours, through a constructivist lens of competing yet complementary variables.The ascending multilateralism manifested in Turkey’s foreign policy discourse and initiatives has been interpreted by some (Reynolds 2012 as a consequence of the exhaustion of the Kemalist project, while others (vom Hau et al 2012 see it as the logical result of the complex internal and external interactions of modernisation and globalisation at the level of the Turkish society. The conceptual categories proposed for assessing Turkey’s conduct in relation to other states open up perspectives for exploring further cooperation interactions between Turkey and the EU, on the one hand, and with countries in their shared neighbourhood as well.

  2. Interpretive sociology of foreign policy: “agent” model of state behavior on the international arena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Nikolaevich Timofeev

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article revisits the utility of sociological theories for the students of international relations. The failure of IR scholars to predict Ukrainian crisis revealed the limits of realism, which still remains most influential IR theory. These limits make rethink the prospects of convergence of IR and sociological theories. Pros and cons of holistic constructivist theory are examined. The article results in making an “agent-focused” model composed of the concepts of Max Weber’s interpretive sociology, Graham Allison’s typology of models of decision making and Mark Haas’s model of ideological origins of great powers’ politics. In doing so, it also revisits the concept of identity as a mean to understand “social facts” and their influence on foreign policy. The emphasis on the “agent” though not the “structure” is approached as an alternative to holistic constructivism of Alexander Wendt and his epigones. The “agent” model is supposed to be more capable for studies of great powers’, which play an active role in setting up the “structure’s” parameters. Three different approaches to “agent” are considered - “agent” as a state, as a bureaucratic body or structure within the state and as decision-makers and their staff. The model is designed for further empirical research of the Russian foreign policy.

  3. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  4. H1-B visa program reform: Analysis of a problem facing policy decision makers on foreign labor practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Jovan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The immigration of foreign workers is a topic of utmost importance for the United States economy. To some extent, it should be considered as a matter of national priority. Over the past years, the number of foreign students that pursue a graduate degree at United States universities has increased, and keeps rising every year. The majority of these newly made doctorate students stay in the USA, in order to pursue specialty occupations. This paper will address issues regarding foreign immigration policies, and will contain a proposal to implement a system that can effectively and selectively deal with the increasing number of both foreign students and foreign workers who apply for work visas.

  5. Economic Assistance and Security. Rethinking U. S. Policy,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    dwellers have broken the cultural ties to their villages, their resulting alienation and anomie begin to reap a toll of violence, terror, and social...the past innovative ideas in development theory and aid policy-program lending linked to aggregate policy changes, flexibility on local cost...close to two decades ago in his essay "Preface to a Political Theory of Foreign Aid," in which he wrote that our policy of foreign aid "has been conceived

  6. Transregionalism in US Foreign Policy: Comparative Analysis of TPP and TTIP Geopolitics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis A. Kuznetsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The decision of US President Donald Trump to withdraw from the Trans-Pacifi c Partnership and the sluggish negotiations on Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership have fueled the debate on the future trajectories of American foreign policy in its two traditionally strategic geographic avenues – Asia Pacifi c and North Atlantic. The article analyzes the geo-political and geo-economic interests, which were pursued by the Obama administration and underlie TPP and TTIP initiatives, and suggests the outcomes of President Trump’s decision as well as the possible alternatives.Given the strategic US interests, its global positioning and the current trends of world politics, Donald Trump’s policy can be regarded as a reconsideration of the above-mentioned projects on the basis of bilateral negotiations and widening network of bilateral economic and trade agreements, rather than the policy of isolationism. In other words, it might be a policy of returning to a hub-and-spoke system of trade zones developed in the second half of the XX century. However, still emerging and competing transregional projects reduce the effectiveness of bilateralism for domestic development of states involved and reduce the international infl uence of outsiders, and that can jeopardize the US leadership.

  7. Aid Agency Influence in National Education Policy-Making: A Case from Nepal's "Education for All" Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatta, Pramod

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the nexus between foreign aid and Nepal's primary education in order to understand how aid agencies affect national educational development. It argues that after 1990, when global education targets provided the basic framework for all donor agency funding to primary education and the subsequent use of a sector-wide approach…

  8. Building policy leadership among HIV/AIDS health workers | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Learn more: Read a journal article on the reliability of data collected by community health workers for policy and planning in Kenya. Read project summaries​ of the Teasdale-Corti Global Research Partnership Program (PDF, 275KB) ...

  9. Germany's energy policies from 1960 to 1980 against the background of foreign trade relations and foreign politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakainski, M.

    1993-01-01

    There is hardly another area of politicis where the wishes and interests of different social groups clash so hard with facts and realities as the area of energy politics. The following article looks at Germany's energy politics between 1960 and 1980, it tries to highlight the vanifications of foreign trade relations and explain their impact on energy politics and on the resulting tensions on the area of foreign politics. (orig.) [de

  10. HIV / AIDS in the workplace: principles, planning, policy, programmes and project participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, R

    1999-01-01

    15 years ago, most business, labor, government, and nongovernment representatives would have had only a small idea of what AIDS was, and let alone why it should concern them. However, companies have since lost top managers, workers have lost colleagues, and considerable time, energy, and emotion have been spent upon issues of illness and loss. Entire families have collapsed, as companies struggle against a background of chronic poverty. The HIV/AIDS pandemic has forced a reconsideration of whether disease prevention and health promotion are business concerns. AIDS causes illness, disability, and death to workers, as well as severe economic and emotional disruptions to their families. It also increases the cost of doing business. As South Africa faces a large epidemic, business must take prompt and incisive action against AIDS. A list of 10 workplace principles is presented and a 3-stage process recommended to ensure optimal workplace HIV/AIDS/STD and tuberculosis policies and programs.

  11. Local Demand for a Global Intervention: Policy Priorities in the Time of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Kim Yi

    2012-12-01

    - The success of global health and development interventions ultimately depends on local reception. This paper documents local demand for HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa and seeks to explain patterns of demand using data from a country hard-hit by AIDS. As international agencies and national governments scale up HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa, I find HIV-positive respondents more highly prioritize HIV/AIDS programs, however, cross-national opinion data paired with interviews of villagers and their headmen in rural Malawi show weak prioritization of HIV/AIDS. The data illustrate a misalignment of policy preferences in the global-to-local hierarchy, highlighting the import of studying preferences of intended beneficiaries.

  12. Environmental policy and the role of foreign assistance in Central- and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and Eastern Europe. For the purpose of the review, it was decided to 'take the temperature' of environmental policy in six of the countries receiving aid under the Danish scheme. For this purpose independent university researchers have been invited to prepare a short report on the state of environmental......During the 1990's, a large number of international donors and financing institutions have been active in providing financial support for improving the environment in Central and Eastern Europe. One of these actors have been the Danish Government and its Environmental Support Fund for Central...

  13. United States foreign oil policy since World War 1 : for profits and security. 2 ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, S.J.

    2005-07-01

    This book provided a historical context for United States global oil politics, with a focus on the goals, accomplishments and challenges of United States foreign oil policy, as well as on the relationship between the state and private sectors. This second edition has integrated developments in global politics since the end of the Cold War. It was suggested that many factors have provided the context for oil policy formation: a succession of crises in Iran since the 1950s; 2 wars in Iraq; U.S. intervention in Afghanistan; the threat of international terrorism since September 11, 2001; ongoing conflicts between Israel and the Arab nations in the Middle East; political instability in Saudi Arabia and in Venezuela and the trend towards trade and investment liberalization in Latin America in the 1990s. In addition, the emergence of oil sands reserves in Canada and other sources of non-conventional oil were discussed. Nationalism and oil policies in the Depression and World War 2 were examined. The structure of decision-making in oil policies was examined. Domestic and offshore resources were reviewed, and an outline of international agreements and relationships was presented. Issues concerning OPEC countries and the Iranian Revolution were examined. It was concluded that the United States has become more and not less vulnerable, despite its military strength. The author suggested that the main policy challenge to the United States may well be the tension between its commitment to Israel and its determination to avoid alienating the Arab oil-producing states. refs., tabs., figs.

  14. Foreign Shocks, Monetary Policy, and Macroeconomic Fluctuations in a Small Open Economy: A SVAR Study of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkefly Abdul Karim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of foreign shocks upon domestic macroeconomic fluctuations and monetary policy, and examines the effectiveness of domestic monetary policy as a stabilization policy in Malaysia. Monetary policy variables (interest rate and money supply have been measured through a non-recursive structural VAR (SVAR identification scheme, which allows the monetary authority to set the interest rate and money supply after observing the current value of foreign variables, domestic output and inflation. The results show the important role of foreign shocks in influencing Malaysian monetary policy and macroeconomic variables. There is a real effect of monetary policy, that is, a positive shock in money supply increases domestic output. In contrast, a positive interest rates shock has a negative effect on domestic output growth and inflation. The effects of money supply and interest rate shocks on the exchange rate and stock prices are also consistent with standard economic theory. In addition, domestic monetary policy is able to mitigate the negative effect of external shocks upon domestic economy.

  15. International coalitions in Brazil’s foreign policy: security and governance reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Costa Vaz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The text analyses the relevance and role of international coalitions as instruments and arenas for negotiation in the context of Brazilian foreign policy under Luis Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010, and the perspectives they bring to the attainment of the goal of reforming the spaces and instruments of global governance in the political, economic and security spheres. Under Lula da Silva, Brazil supported and resorted intensively to coalitions not only for their instrumental value for consolidating the country’s international presence and actions, but also due to the possibility that they could induce systemic change towards a more uneven pattern of power distribution, thus helping to overcome lasting political and economic international asymmetries.

  16. Sub-national entities’ participation in Brazil’s foreign policy and in regional integration processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Ventura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on how sub-national entities’ gradual participation in Brazilian foreign policy has come about, with reference to a decentralised scenario of the decision-making process in Itamaraty, where the ministries and presidential organs have a voice on many strategic themes, mainly concerning development. The article examines the insertion of sub-national entities into the decision-making process in the Southern Common Market (Mercosur, and concludes that in spite of the incipient participation, relevant contributions to the process of regional integration have arisen. Regarding the hypothesis that the participation of the federative entities in the decision-making process generates local and regional development, we argue that this is an alternative to increasing state efficiency. In conclusion, and despite the incipient institutionalisation that does not guarantee their vote in the decision-making process, at least their voice is heard.

  17. Four moments from US foreign policy doctrine: Between theory and the practice?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Tovar Ruiz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Doctrines and strategies in international politics represent one of the most interesting elements for the discipline of international relations as a point of connection between theory and practice. An analysis of four of the great doctrines of US foreign policy (two of them realist, i.e those of Truman and Nixon, and two idealist, those of Clinton and Bush Jr and their historical development lead us to the conclusion that these doctrines are capable of changing reality and creating lasting instruments for applying to very different contexts, reaching even the present day (for example, containment, the domino theory and “Vietnamization”. We must bear in mind, however, the need for these doctrines to meet the criteria ofpragmatism and flexibility, prudence and self restriction, and for them to accept the institutional and moral limits of the societies on which they are established.

  18. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  19. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAHARA Journal Mission Statement The journal publishes contributions in English and French from all fields of social aspects of HIV/AIDS (care, support, ... culture, faith-based approaches, evidence-based intervention, health communication, structural and environmental intervention, financing, policy, media, etc).

  20. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim of this

  1. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim

  2. Purged: Undocumented Students, Financial Aid Policies, and Access to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Strong, Daysi; Gomez, Christina; Luna-Duarte, Maria E.; Meiners, Erica R.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how the denial of financial aid constrains undocumented students from pursuing higher education and discusses the interlocking relationship between federal immigration and higher education policies. Reporting on research data identifying that undocumented students pay for their education through work, family contributions,…

  3. Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Adapting Fishing Policy to Climate Change with the Aid of Scientific and Endogenous Knowledge (West Africa). Climate change affects the fishing sector in various ways, by modifying the composition of animal and plant populations, ocean currents, and the frequency and intensity of tropical storms. Over-fishing and ...

  4. Not radical enough: why Jimmy Carter failed to change American foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Nartzizenfield Sneh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available El Presidente Jimmy Carter no consiguió traducir sus palabras e ideales referentes a derechos humanos a hechos y prácticas en la política exterior de E.E.U.U. Carter, ya en el primer período de su administración en 1976-77, tenía una perspectiva demasiado conservadora y tradicional con respecto a las relaciones internacionales. Sus ideas eran correctas, sin embargo seguió enfocando su política en la guerra fría más que en una puesta en práctica constante de un nuevo paradigma para los derechos humanos, especialmente con respecto a los aliados americanos en los territorios subdesarrollados. Carter no reformó suficientemente la práctica de la política exterior de los E.E.U.U. Él no creyó bastantes en la lucha por los derechos humanos así que fue imposible una modifica significativa de las prioridades tradicionales. Carter confió en las políticas, las conductas, las personalidades y estructuras administrativas vigentes. La intención de Carter de cambiar la política americana así como los principios y la comisión, fue minada seriamente por el Consejo de Seguridad Nacional (especialmente Zbigniew Brzezinksi mucho antes de los bien conocidos cambios de SALT II, de los tratados del Canal de Panamá, y del Oriente Medio.__________ABSTRACT:President Jimmy Carter failed to translate his words and ideals concerning human rights into deeds and practices in US foreign policy. Carter, already in the formative period of his administration in 1976-7, was too conservative and traditional in his outlook on international relations. While his heart was at the right place, the Cold War was still his focus rather than a consistent implementation of a new human rights paradigm, especially with respect to American allies in the Developing World. Carter did not sufficiently reform the practice of US foreign policy. He did not believe enough in advocating human rights so a meaningful recast of traditional priorities was difficult. Carter relied on

  5. Present international patterns of foreign direct investment: underlying causes and some policy implications for Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Chesnais

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An important feature of the 1980s has been the substantial fall in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI to the developing countries and also, with the limited exception of the Asian NIE (Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore and China, to the newly industrialized countries, in particular those in Latin America. FDI has been concentrated more than ever among the advanced industrialized countries of OECD. The same period has witnessed a number of extremely important changes, both in the nature and location of basic or key technologies, the role of technology in industrial competitiveness; the most appropriate industrial management paradigm following the difficulties of the "Fordist" one; the nature of predominant international supply or market structures; and the relationships between productive and financial capital. Today a number of governments in developing countries and in NIC, among them the new government of Brazil, are again engaged in an attempt to attract FDI and to make foreign capital one of the major pillars of industrial revival and future growth. This paper argues that this policy objective is both fairly illusory and largely mistaken. It is fairly illusory in that it seriously underestimates the nature and strength of the structural factors which have been at work since the mid-1970s and seriously modified the strategies and investment priorities of the TNC which under took the brunt of the investment in developing countries and NICs in the earlier "golden age" of the 1960s and 1970s . The objective of luring foreign capital again to Brazil in ways and on a level similar to the 1960s is also largely mistaken in that it fails to recognize that the change in technological paradigms has modified the parameters of international technology transfers (cf. Ernst and O'Connor, 1989 and made indigenous and endogenous industrial growth dependent to a much higher degree than in the previous period (19601975 on factors which foreign capital

  6. Foreign Policy and the Ideology of Post-ideology: The Case of Matteo Renzi’s Partito Democratico

    OpenAIRE

    Brighi, E.

    2016-01-01

    The post-communist Italian Left has experienced a long phase of ideational misalignment between ideas placed at different levels, as a qualified discursive institutionalist approach demonstrates. Background public philosophies have often clashed with post-communist political ideology, while foreign policy programmes have often contradicted specific policies. Under the leadership of Matteo Renzi, however, the PD is now experiencing a moment of remarkable ideational consistency. Rather than bei...

  7. Draft Environmental Impact Statement on a proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy and United States Department of State are jointly proposing to adopt a policy to manage spent nuclear fuel from foreign research reactors. Only spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States would be covered by the proposed policy. The purpose of the proposed policy is to promote U.S. nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives, specifically by seeking to reduce highly-enriched uranium from civilian commerce. Environmental effects and policy considerations of three Management Alternative approaches for implementation of the proposed policy are assessed. The three Management Alternatives analyzed are: (1) acceptance and management of the spent nuclear fuel by the Department of Energy in the United States, (2) management of the spent nuclear fuel at one or more foreign facilities (under conditions that satisfy United States nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy objectives), and (3) a combination of components of Management Alternatives 1 and 2 (Hybrid Alternative). A No Action Alternative is also analyzed. For each Management Alternative, there are a number of alternatives for its implementation. For Management Alternative 1, this document addresses the environmental effects of various implementation alternatives such as varied policy durations, management of various quantities of spent nuclear fuel, and differing financing arrangements. Environmental impacts at various potential ports of entry, along truck and rail transportation routes, at candidate management sites, and for alternate storage technologies are also examined. For Management Alternative 2, this document addresses two subalternatives: (1) assisting foreign nations with storage; and (2) assisting foreign nations with reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel. Management Alternative 3 analyzes a hybrid alternative. This document is Vol. 1 of 2 plus summary volume

  8. U.S. and Soviet foreign aid during the Cold War: A case study of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a historical perspective of Ethiopia's position in the international aid game at the Horn of Africa during the Cold War era (1945-1991). The main conclusions of this study are threefold. First, the countries of Ethiopia and Somalia became classic examples of pawns in Cold War

  9. Book Review: Michael Baun and Dan Marek (eds. The New Member States and the European Union. Foreign Policy and Europeanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelin Dumitru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A radical decision at the time, the 2004 enlargement constituted a critical juncture for the Central and Eastern European Countries. Although a great deal of literature has been written in regard to other aspects of Europeanization, the effects of EU membership on the foreign policy of the new member states have been rarely discussed. This is what the volume coordinated by Michael Baun and Dan Marek seeks to accomplish, namely to fill a gap in the European Studies with a series of articles explaining the more or less significant institutional and behavioural changes which occurred at the level of the new member states’ political elites. Focusing on three main domains in which Europeanization purportedly occurred, namely national preferences and interests, institutions and procedures, foreign policy strategies and actions, the studies gathered in this volume provide a useful overview of the effects of EU membership on what was traditionally known as “foreign policy”.

  10. Fallacies Affecting Policy and Practice in the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in State Primary Schools in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of the worldwide trend to introduce English as a foreign language (EFL) into primary schools at ever younger ages. This trend has gained momentum in recent years, affecting millions of children in countries throughout Asia. A policy decision of this kind has far-reaching implications but it is often made without…

  11. The Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, Marc Verwilghen, with CERN's Director-General, Robert Aymar.

    CERN Multimedia

    Michel Blanc

    2005-01-01

    Marc Verwilghen, Belgian Minister of Economy, Energy, Foreign Trade and Science Policy, came to CERN on 8 April 2005, where he visited the CMS assembly hall and underground cavern, as well as the hall where the LHC superconducting magnets are being tested.

  12. Implementation plan of the environmental impact statement on a proposed policy for acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of selected portions of the United States Department of Energy's ''Implementation Plan for the Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Policy for Acceptance of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel'', DOE/EIS-0218, October 1994

  13. Research Self-Efficacy Sources and Research Motivation in a Foreign Language University Faculty in Mexico: Implications for Educational Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Cruz, María del Rosario; Perales-Escudero, Moisés Damián

    2016-01-01

    The research self-efficacy and motivation of foreign language (FL) faculty in periphery countries is under-researched, yet there is a need to understand the impact of public policies that drive such faculty to conduct research. This paper reports a qualitative case study investigating research self-efficacy and research motivation in a group of…

  14. Computer-aided assessment of tone production: A case of Zimbabwean students learning Chinese as a foreign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Mushangwe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined how technology can help in assessing and teaching Chinese tones to foreign students who are not used to tonal languages. It was an attempt to show how we can use the PRAAT software to make learners of Chinese as a foreign language realize their tonal errors. The data used was collected from the students at the University of Zimbabwe studying Chinese and this was part of a continuous assessment for the students’ pronunciation of Chinese tones. This method which was used by teachers to assess students’ tones was found to be easy to follow such that students could also utilize it for their own pronunciation practice. We argued that the use of computer-aided assessment makes assessment of students’ tone acquisition lesser arbitrary than when the teacher merely gives comments based on his or her individual perception. This is because this assessment method gives PRAAT acoustic pictures which show the tone structures for each student; hence, both the student and the teacher can visualize the errors. Since PRAAT can provide a platform to compare the student’s pronunciation with that of the native speaker and at the same time can help the teacher to explain why student’s pronunciation is wrong, this paper concludes that PRAAT can be a useful tool in assessing and teaching Chinese tones.

  15. Misleading and dangerous: the use of the precautionary principle in foreign policy debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Alan; McLean, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Recent scholarly research has suggested that the Bush Administration embraced the Precautionary Principle (PP) to formulate its policy on Iraq before the coalition invasion in 2003. The article below challenges this argument. Demonstrating the Bush Administration's antipathy--and at times hostility--to the PP in environmental politics, the article outlines the similarities and differences between usage of the PP in foreign policy debates on the one hand, and the established risk strategies of pre-emption and prevention on the other. The article examines the Bush Administration's reaction to Saddam's alleged weapons of mass destruction (WMD) programme by drawing on earlier conceptual work of the PP in international affairs: an acceptance of the limits of the usefulness of intelligence assessments; an openness to alternative solutions; proportionality of response; and reversing the onus of persuasion. Based on these four strands the article argues that the Bush Administration's decision to invade Iraq was based less on the PP and more on the idea of fighting a preventive war.

  16. Stability and Change in Americans’ Foreign Language Policy Attitudes: 2000-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. Robinson

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented policy emphasis on the Less Commonly Taught Languages (LCTLs – whether broadly, as indicated by the regular publication of lists of languages critical to the national interest, such as that of the US Department of Education (2010, or in the particular languages included in the multiple new Federal programs that comprise the National Security Language Initiative (NSLI, such as the National Language Service Corps, STARTALK, the Language Flagship, the English for Heritage Language Speakers program, or the NSLI for Youth, to cite several examples. The LCTLs predominate in these lists, reflecting a national level policy emphasis on the LCTLs. This emphasis derives from perceived and actual needs for specific LCTLs required for the common weal – for national security, economic well being, and social justice (Brecht et al., 2007; Brecht & Rivers, 2000. This emphasis, consisting in its entirety of programs promulgated, funded, and directed by the Federal government, stands in contrast to the ongoing perception in our professional fields that Foreign Languages (FLs, and the LCTLs among them, are under increasing and unprecedented stress in the educational system, and that furthermore, that the teaching of LCTLs lacks public support, or is even actively opposed in the broader US society (Wiley, 2007.

  17. Foreign direct investment and liberalization policies in Pakistan: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI and ultimately to increase the economic growth, the countries have implemented a variety of financial and trade liberalization policies in the last three decades. Pakistan also initiated such type of policies. This study makes an analysis of the impact of liberalization (financial and trade in Pakistan, on the inflow of FDI using the time series data of 1971–2009. The DF-GLS test is used to determine the level of integration, and autoregressive distributed lag model to examine the long-run relationship. The results indicate that liberalization indicators, like financial liberalization index and trade openness along with real interest rate, negatively affect the inflow of FDI in Pakistan. Tax revenue of product also negatively affects the FDI. On the other hand, the gross fixed capital formation, infrastructure, and inflation positively influence the FDI in Pakistan. The market size (proxied by real gross domestic product has shown insignificant effect on FDI.

  18. “Hiding the Brightness” – The Rise and Fall of Confucian Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Motoh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the rise and fall of the new model of Chinese cultural diplomacy which was established more than a decade ago and which is based on the neo-traditionalist ideological framework of Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao’s leadership. At first glance, the rapid expansion of the institutions of Chinese cultural diplomacy seemed to be an opportunity for a new and deepened intercultural dialogue, while on the other hand it provoked a growing insecurity about its political content and anxiety about the influence and intentions of these policies. In recent years research has explained the phenomenon by using the “soft power” paradigm. The present paper follows this interpretation, but calls attention to an aspect that was often overlooked in this paradigm – namely, that in the past few years Chinese cultural diplomacy has been undergoing a fast and radical change. This is particularly related to ground- breaking shifts in the current political sphere and in official ideology. In contrast to common interpretations of the “soft power” paradigm, this paper does not focus on the success or failure thereof, but chooses to focus instead on the wider context of the foreign policy strategies of contemporary China and recent transformations of these strategies.

  19. Multilateral, regional, and national determinants of policy adoption: the case of HIV/AIDS legislative action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Benjamin Y

    2013-04-01

    This article examines the global legislative response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic with a particular focus on how policies were diffused internationally or regionally, or facilitated internally. This article uses event history analysis combined with multinomial logit regression to model the legislative response of 133 countries. First, the results demonstrate that the WHO positively influenced the likelihood of a legislative response. Second, the article demonstrates that development bank aid helped to spur earlier legislative action. Third, the results demonstrate that developed countries acted earlier than developing countries. And finally, the onset and severity of the HIV/AIDS epidemic was a significant influence on the legislative response. Multilateral organizations have a positive influence in global policy diffusion through informational advocacy, technical assistance, and financial aid. It is also clear that internal stressors play key roles in legislative action seen clearly through earlier action being taken in countries where the shock of the onset of HIV/AIDS occurred earlier and earlier responses taken where the epidemic was more severe.

  20. PDVSA'S possible sale of CITGO and the subsequent ramifications on US foreign and energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otazo, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    PDVSA seems poised to sell CITGO in the very near future. The United States and Venezuela have already begun to implement shifts in national behavior and policy, suggesting that they are expecting this transition within the next couple of years. Although nothing is guaranteed until after the Venezuelan presidential election of 2012, if President Chavez retains his grip on power past that point, expect CITGO to be sold by the year 2014, if not shortly thereafter. If the US Congress decides to impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism, CITGO could be sold significantly sooner. However, such legislative action seems unlikely. A move to sell CITGO would have far-reaching ramifications for both countries' energy and foreign policies. This restructuring of energy geopolitics could potentially lead to more conflicts in the international arena. With significantly less economic leverage on each other, the United States and Venezuela would be free to harden their rhetoric and policies. - Highlights: ► CITGO is no longer a profitable company. ► Worse still, it is in a considerable amount of debt. ► CITGO will be sold after the Venezuelan presidential of 2012 and the Panama Canal renovations of 2014. ► CITGO's sale will significantly change the geopolitical orientation of the United States and Venezuela. ► With the completion of the Keystone XL pipeline, the United States will be ready for the end of Venezuelan oil. ► The US Congress probably not impose CISADA sanctions on Venezuela, or declare it a state sponsor of terrorism.

  1. Gender and HIV/AIDS: Exploring Men and Vulnerability Towards Effective HIV/AIDS Policy Interventions and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogochukwu Nzewi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the dynamics between HIV/Aids gender policy strategies and the socio-political demands on HIV/Aids interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender in HIV/Aids intervention seems inescapable. Nowhere else is this more marked than in the social dimensions of HIV/Aids prevention in sub-Saharan Africa. This has resulted in prevention strategies, which are encumbered by the reality of poverty, gender, access, power and the various debates on behavioural change. The social constructions of gender roles and power relations play a significant role in the region’s HIV /Aids dynamic. To this end, the mainstreaming of gender issues into national political, social and economic agenda and policies has been championed by international development and economic institutions. In developing HIV/Aids intervention policies, gender has also been mainstreamed, especially where epidemiological data show the disparity in infection rates between men and women, where women are seen as more susceptible to infection. The gendered approach to HIV/Aids appears to typecast women as the vulnerable and suffering face of HIV/Aids, while men, as ‘the other’, are generally regarded as the perpetuators and spreaders of the virus. While there is no doubt that women’s vulnerability in this milieu has been proven within known research evidence to exist, the neglect of institutional (social, cultural and economic and historical vulnerabilities of African men’s realities are sometimes overlooked. Recently, greater focus has shifted to curbing infection rates in men based on new scientific evidence that shows that risk of transmission in circumcised men is reduced. The article argues that such movement towards showing areas of men’s vulnerability as a focus in HIV/Aids policy interventions may have the potential to shift the observed burden that current HIV/Aids policy thrusts inadvertently place on African women. The article will put forward an argument for

  2. The role of cross-listing, foreign ownership and state ownership in dividend policy in an emerging market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C.K. Lam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate if dividend policy is influenced by ownership type. Within the dividend literature, dividends have a signaling role regarding agency costs, such that dividends may diminish insider conflicts (reduce free cash flow or may be used to extract cash from firms (tunneling effect – which could be predominant in emerging markets. We expect firms with foreign ownership and those that are listed in overseas markets to have different dividend policies and practices than those that are not, and firms with more state ownership and less individual ownership to be more likely to pay cash dividends and less likely to pay stock dividends. Using firms from an emerging economy (China, we examine whether these effects exist in corporate dividend policy and practice. We find that both foreign ownership and cross-listing have significant negative effects on cash dividends, consistent with the signaling effect and the notion of reduced tunneling activities for firms with the ability to raise capital from outside of China. Consistent with the tunneling effect, we find that firms with higher state ownership tend to pay higher cash dividends and lower stock dividends, while the opposite is true for public (individual ownership. Further analysis shows that foreign ownership mediates the effect of state ownership on dividend policy. Our results have significant implications for researchers, investors, policy makers and regulators in emerging markets.

  3. 76 FR 65472 - Review of Foreign Ownership Policies for Common Carrier and Aeronautical Radio Licensees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... foreign investors and by other potential foreign investors, to reduce the need for U.S. parent companies... investor. The Commission believes that this ownership information is necessary for it to verify the... particularly critical to obtain ownership information with respect to foreign investors for which a U.S. parent...

  4. The Bush/Cheney Energy Strategy: Implications for U.S. Foreign and Military Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klare, Michael T. [Hampshire College, Amherst, MA (United States). Peace and World Security Studies

    2003-07-01

    The 'National Energy Policy' (NEP) released by the Bush Administration on May 17, 2001 was supposedly intended to meet growing U.S. energy requirements in the first two decades of the 21st Century while also diminishing U.S. dependence on imported oil. This was to be accomplished, the White House suggested, by increasing production at existing oil fields in the United States and by commencing drilling on the Artic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) in Alaska. So great was the furor over drilling on ANWR that most people never bothered to examine the NEP closely. This is unfortunate, as a close reading of the NEP report reveals a very different picture than that suggested by White House pronouncements: far from promoting energy 'independence', the NEP assumes that the United States will become MORE, not less dependent on imported petroleum in the years ahead and therefore calls on the Federal Government to take whatever steps are necessary to promote enhanced U.S. access to foreign oil. In particular, the NEP calls on the U.S. Government to seek additional petroleum from the Persian Gulf area, Russia, the Caspian Sea basin, Mexico, Venezuela, Angola, and Nigeria. As is implied by the report, the United States must acquire more oil from these countries in order to permit increased oil consumption in the United States at a time of declining domestic production. Even leaving aside the question of whether these countries will be able to boost their production sufficiently to satisfy steadily rising demand in the United States, this strategy poses enormous challenges for the United States because most of these areas are highly unstable and house anti-American governments and forces. It is likely, then, that U.S. efforts to acquire more oil from these countries will entail the increased presence of U.S. military forces in the area and periodic U.S. military intervention. Indeed, the requirement for increased military action in support of U.S. foreign

  5. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hoder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  6. The port of Salonica in Yugoslav foreign policy 1919-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakić Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the importance of the Greek port of Salonica (Thessaloniki for Yugoslav foreign policy-makers during the interwar period. It suggests that, apart from economic interests, namely securing trade facilities in the port and transport facilities offered by the Ghevgheli-Salonica railway connecting the Yugo­slav territory with Salonica, there were security considerations which accounted for Belgrade’s special interest in this matter. These stemmed from two reasons - Serbia’s painful experience from the Great War on which occasion the cutting off of the route for Salonica had had dire consequences for the Serbian Army and the post-war strategic situation whereby Yugoslavia was nearly ringed by hostile and potentially hostile neighbours which was a constant reminder of the immediate past and made both political and military leadership envisage a potential renewed need to retreat to Salonica in a general conflict. The events prior to and during the Second World War seem to have vindicated such preoccupations of Yugoslav policy-makers. All the Great Powers involved in the conflict in the Balkans realised the significance attached to Salonica in Belgrade and tried to utilise it for their own ends. Throughout these turbulent events Prince Paul and his government did not demonstrate an inclination to exploit the situation in order to achieve territorial aggrandisement but rather reacted with restraint being vitally concerned that neither Italy nor Germany took possession of Salonica and thus encircled Yugoslavia completely leaving her at their mercy. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177011: History of political ideas and institutions in the Balkans in the 19th and 20th centuries

  7. Brazil in Regional and Global Governance: Foreign Policy, Leadership and UNASUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Chin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of Brazil as a source of international governance innovation during the Lula da Silva and early Rousseff presidencies (2003–12. The analysis details some of Brazil’s main contributions to regional and global governance, and how these contributions are rooted in ideational and normative innovation and its imaginative, nonconformist, status quo–altering foreign policy of the period. Although Brazil was not, and is not, a “new actor” per se in global governance, it did take unprecedented and dramatic strides between 2003 and 2012 to redefine the multilateral agenda and reshape institutional arrangements for international cooperation and conflict management in South America. At the global level, Brazil launched new platforms for international cooperation, including with the other BRICS countries of Russia, India, China and South Africa. The regional trends are examined in the case of the Union of South American Nations (UNASUR, and the innovations that Brazil spearheaded and supported in international security and health cooperation. However, Brazil’s contributions gain greater salience as part of the broader processes of global change where international power is becoming increasingly diffused and decentralized.

  8. Analysis of Russian Federation Foreign Policy in the Field of International Information Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena S. Zinovieva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technologies (ICT play an essential role in the improvement of the quality of life, economic and socio-political of individual countries and humanity in general. However, ICT development is fraught with new challenges and threats to international and national security. Interstate rivalry in the information sphere generates conflicts, an extreme form of which is an information war. Since 1998, the Russian initiative supports the international cooperation on information security at the global and regional level as well as within the framework of the bilateral relations. The article analyzes the characteristics of the global information society, which has a decisive influence on the international security in the information age, as well as international cooperation in this field. The analysis of Russian foreign policy initiatives in the field of international information security is also presented. Today more than 130 countries develop cyber capabilities, both defensive and offensive, that pose serious threats to the international stability. It's difficult to trace the source of information attacks and its consequences can be devastating and cause retaliation, including the use of conventional weapons. In this situation Russian approach, advocating for the development of the rules of conduct of States and demilitarization of information space in order to ensure its safety, seems urgent and relevant with the international situation.

  9. Sustainable development as an organizing principle for US foreign policy: Opportunities and enduring constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munro, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union has dramatically changed the international topography. Bipolar international relations have given way to a multipolar world wherein the United States is the only true superpower as gauged by both economic and military might. The decline of the Soviet Union has removed an important stabilizing force in international politics and a critical organizing principle for American Foreign Policy -- namely, the containment of international communism. The Soviet Union`s dismantlement has created opportunities for both cooperation and conflict. It means that increasingly cooperative relations between Russia and the United States have reduced the threat of nuclear war while intensifying regional political instability among present and former allies and former client states. Without the Soviet threat more resources are available to restore the nation`s transportation, communications, and industrial infrastructure, clean up the environment, and to develop technologies that promise to increase US economic competitiveness while minimizing environmental impacts. Internationally, there should be additional resources to promote international economic growth, to preserve natural environments, and to build democratic institutions in developing nations.

  10. Rise of new centres of power in Eurasia: Implications for Turkish foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Erşen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new centres of power in Eurasia has entailed a re-reading of Zbigniew Brzezinski's book which drew an analogy between the Eurasian supercontinent and a grand chessboard. Following the global financial crisis of the last few years, countries like China, Russia and India have started to project greater global political and economic influence. Eventually, Eurasia has become a geopolitical symbol signifying a multipolar world order unlike fifteen years ago when Brzezinski wrote his book in a world dominated by the US superpower. The changes in the geopolitical meaning of Eurasia have also been very important for Turkey for a number of reasons. First, it is a country that is strategically located at the meeting point of Europe and Asia. Second, its economy has grown at an impressive rate throughout the 2000s turning it into a rising Eurasian power. Third, its multi-dimensional foreign policy approach in the last decade has enabled it to develop closer relations with the Eurasian states.

  11. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  12. Institutionalization of Foreign Policy Think Tanks in Italy and in the UK: An Explanatory Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longhini Anna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the phenomenon of foreign policy think tanks in Europe in a comparative perspective and offers a framework of analysis for this topic. Assuming that think tanks were largely imported from the US after World Wars I and II, the article argues that European think tanks have been influenced by the different national political contexts in which they have undergone a process of institutionalization. First, the article hypothesizes that such contexts have contributed to determining different incentives for cooperation between think tanks and national policymakers. Such cooperation is based on the willingness of policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise, advice or validation of policy decisions. Secondly, different political contexts are expected to influence the strategies of action that think tanks have developed towards policymakers and their audience. In this respect, the article identifies three strategies: the generalist, the advocate and the lobbyist. Empirically, the article is based on a survey of eleven organizations conducted in two countries, Italy and the United Kingdom, in 2013-14. Given that very few data are available on this type of organization, their activities, funding, policy audience and goals are investigated. These indicators are used to investigate the main commonalities and differences between the two cases and to compare them with the hypotheses. The results first show that there is comparatively more funding available for think tanks in the UK system than in the Italian one. Secondly, there is apparently more willingness from policymakers to turn to think tanks for expertise in the former case, considering that the UK think tanks hold a higher number of closed-door events and parliamentary hearings. On the contrary, where policymakers tend, instead, to more scarcely rely on external expertise - as it seems more evident in the Italian case - the core audience of think tanks tends to shift to other

  13. Timor-Leste’s Foreign Policy: Securing State Identity in the Post-Independence Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selver B. Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some of the major ideational aspects of Timor-Leste’s foreign policy orientation in the post-independence period. Drawing upon the constructivist accounts of state behaviour, the paper situates Timorese leaders’ foreign policy decisions in the broader context of their search to position the fledging nation in the global political order. It argues that Timor-Leste’s insecure state identity has shaped its leaders’ foreign policy preferences in the post-independence period. This identity can be examined by separating it into two parts: the construction of spatial boundaries and the creation of a temporal “other”. The former is evidenced by the leadership’s rhetorical emphasis on the country’s Portuguese heritage and their prioritisation of ASEAN membership, both of which are closely related to the consolidation of the young nation’s political and cultural identity. The creation of a temporal other, as illustrated by the rise of political discourse emphasising sovereignty, reflects a wider transitional process that is embedded in the country’s transformation from colony to independent state under international supervision as well as the state’s transformation from “fragile” or “failing” to “stable”. A detailed analysis of the basic aspects of Timor-Leste’s insecurities as a constitutive element of its foreign policy becomes instrumental to understanding the country’s nation-state-building experience since its separation from Indonesia in 1999, as it enters a new phase of socio-political structuring following the withdrawal of the international security presence in 2012.

  14. The Link between National Foreign Policy and the Performance of a Country in the European Union: The Polish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kaminska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the link between the adaptation of national executives and diplomats to the EU and the capacity of a state to influence EU foreign policy outcomes. It argues that, in the case of Poland, the politicization of the domestic administrative structures before 2004 constrained the ability of the state to impact on the EU’s external agenda after the enlargement. It also claims that a rapid adaptation to the EU occurred only after the Polish accession to the EU, as the will to influence the EU’s policy towards Eastern Europe was a main driver for changes in the national diplomacy.

  15. Foreign Aid: An Introductory Overview of U.S. Programs and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-19

    assistance supported six inter-related goals: achievement of broad-based, economic growth; development of democratic systems ; stabilization of world...low-income housing and community development programs of developing countries and microenterprise and small business credit programs. A Development ...reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  16. The EU vs. Russia in the foreign policy discourse of Armenia: the fragility of normative power or the power of Russian coercion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram TERZYAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Constructivist-driven conventional wisdom posits that ideas and beliefs are pivotal to shaping foreign policy trajectories. Thus, the explanatory power ascribed to material forces falls back on ideas and cultural practices (Wendt, 1999. Whereas the case of Armenia, characterized by the co-existence of European foreign policy identity with Russia-led foreign policy preferences suggests that identity and beliefs may well be outweighed by material forces. This paper seeks to explain the evolution of how the European Union (EU and Russia have been conceptualised within the foreign policy discourse of Armenia. The study relies on the critical discourse analysis of relevant speeches and statements of Armenia’s foreign policy-makers and, particularly, on those of the President. It scrutinizes the core notions and discursive structures, employed in the Armenian foreign policy discourse for justifying the choice of the Russia-led path. It suggests that Armenia’s deviation from the identity driven path towards the EU has been broadly justified in terms of the country’s economic and, particularly, security needs, which prompted to treat Russia as an indispensable ally. Yet, a closer scrutiny of external constraints indicates that Russian coercive policy left little room for Armenia to achieve a Russian-European balance.

  17. LEGISLATIVE ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS AID IN THE FIELD OF HUMAN CONSUMPTION AS THE INSTRUMENT OF THE STATE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Demydenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes normative documents according to which economic incentives can become state aid, ways of developing European and national policies that allow the allocation of state aid for environmental protection and protected areas, and the promotion of biodiversity conservation on legal grounds.

  18. THE FOREIGN POLICY OF THE BOLSHEVIKS ON THE EVE OF THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE OF 1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Nikolaevna Emelyanova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article examines the foreign policy activities of the Bolshevik leadership on the eve of the opening of the Paris Peace Conference. The strategy and tactics of the RCP (B in the autumn-winter of 1918–1919 are analyzed, as well as the attempt to establish relations with the great powers hostile to the RSFSR, the striving of Soviet Russia to take its place in the new Versailles system. The ways to achieve this goal are exploring. The methodological basis of the article are the principles of objectivity, historicism, a critical approach to the sources used and a comprehensive analysis of the problem posed. Results: it is argued that the international situation, the growth of the revolutionary movement in Europe in 1918–1919, the unification of all left-wing forces around the Soviet state forced the leaders of Britain and the US to send their representative for talks with the Bolsheviks. On the other hand, the Bolshevik leadership sought to reach agreement with the world powers on recognizing the Soviet government, even by temporarily abandoning international goals, the implementation of these tasks was delegated to the Communist International created in March 1919. The preservation of the Soviet state was put by the Bolsheviks above the idea of a “world revolution”. Scope of application of the results. The results of the work can be used for further research in the field of history and political science, as well as in the teaching of these disciplines in the university.

  19. AZERBAIJAN’S BALANCED FOREIGN POLICY TRAPPED IN A VOLATILE GEOPOLITICAL CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina STRIMBOVSCHI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Following a study visit in Baku, the author exposes in this paper some of the research results, being also embedded the opinions of Azerbaijanis experts that were interviewed. The aim is to perform an analysis on the evolution of Azerbaijani state interpreted both from the European and Azerbaijani perspective. On the one hand, it is approached the development of the Republic of Azerbaijan after the collapse of Soviet Union and the way the Nagorno-Karabakh unsolved conflict has influenced Azerbaijan’s foreign policy. On the other hand, it is researched the manner in which the European Union – Azerbaijan relations have evolved since 1991, but especially once the Eastern Partnership has been created. Considering the fundamental purpose of the European Neighborhood Union, to ensure security, stability and prosperity in the EU’s vicinity, it is analyzed the impact of two multilateral platforms within the Eastern Partnership (Democracy, good governance and stability, and Energy security was achieved on the Republic of Azerbaijan. At the same time, it is investigated whether the European Union should accept an authoritarian leadership, as a legitimate actor and partner on the international stage just because the EU has a strategic interest to diversify its energy sources and, eventually, reduce the dependence on Russian Federation, or it should change its approach and adopt a firmer stance. Last but not least, are revealed the geopolitical frictions in the South Caucasus region and the reasons for which Azerbaijan tries to maintain its status as a sovereign and independent country, avoiding to ally with any geopolitical bloc, but opting for economic, energy and military cooperation with both sides.

  20. President McKinley and American Imperialism: A Study on United States Foreign and Domestic Policy in the Philippines 1898-1900

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... This report looks at McKinley s expansionist foreign policy and asserts it was tied directly to attaining economic markets and prosperity for the United States and not, as is commonly believed...

  1. European integration and transatlantic relations as the cornerstone of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main task of this paper is to determine the main factors of the foreign policy of the Federal Republic of Germany, as well as to predict in which direction its foreign policy will move in the upcoming period. The consolidation and rise of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II are based on its Westbindung policy (policy of binding for the West, which, basically, relied on a firm integration of Germany into Euro-Atlantic structures. By joining the euro-integration processes, whose prerequisite was a historic reconciliation with the powerful neighbor, France, Germany was no longer a disruptive factor in the European scene, and the NATO as a security “umbrella”, in which the United States of America had the most important role, provided it with adequate framework within which Germany could devote itself to the further development of society and economy. The preservation and further development of the European Union, as well as the transatlantic partnership, whose core consists of partnership relations with the United States of America, for Germany represents one of the key preconditions for maintaining global order, providing a mechanism within which the Federal Republic of Germany achieves the stability and prosperity of its society. As a country whose share in 2015 amounted to over 7% of the world trade (world’s third largest exporter and importer, there is no doubt that modern Germany “harvests” the fruits of globalization in an effective manner. Accordingly, the Federal Republic of Germany has every reason to defend the existing global order, whose leaders are the countries which are its main foreign policy partners.

  2. Energy policy, aid, and the development of renewable energy resources in Small Island Developing States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dornan, Matthew; Shah, Kalim U.

    2016-01-01

    Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have established ambitious renewable energy targets. The promotion of renewable energy has been motivated by several factors: a desire to lessen dependence on fossil fuels, to attract development assistance in the energy sector, and to strengthen the position of SIDS in climate change negotiations. Here we explore the interplay between the role of aid and energy policy in the development of renewable energy resources in SIDS. We find that the importance of development assistance has implications for the sustainability of renewable energy development, given that funding is not always accompanied by necessary energy policy reforms. We also identify energy efficiency and access to modern energy services as having received insufficient attention in the establishment and structure of renewable energy targets in SIDS, and argue that this is problematic due to the strong economic case for such investments. - Highlights: • SIDS have established the world's most ambitious renewable energy targets. • These are motivated by fossil fuel dependence and climate change vulnerability. • Aid dependence has influenced the ambition of renewable energy targets. • Energy efficiency and energy access have received insufficient attention. • Domestic policy reforms necessary for the achievement of targets has been limited.

  3. The Politics of Prevention: Lessons from the Neglected History of US HIV/AIDS Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padamsee, Tasleem J

    2017-02-01

    The history of government action on HIV/AIDS has much to teach us about the dynamics and possibilities of US public health policy, but it has been insufficiently studied by social scientists of the epidemic. This article draws on a large set of original interviews with policy makers, thousands of news articles, and extensive documentation to reconstruct the history of three areas of debate and decision making about HIV prevention since 1990: needle exchange, HIV testing, and sex education for at-risk groups. These histories illuminate three key lessons. First, scientific evidence has less power to drive public health policy in the United States than in the United Kingdom, which is used as a comparison case to contextualize US choices within a broader range of options. Second, moral concerns weigh so heavily in the United States that a publicly articulated moral argument can countermand the dictates of solid scientific evidence, the voices of experts, and practical considerations to push public health policy in entirely oppositional directions. Third, having the ear of the presidential administration is usually a necessary-although not always sufficient-condition for the success of advocates trying to move US policy in the public health-indicated direction. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  4. Align, share responsibility and collaborate: potential considerations to aid in e-health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragaban, Nouran; Day, Karen; Orr, Martin

    2012-01-01

    -technical expectations. Engaging and working with stakeholders in a collaborative and consensus-driven way can help realise common goals. The concepts of alignment, shared responsibility and collaboration regarding e-health policy are not new; the fact that they are still being raised in discussion and addressed in recent literature indicates that they are still an issue today. An examination of policy tools to help aid in more cohesive practice can possibly help inform and influence future e-health initiatives. E-health policy development and implementation varies due to differing health system infrastructure, funding and interests. Artefacts such as the summary of the 'meaningful use' policy could be used to leverage the effects of alignment, shared responsibility and collaboration. The next step from this research will be to examine the New Zealand National Health IT Plan's summary diagram (an artefact itself) and what role it plays in aspects of e-health policy development.

  5. NSA Prof. Ostovar Publishes on Iran's Foreign Policy in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    National Security Affairs (NSA) News NSA Prof. Afshon Ostovar has written an article titled “From Tehran to Mosul: Iran and the Middle East's Great Game” for the November issue of Foreign Affairs.

  6. POLITICAL REGIME, COMPETITIVENESS, AND FOREIGN INVESTMENT: AN EVIDENCE OF THE EURO AREAS’ FDI POLICIES TO SOUTHEAST ASIAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Warokka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Theory and previous evidences provide conflicting predictions concerning the growth effects of foreign direct investment (FDI. The mainstream ideas support FDI as an engine of employment, technological progress, productivity improvements, and ultimately economic growth. Because of these significant benefits, attracting FDI has become one of the integral parts of economic development strategies in many countries. There are two schools of thought that hypothesize the FDI determinants: economic factors and political factors. For the latter school of thought, the central questions are directed to determine whether political regime affect country’s trade policy or not. In the advanced industrial countries where labour tends to be scarce, are left political regimes more protectionist than right ones, which represent capital owners? Prior evidence had demonstrated an association between the type of political regimes and trade policies (FDI policies.

  7. Asylum migration and the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy: evidence from the Greek case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Lucía Forero Castañeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how the recent evolution of asylum migration has affected the construction of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (EU-CFSP, taking the Greek case during the 2001-2012 period as a starting point. With this in mind, the normative progress of the EU-CFSP facing the reception of asylum seekers in Greece is analyzed, under the scope of what Barry Buzan and Ole Waever would call Securitization Process. Both legal and political frameworks on asylum migration in Greece and in the European Union are approached, in the context of the evolution of the EU-CFSP in three main areas: Neighborhood Policy, Development and Cooperation Policy, and Human Rights Protection. The conclusión points toward the partial influence of asylum migration in the configuration of the UE-CFSP during the studied period.

  8. ForeignAssistance.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — ForeignAssistance.gov provides a view of U.S. Government foreign assistance funds across agencies and enables users to explore, analyze, and review aid investments...

  9. Legitimising Emerging Power Diplomacy: an Analysis of Government and Media Discourses on Brazilian Foreign Policy under Lula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyses whether Brazilian foreign policy under Lula successfully legitimised the country's international identity as a rising power in the eyes of the domestic and international media. Based on a constructivist framework, we have applied French Discourse Analysis to a corpus of 36 official addresses by the President of the Republic and the Minister of Foreign Relations and 137 news articles from four news outlets, two Brazilian and two international, concerning two diplomatic episodes deemed representative of Brazil's quest for greater pre-eminence: the leadership of MINUSTAH (2004 and the Nuclear Deal signed with Iran and Turkey (2010. Results show that official discourse characterises Brazil's identity as a rising power chiefly by South-South diplomacy, while media discourse was more heterogeneous, being the discursive formation of each news outlet determinant in explaining their interpretation of Brazil's international identity.

  10. Proposed nuclear weapons nonproliferation policy concerning foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel: Appendix A, environmental justice analysis. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    This is Appendix A to a draft Environmental Impact Statement on a Proposed Nuclear Weapons Nonproliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel. This appendix addresses environmental justice for the acceptance of foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel containing uranium enriched in the United States. Analyses of environmental justice concerns are provided in three areas: (1) potential ports of entry, (2) potential transportation routes from candidate ports of entry to interim management sites, and (3) areas surrounding potential interim management sites. These analyses lead to the conclusion that the alternatives analyzed in this Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) would result in no disproportionate adverse effects on minority populations or low-income communities surrounding the candidate ports, transport routes, or interim management sites

  11. A Rule of Reason for Inward FDI: Integrating Canadian Foreign Investment Review and Competition Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Bishop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Investment Canada Act (ICA needs an overhaul. This reform must include a paradigm shift in thinking to a much less restrictive view about the benefits of foreign direct investment in Canada. Currently, the ICA operates under the presumption that foreign firms behave detrimentally to the Canadian economy: foreign acquirers are required to show “net benefit” to Canada and may need to make onerous commitments for maintaining output or employment. This attitude, a holdover from the ICA’s predecessor, the Foreign Investment Review Agency, has created an atmosphere which fosters protectionism and relies on economically incoherent factors to assess the merit of proposed transactions. It is time to shed that archaic attitude and adopt a more reasoned perspective. Rather than requiring each proposed transaction to provide proof for the specific benefit to Canada, the ICA should assume that foreign acquisitions benefit Canada unless there is proof to the contrary. A more welcoming, balanced and rational perspective would be that foreign acquisitions actually improve the productivity of Canadian companies and contribute to the wellbeing of Canada’s economy. The ICA is flawed in other ways, too. Some reviews of proposed transactions have become unnecessarily fraught with politics. Think of the recent politically enmeshed fretting over the bid that the state-owned Chinese Offshore National Company made for Nexen Energy, or Malaysia’s state-owned Petronas’ bid for Progress Energy Resources Corp. Indeed, there has been a very real fear of traditionally Canadian-owned institutions losing their Canadian essence to foreign ownership. Then, too, there is the federal government’s built-in ability to impose onerous conditions, or undertakings, on foreign acquirers. All this is clearly a deterrent to potentially beneficial foreign investment in Canada. Canada needs a new regime without nationalism, protectionism and politics. Ideally, this new

  12. Caught in the middle: the contested politics of HIV/AIDS and health policy in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Jennifer S; Giang, Le Minh; Parker, Richard G; Duong, Le Bach

    2015-02-01

    Drawing on the changing landscape of responses to HIV in Vietnam, this article describes the key players and analyzes the relationships between global players and local interests, including both the omnipresent state and an emerging civil society presence. We discuss the critical importance of timing for policy intervention and the role of health policy in shaping the broader social terrain. The interventions of external actors such as the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund were instrumental in improving both policies and programs at a critical juncture, when the national responses to the epidemic had been ineffective. At the same time, those global interventions met resistance and led to unintended consequences, both welcome and unwelcome. Furthermore, the looming specter of donor withdrawal and the very gradually emerging national ownership raise many questions about capacity for scale-up and sustainability of the significant achievements to date. Further monitoring and in-depth analysis of the Vietnamese responses to the HIV epidemic in the next few years or so, we contend, have the potential to provide unique insights into the challenges faced by developing countries caught in the complex webs of health politics and policies at both the global and the national levels. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  13. IMPROVING THE FOREIGN POLICY OF RUSSIA ON THE BASIS OF THE GRAVITY MODELING (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Degtereva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the features of construction of gravity models, the results of the use of which will allow to identify eff ective ways of Russian foreign policy improvements.Purpose of the article: multigravitatsion development model of Russia's foreign trade, which will identify forward the development of export-import relations in the framework of inter-regional trade area of the Russian Federation, including integration associations such as the EU, BRICS, CIS.Methodology: methodological basis of the study make up scientific methods of cognition, namely, methods of theoretical generalization and comparison; method of integrated and structural analysis.Results: During the studied analyzed Russia's foreign trade turnover, the results of which revealed that for the country's economic development is important as a variety of trade fl ows and capital fl ows, which in turn updates the problem of formation and development of the national foreign trade potential, finding the optimal proportion of commodity structure diversification and the introduction of eff ective mechanisms of regulation of export-import operations. The solution of the problem determined the conduct of the study articles Russian contemporary maps of foreign cooperation in the conditions of existing sanctions and embargoes, as well as the identification of targeted country markets for Russia's non-oil exports with a separate allocation problem area that emerged as a result of external challenges of political and economic nature faced by Russia because of the military confl ict in Ukraine. Special attention is paid to the distribution of Russian imports by partner countries.Significance: the example of EU integration associations of the CIS and the BRICS, which make up multiregional commercial space of Russia, multigravitatsionnaya model is constructed in order to assess the impact of Russia's cooperation with the EU member countries, CIS countries and the BRICS, as well as

  14. Network structures as a model of interaction between state and non-state actors in EU foreign policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinegubov Alexey Leonidovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article studies the role of network structures in EU foreign policy. The role of networks in functioning of EU is analyzed as the model of interaction between state and non-state actors in contemporary world politics. Some studies, including the project of National Intelligence Council of USA, demonstrate that there is a tendency of growing influence of non-state actors. The model of interaction that has developed in EU can be considered as a model of the future. That’s why the type of force used by EU is called “post-modern”. This model is conductive to wide use of “soft power” and some of its variants including “normative” and “network” power. Quasi-federal character of EU’s structure, whiсh is characterized by many intersecting and delegated sovereign functions, is a reason of appearance of the analyzed model. Network practices and network technologies are widely used in the process of developing and realization of EU’s policy on three levels: 1 development and realization of EU’s general policy; 2 the policy of EU’s enlargement and deeper integration of the newcomers into Europe’s life; 3 the neighborhood policy and “Europeanization” of neighboring to EU states that cannot become EU members. The last dimension of EU policy causes a conflict with Russia, which makes this analysis politically relevant.

  15. African communalism and public health policies: the relevance ofindigenous concepts of personal identity to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kipton; Gaie, Joseph Br

    2010-09-01

    This article explores the possible relevance of African communalism to HIV/AIDS policies in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa. We examine various interpretations of African communalism, which many consider to be the cardinal insight of African thought. We suggest several applications of this indigenous notion of personhood to HIV prevention in general and to routine HIV-testing policies in particular. This analysis demonstrates some of the ethical dilemmas and cultural complexities inherent in designing as well as implementing effective HIV-prevention programmes that strike a conscientious balance between protecting individual freedoms and securing public health. Recovering past traditions (such as African conceptions of personal identity) is valuable not only for the purpose of self-identification but also for helping us meet the challenges and problems of today in Africa. We also suggest that the human-rights-based approach to HIV prevention, which strives to protect individuals, is possibly incompatible with the socio-ethical ideals espoused by African communalism. We conclude that public health programmes in Botswana and other parts of sub-Saharan Africa would be more effective if those who designed and implemented them possessed a better understanding of indigenous conceptions of personhood or human agency as well as existing ethno-medical beliefs and cultural practices.

  16. The construction of ‘geopolitical spaces’ in Russian foreign policy discourse before and after the Ukraine crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Svarin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on discourses by the ruling elite, this article examines the construction of ‘geopolitical spaces’ in Russian foreign policy. Based on a critical geopolitical analysis, suggesting that territory, space and geographies are being actively (reformulated by those in power, this article analyzes how policy-makers define and articulate the importance of a particular geographical region for their foreign policy. It analyzes how the three ‘geopolitical spaces’ – Eurasia, the Euro-Atlantic and the Asia-Pacific – are defined by Russia's political leaders and how each space fulfils a particular function for the pursuit of Russian interests abroad. In a second part, this article takes into account the events in and around Ukraine starting in late 2013 and analyzes how Russia's discourse toward the traditional ‘geopolitical spaces’ changed as a result. It is argued, that while Russia previously strived for membership in each of the three ‘geopolitical spaces’, the Ukraine crisis and its impact on Moscow's relation with the West led to a reorientation of Russia's geopolitical vision toward the East and most importantly toward Eurasia. The establishment of the Eurasian Economic Union was instrumental for the promotion of a new vision of wider Eurasian integration.

  17. EU’s Humanitarian and Civil Protection Aid. Italy’s Eccentric and ECHO-consistent Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulvio Attinà

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the coherence of the aid to countries in need of humanitarian and civil protection assistance given separately by ECHO and the EU Member States, with an emphasis on Italy that appears as an eccentric case. Section one is about the humanitarian aid burden of the EU and the major European donor countries in the years 1999-2012. The analysis draws attention to the existing coherence at the world level and also to the difference existing in the aid to the countries of the Middle East and North Africa region. Section two analyses and shows the consistency of Italy’s aid with the ECHO’s. In the Conclusions, the coherence of the EU’s and states’ aid and the consistency of Italy’s aid are shortly discussed in view of the existing shared powers in the humanitarian and civil protection policy area.

  18. An Application of Strategic Culture Concepts in U.S.-African Foreign Policy: Mutual Understanding Can Yield Mutual Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Vesely. 48 Mukoma Ngugi , "African Democracies for Sale," africaResource.com, February 7,2007, http://www.africaresource.comlindex.php?option=com_content...view=article&id=256:united-states-foreign-policy- and-africa&catid=141:politics&Itemid=350 (accessed December 23, 2008). 49 Ngugi . 50 Vandervourt...no~-1-(-19921~http~/lproquest~umhcom/pub/6gi:I’-. --~----­ 68 Rey. 69 Michaels. 70 Michaels. 71 Ngugi . 72 Refer to Appendix B: Maps, Fig=U1o.c·e,--,2

  19. Peculiarities of foreign policy of Ukraine: European Integration or Accession with Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bostan Sergii Ivanovich

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Geopolitical location of Ukraine on the map of Europe gave the country a number of benefits, as well as serious problems with which it is trying to understand and use as their advantage. The country, its government has a hard choice: to define their own place in Europe and the world. In general, European integration or accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia, choice of Eurasian movement or the Western European traditions. The way out of the difficult domestic political situation in the country, raise of economy depend on the foreign policy of the country and the choice of integration model for its further development.

  20. Attacking or Defending? Jurisdiction of the Court of Justice in the EU's Common Foreign and Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The Union’s external competence is fragmented, as are the powers of the institutional bodies involved in external relations. Despite the Union being depillarised after the Treaty of Lisbon coming into force, the ‘specific rules and procedures’ of the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP......’s jurisdiction, it is inevitable that the Court would be placed in a position where it is to rule on its limited remit, and the extent of this perceived boundary within the current Treaties. External relations are an important part of the Court’s work, and cases arise from both preliminary references and direct...

  1. An impossible friendship: differences and similarities between fascist Italy’s and Kemalist Turkey’s foreign policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Degli Esposti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite a period of “warmth” and some similarities between the two regimes, fascist Italy and Kemalist Turkey proved to be very different in their approach to international relations. Italy showed a very aggressive and revisionist foreign policy, whereas Turkey, won the Independence war, tried to build solid and peaceful relations with its neighbors. The analysis of Turkish-Italian bilateral relation in the 1920s and late 1930s explains the reason of the different behavior which the two countries adopted on the eve of and during the Second World War.

  2. Study on Domestic and Foreign Policy in Nanotechnology R&D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujuan Zhang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology as one of the technology sector has penetrated into every field, and to become the dominant technology in the new industrial revolution. The article analyzes the policy of nanotechnology research and technology, and the effect of policy implementation in United States, Japan, several EU countries, and proposes the policy references of nanotechnology R&D.

  3. Concept of Multilingualism as Strategy of Language Policy and Foreign-Language Education in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I A Korotova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the language policy of the European Union (EU in the field of lobbying the concept of multilingual Europe is considered. In this research the didactic aspects of the policy of multilingualism are accented, and also the results of the approbation of policy of multilingualism in the educational theory and practice of the EU are analyzed.

  4. Monitoring HIV-Related Laws and Policies: Lessons for AIDS and Global Health in Agenda 2030.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Mary Ann; Gruskin, Sofia; Buse, Kent; Erkkola, Taavi; Bendaud, Victoria; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    The National Commitments and Policy Instrument (NCPI) has been used to monitor AIDS-related laws and policies for over 10 years. What can be learnt from this process? Analyses draw on NCPI questionnaires, NCPI responses, the UNAIDS Law Database, survey data and responses to a 2014 survey on the NCPI. The NCPI provides the first and only systematic data on country self-reported national HIV laws and policies. High NCPI reporting rates and survey responses suggest the majority of countries consider the process relevant. Combined civil society and government engagement and reporting is integral to the NCPI. NCPI experience demonstrates its importance in describing the political and legal environment for the HIV response, for programmatic reviews and to stimulate dialogue among stakeholders, but there is a need for updating and in some instances to complement results with more objective quantitative data. We identify five areas that need to be updated in the next iteration of the NCPI and argue that the NCPI approach is relevant to participatory monitoring of targets in the health and other goals of the UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

  5. Foreign Interests of Person, Community and State in Energy Policy of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М V Glinskaya

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with Russian foreign interests in energy sphere. This problem is rather urgent because Russia has declared itself as a world leading gas and oil country at the «G8» meeting in 2006. Russia tries to maintain such position and strengthens its security in this sphere.

  6. Managing Relative Decline: An Analysis of Foreign Policy Alternatives for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-17

    President Bill Clinton eloquently stated, the power of America’s example, it must derive from within – yet another reason for a “rebalance” to the domestic...213. Nye , Joseph S. “The Future of American Power.” Foreign Affairs 89, no. 6 (November 2010): 2- 12. O’Hanlon, Michael. Defense Budgets and American

  7. The framing of unconventional natural gas resources in the foreign energy policy discourse of the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocelík, Petr; Osička, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The advent of unconventional resources of natural gas has altered the order on global as well as continental gas markets. With rising liquidity, the position of established dominant suppliers is eroding. We focus on the initial response of Russia, the leading supplier of natural gas to Europe, to the new situation, building the research on unit-level constructivism and discourse analysis. We use frame analysis to reveal what image of unconventional resources was constructed in Russian foreign energy policy discourse (FEPD) in the period between 2009 and 2011, when the “unconventional revolution” did not yet have any sharp contours. We conclude that in Russian FEPD the unconventionals are considered as a distinctive and inferior source of energy compared to conventional natural gas. Emphasis is put on their economic irrationality and environmental hazards. The bottom line of the discourse is the idea that there is a choice between conventional and unconventional sources, with this choice being framed as one between good and bad, or right and wrong. - Highlights: • We examine the image of “unconventional gas” in Russian foreign energy policy discourse. • Two main frames (reliable supplier and triumphant natural gas) were identified. • Two main argumentation schemes (economic and environmental) were identified. • The “unconventional gas” is defined as a mistaken and inferior source of energy

  8. An overview of HIV/AIDS workplace policies and programmes in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anish P; Colvin, Mark; Rudatsikira, Jean-Baptiste; Ettl, David

    2007-07-01

    Workplace programmes refer to a range of company-based interventions including the institution of an HIV/AIDS policy, voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) provision. To review the existing information on workplace policies and programmes in southern Africa, and ascertain the common accomplishments in and challenges to implementation and efficacy. Given the paucity of peer-reviewed academic publications, information for this review was also drawn from working papers, symposia proceedings, and case studies. A convenience sample of 17 key informants was identified, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Workplace policies and programmes of varying sophistication are proliferating in large companies and selected sectors. Accomplishments include the institution of a legal apparatus that safeguards against discriminatory practices, the high prevalence of HIV education programmes, the growing provision of VCT, and the development of supply-chain initiatives that may enable smaller companies to develop HIV programmes. Challenges include poor recognition and monitoring of legal violations by management and unions, lack of monitoring and evaluation (M&E) methodologies for workplace HIV prevention programmes, persistent stigma in the workplace resulting in poor uptake of HIV testing, and low enrollment into workplace ART programmes. The existing literature indicates a wide variation in workplace policies and programmes currently in place in southern Africa. The effectiveness of workplace interventions at the firm level, including prevention and treatment programmes is difficult to assess with currently available data. Further research on workplace programmes that addresses operational challenges to implementation and develops M&E strategies is urgently needed.

  9. An Analysis of the Extent of Social Inclusion and Equity Consideration in Malawi's National HIV and AIDS Policy Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyama, Mathews Junior; MacLachlan, Malcolm; McVeigh, Joanne; Huss, Tessy; Gawamadzi, Sylvester

    2017-07-29

    Equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in policy development processes and resulting documents remain a challenge globally. Most often, the marginalization of vulnerable groups is overlooked in both the planning and practice of health service delivery. Such marginalization may occur because authorities deem the targeting of those who already have better access to healthcare a cheaper and easier way to achieve short-term health gains. The Government of Malawi wishes to achieve an equitable and inclusive HIV and AIDS Policy. The aim of this study is to assess the extent to which the Malawi Policy review process addressed regional and international health priorities of equity and social inclusion for vulnerable groups in the policy content and policy revision process. This research design comprised two phases. First, the content of the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy was assessed using EquiFrame regarding its coverage of 21 Core Concepts of human rights and inclusion of 12 Vulnerable Groups. Second, the engagement of vulnerable groups in the policy process was assessed using the EquIPP matrix. For the latter, 10 interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of representatives of public sector, civil society organizations and development partners who participated in the policy revision process. Data was also collected from documented information of the policy processes. Our analyses indicated that the Malawi HIV and AIDS Policy had a relatively high coverage of Core Concepts of human rights and Vulnerable Groups; although with some notable omissions. The analyses also found that reasonable steps were taken to engage and promote participation of vulnerable groups in the planning, development, implementation, monitoring and evaluation processes of the HIV and AIDS Policy, although again, with some notable exceptions. This is the first study to use both EquiFrame and EquIPP as complimentary tools to assess the content and process of policy. While the findings

  10. Injection drug use and HIV/AIDS in China: Review of current situation, prevention and policy implications

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Han-Zhu; Schumacher, Joseph E; Chen, Huey T; Ruan, Yu-Hua

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Illicit drug abuse and HIV/AIDS have increased rapidly in the past 10 to 20 years in China. This paper reviews drug abuse in China, the HIV/AIDS epidemic and its association with injection drug use (IDU), and Chinese policies on illicit drug abuse and prevention of HIV/AIDS based on published literature and unpublished official data. As a major drug trans-shipment country with source drugs from the "Golden Triangle" and "Gold Crescent" areas in Asia, China has also become an increasi...

  11. Conjuring medical science: the 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumey, C P

    1997-12-01

    Medical science occupies a peculiar status in American life. On the one hand, people often view medical science as a privileged and authoritative body of knowledge that transcends other kinds of knowledge. On the other hand, medical-scientific authority can be easily conjured from the popular symbols of science, e.g., credentials, technical terms, and white lab coats. This problem can be converted into an anthropological question of meanings and symbols, based on Geertz's interpretive anthropology and Baudrillard's sociology of hyperreality. This article uses these frameworks to explore the cultural construction of medical-scientific authority in the case of a 1986 referendum on AIDS/HIV policy in California. The interpretation of that construction raises some difficult problems concerning anthropology's treatment of medical science.

  12. Transcalar networks for policy transfer and implementation: the case of global health policies for malaria and HIV/AIDS in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoasong, Michael Zisuh

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and type of policy transfer promoted by global health partnerships to facilitate access to medication in Cameroon and the associated implementation challenges. Using concepts from policy transfer, multi-level governance and the politics of scale, the paper conceptualizes the social spaces (global-national-local linkages) through which global health policies are negotiated as transcalar networks. The framework is used to analyse policy documents, technical and media reports and journal articles focusing on two global health partnerships (GHPs)-Roll Back Malaria and the Accelerating Access Initiative-in Cameroon. Both GHPs helped to create the national Malaria and HIV/AIDS programmes in Cameroon, respectively. Global policies are negotiated through dialogue processes involving global, national and local partners who constitute the national HIV/AIDS and malaria committees. Successful policy transfer is evident from the consensual nature of decision-making. Analysis of policy implementation reveals that GHPs offer a 'technical fix' based on specific medical intervention programmes with a relatively limited focus on disease prevention. The GHP approach imposes new governance challenges due to policy resistance strategies (strategic interests of international agencies and country-specific challenges). Evidence of this is seen in the existence of several overlapping programmes and initiatives that distort accountability and governance mechanisms defined by the national committees. Finally, the implications of these challenges for achieving access to medication are discussed.

  13. Stigma, sexual risks, and the war on drugs: Examining drug policy and HIV/AIDS inequities among African Americans using the Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani; Jackson, Trinidad

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between drug policy and HIV vulnerability is well documented. However, little research examines the links between racial/ethnic HIV disparities via the Drug War, sexual risk, and stigma. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model has been developed to address this dearth. This model contends that inequitable policing and sentencing promotes sexual risks, resource deprivation, and ultimately greater HIV risk for African-Americans. The Drug War also socially marginalizes African Americans and compounds stigma for incarcerated and formerly incarcerated persons living with HIV/AIDS. This marginalization has implications for sexual risk-taking, access to health-promoting resources, and continuum of care participation. The Drug War HIV/AIDS Inequities Model may help illuminate mechanisms that promote increased HIV vulnerability as well as inform structural intervention development and targeting to address racial/ethnic disparities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Decision aiding in public policy generation and implementation: a multicriteria approach to evaluate territorial resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Franca Norese

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A decision aid process should be the result of an interaction between analysts, decision makers and stakeholders. Decision aiding is sometimes required when the problem situation is new and a formal decision system does not exist. Its role becomes that of facilitating the Intelligence phase of a decision process. In other situations, a criticism of certain policy making processes and their use of data, which may be available in institutional databases or are required as indicators for the decision process, motivates an intervention oriented towards structure knowledge and improvements of these processes. A preliminary study, which includes modelling and application of multi-criteria methods, can clarify a complex and new situation, propose a consistent approach for the later phases of a decision process or propose a different and more effective use of the data. A case study is proposed here to describe this methodological approach in relation to the disaster resilience of municipalities near the mbrone River, in Tuscany (Italy.

  15. The Impact of the Crisis on Illegal Employment of Foreigners and the Related Policy - Case study: Czech Republic

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    Vera–Karin BRAZOVA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to provide a critical perspective of the public policy measures to tackle the illegal employment of foreigners in the Czech Republic taken by the Czech government in the wake of the global financial crisis. In the introductory part of the article, the problem of illegal employment of migrants in the Czech Republic is delimitated and put into a theoretical context. Based on the study of official documents as well as on expert interviews, the analysis of the changes in the public policy dealing with the problem of illegal employment is conducted. While the crisis triggered a more open public debate and brought the problem on the agenda of some core public policy actors and while new measures were taken to address the issue, some of the main underlying problems remain unaddressed. In the final part, a possible future development in the area of illegal employment of migrants is outlined, drawing on the global labor migration trends as well as on the current public policy practice in the Czech Republic.

  16. The Impact of Institutions on Foreign Policy Think Tanks in France and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek-Clemmensen, Jon; Schmitt, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Even though France is an active player on the world stage, its foreign and security think tank milieu is smaller than that of similar powers, most notably the United Kingdom. Comparing French think tanks with those in Denmark illustrates how French institutional structures constrain think tank...... think tanks perform well in spite of these structures, which indicates that they could flourish and compete at the highest international level if given better structural conditions....

  17. Golden Standard" in International Relations Training and The Effectiveness of Foreign Policy

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    Andrey A. Baykov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the main aspects of the IR experts' professional education and training, aimed at improving the efficiency of the foreign office staff. A new approach has been taken to the problem of updating and rationalization of the current academic programs (especially, MA training programs in order to boost the competitiveness of national educational system at the global education market. The main focus is shifted from marketing to quality and "content" characteristics of the professional training in IR studies' area within the organization of higher education. The author draws on the empirical data, collected by means of analysis, processing and generalization of expert assessments and evaluations of Russian and foreign participants of international faculty and university forums in International Studies in 2015. As a result, the article proposes an ideal model of the master's program, developed by the author, based on "benchmark"International Relations/World Politics programs, which are highly valuated by the respondents. Moreover, it examines the most relevant issues, concerning the framework of students' teaching process (including preparation of master's theses, further employment of graduates and, finally, the development/modernisation of teaching staff. In conclusion, the article highlights recommendations on probable reforms of higher education in IR studies' area. The author does not criticize the national education system destructively. On the contrary, the inevitable question is how to converge the best qualities of domestic and foreign institutions of higher education system in a harmonious way. The article is designed and might be of interest for higher education and training experts, as well as for a wide range of readers interested in the education and training of the foreign office staff.

  18. One Nation...Indivisible? Ethnic Interest Groups and U.S. Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    group’s efforts is the decision-maker possessing the power to influence events. Jürgen Habermas described the differences in public and quasi-public...Huntington, "The Erosion of American National Interests," Foreign Affairs, 76, no. 5 (September/October 1997): 40. 4 Jürgen Habermas , "On the...Concept of Public Opinion," in The Habermas Reader, ed. William Outhwaite (Oxford, U.K.: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1996), 37. 26 Chapter 6 Conclusion Will a

  19. The role of humanitarian NGO's: impact on South Korean food aid policy towards North Korea from 1995 to 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, K Y

    2011-01-01

    The existing literature has provided only a partial explanation of the political role of South Korean humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in government food aid policy making towards North Korea between 1995 and 2007. Using a constructivist approach which includes non-state actor and normative factors in the analysis of state policy making, this thesis demonstrates that South Korean humanitarian NGO advocacy was consequential in explaining changes in South Korea’...

  20. EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES OF BRITISH ORGANIZATIONS IN AZERBAIJAN AS AN ELEMENT OF THE UNITED KINGDOM FOREIGN LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Y. Niyazova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the United Kingdom language policy on the territory of Azerbaijan after the Soviet Union collapse, which is a bright example of the world political map redrawing. Taking into account the fact that the language is an important tool of the extending one’s influence over the country, we can say with certainty that the success of the specific state laying a claim to play the leading role in on the global political arena strongly depends on its ability to promote its language abroad, to enhance its status and to create such conditions where in the foreign country its language conquers the status close to the status of the native language. In this regard, the United Kingdom activity can serve as an example of a successful foreign language state policy.The authors analyze the activity of such organizations as the British Council, the BBC and BP on spreading the English language. The aforesaid British organizations are the master plate of the efficient language state policy tools, as long as they not only actively develop the global picture of the world, but also promote the interests of the United Kingdom on the territory of the former Soviet Union.Azerbaijan encourages the United Kingdom intention to spread the English language on its territory and does its best in assisting in the implementation of the proposed initiatives, realizing that the spread of the English language being the language of a global communication in Azerbaijan would contribute to the raising of Azerbaijan status on the world arena.