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Sample records for policy entrepreneurship perspective

  1. A Perspective on Media Entrepreneurship Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2014-01-01

    and practice. To fill the gap, media entrepreneurship is considered as a practical approach to implement the acquired knowledge to create new products and services, even via imitative innovations and cloning successful business models. Data, which was gathered from samples of the Iranian entrepreneurs brought...... as supporting evidence to conclude the promotion of media entrepreneurship results in more intelligent filtration in acquiring, distributing, adapting, and generalizing of the existing global knowledge. Therefore, governments in those societies should contribute to the promotion of entrepreneurship......, particularly in digital media industry because of its particular potential in value creation. Also, literature about modes of innovation and the way nations benefit from their resources, along with various types of capital, considered for provision of a contingent approach. By developing the model from...

  2. Policy for Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Rosina; Nielsen, Kristian Roed; Wilson, Hugh N.

    Sustainable entrepreneurship—entrepreneurship with social and ecological gains as well as economic ones—can significantly address societal and environmental challenges, however, it is not clear how policy can support it. The authors develop a policy framework for sustainable entrepreneurship, using...... impact/performance; and innovating government. Contributions to entrepreneurship policy literature include measuring impact/performance and open policy innovation for entrepreneurship policy. Contributions to sustainability policy literature include empowering individuals as entrepreneurs and not just...... consumers. A sustainable entrepreneurship framework is developed. A method for crowdsourcing policy innovations is outlined....

  3. Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Stam

    2008-01-01

    What is meant by entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth is often not clear or very idiosyncratic. This paper starts with a discussion of the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation. The second section provides an overview of theory and empirical research on the relation between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth. The paper continues with a study on entrepreneurship and innovation in the Netherlands in an international and historical perspective. After...

  4. Rural Entrepreneurship Policy in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maret Kirsipuu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to provide an overview of the entrepreneurship policies targeted at rural areas and family undertakings. Agricultural undertakings, especially cattle breeders, have been almost ignored in the development of Estonia’s entrepreneurship policies. Various action plans have been devised for the development of rural living environments. Unfortunately none of them supports cattle breeding. The author obtained the data used in this research from the databases of Estonian Animal Recording Centre, Estonian Agricultural Register and from questionnaires. The author conducted interviews with beef cattle breeders doing performance testing and with parish authorities. Family enterprises are extremely vulnerable; their reserves for surviving critical periods are small or nearly nonexistent. They often depend only on one area of activity. In the current economic situation owners of family enterprises need to pay particular attention to strategic management, so as to survive in difficult situations. They must take right decisions and start looking for challenges.

  5. Entrepreneurship Policy and Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Crnogaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision of individuals to either establish their own business or to expand an existing one, as well as the interdependence between entrepreneurship and economic development are significantly influenced by the environment in which those individuals live and work. Such an environment is possible to shape with appropriate industrial policy. Based partly on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database, obtained by surveying national experts in 2012, authors analyze business environment in Slovenia. We linked the results of analysis with potential channels of policy intervention proposed by entrepreneurial policy framework. The analysis shows that in Slovenia adequate social consensus on the importance of entrepreneurship and understanding of its role for economic growth and social development is still missing. Results also indicate that it is particularly important to strength the intervention on the supply side of entrepreneurship, because potential entrepreneur will take advantage of good business opportunity only if he/she will have the required capacities, skills and necessary resources.

  6. Small Firm De-internationalization: An Entrepreneurship Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This study aims to further the understanding of international entrepreneurship among small firms by conceptualizing the process of de-internationalization from an entrepreneurship research path perspective. As per findings, de-internationalization is defined as a new economic activity that creates...... international entrepreneurship research, several key research issues that await the empirical researchers have been discussed. It is expected that with better understanding of the factors that are likely to influence de-internationalization and post-de-internationalization decisions, policy makers will develop...

  7. EUROPEAN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN TIMES OF CRISIS: REALITIES, CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea-Oana Iacobuta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of entrepreneurship in economic growth and development has been largely debated and acknowledged, both in literature and in policy making. Wihin the context of the present crisis, at a European level, entrepreneurship development is seen as the main solution for job creation and sustainable economic growth. As a consequence, there have been several calls and initiatives to make entrepreneurship the growth engine of European economy and to put the principle of “think small first” at the core of national and European policies. This paper discusses the challenges and the perspectives for entrepreneurship development in European countries from the point of view of the three areas of intervention proposed by Entrepreneurship 2020 Action Plan. The research methods are the analysis of different reports and policy papers and comparative analysis of statistical data from international databases. The main findings confirm the differences in entrepreneurial activity, level and nature of entrepreneurship existing at European level during the crisis, and also point out the strengths and weaknesses of European countries in the three areas proposed by the 2020 Action Plan.

  8. Entrepreneurship and economic development: Theory, evidence and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  9. Entrepreneurship Policy, Enterprise Diversification and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper interrogates the link between entrepreneurship policy, motivation in business start-ups, growth and enterprise diversification. The link has received considerable attention in developed economies but only limited attention in developing economies. The aim of the study therefore, was to establish the extent of ...

  10. Green entrepreneurship: EU experience and Ukraine perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena CHYGRYN

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available These days the environmental challenges begin to play crucial role in sustainable development of the countries and regions. European environmental policy aims in the creation of a favorable framework for the development of green entrepreneurship. The paper deals with the analysis of EU experience in supporting and promoting the green entrepreneurship. The author analyzed and systematized the EU trends in GHG emission. The main features and parts of the green economy are described. The author emphasizes that EU has the huge experience in the sphere of developing and providing relevant green activities, which can be used by Ukraine for implementation green entrepreneurship projects on the different levels of the economy. Thus, the green positive practices in Austria, Hungary, Ireland and Spain were described. The author underlines that green entrepreneurship for Ukraine is one of the necessary conditions for improving the environmental status, solving the problems with the rational use of natural resources, increasing the welfare of the citizen, integration into the European Union and to ensure the green of innovative development. The activities which are necessary for mainstreaming for Ukraine’s integrating to the European sustainable entrepreneurship space were considered.

  11. An emergence perspective on entrepreneurship: processes, structure and methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Ted; Warren, Lorraine; Welter, Friederike

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores entrepreneurship from the perspective of emergence, drawing on literature in complexity theory, social theory and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is conceptualised as the production of emergence, or emergent properties, via a simple model of initial conditions, processes of emergence that produces emergent properties at multiple levels (new phenomena such as products, services, firms, networks, patterns of behaviour, identities). Conceptualisation through em...

  12. An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Ingrid Verheul; Sander Wennekers; David Audretsch; Roy Thurik

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe level of entrepreneurship differs considerably across countries and periods. Both the causes and consequences of entrepreneurship are a matter of extensive scientific debate as well as of great policy importance. A high level of entrepreneurial activity is assumed and shown to contribute to innovative activities, competition, economic growth and job creation. The present paper deals with the determinants of entrepreneurship. An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship is introduced...

  13. Entrepreneurship in Business Systems Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rana, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Allen, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    environment; rather both entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial processes are embedded in a societal or institutional context; thus, the nature of business systems and institutions influence entrepreneurs’ cognition, orientation, capabilities and venture creation. Much work has drawn on BST to analyse......Part of the institutionalist and organization theory literatures, business systems theory (BST) presents a comprehensive framework to understand how institutions shape the strategies of firms and individuals, including entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial activities do not take place in a barren...... multinationals’ strategies, structures and decision making. We focus, instead, on a relatively neglected area: how BST can help to explain entrepreneurship. In particular, how can this framework help us to understand 1)why a particular business model is developed, 2) why entrepreneurs tend to make a particular...

  14. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  15. Analysis of National Policies for Entrepreneurship Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaozhou

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews major national policies and strategies adopted by the Chinese central government to promote entrepreneurship education and also describes the current social and economic background to reveal the motives of entrepreneurship education in mainland China. The core of this article sums up the content of national policies on…

  16. Teaching Entrepreneurship and Micro-Entrepreneurship: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Wali I.; Jimenez, Lizandra

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is an integral part of business education. However, the concept is often confused or used synonymously with capitalism, perhaps because entrepreneurship is one of the four factors of production and profit maximization is considered as the single most important topic in teaching theory of the firm. Using risk as the key variable in…

  17. An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship: Policies, Institutions and Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); D.B. Audretsch (David); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe level of entrepreneurship differs considerably across countries and periods. Both the causes and consequences of entrepreneurship are a matter of extensive scientific debate as well as of great policy importance. A high level of entrepreneurial activity is assumed and shown to

  18. A holistic person perspective in measuring entrepreneurship education impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tine Lynfort

    2014-01-01

    and impact of entrepreneurship education and social entrepreneurship education, a number of interrelated factors are identified that are important to address in assessment and measurement of impact. In addition to these factors, a supplementary dimension is suggested – the holistic person perspective...... – in order to offer a measurement approach beyond the borders of a single course or program. From a case study of social entrepreneurship at the Humanities in Denmark, it is described how students develop entrepreneurial experiences both in courses, between courses and in their daily life. The argument......This article discusses existing research on impact of entrepreneurship education and questions the consistency between underlying understandings of entrepreneurship, formal purposes of entrepreneurship education and present evaluation methods in the field. From literature about assessment...

  19. Institutional and Policy Support for Tourism Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    and operation of social enterprises as part of an inclusive and sustainable tourism system, and they can assist in the creation of institutional conditions that encourage, legitimize and synergize social entrepreneurship. The chapter offers concrete considerations for policy makers in terms of making...... the characteristics of supportive institutional and policy environments for tourism social entrepreneurship. It argues that governments can contribute in two broad ways to creating the conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship to flourish: they can develop policies that support and encourage the development...

  20. Entrepreneurship in Russia: characteristics and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    GOLUSHKO A.V.; GUCHIGOV H.M.

    2015-01-01

    In the article characteristics of entrepreneurship in Russia and conditions for its developing were considered. Russian entrepreneurs personal characteristics, motives and aims were analyzed, based on social survey. Government support of entrepreneurship was reviewed.

  1. Tax Policy, Venture Capital, and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    The paper studies the effects of tax policy on venture capital activity. Entrepreneurs pursue a single high risk project each but have no own resources. Financiers provide equity finance. They must structure the entrepreneur's profit share and base salary to assure their incentives for full effort....... In addition to providing equity finance, venture capitalists assist with valuable business advice to enhance survival rates. Within a general equilibrium framework with a traditional and an entrepreneurial sector, the paper investigates the effects of taxes on the equilibrium level of entrepreneurship...... and managerial advice. It considers differential wage and capital income taxes, a comprehensive income tax, incomplete loss offset, progressive taxation as well as investment and output subsidies to the entrepreneurial sector...

  2. Innovation and entrepreneurship theory, policy and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Carayannis, Elias G; Bakouros, Yannis L

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to meet the needs of education and training in modern techniques of innovation and entrepreneurship, and focuses on the detailed presentation of successful business practices. As today's global economic landscape is changing rapidly, the ability of businesses to introduce new products and services to the market faster than their competitors is perhaps their most distinct competitive advantage. This becomes obvious by the significant market share that the most innovative companies gain while increasing profitability. Extensive research in this field has demonstrated that companies that are constantly innovating normally double their profits compared to others. Moreover, establishing successful practices and policies of innovation management, through which ideas evolve from conception through evaluation to implementation and commercialization, become the basis for economic growth at the firm, industry, national, regional, and global levels. Taking Greece as an example, this volume identifies syst...

  3. Dispersed entrepreneurship within multinational corporations: A community perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.H.; Williams, C.

    2007-01-01

    The paper develops a new theoretical perspective on the phenomenon of dispersed entrepreneurship in large multinational corporations (MNCs). We argue that the creation and sharing of knowledge in entrepreneurial initiatives involving MNCs is underpinned by a behavioural theory of entrepreneurial

  4. Risk tolerance: A perspective on entrepreneurship education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field of entrepreneurship in South Africa has certain unique although limiting characteristics, including an unconvincing enabling environment, a weak entrepreneurial culture and an emergent, and therefore limited, body of knowledge surrounding the topic of entrepreneurship. Consequently, entrepreneurship in South ...

  5. "Entrepreneurship policy: Trade-offs and impact in the EU"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murdock, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Based on the notion that trade-offs in public policies form the basis of the separation of managed and entrepreneurial economies; this paper investigates the impact of policy on actual entrepreneurship activity in these two categories of economies. Using data from 19 European Union member countries......, the impact that policy trade-offs in the goal, target, location and system of finance have on entrepreneurship activity is measured using ordinary least squares regression. The results indicate that while business regulation negatively impact entrepreneurship activity, the location of policy does not show...... any measurable impact. They suggest the need for still more supportive institutions in the effort to develop entrepreneurship and create entrepreneurial economies and realize economic benefits....

  6. Entrepreneurship in motion: Towards an interdisciplinary and an eclectic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades there has been a heightened policy and research interest in the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship in South Africa and other countries. The recent focus on entrepreneurship has made an understanding that the nature or role of entrepreneurs is essential for economic growth and business development. Without entrepreneurs, there cannot be any entrepreneurship, whether in a large or small venture. It is increasingly realized that SMME entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship are critical to the generation of output growth, employment creation, wealth expansion, revenue generation and poverty alleviation for individual and national prosperity, when many large firms are downsizing and retrenching labour, amidst a background of recessionary circumstances and fiscal stress. Entrepreneurship has been conceptualized by different schools of thought, stressing different functions, under diverse circumstances in different historical times. This paper critically examines the nature of entrepreneurship by selectively drawing from the economic, management and psychological schools. It then presents an eclectic view of entrepreneurship related to decision-making ability under conditions of uncertainty by individuals who have access to and can control the utilization of resources in response to opportunities. The paper offers some pointers for enhancing the supply of effective entrepreneurship at the national level in South Africa, and suggests that an interdisciplinary approach is needed to gain a better understanding of entrepreneurship.

  7. A classification of the corporate entrepreneurship umbrella: labels and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karina

    2004-01-01

    Confusingly, the concept of corporate entrepreneurship has been used by researchers to explain various organizational phenomena such as ways of managing, strategy and innovation. This has led to an abundance of labels and perspectives and a consequent lack of clarity, since the labels have been...... used interchangeably. This article reviews the literature in order to provide an overview and categorization of corporate entrepreneurship. The aim is to contribute to a clarification of the concept by identifying the key perspectives. Because of the lack of a unifying theoretical base...... for the entrepreneurship phenomena - due to, for example, its interdisciplinary grounding in economics, sociology and psychology - a framework for corporate entrepreneurship will be developed, consisting of intrapreneurship and exopreneurship, which are further broken down into four complementary perspectives: corporate...

  8. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented entrepreneu......The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  9. Impact of entrepreneurship policies on opportunity to startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Davari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the previous decades, policy makers have formulated policies for developing entrepreneurship in different countries in order to decrease unemployment and poverty toward sustainable development. Some of these policies include encouraging people to be an entrepreneur, opportunity creation, educating new skills to entrepreneurs and so on. In recent years an appropriate context has been formed for entrepreneurship development in Iran and some programs have been executed. Therefore, formulating appropriate frameworks to guide Iranian government in this way is a necessity. This paper evaluates the impact of entrepreneurship policies on opportunity to startup in Iran. The results of path analysis indicate that supportive financial and non-financial actions influence positively on opportunity to startup. In addition, education and culture also influence positively on opportunity to startup. Finally, legislation also positively influences on opportunity to startup.

  10. Academic Entrepreneurship and Institutional Change in Historical Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadhwani, R. Daniel; Galvez-Behar, Gabriel; Mercelis, Joris

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on academic entrepreneurship and its role in institutional change, and serves as an introduction to a special issue devoted to the subject. Unlike approaches that define academic entrepreneurship narrowly as the commercialization of academic research...... change, not only within the academic world but also in shaping the organization of markets and states. The article develops this argument in three major sections. First, it draws out themes implicit within the historiography of science and technology that highlight the role of entrepreneurship...... in reshaping academia and its relationship to society. Second, it establishes conceptual foundations for more explicitly examining the processes by which academic entrepreneurship acted as a driver of institutional change. Finally, it synthesizes the findings of the articles in the special issue pertaining...

  11. Threshold Concepts in Entrepreneurship--The Entrepreneurs' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatt, Lucy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present research into the entrepreneurs' perspective of concepts critical to thinking as an entrepreneur, in order to inform enterprise and entrepreneurship course design in higher education. Design/methodology/approach: Taking a social constructivist approach, using a Delphi-style method, semi-structured…

  12. Sociology of Knowledge Perspective on Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter addresses one of the enduring questions in sociology of knowledge: how is it possible that subjective meanings become objective facticities? It adopts this question to understand the entrepreneurship phenomenon, and, more specifically, to understand how new business or venture ideas ...... the discussion around the process of creation, legitimation, and institutionalization of newness. It concludes by proposing a grand theory of legitimation....

  13. Entrepreneurship and its Conditions: a Macro Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); L.M. Uhlaner (Lorraine); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe rate of entrepreneurship, a multidimensional concept including both the percentage of existing business owners in the labor force as well as the start-up rate of new enterprises, varies substantially across countries and over periods of time. Data for several modern Western nations

  14. Toward a kinship perspective on entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verver, M.J.; Koning, J.B.M.

    2017-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical framework for analyzing the role of kinship in entrepre- neurship. Kinship, we argue, is a key ingredient of the social and cultural environment of entrepreneurs, and, therefore, essential in understanding how and why entrepreneurship happens. Building on

  15. Risk tolerance: A perspective on entrepreneurship education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.J. Antonites is in the Department of Business Management, University of Pretoria, and Mr R. Wordsworth is in ... education as follows: Rigorous research is clearly needed to understand the target audiences for entrepreneurship education, their unique educational .... and social risk, as well as psychological risks.

  16. A Holistic Design Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kirsten Bonde; Davidsen, Helle Munkholm

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has revealed a new way of considering learning in educational institutions; but it presents a challenge to most schools. Entrepreneurial learning is asking the teachers to allow pupils to see new possibilities, take initiatives and be self-directed. However, this is difficult for teachers, since they are used to being in control…

  17. CORPORATE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A STRATEGIC AND STRUCTURAL PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira

    2005-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing interest in the use of corporate entrepreneurship as a means for corporations to enhance the innovative abilities of their employees and, at the same time, increase corporate success through the creation of new corporate ventures. However, the creation of corporate activity is difficult since it involves radically changing internal organisational behaviour patterns. Researchers have attempted to understand the factors that stimulate or impede corporate entrep...

  18. Entrepreneurship, Public Policy and Poverty Reduction in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Garba

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to highlight the importance of entrepreneurship and public policy toward poverty reduction in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship has proven to be a mechanism for poverty reduction through creation of employment opportunities, income as well as wealth. In some occasion entrepreneurs exploit opportunities at the expense of the existing policy to engage in activities that are not economically and socially productive. They neither create wealth nor do they improve on the economic performance of a country. The author conducted survey and interview to solicit for data from small and micro enterprises across Kano state and also used secondary information in analysing the situation in the country. Infrastructural decay, lack of coherent policies and institutional framework were partly responsible for escalating poverty in the Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government while designing a policy toward entrepreneurship attempt should be made to identify and encourage high impact entrepreneurs that will genuinely contribute in creating real jobs and poverty reduction.

  19. The rise of repeal: policy entrepreneurship and Don't Ask, Don't Tell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Christopher L; Edgell, Luke R

    2013-01-01

    We report on policy entrepreneurship by Servicemembers Legal Defense Network (SLDN) and how its legislative strategies used mini-windows of opportunity to shift Capitol Hill perspectives of Don't Ask, Don't Tell (DADT) from political plutonium to an emerging issue requiring a second look. Four phases in the legislative history of DADT are identified: radioactive, contested, emerging, and viable. In all, this article argues that SLDN's entrepreneurship focused on contesting congressional sensibilities to wait or defer on repeal, maintained that every discharge was damaging and transitioned toward a post-repeal mind set. Finally, we illustrate the importance of these transitions by comparing SLDN's 2004 estimated vote count for the introduction of the Military Readiness Enhancement Act with the final 2010 voting results on the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act.

  20. Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landström, Hans; Harirchi, Gouya; Åström, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Entrepreneurship research has a long tradition and since the 1980s the field has grown significantly. In this study we identify the ‘knowledge producers’ who have shaped the field over time and their core entrepreneurship research works. A unique database consisting of all references in twelve...... entrepreneurship ‘handbooks’ (or state-of-the-art books) has been developed. The chapters in these handbooks were written by experts within the field, and it can be assumed that the most frequently cited references represent ‘core knowledge’ with relevance to entrepreneurship research. From our analysis......, it appears that entrepreneurship is a rather changeable field of research, closely linked to disciplines such as ‘management studies’ and ‘economics’. Over time, the field has become more formalized with its own core knowledge, research specialities and an increasing number of ‘insider works’. However...

  1. Entrepreneurship and Strategy the Perspective of Logic Effectuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuelly Alves Pelogio

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are part of a dynamic and uncertain environment involving multiple decisions, which are interdependent and simultaneous. However, the action of the entrepreneur has been widely questioned. One of the main questions made about this entrepreneur’s strategy is that it isn’t consistently planned or prescribed in a deterministic way, the way that a lot of research in entrepreneurship and strategy seem to emphasize. Thus, this paper aims to conduct a theoretical construct designed to expose and discuss the topic entrepreneurship and strategy from the perspective of Effectuation logic, which is a alternative decision making model to the classic decision making model. Therefore, we carried out a bibliographic, exploratory and with qualitative analysis approach study. We conclude that there is a need to consider other approaches to understand the action of the entrepreneur in a non deterministic and nonlinear sight.

  2. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in SMEs: A Business Performance Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Soto-Acosta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Assuming that sustainable entrepreneurship leads to business performance, the present paper intends to investigate the standpoints of SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises entrepreneurs on different facets. The emphasis is laid on the entrepreneurs’ approaches towards people, planet and profit and on their prioritization within business dynamics. The aforementioned dimensions are deemed important factors engendering business performance in terms of turnover, customer attraction and retention and market share. With a view to testing the advanced hypotheses, we employed a quantitative perspective relying on a questionnaire-based survey. As the results posited, the proposed model accounts for almost 50 percent of variance in business performance, whereas sustainable entrepreneurship approaches towards the people and profit dimensions have a significant positive influence on business performance.

  3. Smart Specialisation, Entrepreneurship and SMEs : Issues and Challenges for a Results-Oriented EU Regional Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCann, Philip; Ortega Argiles, Raquel

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the ways that European regional policy has been re-shaped in order to build on the role played by entrepreneurship in driving regional innovation. The various lines of re-thinking which have helped to reform the policy draw heavily on modern theories of entrepreneurship and

  4. Local embeddedness in community energy projects. A social entrepreneurship perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Vancea

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of community energy projects have emerged recently, reflecting diverse sociotechnical configurations in the energy sector. This article is based on an empirical study examining different types of community energy projects such as energy cooperatives, public service utilities and other entrepreneurially oriented initiatives across the European Union. Based on an in-depth analysis of three case studies, the article aims to introduce a social entrepreneurship perspective when discussing the relationship between local embeddedness and different forms of organisation and ownership in community energy. The results indicate that community energy projects can expand beyond the local scale without losing their collective and democratic form of functioning and ownership. Moreover, social movements can act as catalysts for this expansion beyond the local, in a quest for wider social transformation. Social entrepreneurship may provide a suitable analytical lens to avoid the ‘local trap’ when examining different forms of organisation and ownership in renewable energy, and further explore the question of scaling.

  5. The efficacy of entrepreneurship education: perspectives of Irish graduate entrepreneurs

    OpenAIRE

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs’ experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs’ experience of graduate entrepreneurship education; and (c) to what extent did entrepreneurship education prepare the graduate entrepreneurs to start ...

  6. PERSPECTIVES AND CHALLENGES FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Naumova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of the current state and prospects of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine based on qualitative and quantitative SWOT analysis, taking into account the synergy between the opportunities and threats, strengths and weaknesses of the object are suggested and conducted in the article. The expert survey method was applied to evaluate the factors are identified through SWOT analysis.The priority areas of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine had been identified on the basis of the sophisticated matrix of the SWOT- analysis. The overriding objectives of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine are making public authorities as well as civil society aware of the solutions required for the problems of social entrepreneurship development in Ukraine through media and communications.The adoption of the Act on social entrepreneurship and its support at the national, regional and local level; the formulation and adoption of the special long-term development programmes to promote social entrepreneurship, introduce legislation to set up a specific registration system for social enterprises, including the regularly monitoring of their activities - the measures are necessary to achieve more effective implementation and increasing the scope and scale of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine.The establishment of the education programmes in the field of social entrepreneurship in the universities, organizing and conduction of teaching workshops, trainings, and courses on social entrepreneurship for the wide public - would give new impetus to the development of social entrepreneurship in Ukraine as the source of the citizens' initiatives.

  7. Social Entrepreneurship: A Reflection for Adopting Public Policies that Support the Third Sector in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francielli Martins Borges Ladeira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest in social entrepreneurship is growing widely not only in Brazil but in the world. Several developed countries have stepped forward to develop policies to support this area not only as a tool to fulfill the government failures such as poverty, health, education, unemployment among others, but also because of all the benefits that social enterprises have in relation to society. However, it is possible to identify a lack of political support for social entrepreneurship in Brazil. Given the needs in the Brazilian context of improvements in several areas where the state can not cover actions in their entirety as social exclusion, income distribution and especially professionalization of youth and creating jobs, we need a deep analysis of how social entrepreneurship can act as a modifying element of this scenario. Thus, with Brazil a country developing rapidly, it is important to verify public policies that support social entrepreneurship in already developed countries and carry out studies on the suitability and applicability of these policies in the Brazilian reality. Thus, this paper aims to study the trends of social entrepreneurship in some developed countries as well as analyzing public policies implemented by these countries, and considering the Brazilian context, present some policy proposals to support social entrepreneurship in Brazil.

  8. Policy entrepreneurship and policy networks in healthcare systems - the case of Israel's pediatric dentistry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Nissim; Horev, Tuvia

    2017-01-01

    Can the entry of a policy entrepreneur challenge the equilibrium of a policy network and promote changes that might clash with the goals of powerful civil-servants and/or interest groups and, if so, why and how? Our goal is to examine two sides of the same coin: how does an in-depth analysis of Israel's dental care reform enrich our understanding of policy networks and policy entrepreneurship? Second, how does the literature on policy networks and policy entrepreneurship help us understand this reform? Based on a theoretical framework that appears in the literature of policy entrepreneurship and policy networks, we analyze the motivations, goals and strategies of the main actors involved in the process of reforming pediatric dental care in Israel. We demonstrate how a policy entrepreneur navigated within a policy network and managed to promote a reform that, until his appearance, no one else in that network had succeeded in enacting. Our goals are advanced through a case study of a reform in pediatric dentistry implemented in Israel in 2010. It rests on textual analyses of the literature, reports, committee minutes, parliamentary proceedings, print and online media, and updates in relevant legislation and case law between 2009 and 2015. In addition, the case study draws on the insights of one of the authors (TH), who played a role in the reform process. Historical circumstances and the Israeli public's longstanding lack of interest in changing the existing model as well as interest groups that preferred the dominance of the private sector in the dental healthcare system kept that area out of the services supplied, universally, under the National Health Insurance Law. This situation changed significantly following the publication in 2007 of a policy analysis that contributed to shifts in the motivations and balance of power within the policy network, which in turn prepared the ground for a policy change. In this environment a determined policy entrepreneur, who

  9. From "Bildung" to Entrepreneurship: Trends in Education Policy in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringarp, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    The European Union would like to improve its efforts to promote entrepreneurship within the Union. More new companies and more entrepreneurs are needed to increase the Union's competitiveness. In order to achieve this goal, the education sectors of the member countries must be reformulated to include entrepreneurship in their education programmes.…

  10. Entrepreneurship: A Unique Opportunity for Higher Education. NCRCRD Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamerlinck, John; Emery, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship, both in commercial and social enterprise development, has become an essential component in sustaining thriving communities in the region. An expanded dedication to entrepreneurship can open up economic opportunities while simultaneously furthering the educational missions of colleges and universities by promoting a scholarship of…

  11. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised in the gender and entrepreneurship debate, this is usually done from the perspective that female entrepreneurs are an untapped resource and have potential to contribute to a country’s economic performance. Indeed, although gender equality is one of the arguments underlying the support for female entrepreneurs within the European Union, the argument that female entrepreneurs (have the potential tocontribute to economic performance continues to play a role here. The global growth of female entrepreneurship in the last decades has been accompanied by an increase in the number of studies on female entrepreneurship. Unlike most existing studies, which focus primarily upon female entrepreneurship in Western European countries, the present thesis investigates gender differences in entrepreneurship in the Eastern European countries. Different aspects of entrepreneurship are studied including the individual, the organization and the environment. A systematic distinction is made between direct and indirect gender effects on entrepreneurship to be able to disentangle ‘pure’ gender effects from effects of factors that are correlated with gender.

  12. Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R; Coskun, Ahmet F; Cho, Sangyeon; Kamrani, Ehsan; Butt, Haider; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    High-tech businesses are the driving force behind global knowledge-based economies. Academic institutions have positioned themselves to serve the high-tech industry through consulting, licensing, and university spinoffs. The awareness of commercialization strategies and building an entrepreneurial culture can help academics to efficiently transfer their inventions to the market to achieve the maximum value. Here, the concept of high-tech entrepreneurship is discussed from lab to market in technology-intensive sectors such as nanotechnology, photonics, and biotechnology, specifically in the context of lab-on-a-chip devices. This article provides strategies for choosing a commercialization approach, financing a startup, marketing a product, and planning an exit. Common reasons for startup company failures are discussed and guidelines to overcome these challenges are suggested. The discussion is supplemented with case studies of successful and failed companies. Identifying a market need, assembling a motivated management team, managing resources, and obtaining experienced mentors lead to a successful exit.

  13. Utilizing Social Work Skills to Enhance Entrepreneurship Training for Women: A Ghanaian Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, Debrenna L; Ahmedani, Brian K

    2008-12-01

    This article describes a women's entrepreneurship exchange program that was designed and facilitated with the cooperation of various governmental and nongovernmental entities in Ghana for Ghanaian women. The article briefly reviews the entrepreneurship development literature from an international perspective and discusses the Entrepreneurship Program as a targeted approach for empowering and sustaining women's economic situation in Ghana. Emphasis is placed on understanding the impact of cultural and social networks and the women's ability to succeed as entrepreneurs through the use of social work skills.

  14. Utilizing Social Work Skills to Enhance Entrepreneurship Training for Women: A Ghanaian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna L.; Ahmedani, Brian K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a women’s entrepreneurship exchange program that was designed and facilitated with the cooperation of various governmental and nongovernmental entities in Ghana for Ghanaian women. The article briefly reviews the entrepreneurship development literature from an international perspective and discusses the Entrepreneurship Program as a targeted approach for empowering and sustaining women’s economic situation in Ghana. Emphasis is placed on understanding the impact of cultural and social networks and the women’s ability to succeed as entrepreneurs through the use of social work skills. PMID:20011682

  15. Policy entrepreneurship in the reform of pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Burton L; Maas, William R

    2017-06-30

    In a recently published IJHPR article, Cohen and Horev ask whether an individual who holds rightful governmental power is able to effectively "challenge the equilibrium" in ways that might "clash with the goals" of an influential group". This question is raised within the context of a shift in governmental policy that imposed the potential for cost management by HMOs acting as financial intermediaries for pediatric dental care in an effort to provide Israeli children better access to affordable dental care. The influential group referred to consists of Israel's private dentists and the individual seeking to challenge the equilibrium was an Israeli Minister of Health whom the authors consider to be a policy entrepreneur.The Israeli health care system is similar to that of the United States in that private benefit plans and self-pay financing dominate in dental care. This is in contrast to the substantial role of government in the financing and regulation of medical care in both countries (with Israel having universal coverage financed by government and the US having government financing the care of the elderly and the poor as well as providing subsidies through the tax system for the care of most other Americans).Efforts to expand governmental involvement in dental care in both countries have either been opposed by organized dentistry or have suffered from ineffective advocacy for increased public investment in dental care.In the U.S., philanthropic foundations have acted as or have supported health policy entrepreneurs. The recent movement to introduce the dental therapist, a type of allied dental professional trained to provide a narrow set of commonly-needed procedures, to the U.S. is discussed as an example of a successful challenge to the equilibrium by groups supported by these foundations. This is a somewhat different, and complementary, model of policy entrepreneurship from the individual policy entrepreneur highlighted in the Cohen-Horev paper.The political

  16. Organizing local ‘green’ entrepreneurship : a brand perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Gerrita van der Veen; Sven Willemsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to show how current insights on place branding are used to organize “green” entrepreneurship in the Dutch Utrechtse Heuvelrug region. The role of place is explored in establishing a differentiated meaning for green entrepreneurship and providing an inspirational source for

  17. The Efficacy of Entrepreneurship Education: Perspectives of Irish Graduate Entrepreneurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Mary; Barry, Almar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the views of Irish graduate entrepreneurs on the efficacy of entrepreneurship education in fostering their development as entrepreneurs. It answers three key questions: (a) what was the graduate entrepreneurs' experience of undergraduate entrepreneurship education; (b) what was the graduate entrepreneurs'…

  18. Technological Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Higher Education and Economic Regeneration in Wales: A Policy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brychan; Packham, Gary; Miller, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the views of key policy makers concerning innovation and entrepreneurship in Wales. The development of innovation in SMEs and the policy implications for economic regeneration are also analysed. The role of a variety of actors (including users and suppliers) is considered, as is the impact of networks of SMEs linked together in…

  19. Putting the Young in Business: Policy Challenges for Youth Entrepreneurship. Territorial Development. LEED Notebook No. 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Robert

    Policies and practices promoting youth entrepreneurship in Organisation for Economic Cooperation Development (OECD) member countries were reviewed. Special attention was paid to the following issues: youth unemployment; contrasting employment situations and policy approaches in individual OECD countries; a definition of self-employment; and the…

  20. Schooling Entrepreneurs: Entrepreneurship, Governmentality and Education Policy in Sweden at the Turn of the Millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlstedt, Magnus; Hertzberg, Fredrik

    2012-01-01

    Departing from Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality, the focus of this article is the introduction of entrepreneurial education in Swedish education policy at the turn of the millennium. We analyze the various meanings attached to the concepts of "entrepreneur" and "entrepreneurship" in education policy documents, as…

  1. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...

  2. Intra-party policy entrepreneurship and party goals. The case of political parties’ climate policy preferences in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Little, Conor

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes to the growing literature on the domestic politics of climate change by examining the climate policy preferences of Fianna Fáil, Fine Gael and the Labour Party over 20 years. Bringing the concept of ‘policy entrepreneurship’ into the study of intra-party politics, it uses...... who have engaged in policy entrepreneurship with the aim of strengthening their parties’ climate policy preferences. In instances where office-seeking incentives for climate policy have been strong, they have often contributed to changes in policy preferences, whether or not intra-party policy...... secondary data, party documents, publicly-available information and a series of in-depth interviews to develop an understanding of intra-party policy entrepreneurship and political parties’ climate policy preferences. It finds that office-seeking incentives have tended to trump the activities of individuals...

  3. THE GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND DEVELOPMENT INDEX: A US PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    ZOLTAN J. ACS

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the performance of the United States (US) on the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (GEDI), capturing the contextual features of entrepreneurship. The US ranks third on the GEDI. It performs well on the aspirations sub-index but lags on the attitudes and activity sub-indices. Its performance is strong in areas of startu skills, competition, and new technology but weak in cultural support, tech sector, and high-growth business. Performance is stronger on institut...

  4. Everyday Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welter, Friederike; Baker, Ted; Audretsch, David B.

    2017-01-01

    This essay contrasts a perspective that places an excessive focus on technology businesses and growth with a view of entrepreneurship that embraces its heterogeneity. We challenge a taken-for-granted belief that only certain kinds of entrepreneurship might lead to wealth and job creation...... and additionally suggest that these two outcomes (wealth and job creation) need to be placed within a broader context of reasons, purposes, and values for why and how entrepreneurship emerges. We suggest that a wider and nondiscriminatory perspective on what constitutes entrepreneurship will lead to better theory...

  5. Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Transfer: Flood Risk Governance in Northern Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petridou Evangelia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Central to policies relating to risk governance at the regional and local levels is the interaction between the public and private sectors also referred to as networked governance. At the same time, the role of political actors in general and policy entrepreneurs in particular, in terms of policy change, has gained considerable traction in recent policy scholarship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in governance arrangements resulting in the formation of a coordination network in regional flood risk management-the first of its kind in Sweden. Our research is guided by the following questions: first, would the policy change (the establishment of the networkshave taken place if a policy entrepreneur were not part of the policy transfer process? Second, what is the role of policy entrepreneurship in the implementation of the policy after its nationwide adoption? Third, what other factors played a role in the variation of the results in the implemented policy that is, the enforced networks? We find the role of a policy entrepreneur key in the policy transfer from the regional to the national level. In order to investigate the resultant networks, we draw from B. Guy Peters (1998 and his conceptualization of factors which affect the politics of coordination. In addition to the presence of a policy entrepreneur, we compare: (i pluriformity of network members;(ii member interdependence; (iii redundancy of structures, and (iv degree of formality (in terms of meetings. Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs contribute to the variation in the functionality of the enforced river groups, though other factors play a significant role as well.Most importantly, perhaps, we did not identify entrepreneurs in any of the river groups which were not functional.

  6. The Influence of Country-Level Governance on Business Environment and Entrepreneurship: a Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Groşanu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to analyze the influence of country-level governance on business environment and entrepreneurship for an international large sample of countries for a period of six years (2007-2012. The dimensions of country-level governance at macroeconomic level will be captured by using the following six indicators developed by the World Bank: 1. Voice and accountability; 2. Political stability and absence of violence; 3. Government effectiveness; 4. Regulatory quality; 5. Rule of law; 6. Control of corruption. To capture the quality of business environment we use the Ease of doing business index developed by the World Bank in its Doing Business report series. To measure entrepreneurship we use the World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey where the number of new registered businesses, as a percentage of the working age population is defined as a measure of formal entrepreneurship. In order to capture the extent to which country-level governance does influence business environment and entrepreneurship, we analyze the data using cross-sectional time-series random effects generalized least square (GLS models. The results of this panel data analysis clarifies and quantifies the influence that various characteristics of country-level governance could have on business environment and entrepreneurship. Therefore, this study could have significant implications for policy-makers as well as for businesses.

  7. The Meaning and Relevancy of Innovation and Entrepreneurship: An Exploration of Agriculture Teacher Preparation and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Matthew M.

    2016-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship are central components of the nation's current economic strategy and thus have direct influence over workforce competitiveness within agricultural industries and environments. In this multiple case study, the experiences and perspectives specific to these two components of 21 graduate students preparing or further…

  8. Hotel industry in Azerbaijan: problems perspectives of entrepreneurship development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasanov Arzu Nadzhaf

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the essence of the entrepreneurship activity and the characteristic features of a businessman. The definition of the entrepreneurship according to the Azerbaijan legislation is given. Then, the tourism, peculiarities and legislation base of business in tourism industry and hotel economy characterized, the main data of the activities of replacement enterprises in the country, the level of quality of hotel service and analyzed, the main problems are listed and the conclusion about the state of the business in the sphere of hotel industry is made.

  9. The Potential of Social Entrepreneurship: Conceptual Tools for Applying Citizenship Theory to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kate; Harris, Sarah Parker; Renko, Maija

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary policy encourages self-employment and entrepreneurship as a vehicle for empowerment and self-sufficiency among people with disabilities. However, such encouragement raises important citizenship questions concerning the participation of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). As an innovative strategy for…

  10. An auto-ethnographic perspective on academic entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Morten; Moroz, Peter; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    ) why academic entrepreneurship in the social sciences and humanities may differ from the hard sciences.  Our findings illustrate the importance of bridging innovation using twin skills to balance research and commercial goals, the need for codifying knowledge capacities and creating new or changing...

  11. Does Entrepreneurship Education Matter? Business Students' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerová, Dana; Eger, Ludvík; Micík, Michal

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a mixed-methods study investigating the perceptions of business students in the Czech Republic towards entrepreneurship education, and examining the factors influencing their level of intention to be entrepreneurs. The results indicate that family background significantly influences the student's entrepreneurial…

  12. Rethinking What Is Entrepreneurship Education: A Macro Integrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongyun; Gu, Jibao

    2017-01-01

    Research on entrepreneurship education (EE) has encountered confusing ontological and methodological issues, such as definitional controversy, gaps between research and practice, and lack of theoretical foundations. These are factors holding back the further development of the research and practice in this field. This paper presents a whole…

  13. Institutional Problems and Development Perspectives Innovative Entrepreneurship in Resource Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutskiy Vladislav, N.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper justifies the necessity to transit towards the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public. Innovation as a product of entrepreneurship permeate the system of relations from top to bottom – from more efficient ways of doing home Ho households, and to design mechanisms of state regulation of the economy. However, at the theoretical level, the relationship remains poorly studied in-novations as a function of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship as social phenomenon in the system of institutional relations "business-authorities-society". Modern Russian economy has features of "dual enclave economy" with isolated more productive export-oriented resource sector. Innovative entrepreneurs do not become actors of change because of weak protection of property rights, manipulated state, weak sanctions for rent-seeking. The transition from innovative system "technology push" (fundamental knowledge on demand of state towards innovation system "market pull" (innovations on demand of business is complicated within Y-matrix of competitive institutional environment. It could turn out to be more effective to transit to the mobilization model "triple helix" (strategic partnership of science and education organizations, business and government, the public in compliance with X-matrix of cooperative institutional environment of redistribution. This will allow to create the necessary mechanisms for the exchange of missing codified knowledge (for those who imitate innovations and tacit knowledge (for pure innovators in the cross-sectoral technological chains. The design of institutional change in compliance with real needs of participants of innovative processes requires formal analysis of the region economic development type through assessing its key spheres, revealing and modeling prevailing type of entrepreneurship as well as identifying the relationship between

  14. Arts Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Contribution to the opinion series “Perspectives” on arts entrepreneurship; how arts entrepreneurship is situated in relation to other disciplines or fields; what problems we are grappling with as scholars, practitioners, teachers, and artists; and what are the research questions we are attempting...... to answer individually or as a field. Under the headline “Perspectives on Arts Entrepreneurship, part 2”, are responses from: William B. Gartner, Professor of Entrepreneurship at Copenhagen Business School and California Lutheran University; Joseph Roberts, Director of the Coleman Fellows Program, Associate...

  15. Audiology, Entrepreneurship and Innovation: A perspective on private practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonites

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper investigates the correlation and contact points between entrepreneurship as a discipline and the profession of audiology. The research focuses on specific areas of entrepreneurship (e.g. innovation as an entrepreneurial skill and the impact it has on audiology private practices as key role players in the biotechnology industry. Design: This study used a two-stage research design comprising of an exploratory study and a formal study to survey the entrepreneurial and business skills of audiologists as entrepreneurs in private practice. Findings: The findings describe severe deficiencies - specifically the business and entrepreneurial skill sets of the professional audiologist as an entrepreneur. The mind-set of the audiologist is not that of an entrepreneur, but rather of a small business owner. A lack of self-confidence to be creative, take risks, and identify new opportunities or innovate in terms of products, process and services was found. Audiologists are not necessarily concerned about the creation of employment, or the growth and profitability of their practices. Autonomy and security are the primary objectives of most practice owners. Keywords: Innovation, Entrepreneurs, Women Entrepreneurs, Entrepreneurship, Audiology, Biotechnology

  16. Social Entrepreneurship – a Perspective of the Young Romanians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Zbuchea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available More and more nonprofit organizations employ business strategies to be more effective and to achieve their social goals. Social entrepreneurship is an option for increasingly more people who want to change the society for the better. The study investigates how Romanians understand the role of nonprofit organizations in society, as well as which are the perceived differences between nonprofit organizations and social enterprises. Of special interest is the Millennials` view, an increasingly more important part of the society. The results lead not only to a better understanding of the way the social system is perceived but also to identifying how to involve Millennials in the social economy.

  17. Women Entrepreneurship in the Western Romania. Research Results and Policy Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca DODESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the results of the empirical, quantitative, and qualitative research performed in the AntrES project, between 5.01.2009 - 4.01.2011, in the Western Romania, referring to the existence of obvious gender gaps regarding the start up of new businesses and the ownership of the businesses; the characteristics, the motivations, and the difficulties of the women entrepreneurs and potentially enterprising women; the successful women entrepreneurs' perceptions on the sex equality in the field of entrepreneurship - this paper presents arguments and recommendations of specific policies meant to support the potential women entrepreneurship in Romania, as an engine to overcome the economic crisis and to reconnect to the regional development mechanism facilitated by the European Union's regional policy.

  18. The potential of social entrepreneurship: conceptual tools for applying citizenship theory to policy and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kate; Harris, Sarah Parker; Renko, Maija

    2012-12-01

    Contemporary policy encourages self-employment and entrepreneurship as a vehicle for empowerment and self-sufficiency among people with disabilities. However, such encouragement raises important citizenship questions concerning the participation of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). As an innovative strategy for addressing pressing social and economic problems, "social entrepreneurship" has become a phrase that is gaining momentum in the IDD community--one that carries with it a very distinct history. Although social entrepreneurship holds the potential to be an empowering source of job creation and social innovation, it also has the potential to be used to further disenfranchise this marginalized population. It is crucial that in moving forward society takes care not to perpetuate existing models of oppression, particularly in regard to the social and economic participation of people with IDD. The conceptual tools addressed in this article can inform the way that researchers, policymakers, and practitioners approach complex issues, such as social entrepreneurship, to improve communication among disciplines while retaining an integral focus on rights and social justice by framing this issue within citizenship theory.

  19. Entrepreneurship: introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C

    2011-08-01

    Many investigators from diverse perspectives focus their studies on the area of entrepreneurship due to its important role as an engine of economic and social development. The aim of this monograph is to provide an overview of the state of entrepreneurship research. It presents the controversy about the domain of the study and whether entrepreneurship can be considered a legitimate field of knowledge. We study the aspects that differentiate people who are entrepreneurs from those who are not from the perspective of cognitive psychology and we discuss the role of entrepreneurial education. The work is also an attempt to understand the factors that determine the durability of a company such as resources, location, personality traits, strategies, organizational systems, etc. Lastly, we examine the reality of entrepreneurship research in Spain.

  20. 7 ways to boost digital innovation and entrepreneurship in Europe. Key messages from the European innovation policies for the digital shift project

    OpenAIRE

    NEPELSKI DANIEL; BOGDANOWICZ MARC; BIAGI FEDERICO; DESRUELLE PAUL; DE PRATO GIUDITTA; GABISON GARRY; PIROLI GIUSEPPE; PESOLE ANNAROSA; THUMM NIKOLAUS; VAN ROY VINCENT

    2016-01-01

    This report attempts to summarise findings and conclusions of over 30 studies published within the EURIPIDIS project (European Innovation Policies for the Digital Shift). The objective of EURIPIDIS was to better understand how digital innovation and entrepreneurship work; to assess the EU's digital innovation and entrepreneurship performance; and to suggest how policy makers could make digital innovation and entrepreneurship in the EU work better. Because digital technologies facilitate the m...

  1. Academic Entrepreneurship, Innovation Policies and Politics in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arapostathis, Stathis

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the process of the emergence in Greece of the "Triple Helix", and the nature of the "Helix" in the context of the concurrent changes occurring in Greek socio-political affairs. The influence of politics and innovation policies on the relationships between academia and government and industry is considered.…

  2. Adding Entrepreneurship to India’s Science, Technology & Innovation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragini Chaurasia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Science, Technology & Innovation Policy (STIP is an important policy instrument particularly in the developing countries. India also has recognized the role of science, technology and innovation in development as early as 1958 but still trails behind its peer Brazil, China and the Asian tiger Singapore. Considering strong correlation between research and development investment and growth based on existing studies, this paper brings forth the present situation of India in investment and its influence on the performance of the economy vis-à-vis the three countries. This paper studies the STIP 2013 in detail and reports the contribution of the Department of Science and Technology in India. The main conclusion of this paper is the recommendation for incorporation of “entrepreneurship” in STIP based on global best practices, which can be achieved by government’s involvement as a venture capitalist to seed and support innovations, increasing transparency and incorporating entrepreneurial curriculum.

  3. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: A socioecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K.; Gosling, Samuel D.; Potter, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the topic entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. r...

  4. Intrinsic Contradictions of Entrepreneurship Development and Self-development

    OpenAIRE

    Revaz Gvelesiani

    2015-01-01

    The intrinsic contradictions of entrepreneurship development and self-development strategies complicate the task of reaching compliance between the state economic policy and the company entrepreneurship policy: on the one hand, there is a contradiction between the social and the competitive order within economic order policy and on the other hand, the contradiction exists between entrepreneurship strategy and entrepreneurship culture within entrepreneurship policy.

  5. Public policy for start-up entrepreneurship with venture capital and bank finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keuschnigg, Christian; Nielsen, Søren Bo

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider a nu...... a number of policies to promote entrepreneurship and venture capitalbacked innovation.JEL Classification: D82, G24, G28, H24.Keywords: venture capital bank finance, matching, moral hazard, public policy.......This paper proposes and analyses a model of start-up investment. Innovative entrepreneursare commercially inexperienced and can benefit from venture capital support. Only part ofthem succeed in matching with a venture capitalist while the rest must resort to standard bankfinance. We consider...

  6. Digital Technology Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giones, Ferran; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Technology entrepreneurship is an established concept in academia. However, recent developments in the context of digital entrepreneurship call for revision and advance- ment. The multiple possible combinations of technology and entrepreneurship have res- ulted in a diversity of phenomena...... with significantly different characteristics and socio-economic impact. This article is focused on the identification and description of technology entrepreneurship in times of digitization. Based on current examples, we identify and describe characterizations of technology entrepreneurship, digital techno- logy...... entrepreneurship, and digital entrepreneurship. With this new delineation of terms, we would like to foster discussion between researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers on the impact of digitization on entrepreneurship, and set a future research agenda....

  7. Entrepreneurial Characteristics of Students in Different Fields of Study: a View from Entrepreneurship Education Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our article is to examine the entrepreneurial characteristics of university students in different disciplines, and to develop implications and recommendations for entrepreneurship education programing according to the observed differences. The main research question is to identify whether students from different selected disciplines exhibit different rates of enterprising potential (i.e. tendency to start up and manage projects, and if so, which are the differentiating attributes. To answer this question we conducted a study using the General Enterprising Tendency v2 Test (GET2 test and analysed the enterprising potential of 370 university students in four different majors (business administration, applied informatics, psychology and pedagogy. The findings of our analysis suggest that there are significant differences in the general enterprising tendency levels, as well as in levels of three out of five its components (namely need for achievement, calculated risk taking and internal locus of control between the students in analysed majors. In other words, students in different disciplines exhibit different rates of entrepreneurial predispositions. In our article we present and further discuss these findings, especially from the entrepreneurship education perspective in its broadest sense.

  8. Economics case study: Harvard Business School pedagogy techniques: From teaching entrepreneurship to influencing business policy through research

    OpenAIRE

    MAMOON, Dawood

    2017-01-01

    Abstract. The case study explains the need for social entrepreneurship while remaining in the premise of mainstream economics. A detailed discussion is carried out on the vulnerabilities of economic policy making that has led to some of the new initiatives at Harvard Business School to promote such pedagogy practices at Business Schools that may eventually influence national and international policy making to the benefit of the society and not only the economies of developed and developing co...

  9. Corporate Entrepreneurship Training Evaluation: A Model and a New Research Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Janice; Fayolle, Alain

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at corporate entrepreneurship (CE) training and proposes some insights for its evaluation. The literature review begins by outlining what corporate entrepreneurship entails and the rationale for a firm adopting a more entrepreneurial posture. Subsequently, organizational devices for encouraging corporate entrepreneurship are…

  10. Teaching Entrepreneurship in Vocational Education Viewed from the Regional and Field Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvi, Taina

    2012-01-01

    Very little research has been conducted on the teaching of entrepreneurship, in particular in vocational education. Entrepreneurship is included in the national curriculum of many European countries, but there is concern over the competence of its teachers and their training in entrepreneurship (European Commission 2009, 14). This article explores…

  11. ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A Critical Review From A Socio-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Tirta Agung Setiawan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to briefly explain and analyse the association between entrepreneurship and development theories. It will exploit Schumpeter’s idea on economic development, especially on entrepreneurship as the main engine of that development process. It will also describe the reality of entrepreneurship in developing countries and discuss issues on the development of entrepreneurship study found in Indonesia as a case study. At the end, the paper concluded that a cultural study that link western theories of development and entrepreneurship with the unique cultural realities that exist only in developing countries is important.

  12. Public Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we want to affirm the desiring-social-change that we find in practices presently represented by theorists and policy-makers as examples of ‘social entrepreneurship’ (SE). We do this as an attempt to intensify the presence of the social and sociality in today's discourse on the entre...... by focusing on the social productivity of entrepreneurship, on entrepreneurship desiring social change. We suggest ‘public entrepreneurship’ might grasp this as a more balanced concept that will also support a more precise analysis of the entrepreneurship–society relationship....

  13. Innovation and collective entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to examine different forms of innovation including social innovation, and why innovation and social innovation have become important themes in public policy – in a context of the increasing and diverse demands on welfare regimes, and in an era of constrained budgets. It will review......, including the role of the institutional and policy framework. It will set this analysis within the context of public policy, demonstrating the role of public policy in enabling such innovations in the social and solidarity economy....... different perspectives on innovation and social innovation and the dynamic interaction through collective entrepreneurship in the the social and solidarity economy; bringing out process and outcome dimensions of innovation. And it will develop an understanding of the drivers and barriers to innovation...

  14. Institutional entrepreneurship:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne

    2018-01-01

    of agents or organisations in the policy arena. The present chapter understands institutional entrepreneurship as the process of changing institutionalised practices. Based on a literature review, it describes the triggers, activities and potential effects of institutional entrepreneurs. The chapter......Institutional entrepreneurship pays specific attention to the process and outcomes of agents who are willing and capable of changing institutions. It has some common ground with the political entrepreneur, a concept that proposes change in norms and institutions because of commitment and activities...... concludes by tentatively arguing that political entrepreneurs can be institutional entrepreneurs, but institutional entrepreneurship can be considered as the broader concept that incorporates strategies and visions as well as interpretative-discursive power into the conceptual framework....

  15. Public Entrepreneurship and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Nancy

    1992-01-01

    This article presents a conceptual framework of public entrepreneurship. Public entrepreneurship is defined as the generation of a novel or innovative idea and the design and implementation of the innovative idea into public sector practice. The conceptual framework is used to distinguish between public entrepreneurs and other actors in the policy process, and to clarify the differences between policy, political, executive, and bureaucratic entrepreneurs....

  16. WOMEN IN BUSINESS. THE NEED FOR POLICIES TO FOSTERING WOMEN ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borza Adriana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In developing economies, the issue of overcoming the gaps in public policies regarding gender is closely linked to the ability of governments to identify policies that have worked successfully in regions with similar economic circumstances. Equally, there is a need for innovative data solutions that have the capacity to determine a real change of socio-economic relations. For now, as far as the Romanian context is concerned, female entrepreneurs do not enjoy as much government support as it is really needed. What literature refers to as the "glass ceiling" seems to be doubled in Romania by collective suspicion towards the discrepancy between the ambition and the skills of women who find themselves in the position of decision makers at top management level. This crisis of confidence faced by women makes their management tasks even more difficult. Not incidentally, literature mentions opinions according to which a woman must work twice as hard as a man to reach a certain position. The crisis brought about by the lack of models is confirmed by numerous studies and researches, all highlighting the urgent need for mentoring. Given such gender related constraints, it is only natural to expect that decision makers at government level would show a special interest for policies designed to encourage female entrepreneurship, and, in general, to support increase of employment of women in economic activities.

  17. Family Background and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    Vast amounts of money are currently being spent on policies aimed at promoting entrepreneurship. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that individuals are not ‘born entrepreneurs’. In this paper, we assess the importance of family background and neighborhood...... effects as determinants of entrepreneurship. We start by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share. The average is 28 percent. Allowing for differential...... entrepreneurship does play a large role, as do shared genes....

  18. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Editor(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print.

  19. Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Book cover Reforming Social Policy: Changing Perspectives on Sustainable Human Development. Directeur(s):. Daniel Morales-Gómez, Necla Tschirgi, and Jennifer L. Moher. Maison(s) d'édition: IDRC. 1 janvier 1999. ISBN :.

  20. Managing disruptive innovation: Entrepreneurship-based strategies and perspectives for agile organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra, Y.; Yang, S.-J.S.; Soosay, C.; O'Neill, P.; Prajogo, D.I.

    2009-01-01

    Extant research on disruptive innovation has implicitly incorporated entrepreneurship as the underlying drivers and mechanisms of the ‘disruptive’ phenomenon. Despite the potential contribution of entrepreneurship-related research streams to the study and practice of innovation, few researchers have

  1. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution’s pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy. - Highlights: ► We examine the development of EU energy security policy, focusing on gas. ► We examine changes in European Commission competence in energy policy. ► The European Commission has gained increased competence in the internal market. ► In the external dimension of EU energy policy Member States retain competence. ► The European Commission has had qualified success as a policy entrepreneur

  2. Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, E.; Nooteboom, B.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the nature of entrepreneurship and its relation to innovation along a cycle in which exploration and exploration follow upon each other. We place the roles of entrepreneurship in innovation policy within this cycle of innovation. Different types of innovation along the cycle of

  3. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  4. Space Politics and Policy: An Evolutionary Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Eligar

    2002-01-01

    This paper offers an evolutionary perspective of space policy. It is argued that (1) space policy is evolutionary in that it has responded to dramatic political events, such as the launching of Sputnik and the Cold War, and has undergone dynamic and evolutionary policy changes over the course of the past fifty years of the space-age; and that (2) space policy is an integral part of and interacts with public policy processes in the United States and abroad. To this end, the paper analyzes space policy at several levels of analysis. This includes: (1) historical context, political actors and institutions, political processes, and policy outcomes; (2) the symbiotic relationships between policy and space technology; and (3) future space policy trends and developments likely to occur in the 21st century. A "Space Politics and Policy Framework" is developed in this paper to represent the evolution of space policy. Space policy involves both the process of policy formation and policy change over time (e.g., emergence of commercialization) and the courses of action taken to achieve political (and technological) determined outcomes. The evolution of space policy over time takes place through policy change. On this basis, public policy processes over the course of the space-age have involved the mobilization of governmental resources, actors, and institutions. Concomitantly, nongovernmental actors, such as private corporations and commercial enterprises, increasingly play a role in space. As a result, market factors in addition to political forces influence space policy.

  5. The Place of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education – Present State and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iga Kott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is one of the main driving forces of the national economies. In Poland, more and more jobs are created in private enterprises, set up and running by entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurs are characterized as people, which seize the opportunity to act, have higher self-esteem and a greater sense of control over their lives, and they, usually become successful people. This causes a widespread conviction, that the promotion of entrepreneurship, may result in maximizing the success of both, individual and in the scale of the national economy as well. Therefore, it becomes important to develop standards in the field of entrepreneurship education, the greater numbers of people would have been able to achieve a professional success. This article presents the essence of the entrepreneurship and the role of education, in entrepreneurship’s excitation or strengthening. Also a practical example of the implementation of these provisions by one of the Polish Universities - Czestochowa University of Technology, is presented.

  6. Regulations and Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Developed and Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Álvarez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses an institutional approach to examine the effect of regulations on entrepreneurial activity, comparing developed and developing countries. Through an unbalanced panel data set of 49 countries over the period 2001-2010 and using a combination of international databases we find a positive influence of government spending and entrepreneurship legislation on entrepreneurial activity. It was also found that regulations may have different impacts on entrepreneurship according to the country’s economic development. Thus, in developed economies unemployment legislation is positively related to entrepreneurship, while this relationship is negative in other cases. This paper offers new insights both from a conceptual perspective (advancing theory concerning the factors that influence entrepreneurial activity and a practical viewpoint (for the design of government policies to foster entrepreneurship.

  7. Religion and Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spear, Roger

    2010-01-01

    This chapter is concerned with the role of religion in social entrepreneurship. It takes an institutional perspective and examines the way religious institutions and actors have supported social entrepreneurship. Weber has argued for the role of (protestant) religion in motivating people to take....../organisations) and local religious leaders to catalyse entrepreneurial activity. Thus these three dimensions of religious institutions (ideological discourse, networks, and leadership) will be examined in relation to social entrepreneurship. For the sake of simplifying the empirical base of this study, the field of social...... entrepreneurship will be limited to social enterprise which are co-operatives, mutuals and trading voluntary organisations (or non-profits), since there is a good evidence base of religious involvement in entrepreneurship in this sector, from which a number of cases will be drawn using secondary sources. However...

  8. Entrepreneurship as everyday practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Korsgaard, Steffen

    2012-01-01

    Adopting the perspective of ‘entrepreneurship as an everyday practice’ in education, the authors conceptualize opportunities as arising from the everyday practice of individuals. Opportunities are thus seen as emanating from the individual entrepreneur’s ability to disclose anomalies...... and disharmonies in their personal life. The paper illustrates how opportunities unfold depending on regional differences, local heritage and gender, to show how entrepreneurship education must take into account differences in context, culture and circumstance. Rather than perceiving entrepreneurship education...... as universalistic and searching for a generally applicable teaching approach, the authors argue that there is a need to tailor entrepreneurship education to the particular. They therefore propose that the pedagogy of entrepreneurship education should be personalized and they build a conceptual framework...

  9. A Review of Entrepreneurship Education for College Students in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Xu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Partly as a result of the rapid growth in Chinese higher education, graduate placement has become a critical issue facing colleges and universties. In response, one of the policy initiatives adopted by the Chinese government is for higher education institutions to put an emphasis on entrepreneurship education. In 2002, the Ministry of Education launched a pilot program on carrying out entrepreneurship education in nine prestigious higher education institutions in China. Since then, many colleges and universities have adopted this innovation in education. This study attempts to examine entrepreneurship education as an innovative solution to the challenges facing higher education in China. It first introduces the background for promoting entrepreneurship education in China, analyzes the entrepreneurship education programs and activities in three selected universities, assesses the state of entrepreneurship education both from a student perspective and also through a comparison with developments in the United States, and concludes with recommendations for further developments in entrepreneurship education in China’s colleges and universities.

  10. Mechanisms Fostering Social Entrepreneurship as Potential Instruments for Economic Development: The Eastern Partnership Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plotnieks Dāvis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With its plan to assign 600 million euros through the European Neighbourhood Instrument for Eastern Partnership countries, the European Union intended to increase the efficiency of institutions, attenuate social problems, and create an environment that fosters economic growth and human well-being in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine. A few scholars have criticized the amount of funding and planned initiatives of the European Neighbourhood Instrument as insufficient and suggested that in order to foster cooperation and support reforms in its Eastern Partnership countries, more action should be taken. In times when European Commission budget is under constraints of consolidation and increase of aid for supporting European Neighbourhood countries is hardly possible, alternative solutions for tempering social problems need to be assessed. Various scientists, philanthropists and entrepreneurs see social entrepreneurship as a tool for solving social problems in a sustainable way where business thinking is being combined with non-profit philosophy. Contrary to government support and intervention for solving social problems, social entrepreneurship is already being used as tool that initially addresses joint needs--solve social problems and create revenue that provides much needed income for sustainable business initiatives. This paper analyzes the concept of social entrepreneurship, examples where social entrepreneurship is solving social problems, and mechanisms that can foster these phenomena. The aim of this paper is to examine different mechanisms of how governments can foster the creation and development of social entrepreneurship. Unique survey data derived from a project examining social entrepreneurship in Europe is used. It is concluded that by adopting mechanisms proven in various developed countries, the Eastern Partnership countries can stimulate social entrepreneurship, thus attenuating social problems and

  11. Cultural factors and gender role in female entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Rubio-Bañón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Women play an important role in entrepreneurship although feminine entrepreneurship is lower than masculine entrepreneurship. However, the distance between both entrepreneurship rates (male–female varies across countries because of the influence of different roles and stereotypes on entrepreneurial behavior. In order to understand those differences, this paper analyzes the distance between male and female entrepreneurship from a cultural perspective in 55 countries. Findings show that there is no clear relation between country masculinity and gender entrepreneurship breach.

  12. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Generic CMYK printer profile Composite Default screen William B. Ruger Chair of National Security Economics Papers Number 4 American Foreign Policy...American comparative ad- vantage, including the liberalization of textile and agricultural policies in the United States, thereby leveling the playing

  13. Oil and entrepreneurship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majbouri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Economic theory predicts that rents produced from natural resources, especially oil and gas, can increase opportunities for entrepreneurship, but they may also reduce engagement in entrepreneurial activities as they change incentives towards rent-seeking. Using Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) annual surveys, this study provides empirical evidence that more per capita profit from oil and gas reduces entrepreneurship only in corrupt environments. The more the corruption is, the larger is the impact. The results have important implications for policy makers, especially in resource rich developing countries. - Highlights: •Profits from oil and gas have positive and negative impacts on entrepreneurship. •This study explains these impacts and provides empirical evidence on them. •It uses Global Entrepreneurship Monitor and WB Subsoil and Forest rents datasets. •It employs a dynamic panel data estimation with country fixed effects. •It shows that the negative impact dominates as corruption and oil and gas rents increase.

  14. Entrepreneurship, job creation, income empowerment and poverty reduction in low-income economies

    OpenAIRE

    Adenutsi, Deodat E.

    2009-01-01

    The fundamental objective of this paper is to provide an insight into the role of entrepreneurship in job creation, income generation and empowerment, and poverty reduction in low-income economies. Having provided a conceptual framework and the theoretical underpinnings of the linkages of entrepreneurship to job creation, income empowerment and poverty reduction from an economic perspective, the paper develops an entrepreneurial policy-relevant model for breaking the vicious cycle of poverty ...

  15. Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Some Empirical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of entrepreneurship for achieving economic growth in contemporary economies is widely recognized, both by policy makers and economists. However, empirical evidence linking entrepreneurship to economic growth is scarce. This book investigates the relation between

  16. High Entrepreneurship, Leadership, and Professionalism (HELP): Toward an Integrated, Empirically Based Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    This article evaluates the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing the constructs of entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism, from an integrated point of view, the High Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Professionalism Questionnaire (HELP-Q). Exploratory factor analysis indicated a factor structure with three principal dimensions, and confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit indices indicated a good fit of the model to the data. All the dimensions showed good values of internal consistency. The results of the study thus indicate that the HELP-Q is a short and easily administered instrument with good psychometric properties that can promote entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism in workers as well as in those who are preparing to enter the turbulent 21st century labor market.

  17. High Entrepreneurship, Leadership, and Professionalism (HELP: towards an integrated, empirically based perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article evaluates the psychometric properties of a new measure for assessing the constructs of entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism, from an integrated point of view, the High Entrepreneurship, Leadership and Professionalism Questionnaire (HELP-Q. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a factor structure with three principal dimensions, and confirmatory factor analysis and goodness of fit indices indicated a good fit of the model to the data. All the dimensions showed good values of internal consistency. The results of the study thus indicate that the HELP-Q is a short and easily administered instrument with good psychometric properties that can promote entrepreneurship, leadership, and professionalism in workers as well as in those who are preparing to enter the turbulent 21st century labor market.

  18. New Perspectives on Policy Uncertainty

    OpenAIRE

    Hlatshwayo, Sandile

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ubiquitous and intensifying nature of economic policy uncertainty has made it a popular explanation for weak economic performance in developed and developing markets alike. The primary channel for this effect is decreased and delayed investment as firms adopt a ``wait and see'' approach to irreversible investments (Bernanke, 1983; Dixit and Pindyck, 1994). Deep empirical examination of policy uncertainty's impact is rare because of the difficulty associated in measuring i...

  19. Teachers' Perspective on Institutional Barriers to Academic Entrepreneurship--A Case of Uttarakhand State, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Lalit

    2017-01-01

    The study explores the institutional factors which influence the impact of education in building academic entrepreneurship in higher educational institutes of Uttarakhand state, India. In order to understand the institutional barriers, the author interviewed 68 senior-level educationists, who were working in the capacity of Director General,…

  20. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunn, Simon; Larsen, Jeffrey; Yost, David; Kamp, Karl-Heinz; Edelman, Eric; Valasek, Tomas; Garcia Cantalapiedra, David

    2011-01-01

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  1. Perspectives on NATO Nuclear Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunn, Simon [Royal United Services Institute for Defense and Security Studies - RUSI, Whitehall, London, SW1A 2ET (United Kingdom); Larsen, Jeffrey [Larsen Consulting Group, 3710 Woodland Dr Ste 2100, Anchorage, AK 99517 (United States); Yost, David [Naval Postgraduate School, 1 University Circle, Monterey, CA 93943 (United States); Kamp, Karl-Heinz [NATO Defense College, Via Giorgio Pelosi 1, 00143, Roma (Italy); Edelman, Eric [Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments - CSBA, 1667 K Sreet NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC, 20006 (United States); Valasek, Tomas [Centre for European Reform - CER, 14 Great College Street, Westminster, London, SW1P 3RX (United Kingdom); Garcia Cantalapiedra, David [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-05-26

    NATO will shortly revisit the question of its nuclear policy and posture as part of the ongoing deterrence and defense posture review (DDPR). This assessment of its nuclear requirements will be take place against the background of two parallel and potentially competing commitments: first, the general support for the goal of reducing and eventually eliminating nuclear weapons with the related question of how NATO should contribute to this goal; second, the commitment that in considering the role of nuclear weapons the priority for NATO members is the maintenance of solidarity and cohesion and the consequent determination that decisions on nuclear policy will be taken by the Alliance collectively. There are forcefully expressed arguments on both sides of the debate over whether to maintain or eliminate the remaining arsenal of U.S. nuclear weapons assigned to NATO. On the one hand, they provide coupling, transatlantic links, military capabilities against an uncertain future, and risk and burden sharing. On the other, some allies see benefits to further reductions in the remaining arsenal in the cause of global disarmament. This study presents first the questions and issues for NATO and the future alternatives for NATO nuclear policy. Then, the views from United States, Germany, Turkey, Central and Eastern Europe, Italy and Spain are successively reviewed

  2. Critical Entrepreneurship Studies: a manifesto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, C.; Dey, P.; Tedmanson, D.; Verduyn, K.; Essers, C.; Dey, P.; Tedmanson, D.; Verduyn, K.

    2017-01-01

    In lieu of an abstract, here is a short excerpt from the chapter: This edited book on Critical Entrepreneurship Studies aims to explore, and thereby expand our understanding of entrepreneurship by elaborating on this popular and widely invoked discourse using different critical perspectives. The

  3. Media Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khajeheian, Datis

    2017-01-01

    Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly......, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed...... entrepreneurship....

  4. De-internationalization of small high technology firms: An international entrepreneurship perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.

    This study explores the process of de-internationalisation in small high-technology firms. The key research questions are how and why these firms de-internationalise. Being positioned at the intersection of entrepreneurship and international business research paths, the study expressly investigates...... by reduction was employed extensively to advance middle-range theories. The study contributes to (i) international business research by developing a process model of de-internationalisation and defining its constructs; (ii) entrepreneurship research by redefining the entrepreneurial orientation construct...... whether de-internationalisation could be viewed as (i) an entrepreneurial activity; and/or (ii) an integral part of a small high-technology firms’ growth process. Driven by the nature of the research questions, a multiple-case study methodology was adopted for the purpose of theory building. Five firms...

  5. Educational leadership in the 21st century from the perspective of sustainable entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaru Valle Chirinos Araque

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design an university social responsibility program (RSU in CORPOSUCRE to generate sustainable entrepreneurship in vulnerable communities, in which the approaches were researched the studies of Vallaeys (2010, Bernal & Rivera (2011 and Rodríguez (2012. The investigation showed that in CORPOSUCRE there is awareness about the importance of social projection, however, officials still perceive university social responsibility as an isolated and discretionary process, therefore, it promotes the design of a RSU program.

  6. Collective Efficacy of a Regional Network: Extending the Social Embeddedness Perspective of Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad, Nabeel; Léo-Paul, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Through participatory observation and in-depth interviews with members of the Memon community, in Pakistan, this paper probes into how the collective efforts of a regional network can facilitate entrepreneurship, social enterprises and regional development. The setting is a developing country that is lacking a large-scale entrepreneurial culture. Despite caste differences, Memons throughout the Karachi region meet and share experiences with other Memon members of their network – including Mem...

  7. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor - Canada Survey | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Understanding entrepreneurship on a global scale allows researchers to analyze trends in policies and practice, and identify lessons for improving entrepreneurship. This three-year study will generate valuable information about entrepreneurship in Canada, complementing similar studies underway in developing countries ...

  8. Exploring the significance of entrepreneurship in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, de P.L.; Schoorlemmer, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    Entrepreneurship in agriculture is an important issue in Europe. Policy makers, researchers, farmers’ unions and advisory services are all working on the development of entrepreneurship in agriculture. The question answered in this report is why entrepreneurship in agriculture is important and what

  9. Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Entrepreneurship Research in Southeast Asia: Applying the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor. Entrepreneurship has been a major driver of growth and job creation in Southeast Asia. However, there is little empirical research on entrepreneurial activity, innovation, and the types of policies which can promote ...

  10. Consumer entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dentoni, Domenico; Poldner, Kim; Pascucci, Stefano; Gartner, William B.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to understand innovative processes of resource redeployment taking place during consumption. We label this as consumer entrepreneurship. We define consumer entrepreneurship as the process of sharing and recombining resources innovatively to seek opportunities for

  11. Worker Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucouliagos, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Evaluates the experience of worker entrepreneurship, highlighting successes and failures in Europe, and analyzes the relative importance of factors to worker entrepreneurship such as access to finance, education and training, organizational culture, and worker risk taking. (JOW)

  12. Internet policy and economics challenges and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pupillo, Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Presents cutting-edge research, practice, and policy in electronic communications, commerce, and cultureIncludes contributions from leading researchers and industry expertsAddresses such hot-button issues as privacy issues, universal access, cybercrime, intellectual property rights, on-line content, and peer-to-peer networksApplies perspectives from economics, political science, law, business, and communicationsFully updated and revised paperback edition will appeal to practitioners, policymakers, and students

  13. The promise of entrepreneurship education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Claus; Blenker, Per; Korsgaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    into general anomalies; (IV) Constructing innovative solutions; (V) Prototyping; and (VI) Business modelling. Finally, we discuss the implications of the reconceptualized framework in terms of the research questions governing the field of entrepreneurship education, for the practice of entrepreneurship......This article develops a conceptual framework for entrepreneurship education based on a reconceptualization of the individual-opportunity nexus as presented by Shane and Venkataraman (2000). In order to achieve this objective, we reinterpret both the basic assumptions pertaining to the individual...... education, as well as for policy to promote entrepreneurship education....

  14. Genesis of social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulothungan, Gladius

    The PhD thesis has a research subject and focus attempting to develop a sociological analysis of a form of social action in the shape of social entrepreneurship defined as a problem solving initiative. The thesis explores what kind of situations and circumstances – both external, in terms...... as social entrepreneurship - to social issues/problems. Social entrepreneurship has been conceptualized as innovative initiatives with a social mission to solve social problems. The research questions are: How does social entrepreneurship emerge? What are the triggers? – including a theoretical...... and empirical framing of the institutional environment including policy and funding provisions offering both facilitation and resistance to entrepreneurial behavior, the personal or group motivations of the social entrepreneur - or a core group - that unfold in the context of a set of stakeholders who have some...

  15. Social entrepreneurship and economy organisations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundgaard Andersen, Linda

    Departing from a brief state of the art on social entrepreneurship in Denmark sketching out how social entrepreneurship and social innovation is introduced referring to partly a more classical approach to entrepreneurship and innovation and partly referring to a specific Danish tradition for soci...... that the phenomenon of social entrepreneurship and social economy organizations is a contested concept that caters to different strategies for welfare, democracy, learning and advocacy....... development and local participation in welfare production this presentation draws upon a number of case studies on young social economy organizations. These organizations seek to gain ground as social enterprises delivering social services in partnerships with the civic society and sometimes also a number...... of public bodies. Hereby they embody the new arenas of social entrepreneurship that has entered the Danish policy and practical arena in the forms of hybrid types of social service provision in the area of social enterprise and social entrepreneurship. Based on these case studies it is suggested...

  16. Two Approaches to Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moberg, Kåre

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of two different approaches to entrepreneurship education at the lower secondary level of education. The influence of education for entrepreneurship and education through entrepreneurship on pupils' level of school engagement and entrepreneu......The objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of two different approaches to entrepreneurship education at the lower secondary level of education. The influence of education for entrepreneurship and education through entrepreneurship on pupils' level of school engagement...... ninth-graders (aged 14e15) and 576 randomly selected Danish tenth-graders (aged 15e16). The findings have implications for policy makers and curriculum designers, inasmuch as the influence of two educational approaches is assessed and analysed, but also for the academic community since it presents...

  17. Entrepreneurship in an Organizational Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Jacob

    Strategic entrepreneurship is quickly emerging as an exciting independent research field. Essentially taken up with how firms can use entrepreneurial actions to create wealth, strategic entrepreneurship lies at the intersection of the opportunity seeking perspective of the entrepreneurship...... literature and the advantage seeking perspective of strategic management literature. Although the benefits associated with firms engaging in entrepreneurial actions have repeatedly been highlighted, presently little is known about how firms actually pursue entrepreneurial opportunities. While strategic...... underscores and explicates the role of firms’ entrepreneurial organizational members and organizational design in firms’ pursuit of entrepreneurial wealth creation....

  18. THE RESPONSE OF THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP TO THE CHANGING BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT: STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    GENÇ, Kurtuluş

    2018-01-01

    The basic aim of this study is to present relatively a new approach in management literature: strategic entrepreneurship (SE). In the study, the basic principles or knowledge of strategic entrepreneurship from the literature are presented and discussed. This study will create an opportunity to benefit from strategic entrepreneurship as a new perspective. Today, there is a rapid change in business life: this change re-quires new approaches to business. Strategic entrepreneurship is the respons...

  19. Sustainable Entrepreneurship in the Energy Sector: A Perspective from a Brazilian Power Utility Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius de Oliveira Brasil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The key question in this article consists of identifying the conditions under which the social projects developed by the firm Alpha are really promoting the sustainable development in the state of Ceará, located in Northeast Brazil. The general goal is to discuss if the firm’s social projects are related to the sustainable corporate entrepreneurship (SCE. This paper intends to stimulate the scientific community to advance knowledge on entrepreneurial, innovation and sustainability. This case study focuses on four Alpha’s projects: Ecological Initiative, Efficient Exchange, Social Energy, and School of Efficient Paths. The thematic content’s analysis methodology was used in this article. The documental research served as primary data source and helped to better elucidate the studied object. The researcher obtained 12 questionnaires answered. It was found an agreement of respondents to the categories: values, transparency and governance, workforce, environment, suppliers, consumers and customers and community. For the theme government and society, the results showed a disagreement with the category and for the last theme, innovation, the respondents are indifferent. After lexical analysis of data the results confirm in accordance with state of art of literature the existence of triple bottom line in the social projects of Alpha, by the categories resulted (profit, planet, people from content’s analysis of open questions. Alpha is a strong example of social commitment with poverty and environment. In conclusion, the research confirms that the firm promotes sustainable entrepreneurship and innovativeness leading to sustainable development.

  20. The regional distribution and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: a socioecological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obschonka, Martin; Schmitt-Rodermund, Eva; Silbereisen, Rainer K; Gosling, Samuel D; Potter, Jeff

    2013-07-01

    In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, we investigated regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, we analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. BRICS Investment Policies from PFI Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Sakharov 

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD Policy Framework for Investment (PFI contains recommendations and best practices in 12 investment-related policy areas, and is widely regarded as the world’s most comprehensive and authoritative instrument on international investment regulation. The topicality of PFI recommendations for OECD members and other countries, including Russia, is dictated by competition in international investment markets. The instrument’s implementation can significantly boost a national jurisdiction’s attractiveness to investors and thus increase its economic competitiveness. The experience of the BRICS countries as large developing economies involved in collaboration with the OECD could be of great value from the standpoint of PFI implementation in Russia. This article examines investment policies of Brazil, India, China and South Africa from the perspective of PFI recommendations. The analysis is organized around four major themes: the general characteristics of investment regimes and investment stimuli, national investment regulation regimes, trade policies and overcoming structural limitations. The analysis forms the basis for recommendations to improve the investment policy regime in Russia

  2. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  3. Entrepreneurship and Gender Equality in Academia – a Complex Combination in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britt-Inger Keisu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article takes as its starting point two current trends in academia – the promotion of academic entrepreneurship and innovation and the promotion of gender equality – and discusses how different gender equality perspectives are interwoven, or not, into academia’s transformation processes towards entrepreneurial universities. On the basis of an analysis of 26 interviews conducted with personnel at two Swedish universities, the article investigates how concepts of academic entrepreneurship and innovation on the one hand and gender equality on the other hand are constructed and filled with meaning as well as how they are entangled and what effects are produced by this way of thinking and acting. Our analysis reveals tensions between the two policy goals, together with tensions within each goal. An overall conclusion is that articulations and ways of speaking about the policy goal of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were to some extent interwoven with the policy goal of gender equality, especially in the broader perspectives on academic entrepreneurship. However, the articulations of strategies and practice of the two policy goals essentially ran parallel, and were not entangled with one another. This is because strategies or substantial initiatives for merging gender equality into the agenda of academic entrepreneurship and innovation were lacking.

  4. New Horizons in Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle; Tanggaard, Lene

    2016-01-01

    ’s and the students perspectives on their achievements and course content. Findings – The authors find that it is sometimes advantageous to invoke and combine different learning theories and approaches in order to promote entrepreneurial awareness and mindset. It is also necessary to move away from entrepreneurship...

  5. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  6. Cross-border entrepreneurship in a global world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emontspool, Julie; Servais, Per

    2017-01-01

    This paper shows that international entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship increasingly intersect in a global world. Both research streams address cross-border entrepreneurial activity in parallel to each other. International entrepreneurship focuses on outgoing entrepreneurial activity......, while immigrant entrepreneurship mainly considers incoming entrepreneurial activity. This paper critically discusses such a dichotomy, highlighting how differentiating immigrant entrepreneurs and international entrepreneurs perpetuates orientalist assumptions about cross-border business activity....... Focusing on a entrepreneurship as behaviour, the paper proposes an alternative perspective to cross-border entrepreneurship, discussing cross-border opportunity identification and exploitation between an entrepreneur’s country of residence and a foreign country. This perspective provides a number...

  7. Innovation and Entrepreneurship Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landström, Hans; Åström, Fredrik; Harirchi, Gouya

    2015-01-01

    influence our way of thinking and acting. Depending on the way we define these concepts, we will tend to use different knowledge-bases when acting as policy-makers, or as researchers. Therefore, it becomes important to elaborate on the knowledge bases that we have within the fields of innovation...... and entrepreneurship. This study we elaborate on the question: Can innovation and entrepreneurship be seen as one or two fields of research? We will elaborate on this issue by comparing the core works in innovation and entrepreneurship studies respectively, as identified by Fagerberg et al. (Research Policy 41...... and innovation research. The study shows that we are talking about two more or less separate fields of research. Despite common roots in Schumpeter and some interrelated works, the two fields seem to have drifted apart over the last decades. However, there seems to be some elements of overlaps, for example...

  8. DO PUBLIC POLICIES FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP MAKE A DIFFERENCE? PROSPECTIVE SCENARIOS FOR CANADA, IRELAND, AND ITALY DOI:10.7444/fsrj.v4i1.95

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs constitute the majority of businesses and a significant part of developed and developing countries’ Gross Domestic Product (GDP. This article presents a series of prospective scenarios that investigate the effects of public policies on entrepreneurship in Canada, Ireland, and Italy. Public policies for this sector can be classified as regulatory policies (e.g., laws for the entrance and exit of businesses, labor and social laws, property laws, tax laws, intellectual property laws, bankruptcy laws, and laws that affect the liquidity and availability of capital and stimulus policies (e.g., promotion of cultural and educational programs to foster entrepreneurship and internationalization. Regulatory policies influence the business environment for MSMEs, and are generally designed to provide entrepreneurs with high growth potential (known as “gazelles”. Four scenarios involving the critical uncertainties surrounding political and economic integration and technological development are developed for each country. Each scenario is constructed based on public policies specific to each country. This article concludes that public policies are not a panacea capable of generating economic development, given that their effectiveness depends on other economic decisions and exogenous economic conditions. However, the absence of state intervention does not produce positive effects, even in the case of positive scenarios under exogenous conditions.

  9. Globalized Networks and Transnational Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak

    In ancient time as well as in the contemporary world the transnational entrepreneurship has been a product of intelligent design, often facilitated or directly involving the state. The aim of this research is to investigate the role of the state in facilitating and utilising the transnational...... entrepreneurship, offering educational purpose, as well as creating inspirations to enhance policies towards transnational entrepreneurship, nonetheless targeting to exchange students whom can be seen as a group possessing tremendous potentials to develop and get involved in transnational entrepreneurial...... activities. This study will further on the basis of empirical investigations and identification of best practices developme theories that can inspire to policy improvements....

  10. Military Policy toward Homosexuals: Scientific, Historic, and Legal Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Jeffrey S

    1990-01-01

    This thesis examines military policy toward homosexuals. Scientific, historic, and legal perspectives are reviewed as they relate to current policy and the distinction between homosexual acts and homosexual status...

  11. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa Bohlmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable.

  12. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Clarissa; Rauch, Andreas; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable. PMID:29250004

  13. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, Clarissa; Rauch, Andreas; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We analyzed data from the 2013 Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), while controlling for gender and potential variation between countries. Results showed that age related negatively to entrepreneurial activity, and that perceived opportunities and skills for entrepreneurship mediated this relationship. Overall, these findings suggest that entrepreneurship research should treat age as a substantial variable.

  14. Entrepreneurship and innovation networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, C.; Warda, P.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give a general introduction to the notion of entrepreneurship and how it has many complex meanings. Entrepreneurs in new firms but also in incumbent firms have a key role in local, regional and national economic development by taking risks to get things done by developing new...... at the national and the regional level. The research questions highlighted in this special issue relate to many pertinent national and regional policy issues. The most apparent concerns conditions conducive for entrepreneurship in the form of new firms and firm growth. In this paper, we also introduce...

  15. Modern entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Magdinceva Sopova, Marija; Postolov, Kiril

    2016-01-01

    This book tries in depth to explain what is entrepreneurship, what is social entrepreneurship, what types of people can call themselves entrepreneur, what are their characteristics and special emphasis has been given to social entrepreneur. Namely attempt has been made to explain the differences between social and traditional entrepreneur.

  16. Disability Policy Implementation From a Cross-Cultural Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a value-based approach, (c) align the service delivery system both vertically and horizontally, and (d) engage in a partnership in policy implementation. Public policy should be understood from a systems perspective that includes cross-cultural issues, such as how different stakeholders are acting and the way they plan and implement policy.

  17. Strategic Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Peter G.; Barney, Jay B.; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    Strategic entrepreneurship is a newly recognized field that draws, not surprisingly, from the fields of strategic management and entrepreneurship. The field emerged officially with the 2001 special issue of the Strategic Management Journal on “strategic entrepreneurship”; the first dedicated...... periodical, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, appeared in 2007. Strategic entrepreneurship is built around two core ideas. (1) Strategy formulation and execution involves attributes that are fundamentally entrepreneurial, such as alertness, creativity, and judgment, and entrepreneurs try to create...... and capture value through resource acquisition and competitive posi-tioning. (2) Opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking—the former the central subject of the entrepreneurship field, the latter the central subject of the strategic management field—are pro-cesses that should be considered jointly. This entry...

  18. Gender Differences in Ethnic Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Tüzin Baycan-Levent; Enno Masurel; Peter Nijkamp

    2003-01-01

    Gender-based differences are the most important topic of discussion in female entrepreneurship studies. While the earliest studies focused on psychological and sociological characteristics of female entrepreneurs, assuming there were only a few differences between males and females, more recent studies have focused on gender-based differences in entrepreneurship from a new perspective, referred to as the “integrated perspective”, which is rooted in psychological and sociological theories. Thi...

  19. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the article is to analyse the Danish policies used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years. The initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. The initiatives are presented and ordered according to a model of planned...

  20. System Views on Entrepreneurship – Going in the Right Direction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Lindgaard

    2016-01-01

    The literature on National Systems of Entrepreneurship (NSE) (Acs et al., 2014, 2016) has been claimed to be an important strand of entrepreneurship literature. This paper takes stock of system perspectives on entrepreneurship including recent re-vitalizations of the concept. Based on literature ...

  1. A Lifespan Perspective on Entrepreneurship: Perceived Opportunities and Skills Explain the Negative Association between Age and Entrepreneurial Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Bohlmann, Clarissa; Rauch, Andreas; Zacher, Hannes

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in entrepreneurship as a means to fight youth unemployment and to improve financial stability at higher ages. However, only few studies so far have examined the association between age and entrepreneurial activity. Based on theories from the lifespan psychology literature and entrepreneurship, we develop and test a model in which perceived opportunities and skills explain the relationship between age and entrepreneurial activity. We an...

  2. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Vladasel, Theodor

    2017-01-01

    within families by gender and birth order. We then investigate mechanisms explaining sibling similarity: parental entrepreneurship plays a large role, as do shared genes; neighborhood effects matter, but are rather small, while sibling peer effects and parental income and education matter even less......The success of policies promoting entrepreneurship rests partly on the assumption that entrepreneurial outcomes are not fully determined at a young age by factors unrelated to current policy. We test this assumption and assess the importance of family and community background by estimating sibling...... correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in entrepreneurial outcomes is explained by factors that siblings share: hence, entrepreneurship is far less than fully determined at a young age. The estimates increase little when allowing for differential treatment...

  3. Parental Entrepreneurship in Public Education: A Social Force or a Policy Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gofen, Anat; Blomqvist, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Parental involvement in public education is an expression of joint responsibility between parents and the state in which parents are expected to "comply" with current educational policy. Moreover, parents are often perceived as "reactive," whereas the educational administration is seen as proactive, mainly by reducing barriers…

  4. Disability Policy Implementation from a Cross-Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Miguel A.; Jenaro, Cristina; Calvo, Isabel; Navas, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Implementation of disability policy is influenced by social, political, and cultural factors. Based on published work, this article discusses four guidelines considered critical for successful policy implementation from a cross-cultural perspective. These guidelines are to: (a) base policy implementation on a contextual analysis, (b) employ a…

  5. Unmasking the internet: investigating UK women’s digital entrepreneurship through intersectionality

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Dy, Angela Carmina

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the experiences of women digital entrepreneurs in the United Kingdom from an intersectional cyberfeminist perspective. Informed by feminist theories of technology and critical entrepreneurship scholarship, it challenges mainstream discourse on digital entrepreneurship with the argument that, similar to traditional (offline) entrepreneurship, online or digital entrepreneurship is deeply embedded in the social world. It draws upon intersectional feminist theory that con...

  6. Jump Starting Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana; Smith, Pernille; Frederiksen, Lars

    How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming an entrep......How do laid-off employees become entrepreneurs after receiving a dream start into self-employment? This question is relevant for policy makers and entrepreneurship researchers alike since it raises the possibility of a reverse entrepreneurial opportunity, in which the chance of becoming...... an entrepreneur emerges before the discovery of a profitable opportunity. We empirically examine this question on the unique setting of a corporate entrepreneurship program. In the midst of a corporate crisis, Nokia supported laid-off employees to start their own ventures under favorable conditions. We...... persevered in their endeavors and eventually became comfortable with their new career prospects. We discuss the psychological factors that impact career transition after organizational closure and theorize weather they encourage or discourage entrepreneurship....

  7. Measurement Error and Environmental Epidemiology: A Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jessie K.; Keil, Alexander P.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Measurement error threatens public health by producing bias in estimates of the population impact of environmental exposures. Quantitative methods to account for measurement bias can improve public health decision making. Recent findings We summarize traditional and emerging methods to improve inference under a standard perspective, in which the investigator estimates an exposure response function, and a policy perspective, in which the investigator directly estimates population impact of a proposed intervention. Summary Under a policy perspective, the analysis must be sensitive to errors in measurement of factors that modify the effect of exposure on outcome, must consider whether policies operate on the true or measured exposures, and may increasingly need to account for potentially dependent measurement error of two or more exposures affected by the same policy or intervention. Incorporating approaches to account for measurement error into such a policy perspective will increase the impact of environmental epidemiology. PMID:28138941

  8. INNOVATION, IMITATION, AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE INTRODUCTION AND DIFFUSION OF THE HOMEOWNERS POLICY, 1944-1960

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Rossi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the introduction of the homeowners policy in the United States insurance market in the I950s to explore the process of innovation and the role that innovators (entrepreneurs and imitators play within it through an examination of Schumpeter’s theory of innovation and its discussion in the recent economic literature on innovation and imitation. Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation is tested through a case study of the homeowners policy’s introduction in 1950 and its subsequent diffusion throughout the decade. The policy was an innovative product which helped transform the property-casualty sector of the insurance industry. Thus, this case study supports Schumpeter’s model of entrepreneurial innovation and illustrates the significant role that imitation plays within it.

  9. Policies and Institutional Supports for Women Entrepreneurship Development in Bangladesh: Achievements and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golam Rabbani

    2016-01-01

    research researchers relied solely on the secondary sources. The study revealed that Government agencies provide policy, legal and financial support with active support from non-State actors. On the contrary, they do not get proper support from all relevant institutions because of corruption and lack of information. It is suggested that combined initiatives of Government and nongovernment institutions will be successful in meeting the needs of business women in Bangladesh.

  10. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    Corporate entrepreneurship is often highlighted as being more relevant than ever, as a viable means for existing organizations to pursue creative new solutions to the complex challenges facing firms today. This includes continuously exploring and exploiting previously unexploited opportunities......, and thereby moving the organization to a new state of being. In spite of a general consensus on a strong interlinkage between the concepts of innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, the nature of this linkage is rarely addressed directly. This has made further research in the two areas problematic, mainly...... nature of corporate entrepreneurship and innovation by exploring the role played by innovation in corporate entrepreneurship. - Develop a framework of corporate entrepreneurial innovation which facilitates an understanding of challenges related hereto and practices applied to overcome these challenges...

  11. Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Linda Lundgaard; Hulgård, Lars

    2016-01-01

    The most striking slogans that characterize the ‘new’ discourse of social entrepreneurship have come to Denmark from the international scene, but we can nevertheless trace a significant historical equivalent in Denmark connecting the tradition for social economy to the co-operative movement...... and to decades of welfare modernisation incorporating people’s participation through cultural, political and economic objectives. In this chapter, we first give a brief introduction to social entrepreneurship and position it in relation to social enterprise. We then demonstrate its present relevance in Denmark...... through five current platforms for social entrepreneurship, showing how these are influenced both by international trends and the roots of the Danish experimental tradition. We conclude with a discussion of how social entrepreneurship appeals to fundamentally different strategies for the future of modern...

  12. Entrepreneurship education

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Luis González Rivera; Deogracia Hernández Rodríguez

    2015-01-01

    At present internationally it recognized that entrepreneurship is one of the avenues for the development projects aimed at solving urgent problems or situations of social reality . While its more widespread use has been in the business sectors , social and educational projects in response to the growing needs of society they have also intensified. In this are a the literature on entrepreneurship education is increasingly gaining prominence, from the characteristics of the education systemas i...

  13. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  14. Entrepreneurship in the academic radiology environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itri, Jason N; Ballard, David H; Kantartzis, Stamatis; Sullivan, Joseph C; Weisman, Jeffery A; Durand, Daniel J; Ali, Sayed; Kansagra, Akash P

    2015-01-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship in health care can help solve the current health care crisis by creating products and services that improve quality and convenience while reducing costs. To effectively drive innovation and entrepreneurship within the current health care delivery environment, academic institutions will need to provide education, promote networking across disciplines, align incentives, and adapt institutional cultures. This article provides a general review of entrepreneurship and commercialization from the perspective of academic radiology departments, drawing on information sources in several disciplines including radiology, medicine, law, and business. Our review will discuss the role of universities in supporting academic entrepreneurship, identify drivers of entrepreneurship, detail opportunities for academic radiologists, and outline key strategies that foster greater involvement of radiologists in entrepreneurial efforts and encourage leadership to embrace and support entrepreneurship. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Defining and Measuring Entrepreneurship for Regional Research: A New Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sarah A.

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, I develop a definition and regional measure of entrepreneurship that will aid entrepreneurship research and economic development policy. My new indicators represent an improvement over current measures of entrepreneurship. The chief contribution of these new indicators is that they incorporate innovation, which others ignore.…

  16. Total factor productivity and the role of entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P.G. Erken (Hugo); Donselaar, P. (Piet); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe absence of evidence in the scholarly literature for a tested long-term relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth is at odds with the importance attributed to entrepreneurship in the policy arena. The present paper addresses this absence, introducing entrepreneurship

  17. Educational leadership in the 21st century from the perspective of sustainable entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria María Sierra Villamil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the relevance of educational leadership based on key elements that influence the leader´s behaviour from the perspective of sustainability and due to education´s formative and ethical sense, which makes the leader become an individual having special characteristics, regarding the role of education and guiding educational communities such as students, teachers, parents and people who conduct educational processes. Besides, this issue, which improves organizational quality, climate and culture for individual growth, is reflected in integral formation processes of educational institutions.

  18. Social and human capital as determining factors of entrepreneurship in the Spanish Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Neira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship, innovation and creativity are considered key factors of the economic growth because they usually bring on behaviors aligned with the market development, productivity and social cohesion. This study aims to analyze the factors that influence the entrepreneurial role, and provide a better understanding of this behavior from a dynamic perspective, in order to support policies for encouraging entrepreneurship. To do this we used the data presented in the report of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM, in its 2011 edition, which is based on an empirical analysis of a sample of 27,000 Spanish citizens.The results confirm that the perception of market opportunities, and having the skills and knowledge required to create new companies are explanatory factors of the entrepreneurial activity. However, it is also possible to assert that the increase of the entrepreneurial activity rate motivated by the need of self-employment of the entrepreneur influences the increase of fear of failure, and this could generate a dynamic harmful to the business creation in the medium term.Our model aims to support the decisions of public institutions about the incentive measures for entrepreneurs. This work contributes to the study of entrepreneurship and business creation from a multidisciplinary perspective, incorporating psychological, sociological and economic approaches from a dynamic perspective. It also allows an in-depth analysis of factors undetected with other methodologies.We examined the determining factors of entrepreneurship by estimating a logit model based on entrepreneur’s social capital (networking and the geographical location (region of the business activity. This analysis has shown significant differences of these factors according to the stage of the entrepreneurial process. These results have let discuss the implications for the entrepreneurial dynamic, in order to support new policies in favor of entrepreneurship.

  19. No longer the sparkling new idea : anchoring university entrepreneurship programmes in academic, entrepreneurial and regional policy networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benneworth, Paul Stephen; Groen, Arend J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with what makes a good university entrepreneurship programme (UEP), in particular with which features are necessary to allow UEPs to thrive within university settings. The paper begins from the paradox that UEPs are part of university’s extended development periphery, and

  20. Open for entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Nazanin; Bogers, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores how an open approach to new venture creation – purposefully managing knowledge flows across the venture's organizational boundary – can be beneficial for start-up entrepreneurs. Our inductive case study, of both failure and success, identifies the key attributes of this open...... for entrepreneurship and innovation research and practice, providing some attention points for researchers, entrepreneurs, investors and policy makers interested in developing successful new ventures....

  1. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP

    OpenAIRE

    SILVIA POPESCU

    2012-01-01

    This study of female entrepreneurship traditionally has been inspired by gender equality issues. Female entrepreneurs were assumed to experience gender-related discrimination and to experience more difficulties when starting up and running a business than their male counterparts. Today research and policy have been more and more fuelled by the idea that female entrepreneurs are important for economic progress. Even when issues such as barriers and obstacles to female entrepreneurs are raised ...

  2. Culture and Entrepreneurship: The Case of Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernández-Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to contribute to an increased knowledge of the cultural values and the entrepreneurial activity that are present in countries with different levels of development. Within the group of developing countries, we focus our analysis on the case of Latin America. The study uses data from the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS to measure cultural values, and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM for information regarding entrepreneurship. The results show that cultural variables, together with the rate of entrepreneurial activity, clearly distinguish developing countries from developed ones. Higher entrepreneurial activity is found in countries with lower levels of development; however, the cultural value dimensions of Autonomy and Egalitarianism are associated with higher development levels. In the specific case of Latin America, the results reveal the existence of two groups of countries. Firstly, Bolivia, Peru and Venezuela have higher rates of entrepreneurship and, at the same time, a greater prevalence of some cultural values (notably Embeddedness, but also Hierarchy. In contrast, another group of countries in the region—Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica and Mexico—is characterized by the presence of opposing cultural values (Autonomy and Egalitarianism, more in line with those corresponding to developed countries. The paper concludes with a discussion of the results, including some interesting implications, from both academic and policy perspectives. In the case of Latin America, a certain combination of cultural values (Embeddedness and Egalitarianism may be leading to higher start-up rates. Thus, promoting these values could contribute to entrepreneurship and economic development.

  3. Sustainable Entrepreneurship and Quality of Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents an overview of the crises and challenges facing many European, regional areas. Furthermore, the concept 'sustainable entrepreneurship' (SE) and its relevance for regional development is discussed. in addition, work quality is discussed from a SE perspective. Finally...

  4. A Critical Perspective on Learning Outcomes and the Effectiveness of Experiential Approaches in Entrepreneurship Education: Do we Innovate or Implement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jonathan M; Penaluna, Andy; Thompson, John L

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to conduct a critical appraisal of how experiential approaches can more effectively enhance the achievement of desired learning outcomes in entrepreneurship education. In particular, the authors critique whether actual learning outcomes can be profitably used to measure effectiveness; and consider how student…

  5. Estágios de desenvolvimento econômico e políticas públicas de empreendedorismo e de micro, pequenas e médias empresas (MPMEs em perspectiva comparada: os casos do Brasil, do Canadá, do Chile, da Irlanda e da Itália Etapas de desarrollo económico y políticas públicas para emprendimiento y micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMEs en una perspectiva comparada: los casos de Brasil, Canadá, Chile, Irlanda y Italia Stages of economic development and public policies for entrepreneurship and for micro, small, and medium enterprises (MSMEs from a comparative perspective: the cases of Brazil, Canada, Chile, Ireland, and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Sarfati

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa explora em perspectiva comparada as políticas públicas de empreendedorismo e Micro, Pequenas e Médias Empresas (MPMEs no Brasil, no Canadá, no Chile e na Itália. A hipótese fundamental é que economias no estágio de inovação tendem a desenvolver mais políticas de empreendedorismo do que as de países no estágio da eficiência. Da mesma forma, países no estágio de inovação tendem a usar menos instrumentos de políticas de MPMEs do que países em estágio de eficiência, quase sempre para incentivar grupos, setores ou regiões em específico. O artigo contribui com a literatura de empreendedorismo ao analisar na prática a convergência/divergência das escolhas de política pública e estágio de desenvolvimento.Esta investigación explora en una perspectiva comparada las políticas públicas para emprendimiento y las micro, pequeñas y medianas empresas (MIPYMES en Brasil, Canadá, Chile e Italia. La hipótesis subyacente es que las economías en la etapa de innovación tienden a desarrollar más políticas de emprendimientos que los países en la etapa de la eficiencia. Del mismo modo, en los países en etapa de innovación tienden a utilizar menos instrumentos de MIPYMES que países en la etapa de innovación para animar a los grupos, regiones o sectores específicos. El trabajo contribuye a la literatura sobre emprendimiento por analizar la convergencia /divergencia de opciones de política pública y la etapa de desarrollo.This study applies a comparative perspective to the public policies for entrepreneurs and Micro, Small, and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs in Brazil, Canada, Chile, and Ireland. The fundamental hypothesis is that economies in the innovation stage of economic development tend to develop more policies for entrepreneurship than countries in the efficiency stage. Similarly, countries in the innovation stage tend to apply fewer policies to MSMEs than countries in the efficiency stage to encourage

  6. Entrepreneurship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis González Rivera

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available At present internationally it recognized that entrepreneurship is one of the avenues for the development projects aimed at solving urgent problems or situations of social reality . While its more widespread use has been in the business sectors , social and educational projects in response to the growing needs of society they have also intensified. In this are a the literature on entrepreneurship education is increasingly gaining prominence, from the characteristics of the education systemas influences of society and individual son the personality of all social subjects .

  7. Corporate Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Astrid Heidemann; Sørensen, Suna

    2006-01-01

    The recognition of the importance of entrepreneurial dynamics in corporate context is increasingly acknowledged in both entrepreneurship and strategic management literature, as firms today face a reality in which frame-breaking innovation is an important element of survival. From this understanding......, the concept of Strategic Entrepreneurship (SE) has arisen, arguing a logic of focusing on the intersections between the two fields. This paper sets out to explore the SE construct empirically. Through seven case studies evolving around radical technological innovations, evidence is found of the importance...

  8. Digital Technology Entrepreneurship: A Definition and Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Giones

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technology entrepreneurship is an established concept in academia. However, recent developments in the context of digital entrepreneurship call for revision and advancement. The multiple possible combinations of technology and entrepreneurship have resulted in a diversity of phenomena with significantly different characteristics and socio-economic impact. This article is focused on the identification and description of technology entrepreneurship in times of digitization. Based on current examples, we identify and describe characterizations of technology entrepreneurship, digital technology entrepreneurship, and digital entrepreneurship. With this new delineation of terms, we would like to foster discussion between researchers, entrepreneurs, and policy makers on the impact of digitization on entrepreneurship, and set a future research agenda.

  9. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    ... and development to implementation. Approaching the topic from an analytical and research-based perspective, the authors help readers make better, informed choices for successfully dealing with the complexities of social policy...

  10. European Neighbourhood Policy. A Polish Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Marcinkowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Before the bing-bang enlargement of the EU in 2004, the Union needed to define a coherent policy towards its new neighbours. The European Neighbourhood Policy was formulated when Poland became a member of the EU. Due to its close ties with the Eastern European countries, Poland tried to shape the EU foreign policy towards its neighbouring countries and became their advocate in Brussels. In 2009 it succeeded in establishing the Eastern Partnership as one of the dimensions of the European Neighbourhood Policy.

  11. Perspectives on bay-delta science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Michael; Dettinger, Michael; Norgaard, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on novel conservation approaches. These longer and wider perspectives

  12. Measuring Entrepreneurship in Business Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazeldine, Mary; Miles, Morgan

    2007-01-01

    The recent positions of the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) and the European Foundation for Management Developments (EQUIS) on the value of entrepreneurship suggest a more entrepreneurial perspective in a business school's culture and strategic processes for obtaining and sustaining a business school's reputation. The…

  13. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship : Evidence from Sibling Correlations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindquist, M.J.; Sol, J.; van Praag, M.; Vladasel, T.

    2016-01-01

    Promoting entrepreneurship has become an increasingly important part of the policy agenda in many countries. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that entrepreneurship outcomes are not fully determined at a young age by factors that are unrelated to current policy.

  14. Innovating innovation Policy. Rethinking green innovation policy in evolutionary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arentsen, Maarten J.; Dinica, V.; Marquart, N.E.

    1999-01-01

    Advanced environmental standards such as sustainability require substantial improvements in the environmental performances of present technologies. Governments are faced with the challenge to design green innovation policies able to support producers and users of technologies to comply with such

  15. Cultural entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Klamer (Arjo)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCultural entrepreneurship is a new character in the cultural sector. This paper characterizes the cultural entrepreneur paying homage to the hermeneutic approach of Don Lavoie and others. The challenge is to render the "cultural" meaningful. An invention is the highlighting of the

  16. International Entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K. Mark

    1987-01-01

    The successful experience of Ireland in encouraging entrepreneurship through such means as initial government support of promising projects is described. Among nine recommendations for ways the United States can apply successful principles are "equity" investments, tax changes, entrepreneurial-based compensation programs in…

  17. Ideology, Policy and Implementation: Comparative Perspectives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper provides an exposition and interpretation of the language policies of two African universities, namely the University of Yaoundé 1 in Cameroon and the University of the Western ... Keywords: Language Ideologies, Language Attitudes, Language Policy, University of the Western Cape, University of Yaoundé 1 ...

  18. Post Colonial Perspectives on Education Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Westhuizen, Gert J.

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this article is on the role and contribution of policy research in contexts of social transformation. With reference to education transformation policies in post-apartheid South Africa, the argument is developed that research studies vary in their contribution to change, as a function of the paradigmatic assumptions and methodological…

  19. Bringing politics and evidence together: policy entrepreneurship and the conception of the At Home/Chez Soi Housing First Initiative for addressing homelessness and mental illness in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnaughton, Eric; Nelson, Geoffrey; Goering, Paula

    2013-04-01

    An interesting question concerns how large-scale (mental) health services policy initiatives come into being, and the role of evidence within the decision-making process behind their origins. This paper illustrates the process by which motivation to address homelessness, in the context of the upcoming 2010 Vancouver Olympics, was leveraged into a pan-Canadian project including sites in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Toronto, Montreal and Moncton, New Brunswick. The aim of the initiative was to implement and evaluate an intervention, Housing First, to provide housing and support to previously homeless people with mental illness. This qualitative case study was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010, employing grounded theory, and drawing on archival documents and interviews with 19 key informants involved in the conception of the project. Overall, the findings affirm that policy-making does not follow a rational, linear process of knowledge translation/exchange (KTE) and implementation, whereby evidence-based "products" are brought forward to address objectively determined needs and then "placed into decision-making events" (Lomas, 2007, p. 130). Instead, evidence-based policy making should be understood within the much more complex context of "policy entrepreneurship" (Kingdon, 2003; Mintrom & Norman, 2009) which entails taking advantage of windows of opportunity, and helping to bring together the "streams" of problems, politics, and policy ideas (Kingdon, 2003). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fostering Entrepreneurship in a Changing Business Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu Tachiciu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is the cornerstone of a modern competitive economy. Because of the economic and social importance attributed to entrepreneurship, every country has adopted policies aiming to encourage and to support entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviors. Despite the fact that the set of public policy measures is very similar across countries and regions, the outcomes are different. The differences can be observed not only in quantitative terms (i.e. number of newly established ventures, but also in qualitative terms (i.e. proportion of innovative firms, intensity of knowledge and technological level, degree of internationalization etc.. Indeed, entrepreneurship takes different forms ranging from an alternative to employment (self-employed to creation of innovative, competitive and fast growing enterprises. It is also recognized the corporate entrepreneurship, the social entrepreneurship and even the entrepreneurship in the public sector. Different forms of entrepreneurship have a different impact in terms of general progress. Scholars have shown that context is an important factor explaining the variability of entrepreneurship outcomes, calling for a better understanding of the business environment influence on the intensity and quality of the entrepreneurial activity.

  1. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parker, Larry; Blodgett, John

    2008-01-01

    The 1992 U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change requires that signatories, including the United States, establish policies for constraining future emission levels of greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2). The George H. W...

  2. Public policy perspective on groundwater quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libby, L.W.

    1990-01-01

    Groundwater pollution problems are fundamentally institutional problems. The means for reducing contamination are institutional: the mix of incentives, rights and obligations confronting resource users. Only changes in the rights and obligations of users or the economic and social cost of water use options will reduce groundwater pollution. Policy is the process by which those changes are made. The essential purpose of groundwater quality policy is to change water use behavior. For the most part, people do respond to evidence that a failure to change could be painful. New information can produce the support necessary for regulation or other policy change. It is essential to maintain healthy respect for the rights and intentions of individuals. Improved understanding of human behavior is essential to success in groundwater policy

  3. Students' Views and Qualification Policy Development: Perspectives on Failed Vocationally Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…

  4. Competence, governance, and entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives on the f......This title illustrates modern economics. Because it informs strategic choices, it is relevant to business administration in general, and for strategic management in particular. Two dominant streams may be identified in the literature, namely the "competence" and "governance" perspectives...... on the firm. While there has been little direct discussion between the main proponents of these perspectives, both claim that they are reaching for a "strategic theory of the firm". Such a theory would not only shed light on the classical questions considered in the theory of the firm (e.g. why firms exist......, and entrepreneurship to advance and stimulate economic strategy research....

  5. The European Energy Policy: Building New Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maisonneuve, Cecile

    2014-04-01

    The origins of Europe's severe energy policy problems lie in a failed economic approach, which itself can be partly explained by political and ideological causes. This study seeks to address these political issues. Energy is not an exclusively economic issue, far from it. Since taxation and diplomacy are key aspects, energy is necessarily a political issue that policy-makers must handle. From this point of view, 2014 has to be seen as a political opportunity: it needs to be a year for re-founding a common policy fundamentally, based on two principles. First is the principle of realism, which implies re-situating energy policy in its international environment and putting the issue of costs back into the heart of political decision-making. The second principle is solidarity, in other words the clear restatement that there is a European general interest... which is not the sum of 28 national interests, but also that energy should be viewed as a system, and not as a collection of local policies and interests. Europe's common energy policy must retain its long term goal of ensuring the energy transition, but it must review the path to achieving this. This transition cannot be a technical, economic and geopolitical bet, which is presently the case. It has to be a controlled undertaking, implying governance and instruments. More generally, the transition requires a very different state of mind (Section III), compared to today's technocratic and non-cooperative approach (Section II), which has led to the prevailing state of energy chaos in Europe (Section I)

  6. Entrepreneurship Education in Malaysian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Zamberi; Buchanan, Robert Frederick

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education in the strongly emerging market of Malaysia was examined throughout the country's 20 public universities. A broad based interview process amongst multiple stakeholders profiled educational policies as well as revealing shortcomings in practice. Observers noted that students showed a preference for salaried jobs after…

  7. Entrepreneurship Education

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Bainée

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and, thus, small- and middlesized firms (SMEs) have had a growing interest for the past two decades, from the academic world as well as from public authorities. This interest is part of many economic changes. In particular, technological change and the increasing incidence of innovation in most developed countries have reduced the importance of the size of the companies in the industry and favored the development of entrepreneurial activities. In addition, globalization would...

  8. Evaluating Program Innovation: A Policy Perspective,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    1979). 11 These are stressed by Nelson and Winter (1977). 12 A ready charge; for instance, see Acland (1979). 13 The distinction is made by Porter and...Climate for Innovation in Industry: The Role of Management Attitudes and Practices," Research Policy, Vol. 11, No. 4 (August), pp. 209-225. Acland

  9. Strategies and Policies for Space - Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturirangan, K.; Sridhara Murthy, K. R.; Sundararmiah, V.; Rao, Mukund

    2002-01-01

    Indian Space Program, which was established as government effort about three decades ago has become a major force in providing vital services for social and economic sectors in India in the fields of satellite telecommunications, television broadcasting, meteorological services and remote sensing of natural resources. Capabilities have been developed over the years, following a step-by-step process to develop and operate space infrastructure in India, including state-of-the-art satellites and satellite launch vehicles. In carrying out these developments, Indian Space Research Organisation, which is the national agency responsible for space activities under Government of India, develop policies and programs, which promoted industrial participation in variety of space activities including manufacture of space hardware, conduct of value added activities and provision of services involving space systems. Policy initiatives have also been taken recently to promote private sector participation in the establishment of Indian Satellite Systems for telecommunications. Strategic alliances have also been developed with international space industries for marketing of services such as remote sensing data. The paper traces evaluation of the policies towards development of industrial participation in space and future transition into commercial space enterprise. Policy issues concerning the national requirements vis-à-vis the international environment will also be discussed to analyze the strategies for international cooperation.

  10. Is "Entrepreneurship" the Problem in Entrepreneurship Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridge, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: In entrepreneurship education there are different interpretations of entrepreneurship which leads to considerable confusion. The purpose of this paper is to consider whether it is the word entrepreneurship itself which is the source of this problem. Design/methodology/approach: This paper seeks, not to examine the different meanings of…

  11. A Critique of Botswana's Language Policy from a Translanguaging Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwasi, Mompoloki Mmangaka

    2017-01-01

    This paper critiques the language practices and language-in-education policy of Botswana from a translanguaging perspective. By so doing, it revisits our commonly held perceptions about multilingualism, bilingualism and language and its boundary. We commonly perceive languages as autonomous and as having boundaries and we perceive bilingualism or…

  12. Energy policy in Italy and perspectives for 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janot-Giorgetti, M.; Lamquet, O.

    2000-08-01

    In Europe the energy sector is moving to a community policy oriented on the competition opening of the market (Internal Energy Market Program), by national initiatives of liberalization and privatization of the energy production and distribution and also the environmental policy. In this context the italian Government is moving towards a survey and regulation organism and aims today to implement measures allowing a correct and quality operating of the market. This document presents a state of the art of the italian market and the perspectives for 2010. It enhances also the innovative projects according the environmental policy. (A.L.B.)

  13. Industrial energy efficiency: A policy perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, W.U.

    1990-01-01

    Policies that promote energy efficiency can work; but potential energy savings are unlikely to be realized without effective policy leadership. This article discusses the opportunities in several countries for increasing energy efficiency. Both ''open'' and centrally planned economies could be much more energy efficient. In the United States, for example, the government needs to stimulate energy efficiency. This could be done by sponsoring research to develop new processes, creating favourable financial conditions for investment in efficiency, and making the advantages of energy efficiency technologies better known. International collaboration in sponsoring research and transfer technologies could be of the greatest importance in improving energy efficiency in countries with centrally planned economies, including the Soviet Union, as well as in developing countries. Favourable conditions for achieving both economic development and environmental protection can be created through cooperation on the international level. (author). 24 refs, 4 tabs

  14. Global Climate Change: Three Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and Strategies for Addressing Global Climate Change, Hearings, 17 July 1991 (Washington...Generations, Economic Analysis, and the Policy Process,” in U.S. Congress, House, Committee on Science, Space , and Technology, Technologies and...through the ecological lens, lives and such values as intergenerational equity should not be quantified as a commodity.68 What people need are

  15. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  16. Perspectives on Bay–Delta Science and Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Healey

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: https://doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2016v14iss4art6The State of Bay–Delta Science 2008 highlighted seven emerging perspectives on science and management of the Delta. These perspectives had important effects on policy and legislation concerning management of the Delta ecosystem and water exports. From the collection of papers that make up the State of Bay–Delta Science 2016, we derive another seven perspectives that augment those published in 2008. The new perspectives address nutrient and contaminant concentrations in Delta waters, the failure of the Delta food web to support native species, the role of multiple stressors in driving species toward extinction, and the emerging importance of extreme events in driving change in the ecosystem and the water supply. The scientific advances that underpin these new perspectives were made possible by new measurement and analytic tools. We briefly discuss some of these, including miniaturized acoustic fish tags, sensors for monitoring of water quality, analytic techniques for disaggregating complex contaminant mixtures, remote sensing to assess levee vulnerability, and multidimensional hydrodynamic modeling. Despite these new tools and scientific insights, species conservation objectives for the Delta are not being met. We believe that this lack of progress stems in part from the fact that science and policy do not incorporate sufficiently long-term perspectives. Looking forward half a century was central to the Delta Visioning process, but science and policy have not embraced this conceptual breadth. We are also concerned that protection and enhancement of the unique cultural, recreational, natural resource, and agricultural values of the Delta as an evolving place, as required by the Delta Reform Act, has received no critical study and analysis. Adopting wider and longer science and policy perspectives immediately encourages recognition of the need for evaluation, analysis, and public discourse on

  17. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossiaud, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  18. Social Entrepreneurship Competence: Evidence from Founders of Social Enterprises in Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loredana Orhei; Joop Vinke; S. Nandram

    2014-01-01

    Social entrepreneurship has been defined until now by borrowing insights from commercial, Schumpeterian entrepreneurship as well as a new way of looking at non-profit work (Peredo and McLean, 2006; Short et al., 2009). Inspired by the use of a competence perspective to define entrepreneurship

  19. Social entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krstić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Social entrepreneurship has experienced a renaissance in the world over the last decade. The business sector, pressed by the economic crisis and social responsibility imperatives, started to turn towards some of the more sustainable organisational models, which combine profit and responsible orientation. Social entrepreneurship, as a whole, is characterised by the support and assistance rendered to the community and the vulnerable social groups. Social entrepreneurs are a proof that financial success does not exclude responsible behaviour towards the social community and the environment, and that the socially beneficial target may also serve as a successful business driver. At the same time, social enterprises may be a very useful source of entrepreneurial ideas in the economies which are passing through transition, with the high unemployment rates. Filling in the gaps in offering certain social services, with simultaneous profit making and offering option for engagement of entire families, are only some of the features characteristic for the social enterprises, which could become one of the leading models of business conducted in the Serbian economy.

  20. Institutional Theory as a Framework for Practitioners of Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrawal, Anirudh; Hockerts, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The chapter proposes institutional theory as a framework for reflecting on social entrepreneurship. We advocate institutional theory as a tool for practitioners to reflect upon the legitimacy, survivability and scalability of social enterprises because institutional theory frameworks can reduce...... risks associated with emerging fields such as social entrepreneurship. In order to illustrate our claim, we present four cases of social entrepreneurship and reflect on them through different institutional theory frameworks. At the end of the chapter, we propose a future agenda for practitioners...... interested in social entrepreneurship from an institutional theory perspective....

  1. Entrepreneurship Teaching Conducted as Strategic Reflexive Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael

    The paper intends exploring and ascertaining whether the concept of strategic reflexive conversation can profitably be applied to entrepreneurship. As a start, a process of conceptualisation is undertaken, which is instrumental in placing the notion of strategic reflexive conversation...... into a knowledge management perspective. Strategic reflexive conversation is presented in an enhanced and updated version, which is contrasted to entrepreneurship through reflection. The findings indicate and it can be concluded that, with some important reservations, strategic reflexive conversation can...... advantageously, and on a pilot basis, be applied to entrepreneurship in practical environments and within the framework of entrepreneurship-centred teaching. The present theoretical investigation is solely of an introductory nature and steps are considered that can lead to the planning of additional exploratory...

  2. Entrepreneurship Education for Film and Media Arts: How Can We Teach Entrepreneurship to Students in the Creative Disciplines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Manuel José; Bicacro, Joana

    2017-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education is a complex topic that can be discussed from a variety of perspectives. One key question in the discussion concerns how one can adapt the general core principles of entrepreneurship education, many of which are closely linked to business education, to other academic areas that currently lack this type of education. This…

  3. Entrepreneurship in Cyberspace Research of Mru Management and Administration Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Kiškis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Youth entrepreneurship is one of the European Union’s public policy priorities. Student entrepreneurship in this context is particularly important as academic studies at the university shall develop an entrepreneurial personality.Student entrepreneurship is not widely examined in Lithuanian scholarly work. This phenomenon tends to be analyzed in the context of development of general entrepreneurial skills. There is no prior work on student entrepreneurship in cyberspace—most notably there is no empirical research in this area. This situation emphasizes the need for empirical studies of student entrepreneurship.The purpose of this article is to analyze student entrepreneurship in cyberspace status quo at Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. This research objective was chosen in order to determine the current status and to enable a reference for further research of student entrepreneurship in cyberspace. Additional practical goals are adopted, namely—based on the results of this study, to identify development guidelines for study programs as well as the “Entrepreneurship in Cyberspace” discipline taught in a postgraduate studies at MRU in order to focus them on the needs of future postgraduate students.The research was conducted using a survey method. Before the research three hypotheses were proposed:1 MRU students are more enterprising than the statistical resident of Lithuania;2 student entrepreneurship education in Management and Administration studies is inadequate;3 students need specialized knowledge of entrepreneurship in cyberspace.After the analysis of gathered data from students all three hypotheses were confirmed: students are more entrepreneurial then the general population of Lithuania, entrepreneurial education at the university is insufficient and there is a need among students for specialized knowledge in the field of e-business.Follow-up study of the negative dynamics of student entrepreneurship should be carried out in the

  4. Rural Entrepreneurship or Entrepreneurship in the Rural

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Müller, Sabine; Tanvig, Hanne Wittorff

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article investigates how rural entrepreneurship engages with place and space. It explores the concept of “rural” in rural enterprise, and illustrates the importance of distinguishing between types of rural entrepreneurship. Design/methodology/approach: The constructs of “place” and ...... these processes are enabled and constrained by the immediate context or “place”. The paper weaves space and place in order to show the importance of context for entrepreneurship, which responds to the recent calls for contextualizing entrepreneurship research and theories....

  5. Sustainable Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltegger, Stefan; Beckmann, Markus; Hockerts, Kai

    2018-01-01

    : a document analysis for developing a typology of ecopreneurs with user business models, and an in-depth case study analysis. We identify four patterns of entrepreneurial user business models in e-mobility: predominantly simple use, complementary business, feedback to core business, and additional business....... We also explore the transformation path of the case company, which starts with simple use and then moves to the feedback to core business pattern. By drawing on insights from lead user theory in innovation management and sustainable entrepreneurship, we ground the new concept in extant literature...... and develop propositions. These propositions uncover some properties of ecopreneurs, the diffusion of environmental technologies, and industry transformations due to user business models....

  6. Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Shumar, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    A deep concern about how higher education worldwide has become more narrowly focused on the economy, on qualification and credentialing brings the focus in this paper to Entrepreneurship Education (EE) as an opportunity for purposeful education. We suggest that the present climate has produced...... a kind of legitimacy crisis in that the only knowledge that is socially valued is knowledge that is already seen to have economic value. These arguments have already been developed in literature on the commodification of the university (Shumar 1997), the market mantra of neoliberalism on education (Blum...... education is supposed to be for the good of the economy, and in addition, the individual and society may benefit. We question whether this approach to higher education under neoliberal reform is likely to stimulate individuals. From the standpoint of the individual, pursuing qualifications for credentials...

  7. Entrepreneurship Projects and Pupils' Academic Performance: A Study of Norwegian Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard; Schanke, Tuva

    2014-01-01

    Many European countries have launched policy strategies for entrepreneurship education in the past decade. The result is a significant increase of entrepreneurship education in schools and higher education institutions in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This…

  8. IMPACT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON ENTREPRENEURIAL CAREER PERCEPTIONS: EVIDENCE FROM AN EMERGING ECONOMY

    OpenAIRE

    Muzaffar, Haroon; Gökbulut Özdemir, Özge; Ceyhan, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship education becomes a great focal point of interest for researchers and national policy makers for stimulating students to pursue entrepreneurial careers. However, in literature there are conflicting views about the desired impacts of entrepreneurship education. This study tries to contribute to a better understanding of the intended impacts of entrepreneurship education. We investigated the impact of entrepreneurship education on the cognitive factors and psychological attribu...

  9. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  10. Entrepreneurship and marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sidorchuk, Roman

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship marketing and entrepreneurship. Marketing considered as an integral part of entrepreneurship. Commit role in relationship marketing and entrepreneurship innovation. The role of marketing in the search for potential market demand of innovation as the scope of latent or unmet needs of customers. Shown the lack of marketing in today's special marketing tools for entrepreneurs.

  11. Understanding Social Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The importance of social entrepreneurship in social, cultural and economic terms is increasingly acknowledged. Drawing on data from the second Social Entrepreneurship Monitor report published by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) UK project, this article focuses on the social entrepreneurs who may grow the social enterprises of the future.…

  12. Entrepreneurship Education and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Garcia, Jose C., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has a tremendous impact on the economic development of a country, so much that entrepreneurship is seen as a solution for the fast changing economic demands worldwide and has been recognized as a path to sustainable economic development. Despite recognition of entrepreneurship on the road to global economic development, a large…

  13. The Dynamic Effects of Entrepreneurship on Regional Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejovsky, Lukas; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the temporal pattern of income disparity for Canadian provinces in two estimation steps. First, an econometric growth regression model is applied to identify the impact of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth. The estimation results suggest that entrepreneurship......, measured in terms of the selfemployment rate, plays a pivotal role in determining regional development in Canada. Second, a dynamic vector autoregression (VAR) model is employed to predict the long-run regional growth effects that result from policy shocks affecting entrepreneurship. Compared to other...... growth drivers, entrepreneurship is found to have more pronounced and long-term stimulative effects on regional development for the period of 1987 to 2007...

  14. Entrepreneurship by any other name: self-sufficiency versus innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Harris, Sarah; Caldwell, Kate; Renko, Maija

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been promoted as an innovative strategy to address the employment of people with disabilities. Research has predominantly focused on the self-sufficiency aspect without fully integrating entrepreneurship literature in the areas of theory, systems change, and demonstration projects. Subsequently there are gaps in services, policies, and research in this field that, in turn, have limited our understanding of the support needs and barriers or facilitators of entrepreneurs with disabilities. A thorough analysis of the literature in these areas led to the development of two core concepts that need to be addressed in integrating entrepreneurship into disability employment research and policy: clarity in operational definitions and better disability statistics and outcome measures. This article interrogates existing research and policy efforts in this regard to argue for a necessary shift in the field from focusing on entrepreneurship as self-sufficiency to understanding entrepreneurship as innovation.

  15. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Sibling Correlations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    then investigate a comprehensive set of mechanisms that explain sibling similarities. Parental entrepreneurship plays a large role in explaining sibling similarities, as do shared genes. We show that neighborhood effects matter, but are rather small, particularly when compared with the overall importance of family......Promoting entrepreneurship has become an increasingly important part of the policy agenda in many countries. The success of such policies, however, rests in part on the assumption that entrepreneurship outcomes are not fully determined at a young age by factors that are unrelated to current policy....... We test this assumption and assess the importance of family background and neighborhood effects as determinants of entrepreneurship, by estimating sibling correlations in entrepreneurship. We find that between 20 and 50 percent of the variance in different entrepreneurial outcomes is explained...

  16. A generational approach to female entrepreneurship in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roman, A.A.; Ester, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Female entrepreneurship is still a limited phenomenon in European countries and its promotion ranks high on the EU policy agenda. Various frameworks have been offered to explain the main structural differences in entrepreneurship between men and women, emphasizing a variety of underlying factors.

  17. Optimal fleet conversion policy from a life cycle perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyung Chul Kim; Ross, M.H.; Keoleian, G.A.

    2004-01-01

    Vehicles typically deteriorate with accumulating mileage and emit more tailpipe air pollutants per mile. Although incentive programs for scrapping old, high-emitting vehicles have been implemented to reduce urban air pollutants and greenhouse gases, these policies may create additional sales of new vehicles as well. From a life cycle perspective, the emissions from both the additional vehicle production and scrapping need to be addressed when evaluating the benefits of scrapping older vehicles. This study explores an optimal fleet conversion policy based on mid-sized internal combustion engine vehicles in the US, defined as one that minimizes total life cycle emissions from the entire fleet of new and used vehicles. To describe vehicles' lifetime emission profiles as functions of accumulated mileage, a series of life cycle inventories characterizing environmental performance for vehicle production, use, and retirement was developed for each model year between 1981 and 2020. A simulation program is developed to investigate ideal and practical fleet conversion policies separately for three regulated pollutants (CO, NMHC, and NO x ) and for CO 2 . According to the simulation results, accelerated scrapping policies are generally recommended to reduce regulated emissions, but they may increase greenhouse gases. Multi- objective analysis based on economic valuation methods was used to investigate trade-offs among emissions of different pollutants for optimal fleet conversion policies. (author)

  18. The impact of public policy on entrepreneurship : a critical investigation of the protestant ethic on a divided island jurisdiction

    OpenAIRE

    Baldacchino, Godfrey; Dana, Leo Paul

    2006-01-01

    The island of St. Martin is the world’s smallest shared jurisdiction. For around 350 years, 37 square miles (92km2) have been divided into two legal entities, Dutch Sint Maarten and French Saint Martin, each with its separate sub-national government and its respective business policies. This situation carries the hallmarks of an almost controlled experiment on the impact of ‘The Protestant Ethic’, with each nation’s respective policy being the treatment variable under study. Keepi...

  19. Active and Successful Aging: A European Policy Perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, L.; Walker, A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past two decades, “active aging” has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of “successful aging.” In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course–oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has b...

  20. The perspectives of family policy in Russia amid increasing cohabitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Mitrofanova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Russia has long been characterized by early and universal marriage. After the Soviet Union collapse, the average age of marriage has been rising, and cohabitations have become common. Many scholars explain the causes of this trend through the perspective of the Second Demographic Transition. The aim of this research was to define the nature of cohabitations in Russia, reveal the factors of entrance to non-marital unions in order to discuss how and why non-marital union is implicated in recent dialogues about family policy. In order to achieve the aim, such methods as Event History Analysis and Sequence Analysis were used.

  1. Structural patterns in Swedish health policy: a 30-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Richard B

    2015-04-01

    This perspective reviews key institutional and organizational patterns in Swedish health care over the last 30 years, probing the roots of several complicated policy questions that concern present-day Swedish decision-makers. It explores in particular the ongoing structural tension between stability, on the one hand, and the necessary levels of innovation and dynamism demanded by the current period of major clinical, technological, economic, social and supranational (EU) change. Where useful, the article compares Swedish developments with those in the other three European Nordic countries as well as other northern European health systems. Sweden's health sector evolution can provide valuable insight for other countries into the complexity involved in re-thinking tradeoffs between policies that emphasize stability as against those that encourage innovation in health sector governance and provision.

  2. Technology-Critical Elements: Economic and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggert, R. G.

    2017-12-01

    Critical elements are those that provide essential functionality to modern engineered materials, have few ready substitutes and are subject to supply-chain risks or concerns about long-run availability. This paper provides economic and public-policy perspectives on critical elements. It suggests: that which elements are critical is situational and changes over time; that we are not running out of mineral-derived raw materials in a geologic sense but rather, for some elements, face scarcities that are technological, environmental, political or economic in nature; and that public policy's most important role over the longer term is fostering scientific and technological innovation, especially early stage research, that has the potential to overcome these scarcities.

  3. Exploring the Process of Corporate Entrepreneurship : An Empirical Look at Individual Personality Factors and Entrepreneurial Behaviour from the Perspective of Middle Managers

    OpenAIRE

    Phua, Chun Meng

    2013-01-01

    Corporate entrepreneurship has been a significant requirement for organisations in today’s fast paced market. There are opinions that perceive the urgency for organisation to breathe a culture of corporate innovation and entrepreneurial activity into the mindsets of executives as it is viewed not only of the organisation’s strategy but also as the focus of an organisation’s success (Kuratko et al., 2009). The profound impact of corporate entrepreneurship led us to research deeper to unfold ne...

  4. Entrepreneurship dalam Perspektif Islam; Meneguhkan Paradigma Pertautan Agama dengan Ekonomi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Darwis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is intended as an additional theoretical insight on the urgency of entrepreneurship, especially in the Indonesian context. Exposure of entrepreneurship in this paper is based on the paradigm of the relation of religious values ​​of the sacred, with economic behavior perceived as something profane. The discussion in this paper begins with a review that reveals the urgency of entrepreneurship in the context of economic development in Indonesia, especially since the beginning of the Asian Economic Community. Discourse of the importance of entrepreneurship is louder voiced by experts because Indonesia is still considered less ready to face free competition. This is allegedly due to the lack of entrepreneurs owned by Indonesia compared to other Asian countries. On the other side of Indonesia, the majority of the population is the Muslims are still entangled with high unemployment and poverty. At this point enggel in this paper is taken, namely the linkage of cultural values ​​and religion with the economic behavior of society in the context of Indonesianness. For that in this paper reviewed about the concept debate from the experts who discuss the relationship between the two entities. Furthermore, the exposure is continued by putting forward the general theory of entrepreneurship as well as the basic discussion about entrepreneurship in Islamic perspectives. Concluding remarks and recommendations for the scientific writing about entrepreneurship more improved both in quantity and quality.   Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Perspective of Islam.

  5. World experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bila Iryna S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses tendencies of state regulation of entrepreneurship in EU countries, USA and Japan and identifies state regulation of entrepreneurship as a system, which consists of certain elements, unity and interaction of which determine its efficiency and functionality. Analysis, systematisation and generalisation of experience of state regulation of entrepreneurship in these countries allow making a conclusion that the existing differences in the role of the state in economy are not connected with the degree of state regulation, but are connected with the means used for its realisation. General tendencies of development of relations between the state and entrepreneurial sector allowed identification of main elements of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship, which include: forecasting, planning and programming socio-economic development; anti-monopoly competitive policy; tax and investment policy; innovation policy and stimulation of R and D (Research and Development. The prospect of further studies is identification of specific features of the system of state regulation of entrepreneurship in the modern Ukrainian economy.

  6. Providing policy-relevant information for greenhouse gas management: Perspectives from science and technology policy research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilling, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the 12 years since the Kyoto Protocol was signed setting forth targets for greenhouse gas emissions from several nations, the number of policies, voluntary programs and commercial enterprises that have developed to manage carbon has grown exponentially. Many of these programs have occurred in a voluntary context, such as carbon trading, carbon offset programs, and climate registries . To date, no single, common system for accrediting, verifying and recording carbon credits has developed. Moreover, as the international community continues to negotiate the dimensions of an international agreement for the post-Kyoto time period, discussions still center on targets for fossil fuel emissions, biospheric carbon protection, and appropriate distribution of the burden of compliance globally. If carbon still remains the currency for discussion in a climate agreement, some type of effective measurement and verification system will be needed to ensure that commitments are being met. While entire volumes over the past decade have been written on what it is possible to observe about the carbon cycle and how to do so-- these tend to describe observations from the perspective of studying the carbon cycle to discover fundamental new knowledge. I will argue, however, that for the application under consideration in this session, i.e. a global greenhouse gas information system, it is essential to bring in the perspective of the policy and regulatory community. The needs of the scientific community for measuring the uncertainties in the global carbon cycle are not necessarily the same as those for the policy community. To ensure that such a system can serve a policy-relevant function, the scientific community must engage with policy makers, entrepreneurs, those who must comply, and others involved in constructing the policy framework. This paper will examine some of the key fundamentals that the policy community may be considering in designing a greenhouse gas monitoring system. I

  7. Of Policy Entrepreneurship, bandwagoning and free-riding : EU member states and multilateral cooperation frameworks for Europe's southern neighbourhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schumacher, T.; Bouris, D.; Olszewska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 25 years the EU and NATO have displayed considerable agency and thus influence as far as the development of institutionalised collective cooperation and/or foreign policy frameworks towards Europe’s southern neighbourhood is concerned. Against this backdrop, this article puts EU and

  8. Towards Entrepreneurship: Reflections Between Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benešová Tereza

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the pragmatic need of linking theory and practice in the learning process, focusing on vocational education in economics and entrepreneurship education. In connection with selected alternative economic theories is shown the necessity of praxeological educational background and practical work experience in teaching process in entrepreneurship education. Results are based on the research, which was done in the framework of prepared dissertation thesis on the theme of entrepreneurship education from the perspectives of theory and the perspective of vocational school teachers of economics subjects. The results focus on the concept of entrepreneurship education preferred by teachers of the economical subjects at the secondary schools specialised in economics. The main aim of the research was to check, to what degree are the theoretical bases of the education of the entrepreneurship fulfilled in the reality of a secondary school specialised in economics. The results show that in the case of preferred aims of the respondents of our examination we could talk about the combination of creation of knowledge and preparation for the profession. It is confirmed that the teachers rely significantly on a prescribed list of educational topics, but at the same time the results clearly show that the respondents think about their subject and formative aspect of their classes through using of cross-sectional topic.

  9. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine’s list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996–2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. PMID:24449873

  10. Small business activity does not measure entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrekson, Magnus; Sanandaji, Tino

    2014-02-04

    Entrepreneurship policy mainly aims to promote innovative Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. However, the rate of entrepreneurship is commonly proxied using quantity-based metrics, such as small business activity, the self-employment rate, or the number of startups. We argue that those metrics give rise to misleading inferences regarding high-impact Schumpeterian entrepreneurship. To unambiguously identify high-impact entrepreneurs we focus on self-made billionaires (in US dollars) who appear on Forbes Magazine's list and who became wealthy by founding new firms. We identify 996 such billionaire entrepreneurs in 50 countries in 1996-2010, a systematic cross-country study of billionaire entrepreneurs. The rate of billionaire entrepreneurs correlates negatively with self-employment, small business ownership, and firm startup rates. Countries with higher income, higher trust, lower taxes, more venture capital investment, and lower regulatory burdens have higher billionaire entrepreneurship rates but less self-employment. Despite its limitations, the number of billionaire entrepreneurs appears to be a plausible cross-country measure of Schumpeterian entrepreneurship.

  11. Explaining variation in nascent entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); P. Reynolds (Paul); A.R. Thurik (Roy)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper aims at explaining cross-country variation in nascent entrepreneurship. Regression analysis is applied using various explanatory variables derived from three different approaches. We make use of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor database, including nascent entrepreneurship

  12. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  13. Entrepreneurship and the business cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Thurik

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has a cyclical component, raising two questions. Is the entrepreneurship cycle related to the business cycle? And is there causality? A two-way relationship between entrepreneurship and the business cycle would be in line with the two faces of entrepreneurs: as agents of change creating upswings (opportunity entrepreneurship) and as rational actors escaping unemployment by setting up a business (necessity entrepreneurship). Nascent entrepreneurship can indeed be precyclical, ...

  14. National Language and Terminology Policies — A South African Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariëtta Alberts

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: Terminology plays a pivotal role in language development and the promotion of multilingualism. This article discusses the issue of multilingualism regarding terminology policies as seen from an African perspective. Special emphasis is given to the South African situation regarding language policies and consequential terminology policies in terms of subject-oriented terminography, translation-oriented terminography and linguistic community-oriented terminography.

    OPSOMMING: Nasionale taal- en terminologiebeleid — 'n Suid-Afrikaanse perspektief. Terminologie speel 'n sleutelrol in taalontwikkeling en die bevordering van veeltaligheid. Hierdie artikel bespreek die kwessie van veeltaligheid ten opsigte van terminologiebeleid soos gesien vanuit 'n Afrikaperspektief. Spesiale klem word gelê op die Suid-Afrikaanse situasie rakende taalbeleid en die gevolglike terminologiebeleid in terme van vakgeörienteerde terminografie, vertaalgeörienteerde terminografie en taalgemeenskapgeörienteerde terminografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: MEERTALIGHEID, TAALBELEID, TAALDIVERSITEIT, TAALGEMEENSKAPGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, TERMINOLOGIEBESTUUR, TERMINOLOGIEONTWIKKELING, VAKGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE, VERTAALGEÖRIENTEERDE TERMINOGRAFIE

  15. Putting Canadian entrepreneurship in the global picture | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-11-14

    Nov 14, 2014 ... Through the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Canadian and international researchers are capturing and sharing new insights on what motivates entrepreneurs, and how to help them thrive. Their findings give governments solid ground for policies to spur business innovation.

  16. Barriers to nurse entrepreneurship: a study of the process model of entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, B; Hunter, Gary L; Winchell, Mike

    2007-04-01

    The potential for nurse entrepreneurship to contribute to the effectiveness of healthcare delivery is well acknowledged, yet it has not been fully realized. Using the process model of entrepreneurship, we attempted to glean information from nursing professionals through focus groups on the barriers to starting a business. Two focus groups were used and expert moderators conducted these exercises. The first focus group included two hospital administrators, a nurse entrepreneur, an ophthalmology entrepreneur, and a dean of the nursing school familiar with nurse entrepreneurship. The second focus group used 20 students in a nurse practitioner program. The study findings indicate nurse practitioners and other nursing professionals do recognize the potential of nurse entrepreneurship. However, several barriers prevent them from exploiting the identified opportunity. While the barriers are significant, we believe they can be overcome with coordinated action by individual nurses, professional associations, and public policy initiatives. Several suggestions are offered to nurses seeking to become nurse entrepreneurs.

  17. Organizing Entrepreneurship (research)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gartner, Bill

    2014-01-01

    to me that the entire body of entrepreneurship scholars could easily fit in a small sized classroom (which they did for that meeting). As Aldrich (2012) points out in his review and personal history of the entrepreneurship field, the study of entrepreneurship as a scholarly endeavor is relatively young......The goal of this chapter is to offer some thoughts about the nature of the field of entrepreneurship, and particularly about the future of entrepreneurship scholarship. I begin with a recollection of a suggestion I made to students at doctoral seminars in the 1990s that 'all academic research...... on entrepreneurship could easily be read within a couple of months'. (I was recently reminded of this statement by Daniel Hjorth when I told him I was much behind in my journal reading.) Then, there simply wasn't much scholarship to digest. For example, it is well worth procuring one of the first handbooks...

  18. Entrepreneurship and regional development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    This literature review examines how entrepreneurship and regional development has been previously addressed theoretically and empirically. Regional Science and Entrepreneurship are two fields with their own distinct literature's. The question is therefore, how do these two fields talk about...... the respective other? What are the commonalities and differences? The purpose of this article is to create an analytical synthesis by combining the insights of the two literature's in order to gain a fuller understanding of the relation between entrepreneurship and regional development....

  19. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AS SOCIAL INTERACTION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henry; Lima, Patricia; Olsen, Bente

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore how entrepreneurs work with innovation; to explore and develop attention points in understanding entrepreneurship as social processes of interaction between people. Through interviews and engagement with entrepreneurs and key stakeholders, their actual social practices...... entrepreneurship as socially constructed through local interactions between players and identify key themes in these interactions within the organisation, such as leadership, becoming part of the initiative and trust/mistrust. By doing so, this paper contributes to an understanding of entrepreneurship as social...

  20. Franchising as a Strategy for Combining Small and Large Group Advantages (Logics) in Social Entrepreneurship: A Hayekian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Markus; Zeyen, Anica

    2014-01-01

    This article develops a Hayekian perspective on social franchising that distinguishes between the end-connected logic of the small group and the rule-connected logic of the big group. Our key claim is that mission-driven social entrepreneurs often draw on the small-group logic when starting their social ventures and then face difficulties when the process of scaling shifts their operations toward a big-group logic. In this situation, social franchising offers a strategy to replicate the small...

  1. Entrepreneurship in Cyberspace Research of Mru Management and Administration Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Kiškis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Youth entrepreneurship is one of the European Union’s public policy priorities. Student entrepreneurship in this context is particularly important as academic studies at the university shall develop an entrepreneurial personality. Student entrepreneurship is not widely examined in Lithuanian scholarly work. This phenomenon tends to be analyzed in the context of development of general entrepreneurial skills. There is no prior work on student entrepreneurship in cyberspace—most notably there is no empirical research in this area. This situation emphasizes the need for empirical studies of student entrepreneurship. The purpose of this article is to analyze student entrepreneurship in cyberspace status quo at Mykolas Romeris University (MRU. This research objective was chosen in order to determine the current status and to enable a reference for further research of student entrepreneurship in cyberspace. Additional practical goals are adopted, namely—based on the results of this study, to identify development guidelines for study programs as well as the “Entrepreneurship in Cyberspace” discipline taught in a postgraduate studies at MRU in order to focus them on the needs of future postgraduate students. The research was conducted using a survey method. Before the research three hypotheses were proposed: 1 MRU students are more enterprising than the statistical resident of Lithuania; 2 student entrepreneurship education in Management and Administration studies is inadequate; 3 students need specialized knowledge of entrepreneurship in cyberspace. After the analysis of gathered data from students all three hypotheses were confirmed: students are more entrepreneurial then the general population of Lithuania, entrepreneurial education at the university is insufficient and there is a need among students for specialized knowledge in the field of e-business. Follow-up study of the negative dynamics of student entrepreneurship should be carried

  2. Entrepreneurship and Process Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin; Steyaert, Chris

    2015-01-01

    a variable as just that, a variable. The resonance with entrepreneurship studies is obvious. If any field is alive to, and fully resonant with, a processual understanding of, for example, the creation of firms, it is entrepreneurship studies. This special issue is an attempt to consider the promise...... and potential of processual approaches to studying, researching and practising entrepreneurship. The articles in the issue attest to an increasing sensitivity to processual thinking. We argue that appreciating entrepreneurial phenomena processually opens up the field to an understanding of entrepreneurship...

  3. It's Entrepreneurship, not Enterprise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel; Holt, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We challenge the obvious and easy association of enterprise and entrepreneurship. We do so by arguing that entrepreneurship is inherently social and collective, something that is concealed when held up as example of enterprising behaviour. We use as an illustrative case the Chinese artist Ai Weiwei......, an example of entrepreneurship that has little to do with commerce and everything to do with the social nature of creativity. We conclude by equating entrepreneurship to generosity: a social production of possibility from which all opportunities and ventures emerge....

  4. Genesis of social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulothungan, Gladius

    The PhD thesis has a research subject and focus attempting to develop a sociological analysis of a form of social action in the shape of social entrepreneurship defined as a problem solving initiative. The thesis explores what kind of situations and circumstances – both external, in terms...... as social entrepreneurship - to social issues/problems. Social entrepreneurship has been conceptualized as innovative initiatives with a social mission to solve social problems. The research questions are: How does social entrepreneurship emerge? What are the triggers? – including a theoretical...

  5. Policy entrepreneurship in UK central government: The behavioural insights team and the use of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Peter

    2014-07-01

    What factors explain the success of the UK Cabinet Office's Behavioural Insights Team? To answer this question, this article applies insights from organizational theory, particularly accounts of change agents. Change agents are able-with senior sponsorship-to foster innovation by determination and skill: they win allies and circumvent more traditional bureaucratic procedures. Although Behavioural Insights Team is a change agent-maybe even a skunkworks unit-not all the facilitating factors identified in the literature apply in this central government context. Key factors are its willingness to work in a non-hierarchical way, skills at forming alliances, and the ability to form good relationships with expert audiences. It has been able to promote a more entrepreneurial approach to government by using randomized controlled trials as a robust method of policy evaluation.

  6. Active and successful aging: a European policy perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Liam; Walker, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Over the past two decades, "active aging" has emerged in Europe as the foremost policy response to the challenges of population aging. This article examines the concept of active aging and how it differs from that of "successful aging." In particular, it shows how active aging presents a more holistic, life course-oriented approach than successful aging. We provide a critical perspective on active aging too by, first, tracing its emergence in Europe and then showing how, in practice, it has been dominated by a narrow economic or productivist perspective that prioritizes the extension of working life. It has also been gender blind. Nonetheless, it is argued that an active aging approach has the potential to enable countries to respond successfully to the challenges of population aging because of its comprehensive focus and emphasis on societal as well as individual responsibility. Finally, we set out the basic principles that need to be followed if the full potential of active aging is to be achieved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Baklanov, Nikita; Brambini-Pedersen, Jan Vang

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship) suggest that migrant entrepreneur play an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalization of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms...... in across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different ethnic categories that exports. The Danish context provides unique data allowing for a comparison across migrants and non-migrants, across sectors and across time. The paper reveals that migrants play a decreasing...

  8. Entrepreneurship as a legitimate field of knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C

    2011-08-01

    Entrepreneurship as a research topic has been approached from disciplines such as economics, sociology or psychology. After justifying its study, we define the domain of the field, highlighting what has currently become its dominant paradigm, the process of the discovery, assessment and exploitation of opportunities. We then describe the main perspectives and offer an integrated conceptual framework that will allow us to legitimize the study of entrepreneurship as a field of knowledge in its own right. We believe that this framework will help researchers to better recognize the relations among the many factors forming part of the study of entrepreneurship. Lastly, we conclude with some brief reflections on the potential value of the framework presented.

  9. Migrant entrepreneurship, economic activity and export performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baklanov, Nikita; Rezaei, Shahamak; Vang, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on transnational entrepreneurship suggest that migrant entrepreneur plays an increasingly significant role as sources of economic activities and especially export revenue. The literature is, however, biased on the US experience, lacks a comparative perspective between migrants...... and non-migrants and is primarily anecdotal in nature. This paper aims to reduce this gap by mapping the recent changes in the role of migrant entrepreneurs as a source of increased economic activity and export revenue in the Danish context and thereby linking the challenges stemming from...... the transnational entrepreneurship literature to the immigration and internationalisation of entrepreneurship literature. Entrepreneurial economic activity in this paper is proxied by the changing share of self-owned firms across ethic categories. Export revenue is proxied by the number of firms in the different...

  10. Can Entrepreneurship Education Reduce Stereotypes against Women Entrepreneurship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türko, Esra Sena

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether entrepreneurship trainings can reduce stereotypes against women entrepreneurship. With this aim socio-psychological obstacles to women entrepreneurship in Turkey are examined, and an experimental study is carried out. Entrepreneurship courses were given with a special emphasis on women…

  11. Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Entrepreneurship and small business development in Ethiopia. This project aims to improve the Ethiopian government's policies and practices, and those of other actors, to support small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) development in the country. Since the early 2000s, the Ethiopian government has implemented ...

  12. Framework for Entrepreneurship Education in Nigerian Higher ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It seems fair to argue that opinions from Nigeria's government and its policy makers, and the management of various Nigerian higher institutions of learning concerning the mandatory introduction of entrepreneurship education in all disciplines so far have lacked a common framework. This lack of framework is responsible ...

  13. Entrepreneurship research and practice: a call to action for psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon

    2007-09-01

    Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.

  14. Ethnographic Evaluation of Entrepreneurship Education in Higher Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sarah; Shumar, Wesley

    2014-01-01

    ways to encourage and sustain economic growth. These discourses are evident in policies that use rhetoric about creating more entrepreneurs through explicitly encouraging entrepreneurial behaviour by teaching entrepreneurship to students at all levels of education. The introduction of entrepreneurship......Ethnography is a research method that seeks to gain a detailed understanding of how informants see their world and how they understand the problems that they confront in everyday life. As such it is an ideal method to both study the practices that entrepreneurship educators engage...... in and the discursive and cognitive shifts that learners go through as they seek a more entrepreneurial understanding. The paper suggests that the flexibility and rigorous nature of ethnography provides an appropriate tool for evaluating entrepreneurship teaching in educational institutions. Entrepreneurship...

  15. MIGRATION POLICIES FROM ORIGIN PERSPECTIVE IN THE CASE OF ROMANIA. TESTING A DEFINITION

    OpenAIRE

    Monica SERBAN

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the effort of investigating migration policies and the role they play in international migration development has consistently increased. The most consistent part of this interest is related to immigration and associated policies to manage it. Just few studies approach the issues from the origin side perspective. This paper addresses the gap by discussing how migration policies from the origin perspective may be defined and operationalized and trying to test one such a definition/ope...

  16. A Progress Review of Entrepreneurship and Regional Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    This study reviews the literature related to regional entrepreneurship. It identifies the main topical perspectives, advancements and shortcomings, discusses several research gaps and proposes ways forward. The literature review is based on 170 peer-reviewed articles in the leading journals of en...... and regional structuring in order to expand current understandings of which types of entrepreneurship prevail in different localities.......This study reviews the literature related to regional entrepreneurship. It identifies the main topical perspectives, advancements and shortcomings, discusses several research gaps and proposes ways forward. The literature review is based on 170 peer-reviewed articles in the leading journals...... of entrepreneurship and regional science. The findings reveal that major debates occur within the disciplines of regional economics, sociology and economic geography, but discussions across disciplines are scant. While regional economists tend to overlook the role of contextualized agency, and thus neglect processes...

  17. At the Crossroads. Management and Business History in Entrepreneurship Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Águeda Gil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent calls for a historic turn in organization studies offer the opportunity to relaunch dialogue between management and business history research. Focusing on the specific domain of entrepreneurship research, this article illustrates the potential of mutual contributions from management and business history. In doing so, it demonstrates how historical approaches strongly influenced the early theoretical developments within entrepreneurship and demonstrates the potential to contribute to future scholarly debates. In sum, this article brings closer together business history and management studies stressing that their different perspectives and approaches are very valuable to enriching entrepreneurship research.

  18. Educational Entrepreneurship Today

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Frederick M., Ed.; McShane, Michael Q., Ed.

    2016-01-01

    In "Educational Entrepreneurship Today", Frederick M. Hess and Michael Q. McShane assemble a diverse lineup of high-profile contributors to examine the contexts in which new initiatives in education are taking shape. They inquire into the impact of entrepreneurship on the larger field--including the development and deployment of new…

  19. Entrepreneurship as social change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    theoretical formulations. They begin with discussions on early Schumpeter and a rhetorical analysis of the current academic literature on social entrepreneurship. They go on to present myriad contextual examples of how entrepreneurship can shape social change, and indicate how this is initiated through...

  20. Entrepreneurship and Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Jonathan, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    Stimulating innovative and growth-oriented entrepreneurship is a key economic and societal challenge to which universities and colleges have much to contribute. This book examines the role that higher education institutions are currently playing through teaching entrepreneurship and transferring knowledge and innovation to enterprises and…

  1. Strategic Public Relations and University Entrepreneurship in Present European Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea RĂCEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mostly theoretical and following a descriptive - normative logic, with a specific focus on the models of higher education institutions and practices, the present paper addresses the subject of entrepreneurship within higher education area, in relation with current European policy context regarding higher education and university entrepreneurship. It proposes a strategic public relations framework as an integrating effective approach for actual opportunities and challenges that universities deal with presently. Various theoretical approaches and concrete actions emerged, from the complex perspectives of triple helix (organic relationships and interactions between universities, industry and government to particular aims regarding the development of knowledge-based economy or to the European Union knowledge triangle initiatives (education-research-innovation. The role of universities is expected to be broader and its actions should be characterized by both responsibility and pragmatism within the context of sustainable decision making. However, mostly in practice, there are limitations and criticism regarding a convergent model of entrepreneurial university, even more in relation with issues related to ethics of teaching and research and especially for universities with social and humanistic profiles. In this context, a viable solution could come from the area of public relations, undertaken in their most advanced form: as strategic approach linking decision making processes, stakeholders’ needs and interests and assuming long term responsibility. The main aim and originality component of this paper is to propose and support such an approach presented both verbally and trough graphical modelling.

  2. Examining Massification Policies and Their Consequences for Equality in Chinese Higher Education: A Cultural Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This study extends the theoretical perspectives in policy studies on the issue of educational equality by analyzing the influence of cultural values on policies and policy processes. The present paper first teases out the key cultural values regarding education and equality, and then explores how these values shape the institution and policy…

  3. Setting the stage for social entrepreneurship : a systematic literature reiview on user entrepreneurship in relation to social entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koers-Stuiver, D.M.; Groen, A.J.

    2015-01-01

    This research explored the boundaries of the theories on user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship by examining the differences and analogies between them. This research was the first to explore the relationship between user entrepreneurship and social entrepreneurship and theorized about

  4. Measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Sameeksha

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the difficulties associated with measuring entrepreneurship in developing countries. Three important dichotomies in the research on entrepreneurship are discussed: formal-informal, legal-illegal, and necessity-opportunity. Several common measures of entrepreneurship are outlined along with their relevance to developing countries, including self-employment, Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey data and OECD data. The implications o...

  5. Debating the soft support of starting entrepreneurship in an educational setting

    OpenAIRE

    Koopman, Rudpolhus Gerardus Maria

    2013-01-01

    There are all kind of support programs to support entrepreneurship. There are several ways of supporting entrepreneurship, where the person, the entrepreneur, is seen as one of the key factors for stimulating entrepreneurship. The support of the person is what I mention as soft support. To avoid confusion and to get insight in the different kinds of soft support of the entrepreneur, different terms used for this support should be put into perspective. Soft support like coaching, mentoring, co...

  6. Strategy And Policy Statements On Green ICT: An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihab A. Hameed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this information and knowledge era; ICT development and industry are growing very fast and associated with huge procurement force. Today, the global society is facing serious challenges in improving environmental performance, particularly with climate change, global warming, and resource management. ICT industry is widely contributing to the global economy associating with innovation, invention and rapid development of almost all the aspect of human life. On other hand; ICT industry is responsible for global CO2 emissions. Global environmental problems are affecting directly many countries' energy and industrial policies. The rapid increasing of ICT usage means more energy consumption and more environmental problems and the estimated ICT consumption of energy will be about 15% of the total consumption worldwide in 2020. Therefore, many countries are establishing Green ICT policies which increase energy efficiency due to correspondence climate change. Therefore, governments especially in developing and Islamic countries need to adopt new strategic policies for efficient energy use in ICT. This study presents the current environmental problems related to green ICT and the efforts to solve it. Several studies have warning from the current energy consumption paradigm, based on newly changed ICT practices. This study provides guidelines for decision makers and ICT professionals to enhance their work toward green ICT and eliminating environmental problems. Islamic viewpoint on environment and its protection is considered since it offers comprehensive, stable, and fair viewpoint that is based on main Islamic sources; Quran and Sunnah. Hundreds of Quranic verses and prophet Hadiths clarify (directly or indirectly the right manner in dealing and protection of environment resources. This paper proposes a framework for strategy and policy statements of green ICT based on Islamic perspective to serve the world especially developing and Islamic countries

  7. The Influence of the Institutions on Entrepreneurship Development: Public Support and Perception of Entrepreneurship Development in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Petr Hlavacek; Marta Zambochova; Tomas Sivicek

    2015-01-01

    This article deals with the research of entrepreneurship development in the frame of institutional environment in the Czech Republic. The example of the Czech Republic shows similar problems and specifics of post-transformation economies in Central and Eastern Europe. The goal is to discover the impact of specific institutional barriers on entrepreneurship development from the perspective of entrepreneurs and willingness to start own business. The surveys revealed that institutional barriers ...

  8. Entrepreneurship and its analysis in Colombia: A contextualized literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a literature review contextualized through the different stages of Colombian industrial history up to the first decade of the XXI century, when an attempt is made to organize the growing interest in the topic of entrepreneurship. We find a tight connection between public policy agenda setting and the definition of the research agenda of the topic. We also find a dualistic approach in the research of the topic, with universities and think-tanks leading the investigation on accumulative / innovative entrepreneurship, and a consultancy-bias group dedicated to the study of subsistence entrepreneurship.

  9. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  10. The Returns to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Praag, Mirjam; Raknerud, Arvid

    Empirical studies show low pecuniary returns of switching from wage employment to entrepreneurship. We reconsider the pecuniary gains of this switching by employing a two-stage procedure, where the randomness in the timing of inheritance transfers is used as an exclusion restriction to identify...... causal effects. The model is estimated on data covering the whole Norwegian population of individuals matched to the entire population of firms established in the period 2002-2011. The results indicate that the average returns to entrepreneurship are significantly negative for individuals entering...... entrepreneurship through self-employment and modest, but significantly positive, for incorporated startups....

  11. Models og International Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2015-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms, the motivating factors that give rise to such firms and their growth modalities and strategies. These models reflect the merger...... of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship....

  12. Kebijakan Peningkatan Mutu Santri melalui Pendidikan Berbasis Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safrudin Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the policy of increasing the quality of santri-based entrepreneurship in boarding school is caused by oblique image of society to pesantren salaf which only able to produce cadre of scholars but poor in development of santri entrepreneurship. Consequently alumni of salaf pesantren who do not have formal education majority can not take part in developing economic independence. Different from pesantren Al-Falah, entrepreneurship education shaped life skills development into vision and excellent programs for every santri. Extracting data in this research using observation method, interview and documentation. While data analysis is done through process of data reduction, display data and conclusion and verification. The results of this study indicate that pesantren has implemented a policy of improving the quality of santri optimally through the formulation of policies in accordance with the vision and mission of pesantren, policy implementation through life skills education and policy control through monitoring, evaluation and reward.

  13. THE BEAR BROOK WATERSHED MANIPULATION PROJECT: WATERSHED SCIENCE IN A POLICY PERSPECTIVE. (R825762)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. The Practice of Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and the Swedish Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Stryjan, Yohanan

    2006-01-01

    The notion of social entrepreneurship has gained increasing recognition in the last years, both as an increasingly visible mode of economic action, and as an important policy tool. The paper outlines a typology that departs from a Schumpeterian view of entrepreneurship, that centers on the creation of new combinations of resources, and focuses on the nature of actors engaging in the pursuit, and the nature of resources mobilized. The analysis is illustrated by case study material on social en...

  15. A Review of Entrepreneurship Education for College Students in China

    OpenAIRE

    Mansheng Zhou; Haixia Xu

    2012-01-01

    Partly as a result of the rapid growth in Chinese higher education, graduate placement has become a critical issue facing colleges and universties. In response, one of the policy initiatives adopted by the Chinese government is for higher education institutions to put an emphasis on entrepreneurship education. In 2002, the Ministry of Education launched a pilot program on carrying out entrepreneurship education in nine prestigious higher education institutions in China. Since then, many colle...

  16. Climate governance entrepreneurship: Emerging findings and a new research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Boasson, Elin Lerum; Huitema, Dave

    2017-01-01

    This is an introductory paper to a special issue on climate governance entrepreneurship, where entrepreneurship is understood as acts performed by actors seeking to ‘punch above their weight’. By contrast, actors who are merely doing their job are not ‘entrepreneurs’. In order to understand climate policy and governance, we need to learn more about the factors that condition variance in entrepreneurial activity, strategies and success. In this introduction, we present a comprehensive review o...

  17. New Horizons in Entrepreneurship: From Teacher-Led to Student-Centered Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sarah; Neergaard, Helle; Tanggaard, Lene; Krueger, Norris

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the discussion about the complexity and heterogeneity of entrepreneurship education. In order to achieve this objective, this paper combines educational psychology with perspectives from entrepreneurship education research to make explicit educators tacit assumptions in order to understand how…

  18. Innovation, entrepreneurship and textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton Godfrey, A.; Pourmojib, S.

    2017-10-01

    Innovation and entrepreneurship have become increasingly important parts of economic development in almost every country, region, and community. In this research we investigate the reasons people become entrepreneurs in the textile and apparel industries and compare entrepreneurship in these industries with other industries looking also at the success factors for start up companies. During our research we found many disrupters, people entering the textile and apparel industries from outside often having no prior experience in textiles or apparel. We also investigate the impact of government intervention on entrepreneurship. In recognition of the large economic impact entrepreneurial companies have on economic development and job growth, almost all federal governments, regional governments, and community governments have created support for innovation and entrepreneurship.

  19. Entrepreneurship and Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2017-01-01

    are identified and empirically explored: (i) job matching, (ii) labour market value, and (iii) personal commitment. Entrepreneurs appear to be more productive and thus better matched compared to wageworkers. However, they also appear to be locked in entrepreneurship because of their anticipated lower value......This paper challenges the conventional belief that entrepreneurship is an unstable career path. Using longitudinal matched employer–employee data from Denmark, the analysis reveals that a transition to entrepreneurship decreases individual's employment turnover tendency. Three explanations...... in the labour market and because of their personal attachment to the venture. The counter-intuitive finding – entrepreneurship yields greater employment stability – only holds with respect to subsequent transitions to wagework and not for new venture founding. The results have implications for our understanding...

  20. Entrepreneurship and the Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    While characteristically "Austrian" themes such as entrepreneurship, economic calculation, tacit knowledge and the temporal structure of capital are clearly relevant to the business firm, Austrian economists have said relatively little about management, organization and strategy. This work features...

  1. Models of international entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Morten; Servais, Per

    2012-01-01

    The purpose with this article is to review models used to describe and explain the establishment and development of international new ventures in order to investigate how and why international new ventures are established and developed. This article attempts an integration of extant theory...... on International Entrepreneurship, and specifically but not exclusively, International New Ventures (INVs). The three resulting ‘meta-models’ depict the activities and loci of such firms (Figure 1), the motivating factors that give rise to such firms (Figure 2) and their growth modalities and strategies (Figure 3......). These models reflect the merger of entrepreneurship and international business into the field of international entrepreneurship. Managers in international entrepreneurial firms and students in international business and entrepreneurship can use the models as framework for understanding international...

  2. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine

    , culture, history, and natural resources. The insights of this thesis are believed to be vital for understanding why certain types of local entrepreneurship prevail in certain regions. This can further our knowledge of how to foster and enable entrepreneurship in lagging regions. In addition, this study...... reveals that rural entrepreneurship is about appreciating the local, exploiting resource endowments, and engendering community support. Rural context and rural code of conduct influence the extent to which entrepreneurial activities are localized as well as influence the type of value created...... influenced by such interactions? In approaching these questions, this dissertation focuses on why entrepreneurs act (the causes of entrepreneurship, anchored in the context), how they act (the entrepreneurial practices, action, and activities), and what happens when they act (the outcomes and impact...

  3. Entrepreneurship in Creative Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jūratė Černevičiūtė

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative industries topic is closely related to the art markets in a variety of mediation forms. Traditional business entrepreneurship is risk-related activities implementing innovations in markets, and generating economic growth. The creative industry area has plenty of innovation, but its acceptance is more complex because of the cultural world’s participants’ agreements. Cultural world has its own social organization, associated with the mediation (including entrepreneurship types. The article examines the concept of entrepreneurship in the traditional business and creative industries and types of innovation and mediation (including entrepreneurship. The conclusion is that types of intermediary in creative industries depend on the cultural world’s social organization, and forms of mediation are more heterogeneous than in the traditional business. 

  4. Strategic entrepreneurship in the future: Theoretical views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Milan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the role and importance of strategy in contemporary entrepreneurship, which operates under conditions of rapid change. Strategic Enterprise includes a set of entrepreneurial actions undertaken for the purpose of strategic perspective. It describes the key characteristics of modern entrepreneurs with strategic emphasis on the needs of the strategic analysis of business opportunities and possibilities of business enterprises in the specific conditions, at the beginning of the third millennium.

  5. Institutional entrepreneurship and agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weik, E.

    2011-01-01

    of collective entrepreneurship and institutional work to see if they can overcome these incongruities. I conclude that although they can remedy some of the problems, these notions run the risk of describing everything until they describe nothing. In order to limit and enable the entrepreneurship literature...... to discuss agency meaningfully, I argue, it needs to develop analytical frames of agency derived either from existing sociological theories or from further developing its own brand of agency theory. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd....

  6. Bankruptcy Law and Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    John Armour; Douglas Cumming

    2008-01-01

    Entrepreneurs, catalysts for innovation in the economy, are increasingly the object of policymakers’ attention. Recent initiatives both in the UK and at EU level have sought to promote entrepreneurship by reducing the harshness of the consequences of personal bankruptcy law. Whilst there is an intuitive link between the two, little attention has been paid to the question empirically. We investigate the link between bankruptcy and entrepreneurship using data on self employment over 13 years (1...

  7. Uddannelse til social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Esben; Bisballe, Lise; Petersen, Lare René

    En undersøgelse af Sosial Entrepreneurship som et muligt svar på velfærdssamfundets udfordringer. Hvad sker der når socialt entreprenørskab institutionaliseres gennem formel uddannelse.......En undersøgelse af Sosial Entrepreneurship som et muligt svar på velfærdssamfundets udfordringer. Hvad sker der når socialt entreprenørskab institutionaliseres gennem formel uddannelse....

  8. Entrepreneurship and Economic Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Ruta Aidis

    2003-01-01

    Identification of the entrepreneur's economic function has engaged economistsfor more than 200 years. In this paper we address the issue of entrepreneurship intwo distinct ways: a) as it has historically developed within the field of economicsand b) as it develops in the transitional context. In contrast to advanced westerneconomies, productive entrepreneurship cannot be taken for granted in transitioncountries. Therefore we propose a working definition and model for productiveentrepreneurshi...

  9. Female Entrepreneurship – An Appropriate Response to Gender Discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Ascher

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to discuss one of the most significant economic and social developments in the world – the rise of the female entrepreneurship phenomenon. Women entrepreneurship needs to be studied as a separate field for two main reasons: (a. Female entrepreneurship is an important source of economic growth in creating new jobs and by being genetically different: women provide different solutions to management and business issues; (b. Female entrepreneurship has been neglected, particularly in business research. Although equal opportunity for men and women in the entrepreneurial field is not a reality in the short range, the progress towards its achievement could be facilitated by better understanding of the impact of female entrepreneurship on society and its contribution to economic growth. This study addresses the growth in female entrepreneurship in the developed and developing countries, explores primary motivational and other factors that influence female entrepreneurship, reviews the main obstacles facing the female entrepreneur, and finally makes recommendations to policy-ma

  10. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  11. Advancing Health Marketing Research and Policy Recommendations by Incorporating Source Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Guadagno, Marie; Champlin, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Communication researchers, recognizing the message sent is not necessarily the same as the message received, have incorporated the perspective of advertising professionals into the study of advertising effects. Health marketing research could similarly benefit from incorporating this largely absent perspective into the academic and policy debate surrounding the impact of advertising on health issues ranging from obesity to alcohol use. This commentary serves as a call to action to stakeholders in this academic and policy debate: focus on the perspective of advertising professionals to enrich health marketing and public health research in which advertising is the delivery vehicle for health messages.

  12. Youth Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of our paper is to analyse the entrepreneurial activity drivers of youth and young adults in Visegrad countries, considering the opportunity/necessity motivation dichotomy. Research Design & Methods: We employ the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor data for young individuals (18 to 34 years from V4 countries for years 2011 to 2013. We use the binomial logistic regression modelling with logit transformation. Separate models are constructed for youth and young adults, as well as for opportunity- and necessity-driven entrepreneurial activity. Findings: We found common drivers and distinctive attributes affecting involvement of young people in business start-up according to its motivation. Self-confidence and access to networks are universally important factors. In most examined cases, fear of failure and being a female reduces chance of business start-up. Especially among youth, being a student significantly inhibits involvement in enterprising efforts. Implications & Recommendations: In order to support youth entrepreneurship, an emphasis should be put on education and training to build skills and knowledge required to business start-up, together with capacity to spot opportunities, and reduce fear of failure.  Also, formal and informal networking plays an important role. Contribution & Value Added: Based on empirical analysis, our findings point out the key drivers of entrepreneurial activity among young people in V4 countries. We show directions for policy makers aiming to foster entrepreneurship within young generation as both way to exploit available business opportunities, as well as reaction to necessity situations.

  13. Language Policy and Language Ideology: Ecological Perspectives on Language and Education in the Himalayan Foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Cynthia

    2018-01-01

    Ethnographic research in the Kumaun region of North India highlights different perspectives on this multilingual context and on national-level policies. Language policies that explicitly or implicitly minoritize certain linguistic varieties influence local discourses about language and education but are also interpreted through the lens of local…

  14. Canadian Campus Smoking Policies: Investigating the Gap between Intent and Outcome from a Student Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Lynne; Callaghan, Doris; Smith, Michelle L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Young adults remain the earliest legal target for the tobacco industry. Against this, the existence of smoking policies would appear to offer some protection to students on campus. However, little research has been conducted into the outcomes of such policies from a student perspective. Methods: The authors conducted 8 focus groups at…

  15. An Exploration of Linguistic Neo-Colonialism through Educational Language Policy--An Irish Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Anna

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, educational language policy is explored through the lens of linguistic neo-colonialism in Ireland in the case of learners of English as an Additional Language. The perspective of Ireland as a decolonized nation may have an impact on current language policy. Arguments for an additive approach to language and identity, language…

  16. A CULTure of Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farny, Steffen; Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe; Hannibal, Martin

    2016-01-01

    High hopes are invested in a rapid institutionalisation of an enterprise culture in Higher Education. This has heightened the importance of entrepreneurship education (EE) in most Western societies; however, how values and beliefs about entrepreneurship are institutionalised in EE remains...

  17. Social Entrepreneurship: Definition and Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Abu-Saifan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While individuals may be publicly recognized as social entrepreneurs for their contributions to improve the welfare of communities, the field of social entrepreneurship continues to struggle to gain academic legitimacy. Social entrepreneurship is a term in search of a good definition. The current use of the term seems vague and limitless; it needs boundaries to demarcate its function. The lack of a common definition hinders research and raises questions about which social or profit-making activities fall within the spectrum of social entrepreneurship. To become an important stream in the entrepreneurship literature, social entrepreneurship needs to be properly defined and it requires a theoretical framework that links it to the theory of entrepreneurship. This article builds on the literature to define social entrepreneurship, discusses the boundaries of socially-oriented entrepreneurial activities, and positions the social entrepreneur in the spectrum of entrepreneurship.

  18. Teaching teachers in effectual entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, R.; Hammer, M.H.M.; Hakkert, A.

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship education is seen by all kind of people to be important for economic growth. Teaching entrepreneurship needs another approach. Active learning and the constructivism is mostly seen as essential. Other elements that are influencing the teaching process are the

  19. Assessing Regional Attitudes about Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Loveridge, Scott; Miller, Steven R.; Komarek, Timothy M.; Satimanon, Thasanee

    2012-01-01

    Much of the current discussion on factors that influence entrepreneurial activity focuses on availability of human, social, and financial capitals, regional economic conditions, and dynamics of population. We discuss social attitudes toward entrepreneurship and how attitudes may influence entrepreneurial activity. We analyze telephone survey questions designed to gauge attitudes towards community entrepreneurship. High school entrepreneurship career exploration and positive spin-offs from loc...

  20. Stages Of Discovery And Entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Nooteboom (Bart)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn an attempt at a systematic theory of entrepreneurship, this paper connects various literatures, from economics and business. In economics, there are many notions of entrepreneurship, some of which seem to contradict each other. For example, there are notions of entrepreneurship as an

  1. Entrepreneurship Training in Vocational Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South Carolina State Dept. of Education, Columbia. Office of Vocational Education.

    This guide on entrepreneurship is designed for use as a unit within an existing course. The unit is best used as individualized instruction, although small groups could be used; class discussions should precede individual work. Material is organized into six parts: entrepreneurship as a career, legal considerations of entrepreneurship, selecting a…

  2. Promoting Entrepreneurship - Changing Attitudes or Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Poul; Blenker, Per; Nielsen, Kent T.

    Abstract The primary objective of this paper is to analyse some initiatives used to promote entrepreneurship during the last 30 years of Danish Industrial Policy. A statistical description is given of the development that the Danish society has undergone, from an agricultural society through...... the industrial stage to a service or knowledge society. Parallel with this historical development, several initiatives to promote entrepreneurship have been implemented as part of Danish industrial policy. These initiatives are analysed with respect to objectives and means and ordered according to Sheth...... and thus a target for planned social change. However, the model introduced by Sheth and Frazier has never been used to analyse how this socially desirable action can be promoted. Undertaking such an analysis is the ambition of this paper, and based on this analysis, the paper will, will conclude...

  3. ANALYSIS OF OPTION FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP OF STUDENTS STUDYING ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia, VECHIU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is important, entrepreneur plays a major role at micro and maroeconomic level. Entrepreneur is the manager and employee at the same time, is leader and innovator, his company provides products and services that society needs. Europe needs more entrepreneurs and those who want to follow the path of entrepreneurship needs to face multiple challenges that can be overcome when the future entrepreneur benefit from a complex entrepreneurship education. This paper aims, through applied questionnaire, to identify whether future economists are determined to choose the path of entrepreneurship and start a business on their own. Also, we wanted to identify the obstacles that interviewees consider that you have to struggle to start their business. We applied a questionnaire to students, final year bachelor's degree, studying economics. They were chosen because during the three years study several economic disciplines: microeconomics, macroeconomics, management, accounting, finance, law, economic analysis, the national economy, European policy.

  4. Mapping the evolution of entrepreneurship as a field of research (1990–2013): A scientometric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This article applies scientometric techniques to study the evolution of the field of entrepreneurship between 1990 and 2013. Using a combination of topic mapping, author and journal co-citation analyses, and overlay visualization of new and hot topics in the field, this article makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship research by identifying 46 topics in the 24-year history of entrepreneurship research and demonstrates how they appear, disappear, reappear and stabilize over time. It also identifies five topics that are persistent across the 24-year study period––institutions and institutional entrepreneurship, innovation and technology management, policy and development, entrepreneurial process and opportunity, and new ventures––which I labeled as The Pentagon of Entrepreneurship. Overall, the analyses revealed patterns of convergence and divergence and the diversity of topics, specialization, and interdisciplinary engagement in entrepreneurship research, thus offering the latest insights on the state of the art of the field. PMID:29300735

  5. Mapping the evolution of entrepreneurship as a field of research (1990-2013): A scientometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Yanto

    2018-01-01

    This article applies scientometric techniques to study the evolution of the field of entrepreneurship between 1990 and 2013. Using a combination of topic mapping, author and journal co-citation analyses, and overlay visualization of new and hot topics in the field, this article makes important contribution to the entrepreneurship research by identifying 46 topics in the 24-year history of entrepreneurship research and demonstrates how they appear, disappear, reappear and stabilize over time. It also identifies five topics that are persistent across the 24-year study period--institutions and institutional entrepreneurship, innovation and technology management, policy and development, entrepreneurial process and opportunity, and new ventures--which I labeled as The Pentagon of Entrepreneurship. Overall, the analyses revealed patterns of convergence and divergence and the diversity of topics, specialization, and interdisciplinary engagement in entrepreneurship research, thus offering the latest insights on the state of the art of the field.

  6. Fostering an Entrepreneurship Culture in Higher Education and Job Creation in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modupe, Adeyinka Foluso; Adelowo, Wahab Bashir

    2015-01-01

    The drive to foster an entrepreneurship culture in the higher education (HE) system is one of the ongoing proposals in place for dealing with the daunting challenges of unemployment in Nigeria. It is now a policy of the National Universities Commission (NUC) to encourage Nigerian universities to provide entrepreneurship training for undergraduates…

  7. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  8. Changes in Academic Entrepreneurship among Japanese University Bioscientists, 1980-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameo, Nahoko

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation examines how Japanese university scientists in the biosciences responded to legal and institutional changes in academic entrepreneurship. Beginning in the 1990s, the Japanese government initiated a series of policy initiatives that attempted to imitate the U.S. academic environment's approach to promoting entrepreneurship. Using…

  9. Competitive Pressures and Transition to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    a comprehensive matched employer-employee longitudinal data set from Denmark. To mitigate endogeneity concerns, we exploit variation in the gender composition of established firms as women are systematically found to be less competitive than man. We find that workers are more likely to become entrepreneurs...... to entrepreneurship has a positive non-linear effect. Our results have strong implications for managers, prospect entrepreneurs and policy makers....

  10. AN ECONOMIC PERSPECTIVE AND POLICY IMPLICATION FOR SOCIAL ENTERPRISE

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon-Doo Kim; Seok Yoon; Heon-Goo Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study looked at the current status of Korean social enterprises and their problems and suggested governmental policy implications for enhancing the competitiveness of social enterprises. As the study methods, the current status of social enterprises was analyzed and performance of social enterprise support was examined and then policy implications for promoting the social enterprises were analyzed. First, the direction of governmental policy regarding the promotion of social enterprise s...

  11. Youth unemployment and employment policy: a global perspective

    OpenAIRE

    O'Higgins, Niall

    2001-01-01

    This study discusses in depth the youth unemployment "problem" and examines the various policy responses to it, including education and training, and active labour market policy. It emphasizes the need for adequate labour market information, policy monitoring and programme evaluation to help provide more and better-quality jobs for young people - while also offering specific recommendations and guidelines for this age group in industrialized, transition and developing countries, While anal...

  12. Technology policy for climate change mitigation: a transatlantic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This workshop was the second climate policy conference jointly organized by RFF and IFRI in Paris. (The first one, ''How to Make Progress Post-Kyoto?'', was held on March 19, 2003). This Summary Paper is divided into two parts: The first part presents short summaries of all the presentations at the workshop (rationale and past experience in technology policies, the challenges and policy responses of the climate friendly technologies). The second part, which is an edited version of the closing remarks by Pierre Noel (Ifri), highlights some of the policy lessons that emerged from the workshop. (A.L.B.)

  13. Analysis of maternal and child health policies in Malawi: The methodological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daire, J; Khalil, D

    2015-12-01

    The question of why most health policies do not achieve their intended results continues to receive a considerable attention in the literature. This is in the light of the recognized gap between policy as intent and policy as practice, which calls for substantial research work to understand the factors that improve policy implementation. Although there is substantial work that explains the reasons why policies achieve or fail to achieve their intended outcomes, there are limited case studies that illustrate how to analyze policies from the methodological perspective. In this article, we report and discuss how a mixed qualitative research method was applied for analyzing maternal and child health policies in Malawi. For the purposes of this article, we do not report research findings; instead we focus our dicussion on the methodology of the study and draw lessons for policy analysis research work. We base our disusssion on our experiences from a study in which we analyzed maternal and child health policies in Malawi over the period from 1964 to 2008. Noting the multifaceted nature of maternal and child health policies, we adopted a mixed qualitative research method, whereby a number of data collection methods were employed. This approach allowed for the capturing of different perspectives of maternal and child health policies in Malawi and for strengthening of the weaknesses of each method, especially in terms of data validity. This research suggested that the multidimensional nature of maternal and child health policies, like other health policies, calls for a combination of research designs as well as a variety of methods of data collection and analysis. In addition, we suggest that, as an emerging research field, health policy analysis will benefit more from case study designs because they provide rich experiences in the actual policy context.

  14. Adult Education as Public Policy: A Perspective from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Carlos Alberto

    1988-01-01

    Discusses policies concerning adult education which have been designed and carried out in Latin America. Contends that the adult basic education policy does not provide the clientele with better tools to face the challenges of society. Calls for an understanding of the inner rationality of adult education programs. (KO)

  15. Review of Australian Higher Education: An Australian Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Higher education is one of the key foundations that economic prosperity is founded upon. Government policies, funding and strategic planning require a fine balance to stimulate growth, prosperity health and well-being. The key Australian government policies influenced by a Review of Australian Higher Education report include attracting many more…

  16. Tradeoffs in Examination Policies: An International Comparative Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noah, Harold J.; Eckstein, Max A.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on recent changes in examination policy and practice in China, England and Wales, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Sweden, the United States, and the Soviet Union. Identifies and discusses some significant trade-offs arising from the implementation of examination policy. Discusses four nearly universal dilemmas of…

  17. Danish Cultural Policy in a European and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Danish Cultural policy is undergoing a series of transformations with regard to legislation, culture efficiency of the policy organization and financing, the status and rolle og teh arms length principle, the autonomy and role of arts and culture in society and the weights of different paradigms...

  18. Contrasting perspectives on China's rare earths policies: Reframing the debate through a stakeholder lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes-Labruto, Leslie; Schillebeeckx, Simon J.D.; Workman, Mark; Shah, Nilay

    2013-01-01

    This article critically compares China's rare earth policy with perspectives upheld in the rest of the world (ROW). We introduce rare earth elements and their importance for energy and present how China and the ROW are framing the policy debate. We find strongly dissonant views with regards to motives for foreign direct investment, China's two-tiered pricing structure and its questionable innovation potential. Using the metaphor of “China Inc.”, we compare the Chinese government to a socially responsible corporation that aims to balance the needs of its internal stakeholders with the demands from a resource-dependent world. We find that China's internal stakeholders have more power and legitimacy in the REE debate than the ROW and reconceptualise various possible mitigation strategies that could change current international policy and market dynamics. As such, we aim to reframe the perspectives that seem to govern the West and argue in favor of policy formation that explicitly acknowledges China's triple bottom line ambitions and encourages the ROW to engage with China in a more nuanced manner. - Highlights: • Very different perspectives persist regarding China's rare earth policies. • Scarcity, substitutability and uncertainty drive the divergent perspectives. • We compare China to a socially responsible corporation, “China Inc.”. • China's internal stakeholders have higher salience than ROW. • We propose and reframe policy mitigation strategies

  19. Spent nuclear fuel policies in historical perspective: An international comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegselius, Per

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explain why the world's nuclear power countries differ from each other with respect to their spent nuclear fuel (SNF) policies. The emergence and evolution of three principal SNF approaches are analyzed: direct disposal, reprocessing and SNF export. Five broad explanatory factors are identified and discussed in relation to the observed differences in policy outcomes: military ambitions and non-proliferation, technological culture, political culture and civil society, geological conditions, and energy policy. SNF policy outcomes can generally be seen to result from a complex interaction between these broad factors, but it is also possible to discern a number of important patterns. To the extent that the five factors may undergo far-reaching changes in the future, the historical experience of how they have shaped SNF policies also give a hint of possible future directions in SNF policymaking around the world

  20. Leaving Employment to Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    : the relative inattention paid to other human resources beyond the founder, and the hetero-geneous context where employee startups may be established. We use a rich matched employer-employee dataset for Portugal, and estimate a multi-stage model addressing the issues of self-selection in entrepreneurship...... outcomes of arrival fi rms, and also for developing theories on labor markets for entrepreneurship. It also constitutes an important step towards unpacking the mechanisms through which mobile human capital affects the performance of receiving firms....

  1. Entrepreneurship as institutional change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Toke; Lauring, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper responds to calls to make more explicit linkages between institutional theory and entrepreneurship research through studies on how entrepreneurs navigate and work with institutions. The research examines the micro-strategies and activities through which small-scale entrepreneurs maneuver...... contradictions engage simultaneously in practices of maintaining and changing institutions to establish a balance between the poles on which their ventures depend. We illustrate this by two cases of small-scale entrepreneurship bridging institutional contradictions from an ethnographic study conducted under...

  2. Innovation meets entrepreneurship

    CERN Multimedia

    Andrew Purcell

    2015-01-01

    On Thursday 26 November, CERN openlab hosted an event on innovation and entrepreneurship. It was organised in collaboration with the CERN Knowledge Transfer Group and IdeaSquare.   Attended by 80 people, the event featured talks on commercialisation, public-private partnership, intellectual property, and other related topics. The participants also had the opportunity to discuss their own business ideas one-to-one with invited experts, who provided tailored advice. The event was supported by CERN openlab partner company Intel as part of a joint project on innovation and entrepreneurship. More information about the event is available here.

  3. Perspective of nuclear power policy change and trend of nuclear industry activities from energy policy of European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoko; Matsuo, Yuji; Nagatomi, Yu

    2009-01-01

    European countries of nuclear power phase-out have changed to commit to the future of nuclear energy due to the intended low-carbon power, the energy security concerns and the need of replacement reactors as current reactors approach the end of operating lives, as Italian government has passed legislation to build new nuclear power plants. This article described the perspective of nuclear power policy changes in UK, Italy an Sweden and the business trend and the SWOT analysis of related electric utilities (EDF, Enel and Vattenfall) and nuclear industries (Areva NP, Sheffield Forgemasters, ENSA and Studsvik). Policy implications obtained from this analysis were commented for Japanese nuclear industry activities. (T. Tanaka)

  4. Domestic petroleum product pricing policy: Old issues in new perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    It appears that the economic basis of domestic petroleum product pacing has, hitherto, received inadequate attention from economists. International comparisons of petroleum product pricing show that domestic markets are highly distorted This article argues that despite significant developments in theoretical and applied economics, economic theories do not provide any ready made solutions for energy pricing issues to the policy makers who have to deal with a large set of practical issues. As a result, it is not unusual to encounter gross misapplication of economic rules in petroleum pricing policies. This work also focuses on the possible effects of changing domestic market structure vis-a-vis pricing policies

  5. Collaboration in public policy and practice: perspectives on boundary spanners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Paul

    2012-01-01

    .... It will be of interest to academics, researchers and students interested in this field of study, and provides learning for policy makers and practitioners active in the fields of collaboration...

  6. Abortion politics: public policy in cross-cultural perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stetson, Dorothy M; Githens, Marianne

    1996-01-01

    " ... focuses on current abortion policy and practice in the United States, Canada, Europe, and Japan and aims to provide a comprehensive, stimulating, and balanced picture of current abortion politics...

  7. JSC “ALFA-BANK” marketing policy. problems and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, A.; Kuznetcova, E.; Martirosian, M.

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the results of JSC “Alfa-Bank” consumers’ segmentation and the following complex marketing research. The article suggests the ways of the bank’s marketing policy improvement.

  8. Automated Vehicle Policy and Regulation: A State Perspective Workshop: Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Levine, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A workshop held on May 18, 2016, at the University of Maryland focused on key principles that should govern state policy decisions intended to ensure the safe operation of autonomous vehicles (AVs). The patchwork approach taken by early state adopters had primarily addressed only testing of these vehicles. As uncertainties in technology and business models play out, and in the absence of more suitable policies and regulations, states are relying on laws created for conventional vehicles to govern AV operations. The workshop addressed these challenges with three panel discussions that examined the underpinnings of policy development, factors affecting policy decisions, and the ultimate impact of AVs in a number of areas, including economic competitiveness; quality of mobility, particularly for disabled community; and energy use and emissions.

  9. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article reviews new research on this topic, emphasizing how it can inform policy debates about the role of marriage in reducing poverty and improving child out...

  10. Policies to sustain the nursing workforce: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, J; Twigg, D; Dussault, G; Duffield, C; Stone, P W

    2015-06-01

    Examine metrics and policies regarding nurse workforce across four countries. International comparisons inform health policy makers. Data from the OECD were used to compare expenditure, workforce and health in: Australia, Portugal, the United Kingdom (UK) and the United States (US). Workforce policy context was explored. Public spending varied from less than 50% of gross domestic product in the US to over 80% in the UK. Australia had the highest life expectancy. Portugal has fewer nurses and more physicians. The Australian national health workforce planning agency has increased the scope for co-ordinated policy intervention. Portugal risks losing nurses through migration. In the UK, the economic crisis resulted in frozen pay, reduced employment, and reduced student nurses. In the US, there has been limited scope to develop a significant national nursing workforce policy approach, with a continuation of State based regulation adding to the complexity of the policy landscape. The US is the most developed in the use of nurses in advanced practice roles. Ageing of the workforce is likely to drive projected shortages in all countries. There are differences as well as variation in the overall impact of the global financial crisis in these countries. Future supply of nurses in all four countries is vulnerable. Work force planning is absent or restricted in three of the countries. Scope for improved productivity through use of advanced nurse roles exists in all countries. © 2015 International Council of Nurses.

  11. Electricity consumption, industrial production, and entrepreneurship in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Sizhong; Anwar, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    Within the context of a tri-variate vector autoregressive framework that includes entrepreneurship, this paper examines the link between electricity consumption and industrial production in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Unlike the existing studies, this paper focuses on one sector of the economy and utilises a unique monthly dataset. Empirical analysis based on Johansen's cointegration approach shows that the three variables are cointegrated – i.e., a stable long-run relationship exists among electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship in Singapore's manufacturing sector. Empirical analysis based on data from January 1983 to February 2014 reveals that electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to industrial production and entrepreneurship. Furthermore, entrepreneurship Granger causes electricity consumption, which causes industrial production. As electricity consumption causes industrial output, the growth hypothesis concerning energy consumption and economic growth holds in Singapore's manufacturing sector and policies that restrict electricity production, without electricity imports, are likely to lead to a decline in the manufacturing output. - Highlights: • Using a unique monthly dataset, we focus on Singapore's manufacturing sector. • Electricity consumption, output and entrepreneurship are cointegrated. • Electricity consumption adjusts very slowly to shocks to the other variables. • Entrepreneurship causes electricity consumption which causes industrial production. • We find that growth hypothesis governs the electricity consumption and real output

  12. Evidence of Opportunity and Necessity Driven Entrepreneurship in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Garba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to examine the influence of poverty, unemployment and GDP on entrepreneurship. Time series data for 31 years was collected from various official sources for the analysis. Vector autoregressive (VAR framework was adopted to systematically capture the rich dynamic of multiple time series. Other tests conducted were unit root test, Johansen and Juselius (1990 co-integration test, Granger causality and dynamic model analysis beyond the sample. It was found that poverty and GDP influence entrepreneurship negatively, while unemployment influences entrepreneurship positively. The paper reveals the presence of both opportunity and necessity driven entrepreneurs in the country. There is a need for the government to revisit the existing policy on micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs to adequately address the problem of the poor and unemployed by availing them with the opportunity to engage in entrepreneurship. Future study should consider mitigating the effect of frequent entry and exit from entrepreneurship in their data to correctly predict the effect of entrepreneurship on the economy.

  13. The role of entrepreneurship in economic development in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Yusuf

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of key objectives of modern economics is to determine factors that influence the economic development. This paper, therefore, seeks to discuss entrepreneurship as one of the factors that influence the economy of a nation, either directly or indirectly. It is a fact that entrepreneurship plays a significant part in shaping the landscape of a country’s economy. Economists and policy makers recognize this fact. In fact, entrepreneurship is the engine of economic growth and it has come to be perceived as a catalytic agent for expansion and promotion of productive activities in every sphere of global economy life. This research will focus on finding out how entrepreneurship influences the economy of Saudi Arabia. The paper will begin with a brief introduction of the topic before proceeding to present a comprehensive review of literature relevant to the topic. It will then proceed to present an overview of relevant variables used in determining the role played by entrepreneurship in the economy of Saudi Arabia. There will then follow a discussion on the disadvantages of entrepreneurship to the economy. The paper will end with a conclusion summarizing all the keys points discussed, research limitations, and recommendations for further research.

  14. The Brazilian policy for reduction of accidents and violence aligns with international perspectives?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Namie Sakata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed The Brazilian Policy for Reduction of Morbidity and Mortality from Accidents and Violence, in the socio-political perspective. We used as a base the chapter “Violence: a global public health problem” from the World Report on Violence and Health. The analysis revealed convergent and divergent elements of the Brazilian Policy in comparison with the international perspectives. We verified that the Brazilian Policy tried to converge to the international policies, however: it emphasizes the health promotion actions, but are limited to the context and behavior of individuals and individual communities; the performance of health professionals is expected without providing more structural investments, as the improvement in work conditions, the increase of financial and material resources; there are few clear definitions of the government and economical sector responsibilities.

  15. International Entrepreneurship: Value Creation Across National Borders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.A. Hessels (Jolanda)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis book investigates antecedents and outcomes of international entrepreneurship. International entrepreneurship as a field of research involves both research into entrepreneurship in multiple countries (cross-country comparisons of the nature and extent of entrepreneurial activity) and

  16. Entrepreneurship as a Social Journey of Opportunity Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Suna; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2004-01-01

    models view is linked to a ?Semi-structured Journey?. We introduce an alternative complementary perspective, being Symbolic Interactionism, from which the idea of entrepreneurship as a ?Social Journey of Opportunity Construction? arises. This introduction results in the proposal that we as researchers...

  17. Language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries: A recontextualization perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Vesa Peltokorpi; Eero Vaara

    2012-01-01

    This study adopts a recontextualization perspective on language policies and practices in wholly owned foreign subsidiaries. Drawing on a field study of 101 subsidiaries in Japan, we develop a contingency model that distinguishes between four different types of recontextualization with characteristic language policies and practices: developing/locally adaptive, developing/globally integrated, established/locally adaptive, and established/globally integrated. Our analysis shows how each of the...

  18. Building a Culture of Health Informatics Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A New Frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa; Alshammari, Riyad; Almutairi, Mariam; Jamal, Amr; Alshoaib, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Entrepreneurship and innovation within the health informatics (HI) scientific community are relatively sluggish when compared to other disciplines such as computer science and engineering. Healthcare in general, and specifically, the health informatics scientific community needs to embrace more innovative and entrepreneurial practices. In this paper, we explore the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship as they apply to the health informatics scientific community. We also outline several strategies to improve the culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within the health informatics scientific community such as: (I) incorporating innovation and entrepreneurship in health informatics education; (II) creating strong linkages with industry and healthcare organizations; (III) supporting national health innovation and entrepreneurship competitions; (IV) creating a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship within healthcare organizations; (V) developing health informatics policies that support innovation and entrepreneurship based on internationally recognized standards; and (VI) develop an health informatics entrepreneurship ecosystem. With these changes, we conclude that embracing health innovation and entrepreneurship may be more readily accepted over the long-term within the health informatics scientific community.

  19. Does farmer entrepreneurship alleviate rural poverty in China? Evidence from Guangxi Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jincai

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, entrepreneurship has been gaining more prominence as a potential tool for solving poverty in developing countries. This paper mainly examines the relationship between farmer entrepreneurship and rural poverty alleviation in China by assessing the contribution of farm entrepreneurs towards overcoming poverty. Data were collected from 309 employees of farmer entrepreneurships in Guangxi Province through survey questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to conduct an analysis of the effects of three identified capabilities of farm entrepreneurs—economic, educational and knowledge, and socio-cultural capabilities—on attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth and the qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship and how these in turn affect rural poverty, using AMOS 21. The findings show that socio-cultural capability has the greatest influence on farmer entrepreneurship growth (β = 0.50, p<0.001). The qualitative growth of farmer entrepreneurship also more significantly impacts rural poverty (β = 0.69, p<0.001) than attitude towards farmer entrepreneurship growth. This study suggests that policy makers in China should involve more rural farmers in the targeted poverty alleviation strategies of the government by equipping rural farmers with entrepreneurial skills. This can serve as a sustainable, bottom-up approach to alleviating rural poverty in remote areas of the country. The study also extends the literature on the farmer entrepreneurship-rural poverty alleviation nexus in China, and this can serve as a lesson for other developing countries in the fight against rural poverty. PMID:29596517

  20. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  1. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  2. Perspective: Improving nutritional guidelines for sustainable health policies: Current status and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magni, Paolo; Bier, Dennis M; Pecorelli, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    a constructive coalition among scientists, policy makers, and communication professionals for sustainable health and nutritional policies. Currently, a strong rationale and available data support a personalized dietary approach according to personal variables, including sex and age, circulating metabolic...

  3. Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    business concept, reorganization, and the introduction of system-wide changes for innovation. (p.63) Hornsby et al. (2002). Corporate entrepreneurship centers on re-energ1zmg and enhancing the ability of a firm to acquire innovative skills and capabilities (p.255). Analysis of the definitions given by different authors ...

  4. Entrepreneurship as translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    2011-01-01

    Entrepreneurship scholars argue that opportunities are at the heart of entrepreneurial activity. Yet, there is still a heated debate on the nature of opportunities. The discovery view argues that opportunities are discovered and have objective existence prior to the entrepreneurial process. The c....... In this paper, Actor-Network Theory is used to develop the creation view and further our understanding of entrepreneurial processes....

  5. The Ethics of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann Starbæk; Svane, Marita Susanna; Jørgensen, Kenneth Mølbjerg

    Based upon the writings of Arendt, Butler and Bakhtin we propose an ethics of entrepreneurship in which the concepts of precarity, action and answerability to the world are central. We argue that the governing condition of entrepreneurship is precarity, which is described as a situation of insecu......Based upon the writings of Arendt, Butler and Bakhtin we propose an ethics of entrepreneurship in which the concepts of precarity, action and answerability to the world are central. We argue that the governing condition of entrepreneurship is precarity, which is described as a situation...... of insecurity, uncertainty and exposure. This condition is more outspoken for entrepreneurs as they act situations where they—more than other people—have to establish or change relations and alliances in order to persist and establish a sustainable business. Entrepreneurs are the embodied characters of new...... beginners, which for Arendt were so important for transformation and change. But new beginnings are always fragile and rely on the support from others in order to persist. Hence entrepreneurial ethics cannot simply be a question of the entrepreneur’s relationship to herself but instead how she relates...

  6. The Institutionalization of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayolle, Alain; Landström, Hans; Gartner, Bill

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we briefly identify three main challenges/issues that should be taken into consideration in the institutionalization of entrepreneurship research: (1) recognizing the complexity of the phenomenon under study; (2) producing interesting, relevant and useful research results for all...

  7. Entrepreneurship by the Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamien, Morton I.

    2008-01-01

    The history of invention and innovation makes clear the importance of entrepreneurship as a driver of economic growth. This is especially important today, when we face the twin challenges of developing new economic energy sources while avoiding the threat of global warming. Thus, it is essential that we provide potential entrepreneurs access to…

  8. Interdisciplinary Dimensions in Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenburg, Nancy M.; Lane, Paul M.; Schwarz, Thomas V.

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship programs and courses are offered by many business schools to support students who aspire to start, own, and operate businesses. Although these offerings are directed primarily toward business majors, based on data the authors collected from over 700 students, many nonbusiness majors also possess entrepreneurial characteristics and…

  9. Fostering Corporate Entrepreneurship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Corporate entrepreneurship is a powerful source for change and innovation, fostering creativity and a constant search for ... creating new businesses in established companies through product and process innovations and ... The innovation of products, services and processes and the formation of new business enterprises.

  10. Entrepreneurship by Alliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Krug (Barbara); J. Mehta

    2001-01-01

    textabstractRecent years have seen the introduction of markets and a system of private property rights in China with a view to changing the composition of production and demand and enhancing welfare. Central to the success of these reforms is the rise of entrepreneurship with its potential to set

  11. The Abject of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaison, Lena; Meier Sørensen, Bent

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: – Failure as an integral part of the entrepreneurial process has recently become a hot topic. The purpose of this paper is to review this debate as expressed both in research on entrepreneurship and in the public discourse, in order to understand what kind of failure is being incorporate...

  12. Entrepreneurship Development Centre (EDC)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    Entrepreneurship Development Centre (EDC). University of Calabar, Calabar. Title of book: Issues in development: leadership, education and religion ... entry examinations and the essence of education. Chapter three: Religion and development. This chapter is composed of six sections: parenting; behaviour and religion;.

  13. Policy Trends Impacting Community Colleges: An ECS Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponsler, Brian A.; Pingel, Sarah; Anderson, Lexi

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of community and technical colleges to state education attainment and workforce development goals, policy addressing the two-year sector is of critical importance to state policymakers. Analysis of legislative issue trends suggests transfer and articulation, performance-based funding, and financial aid programs are substantial…

  14. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  15. Colonization and English Ideologies in India: A Language Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Usree

    2017-01-01

    A language policy document on English teaching asserted that in India, "the colonial origins [of English are] now forgotten or irrelevant" (NCERT 2006: 1). Using data obtained in the course of a longitudinal ethnographic investigation into the language and literacy practices of young multilingual boys living at an "anathashram"…

  16. Marriage and Child Well-Being: Research and Policy Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, the linkages between marriage and child well-being have attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers alike. Children's living arrangements have become increasingly diverse and unstable, which raises important questions about how and why family structure and stability are related to child outcomes. This article…

  17. A state perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stucker, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author discusses the problems he sees with the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) program. He labels the problems as: against the law, all the eggs in one basket, acceptance rate, and the MRS program. The author comments of five issues that need to be addressed to right the wrongs of the NWPA program

  18. A Critical Perspective of Contemporary Unemployment Policy and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Medvide, Mary Beth; Wan, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the challenges of unemployment via the lens of critical psychology. The conventional discourse on unemployment is critiqued, revealing ways in which conventional policies and practices serve to further marginalize the lives of the unemployed and impede the development of ethical, effective, and empathic individual…

  19. Higher-Education Policies and Welfare Regimes: International Comparative Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechar, Hans; Andres, Lesley

    2011-01-01

    All Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries have experienced an unprecedented expansion in higher education during the second half of the twentieth century. This was only possible because higher education became part of national welfare policies. OECD countries differ, however, with respect to the significance of…

  20. Academic Freedom and University Autonomy: A Higher Education Policy Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Kai; Li, Jun

    2013-01-01

    This article reflects upon three seminal articles published in "Higher Education Policy" ("HEP") on academic freedom and university autonomy. The reflections indicate that "HEP" research contributes to a sophisticated and systematic understanding of the complexity of academic freedom, addressing both the original…

  1. A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective on Innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2017-01-01

    It is argued that innovation policy based on notions of market failure or system failure is too limited in the context of current societal challenges. I propose a third, complexity-theoretic approach. This approach starts from the observation that most innovations are related to existing activities,

  2. A Complexity-Theoretic Perspective on Innovation Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that innovation policy based on notions of market failure or system failure is too limited in the context of current societal challenges. I propose a third, complexity-theoretic approach. This approach starts from the observation that most innovations are related to existing activities,

  3. Small Entrepreneurship and Entrepreneurial Activity of Population in Russia in the Context of the Economic Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chepurenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    "Kleinunternehmen und Grundungsaktivitaten in Russland im Zuge des Transformationsprozesses". The paper deals with the main stages of private (small) entrepreneurship (SME) development and changing approaches to the SME policy in Russia under the systemic transition. The author argues that the

  4. MEDIA ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A CONSENSUAL DEFINITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DATIS KHAJEHEIAN

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Media Entrepreneurship has been an ambiguous, unclear and controversial concept and despite of growing academic efforts in the last decade, it is still a poorly defined subject. This paper is an effort to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive definition of media entrepreneurship. Firstly, a literature review conducted and entrepreneurship, media, opportunity and innovation as building blocks of media entrepreneurship explained. Then by using of a mixed of bibliographic method and a Delphi method with multi-stage analysis process, a consensual definition of media entrepreneurship proposed. This definition integrates some key features of the emerging media environment such as distinction of content and platform, value delivery, opportunity development, non-monetary benefit, etc. It is expected that the findings of this research clear the ground for further researches in the field of media entrepreneurship.

  5. On Provocation, Education and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This essay develops an affect-based theory of entrepreneurial entrepreneurship education, something we summarise in a model of provocation-based entrepreneurial entrepreneurship education (the E3 model). Taking its starting point in an anecdote that illustrates the importance of provocation...... in processes of learning entrepreneurship, this article responds to previous calls for less economised entrepreneurship education focusing on its creative-relational nature. An affect-based theory of E3 brings together provocation, deterritorialisation (uprooting) and decoding/imagination, which calls for both...... critique and creativity, and resonates with appreciations of paralogy as driver in learning processes. The implications of this conceptual model of learning entrepreneurship entrepreneurially are discussed, with particular focus on the role of the pedagogue and on the future of learning entrepreneurship....

  6. On the Origins of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindquist, Matthew J.; Sol, Joeri; Van Praag, Mirjam

    , neighborhoods, shared genes and financial resources help explain these high correlations, whereas immigration status, family structure and sibling peer effects have a limited contribution. The higher correlation for incorporated versus unincorporated entrepreneurship is explained mainly by the type of parental......We assess the broad importance of family and community background for entrepreneurship outcomes. We go beyond traditional, intergenerational associations by estimating sibling correlations in unincorporated and incorporated entrepreneurship using register data from Sweden. Sibling correlations...... range from 20% to 50%. They are consistently higher for more committed and incorporated entrepreneurship than for less committed or unincorporated entrepreneurship; they are also higher for brothers than sisters. We then assess what factors drive these correlations: parental entrepreneurship...

  7. Discussion: Towards an Educational Perspective in CLIL Language Policy and Pedagogical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenoz, Jasone

    2013-01-01

    This issue includes eight studies on different aspects of language policy, pedagogical practices, and teacher training in school contexts where a foreign language is used to teach curricular content (CLIL). This is a very welcome contribution because it provides additional perspectives to former studies that had focused on the linguistic outcomes…

  8. A Cognitive Perspective on Policy Implementation : Reform Beliefs, Sensemaking, and Social Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siciliano, Michael D.; Moolenaar, Nienke M.; Daly, Alan J.; Liou, Yi Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Utilizing a cognitive perspective, this article examines the social processes through which teachers come to understand the Common Core State Standards. The authors begin by identifying three beliefs that have important implications for policy implementation: self-efficacy, resource adequacy, and

  9. An analysis of trends and perspectives of U.S.'s nuclear policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B. W.; Lee, K. S.; Oh, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the trends and perspectives of U.S.'s nuclear polices. With the changing of the administration of U.S., certain changes in nuclear policies are foreseen under Bush's new administration. Considering the traditional basis of republicans, somewhat positive impacts on nuclear R and D and nuclear power program are expected

  10. Policy and participant perspectives on the drop-out problem in secondary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Rasmussen, Palle

    In this paper we compare the way the drop-out problem in secondary education is constructed in Danish official and public policy discourse with the way it is experiences and interpreted by young people trying to get an education. As regards the student's perspective we will use interviews...

  11. Stakeholder Perspectives on Policies to Support Family Caregivers of Older Adults with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Michelle; Pickard, Joseph G.; Rodriguez, Carroll; Shear, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Persons with dementia are often excluded from consumer-directed home- and community-based service programs because they cannot direct their own care. Surrogates are permitted in some states, thereby allowing program participation. This study explored family caregiver perspectives on policies that support family needs related to providing care to…

  12. Principal Perspectives about Policy Components and Practices for Reducing Cyberbullying in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunley-Jenkins, Keisha Janine

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study explores large, urban, mid-western principal perspectives about cyberbullying and the policy components and practices that they have found effective and ineffective at reducing its occurrence and/or negative effect on their schools' learning environments. More specifically, the researcher was interested in learning more…

  13. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-01-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  14. Discussing dialogue: perspectives on the value of science dialogue events that do not inform policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; McCallie, Ellen; Simonsson, Elin

    2009-01-01

    While theoretical work and empirical research have examined science policy-informing "dialogue events," dialogue events that do not seek to inform public policy are under-theorized and under-researched, even though they are common and growing in popularity in the UK. We describe how, from...... a critical perspective, it may initially appear that such events cannot be justified without returning to the deficit model. But with this paper, we seek to open up a discussion about these non policy-informing events by arguing that there are in fact further ways to understand and frame them. We...

  15. Enabling sustainable urban road transport in China: A policy and institutional perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Hu, Xiaojun

    2003-07-01

    The paper is an effort to investigate the approach to sustainable urban road transport in Chinese mega cities with an emphasis on policy and institutional perspectives. The study links the major ''unsustainabilities'' of China's urban road transport with those deficiencies in urban road transport planning and management and China's auto industry policy and gives some suggestions and recommendations for policy change and adjustment. The paper also provides some examples of successful experiences from foreign cities in urban road transport development from which Chinese cities can learn. (Author)

  16. Entrepreneurship and Gamification in Professional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalice Botelho Pinto

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the theoretical perspective of Sociodiscursive Interactionism (Bronckart, 1999, 2008 and its goal is to demonstrate, through some competencial figures (PINTO, 2015 empirically identified, the importance of the use of serious games and the gamification for the development of these figures. It is through the linguistic configuration of the different ways of interpreting entrepreneurial acting, according to the various references, that one will be able to define what is considered to be competencial figures related to entrepreneurship. In this way, we support the idea that there are groups of specific linguistic configurations which may portray different ways of thinking and interpret entrepreneurship, according with referential diversity. For our analysis, we carried out transcriptions of debates of ideas on the theme of entrepreneurship done by 1st year graduate students whom were integrated in Portuguese public and private private universities in different faculties. The results indicate that the interpretation of the entrepreneurial acting may present different ‘tonalities’ depending on the social activity to which the acting is linked to.

  17. ENTREPRENEURSHIP TRAINING AND CAPACITY BUILDING OF GHANAIAN POLYTECHNIC GRADUATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edem M. Azila-Gbettor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the suitability of the content and pedagogy of Ghanaian polytechnic syllabus in developing able and confident entrepreneur’s mindset of polytechnic graduates. Based on a survey of 750 final year students, the paper explores curriculum coverage of entrepreneurship syllabus, teaching and learning methods and emphasis and respondents capacity to start a business.The results indicated weaker link between the entrepreneurship development course of the polytechnic and preparedness of graduates to create businesses, at least from the student perspective which may be largely due to the teaching and learning methods.

  18. THE ROLE OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT IN THE PROCESS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Skica

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the role of local governments in supporting entrepreneurship development. The content of the article presents the factors which foster activities undertaken by local authorities to promote entrepreneurship and also shows different considerations of when the supporting instruments are in use. The article is also an assessment of current activities of local governments in the sphere of supporting business initiatives. It indicates potential of possible changes in local policy on supporting entrepreneurship. The article sets out areas of possible improvements in policy when stimulating economic activity by local authorities. It addresses the improvements of the objective restrictions which are laid out by the existing legal framework.

  19. Corporate income taxes and entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Block, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Corporate income taxation influences the quantity and type of entrepreneurship, which in turn affects economic development. Empirical evidence shows that higher corporate income tax rates reduce business density and entrepreneurship entry rates and increase the capital size of new firms. The progressivity of tax rates increases entrepreneurship entry rates, whereas highly complex tax codes reduce them. Policymakers should understand the effects and underlying mechanisms that determine how cor...

  20. The Microtheory of Innovative Entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    William J. Baumol

    2013-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are widely recognised for the vital contributions they make to economic growth and general welfare, yet until fairly recently entrepreneurship was not considered worthy of serious economic study. Today, progress has been made to integrate entrepreneurship into macroeconomics but, until now the entrepreneurhas almost completely been excluded from microeconomics and standard theoretical models of the firm.«The Microtheory of Innovative Entrepreneurship» provides a framework for in...

  1. The social dimensions of entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of "personality characteristics" or in sterile economic terms. In closing, the paper addresses implications for practitioners and for research. Udgivelsesdato: AUG......This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...

  2. Elements that contribute to boost female entrepreneurship: A prospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Ortiz García

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify what environmental modulators elements favor and contribute to enhance female entrepreneurship from a gender perspective. The qualitative study draws on 10 interviews in depth after being tested on their contents, from a relational perspective, allow a set of conclusions and recommendations that contribute to the empowerment of women entrepreneurs figure. The results highlight the importance of social support and comprehensive training in creating a culture that promotes and makes visible the role of women entrepreneurs.

  3. Security Policies from a Spatial Perspective: the Case of Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lirio del Carmen Gutiérrez Rivera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Public insecurity became a central issue for many Hondurans in the late 1990s, as crime, delinquency and homicide increased significantly in the isthmus. Honduras had the second highest homicide rate (35.1 per 100,000 in the region after El Salvador (50.2. per 100,000 . This social violence triggered insecurity and fear, which was further accompanied by the overall perception that the state was unable of relieving or protecting the population. This article looks at the failed attempts of the Honduran state to stop social violence and to control youth gang expansion by focusing on the security policies Cero Tolerancia (Zero Tolerance, Mano Dura (Iron Fist and the Ley Antimaras (Anti-Gang Law. It understands security policies as territorial strategies that attempt to reduce social violence and impose control.

  4. NGO and industry perspectives on energy and climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hornung, R.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlighted the clear contradiction between projected business as usual energy development in Canada and its climate change commitments. It was cautioned that these contradictions can only be resolved by actively incorporating climate change considerations into energy policies and by making efforts to promote energy efficiency and investment in renewable energy technologies. Canada's commitments to the Kyoto Protocol seem to be inconsistent with the ongoing policy of exporting greater amounts of oil and gas to the United States. In the short-term, the author advocates the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol and supports the debate on how the cost of meeting greenhouse gas commitments should be distributed, and how they can be minimized

  5. What Should Guide Health Policy? A Perspective Beyond Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Darrell G; Ast, Cori

    2017-09-01

    As the U.S. electorate has become increasingly polarized, these divisions are poised to shape legislative and regulatory work in the years ahead. For those whose focus is on the public goods of health care for all, the advancement of science through rigorous research, and the contribution of higher education to the continual improvement of the nation's workforce, there is profound uncertainty about the future. There are several pressing questions facing the nation and academic medicine, including the future of affordable, accessible insurance; acceptance of scientific evidence; sustainable learning and teaching methodologies; and the well-being and preparation of the nation's health workforce to care for an increasingly diverse nation. For those in academic medicine and policy making alike, the authors propose a framework, grounded in scientific evidence and guided by clinical ethics, for designing and evaluating health policy solutions for these and other pressing questions.

  6. Realities and Perspectives on the European Regional Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin NECULITA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available EU expansion to 27 Member States has posed challenges in terms of its competitiveness and internal cohesion. The already existing disparities between the Member States and among their regions have deepened. These disparities are generated by the structural deficiencies in key factors of competitiveness, i.e. inadequate staff with physical and human capital (infrastructure and workforce, insufficient capacity for innovation, business support and low level of environmental capital (natural environment and / or urban pollution. The purpose of the cohesion policy is to reduce disparities between EU regions. Therefore in order to achieve this goal of the cohesion policy, the Member States and regions need significant financial help to solve various structural problems and achieve their potential of growth.

  7. Peritoneal dialysis-first policy made successful: perspectives and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Philip Kam-tao; Chow, Kai Ming

    2013-11-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) represents an important but underused strategy for patients who are beginning dialysis treatment worldwide. The development of a health care model that encourages increased use of PD is hampered by a lack of expertise and absence of pragmatic strategies. This article provides a brief review of a PD-first initiative that was implemented in Hong Kong more than 25 years ago and issues related to this policy. Clinical studies and research by the authors' and other teams around the world have shown evidence that, as a home-based dialysis therapy, PD can improve patient survival, retain residual kidney function, lower infection risk, and increase patient satisfaction while reducing financial stress to governments by addressing the burden of managing the growing number of patients with end-stage renal disease. Achieving a successful PD-first policy requires understanding inherent patient factors, selecting patients carefully, and improving technique-related factors by training physicians, nurses, patients, and caregivers better. Dialysis centers have the important role of fostering expertise and experience in PD patient management. Dialysis reimbursement policy also can be helpful in providing sufficient incentives for choosing PD. However, despite successes in improving patient survival, PD treatment has limitations, notably the shortcoming of technique failure. Potential strategies to and challenges of implementing a PD-first policy globally are discussed in this review. We highlight 3 important elements of a successful PD-first program: nephrologist experience and expertise, peritoneal dialysis catheter access, and psychosocial support for PD patients. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspective on the current realities confronting Canadian energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oulton, D.

    1993-01-01

    The importance of the Canadian energy sector is indicated by the large proportion of energy investments in the economy, the significant contribution of energy exports to total exports, the major role of the energy sector in Canada's regional economies, the high per-capita energy consumption, and the high contribution of fossil fuels to Canadian greenhouse gas emissions. The history of Canadian energy policy is characterized by three relatively distinct periods: a period of strong growth and development in the energy sector starting in the late 1940s, a crisis management period starting with the oil crises in the 1970s, and a market orientation in the early 1980s which reduced the role of government in the energy sector. Energy policy has generally focused on two main themes: assuring access to competitively priced energy supplies, and ensuring maximum economic benefit from energy developments. A third theme, environmental responsibility, has emerged since the late 1980s. Current pressures on Canadian energy policies include the increasing integration of energy markets in North America, the influence of international conditions on energy prices, and environmental quality concerns relating to the costs and uncertainties of environmental assessment, climate change, and sustainable development. Further constraints and influences on energy policy come from multilateral agreements with other countries and international agencies, and the need for cooperation among the different levels of Canadian governments. Economic regulation has fallen out of favor with most governments, industry, and the public, and the increased use of regulation to pursue environmental goals in the energy sector seems likely to continue

  9. Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise - (Korean translation)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulgård, Lars; Spear, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge.......Korean translation of ”Social Entrepreneurship and Mobilisation of Social Capital in European Social Enterprise”, with Roger Spear. In Marthe Nyssens (ed.) Social Enterprises: between Market, Public Policies and Community. London: Routledge....

  10. Understanding Economic Evaluation: A Policy Perspective for Clinicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Giacomini

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhetoric of ‘efficiency’ frames much current debate about how limited health care resources should be used. Clinicians increasingly turn to economic evaluation literature to discern evidence-based claims of ‘efficiency’ or ‘cost effectiveness’ from empty ones. Economic evaluation research is designed to compare health services on the basis of their efficiency (eg, how well they produce health benefits relative to resource costs. Although economic studies appear throughout the respirology literature, relatively few are complete economic evaluations. Economic evaluation studies serve various purposes, including critical evaluation and persuasive marketing, which produce studies that vary in research agendas and scientific rigour. This paper is intended to serve clinicians and consumers of economic evaluation studies by: introducing economic evaluation research information as a policy making tool; describing the three basic elements and three basic types of economic evaluation (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness, and cost-utility analyses; and reviewing some limitations of economic evaluation information for policy decision making. The usefulness of economic evaluation research for policy making depends not only on the scientific merit of the analysis but also crucially on whose specific concerns the research questions address.

  11. PROBLEM AND PERSPECTIVE OF ISLAMIC MONETARY POLICY IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsuki Marsuki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article would try to explicate several theoretical and practical concepts on the problems and prospectsof Islamic monetary policy in Indonesia using a critical analysis approach, in accordance with standardscientific references, and would be complemented with descriptions and examples of practice. From theseillustrations and analyses, it appeared that on one hand, Islamic monetary policy would find many difficultiesif implemented fully, considering that there were several fundamental obstacles that would have to besurmounted by such an implementation, primarily the fact that Indonesian Constitution (UUD 1945 was notbased on Islamic law or syariah. On the other hand, despite problems and challenges, the existing conditionwas still open for the possibility for partial implementation of Islamic monetary policy. It was because therewere several conditions which were amenable for an implementation, for instance the facts that majority ofIndonesian population was Muslim, the increasing acceptance of the public for the advantages of Islamicmonetary and financial system, and increasing support by stakeholders of the banking system, especiallythe Indonesian central bank (BI. Moreover, there were facts about financial institutions and existingsyariah banking institutions.

  12. For a cyberspace information policy: advances, perspectives and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakeline Amparo Villota Enríquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is to describe and analyze the policies of information in cyberspace, both global and regionally, in different directions: programs, resolutions, and projects from the information sector. Likewise, an overview of the same is presented in the Latin American and Caribbean region. Through documentary analysis of the literature related to the topic, the article is based on a review of literature raised from scientific materials such as: books, thesis papers, dissertations, texts on internet sites and articles, resolutions, projects and decrees dealing with the same topic. As a result, cyberspace is conceptualized and its elements, dimensions, strategies and variations are characterized, by analyzing the information from cyberspace policy, based on the global stage to relate it, finally, to the region of Latin America and the Caribbean, with the idea of better addressing the problems. The cyberspace information policy experience a minor and slow process in the field of cyber war; resulting from the obstacle of international cooperation defined by the disparate ambitions of the State or region.

  13. The grand coalition's climate policy: retrospective and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bausch, C.; Gorlach, B.

    2008-01-01

    2007 was a year of exceptional importance for Germany, due to the dual presidency and the decision to declare climate change as one of the key issues for both the G8 and the EU Presidency. Supported by public and media interest, climate change was pushed to the top of the international political agenda, at a critical time in the development of the international climate regime. Germany was able to show profile and leadership in international climate policy and Europe was able to set a political agenda and decide on targets, which have shaped European policies and legislative proposals since then, and will continue to do so into the future. In Germany, the Meseberg programme is the main initiative aiming at the implementation of climate policy, while at the European level the heads of states have been able to agree on the widely discussed climate - energy package. The authors provide an overview of the measures taken and assess them in light of the EU self-imposed political targets

  14. Canada's energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Karen; Li, Xianguo

    2009-01-01

    A regression analysis is performed to make projections for the Canadian energy production and consumption. These have been increasing and are projected to increase even further in the near future. The primary energy production and consumption are projected to increase by 52% and 34%, respectively, by 2025 over 2004 if business as usual. The amount of fossil energy resources is finite and the extraction, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels cause environmental pollution and climate change. On the other hand, energy plays an important role in the economic and social development of Canada. Canada can develop further from an energy balance point of view, but this alone cannot be sustainable, because of the negative consequences of the major energy use on the environment. Application of energy localization and diversification is a promising solution, but in order to reach that, better energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy are necessary. Instead of non-compulsory policies Canada's policy approach should have more compulsory policies. Only then Canada can be made to develop further in a sustainable manner. (author)

  15. CULTURAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP STRATEGIES IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Tohidy Ardahaey

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This article initially deals with the concepts of entrepreneurship, cultural entrepreneurship and its importance in the field of culture. Then, identifying the factors of cultural entrepreneurshipstrategies, it offers some models for assessing cultural entrepreneurship strategies and benchmarking it. Afterwards, it tries to reform and standardize the presented model through questioning experts and elite of the profession. It is concluded that there is a significant difference between the mean ranks of the implementation factors of the entrepreneurship strategy which is detailed through the work.

  16. Perspective of energy policy in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, Kemal O.

    2004-01-01

    U.S. National Energy Policy encourages the expanded use of nuclear energy while emphasizing the need for improved safeguards and proliferation resistance. The National Energy Policy, published in May 2001 cites that 'The National Energy Policy Development (NEPD) Group recommends that the President support the expansion of nuclear energy in the United States as a major component of our national energy policy.' However, the U.S. policy also emphasizes that the expansion of nuclear energy must be supported by the development of advanced safeguards and more proliferation resistant technologies. U.S. energy policy promotes emission free energy that is sustainable and economically viable. Current carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere are approaching a record levels Of 380 ppm. It is widely believed that we are quickly approaching a 'carbon wall' when the concentrations reach somewhere between 450 ppm and 750 ppm. Further increases in CO 2 concentrations in the atmosphere are likely to result in serious changes in the atmosphere, even though the severity of the consequences may be debatable. Thus, to meet the growing energy demand worldwide, emission free energy sources are needed. At present, nuclear power is the only large-scale energy production technology that is economically competitive with fossil fuels. U.S. energy policy promotes the expansion of nuclear power while continuing research in 'renewable energy' forms. Meeting the growing energy demand of developing nations by clean energy forms is essential for world peace, prosperity and environmental integrity. Energy use will grow as developing countries achieve affluence. Affluence in developing countries will lead to more stable and peaceful world. Note that a world of 10 billion people consuming energy as US citizens do today would raise the world energy demand by 10 fold. Such a growth via the use of fossil fuel will result in resource shortfalls and regional conflicts, and serious environmental

  17. A Value-based Approach to Unspelling Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryshev Aleksey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur figure are social phenomena subjected to constant mutations. Extant definitions of entrepreneurship are always based on current characteristics of entrepreneur activity and, as a rule, absolutize them as essential. In the article main mystifications of entrepreneurship are analyzed due to the fact that it is attributed general properties of entrepreneurial activity in the way they are understood in a certain historical period. The paper suggests a way out of the succession of mystifications by rejecting the entrepreneurship definition in the frame of a subject-object interpretive scheme and the development of the entrepreneur activity concept as a kind of social activity. The social action theory and the theory of social objects fetishization are the methodological research foundation. The results of the research are the following. First, the interpretation of the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship on the basis of personal traits, functions and ways of the construction of the future are mystifications ascribing the monopoly on arising and developing human action characteristics in different historical periods to entrepreneurship. Second, the cause of mystifications is the transfer of the human action analysis according to the scheme «subject-process-object » to the research of entrepreneurship. Third, attempts to overcome mystifications while preserving the naturalistic approach result in the multiplication of entrepreneurial mystifications as the reflection of new arising general characteristics of human action. Fourth, a general approach to the definition of the entrepreneurial action as a kind of the social action, which has sense in the value production and is capable of everlasting enrichment with new modus of actions and created values, is suggested. Perspectives of further research include the investigation of synchronic and diachronic peculiarities of entrepreneurial action modus and produced values.

  18. rivers of Student Entrepreneurship in Visegrad Four Countries: Guesss Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Holienka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to find out what drives student entrepreneurs in Visegrad (V4 countries (i.e. the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia in their business activities. Our analysis is built on 2016 data from GUESSS project – an extensive academic study on student entrepreneurship, and our main sample comprises of 15,971 V4 university students. Potential drivers from individual human and social capital characteristics, perceived institutional support, and demographic attributes are examined, using the logistic regression method. Applying a unique perspective and distinguishing between different types of student entrepreneurs, we focus especially on promisingly sustainable student entrepreneurs with already active businesses, who plan to continue them after completing their studies. According to our results, gender (being a male, increasing age together with dropping number of years to finish studies, intensity of entrepreneurship education, studying in a business-related field, and having entrepreneurial parents significantly drive student entrepreneurship inclinations during their university studies.

  19. A utility's perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act is especially important to utilities because their customers pay for the disposal program, and the program is vital to nuclear operations and reconsideration of the nuclear option. DOE's accomplishments in implementing the Act are noteworthy, but we are concerned that some of them have been achieved later than specified by the schedule in the Act. We make recommendations regarding disposal fees, defense wastes, and shipping casks. Virginia Power has adopted a three-part strategy relying mainly on developing dry cask storage to solve the company's interim storage problems

  20. Media-Policy Responses to Digitalization: a comparative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2017-01-01

    of media industries as well as media policy has been guided by a framework of three separate yet co-existing models (McQuail, 2000; Pool, 1983): the free press model (where the practically unlimited space for more publications have meant little or no regulation), the broadcast model (where limited number...... of, e.g., broadcast frequencies give cause for some regulation), and the common carrier model (where the presence of only very few actors in a critical, tele-communicative infrastructure has justified extensive public regulation). This distinction between different sectors and types of media has been...

  1. ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HORAŢIU ŞOIM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The problems of wealth and economic performance are old but despite their importance we have not a final answer on them. Besides the standard production factors usually stresed when we analyze economic performance and growth, land, labor and capital, we approach institutions in general and entrepreneurial culture in particular. In this paper we analyze the relationship between entreprenurship, defined by many dimensions derived from the study „Entrepreneurship in the EU and beyond.” requested by European Comission to the Gallup Internaitional, and economic performance measured by GDP/capita. The results show that countries where there is a strong entrepreneurial culture that promote initiative, opportunity seeking, risk taking aare doing better in terms of development level and wealth. At the same time the countries where the entrepreneurs have a good image in society, and thus promote entrepreneurship, are doing beter than the other countries.

  2. High-tech entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernasconi, Michel; Harris, Simon; Mønsted, Mette

    ; entrepreneurial finance; marketing technological innovations; and high-tech incubation management. Including case studies to give practical insights into genuine business examples, this comprehensive book has a distinctly 'real-world' focus throughout.Edited by a multi-national team, this comprehensive book......High-tech businesses form a crucial part of entrepreneurial activity - in some ways representing very typical examples of entrepreneurship, yet in some ways representing quite different challenges. The uncertainty in innovation and advanced technology makes it difficult to use conventional economic...... focuses on the blend of theory and practice needed to inform advanced entrepreneurship students of the specifics of high-tech start-ups. Key topics covered include: uncertainty and innovation; entrepreneurial finance; marketing technological innovations; and high-tech incubation management...

  3. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Due to the very high youth unemployment in Northern Ghana, there is a huge need for enterprising skills among young people. A natural focus in recent years has therefore been entrepreneurship training, focusing on training young Ghanaians to start-up businesses. Unfortunately, the young...... people seem to be meeting many constraints in their effort to build up sustainable businesses. The purpose of this paper is to address these constraints and search for ways to support the young entrepreneurs in turning the constraints into opportunities. The hypothesis of this research project...... is that adding a focus on the young entrepreneur’s means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills to the existing focus on starting up businesses, will increase the value of the Entrepreneurship training and support the overcoming of constraints. The paper build on a design-based research project...

  4. Pushing the Entrepreneurial Prodigy: Canadian Aboriginal Entrepreneurship Education Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth; Blue, Levon Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Globally, neoliberal education policy touts youth entrepreneurship education as a solution for staggering youth unemployment, a means to bolster economically depressed regions, and solution to the ill-defined changing marketplace. Many jurisdictions have emphasized a need for K-12 entrepreneurial education for the general population, and targeted…

  5. Nascent Entrepreneurship and the Level of Economic Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.R.M. Wennekers (Sander); A.J. van Stel (André); A.R. Thurik (Roy); P. Reynolds (Paul)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBased upon two strands of literature, this paper hypothesizes a U-shaped relationship between a country’s rate of entrepreneurial dynamics and its level of economic development. This would imply a different scope for entrepreneurship policy across subsequent stages of development.

  6. Gender, Entrepreneurship, and Inclusive Growth: The Role of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gender, Entrepreneurship, and Inclusive Growth: The Role of Institutions in Promoting Small and Medium Enterprises in Mauritius and Botswana. Women and youth are often excluded from the full benefits of growth and development in Africa. There are institutional and policy-related hurdles to overcome to harness their full ...

  7. Analyzing social policy: multiple perspectives for critically understanding and evaluating policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen

    2011-01-01

    "This unique volume outlines the different frameworks of policy analysis and explains how readers can use research and critical thinking skills to understand the different models from their formation...

  8. International Entrepreneurship Education: Postgraduate Business Student Experiences of Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, David; Woodier-Harris, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: International postgraduate education in business-related subjects has grown substantially in the UK. Both MBA and specialist Masters' programmes increasingly offer entrepreneurship as a core or option. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education in meeting the expectations and motivations of…

  9. The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurship skills and motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterbeek, H.; van Praag, M.; IJsselstein, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of a leading entrepreneurship education program on college students’ entrepreneurship skills and motivation using an instrumental variables approach in a difference-in-differences framework. We exploit that the program was offered to students at one location of a

  10. Searching for the new liberalism : perspectives, policies and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aster, H.; Axworthy, T.S. (eds.)

    2003-03-01

    This paper describes how liberalism might be construed as the root cause of surface transportation problems because it guides the practices of transportation policy in Canada. There is no dedicated charge for road use in Canada. Roads are paid for through consolidated revenue funds and general tax revenues. Tolls account for only a small amount of total government revenue. The author argues that governments adopt only a narrow definition of the real costs associated with road-building and maintenance. Currently, they include the cost of construction, maintenance and a portion of the expenses for safety and policy activity. Governments do not factor in the total economic costs of road expenses and they do not include the 'opportunity costs' of the capital invested in highway networks. They also do not consider social costs and externalities. It is estimated that the costs of traffic congestion (extra fuel consumption of idling engines or delayed deliveries) are in the order of $2 billion annually in Toronto and $1.5 billion in Vancouver. Environmental costs include the costs of toxic pollutants, noise, damage to farmland, and greenhouse gases. 24 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Uddannelse og Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per; Dreisler, Poul; Færgemann, Helle Maibom

    2004-01-01

    Innovation og entrepreneurship står højt på den politiske dagsorden og universiteterne er tiltænkt en central rolle i denne proces, hvis mål er at skabe større vækst og øget velfærd i samfundet. Et af midlerne har været at motivere til større samarbejde om forskning og uddannelse i samspil mellem...

  12. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  13. Grid and Entrepreneurship Workshop

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The CERN openlab is organising a special workshop about Grid opportunities for entrepreneurship. This one-day event will provide an overview of what is involved in spin-off technology, with a special reference to the context of computing and data Grids. Lectures by experienced entrepreneurs will introduce the key concepts of entrepreneurship and review, in particular, the industrial potential of EGEE (the EU co-funded Enabling Grids for E-sciencE project, led by CERN). Case studies will be given by CEOs of European start-ups already active in the Grid and computing cluster area, and regional experts will provide an overview of efforts in several European regions to stimulate entrepreneurship. This workshop is designed to encourage students and researchers involved or interested in Grid technology to consider the entrepreneurial opportunities that this technology may create in the coming years. This workshop is organized as part of the CERN openlab student programme, which is co-sponsored by CERN, HP, ...

  14. Stakeholder perspectives on national policy for regulating the school food environment in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monterrosa, Eva C; Campirano, Fabricio; Tolentino Mayo, Lizbeth; Frongillo, Edward A; Hernández Cordero, Sonia; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Rivera, Juan A

    2015-02-01

    In Mexico, the school environment has been promoting sale of unhealthy foods. There is little empirical evidence on multi-stakeholder perspectives around national school food policy to regulate this. We studied stakeholders' perspectives on the proposed regulation for school sale of unhealthy foods. Comments about the regulation were available from an open consultation process held in June 2010 before the approval and implementation of the regulation. To examine perspectives, we coded 597 comments for beliefs, expectations and demands in NVivo. We created matrices by actors: academics, parents, citizens, health professionals and food industry. For academics, citizens and health professionals, the primary issue regarding the regulation was obesity, while for parents it was health of children. Academics, citizens, health professionals and parents believed that government was responsible for health of citizens, expected that this regulation would improve eating habits and health (i.e. less obesity and chronic diseases), and demanded that unhealthy foods be removed from schools. Parents demanded immediate action for school food policy that would protect their children. Citizens and health professionals demanded nutrition education and healthy food environment. Food industry opposed the regulation because it would not solve obesity or improve diet and physical activity behaviours. Instead, industry would lose income and jobs. Food industry demanded policy aimed at families that included nutrition education and physical activity. There was substantial consensus in narratives and perspectives for most actor types, with the primary narrative being the food environment followed by shared responsibility. Food industry rejected both these narratives, espousing instead the narrative of personal responsibility. Consensus among most actor groups supports the potential success of implementation of the regulation in Mexican schools. With regard to addressing childhood obesity

  15. International Seminar on Nuclear policy in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The 25 and April 26, 2013 was held in Buenos Aires the International Seminar 'Nuclear Politics in Argentina and the world: present and perspectives', organized by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (ARN), the National University of San Martin (UNSAM) and University of San Andres (UdeSA). With the main objective of creating an area for reflection and discussion on the state of the global nuclear policy, its impact on the region and in our country, and raised as an area of interaction between the academic and those working in the sector policies. The seminar consisted of six thematic panels, in addition to the opening session, in which academics and researchers exposed renowned in dialogue with officials and professionals of the nuclear sector. In this seminar were presented some papers of the following topics: historical approaches to nuclear policy in emerging contexts; nuclear policy and civil society; discussion and perspectives on proliferation and non-proliferation, security in the post-Fukushima: discussion and perspectives; Argentina-Brazil: from competition to cooperation, present and prospects for the nuclear industry.

  16. Principles and practices of social entrepreneurship for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmartin, Mattia J

    2013-11-01

    Although social justice and action for change are among the nursing profession's core values, curricular content on social entrepreneurship for nurses is not as well developed as it is in the educational programs for students in business, engineering, or public policy. This article describes an undergraduate honors elective course in social entrepreneurship offered at New York University College of Nursing. The course uses a seminar format and incorporates content from the humanities, business, and service-learning, with the goal of promoting participants' understanding of the sources of inequality in the United States and providing the requisite skills to promote effective nursing action for social change. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Youth Entrepreneurship and Socioeconomic Change in Urban Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langevang, Thilde

    2016-01-01

    ’s changing livelihood practices in Africa. Drawing on the case of urban Ghana, and situating youth entrepreneurship in relation to wider processes of global and local change, the chapter outlines how recent years of high economic growth have failed to create adequate jobs for a rapidly growing youth...... population. In a context of neoliberal economic policy, the current generation of young people faces few options other than starting their own businesses, and the government – in partnership with global development institutions – is increasingly promoting youth entrepreneurship as the prime solution...

  18. GENDER PECULIARITIES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia G.TURCAN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The situation with women's entrepreneurship is analyzed in the given scientific paper. Special emphasis is put on the one of the main obstacles to women, the mentality of the inhabitants in our country. The purpose of this study is to identify characteristics of women's entrepreneurship in Moldova, the motives of the occurrence of women in business, the specific needs of women entrepreneurs and others that will enrich the theoretical knowledge and provide the scientific basis for the implementation of social and economic gender policy in the business.

  19. High-tech Entrepreneurship and Growth: Myths and Facts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    Economic growth depends on the presence of an innovative and dynamic business sector, including the business players' ability to discover and exploit new business opportunities. Consequently, entrepreneurship has received increased attention within industrial policy. Entrepreneurs and their motives...... are, however, just as diverse as the rest of the population, thus making it impossible to apply a 'one-size-fits-all' principle when promoting entrepreneurship. This paper deals with a special kind of entrepreneurs - the high-tech entrepreneurs - in order to puncture the myths concerning their growth...

  20. Perspectives on African Challenges: Cross Cutting Issues and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    asylum   seekers .  Increasing  state  capacity   should  go  hand  in  hand  with  training  in  international...is  the  author  of  numerous   books  and  articles  on  the  topic  of  food  policy,  including:   The  Human...London:  Zed   Books ,   2008),  and  No  Refuge:  The  Crisis  of  Refugee

  1. The war of watts - Energy policies and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lhomme, Jean-Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this book, the author lift the veil of the day-to-day operation of the European power distribution network and the capacities of new energy resources to answer the question: is the 'green' energy transition policy really possible or shall it stay an utopia? The titles of the various chapters are: the choices between transitions; the architecture of the new 'mix'; the economic basis of the mix; fossil hydrocarbons, a Grail quest; electro-coal at the end of the line; water energies, the master of fluxes; electronuclear power amongst the greats; biomass, the living energy; wind power, the key of mix?; ten thousand suns on planet Earth; geothermal energy, the other nuclear

  2. Adherence policy, education and practice – an international perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider MP

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonadherence to chronic therapy has become a large burden on the healthcare system of many countries. Community pharmacists are well positioned to address nonadherence as part of their overall patient care activities, and contribute to patients’ quality use of medicines. Between 2008 and 2010, a series of narrative, peer-reviewed articles were published in Pharmacy Practice which focused on community pharmacists’ activities in medication adherence, specifically in the areas of the education they receive, their practice, the research conducted and national or local policies. This editorial aims to summarise the key findings presented in the series, and highlight the pertinent issues and gaps in the literature. There is a need to implement global and long-term objectives focussing on enhancing the quality of education and competencies of community pharmacists and the research conducted in medication adherence, to develop guidelines for pharmacists and enhance the uptake of adherence promoting services in routine care.  

  3. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    the subject of much research in the innovation studies field, where most attention is given towards energy supply technologies and energy end-use technologies tend to be left in the dark. This thesis applies different qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyse how actors are collaborating...... on innovation activities within energy efficiency. It furthermore investigates the long and complex process of innovation activities in energy efficiency with attention to the co-evolutionary dynamics of technology development, policy and market transformation. The findings cover different aspects...... of the research topic. At the cross-sectoral level it contributes with insights into the collaborative RD&D activities in energy efficiency and how the structure of these development activities has an impact on the innovation output of the RD&D projects. It furthermore identifies the driving forces of energy...

  4. A review of the Australian healthcare system: A policy perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambasivan, Murali

    2018-01-01

    This article seeks to review the Australian healthcare system and compare it to similar systems in other countries to highlight the main issues and problems. A literature search for articles relating to the Australian and other developed countries’ healthcare systems was conducted by using Google and the library of Victoria University, Melbourne. Data from the websites of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, the Australian Productivity Commission, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Bank have also been used. Although care within the Australian healthcare system is among the best in the world, there is a need to change the paradigm currently being used to measure the outcomes and allocate resources. The Australian healthcare system is potentially dealing with two main problems: (a) resource allocation, and (b) performance and patient outcomes improvements. An interdisciplinary research approach in the areas of performance measurement, quality and patient outcomes improvement could be adopted to discover new insights, by using the policy implementation error/efficiency and bureaucratic capacity. Hospital managers, executives and healthcare management practitioners could use an interdisciplinary approach to design new performance measurement models, in which financial performance, quality, healthcare and patient outcomes are blended in, for resource allocation and performance improvement. This article recommends that public policy implementation error and the bureaucratic capacity models be applied to healthcare to optimise the outcomes for the healthcare system in Australia. In addition, it highlights the need for evaluation of the current reimbursement method, freedom of choice to patients and a regular scrutiny of the appropriateness of care. PMID:29686869

  5. E-cigarette regulation and policy: UK vapers' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrimond, Hannah

    2016-06-01

    The rapid increase in use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) has created an international policy dilemma concerning how to use these products. This study assesses the types of beliefs that e-cigarette users in the United Kingdom may hold concerning regulation. Qualitative thematic analysis of written answers to open-ended questions. United Kingdom, questionnaire conducted by post, 44% recruited from online forums and 56% non-online. Fifty-five UK vapers, 55% male, mean age 46 years, 84% sole users of e-cigarettes, 95% vaping daily. Open-ended questions on regulatory and policy options. 'Protecting youth' was seen as a fundamental regulatory requirement which should be achieved through childproofing, age limits, no advertising aimed at children and health warnings about addictiveness of nicotine, but not the restriction of flavours. There was little support for regulating e-cigarettes as medicines or limiting the strength of nicotine liquids. In terms of public use, participants argued against a blanket ban on public vaping given perceptions of a lack of scientific evidence of harm. However, they supported the principle of autonomy, that individuals and organizations have the right to restrict vaping. Some participants suggested banning vaping in places such as schools, hospitals or around food, in line with current smoking norms. Vapers' regulatory positions were accompanied by political concerns about the use (and misuse) of scientific evidence. With regard to regulation of e-cigarettes, issues that are salient to UK vapers may include the need for youth protection, regulation as medicines, strength of e-liquids, bans on public vaping and concerns about the misuse of scientific evidence. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. TRAINING OF INNOVATIVE ENTREPRENEURSHIP – A KEY TO CREATION OF STARTUPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena KURCHENKO

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Innovative startup companies that emerged in the late 1990s are now widely supported by countries with developed innovation systems. The aim of this article is to analyse the experience of creation innovative programs in entrepreneurship, with a further perspective for introducing similar programmes into Ukrainian universities. For this, the authors presented their own developed program of monitoring the Ukrainian universities on availability of courses of innovative entrepreneurship. The results of this survey will be analytical prerequisite for decision-making of establishment special curriculum of innovative entrepreneurship in technical and natural Sciences universities for the development of startup-ecosystem in Ukraine.

  7. The role of entrepreneurship in transforming efficiency economies into innovation-based economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurie van Vuuren

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Entrepreneurship is believed to be a major driver of economic development. While it is right to consider entrepreneurship as a development tool, it is also crucial to identify the kind of entrepreneurship that contributes meaningfully towards economic development. Extant research revealed a U-shaped relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development and claimed that entrepreneurship in efficiency economies is dwarfed in terms of its contribution to economic development.   Aim: To identify and explain factors that would assist efficiency-based countries to transform their economies using entrepreneurship as a major policy tool.   Setting: We compared two structurally separate groups of countries. Each group consists of three countries and 9 years of data were extracted from Global Entrepreneurship Monitoring (GEM and United Nation (UN datasets.   Methods: We examined the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development using comparative research design. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to detect associations and various descriptive statistical tools were applied to examine and compare the entrepreneurial tendencies of countries included in our study.   Results: The results indicated that entrepreneurship in efficiency economies is unfairly undervalued by academic commentators and that our findings pose a serious question as to the U-shaped relationship argument. The analysis revealed that the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development is positive in both contexts, albeit the strength of the correlation is much more pronounced for innovation-driven economies compared to efficiency-driven countries. Furthermore, the analysis revealed that the rate of total early-stage entrepreneurial activity (TEA is strongly correlated with perceived opportunity and entrepreneurial intention scores in both contexts.   Conclusion: It is concluded that countries seeking to transform their

  8. Entrepreneurship Education and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard

    2014-01-01

    The significant increase of entrepreneurship education (EE) is a trend in Europe. Entrepreneurship education is supposed to promote general and specific entrepreneurial abilities and improve academic performance. This paper evaluates whether EE influences academic performance, measured by Grade Point Average. The main indicator used for EE is the…

  9. Fostering entrepreneurship | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    Apr 10, 2014 ... you want to understand today's entrepreneurs, look to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Launched in 1999, GEM is the world's longest continuous study of entrepreneurship, with research from more than 300 scholars in 99 countries. Its national surveys measure levels of entrepreneurial activity, ...

  10. Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book explores the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship through multiple lenses in the context of education. Mixing equal parts of theory and practice, this volume takes a closer look on how innovation and entrepreneurship are approached around the globe as disciplines, methods, and mi...

  11. Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    Contemporary research on creativity, innovation and entrepreneurship have now for a decade or more been focusing on social constructive, pragmatic, socio-cultural and socio-material dimensions of creative and innovative processes and entrepreneurship (Bager et al. 2010, Brinkmann & Tangaard 2010,...

  12. 11 Theses on Entrepreneurship Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blenker, Per

    2015-01-01

    Questions I care about How can I best contribute to establishing clarity and precision to the way we develop the central elements of entrepreneurship education research? Approach Inspired by Karl Marx´s 11 theses on Feuerbach the paper establishes 11 short theses on entrepreneurship education...

  13. Integrating science, policy and stakeholder perspectives for water resource management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Emily; Allan, Andrew; Whitehead, Paul; Salehin, Mashfiqus; Lazzar, Attila; Lim, Michelle; Munsur Rahman, Md.

    2015-04-01

    Successful management of water resources requires an integrated approach considering the complex relationships between different biophysical processes, governance frameworks and socio-economic factors. The Ecosystem Services for Poverty Alleviation (ESPA) Deltas project has developed a range of socio-economic scenarios using a participatory approach, and applied these across different biophysical models as well as an integrated environmental, socio-economic model of the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna (GBM) Delta. This work demonstrates a novel approach through the consideration of multiple ecosystem services and related socio-economic factors in the development of scenarios; the application of these to multiple models at multiple scales; and the participatory approach to improve project outcomes and engage national level stakeholders and policy makers. Scenarios can assist in planning for an uncertain future through exploring plausible alternatives. To adequately assess the potential impacts of future changes and management strategies on water resources, the wider biophysical, socio-economic and governance context needs to be considered. A series of stakeholder workshops have been held in Bangladesh to identify issues of main concern relating to the GBM Delta; to iteratively develop scenario narratives for business as usual, less sustainable, and more sustainable development pathways; and to translate these qualitative scenarios into a quantitative form suitable for analysis. The combined impact of these scenarios and climate change on water quantity and quality within the GBM Basin are demonstrated. Results suggest that climate change is likely to impact on both peak and low flows to a greater extent than most socio-economic changes. However, the diversion of water from the Ganges and Brahmaputra has the potential to significantly impact on water availability in Bangladesh depending on the timing and quantity of diversions. Both climate change and socio

  14. The social dimension of entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneuri...... activities are results of social interactions and mechanisms. In consequence, entrepreneurship cannot merely be understood in terms of 'personality characteristics' or in sterile economic terms. The paper addresses by concluding implications for practitioners and for research.......This paper proposes an integrative framework to conceptualize important social dimensions of entrepreneurship. The paper reviews and evaluates the current status of research dealing with entrepreneurship, social capital and trust. The proposed framework rests on the recognition that entrepreneurial...

  15. Entrepreneurship Education as Identity Workspace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Signe Hedeboe

    2016-01-01

    entrepreneurship postgraduate module at a Danish university revolved around entrepreneurial identity work. Drawing on situated learning theory, the study shows, how the entrepreneurship module as an identity workspace, evoked two distinct communities of practice, associated with incompatible practices......Entrepreneurship education theory and practice show increasing interest in identity work as an important part of entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship programs become identity workspaces where pedagogical designs stimulate entrepreneurial identity work and support individuals’ discovery...... of themselves as entrepreneurs. This article investigates how entrepreneurship education is practiced as an identity workspace, when reflective identity work is turned into a pedagogical strategy for entrepreneurial learning. I present empirical data from a qualitative fieldstudy in an eleven week mandatory...

  16. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND FAIR TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Jelovac

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we will present different theoretical views and positions on social entrepreneurship, fair trade, buying consumer behaviour and ethical consumerism. The Fair Trade, which is well recognized throughout the world, is an example of good practice of social entrepreneurship. Similarly, globalization processes, the pressure of large corporations, the rapid transmission of information, more and more developed ethical consumer behaviour is clearly contributed to both, the successful development of fair trade and social entrepreneurships. In the empirical part we reviewed and confirmed three of three sets of hypotheses through the quantitative research in Slovenia on sample of 253 respondents. Through the results of our study we also recognized the existence of opportunities for the development of social entrepreneurships in Slovenia. In the discussion and conclusion of the article listed are recommendations for further exploration of ethical consumerism, the development of social entrepreneurship and rising the profile of Fair Trade in Slovenia.

  17. Climate change impacts on urban wildfire and flooding policy in Idaho: a comparative policy network perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, E.; Pierce, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Numerous frameworks and models exist for understanding the dynamics of the public policy process. A policy network approach considers how and why stakeholders and interests pay attention to and engage in policy problems, such as flood control or developing resilient and fire resistant landscapes. Variables considered in this approach include what the relationships are between these stakeholders, how they influence the process and outcomes, communication patterns within and between policy networks, and how networks change as a result of new information, science, or public interest and involvement with the problem. This approach is useful in understanding the creation of natural hazards policy as new information or situations, such as projected climate change impacts, influence and disrupt the policy process and networks. Two significant natural hazard policy networks exist in the semi-arid Treasure Valley region of Southwest Idaho, which includes the capitol city of Boise and the surrounding metropolitan area. Boise is situated along the Boise River and adjacent to steep foothills; this physiographic setting makes Boise vulnerable to both wildfires at the wildland-urban interface (WUI) and flooding. Both of these natural hazards have devastated the community in the past and floods and fires are projected to occur with more frequency in the future as a result of projected climate change impacts in the region. While both hazards are fairly well defined problems, there are stark differences lending themselves to comparisons across their respective networks. The WUI wildfire network is large and well developed, includes stakeholders from all levels of government, the private sector and property owner organizations, has well defined objectives, and conducts promotional and educational activities as part of its interaction with the public in order to increase awareness and garner support for its policies. The flood control policy network, however, is less defined

  18. Scandinavian perspectives on plant gene technology: applications, policies and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Dennis; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Chawade, Aakash; Holme, Inger B; Hvoslef-Eide, Trine A K; Ritala, Anneli; Teeri, Teemu H; Thorstensen, Tage

    2018-02-01

    Plant research and breeding has a long and successful history in the Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Researchers in the region have been early in adopting plant gene technologies as they developed. This review gives a background, as well as discuss the current and future progress of plant gene technology in these four countries. Country-specific details of the regulation of genetically modified plants are described, as well as similarities and differences in the approach to regulation of novel genome-editing techniques. Also, the development of a sustainable bioeconomy may encompass the application of plant gene technology and we discuss whether or not this is reflected in current associated national strategies. In addition, country-specific information about the opinion of the public and other stakeholders on plant gene technology is presented, together with a country-wise political comparison and a discussion of the potential reciprocal influence between public opinion and the political process of policy development. The Scandinavian region is unique in several aspects, such as climate and certain agriculturally related regulations, and at the same time the region is vulnerable to changes in plant breeding investments due to the relatively small market sizes. It is therefore important to discuss the role and regulation of innovative solutions in Scandinavian plant research and breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  19. State perspective on the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, S.E.

    1984-01-01

    The impact of the National Nuclear Policy Act of 1982 on the selection of a location of this nation's first repository for nuclear wastes is discussed. The importance of public understanding of the relationship between the Federal negotiating team, the State of Washington, and the Department of Energy in the selection of a site for the repository in Washington State is stressed. It is pointed out that the preparation and conclusion of the environmental assessment is of great importance to the states since it will provide a basis for further selections of repository sites. The importance of the consultation and cooperation agreement called for in the Act in the negotiation process between representatives of the State of Washington and the US DOE in forging a C and C document that sets forth clear ground rules as to how the repository examination program is to be carried out is emphasized. It is pointed out that the present investigation of the Hanford site must serve as a model for the development of a site for a repository of radioactive wastes and also for public information programs that result in an educated public and eliminate unfounded fears of health hazards from stored wastes

  20. Entrepreneurship Teaching Conducted as Strategic Reflexive Conversation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansson, Michael

    and be applied to entrepreneurship-centred instructional activities. The concept of strategic reflexive conversation must be regarded as relevant and are of clear pertinence to theoretical and practical entrepreneurship to entrepreneurship-oriented teaching and learning activities....... advantageously, and on a pilot basis, be applied to entrepreneurship in practical environments and within the framework of entrepreneurship-centred teaching. The present theoretical investigation is solely of an introductory nature and steps are considered that can lead to the planning of additional exploratory...

  1. Theorizing the Organization of Technology Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Heslop, Ben

    In this paper, we explore how, why and which structures are consequential to the organization of technology entrepreneurship. Technology entrepreneurship is a relatively unexplored field of research; yet body of research in this promising area of scholarly enquiry, both theoretically...... are presented as an integrative model of technology entrepreneurship. From the emergent model of technology entrepreneurship we move to a higher level of theorizing and develop a framework of the organization of technology entrepreneurship....

  2. India in the Arctic: Science, Geopolitics and Soft Power - Perspectives on Contemporary Indian Foreign Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gewelt, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is an analysis of contemporary Indian foreign policy from the vantage point of India’s recent engagements in the Arctic. By analysing what is argued to be an ‘Indian Arctic discourse’ that emerged between India’s first expedition to Svalbard in 2007 and the following accession to observer status in the Arctic Council in 2013, this thesis explores how this discourse frames the Arctic within a broader Indian foreign policy perspective. The Indian Arctic discourse establishes India a...

  3. European innovation policies from RIS to smart specialisation - a policy assemblage perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, A.; Varro, K.; Carayannis, E.; Korres, G.

    2013-01-01

    Policy initiatives such as regional innovation strategies are strategically and selectively infused by rationales and imaginaries that resonate with major political and societal shifts. A core example is how the transition from spatial Keynesianism to neoliberal thinking has been accompanied by a

  4. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  5. Advancing Public Policy for High-Growth, Female, and Social Entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, N.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/182375102; Stam, F.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/215649370; Terjesen, Siri Ann

    2016-01-01

    Findings from a large and growing body of entrepreneurship research offer insights for public policy and public officials and managers. Entrepreneurship policy is defined as measures undertaken to stimulate entrepreneurship in a region or country. The authors discuss generalizations from empirical

  6. [Family caregiver issues: gender, privacy, and public policy perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I; Chou, Fan-Hao; Chen, Chung-Hey

    2011-04-01

    Due to the phenomenon of Taiwan'saging population has made, long-term care has become an issue of increasingly emphasized importance. According to the statistics, the family takes responsibility for most long-term care duties and more than 70% of primary family caregivers are female. In the past, because of gender-based divisions of labor and gender role expectations made, it was taken for granted that females would be the socially preferred family caregivers. Those men who devoting in themselves to such work were regarded as a rare precious. As such, family care signified entailed different life experiences for males and females. Over the years, amendments to the civil code have recognized family care contributions, and the allowance for caregivers underlines that care responsibilities have shifted away from the family to society. Traditional gender divisions of labor today are significantly more blurred; family structures have become smaller in size; female labor in the workplace has increased; and ten-year long-term care plans and long-term care insurance have been successively implemented. These transformations will make labor outsourcing more and more popular and transform family care from a private problem to a pubic policy issue. In the future, family caregivers require consideration and support on a sustained basis. It is also important to improve and monitor the quality of care services. Nurses, the major professional members of long-term care teams, should be concerned over the issue of family care while providing nursing care. They should include family caregivers in the care plan so that they can make sure that patients receive comprehensive and constant care in order to enhance the overall quality of nursing care.

  7. Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1994-01-01

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.

  8. Optimization of PSA screening policies: a comparison of the patient and societal perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingyu; Denton, Brian T; Balasubramanian, Hari; Shah, Nilay D; Inman, Brant A

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the benefit of PSA-based screening for prostate cancer from the patient and societal perspectives. A partially observable Markov decision process model was used to optimize PSA screening decisions. Age-specific prostate cancer incidence rates and the mortality rates from prostate cancer and competing causes were considered. The model trades off the potential benefit of early detection with the cost of screening and loss of patient quality of life due to screening and treatment. PSA testing and biopsy decisions are made based on the patient's probability of having prostate cancer. Probabilities are inferred based on the patient's complete PSA history using Bayesian updating. The results of all PSA tests and biopsies done in Olmsted County, Minnesota, from 1993 to 2005 (11,872 men and 50,589 PSA test results). Patients' perspective: to maximize expected quality-adjusted life years (QALYs); societal perspective: to maximize the expected monetary value based on societal willingness to pay for QALYs and the cost of PSA testing, prostate biopsies, and treatment. From the patient perspective, the optimal policy recommends stopping PSA testing and biopsy at age 76. From the societal perspective, the stopping age is 71. The expected incremental benefit of optimal screening over the traditional guideline of annual PSA screening with threshold 4.0 ng/mL for biopsy is estimated to be 0.165 QALYs per person from the patient perspective and 0.161 QALYs per person from the societal perspective. PSA screening based on traditional guidelines is found to be worse than no screening at all. PSA testing done with traditional guidelines underperforms and therefore underestimates the potential benefit of screening. Optimal screening guidelines differ significantly depending on the perspective of the decision maker.

  9. Urban health educators' perspectives and practices regarding school nutrition education policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughtry, Nate; Martin, Jeffrey J; Fahlman, Mariane; Shen, Bo

    2012-02-01

    Although nutrition-related health education policies exist at national, state and local levels, the degree to which those policies affect the everyday practices of health education teachers who are charged with executing them in schools is often unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the nutrition-related health education policy matrix that affected one urban school district, the health education teachers' awareness of those policies, the impact of nutrition policies on teachers' instruction and challenges teachers perceived in executing comprehensive nutrition education. The study used interpretive ethnography to examine the educational contexts and perspectives of 27 health educators from 24 middle schools in one urban district in the Midwestern United States. Data were collected through school observations, interviews with key personnel and document collection. We found that a network of nutrition-related education policies governed health education teachers' instruction, but that teachers were uniformly unaware of those policies. Without institutional coherence and clear directives, health education teachers taught little nutrition content, primarily due to poor training, professional development, instructional resources and administrative accountability. The results are discussed in light of the enormous challenges in many urban schools and the need for nutrition education professional development.

  10. The Influence of Entrepreneurship Subject on Students’ Interest in Entrepreneurship by Hidden Curriculum as Intervening Variable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Kuncoro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know the influence of entrepreneurship subject on students’ interest in entrepreneurship at Institute of Mathaliul Falah (IPMAFA in Pati by hidden curriculum as intervening variable. The research used WarpsPls analysis to test model directly and directly. Samples of the study were 30 Islamic banking students who got entrepreneurship subject and Islamic community development who did not get the entrepreneurship subject. Findings show that the entrepreneurship subject influences students’ interest in entrepreneurship and the second model test results showed that hidden curriculum is not able to become the intervening variable for students’ interest in entrepreneurship subject on students’ interest in entrepreneurship.

  11. Country-level entrepreneurship: Crowding out the population’s need for autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Reddy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and problem: Governments through their policy support of new and growing enterprises continue to emphasise economic incentives as if most members of the population prioritise material gain. This article argues that high levels of government policy support for new and growing enterprises crowd out the population’s need for autonomy when potential entrepreneurs perceive government to be controlling. Methodology: The researchers constructed a country-level panel data set based on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, World Bank Group Entrepreneurship Survey, the World Economic Forum competitiveness reports and the International Monetary Fund data base for 44 countries over the period 2000 to 2007. Since we relied on eight years of secondary data, we applied panel analysis to the regressions. We used multiple regression to model the moderating effects of government policy support on the autonomy-entrepreneurship relationship. Findings: The findings show that government policy support tends to buffer the effect of autonomy on entrepreneurship, lending support to the article’s argument. Implications: This research has tested one of the most important anomalies in economics on entrepreneurship data: that ‘crowding out’ might reverse the most fundamental economic law, namely that raising economic incentives increases the supply of entrepreneurship.

  12. Entrepreneurship and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia E. Santana Vega

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the entrepreneurial aspirations of 3,987 adolescents regarding self-employment and the influence of gender, age, nationality, type of school, location of the school, educational level and performance. The Logit model is used to analyze the data. The results indicate that the pupils’ aspirations to be self-employed increase in the case of foreigners, of studying in a state school, of having a lower educational level and of demonstrating a low academic performance. The results were not statistically significant for the gender and age variables. The curriculum and guidance programmes need to promote a spirit of entrepreneurship and creativity in young people.

  13. Small scale Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gretzinger, Susanne; Fietze, Simon; Brem, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Networking and being a part of an established business network supports the process of translating new ideas into marketable solutions and acquiring customers. Before the literature background on social capital and regional development, we use the embeddedness approach to investigate aspiring...... entrepreneurs in a Danish rural area setting. Our results indicate that aspiring entrepreneurs connected to a regional entrepreneurship center, gain access to a wider network and depending on the level of embeddedness they can build new strong relationships or exploit information stemming from new “weak ties...

  14. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  15. Copenhagen School of Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Dimokopoulos, Demetra

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Copenhagen School of Entrepreneurship (CSE), the largest business incubator in Denmark, was admitting 100–125 new start-ups each year and attracting external funding of US$33 million from both public and private sources—all with an annual budget of US$435,000, funded exclusively...... specific stages. The school measured success in terms of the number of incubator participants who had both a business customer and a sustainable business model at the end of a nine-month incubation period. In 2015, CSE's success rate was 53 per cent. At this point, CSE's leaders recognized a need...

  16. Poverty reduction through entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigalla, Rachel; Carney, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    and sustainable development, but an important recalibration of the repressive social relations thought to be at the root of women’s persistent ‘under-development’. This article explores women’s experiences of their roles as entrepreneurs, and reflects on how the learning processes and outcomes associated...... with microcredit schemes ‘shape the self’, often in quite unpredictable ways. The article is based on an ethnographic study of disadvantaged women in Dar es Salaam, and follows them as they participate in NGO-based training schemes, ‘practise’ entrepreneurship in a range of income-generating settings...

  17. Education for entrepreneurship in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boore, Jennifer; Porter, Sharon

    2011-02-01

    The different types of entrepreneurship, including social entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship, and the importance of social entrepreneurship skills in the changing world of health care are discussed. The term social intrapreneurship is introduced to characterise the many nurses introducing change and enhancing care working within the NHS. The strategy for development of entrepreneurship education within one region of the UK is presented and its integration into a pre-registration nursing programme is the main focus of this paper. The process of integration of skills in the changing world of health care is discussed. The strategy for development of entrepreneurship is presented under the headings of the NICENT (Northern Ireland Centre for Entrepreneurship) @ Ulster Integration Model: Awareness and Understanding; Interpretation; Contextualisation; Integration (Theoretical Content); Integration (Assessment); Validation/Revalidation; Implementation; and Review and Reflection. The most important stages were the first two in which nursing academic staff came to realise the relevance of the topic to nursing and the interpretation and translation into 'nurse-speak' of the business terminology to alleviate the initial rejection of entrepreneurship as of no relevance to nursing. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT THE RESORT BUSINESS ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Mendela

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The term “entrepreneurship” is exceedingly widespread in the western management. Its essence is to provide the employee, who has a perspective idea with the possibility to use the company's resources for its implementation, thereby realizing one’s business opportunities. It can be viewed as an activity of the enterprise to achieve goals on the basis of the use of business opportunities. The partnership in the innovative activity is crucial for the effectiveness of its implementation. The partnership does not imply complete equality: professional partnership is characterized by the fact that senior ex official partners receive greater rewards and are less involved in the current work than younger counterparts. The scientific approaches concerned in developing and realization of business conception are particularly relevant in terms of overcoming the economic crisis, effective development and specialization of regional tourist and recreational complexes. The advantages of the entrepreneurship over traditional ways of tourism and recreational activities’ organization are singled out. The principles of behavior of market participants on the market of resort services are defined. The peculiarities of service enterprises are distinguished. The process of stimulating development of company entrepreneurship at resort business enterprise is considered. Based on factors of external and internal environment of business activity, differences that characterize entrepreneurship in tourism and recreation industry, trends of development, achievements of economics it was found that resort business development will stimulate entrepreneurship within the enterprise. Management system, economic indicators of business activity effectiveness, quality of service, integration, clustering, coenterprising and entrepreneurship provide realization of enterprising conception. Key words: Entrepreneurship, intellectual product, innovative idea, intracapital, social

  19. Rethinking Social Policy for an Aging Workforce and Society: Insights from the Life Course Perspective. CPRN Discussion Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Victor W.; Mueller, Margaret M.

    Canadian population trends were examined from a life course perspective to identify needed social policy changes. First, the following principles underpinning the life course perspective were discussed: (1) aging involves biological, psychological, and social processes; (2) human development and aging are lifelong processes; (3) individuals' and…

  20. Climate change and energy policies in Shanghai: A multilevel governance perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francesch-Huidobro, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Multilevel governance is a useful framework to understand how resources, tasks and power are distributed for decision making. • Shifts in national climate and energy policy mandate local governments to develop climate change and energy policies. • Local governments have greater autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals. • Climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance. - Abstract: Despite growing interest in China’s response to climate change and energy security, studies undertaken at the subnational level are rare. In the context of the multilevel governance paradigm, this article examines the governance of climate change and energy policy in Shanghai, a rapidly growing Chinese megacity highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Although the energy and carbon intensity of Shanghai’s economy have fallen significantly since China launched its economic reforms, overall carbon emissions in the municipality continue to rise. Through examining the Shanghai case, this article argues that Chinese subnational climate mitigation policy is dominated by hierarchical governance arrangements. Nevertheless, shifts in national climate and energy policy since 2007 have mandated provincial-level governments, including Shanghai, to develop their own climate and energy policies while offering greater local autonomy for incorporating climate and energy issues into development goals: is this attributable to a decentred form of multilevel governance? The article concludes that Shanghai’s climate mitigation and energy policy is dominated by hierarchical governance whereby policies are ‘downloaded’ from the central government. Perspectives for other cities and insights for policymakers are discussed.

  1. Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    -based Entrepreneurship Teaching in Professional bachelor Education’. Ten senior lecturers in nursing and pedagogy participated. The purpose was to investigate whether and how Socratic and philosophical dialogues and different forms of phenomenological and existential reflections upon one´s own professional assumptions...... knowing but being” This paper will describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimension of entrepreneurship teaching, and why this kind of entrepreneurship teaching also can strengthen a key concept...

  2. [Indicators of governance in mental health policies and programmes in Mexico: a perspective of key actors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Castro, Lina; Arredondo, Armando; Pelcastre-Villafuerte, Blanca Estela; Hufty, Marc

    To analyse the role of Mexico's mental health system governance in the development of mental health policies and programmes, from the perspective of its own actors. A map was developed for identifying the actors in Mexico's mental health system. A guide was designed for in-depth interviews, which were recorded and arranged in categories for their analysis. The Atlas-ti v.7 software was used for the organisation of qualitative data and Policy Maker v.4 was used to determine the position and influence of actors within the health system. The actors were identified according to their level of influence in mental health policies: high, medium and low. Actors with a high level of influence participate in national policies, actors with medium influence are involved in regional or local policies and the participation of actors with a low level of influence is considered marginal. This study facilitated understanding of governance in mental health. The level of influence of the actors directly affects the scope of governance indicators. Relevant data were obtained to improve policies in mental health care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Entrepreneurship, Information, and Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Devin; Weiler, Stephan; Weiler, Stephan; Zahran, Sammy

    2016-01-01

    We examine the contribution to economic growth of entrepreneurial “marketplace information” within a regional endogenous growth framework. Entrepreneurs are posited to provide an input to economic growth through the information revealed by their successes and failures. We empirically identify this information source with the regional variation in establishment births and deaths, which create geographic information asymmetries that influence subsequent entrepreneurial activity and economic growth. We find that local establishment birth and death rates are significantly and positively correlated with subsequent entrepreneurship for US counties. To account for the potential endogeneity caused by forward-looking entrepreneurs, we utilize instruments based on historic mining activity. We find that the information spillover component of local establishment birth and death rates have significant positive effects on subsequent entrepreneurship and employment growth for US counties and metropolitan areas. With the help of these intruments, we show that establishment births have a positive and significant effect on future employment growth within all counties, and that in line with the information hypothesis, local establishment death rates have a similar positive effect within metropolitan counties. PMID:27516625

  4. Entrepreneurship training in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Leila Kæmsgaard Pagh

    2017-01-01

    Ghana has high youth unemployment, and young Ghanaians meet many constraints in their effort to build up sustainable businesses. The purpose of this research is to address these constraints and search for ways of turning the constraints into opportunities. The hypothesis of this research is that ......Ghana has high youth unemployment, and young Ghanaians meet many constraints in their effort to build up sustainable businesses. The purpose of this research is to address these constraints and search for ways of turning the constraints into opportunities. The hypothesis of this research...... is that adding a focus on means, attitude and enterprising behaviour skills will increase the value of entrepreneurship training. The study is a design-based research undertaken in collaboration with the local NGO, Youth Empowerment for Life (YEfL). It builds on relevant theory and involves qualitative...... and quantitative research in Northern Ghana. The study reveals the five most crucial constraints for young entrepreneurs in Northern Ghana. Moreover, it proposes a new entrepreneurship model and training manual....

  5. Entrepreneurship, Information, and Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunten, Devin; Weiler, Stephan; Weiler, Stephan; Zahran, Sammy

    2015-09-01

    We examine the contribution to economic growth of entrepreneurial "marketplace information" within a regional endogenous growth framework. Entrepreneurs are posited to provide an input to economic growth through the information revealed by their successes and failures. We empirically identify this information source with the regional variation in establishment births and deaths, which create geographic information asymmetries that influence subsequent entrepreneurial activity and economic growth. We find that local establishment birth and death rates are significantly and positively correlated with subsequent entrepreneurship for US counties. To account for the potential endogeneity caused by forward-looking entrepreneurs, we utilize instruments based on historic mining activity. We find that the information spillover component of local establishment birth and death rates have significant positive effects on subsequent entrepreneurship and employment growth for US counties and metropolitan areas. With the help of these intruments, we show that establishment births have a positive and significant effect on future employment growth within all counties, and that in line with the information hypothesis, local establishment death rates have a similar positive effect within metropolitan counties.

  6. Russian oil policy under Putin in perspective; La politique petroliere Russe sous Poutine en perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossiaud, S. [Universite Pierre Mendes-France, Lab. d' Economie de la Production et de l' Integration Internationale, CNRS, 38 - Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-15

    This article intends to explain and evaluate the interactions between the three developments which have structured the Russian oil industry since the beginning of V. Putin's second presidential term of office: the slowing down in production growth as well as the absolute decline of the latter observed in 2008, the reorganization of this industry marked by the increasing role of public oil companies and, finally, the adjustments made to the contractual arrangements surrounding the activities of the upstream oil sector. It has shown, on one hand, that the decline in current production is the result of the exhaustion of short term strategies by private Russian companies, and on the other hand, that the contract adjustments are insufficient to allow the Russian companies to adjust to more long term strategies. From this perspective, the increased role played by public oil companies can be analysed as an organisational response to this institutional dead-end. (author)

  7. Perspectives on European Governance in Comparative Perspective: Interests, Institutions and Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -making’, at Freie Universität in Berlin on July 4 and 5, 2014. The papers aim at encapsulating the versatility of Adrienne’s scholarship by addressing core themes regarding ‘EU Governance’, ‘Policy Analysis’, and ‘Regulation and Governance’. A number of acknowledgements are appropriate regarding the birthday...... conference and this collection. First, we wish to recognize the team assisting Tanja Börzel who organized the conference and edited the Festschrift. Special thanks go to Luisa Linke and Katja Pomianowicz. Second, we would like to extend our gratitude to the funding bodies which made the event and collection...

  8. A multiple perspective modeling and simulation approach for renewable energy policy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyamani, Talal M.

    Environmental issues and reliance on fossil fuel sources, including coal, oil, and natural gas, are the two most common energy issues that are currently faced by the United States (U.S.). Incorporation of renewable energy sources, a non-economical option in electricity generation compared to conventional sources that burn fossil fuels, single handedly promises a viable solution for both of these issues. Several energy policies have concordantly been suggested to reduce the financial burden of adopting renewable energy technologies and make such technologies competitive with conventional sources throughout the U.S. This study presents a modeling and analysis approach for comprehensive evaluation of renewable energy policies with respect to their benefits to various related stakeholders--customers, utilities, governmental and environmental agencies--where the debilitating impacts, advantages, and disadvantages of such policies can be assessed and quantified at the state level. In this work, a novel simulation framework is presented to help policymakers promptly assess and evaluate policies from different perspectives of its stakeholders. The proposed framework is composed of four modules: 1) a database that collates the economic, operational, and environmental data; 2) elucidation of policy, which devises the policy for the simulation model; 3) a preliminary analysis, which makes predictions for consumption, supply, and prices; and 4) a simulation model. After the validity of the proposed framework is demonstrated, a series of planned Florida and Texas renewable energy policies are implemented into the presented framework as case studies. Two solar and one energy efficiency programs are selected as part of the Florida case study. A utility rebate and federal tax credit programs are selected as part of the Texas case study. The results obtained from the simulation and conclusions drawn on the assessment of current energy policies are presented with respect to the

  9. Taking Stock on Institutional Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leca, Bernard; Battilana, Julie; Boxenbaum, Eva

    2006-01-01

    entrepreneurship. It also presents the enabling conditions that have been previously identified and reviews the research methods that have been applied to the study of institutional entrepreneurship. Finally, based on this analysis, this paper highlights future directions for research on this topic. Researchers......This paper analyzes the literature that has been published on institutional entrepreneurship since Paul DiMaggio introduced this notion in 1988. Based on a systematic selection and analysis of articles, the paper outlines an emerging consensus on the definition and process of institutional...... may use this paper to build targeted and sophisticated research designs that add value to the emerging body of literature on institutional entrepreneurship.Keywords: Institutional Entrepreneur, Institutional Change, Paradox of Embedded Agency...

  10. Entrepreneurship in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Achmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to know about the entrepreneurship as one of the key issues related to many aspects, including its relevance to the economic, business and employment. The researches on entrepreneurship are the references to identify the success factors which supported the entrepreneurial success. The internet development in the digital age indirectly influenced the entrepreneurial ethos. It is not only influenced by the market potential and product innovation, but also by the commitments to entrepreneurship education and training model. Therefore, the studies on entrepreneurship in the industrial and developing countries are attractive. It is relevant to the internet era which provided opportunities for the development of entrepreneurial ethos, especially for the younger generation.

  11. Does Labor Diversity Promote Entrepreneurship?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marino, Marianna; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Pozzoli, Dario

    We find evidence that workforce educational diversity promotes entrepreneurial behavior of employees as well as the formation of new firms, whereas diversity in demographics hinders transitions to selfemployment. Ethnic diversity favors entrepreneurship in financial and business services....

  12. Wonder-driven Entrepreneurship Teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria; Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2016-01-01

    This paper will in an overall and outlining way describe why the phenomenology of wonder and wonder-based approaches can become doorways for understanding the existential and ontological dimensions of entrepreneurship teaching....

  13. Opportunity formation in social entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to explore the concept of opportunity and its role in social entrepreneurship processes. Design/methodology/approach - A single-case study of a sustainable community in Denmark. The data include interviews, documents and television programmes. Findings - The case study...... in the field of social entrepreneurship, while contributing to the development of the creation view of opportunities. Key words - Opportunity, Social entrepreneurship, Process, Sustainability, Case Study Paper type - Research paper...... finds that the opportunity takes a number of different forms in the process. These different forms are the result of a continuous mobilisation of actors. On the basis of these findings a model of social entrepreneurship processes is proposed, where the process is driven by mobilisation...

  14. The Role of the Polish Higher Education System in the Development of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Nowak

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this paper is to present the perceived impact of entrepreneurship education in Poland from different perspectives (e.g. of national experts and students, especially at the tertiary school level, as well as discussing the role of the higher education system in entrepreneurial development. Research Design & Methods: It was decided to use secondary data from the Eurobarometer survey and Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM project. To investigate the situation from the students’ perspective, a small size survey based on a questionnaire was carried out among the students of an entrepreneurship course. Findings: The general opinion about formal entrepreneurship education in Poland is rather poor or average; however, it begins to improve when tertiary level education is taken into consideration. Additionally, the methodological limitations and different modes of sample design make it difficult to measure and ascertain the total impact of the higher education system on entrepreneurial development. Implications & Recommendations: More effort should be made to evaluate the real impact of the educational activities proposed by the academic community on the entrepreneurial behaviour of young people. Contribution & Value Added: The contribution of this work is to propose a more comprehensive framework for studying the role of the higher education system in the development of entrepreneurship in Poland. Article type: research paper Keywords: Entrepreneurship; education; entrepreneurial development; institutional environment; universities JEL codes: Economic Education and Teaching of Economics: Undergraduate A22, Graduate A23.

  15. Food Franchising Entrepreneurship in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Kow, WaiYee@ZoeyKoh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose – This report aims to bridge the concepts of entrepreneurship, strategic management and franchising model to develop a framework for the food business in Singapore. Methodology – Based on entrepreneurship literature search, the paper identifies the importance of whole brain entrepreneurial team approach in the food business due to its nature of broad consumers’ base; entrepreneurial behaviour in information source to identify opportunities and innovation in food product, process an...

  16. Risk, Balanced Skills and Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chihmao; Parker, Simon C.; Van Praag, Mirjam

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes that risk aversionencourages individuals to invest in balanced skillprofiles, making them more likely to become entrepreneurs.By not taking this possible linkage intoaccount, previous research has underestimated theimpacts of both risk aversion and balanced skills onthe likeli...... likelihood individuals choose entrepreneurship.Data on Dutch university graduates provide an illustrationsupporting our contention. We raise thepossibility that even risk-averse people might besuited to entrepreneurship; and it may also help...

  17. Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    sample limitations, omitted variable biases, causality issues, and response heterogeneity. We argue that theories in management research, such as the resource-based view, transaction cost economics, and strategic entrepreneurship theory, can fill some of the conceptual and theoretical gaps.......We review the literature that links institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth outcomes, focusing in particular on empirical research. Most of the literature has an economics orientation, but we also review relevant literature from other social sciences, including management research...

  18. Entrepreneurship in the Digital Era

    OpenAIRE

    Achmad, Nur; Saputro, Edy Purwo; Handayani, Sih

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to know about the entrepreneurship as one of the key issues related to many aspects, including its relevance to the economic, business and employment. The researches on entrepreneurship are the references to identify the success factors which supported the entrepreneurial success. The internet development in the digital age indirectly influenced the entrepreneurial ethos. It is not only influenced by the market potential and product innovation, but also by the commitments t...

  19. Effectiveness Evaluation on Entrepreneurship Education

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson-Pesonen, Anne; Liñán, Francisco (Coordinador); Guzmán Cuevas, Joaquín J. (Coordinador)

    2011-01-01

    In EU there are hundreds and thousands ESF funded projects and several studies of these projects effectiveness have been done, but how many of these studies are focused on changes in entrepreneurship education specially in teachers thinking and action and changes on the organizational level? Note so many. That’s why I try to discover answers to the question: Is it possible and how it is possible to evaluate the Entrepreneurship Education project or program especially when ...

  20. Exploring entrepreneurial readiness of youth and startup success components: Entrepreneurship training as a moderator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seun Azeez Olugbola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available From the behavioral perspective, this study analyzed the entrepreneurial readiness of youth in terms of opportunity identification, motivational factors, resources, and entrepreneurial ability. The study examined the effect of entrepreneurship training on young people's readiness to engage in entrepreneurial activity and the components behind successful startups. SEM was applied to a sample of 490 students from the Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia. The findings highlight the positive effect of opportunity identification, motivation, and resources on entrepreneurship and the central role of entrepreneurship training in all factors, including entrepreneurial ability. The role of entrepreneurship training implies that young individuals are able to develop their entrepreneurial ability. The study thus shows the individual's ability to change over the course of a lifetime. For individuals interested in the startup process, this study provides information capable of influencing their new business ventures.