WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy encouraging population

  1. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  2. Encouraging energy efficiency: Policies and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Successfully overcoming the barriers to higher energy efficiency requires development of policies designed for specific users and locations. Reform of energy pricing, which entails removing subsidies and beginning internalization of externalities, is critical to give technology producers and users proper signals for investment and management decisions. But while a rise in energy prices increases the amount of energy-efficiency improvement that is cost-effective, it does not remove other barriers that deter investment. Minimum efficiency standards or agreements can raise the market floor, and are important because they affect the entire market in the near-term. But they may not raise the celining very much, and do little to push the efficiency frontier. To accomplish these goals, incentives and other market-development strategies are needed. Utility programs in particular can play a key role in pushing energy efficiency beyond the level where users are likely to invest on their own. Policies, programs, and pricing should complement one another. Pricing reform alone will not overcome the many entrenched barriers to higher energy efficiency, but trying to accelerate energy efficiency improvement without addressing energy pricing problems will lead to limited success. Whether tagerting new equipment or management of existing systems, policies must reflect a thorough understanding of the particular system and an awareness of the motivations of the actors. 25 refs

  3. Public health policies to encourage healthy eating habits: recent perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorski MT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mary T Gorski,1 Christina A Roberto2,3 1Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy, Harvard University, Cambridge, 2Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 3Department of Nutrition, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: There is an urgent need to address unhealthy dietary patterns at the population level. Poor diet and physical inactivity are key drivers of the obesity pandemic, and they are among the leading causes of preventable death and disability in nearly every country in the world. As countries grapple with the growing obesity prevalence, many innovative policy options to reduce overeating and improve diet quality remain largely unexplored. We describe recent trends in eating habits and consequences for public health, vulnerabilities to unhealthy eating, and the role for public health policies. We reviewed recent public health policies to promote healthier diet patterns, including mandates, restrictions, economic incentives, marketing limits, information provision, and environmental defaults. Keywords: food policy, diet, obesity, public health

  4. Brazilian policies that encourage deforestation in the Amazon

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper shows that general tax policies, special tax incentives, the rules of land allocation, and the agricultural credit system all accelerate deforestation in the Amazon (region of Brazil). These policies increase the size of land holdings and reduce the chances of the poor to become farmers. The key provisions include: the virtual exemption of agricultural income from income taxation; rules of public land allocation that provide incentives for deforestation beca...

  5. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  6. Cyclists' attitudes toward policies encouraging bicycle travel: findings from the Taupo Bicycle Study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin Tin, Sandar; Woodward, Alistair; Thornley, Simon; Langley, John; Rodgers, Anthony; Ameratunga, Shanthi

    2010-03-01

    Utility cycling provides substantial health, environmental and economic benefits. Despite a favourable trend in leisure-time cycling, cycling is infrequently used for everyday travel needs in New Zealand. This study investigated cyclists' attitudes toward environmental and policy measures that would encourage them to cycle more, particularly for a trip to work. A cross-sectional analysis was undertaken using baseline data obtained from the Taupo Bicycle Study, a web-based longitudinal study. The study population comprised 2469 cyclists, aged 16 years or over, who had enrolled in the 2006 Wattyl Lake Taupo Cycle Challenge. The majority (88%) reported the provision of bicycle lanes as an important factor that would encourage them to cycle more often, followed by bicycle paths (76%), better bicycle security (64%), reduced motor vehicle speed (55%) and bike friendly public transport (38%). Of those who reported travelling to work at least once a week (N = 2223), varying proportions reported shower facilities at work (61%), fewer difficult intersections (43%), rising fuel costs (41%), fewer car parks (27%), bike designed to commute (26%) and rising cost of car parking (25%) as important factors that would encourage them to cycle to work more often. There were important differences in these perceived influences defined by the participants' socio-demographic characteristics and current cycling habits.

  7. Peru: population and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrevilla, L A

    1987-06-01

    Peru's 1985 Population Policy Law states as its second objective that individuals and couples should be well informed and provided with the education and health services that will assist them in making responsible decisions about the number and spacing of their children. Thus, the law establishes a firm basis for IEC programs. With regard to population education, the purpose of the law is to create awareness through all educational channels of the reciprocal influence of population dynamics and socioeconomic development and to promote positive attitudes toward small family size. The law promotes the use of the communications media to educate and inform about population issues. The National Population Council, which coordinates and supervises the IEC activities of public sector agencies, has issued publications and audiovisual materials, conducted meetings with government officials and opinion leaders, and promoted awareness of population policy as a key part of development planning. In 1984, the Council organized the First National Seminar on Communication and Population to review activities, set the basis for intersectoral coordination, unify criteria, and review population policy concepts and language. The Ministry of Health carries out IEC activities as part of its family planning services program. In addition, the Ministry of Education has organized a national population education program that aims to revise school curricula to include a greater emphasis on population dynamics and family life education. The activities of a number of private institutions complement the IEC work public sector organizations.

  8. Fertility and Population Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Tosun, Mehmet S.; Yang, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    There have been significant changes in both the fertility rates and fertility perception since 1970s. In this paper, we examine the relationship between government policies towards fertility and the fertility trends. Total fertility rate, defined as the number of children per woman, is used as the main fertility trend variable. We use panel data from the United Nations World Population Policies database, and the World Bank World Development Indicators for the period 1976 through 2013. We find...

  9. Population policies and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  10. Philippine president announces population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-02-01

    President Ferdinand Marcos of the Philippines has announced a national policy for family planning, following his recent reelection for a second term of office. Under the policy adopted by the President, the Philippine Government is committed to undertake and encourage programs to provide information and advice for couples wishing to space or limit their child-bearing activities. The Presidential Commission on Population, in a report based on recommendations drawn up after more than 20 meetings by the 22 members, and states that the unfettered population growth will gravely hamper efforts to improve living standards for Filipinos and will block the attainment of national development goals. However, the Commission emphasized that the program will be educational and persuasive, not coercive. Family planning services have been growing rapidly in the Philippines over the past few years as a result of the initiative of several pioneer organizations assisted by the IPPF. President Marcos' government signed the United Nations Declaration on Population in 1967 and in January 1969 he established The Commission on Population. The Philippine press has consistently backed the campaign for widespread availability of family planning services. The Western Pacific Region of the World Health Organization, under it's Director, Dr. Francisco Dy, which has its headquarters in Manila, has its headquarters in Manila, has fostered a regional interest through its technical discussions and the training of field personnel. Depthnews recently reported that the latest Philippine demographic survey asserts that Filipina women are bearing children so fast that the country will hold on to the undisputed title of possessing the highest birth rate in Asia. The growth rate is 3.5%, and the average completed size of a Filipino family is 6.8 children. This swift rate of growth will boost the 1969 population of 37.1 million to 38.4 at the end of this decade. It is noted that unless curbed, it will

  11. 75 FR 60264 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... 13513, issued on October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving... to prevent the unsafe practice of text messaging by Federal contractors while driving in connection...

  12. 76 FR 39240 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... 9000-AL64 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Encouraging Contractor Policies To Ban Text Messaging While... Executive Order (E.O.) 13513, dated October 1, 2009, entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text..., entitled ``Federal Leadership on Reducing Text Messaging while Driving.'' The rule requires Government...

  13. Smart Mobility – Encouraging sustainable mobility behaviour by designing and implementing policies with citizen involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Maier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the theoretical concepts, design considerations and preliminary findings from Smart Mobility, a research project currently being undertaken with the City of St. Gallen. The project aims at designing measures to encourage the increased use of public and non-motorised transport by integrating behavioural economic principles into public policy. The extensive involvement of citizens and their participation in the design of the measures are to support their democratic legitimization and later acceptance. The paper describes the energy policies behind the project and outlines the theoretical framework for integrating behavioural insights into public policy. The strategies envisaged include participatory instruments and methods, especially the use of existing social media channels, capitalizing on social processes and norms to increase the motivation of individuals to use public transport, creating an open innovation space by means of crowdsourcing as well as the proper framing of political communication to achieve changes in mobility patterns.

  14. [The development of population policies in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M

    1991-12-01

    ," which encouraged development and implementation of integrated demographic policies to solve the problems of high mortality and fertility. The new support for control of population growth resulted in part from the increased influence of the newly independent countries within the UN, which reduced the influence in the General Assembly of the Catholic, non-Malthusian European countries. It was, however, primarily due to the apparent failure of economic development strategies in sub-Saharan Africa. The marginalization and economic stagnation of the African countries was probably the decisive element in convincing decision makers to regard rapid population growth as an obstacle to development. But examination of evidence from Mauritius, Kenya, and Ghana, 3 countries that were relatively early in support of family planning, suggests that proclamations of support do not necessarily translate to effective control of population growth.

  15. "Population policy in developed countries.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G B

    1973-12-01

    Bernard Berelson's book, "Population Policy in Developed Countries," provides a report on population policy in the developed world as of the early 1970s, covering countries with 20 million population or over, and 11 countries of special interest. There are chapters by national experts from 25 countries. A developed country is defined as industrialized, healthier, better educated, better off, more modernized, and distinguished by low fertility. This does not mean that population growth in these countries has yet fallen to zero or lower, but in 7 or 8 countries, population is expected to stabilize in a decade or so unless recent fertility trends reverse themselves or are offset by immigration. The conclusions drawn from the 25 country reports are summarized, and highlights of the demographic situation and policies in 12 of the countries are presented, Berelson is cautious in predicting the future shape of population policy in the developed world. There have been too many policy changes in the past to be confident of the future. He feels, however, that more and more people are likely to accept the goal of replacement, up to replacement in some countries and down to replacement in others.

  16. Philippine population policy: quo vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carino, L V

    1994-06-01

    In the Philippines, debate engendered in 1994 by the introduction of a antiabortifacient bill written in such broad language that it would outlaw most contraceptives recalls earlier debates on population policy and shows that not much has changed on the surface: the US is still providing funds, the Catholic Church is still opposing program advocates, and the population is still growing. The history of family planning (FP) in the Philippines developed during five periods: 1) prior to 1969 FP was offered only by private organizations; 2) from 1969 to 1974, the government began to incorporate FP as a policy; 3) from 1974 to 1986, FP and population issues were considered part of total development; 4) from 1986-1992, FP was subsumed under maternal and child health; and 5) from 1992 to the present, policy was enacted to balance population concerns with resources and development. This newsletter considers the first two stages. The written code of one of the precolonization self-governing indigenous peoples linked the number of permitted wives to population size and limited (through infanticide) the number of children a poor couple could have. During the 1960s, the Ford Foundation created a Population Institute, a protestant group established a countrywide Planned Parenthood Movement, and a Catholic Family Planning Association was formed. The public sector became involved when the Health Department of Manila sponsored a training seminar on FP. During the second stage, President Marcos began increasingly to support a government policy facilitating FP. By 1970, FP was an announced policy of his government. The Population Commission was to suffer many administrative changes during the period, but the emphasis on fertility reduction remained within a basic framework of a policy which gave every couple the right to choose their method of FP. By the end of 1974, more than 20 organizations had become involved in FP and more than 2000 clinics provided services. (This survey is

  17. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  18. Environmental pollution and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    There is a growing recognition in Malaysia of the interrelationship between population growth, population policies, development policies, and environmental pollution. In Malaysia, with a current population of 13,250,000 and an annual growth rate of 2.4%, economic development is leading to large scale deforestation which in turn is altering climatic conditions, reducing water supplies, and increasing erosion. According to estimates 750,000 acres of jungle were cleared in the last 10 years. Industrial wastes and domestic sewage discharged into rivers and lakes is endangering marine life and padilands. This is a serious problem, since 70% of the Malaysian population derives the bulk of their protein intake from marine life. Noise and carbon monoxide pollution in urban areas is increasing due to the 15% annual increase in the number of vehicles in the country. These dangers need to be taken into account as continuing efforts are made to increase industrialization in order to provide jobs for the 350,000 unemployed and underemployed youth in the country. Fortunately, government officials in Malaysia are giving consideration to energy, water and oil conservation in formulating development plans and are becoming increasingly aware that population growth and population policies have a direct impact on development planning and environmental pollution.

  19. Integration of population, environment and development policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechin, S R; Ness, G; Drake, W

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the conceptual and practical issues involved in bringing the fields of population and environment closer together, and how these issues impact upon development planning. Although the international community's interest in environment and demography -- 2 areas closely intertwined -- continues to grow, they remain separated, viewed as distinct and specialized disciplines. The paper first discusses the separation between the 2 fields, explaining that it is the result of 3 types of imbalances: conceptual, organizational, and power. The essay then proposes 5 factors that can be used to develop population-environmental linkages. These include: developing conceptual models that reveal the interrelationships; taking an integrated approach for collecting environmental, population, and development data; encouraging local officials to monitor and act upon their findings of population and environmental situations; and garnering the political support needed to establish a decentralized, multi-sectoral development approach. The paper goes on to consider a conceptual framework for understanding the interrelated transitions between population and environment. These include demographic, epidemiologic, agricultural, forestry, toxicity, urbanization, and fossil fuel transitions. The paper points out the similarities of these transition -- among them, the fact during these periods society is especially vulnerable. Having considered the policy implications of a transition theory, the paper concludes by proposing a multi-method, decentralized, and comprehensive approach to development planning.

  20. Population increases and educational policies in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fapohunda, O J

    1976-09-01

    Most governments today accept in principle that provision of education is a basic human right as embodied in article 26 of the Declaration of Human Rights. Through education, peace, good international relations, better prospects for economic developments, and improvement of human resources are possible. Despite this awareness, most governments cannot fulfill this requirement of education due to large population sizes, rapid growth and competition for scarce natural resources. An historical survey of the development of educational policies in Nigeria reveals that the Machiavellian policy of the colonial period largely created the present imbalance in the educational development of the Moslem north (where slow development was encouraged) compared to the Christian south. The 1st government participation in education by 1877 was minimal. The colonial government relied heavily on missionary educational activities. Political motives and religious conflicts between the northern and southern regions retarded missionary activities. Not until 1926 did active cooperation begin between the government and local states, reinforced by Elliot's Commission Report, the Phillipson Commission Report and the memorandum on Educational Policy in Nigeria. These reports laid out guidelines for government's aid and participation in provision of educational facilities. Post independence requirements for skilled manpower led to the adoption of the Ashby Commission Report as a basis for higher education. 1980 was set as the desired date for free compulsory education by a conference of African states. Nigeria, persuing this ideal goal, aimed at making education free at all levels and for every citizen. The burden and implications of these policies are examined in the context of projections of primary and secondary school enrollments, costs, and manpower needs. The cost of education is seen to rise with demand. By 1990, Nigeria will have about 24 million children to educate. With global

  1. Effects of Economic Policies Aimed at Encouraging a Healthier Grain Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Jonas; Thunstrom, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effects of policy reforms aimed at achieving two policy objectives for grain consumption; (a) to double the intake of bread and breakfast cereals and (b) to ensure that half of the bread and breakfast cereals consumed are whole grain products. The overall aim of these policy objectives are to increase the dietary fibre intake from grain consumption so as to significantly contribute to the general recommended (minimum) increase of the fibre intake. Based on param...

  2. Encouraging the Arts through Higher Education Institutions: Arts Policy Implementation in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Katherine Preston

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the role of public higher education institutions in state-level arts policy in the state of Virginia. The strength of public support for the arts historically has been measured by per capita arts spending, as determined by appropriations to state arts agencies. However, this is a very thin measure that misses an increasingly important contributor to the arts policy landscape - higher education institutions. As direct sources of funding for the arts decline, univ...

  3. Can incentives make a difference? Assessing the effects of policy tools for encouraging tree-planting on private lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseva, Tatyana B; Evans, Tom P; Fischer, Burnell C

    2015-05-15

    This study uses a mail survey of private landowners in the Midwest United States to understand the characteristics of owners who have planted trees or intend to plant trees in the future. The analysis examines what policy tools encourage owners to plant trees, and how policy tools operate across different ownership attributes to promote tree-planting on private lands. Logistic regression results suggest that cost-subsidizing policy tools, such as low-cost and free seedlings, significantly increase the odds of actual and planned reforestation when landowners consider them important for increasing forest cover. Individuals most likely to plant trees, when low-cost seedlings are available and important, are fairly recent (reforest were also shaped by owners' planning horizons, connection to the land, previous tree-planting experience, and peer influence. The study has relevance for the design of policy approaches that can encourage private forestation through provision of economic incentives and capacity to private landowners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Slum population in India: Extent and policy response

    OpenAIRE

    Upinder Sawhney

    2013-01-01

    An increasing pace of urbanization and the absence of affordable housing has resulted in growth of slums in urban India. The Government of India (GOI) has been incorporating certain programmes to alleviate poverty , create employment opportunities and encourage planned urban development in its public policy , yet there has been a fast emergence of slums in the Indian cities due to a number of factors. The present paper aims to analyze certain demographic attributes of the slum population in I...

  5. 78 FR 64389 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ...: For additional information about the Policy, contact Will Wade-Gery, Division of Research, Markets and... ``facilitate access and innovation'' in the ``markets for consumer financial products and services.'' In line.... The Bureau also recognizes that in-market testing, involving companies and consumers in real world...

  6. Population Trends and the Status of Population Policy in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, John R.

    1982-01-01

    The major trend towards worldwide easing of the birthrate does not include the current population patterns in Africa. The population policies of African nations range along a continuum from totally pronatal to strongly antinatal. However, even antinatal policies have had little effect on the overall spiralling upward population trend. (JA)

  7. Volunteering as reciprocity: beneficial and harmful effects of social policies to encourage contribution in older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana

    2015-04-01

    Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Encouraging participation in health system reform: is clinical engagement a useful concept for policy and management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonias, Dimitra; Leggat, Sandra G; Bartram, Timothy

    2012-11-01

    Recent health system enquiries and commissions, including the National Health and Hospital Reform Commission, have promoted clinical engagement as necessary for improving the Australian healthcare system. In fact, the Rudd Government identified clinician engagement as important for the success of the planned health system reform. Yet there is uncertainty about how clinical engagement is understood in health policy and management. This paper aims to clarify how clinical engagement is defined, measured and how it might be achieved in policy and management in Australia. We review the literature and consider clinical engagement in relation to employee engagement, a defined construct within the management literature. We consider the structure and employment relationships of the public health sector in assessing the relevance of this literature. Based on the evidence, we argue that clinical engagement is similar to employee engagement, but that engagement of clinicians who are employees requires a different construct to engagement of clinicians who are independent practitioners. The development of this second construct is illustrated using the case of Visiting Medical Officers in Victoria. Antecedent organisational and system conditions to clinical engagement appear to be lacking in the Australian public health system, suggesting meaningful engagement will be difficult to achieve in the short-term. This has the potential to threaten proposed reforms of the Australian healthcare system.

  9. Population and population policy in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, W P

    1963-02-01

    Pakistan is a divided country with different religious groups represented. Since independence in 1941, the Muslim population has increased more rapidly than the Hindu population, the West Pakistan population more rapidly and steadily than the East Pakistan population. In the late 1950s the Pakistan government initiated a family planning program. The program has trained medical and paramedical personnel in family planning, added family planning services to existing medical centers, planned for a National Research Institute of Family Planning, employed mobile units to reach outlying areas, conducted limited clinical studies on some contraceptives, and used mass media advertising. Only India and Japan are doing more with government-sponsored family planning. A weak organizational structure and an inadequate number of trained personnel are the main weakness of the program. It is too early to assess the success of the program. A 10-point reduction in annual birth rates will be considered successful.

  10. Population Policy For Karnataka: A Suggested Framework

    OpenAIRE

    P H Rayappa; T V Sekher; M Ramakrishna Reddy

    2000-01-01

    In a vast country like India, with a population of one billion, having high demographic diversity and heterogeneity, and varying levels of socio-economic development among states, a common national population policy might not serve the purpose. An effective population stabilisation programme must be state-specific and address regional disparities, socio-cultural differentials and infrastrucutral problems. This paper discusses the need for a state policy for Karnataka, within the broad framewo...

  11. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  12. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors' involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Fran; Delany-Crowe, Toni; MacDougall, Colin; Lawless, Angela; van Eyk, Helen; Williams, Carmel

    2017-10-16

    This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP) initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the ideas and approach, and balancing of the economic and social goals of

  13. Ideas, actors and institutions: lessons from South Australian Health in All Policies on what encourages other sectors’ involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fran Baum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the extent to which actors from sectors other than health engaged with the South Australian Health in All Policies (HiAP initiative, determines why they were prepared to do so and explains the mechanisms by which successful engagement happened. This examination applies theories of policy development and implementation. Methods The paper draws on a five year study of the implementation of HiAP comprising document analysis, a log of key events, detailed interviews with 64 policy actors and two surveys of public servants. Results The findings are analysed within an institutional policy analysis framework and examine the extent to which ideas, institutional factors and actor agency influenced the willingness of actors from other sectors to work with Health sector staff under the HiAP initiative. In terms of ideas, there was wide acceptance of the role of social determinants in shaping health and the importance of action to promote health in all government agencies. The institutional environment was initially supportive, but support waned over the course of the study when the economy in South Australia became less buoyant and a health minister less supportive of health promotion took office. The existence of a HiAP Unit was very helpful for gaining support from other sectors. A new Public Health Act offered some promise of institutionalising the HiAP approach and ideas. The analysis concludes that a key factor was the operation of a supportive network of public servants who promoted HiAP, including some who were senior and influential. Conclusions The South Australian case study demonstrates that despite institutional constraints and shifting political support within the health sector, HiAP gained traction in other sectors. The key factors that encouraged the commitment of others sectors to HiAP were the existence of a supportive, knowledgeable policy network, political support, institutionalisation of the

  14. The Soviet Union and population: theory, problems, and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maio, A J

    1980-04-01

    Until the important public dialog on 3rd World population issues began in the Soviet Uuion in 1965, ideological limitations and bureaucratic interests prevented policy makers from recognizing the existence of a world of national "population problem." Since then, freer discussions of the Soviet Union's surprising decline in birthrate and labor shortages have led to serious policy questions. Conflicting policy goals, however, have resulted in only modest pronatalist policies. The Soviet population problem is a result of interregional disparities in population growth rates between the highly urbanized Soviet European populations with low birth rates and the least urbanized Central Asians with dramatically higher birth rates. As a result, these essentially Muslim people will provide the only major increases in labor resources and an increasing percentage of Soviet armed forces recruits. Policy planners are thus faced with difficult options. Current policies stressing technological transfers from the west and greater labor productivity, however, are unlikely to solve further labor shortages and regional imbalances. Ultimately, nonEuropana regions will be in an improved bargaining position for more favorable nationwide economic policies and for a greater role in policy planning.

  15. Population Growth and National Population Policy of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thukral, A. K.; Singh, B. P.

    2008-01-01

    The population growth in India may overtake China by the year 2030. The National Population Policy of India targets population stabilization in India by the year 2045. The present paper carries out objective analysis of the population growth in India in terms of change in specific growth. At the present rate of specific growth rate decline, the population by the end of the century will be 2.49 billion. For the population to achieve zero growth by the year 2045, a decline in specific growth rate will have to be achieved at the rate of 0.000428 per year.

  16. Declaration of the Population Policy [April 1988].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    The Declaration of the Population Policy, Ministry of Planning and Cooperation, Directorate of Human Resources, 1988, of Senegal begins with the basic principles of the population policy. The intervention by the State into "individual" problems is justified by the Constitution authorizing concrete action in all areas of national life, including population and family life, where the social and economic improvement of Senegal and the entire African continent rests. The population policy takes into account demographic, economic, social, and cultural factors, as well as respect for the fundamental rights of individual persons, the necessity of preserving the family unit, and respect for the rights of individuals and couples to choose the size of their family and to control their fertility. The policy's objectives are defined and include the reduction of morbidity and mortality rates, particularly among mothers and infants, by instituting maternal-child health programs, including family planning. While it would be premature to determine quantitative demographic objectives, reviewing demographic perspectives can clarify future choices, and tables are provided. Section 3.3 defines the following population policy strategies: maternal-child health; fertility and birth spacing; promotion of women (status of women); promotion of youth; promotion of the elderly; preservation of the family; migration, urbanization, and management of territory; employment; studies and research (on population, fertility, demographic and health, infant mortality, and a general population census); information, education, and communication on the population issues; and legislative measures and regulation. The institutional framework will be advanced through the efforts of several kinds of specified institutions, among them: The Interministerial Council on Population, presided over by the Head of States; the National Population Commission; the Directorate of Human Resources; the Ministry of Public

  17. Encouraging private sector investment in climatefriendly technologies in developing countries. An assessment of policy options for the Dutch government

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rooijen, S.N.M.; Van Wees, M.T.

    2006-10-01

    This study aims to explore new or reformed policies to be adopted by the Dutch government to encourage private sector investments in climate-friendly technologies in developing countries. A literature review of barriers to climate-friendly investments and of directions for solutions has been complemented with a number of in-depth interviews with stakeholders representing the major actors involved in investment projects (project sponsors, financing institutions, institutional investors and government). The barrier analysis has resulted in the following list of key obstacles to climate-friendly investments: (1) Lack of a sound, transparent and stable enabling environment for investing in developing countries; (2) Shortage of experienced and creditworthy sponsors; (3) High specific project risks; (4) Overestimation investment risks related to (sustainable) investments in developing countries in general (risk perspective); (5) Additional costs of climate-friendly technologies; (6) Shortage of risk capital; (7) Insufficient guarantee mechanisms; (8) Lack of know-how on public-private partnership structures and on financial design; and (9) Lack of insight how corporate social responsibility can be operationalised. Four main gaps have been identified on the basis of an assessment of current Dutch policies and instruments: (1) Shortage of instruments to directly promote investments; (2) Underdeveloped guarantee instruments; (3) Too restrictive cap on project size in financial schemes; (4) Lack of support in operationalising the concept of corporate social responsibility. Four areas for new or intensified policies have been identified based on the barrier and gap analysis: (1) Direct promotion of (potentially large scale) investments, including: (a) Supporting (the establishment of) sponsor companies developing sustainable energy projects in developing countries; (b) Making risk capital available; (c) Creating investment credit facilities; (d) Making development capital in

  18. Population planning policy in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavier, J M

    1973-01-01

    Population policy of the Philippine government is discussed in its evolution, current status under the 1973 constitution, and future development. Despite the low income, strong family ties, 7000 islands, 87 languages and 82% Catholic population, the Philippines has an official population policy which evolved into the Population Commission in 1969. The commission recommended setting goals, furthering education, removing legal drawbacks, reducing mortality, regulating internal migration and coordinating public and private international funding organizations. The private organizations, international funding,mass media, academic influence, and possibly the Catholic hierarchy influenced events positively. During martial law (September 1972 to January 1973) the government took on responsibility to require licensed professionals to learn family planning, and to change tax exemptions. The constitution now states that the State must achieve a population level conducive to national welfare. The present policy considers population planning an economic priority, has placed 5 cabinet members on the board of the Population Commission (no representatives from private organizations, which recruit 70% of acceptors), and has an extremely optimistic 5 year plan. No public protest had emerged, and because rhythm is included, it is hoped that rhythm users well eventually change to effective methods. Foreign assistance will be needed, and is channeled through the National Economic and Development Authority. Future needs include paramidics, nonclinical methods, rural access, incentives for program workers, and more effective propaganda.

  19. Seven Foundational Principles of Population Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Dru; Bhatt, Jay

    2017-10-01

    In 2016, Keyes and Galea issued 9 foundational principles of population health science and invited further deliberations by specialists to advance the field. This article presents 7 foundational principles of population health policy whose intersection with health care, public health, preventive medicine, and now population health, presents unique challenges. These principles are in response to a number of overarching questions that have arisen in over a decade of the authors' collective practice in the public and private sectors, and having taught policy within programs of medicine, law, nursing, and public health at the graduate and executive levels. The principles address an audience of practitioners and policy makers, mindful of the pressing health care challenges of our time, including: rising health-related expenditures, an aging population, workforce shortages, health disparities, and a backdrop of inequities rooted in social determinants that have not been adequately translated into formal policies or practices among the key stakeholders in population health. These principles are meant to empower stakeholders-whether it is the planner or the practitioner, the decision maker or the dedicated caregiver-and inform the development of practical tools, research, and education.

  20. Africa's expanding population: old problems, new policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J

    1989-11-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces an historic challenge: to achieve economic and social progress while experiencing extraordinary population growth. With an estimated 1989 population of 512 million, the 42 countries of sub-Saharan Africa have the highest birth and death rates of any major world region. While death rates have fallen since the 1960s, persistently high birth rates yield annual growth rates above 3% in many countries. The United Nations projects that the region's population will increase 2.7 times by 2025--to 1.4 billion. Throughout the region, population has outstripped economic growth since the mid-1970s. In addition, many African countries are experiencing an epidemic of AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). The extent and demographic impact of the epidemic still are unknown, but disturbing social and political effects are already being felt. The region's population growth will slow only when African couples begin to have fewer children. The average number of children per woman ranges from 6 to 8 for most countries. The Africans' preference for large families is deeply rooted in the culture and fed by the perceived economic benefits they receive from their children. Economic stagnation during the 1980s prompted many national governments to recognize that rapid population growth was hindering their socioeconomic development. The political climate has shifted away from pronatalist or laissez-faire attitudes toward official policies to slow population growth. The policy formation process--detailed here for 4 countries (Zambia, Nigeria, Zaire, and Liberia)--is ponderous and beset with political and bureaucratic pitfalls, However, policy shifts in more and more countries combined with evidence of increased contraceptive use and fertility downturns in a few countries give some hope that the region's extraordinary population growth may have peaked and will start a descent. Whatever the case, the decade of the 1990s will be crucial for the future of sub

  1. Global population trends and policy options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeh, Alex C; Bongaarts, John; Mberu, Blessing

    2012-07-14

    Rapid population growth is a threat to wellbeing in the poorest countries, whereas very low fertility increasingly threatens the future welfare of many developed countries. The mapping of global trends in population growth from 2005-10 shows four distinct patterns. Most of the poorest countries, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, are characterised by rapid growth of more than 2% per year. Moderate annual growth of 1-2% is concentrated in large countries, such as India and Indonesia, and across north Africa and western Latin America. Whereas most advanced-economy countries and large middle-income countries, such as China and Brazil, are characterised by low or no growth (0-1% per year), most of eastern Europe, Japan, and a few western European countries are characterised by population decline. Countries with rapid growth face adverse social, economic, and environmental pressures, whereas those with low or negative growth face rapid population ageing, unsustainable burdens on public pensions and health-care systems, and slow economic growth. Countries with rapid growth should consider the implementation of voluntary family planning programmes as their main policy option to reduce the high unmet need for contraception, unwanted pregnancies, and probirth reproductive norms. In countries with low or negative growth, policies to address ageing and very low fertility are still evolving. Further research into the potential effect of demographic policies on other social systems, social groups, and fertility decisions and trends is therefore recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Population policies and reproductive patterns in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, A; Hoa, H T; Lap, N T; Diwan, V; Eriksson, B

    1996-06-01

    Vietnam's population policy since the 1980s had stipulated a limit on family size to two children, born 3-5 years apart, and recommends a minimum age of 19 for the mother of a first child. We analysed trends in the timing of marriages and births, and in fertility and abortion rates, among women born between 1945 and 1970, to assess the impact of these policies on reproductive patterns. Reproductive histories were recorded in a random sample of 1432 married women aged 15-49 in a rural province in northern Vietnam. Mean age at marriage and at birth of the first child, birth intervals, fertility, and abortion rates were examined in relation to the woman's year of birth. Later-born women married and had their first child at a younger age than women born earlier. Birth intervals had increased among later-born women but 25% still had only a 1-year interval between first and second child. Fertility had gradually decreased while abortion ratios had increased rapidly. Childbearing patterns had become "earlier, longer, and fewer" rather than "later, longer, and fewer" as stipulated by the policies. The results also show that women with more schooling married and had their first child later. Women involved in farming had shorter spacing between children. There are signs that Vietnam's population policy has focused too strongly on contraception and abortion while ignoring the connection between fertility and women's opportunities for education and employment. In these respects, rural women are at particular risk.

  3. Factors encouraging and inhibiting organ donation in Israel: the public view and the contribution of legislation and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Daniel; Gurman, Gabriel M

    2012-12-01

    Although transplantation surgeries are relatively successful and save the lives of many, only few are willing to donate organs. In order to better understand the reasons for donation or refusing donation and their implications on and influence by public policy, we conducted a survey examining public views on this issue in Israel. Between January and June 2010, an anonymous questionnaire based on published literature was distributed among random and selected parts of Israeli society and included organ recipients, organ donors, soldiers, university and high school students, and the general population. The analysis of 799 questionnaires revealed that, although 74.7 percent have not signed a donor card, 60.8 percent of participants consider doing so. Additionally, 54.3 percent of respondents objected to giving or receiving compensation for donation, and, if at all, priority in transplantation care is the most desired form of such compensation. The health status of the donor and knowing that donation saves lives or that there exists a shortage of organs for transplantation are the two factors most affecting motivation to donate. Lack of information, relatives' views on donation, and type of organ involved in donation are factors most inhibiting donation. Willingness to donate is significantly affected by the proximity of the recipient to the donor. With regard to most organs, their contribution to one's sense of "self" and its symbolic role strongly affects motivation to donate, except for donation to relatives. Compensation for organ donation has little effect on motivation to donate during life and after death. Our findings suggest new ways to construct a more effective public policy on this issue.

  4. Population policy and the Five Year Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandna, R C

    1989-01-01

    Population policy and the 5-year plans since 1951 in India are reivewed and evaluated in terms of limiting population growth. The family planning (FP) programs have not had a major impact on people's attitudes, practice of contraceptives, or the average fertility rate. Not enough attention has been paid to the interaction of demographic structure and economic and social development, and the implications for limiting population growth. Vital elements of a population policy are containing population growth, limiting births among the young and reproductive age groups, enhancing employment options for males and females, diversifying the economy, improving literacy and educational standards, improving urban/rural ratios, and balancing male/female ratios. Several approaches to FP programs are possible: long term measures to improve the social, economic, and demographic structure, and short term measures to immediately avert births. Long term approaches recognize the complexity of the problem. Rapid socioeconomic development is the best contraceptive for controlling India's population. A well conceived population education program can help, as will increasing the marriage age, preventing children from entering the labor market, increasing female education levels, providing old age pension and social security and other insurance, and providing maternity benefits for small families. Short term measures may provide temporary or permanent methods of averting births; i.e., contraceptives, sterilization, penalties and rewards for small families. However, it must not be a bureaucratic measure imposed from above. It must be a self generating process. The author suggests that simultaneous long and short term approaches are necessary. Research should be conducted to delineate which measures have the most impact on reducing fertility and policy be formulated in accordance with these answers. Compulsion is required, and government should not hesitate to step in. In rural areas

  5. Quantifying policy tradeoffs to support aging populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Scherbov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Coping with aging populations is a challenge for most developed countries. Supporting non-working adults can create an unsustainable burden on those working. One way of dealing with this is to raise the normal pension age, but this has proven unpopular. A complementary approach is to raise the average labor force participation rate. These policies are generally more politically palatable because they often remove barriers, allowing people who would like to work to do so. Objective: To conceptualize and estimate the trade-off between pension age and labor force participation rate policies. Methods: We project the populations of European countries and apply different levels of labor force participation rates to the projected populations. We introduce the notion of a relative burden, which is the ratio of the fraction of the income of people in the labor market in 2050 that they transfer to adults out of the labor market to the same fraction in 2009. We use this indicator to investigate the trade-offs between changes in normal pension ages and the general level of labor force participation rates. Results: We show that, in most European countries, a difference in policies that results in an increase in average labor force participation rates by an additional one to two percentage points by 2050 can substitute for a one-year increase in the normal pension age. This is important because, in many European countries, without additional increases in labor force participation rates, normal pension ages would have to be raised well above 68 by 2050 to keep the burden on those working manageable. Conclusions: Because of anticipated increases in life expectancy and health at older ages as well as because of financial necessity, some mix of increases in pension ages and in labor force participation rates will be needed. Pension age changes by themselves will not be sufficient.

  6. Alternative Views of Moral Priorities in Population Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyck, Arthur J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes three major sources of agreement and disagreement about population policy, i.e., the crisis environmentalists, the family planners, and the developmental distributivists. Discusses moral considerations relating to population policy. Lists types of policies suggested in the World Plan of Action at Bucharest (Population Council, 1974). (CS)

  7. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  8. [Some general considerations concerning Cuba's population policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana Martinez, L

    1978-01-01

    The policies developed in Cuba after the revolution that influenced population were primarily intended to alter basic structures hindering social and economic development rather than to affect population growth. Fertility has declined rapidly from 35.1/1000 in 1963 to a preliminary figure of 19.8/1000 in 1977, and interprovincial differences have significantly lessened. Factors influencing the decline include the increased participation of women in economic activities, improved access to contraception, the higher cultural level of couples and especially women made possible through adult education, and increased urbanization following the agrarian reform. Infant mortality declined from about 80/1000 live births in the late 1950s to 24.6/1000 live births in 1977, while mortality for 1-4 year olds is now 1.1/1000. Maternal mortality declined from 10.7/10,000 live births in 1965 to 4.6 in 1976. Expectation of life at birth was 70 years for both sexes in 1976. The most significant factors in the mortality decline appear to have been general improvements in material standards and the disappearance of nutritional deficiencies in children and mothers, creation of the National Health System which offers free health care nationwide, and improved educational levels. By the beginning of the century 40% of the urban population resided in places with over 2000 inhabitants. In 1953 the proportion was 51.4% and Havana contained 23% of the national population. The policy of the Revolution has been to exploit the natural resources of the entire country and to reform agriculture and livestock raising. The growth rate of the urban population between 1953 and 1970 of 3.1% was only slightly higher than the growth rate of 2.19% of the entire country. Havana grew by only 2.2% during the same time, and by only 1.3% between 1971-74. Intermediate cities increased their share of the total population from 10.6% in 1958 to 17.3% in 1970. Government programs to orient migration toward

  9. Five stages in a practical population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C E

    1968-12-01

    A systematic approach to population planning is presented. This should help to provide a basis for decision-making about emphases and priorities. The greatest force for change is the increasing world population. The sharpest controversy is between proponents of family planning, who try to make it possible for parents to have the number of children they want, and proponents of population control, who try to modify the environment so parents will want fewer children. The five developmental stages in the organization of programs are: 1) to meet the existing demand and tell women where to go for birth limitation help; 2) to provide good quality technical service, organization, and follow-up because satisfied users are the best recruiters while unsatisfied persons can produce unfavorable rumors; 3) to improve family planning motivation by caring for the health of mothers and children particularly when high infant mortality must be corrected, (the post-partum period is thought to be the best time to educate mothers); 4) to alter the family's view of its economic prospects and its understanding of financial implications of more children, particularly in underdeveloped countries; 5) to modify socio-cultural factors, such as delayed age at marriage, more education of women, and general discussions of traditional beliefs. Population policy requires long-range planning with phased action.

  10. Policy statement on population and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Inequalities in distribution of wealth, uneven use and distribution of resources, and human settlement patterns contribute more to environmental degradation than does population size. Current global economic strategies and policy decisions affect population and the natural environment. Large-scale technology and communications, the globalization of capital, subordination within world markets, and increasing consumption levels have broken down livelihoods and the environment. Therefore, contrary to popular opinion, population growth is not the key variable in environmental degradation. The erosion of livelihoods really affect women, especially poor women. Legal and political rights, women's economic independence, education, health, access to reproductive health services, and improved child survival greatly influence fertility decline. The disintegration of women's livelihoods restricts their access to health services and education. We cannot depend on capitalism to protect our livelihoods or the health of the environment. So nongovernmental organizations, international agencies, and national and local governments must do so. Assessments of intensive agriculture, industries destroying the social and physical environment, and military activities are critically needed. We need to reassess the macroeconomic forces affecting the natural environment and livelihoods of the poor. Communities should influence and demand policies and regulations preserving their access to resources. Women must participate more intensely in decision making. They should have access to key services. Citizens should have more access to information on environmental damage of industrialized products and processes. All of us need to advocate for more environmentally sound and sustainable forms of development and technology. People at the local, national, and global levels must work to change values that have caused overconsumption, thereby promoting a new ethic centering on caring for people and the

  11. China's Population Policy at the Crossroads: Social Impacts and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    China's total fertility rate fell below replacement level in the 1990s. From the 1970s the fertility rate declined dramatically, mainly as a consequence of the national population policy whose aim has been to limit birth numbers, control population growth and boost economic growth. Having achieved such a low fertility rate, how will China's population policy evolve in the future? This paper first reviews the history of China's population policy since 1970 in terms of three stages: 1970-1979; ...

  12. The third population boom and corresponding macro-policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, X

    1990-01-01

    China's birth peak between 1962-1973, and the expected 3rd peak beginning in 1986 has and will create a need for better, stable family planning measures; economic planning between 1990 and 2020 needs to accommodate the working population which in 2010 is expected to be 71.4% of the population (956 million); and a macro-strategic policy needs to be developed of the elderly who may constitute 17.44% of the population. The aging trend in China's working age population is expected to rise so rapidly that in 48 years, between 1982 and 2040, the over 65 population will quadruple ( a process in developed countries usually taking 80 years), thus creating a significant impact on a society with a low level of economic development. It is suggested that along with the growth in the national economy should come a state-provided welfare and retirement system, with reforms necessary to generate the additional income for elderly support; it is important that the cultural pattern of family care of the elderly remain intact. Assisting the able elderly in earning income in the service sector is encouraged. China's population has historically undergone 2 peak growth periods, between 1685 and 1830 with a 1% growth rate and between 1949-89 with an annual growth rate of 1.8%. The 2nd period is marked by 2 smaller peaks, one between 1953- 1957 with a growth rate of 2.38% and 1962-73 with a growth rate of 2.56%. A decline after 1974 changed to another upward cycle in 1986 with an increase to a 1.43 % growth rate expected to continue to 1996. The 1st peak between 1953-57 has already affected population control and the job market, and the fecund population is of concern because of the absolute size of the population, and because the planned limit for population growth of 1.2 billion by the year 2000 may be exceeded; and the projected rates, which have been increasing as expected, mean a population of 1.5 billion by 2050.

  13. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  14. Encouraging environmentally strategic technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, G.R.

    1994-01-01

    Having moved beyond its initial absorption with controlling new technology, environmental policy today must focus more strongly on promoting the development and adoption of new technologies. World Resource Institute's (WRI) ongoing study of 'environmentally strategic technology' is addressed to this fundamental policy issue. The study proposes criteria for identifying such technology, offers a specific list, suggests the kinds of public policy changes necessary to encourage their development and finally presents a comparison of critical technology lists (from the White House, the European Community, Japan and the US Department of Defense). (TEC)

  15. Population policies in the Fourth National Economic and Social Development Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachapaetayakom, J

    1979-12-01

    In March 1970 Thailand declared an official population policy and integrated population planning in the 3rd plan (1972-76). The policy issue was to reduce the population growth rate from over 3.0% to about 2.5% by the end of the Plan. Population activities in the 4th plan (1977-81) have broader scope than those in the 3rd plan. Population policies for the 4th plan can be summarized as follows: to reduce population growth rate to approximately 2.1% by the end of the Plan; to improve quality of population; to take some action with respect to population distribution and human settlement; to improve the quality of demographic statistics, research, and population projection; and to improve coordination system related to population activities. To achieve the reduction in growth rate, implementation will involve increasing the budget, promoting incentive and disincentive programs for population planning, expanding the services and improving the coordination among all agencies concerning population planning activities. Population education programs will be supported. To improve the quality of the population, both physically and mentally, focus will be on education, employment skills, the distribution of health services to the urban and rural population. In the area of population distribution and human settlement, the policy issues include decreasing migration to Bangkok and other urban areas and encouraging migration from Bangkok to other provinces. Both manpower and budget are required to support the objective of improving the quality of demographic statistics, research, and population projection. A master coordination plan is needed for population activity.

  16. Individual and community responsibility for population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, J M

    1985-01-01

    The Government of Canada acknowledges its shared responsibility with individuals for controlling population growth. This stance is reflected in support to family planning programs, access to birth control devices, free availability of information on family planning procedures, and access to facilities for abortion. These issues have important ethical aspects, especially abortion. The question of when human life begins is theological or philosophical, not biological, and can never be resolved by scientists. In the opinion of the author, it is inappropriate for anti-abortion forces to insist that all others in society adhere to their belief that the fetus is a human person from the moment of conception. Moreover, it is improper to argue for making abortion a crime without taking every possible step to prevent unwanted pregnancies, especially among school children. Among devout supporters of the rights of the fetus, there is an unfortunate reluctance to permit effective sex education outside the home. However, only good education, combined with access to reliable contraception, can protect young people from unwanted pregnancy. It is ethical conduct for social planners and policy makers, public health specialists, and school teachers to collaborate in providing effective sex education. This education should begin no later than 10 years of age and be continued through high school. It should include discussion of sexually related emotional and social aspects of relationships, as well as basic facts about reproduction. Early in high school, information should be provided about contraceptive methods.

  17. Human rights, ideology and population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, B

    1977-01-01

    Only too often ideology means fanaticism, intolerance, even violence, but the term can be used also to denote sets of preconceptions and presuppositions which act as a stimulus and a guide to scientific innovation, particularly in the field of social science. This sort of insight into the realities of life and the world is a contribution to knowledge and the search for truth, also in the field of human rights. These are taken in the paper as those rights whose infringement constitutes a "vulnus" of the essential characteristics of human beings and those which assume the role of a basic safeguard of them. The meaning of the insistence on the human rights theme in the United Nations system is briefly touched upon, but the main effort is spent in trying to find a firm base for both fundamental rights and duties, shown as strictly and simmetrically linked. Various examples of population policies - broadly defined as governmental interventions influencing demographic variables - are then examined in the light of the basic principles laid down in the said effort. The fields taken up in succession for consideration are international and internal migration, mortality, marriage, fertility in countries at different stages of demographic transition, and growth. Rather than trying an extensive coverage of the whole horizon, a line of critical and deep thought about typical problematic themes is preferred. One of the main conclusions which may be quoted is a statement according to which the problem remains wide open of discovering acceptable ways aiming at a modification of fertility patterns which combine a reduction of the average family size with the maintenance of its variability in order to respect free and responsible individual choices. How important and urgent this task is, is underscored by the observations advanced in the final section of the paper including a meditation on the limits that human sexuality appears to have imposed on itself.

  18. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  19. Africa's Expanding Population: Old Problems, New Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces a historic challenge: to achieve economic and social progress while experiencing extraordinary population growth. With an estimated 1989 population of 512 million, the 42 countries of sub-Saharan Africa have the highest birth and death rates of any major world region. Throughout the region, population has outstripped…

  20. Policies for encouraging forest restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, many countries created national parks, forests, nature reserves, and sanctuaries to provide benefits that are underproduced on private lands. Private lands are now especially valuable for providing ecological services that public lands cannot provide, due to the increasing demands for all uses and the political and economic conflicts...

  1. Population mental health: evidence, policy, and public health practice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Neal L; Galea, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    ... on population mental health with public mental health policy and practice. Issues covered in the book include the influence of mental health policies on the care and well-­ being of individuals with mental illness, the interconnectedness of physical and mental disorders, the obstacles to adopting a public health orientation to mental health/mental ill...

  2. Impact of demographic policy on population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podyashchikh, P

    1968-01-01

    Various bourgeois theories, including the reactionary Malthusianism and its variants, challenge the Marxist-Leninist revolutionary theory on the growth of population. Bourgeois science maintains that unchanging biological laws of proliferation form the foundation of social life. Malthus, in his "An Essay on the Principle of Population," contends that population increases in a geometric rate, while means of subsistence tend to increase only in an arithmetic rate: neither the way of production nor social conditions but this law of nature in control of proliferation had been the cause of overpopulation, which again leads to misery, hunger, and unemployment. From this follows the possible conclusion that the working classes should be concerned not about how to change the social order but how to reduce the number of childbirths. Progressive science views the laws of social life in a totally different way. Marxism-Leninism teaches that population size, despite the markedly important role played by it in historical progress, fails to represent that main force of social progress which determines the mode of production and of the distribution of material goods, but just the reverse: the mode of production determines the growth of population, the changes in its density and composition. Marxism-Leninism teaches that each historical stage of production (slavery, feudalism, capitalism) has its own special, historically valid demographic law. Bourgeois science maintains that humankind faces an absolute overpopulation caused by the means of production lagging behind the growth of population. Actually this is only a relative overpopulation due to the fact that capitalistic production is subjected to the interests of increasing capitalistic profit and not to those of meeting the demands of population. In socialist countries, production is incessantly developing and expanding, and employment of the entire productive population is ensured. Consequently, the problem of relative

  3. Theory and practice of population policies in the Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research, presented in the paper is the analysis for the formation and development of the basic theory of population policies in the scientific school of Professor Dmitry I.Valentey (Lomonosov Moscow State University. The research was dedicated to the 50th anniversary of the Population Chair of Economics Faculty of Lomonosov Moscow State University. The graduates of the Chair worked and continue to work actively in the field of fundamental and applied research in demography, demographic education, ministries and departments of the socio-economic unit.The works of the 1960s – early 90s (monographs, collections of scientific articles, tutorials, which dealt with the concepts and their interrelationships, approaches to understanding the ratio of social policy, population and demographic policies, the structure of these important components of social policy served as the basis for the analysis. In the study the comparative analysis of the positions of different authors has been made, including other research schools, discussion issues are highlighted, relating to the implementation of the population policies. This article shows the realization of the idea of an interdisciplinary approach to the study of problems of population management in practice, including the studies and discussions of representatives of different sciences (demographers, sociologists, historians, economists, geographers, lawyers, etc..In the final part of the paper the practical steps are considered to enhance the population policy in the USSR in the early 80s, regional peculiarities of the phased introduction of new measures to provide state support for families with children in 1981–1983, as well as approaches to development of regional programmes of population policies in the late 70’s and 80’s.The research has received a new analytical material that reveals the attitude on the definition and content of the basic concepts (demographic policy and

  4. A Social Work Approach to Policy: Implications for Population Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Angela R.; Allen, Heidi L.; Martinson, Melissa L.; Salas-Wright, Christopher P.; Jantz, Kathryn; Crevi, Katherine; Rosenbloom, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The substantial disparities in health and poorer outcomes in the United States relative to peer nations suggest the need to refocus health policy. Through direct contact with the most vulnerable segments of the population, social workers have developed an approach to policy that recognizes the importance of the social environment, the value of social relationships, and the significance of value-driven policymaking. This approach could be used to reorient health, health care, and social policies. Accordingly, social workers can be allies to public health professionals in efforts to eliminate disparities and improve population health. PMID:29236535

  5. [Burkina Faso: review of population policies and programs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, H

    1999-12-01

    When Burkina Faso gained its independence, no one thought to act upon the various demographic variables with the aim of achieving certain specific, planned goals. It was necessary to wait until 1986 for the adoption of a planning policy and the abrogation of part of 1920 legislation on contraceptive distribution before the first signs of attitudinal change could be observed with regard to population concerns. Formerly confused with birth limiting policy, family planning is increasingly becoming an essential component of maternal and infant health. The author describes the evolution of population policies in Burkina Faso from independence, after the 1974 Bucharest conference on population, and up until now. Today, general population policy goals in Burkina Faso are in favor of whatever will improve quality of life and well-being across all social strata. This goal will only be attained through the establishment of better balance between population and available resources. It involves meeting the population¿s essential food, nutrition, health, education, and employment needs; raising the value of available human resources; lowering morbidity and mortality; improving women¿s status; improving the population¿s spatial distribution; managing the environment better; and accounting for demographic variables when establishing development goals. Burkina Faso therefore plans to pursue a comprehensive approach toward its population problems.

  6. Population health and medicine: Policy and financial drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E; Brown, Jack; Matzke, Gary R

    2017-09-15

    The financial and policy levers of population health and potential opportunities for pharmacists are described. Three long-standing problems drive the focus on population health: (1) the United States suffers far worse population health outcomes compared with those of other developed nations that spend significantly less on healthcare, (2) the U.S. healthcare system's focus on "sick care" fails to address upstream prevention and population health improvement, and (3) financial incentives for healthcare delivery are poorly aligned with improvements in population health outcomes. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (ACA) was arguably the first major healthcare legislation since 1965 and had 3 main strategies for improving population health: expand health insurance coverage, control healthcare costs, and improve the healthcare delivery system. Federal and state legislation as well as Medicare and Medicaid financing strategies have designated mechanisms to reward advances in population outcomes since the passage of the ACA. States are responsible for many of the factors that affect population health, and a bipartisan effort that builds upon state and federal collaboration will likely be needed to implement the necessary health policy initiative. Population health issues affect productivity in the United States; conversely, improvements in population health may increase productivity, helping to offset the rising federal debt. Employers are in a position to improve population health and consequently help reduce the federal debt by addressing lifestyle, chronic disease, poverty, and inequality. National pharmacy organizations, regulatory bodies, and journal editors need to collectively agree to a threshold of quality and rigor for publication and endorsement. Knowledge of the policy and financial drivers of population health may both support pharmacists' efforts to improve population outcomes and identify opportunities for professional advancement

  7. Social policy and population growth in South-East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You Poh Seng Rao, B; Shantakumar, G

    1974-01-01

    Social and population policies are considered for the 10 countries comprising Southeast Asia--Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, North Vietnam, and South Vietnam. All but Singapore have high fertility rates and Burma, Indonesia, the Khmer Republic, Laos and the two Vietnams have high mortality rates also. Government expenditures for education and social security systems is expanding throughout the region and it is hoped that their continued growth will contribute substantially to the effective implementation of population policies. Population policies in the 5 countries which have them are discussed. These are Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It is noted, however, that declaration of policy is but the first step. Strategies and programs differ from one country to the next and depend very much on the stage of development, level of literacy, degree of urbanization, and other factors. Family planning activities generally are endogenous to urban social systems but exogenous to rural social systems. Thus, the rural elite has a large role to play in making population policies an integral part of rural life. The possibility is considered of developing workable incentive packages integrating health, education, and social security benefits with suitable emphasis on fertility reduction.

  8. Population, consumption trends call for new environmental policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-04-01

    This article highlights the need for new environmental policies. 38 industrialized countries gave commitments to protect the environment by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. But, a report on "Population Change, Resources, and the Environment" indicated that high levels of resource consumption in developed countries are a problem also, as are the complex environmental consequences of rapid population growth in developing countries. Global population is expected to include at least another 2 billion people by the mid-21st century. This growth will occur mostly in countries that lack the resources to invest in sound environmental policies and that may not adopt economic growth with little environmental impact. Additional population requires additional food, water, and shelter. The links between the environment and population include social structures, political systems, and lifestyles. Population is increasing the fastest in countries with the least efficient food production and distribution systems. Access to safe drinking water is constrained by poverty, poor infrastructure, and pollution of waterways and groundwater. A major share of economic growth will occur in cities. Population shifts to cities will create demand for health care and education, and encroach on surrounding farmland. Global marine fish stocks are being depleted. Logging and agriculture threaten forest resources. The report stresses that government policies that minimize the environmental impact of humans should promote recycling, eliminate subsidies that distort environmental costs of scarce resources, and implement better forest and fishery management. Politicians must think globally and act locally.

  9. Older and incarcerated: policy implications of aging prison populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psick, Zachary; Simon, Jonathan; Brown, Rebecca; Ahalt, Cyrus

    2017-03-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes. These trends are accompanied by a growing body of evidence that old age is strongly correlated with desistance from criminal behavior, suggesting an opportunity to at least partially address the challenges of an aging prison population through early release from prison for appropriate persons. Originality/value Some policies do exist that aim to reduce the number of older, chronically ill or disabled and dying people in prison, but they have not achieved that goal on a sufficient scale. An examination of the situation in California shows that recognizing how the healthcare needs of incarcerated people change as they age - and how aging and aging-related health changes often decrease an older person's likelihood of repeat offense - is critical to achieving effective and efficient policies and practices aimed at adequately caring for this population and reducing their numbers in prisons when appropriate.

  10. [National debate on the Mali population policy project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, K

    1990-08-01

    In July 1990 in Bamako, Mali, the government held a national debate on the population policy project. Participants were from the Democratic Union of the Malian People, the Minister of Planning, and the national and regional upper management levels of the national unions of women, youth, and workers of Mali. Observers were representatives from UNFPA, BIT, and the World Bank. The Center of Studies and Research on Population for Development (CERPOD) and the Malian Association for the Protection and Promotion of the Family (AMPPF) were invited to the opening and closing ceremonies. The debate aimed to allow participants to learn about the form and contents of the project and of the draft document of Mali's population policy and to appreciate it in its theoretical and practical relevance. The same document was discussed and recommendations made during a workshop in April 1990 by various leaders of projects supported by UNFPA, AMPPF, CERPOD, and different members of the Studies and Coordination of Population Activities Group. Reports of the first plenary session were on the analysis of the demographic-economic situation of Mali and its different regions, and on the objectives and strategies of the population policy. The demographic-economic study is very important in the scientific formulation of a population policy because a poor diagnosis, poor identification of demographic-economic problems, or their bad formulation leads most often to irreversible errors. Three working groups provided reports containing observations and concrete recommendations to improve the document. The second plenary session was devoted to and adopted the reports. Some objectives contained in the pre-project were control of population growth through accelerated socioeconomic development and adapting fertility to development, food security, improvement of the health status of the population, promotion of family planning and family protection, promotion of human resources, protection and

  11. Devices and desires: population policy and gender roles in the Islamic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H

    1994-01-01

    There is a widely held assumption that Islamist ideology is incompatible with modernity and feminism. Active debate in Iran about the dynamics of population policy and women's rights and responsibilities, together with the government's efforts to build public consensus on the need for birth control and family planning, however, suggest that Islam may be flexible and adaptable in response to political and economic realities. Iranian women individually and collectively have questioned the male interpretation of the proper Islamic role of women. They have encouraged the government to introduce reforms in the areas of marriage, divorce, and education, and are agitating for more improvement in women's legal and social position. These activities indicate that reproductive choices and strategies are not decided by Islam, but are the product of the political and economic realities of a given society. The first population policy of the Islamic Republic was formulated in 1989. Since then, the Family Planning Board has regenerated itself well beyond its pre-revolution capacity in terms of research and public services. Population policy before and after the Islamic Revolution, building national consensus on family planning, the family planning network, women's status, contradictory signals, and women's options are discussed.

  12. Nigeria's National Population Policy and its Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compared Nigeria's national population policy and programme with those of other Third World countries and examined the implications for sustainable development in the 21st century, considering the trend of events in the country since 1999. it argued that when compared to those of China and India in terms of ...

  13. Nigeria's Population Policy and Future Fertility Decline | Mba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paramount among these is the intention to reduce total fertility rate (TFR) to 4, raise the use of family planning methods to 80 per cent, and raise mean age at first marriage to 18 years, by the year 2000. However ... It is, therefore, needful to revisit the demographic targets of the population policy of Nigeria. Key Words: Nigeria ...

  14. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  15. Population policies in Southeast Asia and Australia: the international relevance of domestic affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G W

    1984-01-01

    There are 2 underlying themes to this paper: national perceptions of population circumstances at home and abroad are the crucial determinants of population policies adopted, and the differences in perceptions help explain why national reactions differ to circumtances which appear similar; and population policy, though an internal matter, has international repercussions and thus can become a sensitive issue in international relations. Until recently, ASEAN countries were united with Vietnam on at least 1 issue: attitudes toward the growth and changing distribution of their populations. The objectives were slower growth through lowered fertility, resistance to immigration from abroad except in very special circumstances, resettlement of population to undeveloped areas with potential for agriculture, and slowing the growth of big cities. The Australian situation differed. As a high income nation populated primarily through immigration and set in a region of far more populous and densely settled nations, Australia's policy favored population growth and used an immigration program as a way to realize this end. Yet, even so, population growth in most postwar years was slower than that of all Southeast Asian nations. And, although immigration was encouraged, the resistance to immigration that characterized Southeast Asian countries was shared by Australia with respect to all but North Western Europeans, an "acceptable" category progressively widened by dint of curcumstances to include Eastern Europeans, then Southern Europeans, then certain Middle Eastern peoples, and finally Asians and Latin Americans. Australia shared with Southeast Asian nations the concern with big-city growth and like the Southeast Asian nations searched for appropriate policies to contain this growth and promote that of smaller cities and towns. This search stopped in the 1970s when the report of the National Population showed that accepted projections of the populations of Sydney and Melbourne had

  16. World population growth, family planning, and American foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, J

    1995-01-01

    The US decision since the 1960s to link foreign policy with family planning and population control is noteworthy for its intention to change the demographic structure of foreign countries and the magnitude of the initiative. The current population ideologies are part of the legacy of 19th century views on science, morality, and political economy. Strong constraints were placed on US foreign policy since World War II, particularly due to presumptions about the role of developing countries in Cold War ideology. Domestic debates revolved around issues of feminism, birth control, abortion, and family political issues. Since the 1960s, environmental degradation and resource depletion were an added global dimension of US population issues. Between 1935 and 1958 birth control movements evolved from the ideologies of utopian socialists, Malthusians, women's rights activists, civil libertarians, and advocates of sexual freedom. There was a shift from acceptance of birth control to questions about the role of national government in supporting distribution of birth control. Immediately postwar the debates over birth control were outside political circles. The concept of family planning as a middle class family issue shifted the focus from freeing women from the burdens of housework to making women more efficient housewives. Family planning could not be taken as a national policy concern without justification as a major issue, a link to national security, belief in the success of intervention, and a justifiable means of inclusion in public policy. US government involvement began with agricultural education, technological assistance, and economic development that would satisfy the world's growing population. Cold War politics forced population growth as an issue to be considered within the realm of foreign policy and diplomacy. US government sponsored family planning was enthusiastic during 1967-74 but restrained during the 1980s. The 1990s has been an era of redefinition of

  17. Simulating the dynamic effect of land use and transport policies on the health of populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Roderick J; Adriazola-Steil, Claudia; Mulvihill, Christine; Fitzharris, Michael; Salmon, Paul; Bonnington, C Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2015-04-01

    We identified the features of a land use-transportation system that optimizes the health and well-being of the population. We developed a quantitative system dynamics model to represent relationships among land use, transport, economic development, and population health. Simulation experiments were conducted over a 10-year simulation period to compare the effect of different baseline conditions and land use-transport policies on the number of motor vehicle crash deaths and disability-adjusted life years lost. Optimal reduction in the public health burden attributable to land transport was demonstrated when transport safety risk reduction policies were combined with land use and transport polices that minimized reliance on individual motorized transport and maximized use of active transport modes. The model's results were particularly sensitive to the level of development that characterized each city at the start of the simulation period. Local, national, and international decision-makers are encouraged to address transport, land use, and health as an integrated whole to achieve the desired societal benefits of traffic safety, population health, and social equity.

  18. [The policies of structural adjustment and population policies and their effect on demographic aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, C

    1998-01-01

    This work argues that policies derived from the structural adjustment programs imposed upon Mexico by international financial institutions will have devastating effects on the living conditions of the elderly. The spread of poverty and the disappearance of social security systems based on the principal of generational solidarity affect ever larger proportions of the aged. Lack of pensions and of employment opportunities sentence many to misery in their last years. Because of demographic aging resulting from reduced fertility and mortality levels, the elderly will comprise an increasing share of the population. The change is particularly significant for women, who most often care for the elderly and whose greater survival at a time of smaller families will lead many to live alone in poverty. Social security reforms produced by the adjustment leave increasing proportions of women unprotected, despite their earlier economic activity. It is evident that the differential effects of aging on men and women are another reflection of gender inequity, exacerbated by adjustment policies. Public actions to confront the problems of older adults should be part of a population policy contained within an integrated social policy. It remains to be seen whether a model featuring reduced state action will be capable of explicit policies and concrete programs to protect the elderly.

  19. It Could Be a Pearl to You: Exploring Recruitment and Retention of the Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS) With Hard-to-Reach Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinman, Lesley; Hammerback, Kristen; Snowden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    We partnered with 3 social service organizations to identify hard-to-reach populations, barriers to reach, and strategies for improving recruitment and retention for Program to Encourage Active, Rewarding Lives (PEARLS), a home-based depression-care management program for elders. We conducted semistructured interviews with staff and former PEARLS participants. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Veterans, African Americans, Filipino men, other immigrants and English-language learners, old-older adults, rural communities, and people with limited education were identified as hard to reach. The themes of trust, cultural appropriateness, meet them where they are, and framing and reframing, cut across barriers to participation in PEARLS and approaches for overcoming these barriers. Research findings will be used to inform technical assistance activities with PEARLS providers, changes to PEARLS program and training materials, and future PEARLS research activities. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Clinton administration forging population-foreign policy links.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sherbinin, A

    1994-12-01

    In the US, the Clinton administration has renewed the link between global population and national security issues. These so-called "soft security issues" receive attention from the Under-Secretary of State for Global Affairs, Tim Wirth, and the senior director of the Global Environmental Affairs branch of the National Security Council, Eileen Claussen. Wirth and Claussen draft the US response to soft security issues such as environmental security, refugee and migration movements, political instability, and religious and ethnic conflict as well as the other nonmilitary threats of illegal drug trafficking, terrorism, and international organized crime. Population was first considered a foreign policy concern in the 1960s. By 1965, President Johnson decided that the US would provide family planning supplies and technical assistance to any country which asked for help. The initial justification for assuming a leading role in developing innovative population strategies for less developed countries was a humanitarian desire to forward economic development, the self-interest of maintaining access to resources, and concern that rapid growth produced more communists. Today the US remains concerned about resource access and economic development and is also wary of spill-over environmental effects, economic migration, diminished US trade opportunities, political asylum seekers and refugees, and increasing demand for US peacekeepers. It is also believed that rapid population growth leads to political destabilization. Critics of these views blame the development difficulties of less developed countries on poor governing decisions (inadequate institutions, trade barriers, or indifference). Women's reproductive rights advocates fear that using security as a rationale for population assistance could lead to restrictions on women's rights to choose the number and spacing of births. Despite such objections, the belief that population growth is an underlying problem in imploding

  1. Impact of population growth and population ethics on climate change mitigation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scovronick, Noah; Budolfson, Mark B; Dennig, Francis; Fleurbaey, Marc; Siebert, Asher; Socolow, Robert H; Spears, Dean; Wagner, Fabian

    2017-11-14

    Future population growth is uncertain and matters for climate policy: higher growth entails more emissions and means more people will be vulnerable to climate-related impacts. We show that how future population is valued importantly determines mitigation decisions. Using the Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy model, we explore two approaches to valuing population: a discounted version of total utilitarianism (TU), which considers total wellbeing and is standard in social cost of carbon dioxide (SCC) models, and of average utilitarianism (AU), which ignores population size and sums only each time period's discounted average wellbeing. Under both approaches, as population increases the SCC increases, but optimal peak temperature decreases. The effect is larger under TU, because it responds to the fact that a larger population means climate change hurts more people: for example, in 2025, assuming the United Nations (UN)-high rather than UN-low population scenario entails an increase in the SCC of 85% under TU vs. 5% under AU. The difference in the SCC between the two population scenarios under TU is comparable to commonly debated decisions regarding time discounting. Additionally, we estimate the avoided mitigation costs implied by plausible reductions in population growth, finding that large near-term savings ($billions annually) occur under TU; savings under AU emerge in the more distant future. These savings are larger than spending shortfalls for human development policies that may lower fertility. Finally, we show that whether lowering population growth entails overall improvements in wellbeing-rather than merely cost savings-again depends on the ethical approach to valuing population. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. [China's population policies: attempting to "resolve the wrong problem"?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, J W

    1989-03-01

    This work argues that international efforts to resolve the population problem have failed primarily because they have been based on misconceptions concerning the definition of the problem and the relationship between population growth and development. The demographic experience of the People's Republic of China since the Revolution is used to illustrate these commonly shared misconceptions. The difficulty of defining the population problem results from differing interpretations of the basic fact that poor population groups tend to have higher fertility rates and faster growth than wealthier population groups. The Western industrial nations maintain that peoples or countries are poor because they have many children; the solution to the problem would require that they be provided access to modern contraception and associated services such as population and family planning education. Many Third World countries argue on the other hand that people have many children because they are poor, a view implying that greater social and economic development will provide the solution. The disagreement as to whether rapid population growth is a cause or a consequence of underdevelopment results in part from viewing overpopulation and underdevelopment as separate and distinct problems. Results of several carefully conducted evaluation studies have demonstrated that very little of the world fertility decline in the late 1960s and early 1970s was attributable to national family planning programs. Research has shown that equitable division of national wealth, education--especially of women, some employment factors such as a lack of opportunities for children, and a reliable social security system are the most powerful determinants of fertility. The studies indicate that fertility declines are induced by models of development that stress widespread social progress rather than provision of contraceptives and associated services. Examination of the Chinese demographic experience suggests

  3. The population policy of the Russian Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Avdeev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study: identify the current demographic situation in the Russian Far East over the past quarter century, to assess the effectiveness of those efforts at the federal and local levels, to identify problems and propose the sequence of their decision for the following discussion. Materials and methods. The initiative of the Ministry for the Development of the Russian Far East to develop a regional concept of the demographic policy, three scientific conferences on demographic development of the region (2015, 2016 and 2017 respectively, approved by the Government Decree the Concept of the Demographic Development of the Far East (from June 20, 2017 № 1298-r, on the one hand, give hope that the demographic catastrophe will be prevented in this part of the country, but on the other hand, there is a fear that the adopted document, a set of follow-up actions will not significantly alter steady demographic trend, as dozens of previous decisions could not do this. Therefore, a further search of non-usual steps for the impact on the demographic potential of the region is necessary. The results. Analysis of population structure by age and sex, their differentiation by territories show: relatively small generation of 90- ies, entering into the fertile age, leads to a decrease in the birth rate, which inevitably effect on the total population. This requires adjusting the choice of priorities of a demographic policy. Typological characteristics of the demographic behavior of the regions of the Federation, formed under the influence of natural and geographical conditions and the way of life of the population, are mandatory in the regional demographic policy. It is not enough to understand the need to improve the quality of life and create attractive conditions for migrants. Peculiarities of territorial organization of economy and population, with the population density (when a person per square km, also significantly affect the formation of

  4. [Health policies (population interventions) in health services. 2008 SESPAS Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura, Andreu

    2008-04-01

    Health interventions addressed to the population as a whole from health care services are scarce and only exceptionally involve coordination among public health services (vaccinations and, in some autonomous communities, secondary breast cancer prevention). Health education programs addressed to schools are one of the most frequent interventions but their outcomes are not systematically evaluated. However, primary health care services carry out many clinical preventive activities. While the aims of these activities are laudable, the interventions themselves have substantial limitations, because they are an important source of dependency, a powerful incentive to consume drugs, and are also inefficient and inequitable ways of spending health resources. These limitations justify the testing of combined approaches between public health services and citizens' collectives to improve and protect community health. Developing community health programs based on cooperation between primary health care services and public health services requires strategies that produce appreciable results in the short term to both health sectors, as well as to the population, so that these programs stimulate the process and encourage further development. The settings in which collaboration is most promising are population health surveillance and monitoring in basic health areas, control of communicable diseases and epidemic outbreaks, health promotion and health protection programs through simultaneous clinical and community-based interventions, and improved management of all health services in local communities through joint evaluation. The resources needed to carry out these activities should be drawn from a reduction of clinical preventive activities that reduce workload and from an increase in the number and quality of the public health workforce.

  5. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  6. Alcohol dependence: international policy implications for prison populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffmann Norman G

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In light of the emphasis on drug abuse, this study explored the relative prevalence of substance use disorders among United Kingdom (UK prison inmates in the context of findings from a general inmate population in the United States (US. The lead author of the report conducted a structured diagnostic interview with 155 new admissions to one of two prisons in the UK using the CAAPE (Comprehensive Addiction And Psychological Evaluation, a structured diagnostic interview, to ensure consistent assessments. The US sample consisted of 6,881 male inmates in a state prison system evaluated with an automated version of the SUDDS-IV (Substance Use Disorder Diagnostic Schedule-IV interview. Results Alcohol dependence emerged as the most prevalent substance use disorder in both UK prisons and in the US sample. Relative frequencies of abuse and dependence for alcohol and other drugs revealed that dependence on a given substance was more prevalent than abuse ad defined by the current diagnostic criteria. Conclusion Despite the emphasis on drugs in correctional populations, alcohol dependence appears to be the most prominent substance use disorder among the incarcerated in both the US and UK and must be considered in developing treatment programs and policy priorities.

  7. Encouraging Classroom Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Joseph McKee

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Classroom discussion has the potential to enhance the learning environment and encourages students to become active participants in the educational process. Student participation in classroom discussion has been shown to significantly improve the student learning experience. Research suggests that classroom discussion is an effective method for encouraging student classroom participation and for motivating student learning beyond the classroom. Participation in classroom discussion encourages students to become active collaborators in the learning process, while at the same time providing instructors with a practical method of assessing student learning. Classroom discussion is an effective tool for developing higher-level cognitive skills like critical thinking. Despite the potential discussion holds for student learning, many in academia lament the lack of participation in the classroom. The lack of student participation in classroom discussion is not a recent problem; it is one that has frustrated instructors for decades. Instructors report that some of the more current methods for encouraging classroom discussion can be exasperating and at times non-productive. This two-year study of 510 college and university students provides insight into the reasons why some students do not participate in classroom discussion. This study, which also elicited input from sixteen college and university professors and two high school teachers, offers some suggestions for creating and encouraging an environment conducive to student participation in the classroom.

  8. 3 CFR - Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Population Planning Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 23, 2009 Mexico City Policy and Assistance for Voluntary Population Planning Memorandum for the Secretary of State [and... awards, and subsequently extended the policy to “voluntary population planning” assistance provided by...

  9. Population Policy Adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Interplay of Global and Local Forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Rachel Sullivan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan African countries have the highest population growth rates in the world, and are also the poorest. In response to a variety of global and local forces, during the 1980s and 1990s two thirds of sub- Saharan African countries adopted national population policies to reduce population growth. Drawing from existing research and using the texts of population policies to illustrate key points, this article summarises the factors that drove population policy adoption in the region. Globally, powerful donors with significant leverage promoted population policies as a solution to lagging socioeconomic development while international organizations spread norms about women’s rights and reproductive health. Locally, technocrats working within relevant ministries backed efforts to increase contraceptive prevalence, and population policies furthered political projects unrelated to population. The interplay of global and local forces led to governments adopting population policies. Ultimately, continued high desired fertility and limited implementation capacity have prevented population policies from significantly lowering fertility, but these policies have likely increased the availability of contraception, created important discursive space related to gender and sexuality, and provided countries with an opportunity to test procedures and approaches for policy-making on sensitive issues.

  10. [National population policies. Costa Rica. Oficina de Planificacion Nacional y Politica Economica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    Any population policy aimed at influencing population growth, or spacial distribution of population must take into consideration social policies, such as education and health, and also demographic policies, such as reduction of mortality. Such policy must be global in its outlook, and must plan for long term results. Economic and social development carries with it the almost irreversible phenomena of demographic transition and urbanization, and its implementation must never violate the fundamental rights and the dignity of the individual citizen. Designing a strategy to achieve certain demographic objectives implies the coordinated action of different sectorial policies, and a very precise knowledge of existing circumstances.

  11. Causes, trends, and policy of population migration and the floating population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, F

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a discussion of migration theory, a description of the main characteristics of migrants and floating population in China, and a migration impact assessment and potential social policy directions. It is argued that the impetus for migration in China was the population distribution pattern and an uneven industrial structure that favored heavy industry. Another factor affecting migration is the gap in income between urban and rural areas, which has widened since reforms in the mid-1980s. The author finds the Todaro or the Harris-Todaro theories inappropriate for understanding migration in developing countries and flawed. Evidence about migrants' characteristics suggest that migration in China was part of a process governed by the laws of economic growth and market development. Legal migrants are defined as those who legally migrated according to the household registration system. China's development strategy during the 1950s relied on growth of capital-intensive heavy industry. The cost was underwritten by adoption of a price system that shifted the price of products in order to lower the cost of heavy industrial development. During 1952-78, agricultural output dropped sharply, but the employment structure changed very little and the rate of urbanization changed slightly. Regional inequality was obvious by 1978. As reform progressed, patterns emerged that favored eastern coastal development. Microlevel reform outdistanced macrolevel reform. Obstacles to migration were reduced: the breakup of the commune system and changes in the urban food supply system and housing. In 1990 there were 34.128 million migrants, of which 32.42% were interprovincial and 42.99% involved job-related shifts. In 1992, 8.1% of urban population were not registered; 94.909 million were floating population. Cities have established policies to match the size of the floating population to the current carrying capacity.

  12. Comments from a Christian perspective on religion and population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruether, R R

    1994-01-01

    Religion was a problem at the Conference on Population and Development. Many people consider religion to be anti-modern or reactionary. The conference document describes a global population policy that assumes underlying ethical values but does not articulate these values. The document does not recognize conflicts between values. Secular rationality is a culture shared by an elite, not the masses. Yet the document is intended for them. It cannot empower women, especially poor or non-elite women, to regulate their fertility, if it cannot connect with their religious cultures. The cultural conflict is not just between religious discourse and secular discourse but a deep conflict within religion itself. This conflict is seething in Catholicism and other major religions and manifested itself at the conference. The opposition at the conference hid internal schisms. Christianity has a deep conflict between norms sacralizing the dominant patriarchal social order as the will of God and the order of creation and the prophetic faith that protests against oppressive social patterns. Christianity has had continual surges of renewal that rekindle the prophetic protest tradition on behalf of the poor and the marginalized. The world is in the midst of such a wave in the forms of liberation and feminist theologies. Deep symbols of justice and protests against injustice are being applied for the first time to women. To affirm women as images of God, one must image God as woman. Women are called into the community of equals. The rediscovery of the meaning of symbols of redemption and applying them to the poor and women is shaking traditional Christianity to its roots. The Vatican's refusal of the conference document is a refusal to discuss the challenge of renewal within its own community. The conflict with the Vatican should be put in the context of a conflict between patriarchy and prophetic faith (women's liberation). The document will fail if it ignores or neutralizes religion.

  13. The Best Project: bioethanol for sustainable transport and public policies to encourage the use of ethanol; O Projeto Best: bioetanol para o transporte sustentavel e as politicas publicas de incentivo ao uso do etanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez Gonzalez, Silvia Maria Stortini; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario; Moreira, Jose Roberto; Melo, Euler Hoffmann [Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The usage of ethanol in buses is a reality in cities from Sweden, such as Stockholm. The technology of diesel bus adapted to operate with ethanol has been used in that country since 1985, with great success, mainly in the environmental point of view. With the intent of encouraging ethanol usage in urban public transportation aiming, among other goals, at the reduction of atmospheric pollution in the big urban centers, the BEST Project - BioEthanol for Sustainable Transport was created. Besides Sao Paulo (pioneer in the Americas), this project, encouraged by the European Union, counts with eight other cities located in Europe and Asia. In Brazil, the project was developed and coordinated by CENBIO - Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, from the Electrotechnics and Energy Institute of USP. With the partnership of other institutions, the project is developed since 2007 and currently counts on two diesel buses adapted to operate with ethanol. The buses circulate in operatives from EMTU - Sao Paulo Metropolitan Company for Urban Transports, in the Jabaquara - Sao Mateus line, and in operative from SPTrans - Sao Paulo Transportations, in the Lapa - Vila Mariana corridor. This paper has as its purpose to present the BEST Project in Brazil, its partners and, mainly, the results from the demonstration tests performed in field, as well as the proposals of public policies that were elaborated and are being implemented. It is worth remembering that the technology of the buses pays attention to the EURO 5 strict emission Standards, a norm that was recently invigorated in Europe. (author)

  14. Encouraging research and teaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    In support of the Burmese Government's effort to encourage scientific research and teaching, the Agency provided, under the United Nations Development Programme, the services of an expert in nuclear chemistry. He stayed for three months at the Rangoon Arts and Science University. As a result a radiochemistry laboratory has been set up, where radioisotopes are used in chemical research and where radiochemistry is taught to fourth-year bachelor of science students

  15. [Diffusing information to promote population policies based on N'Djamena's Plan of Action].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueye, M

    1990-03-01

    From November 28-30, 1989, the Centre D'Etudes et de Recherche sur la Population pour le Developpement (CERPOD) sponsored the Selingue Retreat (SR), outside of Bamako, Mali to discuss the role of population policy development among the 9 Sahelian countries following the adoption of the N'Djamena Program of Action (PAN) the year before. The key questions discussed were: 1) state of the art regarding implementation of population policy development among Sahelian countries; 2) strategies of technical assistance to support CERPOD for population policy development; 3) organizational matters; and 4) evaluation strategies to evaluate population policy development and CERPOD's programs. The SR recommended that due to the lack of an adequate information base for population policy development that collaboration continue between CERPOD and the Futures Group. The new project will begin with a detailed plan of action for Mali and Guinee-Bissau, followed by Niger and Burkina Faso.

  16. Population levels of sport participation: implications for sport policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eime, R M; Harvey, J T; Charity, M J; Payne, W R

    2016-08-09

    Participation in sport can contribute to health-enhancing levels of leisure-time physical activity. There are recent reports that participation in sport in Australia is decreasing. However, these studies are limited to ages 15 years and over. This study integrates sports club membership data from five popular team sports and investigates sport participation across the lifespan (4-100 years) by sex and region (metropolitan/non-metropolitan). Overall participant numbers per annum increased from 414,167 in 2010 to 465,403 in 2012 corresponding to a rise in the proportion of Victorian's participating in these sports from 7.5 % in 2010 to 8.3 % in 2012. The highest proportion of participants was in the 10-14 year age range, with participation rates of 36 % in 2010 and 40 % in 2012. There was a considerably lower participation rate in the 15-19 year age group compared to the 10-14 age group, in all three years studied, and the decline continued progressively with increasing age. Male and female age profiles of participation were generally similar in shape, but the female peak at age 10-14 was sharper than for the males, and conversely there were very few 4 year old female participants. Participation rates were generally higher in non-metropolitan than metropolitan areas; the difference increased with increasing age from 4 to 34 years, then steadily declined, reaching parity at around 60 years of age. It is a positive sign that participation in these popular sports increased by over 50,000 participants from 2010 to 2012. Large proportions of the population aged 5-14 participate in club based sport. Participation rates decline sharply in late adolescence, particularly for females, and while this may not be a concern from a broad health perspective so long as they transition into other forms of physical activity, it is certainly a matter of concern for the sport sector. It is recommended that sport policy places a higher priority on grass-roots participation and

  17. Resource Trends and Population Policy: A Time for Reassessment. Worldwatch Paper 29.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.

    Population growth and resource depletion are discussed. The need is stressed for policy makers to understand how population projections relate to the carrying capacity of the earth's basic biological systems. Because the earth's resources are limited, it is essential that policy makers in developed and developing nations be able to analyze the…

  18. Interventions to encourage discussion of end-of-life preferences between members of the general population and the people closest to them - a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Byrne, Paula; Horton, Siobhan; Lloyd-Williams, Mari

    2013-11-04

    Discussing end of life preferences can be beneficial, and it is thought that the best time to have these conversations is usually when people are well. This review aims to establish current evidence for the effectiveness of community-based interventions to encourage people to consider, and to discuss with those closest to them, their preferences for end of life care or what they wish to happen after their death. A systematic literature review was undertaken. A systematic search was conducted using Scopus and Google, and academic experts were contacted. Studies were included if they evaluated interventions intended to encourage people to discuss their end of life preferences with those closest to them, or to address known barriers to these discussions. Reported outcomes had to relate to attitude or behaviour change in the target group, or target group perceptions of the intervention. Studies were excluded if the intervention targeted only people with a life-limiting illness, or intended specifically to facilitate communication of end of life preferences between patients and healthcare staff. Studies were systematically described and assessed for quality. There was no attempt to combine results of different studies. The Scopus search identified 5,743 citations, and the Google search identified over 40,000, of which the first 40 pages were scanned. Five studies were included, four identified through the Scopus search and one from a book identified through Google. Three studies reported positive results, two were less positive. A peer education programme on end of life planning for older people, featuring small discussion workshops, was positively appraised by participants. An arts project bringing hospice users and school pupils together appeared to help normalise death for school pupils. A public information 'roadshow' engaged people using an informal questionnaire survey, facilitating conversations between people who participated together. Public lectures by

  19. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  20. Population prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa: determinants, consequences and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, M J

    1986-01-01

    Population projections for nine Sub-Saharan African countries (excluding southern Africa) are reviewed for the period to the year 2020. Consideration is given to the determinants of fertility and to the consequences of rapid population growth. Suggestions for population policies that will resolve population-related development problems are discussed.

  1. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  2. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    The world's population is aging at an accelerated rate. Declining fertility rates combined with steady improvements in life expectancy over the latter half of the 20th century have produced dramatic growth in the world's elderly population...

  3. U.S. Population Growth: Prospects and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFalls, Joseph A., Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Commission on Population Growth and the American Future concluded that zero population growth (ZPG) is in the best interest of the United States. To achieve ZPG in the future, the United States must keep fertility and net immigration relatively low. Practical problems are discussed. (RM)

  4. Population policy in South Africa: a critical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, B

    1991-02-01

    The argument in this article is that population growth and the concept of balancing resources against population growth is flawed when the context, in this case South Africa, is gross inequalities in resource distribution. The fact is that causes of poverty are located in the social and political structures which give people unequal access to existing resources or international aid. Population trends reflect the mode of production of that society. It is argued that the Malthusian law of population and the theory of demographic transition is ahistorical and inaccurate. The theory does not explain why population growth rates change. In South Africa, fertility reflects lack of control over one's life and poverty. Migrant labor in South Africa undermined normal social institutions and disrupted family life. Government has emphasized a fear of a future population crisis because of resource shortages and a fear of the growing black population. The South African population development program is extracted and discussed. Questions are raised about the theory of demographic transition, the way resource allocation is ascertained, the relationship between resources and population in a specific area, and the relationship between population growth and development in general. The theory of demographic transition is examined and the Western influences which contributed to population growth through requests for changes in sexual mores and the effects of colonization. When demographic transition theory postulates that mortality rates decline with industrialization as a result of access to medical care and an improved diet, it doesn't take into account the discriminatory health care allocation under apartheid, or the displacement of rural people from their land and undermining of the rural peasantry. Separate development has led to inferior schooling and lack of access to skilled employment. In discussing the availability of resources in South Africa, the question is raised as to

  5. Coordination between Education and Population Policies--A Case Study of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, S. P.

    Population and educational policies of the government of India since 1950 are reviewed. A major objective of the study is to take stock of accomplishments and problems in the two policy areas so that policymakers will have up to date information upon which to base future planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I offers an…

  6. An Assessment of Population, Health and Education Policies in the Philippines, 1986-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Herrin, Alejandro N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the major policy initiatives of the Aquino Administration in the area of populating, health and education. In each of these areas, the issues that the Aquino Administration is likely to confront are briefly described. An assessment of the major policy responses is then provided.

  7. Population policy in transition in the developing world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaarts, John; Sinding, Steven

    2011-07-29

    Population growth remains rapid in the poorest countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, despite substantial AIDS mortality. Voluntary family-planning programs reduce unplanned pregnancies by providing access to and information about contraception and by reducing socioeconomic obstacles to use. With sufficient political will and resources, well-run voluntary programs have been shown to bring about sustained declines in fertility and population growth across much of Asia, the Middle East, and Latin America, simply by permitting people to realize their individual reproductive goals. Such programs represent a cost-effective approach to relieving population pressures, stimulating economic development, improving health, and enhancing human freedom.

  8. Extending coverage to informal sector populations in Kenya: design preferences and implications for financing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okungu, Vincent; Chuma, Jane; Mulupi, Stephen; McIntyre, Diane

    2018-01-09

    Universal health coverage (UHC) is important in terms of improving access to quality health care while protecting households from the risk of catastrophic health spending and impoverishment. However, progress to UHC has been hampered by the measures to increase mandatory prepaid funds especially in low- and middle-income countries where there are large populations in the informal sector. Important considerations in expanding coverage to the informal sector should include an exploration of the type of prepayment system that is acceptable to the informal sector and the features of such a design that would encourage prepayment for health care among this population group. The objective of the study was to document the views of informal sector workers regarding different prepayment mechanisms, and critically analyze key design features of a future health system and the policy implications of financing UHC in Kenya. This was part of larger study which involved a mixed-methods approach. The following tools were used to collect data from informal sector workers: focus group discussions [N = 16 (rural = 7; urban = 9)], individual in-depth interviews [N = 26 (rural = 14; urban = 12)] and a questionnaire survey [N = 455(rural = 129; urban = 326)]. Thematic approach was used to analyze qualitative data while Stata v.11 involving mainly descriptive analysis was used in quantitative data. The tools mentioned were used to collect data to meet various objectives of a larger study and what is presented here constitutes a small section of the data generated by these tools. The findings show that informal sector workers in rural and urban areas prefer different prepayment systems for financing UHC. Preference for a non-contributory system of financing UHC was particularly strong in the urban study site (58%). Over 70% in the rural area preferred a contributory mechanism in financing UHC. The main concern for informal sector workers regardless of

  9. Population Policies, Demographic Structural Changes, and the Chinese Household Saving Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Suqin; Yang, Dennis T.; Zhang, Junsen

    2012-01-01

    Using combined data from population censuses and Urban Household Surveys, we study the effects of demographic structural changes on the rise in household saving in China. Variations in fines across provinces on unauthorized births under the one-child policy and in cohort-specific fertility influenced by the implementation of population control policies are exploited to facilitate identification. We find evidence that older households with a reduced number of adult children save more because o...

  10. Population Matters Policy Brief. Preparing for an Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... One popular view envisions global aging as a looming catastrophe, as populations top-heavy with frail, retired elderly drain pension and social security funds, overwhelm health care systems, and rely...

  11. Population Matters Policy Brief: Preparing foran Aging World

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... One popular view envisions global aging as a looming catastrophe, as populations top-heavy with frail, retired elderly drain pension and social security funds, overwhelm health care systems, and rely...

  12. IPCC encourages energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mary, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Dryness, floods, food insecurity, population migrations, conflicts are some of the risks that climate change would pose. These risks are listed in the second volume ('Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability') of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) published on March 31, 2014. The proposed mitigation measures are presented in a third volume published on April 13, in which the IPCC proposes to accelerate the energy transition. This short paper summarizes the conclusions of the Fifth Assessment Report

  13. Population health outcome models in suicide prevention policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Frances L

    2014-09-01

    Suicide is a leading cause of death in the U.S. and results in immense suffering and significant cost. Effective suicide prevention interventions could reduce this burden, but policy makers need estimates of health outcomes achieved by alternative interventions to focus implementation efforts. To illustrate the utility of health outcome models to help in achieving goals defined by the National Action Alliance for Suicide Prevention's Research Prioritization Task Force. The approach is illustrated specifically with psychotherapeutic interventions to prevent suicide reattempt in emergency department settings. A health outcome model using decision analysis with secondary data was applied to estimate suicide attempts and deaths averted from evidence-based interventions. Under optimal conditions, the model estimated that over 1 year, implementing evidence-based psychotherapeutic interventions in emergency departments could decrease the number of suicide attempts by 18,737, and if offered over 5 years, it could avert 109,306 attempts. Over 1 year, the model estimated 2,498 fewer deaths from suicide, and over 5 years, about 13,928 fewer suicide deaths. Health outcome models could aid in suicide prevention policy by helping focus implementation efforts. Further research developing more sophisticated models of the impact of suicide prevention interventions that include a more complex understanding of suicidal behavior, longer time frames, and inclusion of additional outcomes that capture the full benefits and costs of interventions would be helpful next steps. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved.

  14. European regional population decline and policy responses: three case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galjaard, R.; van Wissen, L.J.G.; van Dam, K.

    2012-01-01

    Universal processes related to the demographic transition to structural low fertility on the one hand, and economic geographic processes of concentration and urbanization on the other lead to regional population decline in most European countries. Due to this universal nature of the underlying

  15. For Export Only: Diffusion Professionals and Population Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Deborah; Kurzman, Charles; Shanahan, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Export-only diffusion occurs when innovators do not adopt an innovation themselves, but rather promote it to others for adoption. Potential adopters do not take their cues from early adopters, but rather from diffusion professionals who make it their job to spread a practice or institution. The global spread of national-level, population control…

  16. Population scenarios and policy implications for South Mediterranean countries, 2010-2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Beer, J.A.A.

    2013-01-01

    Four population scenarios were derived describing changes in indicators of demographic behaviour should people come to live in different future political-economic contexts. Focus of this policy brief is on expected trends in (1) population growth at regional and national levels, (2) working age

  17. The elimination of contraceptive acceptor targets and the evolution of population policy in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Peter J

    2002-03-01

    In 1966 the government of India announced a new national population policy that eliminated numerical targets for new contraceptive acceptors. This paper examines the history of target setting in India and factors that led to the elimination of targets. The analysis is based on published and unpublished reports on India's population policy and the family planning programme and interviews with senior Indian and foreign officials and population specialists. Five factors are identified as playing a role in the evolution from target setting to a target-free policy:(1) the research of India's academics; (2) the work of women's health advocates; (3) the support of officials in the state bureaucracy who approved the target-free approach; (4) the influence of the donors to India's family planning programme, especially the World Bank; and (5) the International Conference on Population and Development.

  18. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewen Speed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism.

  19. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for ‘fake news’ and ‘alternative facts’ with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of ‘the other’ and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. PMID:28812811

  20. Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-10

    EcoHealth Student: Emerging Researcher Awards encourages innovation and leadership. May 10, 2011. Ecosystems and Human Health. Addressing critical population health and environment issues through an ecohealth approach is a common vision shared by four individuals from vastly different parts of the world.

  1. Employment Policies in an Aging Society: Review of the Experiences of the OECD Countries with Population Aging and Their Policy Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Heon Kim

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review the experiences of OECD countries with population aging and their policy responses, and suggest directions and measures of medium and long-term employment policies to cope with population aging in a comprehensive perspective. Specifically, following the policy objective of sustainable economic growth, we systematically classify policy types to cope with population aging and review possibilities and limitations of each policy type, while also considering Korea-specific situations as well as the experiences of other OECD countries. There are two broad types of employment policies to sustain economic growth in an aging society. One is to increase the quantity of labor force and the other is to enhance the quality of labor force. Policies to increase the quantity of labor force include pro-natalist policies, immigration policies, and policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people. Policies to enhance the quality of labor force include human resource development and flexicurity policies in the labor market. Our review suggests that direct pro-natalist policies seem to be ineffective. Also immigration policies cannot fundamentally solve the problem caused by population aging. Policies to fully mobilize the labor resources of women and older people seem to be the most effective policy. However, labor productivity should be an engine of economic growth in the long run when labor input reaches the limit of its capacity. In conclusion, in the long run, it is most important to enhance the quality of human capital and improve the functioning of the labor market to cope with the challenges of population aging.

  2. Impact of tobacco control policy on teenager population in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winston Abascal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze the evolution of the prevalence of tobacco use, comparing data obtained from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2007 and 2014 editions. Materials and methods. Data from the World Youth Tobacco Survey 2007 and 2014 were compared. Tobacco control measures implemented in the period under review were also analyzed. Results. Data shows a decrease in 30-day cigarette consumption in population aged 13 to 15 years: from 20.2% in 2007 to 8.2% in 2014. No significant differences were found between the sexes. Susceptibility to become a smoker in the next year decreased from 25.8% in 2007 to 16.6% in 2014. Conclusions. The implementation, almost simultaneously, of measures included in WHO Framework Convention for Tobacco Control, is an effective strategy to achieve the objectives of reducing the prevalence of tobacco use.

  3. Paradigmatic obstacles to improving the health of populations: implications for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKinlay John B.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are promising developments in public health, most interventions (both at the individual and community levels remain focused on "downstream" tertiary treatments or one-on-one interventions. These efforts have their origins in the biomedical paradigm and risk factor epidemiology and the behavioral science research methods that serve as their handmaidens. This paper argues for a more appropriate balance of "downstream" efforts with a more appropriate whole population public health approach to health policy -what may be termed a social policy approach to healthy lifestyles rather than the current lifestyle approach to health policy. New, more appropriate research methods must be developed and applied to match these emerging levels of whole population intervention. We must avoid any disjunction between new upstream policy level interventions and the methods used to measure their effect -appropriate unto the intervention level must be the evaluation method thereof.

  4. Special characteristics of population policy in the Middle East and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, M C; Montague, J

    1973-01-01

    The 22 countries stretching from Morocco to Afghanistan, ranging fro m the tip of Africa to the rim of Asia, present a spectrum of population positions ranging from explicit governmental pronatalist to antinatalist policies to no explicity policy at all. High population growth rates throughout the area have evoked various interpretations and responses fr om these largely Islamic nations, which have been arbitrarily group for presentation into 5 categories. Practically all the nations offer some family planning services, even though the laws vary from strict prohibition to promotion through national family planning programs. However, in the past decade there has been remarkable movement toward articulated national population policies. This is likely to increase in the future despite problems due to intranational heterogeneity, Arab-Isr aeli hostility, certain values of Islamic culture and theology, and the current paucity of demographic and developmental data.

  5. Health policies for migrant populations in three European countries: England; Italy and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, María-Luisa; Terraza-Núñez, Rebeca; Vargas, Ingrid; Rodríguez, Dolors; Lizana, Tona

    2011-06-01

    The study aimed at providing a comparative analysis of health policies for immigrant populations in three European countries. A descriptive comparative study of health policies for immigrant population was conducted through content analysis. England, Italy and Spain were selected because they have similar national health systems and different histories of immigration. For each country national or regional plans that included health policies for immigrants or ethnic minorities were selected. The analysis was conducted along the following dimensions: policy objectives, strategies, and evaluation of results. Subsequently, strategies were categorized according to the field of action. Improvements in immigrants' health are the ultimate objectives of these policies but they differ in emphasis and strategies. Main strategies relate to: addressing specific health issues; access to healthcare - information, communication, service supply and administrative proceedings; and improving quality of healthcare provision - services adaptation, professionals training and health needs' analysis. Only in England are some results of policy evaluation available. Different models of immigrant integration in receiving countries seem to condition the health policy approach. England and Spain propose actions to address immigrants' healthcare needs, while in Italy the development of specific strategies is limited. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The effects of country-level population policy for enhancing adaptation to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, N. K.; Kazama, S.; Yamazaki, D.; Oki, T.

    2013-11-01

    The effectiveness of population policy in reducing the combined impacts of population change and climate change on water resources is explored. One no-policy scenario and two scenarios with population policy assumptions are employed in combination with water availability under the SRES scenarios A1b, B1 and A2 for the impact analysis. The population data used are from the World Bank. The river discharges per grid of horizontal resolution 0.5° are obtained from the Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP) of the University of Tokyo, Japan. Unlike the population scenarios utilized in the SRES emission scenarios and the newest representative concentration pathways, the scenarios employed in this research are based, even after 2050, on country-level rather than regional-level growth assumptions. Our analysis implies that the heterogeneous pattern of population changes across the world is the dominant driver of water stress, irrespective of future greenhouse gas emissions, with highest impacts occurring in the already water-stressed low latitudes. In 2100, Africa, Middle East and parts of Asia are under extreme water stress under all scenarios. The sensitivity analysis reveals that a small reduction in populations over the region could relieve a large number of people from high water stress, while a further increase in population from the assumed levels (SC1) might not increase the number of people under high water stress considerably. Most of the population increase towards 2100 occurs in the already water-stressed lower latitudes. Therefore, population reduction policies are recommended for this region as a method of adaptation to the future water stress conditions. Population reduction policies will facilitate more control over their future development pathways, even if these countries were not able to contribute significantly to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission cuts due to economic constraints. However, for the European region, the population living in water

  7. U.S. Immigration Policy, Immigrants' Ages, and U.S. Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, W. Brian; Espenshade, Thomas J.

    If U.S. birthrates remain below the replacement level and are relatively constant, and if immigration is constant both in total numbers and age-sex composition, population size will eventually become stationary, according to this policy discussion paper. Moverover, varying the constant annual number of immigrants produces an equal proportionate…

  8. The World Programme of Action: a new paradigm for population policy. The Cairo Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, G

    1995-01-01

    There has been considerable national and international debate over the past two years on population-related issues. Women have sought to affirm their right to control fertility and to have access to health services while criticizing current population policies and programs. A new paradigm for population policy has emerged from the debate, one which focuses upon providing broadly defined reproductive health services and acknowledges women's reproductive rights and their need for empowerment. This new population policy is embodied in the World Program of Action (WPOA) adopted September 1994 at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. WPOA is the main document emerging from the ICPD. It was developed and negotiated by participating governments during three preparatory committee meetings leading up to the conference and at ICPD itself, where it was adopted. The WPOA is slated for approval by the UN General Assembly during its current session. The WPOA is evidence of how effective women were in making women's rights and health the focus of an international document. The author discusses politics at the ICPD, the WPOA, funding the WPOA's implementation, the road ahead, and the power of women's strategies.

  9. The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Ewen; Mannion, Russell

    2017-02-12

    Recent years have witnessed the rise of populism and populist leaders, movements and policies in many pluralist liberal democracies, with Brexit and the election of Trump the two most recent high profile examples of this backlash against established political elites and the institutions that support them. This new populism is underpinned by a post-truth politics which is using social media as a mouthpiece for 'fake news' and 'alternative facts' with the intention of inciting fear and hatred of 'the other' and thereby helping to justify discriminatory health policies for marginalised groups. In this article, we explore what is meant by populism and highlight some of the challenges for health and health policy posed by the new wave of post-truth populism. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  10. Long-term changes in Serengeti-Mara wildebeest and land cover: pastoralism, population, or policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homewood, K; Lambin, E F; Coast, E; Kariuki, A; Kikula, I; Kivelia, J; Said, M; Serneels, S; Thompson, M

    2001-10-23

    Declines in habitat and wildlife in semiarid African savannas are widely reported and commonly attributed to agropastoral population growth, livestock impacts, and subsistence cultivation. However, extreme annual and shorter-term variability of rainfall, primary production, vegetation, and populations of grazers make directional trends and causal chains hard to establish in these ecosystems. Here two decades of changes in land cover and wildebeest in the Serengeti-Mara region of East Africa are analyzed in terms of potential drivers (rainfall, human and livestock population growth, socio-economic trends, land tenure, agricultural policies, and markets). The natural experiment research design controls for confounding variables, and our conceptual model and statistical approach integrate natural and social sciences data. The Kenyan part of the ecosystem shows rapid land-cover change and drastic decline for a wide range of wildlife species, but these changes are absent on the Tanzanian side. Temporal climate trends, human population density and growth rates, uptake of small-holder agriculture, and livestock population trends do not differ between the Kenyan and Tanzanian parts of the ecosystem and cannot account for observed changes. Differences in private versus state/communal land tenure, agricultural policy, and market conditions suggest, and spatial correlations confirm, that the major changes in land cover and dominant grazer species numbers are driven primarily by private landowners responding to market opportunities for mechanized agriculture, less by agropastoral population growth, cattle numbers, or small-holder land use.

  11. Development Bank Encourages Natural Disaster Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-02-01

    In an effort to make countries in Latin America and the Caribbean less vulnerable to natural disasters, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB) announced on 21 December 2005 that it has developed a new draft disaster risk management policy to encourage its member countries to plan for these events. The IDB, the major development bank for the region, decided to place a focus on natural disaster risk planning following several devastating disasters in the region in the 1990s, including 1998's Hurricane Mitch, said Caroline Clarke, IDB senior specialist in disaster prevention and risk management. The IDB provides loans, technical assistance, and policy guidance to reduce poverty and promote sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  12. Health: Policy or Law? A Population-Based Analysis of the Supreme Court's ACA Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmet, Wendy E

    2016-12-01

    This essay argues that it matters for the fate of health policies challenged in court whether courts consider health merely as a policy goal that must be subordinate to law, or as a legal norm warranting legal weight and consideration. Applying population-based legal analysis, this article demonstrates that courts have traditionally treated health as a legal norm. However, this norm appears to have weakened in recent years, a trend evident in the Supreme Court's first two decisions concerning the Affordable Care Act, NFIB v. Sebelius and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby However, in its more recent Affordable Care Act decision, King v. Burwell , the health legal norm is once again evident. Whether the Court will continue to treat health as a legal norm will prove critical to the deference and weight it grants health policies in the future. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  13. [Population, reproduction and health: notes on the question of a social policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Rocha, M I

    1988-01-01

    During the 1980s the creation of the Program of Assistance to the Health of Women (PAISM) in 1983 and the policy of the Ministry of Welfare and Social Assistance initiated in 1986 to increase services to the female population changed the public policy regarding human reproduction in Brazil. The question of reproductive rights and protection of the health of the woman throughout her life was the focus of this policy. A commission constituted in 1985 set out to investigate the control of fertility, the increased number of sterilizations, induced abortions, new contraceptives, and the increasing number of medical interventions in the reproductive process to ascertain economic, social, and political ramifications. A neo-Malthusian view was asserting itself in the Third World countries aiming at the conservation of social development vis-a-vis the pressure of demographic explosion. By the mid-1980s the debate shifted toward the need to reduce the fertility rate by a family planning campaign, since the previous military government limited public participation in social policy decisions. The fertility rate was 6.2 children/women in the 1940s and 1950s, 6.3 in the 1960s, declining by 5.6 by 1970 and to 4.2 by the early 1980s. At several international conferences on population policy neo-Malthusian approaches were rejected in favor of family planning programs and health care assistance to women. The penal code was modified to ease abortion in high risk pregnancies. Finally, the increasing demand for contraceptives aided by the interests of the pharmaceutical industry, the women's movement in the late 1970s, and the dissemination of birth control information to low income people have brought about change in fertility control, but the vagaries of the Ministry of Health have not led to full implementation of policies.

  14. Encouraging Literacy for Personal Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boody, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    Considers that because literature can exert such a powerful hold on the imagination, certain works can be used to invite students to become more literate and to encourage students to take responsibility for their ongoing personal development. Notes that reading and other ways of learning are shown in fictional works of Louis L'Amour to be a rich…

  15. A suitable country: the relationship between Sweden's interwar population policy and family planning in postindependence India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Annika

    2010-09-01

    This article delineates a strong continuity, particularly in terms of personnel, between interwar domestic population policies and Sweden's postwar participation in international and transnational population-control programs. It argues that Swedish engagement in population control and family planning in the emerging Third World, and particularly in South Asia, was motivated by the conviction that poverty and underdevelopment must be attacked on several fronts simultaneously, with population control being one of the most important. In its first bilateral aid programs Sweden would prioritize the promotion of birth control primarily because it was still too controversial to be promoted multilaterally, not least for religious reasons; and because Swedish experts were regarded as especially liberal, rational, and secularized. Sterilization expertise played no decisive part in this continuity. When first establishing themselves in South Asia, Swedish experts would recommend the rhythm method and other contraceptive methods that depended on self-control.

  16. [Xenophobia in Austria? Attitudes toward migration, foreign population, and the state's policy on foreigners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzer, W; Munz, R

    1995-01-01

    "At present some 700,000 foreigners (almost 9% of the total population) are living in Austria, about 280,000 of which are in the labor market. A representative sample of Austrians between 20 and 54 years [of age] were asked about their attitudes toward foreign population and migration policy." The findings indicate that various degrees of higher tolerance were correlated with being young, male, urban, living in a province with a high foreign population, and high socioeconomic status. "Stepping up the integration of the foreign population...is supported by a minority of Austrians only; as for the education of the children of immigrants, the Austrian attitude is a more generous one." (EXCERPT)

  17. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier; Wilson Cabral de Sousa Júnior; Maria Paulete Pereira Martins

    2017-01-01

    Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state) public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9...

  18. Lessons of "what-if" thirty years ago in population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-khorazaty, M N

    1984-01-01

    Egypt's rapid rate of population growth (3.0%/year) must be seriously addressed by policy makers either by making a major effort to promote family planning or by developing and implementing plans for providing services and employment for a population of massive size in the near future. If the current population growth rate continues into the future, population size will increase from its current level of 46 million to 137 million in the year 2020 and to 333 million by 2050. Egypt currently has the 26th highest growth rate in the world and 9th highest population density in the world. Those who argue that population growth is economically beneficial claim that a large labor force is needed to increase production. They ignore the fact that Egypt cannot provide sufficient jobs nor adequate training for its current working age population. Other proponents argue that a large home market is necessary to obtain the economic benefits of scale economies in production; however, these benefits can just as easily be derived through increasing international trade. It is also argued that Egypt's excess labor force can be absorbed by the current high demand for workers in other Arab countries and that the remittances of these workers can contribute toward the economic development of Egypt. Reliance on foreign employment is not a practical longterm solution. If the external demand for workers declines, Egypt will be confronted with an even more serious unemployment problem. If the government had heeded the advice of those who advocated the adoption of growth reduction polcies in 1953, many of Egypt's current development problems could have been minimized. If the average growth rate had been reduced to 1.5% over the past 30 years: 1) existing food stocks would be sufficient to eliminate the current pattern of substandard diets among a large segment of the population; 2) the need to rely on imported grain would now be minimal or completely unnecessary; 3) the number of persons

  19. Analysis of fertility decline in Vietnam in the context of population policy and in comparison with China

    OpenAIRE

    Papřoková, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of fertility decline in Vietnam in the context of population policy and in comparison with China Abstract Vietnam was unified in 1976 after a 20-year war which left the country devastated. Since that time, Vietnam has experienced dynamic population changes. The Government has introduced an interesting population policy with successful programs. From the end of the 80s until the beginning of the 21st century, Vietnam experienced a huge decline in fertility, one of the most significant...

  20. ENCOURAGEMENT PROVERBS AND THEIR DISCOURSE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    It could be asserted that many proverbs that are used for encouragements are best deployed in conversational encounters involving a few culturally conscious members. Let us look at the underlisted proverbs. 3.1.2 Example B: Father, mother and son: 30. Ugomba: Papa nә mama iϕe m shị m gwaa m unu bә nacholә m iso ...

  1. Population health metrics: crucial inputs to the development of evidence for health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salomon Joshua A

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Valid, reliable and comparable measures of the health states of individuals and of the health status of populations are critical components of the evidence base for health policy. We need to develop population health measurement strategies that coherently address the relationships between epidemiological measures (such as risk exposures, incidence, and mortality rates and multi-domain measures of population health status, while ensuring validity and cross-population comparability. Studies reporting on descriptive epidemiology of major diseases, injuries and risk factors, and on the measurement of health at the population level – either for monitoring trends in health levels or inequalities or for measuring broad outcomes of health systems and social interventions – are not well-represented in traditional epidemiology journals, which tend to concentrate on causal studies and on quasi-experimental design. In particular, key methodological issues relating to the clear conceptualisation of, and the validity and comparability of measures of population health are currently not addressed coherently by any discipline, and cross-disciplinary debate is fragmented and often conducted in mutually incomprehensible language or paradigms. Population health measurement potentially bridges a range of currently disjoint fields of inquiry relating to health: biology, demography, epidemiology, health economics, and broader social science disciplines relevant to assessment of health determinants, health state valuations and health inequalities. This new journal will focus on the importance of a population based approach to measurement as a way to characterize the complexity of people's health, the diseases and risks that affect it, its distribution, and its valuation, and will attempt to provide a forum for innovative work and debate that bridge the many fields of inquiry relevant to population health in order to contribute to the development of valid

  2. Primary Care for Underserved Populations: Navigating Policy to Incorporate Occupational Therapy Into Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Aileen D; Griffith, Vanessa M; Mroz, Tracy M; Jirikowic, Tracy L

    Federally qualified health centers (FQHCs) provide low- or no-cost primary care to medically underserved populations such as homeless or low-income people, migrant workers, and members of marginalized cultural groups. Occupational therapy services have the potential to help improve the health and functioning of FQHC patients. Using a FQHC serving American Indian/Alaska Native populations as a case example, we describe how occupational therapy is well suited to help meet the needs of medically underserved populations. We then examine options for integrating occupational therapy into this unique primary care setting, discuss related administrative and policy considerations, and propose possible solutions to identified barriers. Copyright © 2017 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  3. FAMILY AND YOUTH POLICY AS REGULATION FORMS REPRODUCTION OF THE POPULATION OF REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Akyulov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In article the problem of formation of a regional family, youth policy is considered, necessity of regulation of processes of reproduction of the population, especially, in the conditions of the proceeding demographic crisis assuming presence of is standard-legal base, corresponding to the decision of problems of demographic development of region is proved. Results of the spent sociological interrogations on problems of family-marriage, reproductive behaviour of youth, and also the relation of the population of younger age groups to the state measures, the young families directed on support, birth rate increase are analyzed. The series of measures for increase family-marriage, reproductive, socio-labor activity of the population and, first of all, youth is offered.

  4. Population-based learning of load balancing policies for a distributed computer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Pankaj; Wah, Benjamin W.

    1993-01-01

    Effective load-balancing policies use dynamic resource information to schedule tasks in a distributed computer system. We present a novel method for automatically learning such policies. At each site in our system, we use a comparator neural network to predict the relative speedup of an incoming task using only the resource-utilization patterns obtained prior to the task's arrival. Outputs of these comparator networks are broadcast periodically over the distributed system, and the resource schedulers at each site use these values to determine the best site for executing an incoming task. The delays incurred in propagating workload information and tasks from one site to another, as well as the dynamic and unpredictable nature of workloads in multiprogrammed multiprocessors, may cause the workload pattern at the time of execution to differ from patterns prevailing at the times of load-index computation and decision making. Our load-balancing policy accommodates this uncertainty by using certain tunable parameters. We present a population-based machine-learning algorithm that adjusts these parameters in order to achieve high average speedups with respect to local execution. Our results show that our load-balancing policy, when combined with the comparator neural network for workload characterization, is effective in exploiting idle resources in a distributed computer system.

  5. Mental health policy in Kenya -an integrated approach to scaling up equitable care for poor populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Rachel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although most donor and development agency attention is focussed on communicable diseases in Kenya, the importance of non-communicable diseases including mental health and mental illness is increasingly apparent, both in their own right and because of their influence on health, education and social goals. Mental illness is common but the specialist service is extremely sparse and primary care is struggling to cope with major health demands. Non health sectors e.g. education, prisons, police, community development, gender and children, regional administration and local government have significant concerns about mental health, but general health programmes have been surprisingly slow to appreciate the significance of mental health for physical health targets. Despite a people centred post colonial health delivery system, poverty and global social changes have seriously undermined equity. This project sought to meet these challenges, aiming to introduce sustainable mental health policy and implementation across the country, within the context of extremely scarce resources. Methods A multi-faceted and comprehensive programme which combined situation appraisal to inform planning, sustained intersectoral policy dialogue at national and regional level; establishment of a health sector system for coordination, supervision and training of at each level (national, regional, district and primary care; development workshops; production of toolkits, development of guidelines and standards; encouragement of intersectoral liaison at national, regional, district and local levels; public education; and integration of mental health into health management systems. Results The programme has achieved detailed situation appraisal, epidemiological needs assessment, inclusion of mental health into the health sector reform plans, and into the National Package of Essential Health Interventions, annual operational plans, mental health policy guidelines

  6. Sustainable Development Policy for the Environomy: Population, Land-use, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravago, M.; Roumasset, J.

    2009-12-01

    Despite its inertia and avowed purpose of being practical and feasible, sustainability science has yet to embrace the policy sciences. The existing sustainability science agenda emphasizes the importance of taking a systems approach and stresses capturing many interactions between natural and human systems. In order to incorporate policy analysis, we first trace the history of thought of sustainable development, including its definition and operationalization. After rejecting the popular Venn diagram approach to sustainable development (environment, economy, society) as non-operational and unfettered preservationism as counterproductive, two promising approaches to sustainable growth are contrasted. Negative sustainability is an injunction not to deplete the total value of natural and produced capital, leaving all other questions of economic and environmental management unanswered. To fill the void, we offer positive sustainability, which maximizes intertemporal welfare while incorporating interlinkages within the total environomy. This provides an operational framework for sustainable growth, including the efficiency values of produced and natural capital. In addition, sustainable development must include the optimal patterns of production, consumption, and trade. We illustrate particular patterns of unsustainable development by drawing on lessons from cultivation patterns in the Philippines. In the province of Bukidnon, Philippines the traditional drivers of agricultural expansion were logging and forest fires. In recent decades, intense vegetable cultivation coupled with access to roads and lack of well-defined property rights drive intensification and environmental degradation. Population in the province has risen and grew more than the national average. The high population growth, combined with distorted economic policies, has resulted in extreme population pressure in the province, which decreased the fallow period and caused erosion, falling yields, and

  7. The ECA executive secretary underscored the need for appropriate population policies and programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In his statement at the Third Population Conference, Mr. Layashi Yaker, United Nations under secretary-general and executive secretary of the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), noted that the conference was convened after the adoption of the treaty establishing the African Economic Community and after the Earth Summit, which adopted Agenda 21. These constituted essential landmarks in the development of Africa. Rapid population growth has diverted resources from being invested in productive sectors. Moderate population growth would make it easier to improve the well-being of families. Unfortunately, the increasing poverty caused by negative effects of structural adjustment programs further hampered efforts at a balance between population and development. In this context, appropriate population policies, family planning programs, promotion of rural development, population distribution, and urbanization issues were essential. ECA, in cooperation with other United Nations organizations such as the UN Population Fund, promotes the adoption of programs to be implemented by member states. However, implementation often flounders without allocation of required resources, as The Kilimanjaro Program of Action showed. Yakar described the tragic situation in Somalia, where many women, children, and men have died from famine and war. The situation has also created the refugee problem. Similar circumstances in the Sudan and Liberia had significant implications on population and development. The United Nations secretary general's Agenda for Peace is a prerequisite in dealing with the complex issues of population and development. African development problems are related to external debt and exploitation of its resources. Developments occurring in eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union meant that Africa was getting less funds, while the eastern European countries were provided with more resources.

  8. Rapid increase in contraceptive rate: since 1981 new population control policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    In December 1981 the government of the Republic of Korea announced new population control policy measures calling for an improvement of the current family planning program management system; institution of a new social and institutional support system to inculcate the small size family norm and to eradicate the parental son preference attitude; strengthening information, education, and communication (IEC) activities; and establishment of close coordination among the government organizations relating to the population programs. As a result of the policy measures, since 1982 there has been a rapid increase in the contraceptive acceptance rate. The number of contraceptive acceptors through the government program increased from 614,100 in 1981 to 1,094,600 in 1983, a 78.3% increase. There has been a marked increase in sterilization and menstrual regulation services. The program achievement for 1983 is equivalent to about 19% of the total eligible women aged 15-44. According to the contraceptive acceptors' coupon analysis, the age of women at the time of contraceptive acceptance through the government program dropped steadily from 31.4 in 1981 to 30.2 in 1983 and their number of children declined from 2.8 to 2.5 during the same period. In line with the new population control policy, several social support measures for the small size family have been strengthened. These include: income tax exemption up to 2 children; corporation tax exemption on expenditure for family planning services to employees; inclusion of population education in the formal school curriculum; and reduction of child delivery charges for sterilization acceptors after 2nd delivery in public hospitals. The 1982 National Family Health Survey revealed that the total fertility rate declined to 2.7 and the contraceptive practice rate of women aged 15-44 increased to 58% in 1982. Yet, in recent years virtually no substantial change in the fertility level and in the contraceptive practice rate has been

  9. [Encouraging experiences of interactive lectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Sanna; Linden, Anni-Maija; Ojala, Päivi M; Polvi, Anne; Sallinen, Ville; Viranta, Suvi

    2009-01-01

    Traditional lectures typically represent unidirectional transfer of information from teacher to students whilst interactive lectures involve student activity. We analyzed the experiences of students and teachers of interactive lectures by observation and questionnaires during a course organized by Helsinki Biomedical Graduate School. Teachers and the majority of students found interactive lectures highly motivating although we observed that only a fraction of students participated in discussions. Students were of the opinion that interactivity improved their learning. Supplementing lectures with interactive elements encourages students to adopt active learning techniques.

  10. Policy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and modified for the African Journal of Food and Nutritional Sciences (AJFNS). Michael Abu Sakara ..... the spiraling cycle of diminishing returns has set in and ... External nutrients applied on small grains were minimal and only supplemented organic manure. Rotations were encouraged and tree crops coffee and bananas.

  11. Does environmental policy affect scaling laws between population and pollution? Evidence from American metropolitan areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Nicholas Z; Jha, Akshaya

    2017-01-01

    Modern cities are engines of production, innovation, and growth. However, urbanization also increases both local and global pollution from household consumption and firms' production. Do emissions change proportionately to city size or does pollution tend to outpace or lag urbanization? Do emissions scale differently with population versus economic growth or are emissions, population, and economic growth inextricably linked? How are the scaling relationships between emissions, population, and economic growth affected by environmental regulation? This paper examines the link between urbanization, economic growth and pollution using data from Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the United States between 1999 and 2011. We find that the emissions of local air pollution in these MSAs scale according to a ¾ power law with both population size and gross domestic product (GDP). However, the monetary damages from these local emissions scale linearly with both population and GDP. Counties that have previously been out of attainment with the local air quality standards set by the Clean Air Act show an entirely different relationship: local emissions scale according to the square root of population, while the monetary damages from local air pollution follow a 2/3rds power law with population. Counties out of attainment are subject to more stringent emission controls; we argue based on this that enforcement of the Clean Air Act induces sublinear scaling between emissions, damages, and city size. In contrast, we find that metropolitan GDP scales super-linearly with population in all MSAs regardless of attainment status. Summarizing, our findings suggest that environmental policy limits the adverse effects of urbanization without interfering with the productivity benefits that manifest in cities.

  12. Constructing populations in biobanking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement w...

  13. Population in urban development and the practical problems of urban planning policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Uyanga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the pattern of recent growth in African towns, examines the population component in this growth process and discusses the attendant urban planning problems. The contention in the study is that there are problems of definition. policy enunciation, and organisational co-ordination in the conceptualization. planning. orchestration and implementation of urban development and service systems. The magnitude of African urban developmental problems, and its multi-faceted nature demands that the latest in scientific knowledge and technological innovations should be integrated and incorporated into the urban planning and implementation processes.

  14. The second great wall of China: evolution of a successful policy of population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stycos, J M

    1989-10-01

    In 1949, Mao Tse-tung professed that overpopulation could not occur under communism and more people and socialist organization leads only to more wealth and power. Yet 3 decades later communist China has adopted Malthusian population policies claiming them as socialist with a Chinese approach. This shift is ideology came about due to rapid population growth, concomitant food shortages, and insufficient economic growth. Since 1982 China has added 13 million persons/year to its population of 1 billion. In 1963, urban fertility began to decline from 6 children/woman to 3 at the end of the decade. The early 1970s marked the beginning of the politicization of birth control. Unlike Western nations and other developing countries that emphasize the health of mothers and children in their family planning campaigns, China emphasizes political goals. For example, the Chinese purports that family planning can speed world revolution by reducing family size. The Chinese prefer to persuade others to use contraceptives rather than coercing them to do so. Actually Chinese prefer very small families (2 in urban areas and 2 in rural areas). This persuasion and the introduction of oral contraceptives (OCs) and a simpler technique for female sterilization (minilaparotomy) contributed to the high contraceptive usage of 70% for couples of childbearing age and a high abortion rate of 318/1000 live birth by the end of the 1970s. The Chinese constitution states that family planning is the duty of each couple rather than a right. Further, the government has a 1 child/couple population policy. Even though China has had many successes, it has not reached a below replacement level (1989 total fertility rate=2.4), however.

  15. International policies to address the greenhouse effect. An evaluation of international mechanisms to encourage developing country participation in global greenhouse gas control strategies, especially through the formulation of national programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, J.; Van der Wurff, R.; Junne, G.

    1995-01-01

    The political feasibility of strategies for North-South cooperation on climate change within individual countries is analyzed. The conditions under which developing countries would be willing to take action to address climate change and industrialised countries would be willing to support these actions are discussed. Unfortunately, the study indicates that at present there is very limited common ground between developing and industrialised countries. Perceptions of actors and interest groups within seven countries (USA, Germany, UK, India, Indonesia, Brazil and Kenya) on climate change and international climate change policies (instruments and mechanisms) are compared, applying regime theory, and building upon a qualitative content analysis of interviews and documents, and on interviews with experts. The study concludes that developing countries distrust the position of industrialised countries, that is bases upon clearly distinguishing global from local problems and causes of climate change, climate, environmental, economic, and social problems in developing countries. In emphasising distinctions, that in the view of developing countries are incorrect, misleading and detrimental, industrialised countries increase the political costs of North-South cooperation. A more practical approach is recommended, based upon a 'four wheel drive strategy' in which capacity building, Joint Implementation, 'traditional' development cooperation, and strategies to actualize 'dormant' interest groups can all play a role. The additional costs of such a strategy should be balanced against the additional benefits in terms of a relative decline in costs of global change policies. 352 refs

  16. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen, E-mail: n.hamza@ncl.ac.u [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: {yields} An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. {yields} Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. {yields} Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  17. The challenge to UK energy policy: An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose

    2011-01-01

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. - Research highlights: → An aging society in the UK will not lead to reduction in energy consumption. → Physical ability, housing condition, cultural habits and energy poverty undermine policy. → Rise of home entertainment and consumerism 'Afluenza' increase energy consumption.

  18. Dog and cat management through sterilization: Implications for population dynamics and veterinary public policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Ricardo Augusto; Baquero, Oswaldo Santos; Guilloux, Aline Gil Alves; Moretti, Caio Figueiredo; de Lucca, Tosca; Rodrigues, Ricardo Conde Alves; Castagna, Cláudio Luiz; Presotto, Douglas; Kronitzky, Yury Cezar; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Ferreira, Fernando; Amaku, Marcos

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to compare different sterilization scenarios allowing the adoption of the most adequate strategy to control owned dog and cat population sizes as the official veterinary public policy for animal control in an urban area of Campinas municipality, Brazil. To achieve this goal, the vital parameters of the owned pet population were measured in a neighborhood of Campinas called Jardim Vila Olimpia through questionnaires used in two census studies performed in February 2012 and June 2013. Different hypothetical sterilization scenarios were compared with the scenario of a single sterilization campaign performed in the study area between the census studies. Using a deterministic mathematical model, population dynamics were simulated for these different scenarios. We have observed that for both owned dogs and cats, the impact on the population size achieved by a single sterilization campaign would be diluted over the years, equating to the impact achieved by the usual sterilization rate practiced before the sterilization campaign yearly. Moreover, using local and global sensitivity analyses, we assessed the relative influence on animal population evolution of each vital parameter used in the mathematical models. The more influential parameters for both species were the carrying capacity of the environment and sterilization rates of males and females (for both species). We observed that even with sterilizing 100% of the intact animals annually, it would not be possible to obtain proportions greater than 86% and 88% of sterilized dogs and cats, respectively, after 20 years due to the high introduction of new intact animals. There is no public dog and cat sterilization service in place in the city, and sporadic and local sterilization campaigns are performed with a prior communication to the owners to bring their animals to be sterilized in a selected veterinary facility. If a sterilization campaign was performed annually in the study area, it would

  19. Air quality public policies and their implications for densely populated urban areas in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos de Moura Xavier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the current growth of the Brazilian population income and energy consumption and an increase in the population density in urban areas, air quality in the crowded Brazilian cities is being questioned. In searching for a solution we analyzed both the Brazilian and Regional (São Paulo state public policies of air quality that have been issued since 1981 by confronting them to the air quality official indexes. Following the growth of the national vehicle fleet, 48.8 million in 2012 from 9.3 million in 1980, the total carbon dioxide emissions tripled. At regional level, PM2.5 measurements have been carried out systematically since 1999 in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo city, the largest Brazilian city, with 19.7 million inhabitants, and more than 7 million vehicles powered mainly by fossil fuels. Although the numbers are still above the state standard to be reached (10µg.m-3, there was a decrease on the annual average in 2008-2015 compared with 2001-2007. This was partially due to the limits established for new vehicles by federal programs. The analysis indicated that the reduction of air pollutants emission will be more easily achieved based on strategies that combine policies supported by current laws, government and private sector agreements and the community engagement.

  20. The politics of population policy in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H; Assadpour, S

    2000-03-01

    The Islamic Republic of Iran arguably has one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This success is all the more interesting for advocates of population programs because the political leaders of the Islamic regime were once strongly opposed to family planning. Indeed, after gaining power following the 1979 revolution, they were responsible for dismantling Iran's relatively new family planning program and introducing pronatalist policies. This article provides an account of the different phases of the population policy in Iran and examines the diverse elements that led politico-religious leaders to revise their views about fertility control and to participate in creating a workable family planning program. The complex formal and informal strategies that the political experts, the media, the religious authorities, and the government of the Islamic Republic adopted in order to achieve this about-face are described. The analysis is based on data collected by the first author during anthropological field research in 1993-96, by means of informal interviews with officials, with medical personnel, with family planning clients, and with religious leaders.

  1. Community Psychology as a Process of Citizen Participation in Health Policy Comment on "The Rise of Post-truth Populism in Pluralist Liberal Democracies: Challenges for Health Policy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Danny

    2017-06-25

    This brief commentary discusses a recent paper by Speed and Mannion that explores "The Rise of post truth populism in liberal democracies: challenges for health policy." It considers their assertion that through meaningful democratic engagement in health policy, some of the risks brought about by an exclusionary populist politics can be mediated. With an overview of what participation means in modern healthcare policy and implementation, the field of community psychology is presented as one way to engage marginalized groups at risk of exploitation or exclusion by nativist populist policy. © 2018 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  2. Fake Populism or Real Populism: Pork Barrel Policy as Political Corruption in House of Representative During 2009-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasisto Raharjo Jati

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the practice of pork barrel politics in the level of Indonesia legislature tiers and its political management campaign. Since 2004, electoral democracy already delegate to the common people to chosen their representation directly through general election in the level executive and legislative. Those conditions oblige politician and political parties to approaching the commons in order to obtain their vote and popularize both actors into public. The paradigm of research is a pork barrel politics. This paradigm supports to understand and analyze the corruption symptoms i.e. politico corruption in legislative tier and electoral-corruption in political-campaign which become chronic problems in this country. Result of research has showed populism is pivotal key which triggered up politician and parties to corruption in order to persist their political tenure and funding their political cost in pursue to re-elect again in second office terms. No matter their corruption practice that implicate to budgeting fraud. Both actors take political favor to disguise within social aids following the governmental policy, so that, they hindered from corruption accusation. Finally, this paper wants to recommend legal improvement into our budgeting cycle wherein there are public participation to watch it and moral improvement to politician and parties to reducing their corruption if they wants to become truly populist politician figure into public.

  3. Population risk factors and trends in health care and public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughton, Betsy; Stang, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Many factors affect the current and future practice of dietetics in the United States. This article provides an overview of the most important population risk factors and trends in health care and public policy that are anticipated to affect the current dietetics workforce and future of dietetics training and practice. It concludes with an overview of the state of the current workforce, highlighting the opportunities and challenges it will face in the future. Demographic shifts in the age and racial/ethnic composition of the US population will be a major determinant of future the dietetics profession because a growing population of older adults with chronic health conditions will require additional medical nutrition therapy services. Dietetics practitioners will work with an increasingly diverse population, which will require the ability to adapt existing programs and services to culturally diverse individuals and communities. Economic factors will affect not only the type, quantity, and quality of food available in homes, but also how health care is delivered, influencing future roles of registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs). As health care services consume a larger percentage of federal and corporate expenditures, health care agencies will continue to look for ways to reduce costs. Health promotion and disease prevention efforts will likely play a larger role in health care services, thus creating many opportunities for RDs and DTRs in preventive care and wellness. Increasingly, dietetics services will be provided in more diverse settings, such as worksites, community health centers, and home-care agencies. To address population-based health care and nutrition priorities effectively, dietetics practice will need to focus on appropriate evidence-based intervention approaches and targets. The workforce needs to be skilled in the delivery of culturally competent interventions across the lifespan, for all population groups, and

  4. [Argentine migration policy and movements of the European population (1876-1925)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devoto, F J

    1989-04-01

    This work examines changes in Argentine migration policy from 1876-1925 and the relationship between public policy and population movements. Promoting immigration from Europe as proposed in article 25 of the Argentine constitution of 1853 was 1 of the most enduring objectives of Argentina's leadership. When Law of Immigration and Colonization (Law 817) was passed by the Chamber of Senators in 1876, the flow of immigration was at its lowest point in 8 years. Many of the provisions of Law 817 had already been put into practice occasionally or systematically, but the intent to use the law to attract a far greater number of immigrants and to select qualities seen as desirable were novel elements and the principal motives of the legislation. The unstated aim of reducing the preponderance of Italian immigration from about 2/3 was not immediately achieved. Argentina's immigration policy and actions were in competition with those of other Latin American countries and with the US. Information offices for prospective immigrants were opened in the 1880s in Paris, London, Brussels, Berlin, Vienna, Bern, and New York, and in 1887 legislation was passed permitting subsidized passages on a large scale. The continued predominance of Italian immigration demonstrated the limits of government policy influence, even when large sums of money were invested. The informal network of Italian immigrants already in Argentina and the activities of interested shipping companies on the other hand played major roles in maintaining Italian immigration. The total number of immigrants and the diversity of national origins were increased by the subsidized passages, but in 1891 the combination of a financial crisis and an end to subsidized passages decisively reduced the total flow. Changes occurred in the 1890s in regional flows within countries and in the occupational composition of immigrants from agricultors to day laborers, unskilled workers, and artisans. By about 1910 the conservative elements

  5. [Opening speech by President Suleyman Demirel for the meeting "Population Issues in Turkey: Policy Priorities"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, S

    1994-01-01

    Mr. Demirel says that at the root of all problems faced by society is population growth. He points out that with an annual population growth of about 2.5%, Turkey's standard of living will be low even if it is possible to feed the growing population, and he says Turkey's first goal should be to create public awareness of individual responsibilities. In this task, Mr. Demirel adds, the government, the parliament, educational institutions, the media, voluntary organizations, and scientists all have a role to play. Mr. Demirel states that Turkey's second goal should be to bring down the rate of population growth to around 1% within 20 years. The country's third goal, according to Mr. Demirel, should be to reduce the proportion of the population dependent on agriculture, since population growth is highest in rural areas and migration into urban areas is taxing city resources and creating slum communities. Mr. Demirel adds that dependence on agriculture will not create wealth for a nation and says that the goal should be to reduce Turkey's approximately 50% dependence on agriculture to about 10%, also within 20 years. Mr. Demirel goes on to point out that 50% of Turkey's population remains outside the social security umbrella and that in rural areas children represent a family's security during old age. It is therefore imperative to expand the social security umbrella. Turkey's fourth goal, as put forth by Mr. Demirel, should be to ensure orderly development. To increase the standard of living, the rate of population growth must be reduced while increasing the rate of development. He adds that it is also important to improve the distribution of wealth. This, says Mr. Demirel, is his fifth goal and can be achieved by overcoming the regional differences in rates of development with the aim of directing the inevitable migration from rural areas to nearby small cities, away from the large cities of Ankara, Istanbul, and Izmir. Mr. Demirel says that it will take time to

  6. The fine art of giving encouragement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidhizar, R

    1991-11-01

    1. Support and encouragement can significantly influence emotional well-being and profoundly affect quality of life. Encouragement is a powerful nursing strategy, increasing both nursing effectiveness and feelings of job satisfaction. 2. A variety of encouragement techniques are available, including focusing on the positive, communicating respect, showing appreciation, picking up the phone, avoiding a superior attitude, sharing personal experiences, providing motivation, and cheerleading. 3. To be most meaningful, words of encouragement should relate to a specific behavior. If encouragement is not consistent with an individual's personal wishes, goals, or feelings, encouragement may receive a negative response or be denied.

  7. Seeking a stable future: perspectives on population policy. The legal approach: women's rights as human rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pine, R N

    1994-01-01

    As it has grappled with issues of population policy, the international community has emphasized that women's reproductive rights are human rights. Scholars have also acknowledged that the right to reproductive health care exists within the scope of international human rights treaties and conventions and that gender equality, nondiscrimination, and freedom from government interference in marriage and family life are also guaranteed. Further protections extend to counseling and health information and referral. The Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development continues this trend by emphasizing the importance of human rights for attaining population and development objectives, calling on governments to focus their efforts on improving the quality of life for individuals, and endorsing the notion that reproductive rights are universal human rights. Reproductive health care options are also influenced by sovereign laws that restrict availability of contraception, sterilization, or abortion. However, universal rights and unrestricted access must be complemented by other factors controlled by domestic laws to guarantee reproductive choice. Such laws cover issues like marriage age, divorce, marital property, child support, maternity benefits, day care, sex discrimination, eligibility for insurance, confidentiality, spousal consent, rape, and sexual abuse. Countries must modify restrictive national laws and promote laws protecting women's rights.

  8. The challenge to UK energy policy. An ageing population perspective on energy saving measures and consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Neveen; Gilroy, Rose [School of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Newcastle University, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    With a focus on the residential sector, this paper explores the likelihood of the UK government meeting its energy targets. The paper contends that energy policy needs to take into account the interplay of four major factors: an ageing population of increasing diversity; a cultural inclination for older housing much of which is thermally inefficient; levels of fuel poverty; and the inexorable rise of consumer spending on leisure related services and goods. Decisions made by older households (both the poorer and the better off) may be critical to the success of energy policy. Among the better off the changing expectations of the baby boomers, with their predilection for consumption and travel, may have particular impact. The paper concludes that much of the reduction in carbon footprint made by older people's choices in heating and insulation may be offset, not only by increasing domestic thermal comfort, but also potentially by increasing consumables in the home and other consumer lifestyle choices. What could be achieved at best, may be a shift in energy mix. (author)

  9. The National Institute of Public Health: Shaping Public Policy to Advance Population Health in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magaña-Valladares

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican School of Public Health was founded in 1922 by the Mexican government and was the first school of public health in Latin America. It has become one of the largest public health institutions in the developing world and is the leading institution for teaching, research and service to improve public health in Mexico and Latin America. The Institute is an important player in shaping public policy in Mexico through its mission-oriented research. Through its research initiatives, the Institute has influenced policies regarding tobacco, obesity, milk and flour fortification, malaria, cancer, environmental health, and other public health priority areas. The Institute responds to changing health workforce training needs. It currently offers 28 competency-based graduate degree programs and trains annually more than 10,000 in-service public health workers through continuing education courses. The Institute offers multiple educational formats to accomplish its mission, including face-to-face, virtual, and blended learning. It has been accredited by both national and international agencies and collaborates closely with international institutions. The Institute contributes to global health by promoting health equity, strengthening health systems, and generating evidence-based strategies to improve population health in Mexico, the Americas, and around the world.

  10. Family planning in Russia in 1993-94: the role of NGOs in demonopolising population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, A A

    1995-08-01

    While official figures show a steady decline in the number of induced abortions performed annually in Russia, changes in regulations on the provision of abortion services and in the data collection system are likely responsible for the declining figures. For example, abortions performed in commercial health centers and in many state-supported medical units are not reported. Also there are no reliable figures on contraceptive usage in Russia or on other facets of family planning, and indeed Russian health care statistics in general are lacking. Thus, the 30% reduction in abortions reported from 1989 to 1993 was not accompanied by a similar increase in the use of modern contraceptives. Also, 26% of maternal mortality still results from induced abortions. However, during 1993-94, a significant amount of social attention was paid to the issue of family planning in Russia, and induced abortion was identified as a social priority and a health care problem. Also, many public groups are beginning to become involved in the formulation of a population policy in Russia. This has resulted in development of a grassroots approach instead of a hierarchical approach to FP. The most important new players in FP and population policy development are the Russian Orthodox Church with its anti-abortion lobby, commercial health care providers, new nongovernmental organizations, Western pharmaceutical companies, and international foundations and agencies. Several legislative initiatives have led to an increase in the number of officially registered sterilizations and to a proposal to remove abortion from the list of medical services covered by the state insurance program. The platform of some political parties would prohibit abortion. While the provision of FP and the problems associated with abortion have received priority attention, the concept of a human rights approach to FP is not developed in Russia. Russia completed its first demographic transition using the archaic technology of

  11. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-08-05

    To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. All state prisons in the United States. Prevalence of smoking from cross sectional survey of inmates in state correctional facilities. Data on state prison tobacco policies from web based searches of state policies and legislation. Deaths and causes of death in US state prisons from the deaths in custody reporting program of the Bureau of Justice Statistics for 2001-11. Smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost was assessed from the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate Poisson models quantified the association between bans and smoking related cancer, cardiovascular and pulmonary deaths. The most common causes of deaths related to smoking among people in prison were lung cancer, ischemic heart disease, other heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and chronic airways obstruction. The age adjusted smoking attributable mortality and years of potential life lost rates were 360 and 5149 per 100,000, respectively; these figures are higher than rates in the general US population (248 and 3501, respectively). The number of states with any smoking ban increased from 25 in 2001 to 48 by 2011. In prisons the mortality rate from smoking related causes was lower during years with a ban than during years without a ban (110.4/100,000 v 128.9/100,000). Prisons that implemented smoking bans had a 9% reduction (adjusted incidence rate ratio 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.88 to 0.95) in smoking related deaths. Bans in place for longer than nine years were associated with reductions in cancer

  12. Encouraging girl child education in my village

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Entongwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available My critical reflection will be drawn from an experience I had just a year after my graduation from the university where I was appointed as one of the X-students to lead a student cultural week in my village with the theme “raising awareness on education”. At the university, I was a member of my association in which students from my tribe generally come together to promote unity and encourage others in education. My role was to present a discourse on girl child education all the entire villagers who were gathered at the village square that evening. A high dropout rate at school and illiteracy are major problems in my region, in which there is still a great deal of gender disparity when it comes to educating children, especially the girl child. This programme is in line with the government’s policy of promoting education in my country, whose priority is for education to reach the grass-roots communities.

  13. Rebuttal of "Polar bear population forecasts: a public-policy forecasting audit"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Caswell, Hal; DeWeaver, Eric; Stirling, Ian; Douglas, David C.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Hunter, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    Observed declines in the Arctic sea ice have resulted in a variety of negative effects on polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Projections for additional future declines in sea ice resulted in a proposal to list polar bears as a threatened species under the United States Endangered Species Act. To provide information for the Department of the Interior's listing-decision process, the US Geological Survey (USGS) produced a series of nine research reports evaluating the present and future status of polar bears throughout their range. In response, Armstrong et al. [Armstrong, J. S., K. C. Green, W. Soon. 2008. Polar bear population forecasts: A public-policy forecasting audit. Interfaces 38(5) 382–405], which we will refer to as AGS, performed an audit of two of these nine reports. AGS claimed that the general circulation models upon which the USGS reports relied were not valid forecasting tools, that USGS researchers were not objective or lacked independence from policy decisions, that they did not utilize all available information in constructing their forecasts, and that they violated numerous principles of forecasting espoused by AGS. AGS (p. 382) concluded that the two USGS reports were "unscientific and inconsequential to decision makers." We evaluate the AGS audit and show how AGS are mistaken or misleading on every claim. We provide evidence that general circulation models are useful in forecasting future climate conditions and that corporate and government leaders are relying on these models to do so. We clarify the strict independence of the USGS from the listing decision. We show that the allegations of failure to follow the principles of forecasting espoused by AGS are either incorrect or are based on misconceptions about the Arctic environment, polar bear biology, or statistical and mathematical methods. We conclude by showing that the AGS principles of forecasting are too ambiguous and subjective to be used as a reliable basis for auditing scientific

  14. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  15. Democratic Population Decisions Result in Robust Policy-Gradient Learning: A Parametric Study with GPU Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a “non-democratic” mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons “vote” independently (“democratic”) for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated. PMID:21572529

  16. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Richmond

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism, achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic" for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  17. Democratic population decisions result in robust policy-gradient learning: a parametric study with GPU simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Paul; Buesing, Lars; Giugliano, Michele; Vasilaki, Eleni

    2011-05-04

    High performance computing on the Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) is an emerging field driven by the promise of high computational power at a low cost. However, GPU programming is a non-trivial task and moreover architectural limitations raise the question of whether investing effort in this direction may be worthwhile. In this work, we use GPU programming to simulate a two-layer network of Integrate-and-Fire neurons with varying degrees of recurrent connectivity and investigate its ability to learn a simplified navigation task using a policy-gradient learning rule stemming from Reinforcement Learning. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we want to support the use of GPUs in the field of Computational Neuroscience. Second, using GPU computing power, we investigate the conditions under which the said architecture and learning rule demonstrate best performance. Our work indicates that networks featuring strong Mexican-Hat-shaped recurrent connections in the top layer, where decision making is governed by the formation of a stable activity bump in the neural population (a "non-democratic" mechanism), achieve mediocre learning results at best. In absence of recurrent connections, where all neurons "vote" independently ("democratic") for a decision via population vector readout, the task is generally learned better and more robustly. Our study would have been extremely difficult on a desktop computer without the use of GPU programming. We present the routines developed for this purpose and show that a speed improvement of 5x up to 42x is provided versus optimised Python code. The higher speed is achieved when we exploit the parallelism of the GPU in the search of learning parameters. This suggests that efficient GPU programming can significantly reduce the time needed for simulating networks of spiking neurons, particularly when multiple parameter configurations are investigated.

  18. Early and late preterm delivery rates - a comparison of differing tocolytic policies in a single urban population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hehir, Mark P

    2012-11-01

    Preterm delivery results in neonatal morbidity and mortality. We set out to estimate the difference in rates of preterm delivery in two institutions, serving a single population, with differing policies regarding use of tocolytic drugs for the prevention of preterm delivery.

  19. Equity impact of population-level interventions and policies to reduce smoking in adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tamara; Platt, Stephen; Amos, Amanda

    2014-05-01

    There is strong evidence about which tobacco control policies reduce smoking. However, their equity impact is uncertain. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of population-level interventions/policies to reduce socioeconomic inequalities in adult smoking. Systematic review of studies of population-level interventions/policies reporting smoking-related outcomes in adults of lower compared to higher socioeconomic status (SES). References were screened and independently checked. Studies were quality assessed. Results are presented in a narrative synthesis. Equity impact was assessed as: positive (reduced inequality), neutral (no difference by SES), negative (increased inequality), mixed (equity impact varied) or unclear. 117 studies of 130 interventions/policies were included: smokefree (44); price/tax (27); mass media campaigns (30); advertising controls (9); cessation support (9); settings-based interventions (7); multiple policies (4). The distribution of equity effects was: 33 positive, 36 neutral, 38 negative, 6 mixed, 17 unclear. Most neutral equity studies benefited all SES groups. Fourteen price/tax studies were equity positive. Voluntary, regional and partial smokefree policies were more likely to be equity negative than national, comprehensive smokefree policies. Mass media campaigns had inconsistent equity effects. Cigarette marketing controls were equity positive or neutral. Targeted national smoking cessation services can be equity positive by achieving higher reach among low SES, compensating for lower quit rates. Few studies have assessed the equity impact of tobacco control policy/interventions. Price/tax increases had the most consistent positive equity impact. More research is needed to strengthen the evidence-base for reducing smoking inequalities and to develop effective equity-orientated tobacco control strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Cancer beliefs and prevention policies: comparing Canadian decision-maker and general population views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Wild, T Cameron; Raine, Kim D

    2014-12-01

    The knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of key policy influencers and the general public can support or hinder the development of public policies that support cancer prevention. To address gaps in knowledge concerning healthy public policy development, views on cancer causation and endorsement of policy alternatives for cancer prevention among government influencers (elected members of legislative assemblies and senior ministry bureaucrats), non-governmental influencers (school board chairs and superintendents, print media editors and reporters, and workplace presidents and senior human resource managers), and the general public were compared. Two structured surveys, one administered to a convenience sample of policy influencers (government and non-governmental) and the other to a randomly selected sample of the general public, were used. The aim of these surveys was to understand knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs regarding health promotion principles and the priority and acceptability of policy actions to prevent four behavioral risk factors for cancer (tobacco use, alcohol misuse, unhealthy eating, and physical inactivity). Surveys were administered in Alberta and Manitoba, two comparable Canadian provinces. Although all groups demonstrated higher levels of support for individualistic policies (e.g., health education campaigns) than for fiscal and legislative measures, the general public expressed consistently greater support than policy influencers for using evidence-based policies (e.g., tax incentives or subsidies for healthy behaviors). These results suggest that Canadian policy influencers may be less open that the general public to adopt healthy public policies for cancer prevention, with potential detriment to cancer rates.

  1. A comparative review of governments' views on objectives and policy instruments in the field of population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    It is possible to assess population policies through statements and decisions taken by governments as they reflect the views and commitments of political authorities in the field of population and development. Cases in the following African countries are reviewed with focus on objectives and policy instruments: Algeria; Angola; Benin; Botswana; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Congo; Djibouti; Egypt; Ethiopia; Guinea; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Equatorial Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Ivory Coast; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Morocco; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; Sudan; Swaziland; Togo; Tunisia; Uganda; United Republic of Cameroon; Tanzania; Upper Volta; Zaire; Zambia; and Zimbabwe. The information presented was drawn from the following publications: UN Population Division, "Population Policy Briefs: Current Situation in Developing Countries and Selected Territories," and UNFPA, "Population Programs and Projects," Volume 2, 1980-1981. On the basis of this review the following conclusions are drawn, which could indicate areas in which technical assistance to the Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) member States would be required: among the 50 country members of ECA, 34 countries (68%) have as a development objective the reduction of mortality, and in particular, maternal and child mortality; the 2nd important objective is stabilizing or improving spatial distribution of population, and 44% of the 50 countries have adopted this objective which involves the distribution of population from 1 place to another within a country; the 3rd important objective consists of restricting the migratory flow from rural areas to urban areas; the countries of Botswana, Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mauritius, Morocco, Rwanda, Seychelles, Swaziland, and Tunisia adopted the objective of reducing the rate of population growth; 34% of African countries

  2. Colombia merges population affairs with ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A National Council on Population and the Environment was established in 1973 in Colombia to advise the government on the integration of population, development, and environmental plans. Most of the emphasis in the decree is on environmental rather than population concerns. The interministerial council recommends social and political policies for incorporation into the national development plan. The Council is charged with encouraging professionalism, research, and population education as well as proposing measures to protect national natural resources.

  3. Demographic analysis of the effect of the population policy of "deferred marriage and reproduction plus interval" in Yicheng county, Shanxi province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z; Tan, K

    1998-01-01

    This study analyzed the effect of population control in Yicheng County, Shanxi Province, China. Data were obtained from the 1982 and 1990 censuses, surveys conducted in 1992 in Yicheng County, and Shanxi Annual Reports on Family Planning. The "deferred marriage and reproduction plus interval" policy was instituted in 1985. It established 24 years as the appropriate age for first birth. Women were encouraged to bear a second child at 30 years of age and to stop at 2 children. The government designated Yicheng as a county to be evaluated by the UN. The county's total population was 282,715 in 1994. During 1982-90, the population growth rate was 8.4%, which was lower than the national average of 12.4%, the provincial average of 13.7%, and the Linfen Prefecture average of 14.5%. In 1989-90, the county's birthrate was 0.9% lower than the national average, 3.2% lower than the province, and 4.2% lower than the prefecture. The total fertility rate (TFR), in 1989, was 2.28 children/woman, which was lower than national, provincial, and prefecture TFR. A comparison of the age-specific fertility curves shows the county with later starting ages and a high narrow peak, which suggests lower childbearing after the age of 30 years. 52.5% of births, in 1989, were single parity. The sex ratio at birth during 1985-90 has been within the normal range, with 1 exception. Unauthorized double parity declined from 48% to 6.7% during 1984-86. The abortion rate declined from 0.90 to 0.20 during 1984-92. The program impact was much greater during 1985-97.

  4. Discourse Analysis of Encouragement in Healthcare Manga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Smith, Ian; Uchimura, Mari

    2011-01-01

    This article examines how healthcare professionals use encouragement. Focusing on GAMBARU ["to try hard"], forty-one scenes were collected from healthcare manga. Each scene of encouragement was analyzed from three perspectives; the contextual background of the communication, the relationship with the patients and the patients' response…

  5. Opioid Misuse Trends in Treatment Seeking Populations: Revised Prescription Opioid Policy and Temporally Corresponding Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Lewis, Ben; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2017-12-06

    Over the last two decades, U.S. rates of prescription opioid (PO) misuse have risen drastically. In response, federal and state governments have begun to implement new PO policies. Recent legislative changes warrant up-to-date assessments of today's misuse rates. To explore potential changes in opioid misuse trends among substance-using treatment seekers, in temporal relation to legislative response. Substance-use data were collected from two cross-sectional Florida-based inpatient cohorts during periods preceding (pre-policy; n = 647) and following (post-policy; n = 396) statewide PO policy initiatives. Participants provided information concerning their most frequently used drugs before treatment. PO and illicit opioid (IO) use prevalence, frequency and route of administration were examined for pre-policy vs. post-policy cohort differences. Relative to the pre-policy cohort, a greater percentage of the post-policy cohort reported recent misuse, daily use, and intravenous administration of POs. IO use was also more frequently reported post-policy. Non-opioid drug use prevalence did not significantly differ between cohorts. Among the opioid-using subsample, equivalent percentages of the pre- and post-policy cohorts reported the use of POs without IOs, IOs without POs, and POs/IOs concurrently. Conclusions/Importance: Florida's PO policy amendments were temporally accompanied by a higher prevalence of PO misuse and IO use among treatment-seekers assessed in this study. Whether our data reflect increased awareness of and treatment seeking for opioid use disorders or insufficient efficacy of new policies to reduce opioid misuse remains in question. Regardless, findings suggest the need for enhanced emphasis on mitigating hazardous PO-use behaviors (e.g., IV use).

  6. Comments on "Complementarity and Conflict among Population and Other Policies: Specifying an Economic-Demographic Model for a Developing Country".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A H

    1993-01-01

    The critique of Mariano's economic-demographic model of population and other policies for developing countries cites the value of such a detailed model for developing a family planning policy within the context of macroeconomic government policies. The model points out the impact on fertility of effective family planning policies and increased educational expenditures. Work force participation and reduced fertility is also affected by increased female educational levels, which in combination with increasing health expenditures for children reduces infant mortality as a means of further reducing fertility. Savings and investment increase with reduced fertility and reduce population growth. Per capital income increases with higher investment and lower population growth; the effect is to increase resource availability for improvements in health and education. Rural-urban migration must be balanced by policies in urban areas supporting industrial investment and policies in rural areas for increased educational and health expenditures. Changes in the structure of demand affect the structure of the economy, which in turn affects exports. The paper contributes to a model of simultaneous equations for estimating the linkages between demography and economics factors already known. The model combines the Chicago-Columbia model and the Pennsylvania model but ignores biological variables such as those identified by Behrman and Wolfe as women's health status, breast feeding, and nutritional level. International migration may be important for some countries such as the Philippines and Thailand. Extended families may be an important variable excluded from the model. Criticism is directed to the measure of rural-urban migration which does not separate out by age those migrating between countries. The assumption is that international migrants only come from urban areas. In Bangladesh the man-land ratio was found to be important. Changing definitions of literacy may impact on the

  7. The role of encouragement in primary schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Nataša Z.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Encouragement can be applied in several important segments: creation of a positive social and emotional atmosphere, creation of a positive learning environment, use of preventive techniques in some discipline-related situations, type of intervention when dealing with behavioral problems of students and in the strategy of strengthening students self-confidence. The paper deals with the frequency and manners in which encouragement is used. One of the primary segments in which encouragement is exercised is teacher-student relation, where both verbal and non-verbal encouragement approval, praise, reward and example have large rational and emotional significance. The research comprises the results of systematic observation of individual encouragement tools with their characteristics and functions in primary school teaching practice. The research has been conducted in three primary schools in Belgrade. The quantitative indicators show the reduced frequency of encouragement with the growing age of students. The collected results reveal that in relation to the tested variables the teacher’s personality plays an important role. This suggests the need for teachers to be instructed on the possibilities and conditions for the use of encouragement with primary school children.

  8. Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: An Overview of Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platz, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    "Reducing Cancer Burden in the Population: Epidemiologic Evidence to Support Policies, Systems, and Environmental Changes" is a compilation of 11 reviews addressing aspects of primary prevention of cancer (early life factors, vitamin D, and periodontal disease and the oral microbiome); primary and secondary prevention (in the transgender population); surveillance following secondary prevention (personalizing follow-up of patients diagnosed with an adenoma based on colorectal cancer risk); tertiary prevention (physical activity as an adjuvant to cancer treatment, measurement of patient-reported physical functioning in cancer treatment trials, and implementation of palliative care recommendations); and all 3 (changing epidemiology of oral cancers). Authors discuss policies, systems, and environment (PSE) changes that may be supported by epidemiologic evidence, for example, how existing public health and clinical policies and guidelines targeting noncancer outcomes may indirectly reduce cancer burden and how some cancer control policies could be refined to enhance effectiveness. Authors also discuss where systems and environment changes are necessary to ensure routine implementation of up-to-date, evidence-based policies and guidelines. Two other articles discuss infrastructure to support identification of existing and emerging cancer problems that could be reduced or avoided, including by PSE changes. These frameworks may guide impactful cancer research relevant to cancer centers' catchment areas, as well as cancer control efforts in countries where noncommunicable diseases including cancer are on the rise. The weight of the evidence of these reviews supports opportunities for PSE changes and infrastructure that could reduce the cancer burden in populations. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Immigration as a policy instrument for an economy with an aging population: A longer-run perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Denton, Frank T.; Spencer, Byron G.

    2014-01-01

    Population aging is a problem common to many countries: an increasing proportion of retired people, a decreasing proportion of working age, and resultant downward pressure on national product per capita. We explore longer-run aspects of immigration as a policy instrument in this context. We consider, by simulation, the importance of immigrant age distribution, proportion of child immigrants, productivity growth as an offset to aging, possible higher fertility, increased life expectancy, and g...

  10. Encouraging Student Participation While Designing Writing Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2017-12-01

    Encouraging student participation while designing writing exercises requires a certain pragmatic approach. Wilbert James McKeachie is the author of a widely read textbook on college teaching. McKeachie was a longtime faculty member at the University of Michigan. He served as president of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Foundation and the American Association of Higher Education. In his famous book Teaching and Learning in the College Classroom, McKeachie provides an introduction and notes the role of research in identifying new goals for higher education. He also offers a conceptual framework based on a student mediation model and a focuses on the processs-product relationships between faculty teacher behavior and student learning outcomes. McKeachie' s Teaching Tips provides helpful strategies for dealing with both the everyday problems of university teaching and those that arise in trying to maximize learning for every student. The book does not suggest a set of recipes to be followed mechanically; it gives instructors the tools they need to deal with the ever-changing dynamics of teaching and learning. First, it is extremely important to define the target skill areas and means of implementation. Next, the professor can then proceed to focus on the techniques that could be employed to ensure student participation. This includes selection of an appropriate topic that is relevant to the field of study as well as classroom learning experiences. By pragmatically combining these objectives, the teacher can expect both enthusiasm and effective learning among the student population. McKeachie, Wilbert James. (1980) Learning, Cognition and College Teaching. San Francisco: Jossey - Bass McKeachie, Wilbert James. (1980) Teaching Tips: A Guidebook for the Beginning College Teacher Lexington, MASS. : Heath. 1986. ISBN: 0669067520 McKeachie, Wilbert James., et. al. (2001) Teaching Tips (Eleventh Edition): Strategies, Research, and Theory for

  11. The Impact of Policies Influencing the Demography of Age-Structured Populations: Lessons from Academies of Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Winkler-Dworak, Maria; Prskawetz, Alexia; Feichtinger, Gustav

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the role of policies aimed at regulating the number and age structure of elections on the size and age structure of five European Academies of Sciences. We show the recent pace of ageing and the degree of variation in policies across them and discuss the implications of different policies on the size and age structure of academies. We also illustrate the potential effect of different election regimes (fixed vs. linked) and age structures of election (younger vs. older) by contrasting the steady-state dynamics of different projections of Full Members in each academy into 2070 and measuring the size and age-compositional effect of changing a given policy relative to a status quo policy scenario. Our findings suggest that academies with linked intake (i.e., where the size of the academy below a certain age is fixed and the number of elections is set to the number of members becoming that age) may be a more efficient approach to curb growth without suffering any ageing trade-offs relative to the faster growth of academies electing a fixed number of members per year. We further discuss the implications of our results in the context of stable populations open to migration. PMID:23843677

  12. Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) in Southwestern Border States: Examining Trends, Population Correlates, and Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Garcia Saavedra, Luigi F

    2018-03-23

    Introduction Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is withdrawal syndrome in newborns following birth and is primarily caused by maternal drug use during pregnancy. This study examines trends, population correlates, and policy implications of NAS in two Southwest border states. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional analysis of Hospital Inpatient Discharge Data (HIDD) was utilized to examine the incidence of NAS in the Southwest border states of Arizona (AZ) and New Mexico (NM). All inpatient hospital births in AZ and NM from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2013 with ICD9-CM codes for NAS (779.5), cocaine (760.72), or narcotics (760.75) were extracted. Results During 2008-2013 there were 1472 NAS cases in AZ and 888 in NM. The overall NAS rate during this period was 2.83 per 1000 births (95% CI 2.68-2.97) in AZ and 5.31 (95% CI 4.96-5.66) in NM. NAS rates increased 157% in AZ and 174% in NM. NAS newborns were more likely to have low birth weight, have respiratory distress, more likely to have feeding difficulties, and more likely to be on state Medicaid insurance. AZ border region (border with Mexico) had NAS rates significantly higher than the state rate (4.06 per 1000 births [95% CI 3.68-4.44] vs. 2.83 [95% CI 2.68-2.97], respectively). In NM, the border region rate (2.09 per 1000 births [95% CI 1.48-2.69]) was significantly lower than the state rate (5.31 [95% CI 4.96-5.66]). Conclusions Despite a dramatic increase in the incidence of NAS in the U.S. and, in particular, the Southwest border states of AZ and NM, there is still scant research on the overall incidence of NAS, its assessment in the southwest border, and associated long-term outcomes. The Healthy Border (HB) 2020 binational initiative of the U.S.-Mexico Border Health Commission is an initiative that addresses several public health priorities that not only include chronic and degenerative diseases, infectious diseases, injury prevention, maternal and child health but also mental health and

  13. Geo policy of Commonwealth of Independent States and ecological destiny of territories and population of Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraev, P.A.

    2000-01-01

    Author points out, that in Kazakhstan environmental problems does not are priorities of state programs right up to 2030. Number of urgent measures on state national ecological policy which it necessary adopt are presented

  14. [A brief account of population theories, problems, and policies in Chinese history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Z

    1980-03-01

    A review of historical documents dealing with population theory and problems in China from the Qin to Qing dynasties is presented. Topics covered include overpopulation, underpopulation, and the maintenance of secrecy concerning population data.

  15. Critical issues in population-development interrelationships and policy in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamuzora, C L

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between population growth and socioeconomic development in Africa is examined. Using the example of Tanzania, the author argues that population growth has had no causal effect on development, although development variables have affected demographic variables. However, it is noted that rapid population growth limits the efforts of government to provide services and is associated with environmental degradation, and that there is a need to control population growth by lowering fertility.

  16. The public's voice about healthcare quality regulation policies. A population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Renée; Bomhoff, Manja; de Jong, Judith D; Robben, Paul; Friele, Roland

    2015-08-14

    In the wake of various high-profile incidents in a number of countries, regulators of healthcare quality have been criticised for their 'soft' approach. In politics, concerns were expressed about public confidence. It was claimed that there are discrepancies between public opinions related to values and the values guiding regulation policies. Although the general public are final clients of regulators' work, their opinion has only been discussed in research to a limited extent. The aim of this study is to explore possible discrepancies between public values and opinions and current healthcare quality regulation policies. A questionnaire was submitted to 1500 members of the Dutch Healthcare Consumer Panel. Questions were developed around central ideas underlying healthcare quality regulation policies. The response rate was 58.3%. The regulator was seen as being more responsible for quality of care than care providers. Patients were rated as having the least responsibility. Similar patterns were observed for the food service industry and the education sector. Complaints by patients' associations were seen as an important source of information for quality regulation, while fewer respondents trusted information delivered by care providers. However, respondents supported the regulator's imposition of lighter measures firstly. There are discrepancies and similarities between public opinion and regulation policies. The discrepancies correspond to fundamental concepts; decentralisation of responsibilities is not what the public wants. There is little confidence in the regulator's use of information obtained by care providers' internal monitoring, while a larger role is seen for complaints of patient organisations. This discrepancy seems not to exist regarding the regulator's approach of imposing measures. A gradual, and often soft approach, is favoured by the majority of the public in spite of the criticism that is voiced in the media regarding this approach. Our study

  17. Whistleblowing: Don’t Encourage It, Prevent It

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D. Robert

    2016-01-01

    In a recent article, Mannion and Davies argue that there are a multitude of ways in which organizations (such as the National Health Service [NHS]) can deal with wrongdoing or ethical problems, including the formation of policies that encourage and protect would-be whistleblowers. However, it is important to distinguish internal reporting about wrongdoing from whistleblowing proper, because the two are morally quite different and should not be dealt with in the same way. This article argues that we should not understand the authors’ conclusions to apply to "whistleblowing" proper, because their recommended approach would be both unfeasible and undesirable for addressing whistleblowing defined in this way. PMID:26927590

  18. Control of the population growth and women in Mexico: international organizations, civil society and public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ileana García Gossio

    2015-07-01

    subjects of the public demographic policies. For their part, the international organizations considered them, at first, as the key factor in birth control, but also as a beginning of development. Later, women were identified in public discourse according to feminist demands: as subjects with rights and with positions with a generic perspective.

  19. Hepatitis B prevalence in the Turkish population of Arnhem: implications for national screening policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, C.; Beest, G.T.; Sancak, I.; Aydinly, R.; Bulbul, K.; Laetemia-Tomata, F.; De Leeuw, M.; Waegemaekers, T.; Swanink, C.; Roovers, E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increased prevalence of hepatitis B and C in most migrant groups in The Netherlands, a national screening policy for these infections is not available. In order to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C in the largest group of first-generation migrants (FGM) in The Netherlands, we

  20. Prison Population and Policy Choices. Volume 1: Preliminary Report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, Andrew; And Others

    Objectives of the research reported here (phase one of a two-phase project) were (1) to assess the contemporary conditions of American correctional institutions in terms of capacity and adequacy; (2) to search for the causes of fluctuations in prison populations; and (3) to develop methods for projecting future prison populations, with particular…

  1. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  2. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present policy. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by wiley

  3. Do markets encourage risk-seeking behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengel, F.; Peeters, R.J.A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive risk taking in markets can have devastating consequences as recent financial crises have high-lighted. In this paper we ask whether markets as an institution encourage such excessive risk taking. To establish causality, we isolate the effects of market interaction in a laboratory

  4. Reasons encouraging adolescents to take up smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To understand adolescents' smoking behavior by analyzing retrospective self-ratings of the reasons encouraging them to take up smoking. Method: Participating in the study were 883 students (373 boys) of elementary and secondary schools in Kosice, Slovak Republic (74.9% of adolescents in the

  5. Encouraging Creativity in the Science Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyster, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although science is a creative endeavor (NRC 1996, p. 46), many students think they are not encouraged--or even allowed--to be creative in the laboratory. When students think there is only one correct way to do a lab, their creativity is inhibited. Park and Seung (2008) argue for the importance of creativity in science classrooms and for the…

  6. Stress and Intelligence: Understanding and Encouraging the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and behavioural factors leading to stress among the gifted learners. It recommends ways on how parents, teachers and counsellors can reduce stress on gifted students by encouraging flexibility, appropriate behaviour, and thereby assisting the gifted students to develop a realistic and accurate self-concept.

  7. Using Emoticons to Encourage Students to Recycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Matthew D.; Trudel, Remi

    2017-01-01

    Uncovering inexpensive, simple techniques to encourage students to act in a pro-environmental manner is of critical importance. Through a four-week field study at a large, environmentally focused elementary school, it was found that placing negatively valenced emoticons (i.e., red frowny faces) on trash cans increased the proportion of recycled…

  8. Resistance of the Orthodox population Sumy antireligious policy 1920 – 30`s: forms, methods and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Olitskyy

    2016-06-01

    The reasons of radicalization and resistance calm in 1930 – 1935 are defined. Women riots and so-called volinky (bagpipes as a manifestation of resistance against antireligious policy are analyzed. The characteristic of period of growing cases of radical forms of resistance in 1935 – 1937 is given. However the continuity of this movement in Sumy region during the period of 1920 – 1930’s is tracked and identified.

  9. Tobacco policy reform and population-wide antismoking activities in Australia: the impact on smoking during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havard, Alys; Tran, Duong T; Kemp-Casey, Anna; Einarsdóttir, Kristjana; Preen, David B; Jorm, Louisa R

    2017-08-04

    This study examined the impact of antismoking activities targeting the general population and an advertising campaign targeting smoking during pregnancy on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Monthly prevalence of smoking during pregnancy was calculated using linked health records for all pregnancies resulting in a birth (800 619) in NSW from 2003 to 2011. Segmented regression of interrupted time series data assessed the effects of the extension of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places to include licensed premises (evaluated in combination with the mandating of graphic warnings on cigarette packs), television advertisements targeting smoking in the general population, print and online magazine advertisements targeting smoking during pregnancy and increased tobacco tax. Analyses were conducted for all pregnancies, and for the population stratified by maternal age, parity and socioeconomic status. Further analyses adjusted for the effect of the Baby Bonus maternity payment. Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy decreased from 2003 to 2011 overall (0.39% per month), and for all strata examined. For pregnancies overall, none of the evaluated initiatives was associated with a change in the trend of smoking during pregnancy. Significant changes associated with increased tobacco tax and the extension of the smoking ban (in combination with graphic warnings) were found in some strata. The declining prevalence of smoking during pregnancy between 2003 and 2011, while encouraging, does not appear to be directly related to general population antismoking activities or a pregnancy-specific campaign undertaken in this period. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Minha Casa, Minha Vida Program: Public Policy Social (ExInclusion of the Population In Street Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingos do Nascimento Nonato

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to reflect the requirements used by the program Minha Casa, Minha Vida to select beneficiaries with housing units have correspondence with socioeconomic vulnerability experienced by people in the streets. We chose methodologically the bibliographical and documentary research, which was fundamental to deepen reflections on the object and the proposed objective. It was concluded that such requirements do not correlate with the degree of misery to that experienced by population segment, which is excluded from this housing public policy, and has subtracted by the Government itself the possibility of exercising the fundamental right to housing.

  11. Sustainably Harvesting a Large Carnivore? Development of Eurasian Lynx Populations in Norway During 160 Years of Shifting Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, John D. C.; Broseth, Henrik; Odden, John; Nilsen, Erlend Birkeland

    2010-05-01

    The management of large carnivores in multiuse landscapes is always controversial, and managers need to balance a wide range of competing interests. Hunter harvest is often used to limit population size and distribution but is proving to be both controversialand technically challenging. Eurasian lynx ( Lynx lynx) are currently managed as a game species in Norway. We describe an adaptive management approach where quota setting is based on an annual census and chart the population development through the period 1996-2008, as management has become significantly more sophisticated and better informed by the increased availability of scientific data. During this period the population has been through a period of high quotas and population decline caused by fragmented management authority and overoptimistic estimates of lynx reproduction, followed by a period of recovery due to quota reductions. The modern management regime is placed in the context of shifting policy during the last 160 years, during which management goals have moved from extermination stimulated by bounties, through a short phase of protection, and now to quota-regulated harvest. Much management authority has also been delegated from central to local levels. We conclude that adaptive management has the potential to keep the population within some bounded limits, although there will inevitably be fluctuation.

  12. Population Matters Policy Brief: Russia's Mortality Crisis. Drinking, Disease, and Deteriorating Health Care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... In Dire Demographics: Population Trends in the Russian Federation, authors Julie DaVanzo and Clifford Grammich examine the dimensions of this alarming trend, look at Russia's troubled health care system, and explore...

  13. Feeling Is Believing: Inspiration Encourages Belief in God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critcher, Clayton R; Lee, Chan Jean

    2018-04-01

    Even without direct evidence of God's existence, about half of the world's population believes in God. Although previous research has found that people arrive at such beliefs intuitively instead of analytically, relatively little research has aimed to understand what experiences encourage or legitimate theistic belief systems. Using cross-cultural correlational and experimental methods, we investigated whether the experience of inspiration encourages a belief in God. Participants who dispositionally experience more inspiration, were randomly assigned to relive or have an inspirational experience, or reported such experiences to be more inspirational all showed stronger belief in God. These effects were specific to inspiration (instead of adjacent affective experiences) and a belief in God (instead of other empirically unverifiable claims). Being inspired by someone or something (but not inspired to do something) offers a spiritually transcendent experience that elevates belief in God, in part because it makes people feel connected to something beyond themselves.

  14. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric D Vugrin

    Full Text Available Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products.We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors.Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity

  15. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health

  16. Modeling the potential effects of new tobacco products and policies: a dynamic population model for multiple product use and harm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugrin, Eric D; Rostron, Brian L; Verzi, Stephen J; Brodsky, Nancy S; Brown, Theresa J; Choiniere, Conrad J; Coleman, Blair N; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  17. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    OpenAIRE

    Tagoe, Henry A; Dake, Fidelia AA

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with he...

  18. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the annual cycle: Linking policy alternatives, landowner decisions, and biological population outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric V.; Grant, Edward C.; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, D.C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  19. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G.; Ribic, Christine A.; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C.; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds. PMID:26569108

  20. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Ryan G; Ribic, Christine A; Koch, Katie; Lonsdorf, Eric; Grant, Evan; Ahlering, Marissa; Barnhill, Laurel; Dailey, Thomas; Lor, Socheata; Mueller, Connie; Pavlacky, David C; Rideout, Catherine; Sample, David

    2015-01-01

    Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM) workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration) were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  1. Complementarity and conflict among population and other policies: specifying an economic-demographic model for a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, R S

    1993-01-01

    The demographic and economic model illustrates the links between demographic and socioeconomic factors and government policy for developing countries. The operating model attempts to balance practical realities with manageability. The Philippines was used to show how the model operates. Demographic planners should be involved in the early development stages of policy development. The sociodemographic and economic framework by Orbeta has identified population outcomes affecting the economic system and the population system (fertility, mortality, and migration), both of which affect economic outcomes. The Economic system is comprised of consumption, investments, fiscal budgets, money supply, international trade and finance, labor use, and land use, which interact with private and public expenditures, employment, educational status, health status, housing, and environmental quality. A two way interrelationship exists between the demographic and socioeconomic variables. The model assumes that development outcomes affect the number, composition, and location of individuals. The application of the model to the Philippines used ordinary least squares and two stage least squares for estimation pertaining to the real sector, the fiscal sector, the financial sector, the external sector, and the price-wage-employment sector. The model combines classical, Keynesian, structuralist, and monetarist approaches. Domestic production is composed of agriculture, industry, and services in supply and demand equations. Expenditures are composed of personal consumption, gross domestic capital formation, exports, imports, and government expenditures. Further details of the model are described by Klein et al. and Mariano and Constantino.

  2. Strategic Grassland Bird Conservation throughout the Annual Cycle: Linking Policy Alternatives, Landowner Decisions, and Biological Population Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G Drum

    Full Text Available Grassland bird habitat has declined substantially in the United States. Remaining grasslands are increasingly fragmented, mostly privately owned, and vary greatly in terms of habitat quality and protection status. A coordinated strategic response for grassland bird conservation is difficult, largely due to the scope and complexity of the problem, further compounded by biological, sociological, and economic uncertainties. We describe the results from a collaborative Structured Decision Making (SDM workshop focused on linking social and economic drivers of landscape change to grassland bird population outcomes. We identified and evaluated alternative strategies for grassland bird conservation using a series of rapid prototype models. We modeled change in grassland and agriculture cover in hypothetical landscapes resulting from different landowner decisions in response to alternative socio-economic conservation policy decisions. Resulting changes in land cover at all three stages of the annual cycle (breeding, wintering, and migration were used to estimate changes in grassland bird populations. Our results suggest that successful grassland bird conservation may depend upon linkages with ecosystem services on working agricultural lands and grassland-based marketing campaigns to engage the public. With further development, spatial models that link landowner decisions with biological outcomes can be essential tools for making conservation policy decisions. A coordinated non-traditional partnership will likely be necessary to clearly understand and systematically respond to the many conservation challenges facing grassland birds.

  3. Population policy at a crossroads. Will world conference signal new directions for U.S.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccarty, L; Sherman, D

    1994-06-01

    In September 1994 in Cairo, at the third population conference hosted by the United Nations, world leaders will be asked to approve a plan that could stabilize the world population at about 8 billion people by the middle of the next century. Participants will consider interrelated issues: population growth, access to family planning, women's empowerment, sustainable development, poverty, consumption, and the environment. This campaign for a more equitable world is likely to continue after Cairo, with the UN-sponsored social summit in Copenhagen and a women's conference in Beijing slated for next year. The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development will require a new approach to sustainability by balancing environmental protection, economic development, and present and future human needs. The United States has only 5% of the world's population, but it uses 25% of the world's commercial energy, produces more garbage and waste than any other country, and generates 21% of all carbon dioxide emissions, which contribute to global warming. Demands for energy, water and food already cannot be met as natural resources are being exhausted at an alarming rate. The fight over water rights to the Colorado River exemplifies the shrinking natural resource base. In contrast to the Reagan-Bush administration, the Clinton administration restored funding to international family planning agencies and endorsed sustainable development. The US birth rate is back at a 2-decade high, while 60% of pregnancies are unintended. US adolescent pregnancy is the highest among industrialized countries, leading to a cycle of poverty and soaring public costs. Government funding for new contraceptive research has been stagnant because of the pressure of right-wing groups, although finally RU-486 became available for clinical trials. The Cairo conference is likely to recognize the US as the leader in global political issues, however, domestic population and consumption issues have

  4. Incentives to Encourage Scientific Web Contribution (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, A. K.

    2010-12-01

    We suggest improvements to citation standards and creation of remuneration opportunities to encourage career scientist contributions to Web2.0 and social media science channels. At present, agencies want to accomplish better outreach and engagement with no funding, while scientists sacrifice their personal time to contribute to web and social media sites. Securing active participation by scientists requires career recognition of the value scientists provide to web knowledge bases and to the general public. One primary mechanism to encourage participation is citation standards, which let a contributor improve their reputation in a quantifiable way. But such standards must be recognized by their scientific and workplace communities. Using case studies such as the acceptance of web in the workplace and the growth of open access journals, we examine what agencies and individual can do as well as the time scales needed to secure increased active contribution by scientists. We also discuss ways to jumpstart this process.

  5. The impact of conservative discourses in family policies, population politics, and gender rights in Poland and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Umut; Eslen-Ziya, Hande

    2011-01-01

    This article uses childcare as a case study to test the impact of ideas that embody a traditional understanding of gender relations in relation to childcare. Conservative ideas regard increasing female labor market participation as a cause of decreasing fertility on the functioning of a set of general policies to increase fertility rates. It looks into the Polish and Turkish contexts for empirical evidence. The Polish context shows a highly institutionalized system of family policies in contrast to almost unessential institutions in Turkey. Formally, the labor market participation of women is much lower in Turkey than in Poland. Yet, given the size of the informal market in Turkey, women's labor participation is obviously higher than what appears in the statistics. Bearing in mind this divergence, the article suggests Poland and Turkey as two typologies for studying population politics in contexts where socially conservative ideas regarding gender remain paramount. We qualify ideas as conservative if they enforce a traditional understanding of gender relations in care-giving and underline women's role in the labor market as an element of declining fertility. In order to delineate ideational impact, this article looks into how ideas (a) supplant and (b) substitute formal institutions. Therefore, we argue that there are two mechanisms pertaining to the dominance of conservative conventions: conservative ideas may either supplant the institutional impact on family policies, or substitute them thanks to a superior reasoning which societies assign to them. Furthermore, conservative conventions prevail alongside women's customary unpaid work as care-givers regardless of the level of their formal workforce participation. We propose as our major findings for the literature of population politics that ideas, as ubiquitous belief systems, are more powerful than institutions since they provide what is perceived as legitimate, acceptable, and good for the societies under study

  6. Creativity and Innovation Encouraged in Hospital X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Bogovič

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Research Question (RQ: Are creativity and innovation encouraged in Hospital X? Does satisfaction of employees at the workplace depend on the length of their employment? Does employee satisfaction depend on innovation? Purpose: It is important that creativity and innovation of employees are noticed in Hospital X in a timely manner. Various approaches can be used to motivate their creative thinking (using different professional factors. Method: Qualitative method, questionnaire with 8 questions and processing of results with χ2 test and frequency distribution. Results: The results of the research showed that 60% of employees at Hospital X were encouraged to be creative and innovative, whereas satisfaction at the workplace in connection with the period of employment did not have an effect on their satisfaction within the organization. Organization: The research results will give the management a clearer idea of employees’ opinions concerning their creativity and innovation. Society: Opinion of workers in a certain organization can encourage other organizations to be more creative and innovative. Originality: It is a small organization and results of the research refer to its originality. Limitations/Future Research: The limitation of this study was with regard to time and for this reason data collection was carried out only in the surgical unit of Hospital X.

  7. The aging population in the twenty-first century: statistics for health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilford, Dorothy M

    1988-01-01

    ... on Statistics for an Aging Population Sam Shapiro, Chair Committee on National Statistics Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988 Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative...

  8. Public pensions and population ageing : An economic analysis of fertility, migration and social-security policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leers, T.

    2001-01-01

    This thesis examines the relation between the changing demographic composition of the population and its economic, political and international consequences from an economic-theoretical point of view. The ample current interest in this subject needs little comment. In the OECD-countries, virtually no

  9. Cambodian Inclusive Education for Vulnerable Populations: Toward an Ecological Perspective Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Jacob D.; Hudson, Roxanne F.; West, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Sharan E.

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia is a dynamic country in transition and its population is committed to improve an economic, social, and educational system (Chandler, 2008). An imperial legacy and traumatic history involving a genocide specifically targeted at Cambodian intellectual elite continue to affect Cambodian schools with the most impact being felt by vulnerable…

  10. Federal Action for Population Policy - What More Can We do Now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, Robert W.

    1970-01-01

    Roles for existing government agencies in achieving goal of zero population growth by research and planning to predict growth rates, provide incentives and means to limit family size, and inform and educate public are described. A tabulation of types of research, planning, operations, and options are given. (AL)

  11. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Changes in management policies for extremely preterm births and neonatal outcomes from 2003 to 2012 : two population-based studies in ten European regions

    OpenAIRE

    Bonet, M.; Cuttini, M.; Piedvache, A.; Boyle, E. M.; Jarreau, P. H.; Kollee, L.; Maier, R. F.; Milligan, D. W. A.; Reempts, Van, P.; Weber, T.; Barros, H.; Gadzinowki, J.; Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Objective To investigate changes in maternity and neonatal unit policies towards extremely preterm infants (EPTIs) between 2003 and 2012, and concurrent trends in their mortality and morbidity in ten European regions. Design Population-based cohort studies in 2003 (MOSAIC study) and 2011/2012 (EPICE study) and questionnaires from hospitals. Setting 70 hospitals in ten European regions. Population Infants born at

  13. Prison tobacco control policies and deaths from smoking in United States prisons: population based retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Binswanger, Ingrid A; Carson, E Ann; Krueger, Patrick M; Mueller, Shane R; Steiner, John F; Sabol, William J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the mortality attributable to smoking and years of potential life lost from smoking among people in prison and whether bans on smoking in prison are associated with reductions in smoking related deaths. Design Analysis of cross sectional survey data with the smoking attributable mortality, morbidity, and economic costs system; population based time series analysis. Setting All state prisons in the United States. Main outcome measures Prevalence of smoking from cross sec...

  14. [Rwanda: population problems, development in question].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallon, F

    1988-04-01

    An international symposium was held in Kigali, Rwanda, in December 1987 on population and development policies. Rwanda's rate of population increase is 3.7%/year, apparently the 2nd highest in the world after Kenya, and it is one of the most densely populated countries of Africa. Development programs including population components have become ever more important since the Scientific Consultative Council on Sociodemographic Problems was created in 1974. The National Office of Population (ONAPO) arranged the symposium on population and development policies to sensitize the authorities even further to the problems of excessive growth and to the links between population and other economic development variables such as health, nutrition, education, the environment, and employment. The symposium focused on the evolution of population policies and their integration into development plans in Rwanda. Among its recommendations were that efforts to inform the population about family planning be increased and that the quality of family planning services be improved. Family life education should be integrated into the educational system at all levels. Pronatalist elements should be removed from Rwandan legislation, and legal protection for family planning should be assured. Coercive family planning measures were considered inopportune. Although the need for external aid in technical assistance and evaluation was expected to persist, it was recommended that greater national resources be assigned to population programs. In the area of agriculture and nutrition, it was recommended that measures be taken to stop the subdivision of farm plots, that nonagricultural employment be created, and that nonfarmers give up their lands. Farmers should be assisted with tools, agricultural inputs, and technical advice. Interregional exchanges of agricultural products should be encouraged, but consumption of local products should also be promoted. Agricultural production objectives should take

  15. What would encourage blood donation in Ireland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, M; Sweeney, M R; Bailie, K; Morris, K; Kennedy, A; Boilson, A; O'Riordan, J; Staines, A

    2007-05-01

    Recent changes have resulted in the loss of 4% of the donor panel in the Republic of Ireland and 3% in Northern Ireland. In order to increase the number of donors in these two regions, it is important that transfusion service providers explore and understand the reasons, which prevent individuals from donating. The aim of this study was to explore these issues particularly in non-donors and those who had lapsed. This 7-month all-Ireland study was conducted by computer-assisted telephone interview. Data collected included sociodemographic history, donation status, as well as barriers/deterrents to donation. There were 4166 completed questionnaires (44% donors; 56% non-donors). Of the donors, 13% had donated blood within the last 2 years. Current donors cited 'awareness of patients needs' (88%), 'trust in the blood transfusion service' (70%), and 'an advertising campaign' (70%) as reasons encouraging them to donate blood. Lapsed donors and non-donors cited 'more frequent mobile clinics/sessions' (30% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), 'if I was asked' (28% lapsed donors; 53% non-donors), and 'more flexible opening hours' (23% lapsed donors; 44% non-donors) as reasons that would encourage them to donate. The main reasons cited by non-donors for never having donated included 'medical reasons' (41% Republic of Ireland; 43% Northern Ireland), 'lack of information' (20% Republic of Ireland; 22% Northern Ireland), 'fear of needles' (15% Republic of Ireland; 17% Northern Ireland), and 'time constraints' (12% Republic of Ireland; 13% Northern Ireland). Among the non-donor group, 10% (Republic of Ireland) and 6% (Northern Ireland) claimed that they are not permitted to donate. Replacing regular donors is a major challenge for the transfusion service providers. This study shows that by facilitating the general public by introducing more mobile clinics/sessions, more flexible opening hours and having a better level of knowledge in the community about blood donation may encourage

  16. Using Discovery Learning to Encourage Creative Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardia Hi. Rahman

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Creative thinking ability development is needed to be implemented by every educator including lecturers to their students. Therefore, they need to seriously act and design their learning process. One of the ways to develop student’s creative thinking is using discovery learning model. This research is conducted in physics education study program in 2016 with students who took learning and teaching class as research subject. From the research analysis result and discussion, it can be concluded that discovery learning model can encourage students’ creative thinking ability in learning and teaching strategy subject.

  17. Thomas Scharping, Birth Control in China, 1949-2000. Population Policy and Demographic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Allès, Élisabeth

    2006-01-01

    La politique de la famille et la croissance de la population chinoise ont fait l’objet d’une attention soutenue depuis de nombreuses années, mais il n’existait pas encore de travaux donnant une vision d’ensemble des politiques et des résultats. Le remarquable ouvrage du démographe allemand Thomas Scharping sur le contrôle des naissances et la démographie en Chine de 1949 à 2000 comble ce vide. Il retrace et analyse l’évolution démographique, les politiques de l’Etat chinois dans ce domaine et...

  18. Improving transportation networks: Effects of population structure and decision making policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Martí, Federico; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-07-03

    Transportation networks are one of the fundamental tools for human society to work, more so in our globalized world. The importance of a correct, efficient design of a transportation network for a given region or country cannot be overstated. We here study how network design is affected by the geography of the towns or nuclei to be connected, and also by the decision process necessary to choose which connections should be improved (in a generic sense) first. We begin by establishing that Delaunay networks provide an efficient starting point for the network design and at the same time allow us to introduce a computationally amenable model. Subsequent improvements lead to decentralized designs in geographies where towns are more or less homogeneously distributed, whereas radial designs arise when there is a core-periphery distribution of nodes. We also show that optimization of Delaunay networks outperforms that of complete networks at a lower cost, by allowing for a proper selection of the links to improve. In closing, we draw conclusions relevant to policy making applied to designing transportation networks and point our how our study can be useful to identify mechanisms relevant to the historical development of a region.

  19. Improving food environments and tackling obesity: A realist systematic review of the policy success of regulatory interventions targeting population nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisnowski, Jana; Street, Jackie M; Merlin, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025276) employs a realist approach to investigate the effect of "real-world" policies targeting different aspects of the food environment that shape individual and collective nutrition. We were interested in assessing intermediate outcomes along the assumed causal pathway to "policy success", in addition to the final outcome of changed consumption patterns. We performed a search of 16 databases through October 2015, with no initial restriction by language. We included all publications that reported the effect of statutory provisions aimed at reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods and beverages in the general population. We allowed all methodological approaches that contained some measure of comparison, including studies of implementation progress. We reviewed included studies using the appraisal tools for pre-post and observational studies developed by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Given the considerable heterogeneity in interventions assessed, study designs employed, and outcome measures reported, we opted for a narrative synthesis of results. Results drawn from 36 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature reports demonstrated that isolated regulatory interventions can improve intermediate outcomes, but fail to affect consumption at clinically significant levels. The included literature covered six different types of interventions, with 19 studies reporting on calorie posting on chain restaurant menus. The large majority of the identified interventions were conducted in the US. Early results from recent taxation measures were published after the review cut-off date but these suggested more favorable effects on consumption levels. Nevertheless, the evidence assessed in this review suggests that current policies are generally falling short of anticipated health impacts.

  20. Reader strategies: variability and error- methodology, findings, and health policy implications from a study of the U.S. population of mammographers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, Craig A.

    2002-04-01

    Each year, approximately 60% of all US women over the age of 40 utilize mammography. Through the matrix of an imaging technology, this Population of Patients (POP) interacts with a population of approximately 20,000 physicians who interpret mammograms in the US. This latter Population of Diagnosticians (POD) operationally serves as the interface between an image-centric healthcare technology system and patient. Methods: using data collected from a large POD and POP based study, I evaluate the distribution of several ROC curve-related parameters in the POD and explore the health policy implications of a population ROC curve for mammography. Results and Conclusions: Principal Components Analysis suggests that two Binormal parameters are sufficient to explain variation in the POD and implies that the Binormal model is foundational to Health Policy Research in Mammography. A population ROC curve based on percentiles of the POD can be used to set targets to achieve national health policy goals. Medical Image Perception science provides the framework. Alternatively, a restrictive policy can be envisioned using performance criteria based on area. However, the data suggests this sort of policy would be too costly in terms of reduced healthcare service capacity in the US in the face of burgeoning demands.

  1. Bicycle infrastructure: can good design encourage cycling?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Hull

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research posits the question that good design of the bicycle infrastructure in a city will encourage more people to cycle. Research is carried out to compare the cycle infrastructure in selected European cities against an adapted Level of Service concept using accompanied ride-alongs. The literature review on the factors that encourage/dissuade cycle use suggests that it is the potential rider’s perceptions on the safety of cycling in their neighbourhood that is the deciding feature. Moreover, the literature review showed that contextual factors such as whether the actual infrastructure meets the needs of different cyclists are relatively under-researched. Six case study cities were selected (Edinburgh, Cambridge, Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and compared on a range of factors by the riders including the coherence, directness, attractiveness, safety and comfort of the network. A cycle infrastructure scoring system was derived from the cycling research literature and the research was carried out by the researcher, an experienced cyclist, accompanied by an inexperienced cyclist. Using this research, the article makes several recommendations for improving and enhancing existing cycle infrastructure provision.

  2. FOOD SECURITY PROVIDING OF THE SVERDLOVSKAYA OBLAST POPULATION AS THE AGRARIAN POLICY BASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Fedorov

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Food safety may be interpreted as production systems attribute providing during different technological processes the security and the quality of food products. The key role in this is played by control systems over these processes. Any control system is based on the information data concerning efficiency and state of the system. This information is necessary for operative quality management and the frequency of hypothetic deviations may serve as a universal numeric indicator of the technological processes breakages. The basic elements of food security provision in the region are seen as the following: orientation on our own resources; agro industrial complex restructuring wits a due account of disproportions in its spheres; innovation changes in the production processes in view of competitiveness increase; nutrition improvement and health of the population.

  3. Can universal pre-kindergarten programs improve population health and longevity? Mechanisms, evidence, and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muennig, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Recent research has found that children who attended pre-kindergarten programs in childhood were more likely to be healthy as adults. One intuitive way of improving population health and longevity may therefore be to invest in pre-kindergarten programs. However, much of the research linking pre-kindergarten programs to health is very recent and has not been synthesized. In this paper, I review the mechanisms linking pre-kindergarten programs in childhood to adult longevity, and the experimental evidence backing up these linkages. I conclude with a critical exploration of whether investments in pre-kindergarten programs could also serve as investments in public health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prevalence and risk factors for viral hepatitis in the Kosovarian population: implications for health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglio, Gianluca; Ramadani, Naser; Pattaro, Cristian; Cami, Arben; Dentico, Pietro; Volpe, Anna; Pellizzer, Giampiero; Berisha, Ali; Smacchia, Camillo; Figliomeni, Mario; Schinaia, Nicola; Rezza, Giovanni; Putoto, Giovanni

    2008-05-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis infection among the Kosovarian population is largely unknown. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis A, B, C, and D (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV) infection among the general population and in a group of health care workers in the Kosovo region. Overall, 1,287 participants were recruited, 460 males (36%) and 827 females (64%). Health care workers accounted for 253 individuals (20%), 301 were blood donor candidates (23%), 334 were pregnant women (26%), and 399 (31%) were subjects who had been examined in two clinics for routine laboratory testing. The prevalence of total anti-HAV was 88.6% (95% CI: 86.69-90.25). Prevalence of anti-HAV among children up to 10 years was 40.5% (95% CI: 29.6-53.15), reaching 70% (95% CI: 62.25-77.10) in the 11-20 age group. Age, living in rural areas and unemployment were factors associated with higher risk of HAV infection. HBsAg was detected in 2.4% (95% CI: 1.57-3.38%) of the study sample, with a significant age trend (P-value:0.0110). Positivity for total anti-HBc was detected in 18.4% (95% CI = 16.27-20.59) of the subjects. Ninety-three subjects (7.2%) were positive for anti-HBs alone. An association between age, HSV-2 positivity, working nurses and HBV infection has been observed. One patient was HDV positive. The prevalence for HCV was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.22-1.12%). HAV infection seems to be high-intermediate, while HBV shows an intermediate endemicity. It is necessary to highlight the importance of an immunization strategy against HAV and HBV in reducing the incidence of the infection. The prevalence for HCV was very low.

  5. Does Grading Encourage Participation? Evidence & Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paff, Lolita A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on the effects of grading on participation behavior is mixed. This study adds to the literature by analyzing the motivational effects of a policy that incorporates student self-assessment, flexible course weighting of the participation grade, and an expanded definition of participation. The results suggest that in some classes, more than…

  6. Brief intervention to encourage empathic discipline cuts suspension rates in half among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Okonofua, Jason A.; Paunesku, David; Walton, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing concern about rising discipline citations in K–12 schooling and a lack of means to reduce them. Predominant theories characterize this problem as the result of punitive discipline policies (e.g., zero-tolerance policies), teachers’ lack of interpersonal skills, or students’ lack of self-control or social–emotional skills. By contrast, the present research examined teachers’ mindsets about discipline. A brief intervention aimed at encouraging an empathic mindset about disci...

  7. Is the Brazilian pharmaceutical policy ensuring population access to essential medicines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertoldi Andréa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate medicine prices, availability and affordability in Brazil, considering the differences across three types of medicines (originator brands, generics and similar medicines and different types of facilities (private pharmacies, public sector pharmacies and “popular pharmacies”. Methods Data on prices and availability of 50 medicines were collected in 56 pharmacies across six cities in Southern Brazil using the World Health Organization / Health Action International methodology. Median prices obtained were divided by international reference prices to derive the median price ratio (MPR. Results In the private sector, prices were 8.6 MPR for similar medicines, 11.3 MRP for generics and 18.7 MRP for originator brands, respectively. Mean availability was 65%, 74% and 48% for originator brands, generics and similar medicines, respectively. In the public sector, mean availability of similar medicines was 2–7 times higher than that of generics. Mean overall availability in the public sector ranged from 68.8% to 81.7%. In “popular pharmacies”, mean availability was greater than 90% in all cities. Conclusions Availability of medicines in the public sector does not meet the challenge of supplying essential medicines to the entire population, as stated in the Brazilian constitution. This has unavoidable repercussions for affordability, particularly amongst the lower socio-economic strata.

  8. Exploring and encouraging through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Julie Midtgaard

    2003-01-01

    as a social networker and uses her contextual competence by consciously encouraging relationships between fellow patients. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the nurse's involvement with self-help groups for patients with cancer serves as a complementary dimension to the traditional nursing discourse....... It is concluded that when individualized care is supported through social practice and when personal issues are exchanged and negotiated, the nurse facilitates a milieu of togetherness in self-help groups for patients with cancer. The concept of self-help groups is a valuable contribution to new theories...... and service development in psychosocial care and complies with the understanding of the postmodern individual, who viewed as primarily responsible for negotiating, socializing, and making his or her own decisions....

  9. Exploring and encouraging through social interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamsen, Lis; Rasmussen, Julie Midtgaard

    2003-01-01

    as a social networker and uses her contextual competence by consciously encouraging relationships between fellow patients. Furthermore, the study illustrates that the nurse's involvement with self-help groups for patients with cancer serves as a complementary dimension to the traditional nursing discourse......Self-help groups are a growing phenomenon across national borders. Current sociologic empirical evidence shows that nurses and other healthcare professionals have become an integral part of self-help groups. The aim of the study is to describe and highlight the experiences of patients with cancer...... (n = 21) and oncology nurses (n = 12) with self-help groups. These experiences are drawn on to illustrate the characteristics of professional involvement in self-help groups for patients with cancer. Data were obtained by individual qualitative interviews. The results show that the nurse functions...

  10. Understanding and encouraging volunteerism and community involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukas, Arthur A; Snyder, Mark; Clary, E Gil

    2016-01-01

    Volunteerism and community involvement have been demonstrated to offer benefits both to communities and to volunteers themselves. However, not every method to encourage these behaviors is equally effective in producing committed volunteers. Drawing on relevant theoretical and empirical literatures, we identify features of efforts that are likely to produce intrinsically motivated other-oriented volunteers and those that may produce extrinsically motivated self-oriented volunteers. In particular, we explore ways to socialize young people to help and ways to build a sense of community focused on particular issues. We also examine requirements for community service and other approaches that highlight self-oriented benefits that volunteers may obtain. Finally, we return to a focus on the importance of intrinsic motivation for promoting sustained involvement in volunteers, even as we acknowledge that volunteers who come with extrinsic or self-oriented reasons can still offer much to communities and can be satisfied when their activities match their motivations.

  11. CERN encourages girls to "expand their horizons"

    CERN Document Server

    François Briard

    2015-01-01

    On 14 November, CERN took part for the fourth time in "Élargis tes horizons" (see here), a conference organised every two years at Geneva University for girls from the local region aged 11 to 14 aiming to encourage them to take up studies and careers in the scientific and technical domains.   Claude Sanz (left), a fellow in the EN Department, explaining to three girls how to build a particle accelerator in a salad bowl. This year, young physicists and engineers from ATLAS and CMS ran three workshops: "Seeing the invisible using a cloud chamber", "Great cold fun and treats with liquid nitrogen" and "Build your own accelerator in a salad bowl!" CERN was also represented at the Forum de Découverte, represented by the Diversity Office and the Medialab team, presenting the "Higgnite" interactive experiment, which illustrates the principle of the Higgs field. More...

  12. National Cyber Security Policy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    National Cyber Security Policy. Salient Features: Caters to ... Creating a secure cyber ecosystem. Creating an assurance framework. Encouraging Open Standards. Strengthening the Regulatory framework. Creating mechanisms for security threat early warning, vulnerability management and response to security threats.

  13. Consensus builds on population policy as ICPD PrepCom meetings conclude. Vatican objections firm and vocal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-04-29

    In April, 1994, at UN headquarters in New York, delegates from almost 200 countries and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) negotiated a Programme of Action to be ratified following more debate at the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September. A sizable consensus emerged for this Preparatory Committee III (PrepCom) meeting. It has an expanded view of population policy that centers more on meeting individual needs and less on achieving strict demographic goals. Thus, it focuses on the unmet need for reproductive health services (family planning, basic women's health care, and services linked to sexually transmitted diseases). It considers women's status and female education as being important themselves as well as key determinants of fertility rates. Disagreement over access to abortion services and reproductive health services for adolescents remain. Unlike earlier world conferences, most of the world is working towards a consensus, while the Vatican and just a few small countries (Benin, Malta, Honduras, and Nicaragua) object to these services. Some topics that US National Conference of Catholic Bishops did not want in the Programme of Action were references to reducing the incidence of unsafe abortion, promoting condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS, and even safe motherhood. The US and Japan have committed sizable increases in population assistance. Some European countries are concerned about how their contributions would be allocated. US Undersecretary for Global Affairs and a mostly female 23-member US delegation attended PrepCom III. Most of the US delegates were from NGOs. Many country delegates were women. Many countries accepted recommendations of the women's caucus. The US's priorities are promotion of universal access to the full range of high quality family planning and reproductive health services; increasing women's status; child survival promotion; serving adolescent needs; augmenting the role and responsibility of men in

  14. Encouraging the Domestic Small Turbine Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, T.

    2001-01-01

    The state incentives for home-based renewables in the domestic market continue to grow and change creating opportunities for the small wind turbine market. Tracking the opportunities to get small wind turbines included in incentive policies and developing a proactive industry approach is important because market changes can occur anytime. There are near-term opportunities to work with states in developing their strategies for disbursing system benefit charges, adding tags to existing policies for other small renewables to include small wind, and developing state-wide net metering programs. Other opportunities to improve the domestic market exist but will be quite challenging to implement. Other opportunities include federal tax credits, state wind access laws, equipment verification for specific states, and leasing programs for small wind turbines

  15. What encourages Saudis to quit smoking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A Al-Mohrej

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: We have looked at smoking cessation from a broader perspective, analysing different categories of the Saudi population. Social, religious and health reasons must be emphasised by counsellors assisting Saudi smokers to quit.

  16. Appalachian and Non-Appalachian Pediatricians’ Encouragement of the Human Papillomavirus Vaccine: Implications for Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L.; Katz, Mira L.; Kam, Jennifer A.; Roberto, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Background In medically underserved regions such as Appalachia, cervical cancer incidence and mortality are higher than the general U.S. population; therefore, it is important for pediatricians to encourage parents to have their daughters vaccinated against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Unfortunately, little is known about the predictors of pediatricians’ encouragement of the HPV vaccine among medically underserved populations. The current study compared attitudes and behaviors of pediatricians with practices in Appalachia with those in non-Appalachia to identify potential strategies for reducing health disparities. Methods A survey was conducted with 334 pediatricians located in Appalachia and non-Appalachia counties to examine how prior behavior, perceived susceptibility, severity, self-efficacy, response-efficacy, and behavioral intentions are related to self-reported vaccine encouragement. Results Pediatricians in Appalachia perceived their patients to be less susceptible to HPV and reported lower rates of HPV encouragement than pediatricians in non-Appalachia. In addition, self-efficacy had a significant indirect association with vaccine encouragement for pediatricians in non-Appalachia. Conclusion This study’s findings emphasize the importance of increasing Appalachian pediatricians’ awareness of their patients’ susceptibility to HPV. Broader efforts to increase encouragement of the HPV vaccine among pediatricians should focus on promoting self-efficacy to encourage the HPV vaccine to parents of young females. PMID:21907591

  17. Lack of resources a major obstacle in program implementation. Niigata declaration. Parliamentarians pledge to translate commitment into support for population policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the reaffirmation of the 96 parliamentarians from 28 countries during the international conference in Niigata, Japan, concerning their pledge in translating their commitment into supporting the population policies and development. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the Cairo Declaration on Population and Development were embraced by the parliamentarians. The ICPD+5 process and the International Forum of Parliamentarians on ICPD Review were utilized in the guideline implementation of the ICPD Programme of Action. The governments were solicited to implement and monitor the progress of the ICPD Programme of Action in addressing the need for water, food, natural resources, environment and population, reproductive health and gender equality. Recognizing the inseparable relationship between population and sustainable development, governments were urge to ensure that international understanding and conventions must be consistent with the provision of food security and human survival. The organization implores the UN and the UN Population Fund to pursue its role in the formulation and implementation of population policies in different countries and regional organizations like the Association of South-East Asian Nations and the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation. The goal of the Asian Forum of Parliamentarians on Population and Development is to address the population and developmental problems in a comprehensive and integral fashion and the development of a worldwide network of concerned parliamentarians for the promotion of peace, prosperity and equality.

  18. Encouraging an ecological evolution of data infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Infrastructure is often thought of as a complex physical construct usually designed to transport information or things (e.g. electricity, water, cars, money, sound, data…). The Research Data Alliance (RDA) takes a more holistic view and considers infrastructure as a complex body of relationships between people, machines, and organisations. This paper will describe how this more ecological perspective leads RDA to define and govern an agile virtual organization. We seek to harness the power of the volunteer, through an open problem solving approach that focusses on the problems of our individual members and their organisations. We focus on implementing solutions that make data sharing work better without defining a priori what is necessary. We do not judge the fitness of a solution, per se, but instead assess how broadly the solution is adopted, recognizing that adoption is often the social challenge of technical problem. We seek to encourage a bottoms up approach with light guidance on principles from the top. The goal is to develop community solutions that solve real problems today yet are adaptive to changing technologies and needs.

  19. Gender Diversity in Planetary Volcanology: Encouraging Equality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, T. K.; Lopes, R. M.

    2004-12-01

    We have brought together a group of respected and well-known female planetary volcanologists to create a book designed to encourage young women to pursue scientific careers. The book, entitled "Volcanic Worlds: Exploring the Solar System's Volcanoes," published by Praxis, is written for undergraduates who may have no background in geology or planetary sciences. Each chapter covers a different Solar System body or volcanic process, and is authored by a woman who is an expert in her field. Subjects covered include: the relation of plate tectonics to volcanism on Earth; the study of Mars' volcanoes from space and using rovers; geysers on Neptune's moon Triton and on Earth; eruptions on Io; and studying submarine lava flows from a submarine. Each chapter is written in a comfortable, readily accessible tone, with authors presenting not only science, but also some of the unique challenges faced by women conducting volcanological research today-and how these are overcome. Although not intended to be a textbook, this work could easily form the basis of an undergraduate geology seminar, honors course, or as a valuable accessory to an introductory geology course. In addition, it could be used in courses that would be cross-listed between geology departments and sociology departments. We will present more information on the book, and suggestions of how it could be used in the classroom to enhance gender diversity in the Earth and Space Sciences.

  20. Impact of national cancer policies on cancer survival trends and socioeconomic inequalities in England, 1996-2013: population based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachet, Bernard; Belot, Aurélien; Maringe, Camille; Coleman, Michel P

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of the NHS Cancer Plan (2000) and subsequent national cancer policy initiatives in improving cancer survival and reducing socioeconomic inequalities in survival in England. Design Population based cohort study. Setting England. Population More than 3.5 million registered patients aged 15-99 with a diagnosis of one of the 24 most common primary, malignant, invasive neoplasms between 1996 and 2013. Main outcome measures Age standardised net survival estimates by cancer, sex, year, and deprivation group. These estimates were modelled using regression model with splines to explore changes in the cancer survival trends and in the socioeconomic inequalities in survival. Results One year net survival improved steadily from 1996 for 26 of 41 sex-cancer combinations studied, and only from 2001 or 2006 for four cancers. Trends in survival accelerated after 2006 for five cancers. The deprivation gap observed for all 41 sex-cancer combinations among patients with a diagnosis in 1996 persisted until 2013. However, the gap slightly decreased for six cancers among men for which one year survival was more than 65% in 1996, and for cervical and uterine cancers, for which survival was more than 75% in 1996. The deprivation gap widened notably for brain tumours in men and for lung cancer in women. Conclusions Little evidence was found of a direct impact of national cancer strategies on one year survival, and no evidence for a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in cancer survival. These findings emphasise that socioeconomic inequalities in survival remain a major public health problem for a healthcare system founded on equity. PMID:29540358

  1. Changes in management policies for extremely preterm births and neonatal outcomes from 2003 to 2012: two population-based studies in ten European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonet, M.; Cuttini, M.; Piedvache, A.; Boyle, E.M.; Jarreau, P.H.; Kollee, L.A.; Maier, R.F.; Milligan, D.; Reempts, P. Van; Weber, T.; Barros, H.; Gadzinowki, J.; Draper, E.S.; Zeitlin, J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in maternity and neonatal unit policies towards extremely preterm infants (EPTIs) between 2003 and 2012, and concurrent trends in their mortality and morbidity in ten European regions. DESIGN: Population-based cohort studies in 2003 (MOSAIC study) and 2011/2012

  2. Changes in management policies for extremely preterm births and neonatal outcomes from 2003 to 2012 : two population-based studies in ten European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marques-Bonet, T.; Cuttini, Marina; Piedvache, A.; Boyle, Elaine M.; Jarreau, Pierre Henri; Kollée, Louis A A; Maier, Rolf F.; Milligan, David W A; van Reempts, P.; Weber, Tom; Barros, Henrique; Gadzinowki, J.; Draper, E. S.; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Martens, E.; Martens, Guy; Boerch, Klaus; Hasselager, Asbjoern; Huusom, Lene; Pryds, Ole; Ancel, Pierre Yves; Blondel, Beatrice; Bréart, G.; Gortner, Ludwig; Kuenzel, W.; Misselwitz, Bjoern; Schmidt, S.; Agostino, Rocco; DiLallo, D.; Franco, Francesco; Paesano, R.; Hukkelhoven, C.; Hulscher, M.; Koopman-Esseboom, C.; van Heijst, A.; Breborowicz, G.; Gadzinowski, Janusz; Mazela, Jan; Carrapato, M.; Ribeiro-Rodrigues, Teresa; Konje, J.; Manktelow, B. N.; Fenton, A. C.; Sturgiss, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes in maternity and neonatal unit policies towards extremely preterm infants (EPTIs) between 2003 and 2012, and concurrent trends in their mortality and morbidity in ten European regions. Design: Population-based cohort studies in 2003 (MOSAIC study) and 2011/2012

  3. Government policy and access to natural gas service in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plourde, A.; Ryan, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    As part of the Canadian energy policy between the mid-1970's to the mid-1980's, consumers were encouraged to use fuels alternative to oil. The first set of policy issues involved measures to provide consumers with incentives to switch to non-oil-burning equipment, whereas the second set of. policy papers emphasized the expansion of the natural gas distribution system. More than $1 billion have been spent on the gas pipeline expansion project. Consequences of program expenditures in each province were examined. With the exception of Manitoba, it was found that annual net pipeline additions were higher during the program period, indicating that the program policies induced these activities to occur sooner than if the policies were not in place. Kilometres of gas pipeline per individual constructed was highest in Quebec, where construction proceeded mainly between the more densely populated centres. In contrast, in Saskatchewan and Alberta, the program encouraged natural gas pipeline construction in rural areas with lower populations. Without the program, these areas may not have had access to natural gas for a very long time. It was concluded that, in this, and some other instances, public investment had the effect of accelerating developments, or encouraging the completion of projects that otherwise would not have been undertaken. It was suggested that in the future decision-makers consider the costs of changes in activity patterns prior to designing such programs. 2 figs., 1 table

  4. Use of the Encouragement Process in Adlerian Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkmeyer, Don C.

    1972-01-01

    Encouragement in all facets of the counseling interview is a critical ingredient in the counseling process. This article sets forth the theory and specific applications of the encouragement process in counseling, as viewed in the socio-teleological model. (Author)

  5. Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    In an effort to help meet the growing interest and concern about the problems created by the rapid growth of population, The International Planned Parenthood Federation has prepared this booklet with the aim of assisting the study of the history and future trends of population growth and its impact on individual and family welfare, national,…

  6. Implementing Health Policy: Lessons from the Scottish Well Men's Policy Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Flora; van Teijlingen, Edwin; Smith, Cairns; Moffat, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS) policy initiative as a 'real world' case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the 'rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc) the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a) 'policy problem', (b) interventions intended to address the problem, and (c) anticipated policy outcomes. This analysis revealed four key themes: (1) ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2) behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3) uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4) a focus on intervention as outcome . This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation) fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  7. The effects of public health policies on population health and health inequalities in European welfare states: protocol for an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Katie; Bambra, Clare; McNamara, Courtney; Huijts, Tim; Todd, Adam

    2016-04-08

    The welfare state is potentially an important macro-level determinant of health that also moderates the extent, and impact, of socio-economic inequalities in exposure to the social determinants of health. The welfare state has three main policy domains: health care, social policy (e.g. social transfers and education) and public health policy. This is the protocol for an umbrella review to examine the latter; its aim is to assess how European welfare states influence the social determinants of health inequalities institutionally through public health policies. A systematic review methodology will be used to identify systematic reviews from high-income countries (including additional EU-28 members) that describe the health and health equity effects of upstream public health interventions. Interventions will focus on primary and secondary prevention policies including fiscal measures, regulation, education, preventative treatment and screening across ten public health domains (tobacco; alcohol; food and nutrition; reproductive health services; the control of infectious diseases; screening; mental health; road traffic injuries; air, land and water pollution; and workplace regulations). Twenty databases will be searched using a pre-determined search strategy to evaluate population-level public health interventions. Understanding the impact of specific public health policy interventions will help to establish causality in terms of the effects of welfare states on population health and health inequalities. The review will document contextual information on how population-level public health interventions are organised, implemented and delivered. This information can be used to identify effective interventions that could be implemented to reduce health inequalities between and within European countries. PROSPERO CRD42016025283.

  8. Encouraging self-development. Profile: Louise Lassonde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J

    1992-01-01

    A profile of Louise Lassonde, population advisor to the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) portrays her ethnic and educational background, her interests, and achievements. She was born a French Canadian near Montreal and earned a degree in anthropology with an emphasis on the ancient cultures of Peru. A second degree was earned in sociology and a Ph.D. in demography. In her investigations, it was discovered that there were few remnants of the old Indian culture remaining in the Andean highlands; Quechua and Spanish languages were learned in the process. Her professional responsibilities have included university teaching in development and demography in Montreal, development assistance work in Burundi, Rwanda, and eastern Zaire as regional director for a Canadian nongovernmental organization, and consultancy activities for UNICEF and UNFPA. As a consultant, she was engaged in studying women and their ways of generating income and improving the quality of their lives. In 1989, her position was as country director to Togo and Benin within the UN Population Fund followed by a position in the UNCED secretariat in Geneva. Her field experience has contributed to a view that time is precious and that there is accountability for action or inaction. A little bit of effort can go a long way, i.e., improved management and information and good will. The assumption is that people have the will and desire to improve their own and their families as long as there is hope and freedom from a discouraging atmosphere. Lack of understanding can create tremendous barriers. The example is given of a man presenting with malaria at an African health center and not being treated because of his tribal affiliation; he died when medicine was within reach. Support must be provided in terms of health and education so that people can set the targets for themselves and develop creative solutions compatible with their own cultures. Her positive approach is visible in her insistence

  9. Alcohol tax policy and related mortality. An age-period-cohort analysis of a rapidly developed Chinese population, 1981-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y; Kim, Jean H; Yip, Benjamin H; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wong, Martin C S; Chung, Vincent C H; Griffiths, Sian M

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.

  10. Alcohol tax policy and related mortality. An age-period-cohort analysis of a rapidly developed Chinese population, 1981-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Y Chung

    Full Text Available To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1 chronic causes, 2 acute causes, 3 all (chronic+acute causes and 4 causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007-2008 duty reduction.

  11. Alcohol Tax Policy and Related Mortality. An Age-Period-Cohort Analysis of a Rapidly Developed Chinese Population, 1981–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Roger Y.; Kim, Jean H.; Yip, Benjamin H.; Wong, Samuel Y. S.; Wong, Martin C. S.; Chung, Vincent C. H.; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2014-01-01

    To delineate the temporal dynamics between alcohol tax policy changes and related health outcomes, this study examined the age, period and cohort effects on alcohol-related mortality in relation to changes in government alcohol policies. We used the age-period-cohort modeling to analyze retrospective mortality data over 30 years from 1981 to 2010 in a rapidly developed Chinese population, Hong Kong. Alcohol-related mortality from 1) chronic causes, 2) acute causes, 3) all (chronic+acute) causes and 4) causes 100% attributable to alcohol, as defined according to the Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI) criteria developed by the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, were examined. The findings illustrated the possible effects of alcohol policy changes on adult alcohol-related mortality. The age-standardized mortality trends were generally in decline, with fluctuations that coincided with the timing of the alcohol policy changes. The age-period-cohort analyses demonstrated possible temporal dynamics between alcohol policy changes and alcohol-related mortality through the period effects, and also generational impact of alcohol policy changes through the cohort effects. Based on the illustrated association between the dramatic increase of alcohol imports in the mid-1980s and the increased alcohol-related mortality risk of the generations coming of age of majority at that time, attention should be paid to generations coming of drinking age during the 2007–2008 duty reduction. PMID:25153324

  12. Factors Associated With Medical School Graduates' Intention to Work With Underserved Populations: Policy Implications for Advancing Workforce Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Andrea N; Kuo, Tony; Arangua, Lisa; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2018-01-01

    Given projected U.S. physician shortages across all specialties that will likely impact underserved areas disproportionately, the authors sought to explore factors most correlated with medical school graduates' intention to work with underserved populations (IWUP). Data from the 2010-2012 Association of American Medical Colleges Medical School Graduation Questionnaire (n = 40,846) were analyzed. Variables (demographics, career preference, debt burden, intention to enter loan forgiveness programs) were examined using chi-square tests and logistic regression models. Respondents included 49.5% (20,228/40,846) women, 16.6% (6,771/40,837) underrepresented minorities (URMs), and 32.4% (13,034/37,342) with primary care intent. The median educational debt was $160,000. Respondents who were women (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.59, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49, 1.70), URMs (aOR 2.50, 95% CI 2.30, 2.72), intended to enter loan forgiveness programs (aOR 2.44, 95% CI 2.26, 2.63), intended to practice primary care (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.54, 1.76), and intended to emphasize nonclinical careers (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.11, 1.37) had greater odds of reporting IWUP. Among those who chose specialties and careers with a nonclinical emphasis, and among those with greater burdens of educational and consumer debt, URMs were nearly twice as likely as other minorities and whites to report IWUP. Findings suggest physician characteristics that may be associated with filling workforce gaps in underserved areas. Restructuring financial incentive programs to support physician leaders and specialists with characteristics associated with IWUP may complement similar policies in primary care and could have key impacts on health equity in underserved areas.

  13. Death in hospital and at home: population and health policy influences in Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil (1996-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Cesar Iwamoto Marcucci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An aging population and epidemiological transition involves prolonged terminal illnesses and an increased demand for end-stage support in health services, mainly in hospitals. Changes in health care and government health policies may influence the death locations, making it possible to remain at home or in an institution. The scope of this article is to analyze death locations in the city of Londrina, State of Paraná, from 1996 to 2010, and to verify the influence of population and health policy changes on these statistics. An analysis was conducted into death locations in Londrina in Mortality Information System (SIM considering the main causes and locations of death. There was an increase of 28% in deaths among the population in general, though 48% for the population over 60 years of age. There was an increase of deaths in hospitals, which were responsible for 70% of the occurrences, though death frequencies in others locations did not increase, and deaths in the home remained at about 18%. The locations of death did not change during this period, even with health policies that broadened care in other locations, such as the patient´s home. The predominance of hospital deaths was similar to other Brazilian cities, albeit higher than in other countries.

  14. Big Data for Public Health Policy-Making: Policy Empowerment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mählmann, Laura; Reumann, Matthias; Evangelatos, Nikolaos; Brand, Angela

    2018-04-04

    Digitization is considered to radically transform healthcare. As such, with seemingly unlimited opportunities to collect data, it will play an important role in the public health policy-making process. In this context, health data cooperatives (HDC) are a key component and core element for public health policy-making and for exploiting the potential of all the existing and rapidly emerging data sources. Being able to leverage all the data requires overcoming the computational, algorithmic, and technological challenges that characterize today's highly heterogeneous data landscape, as well as a host of diverse regulatory, normative, governance, and policy constraints. The full potential of big data can only be realized if data are being made accessible and shared. Treating research data as a public good, creating HDC to empower citizens through citizen-owned health data, and allowing data access for research and the development of new diagnostics, therapies, and public health policies will yield the transformative impact of digital health. The HDC model for data governance is an arrangement, based on moral codes, that encourages citizens to participate in the improvement of their own health. This then enables public health institutions and policymakers to monitor policy changes and evaluate their impact and risk on a population level. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Public Education Finance Systems in the United States and Funding Policies for Populations with Special Educational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates state finance policies for public education using survey methodology. The purpose is to update previous work and the existing knowledge base in the field as well as to provide a compendium of finance and policy options that are used across the states to finance public elementary and secondary schools. Chief state school…

  16. Utilizing Technology to Encourage Healthy Lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Shuster

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In our fast paced world, using technology allows us to connect with people and assist them in developing healthier lifestyles within their time limits due to families, work, and other responsibilities. The goal of our project was the development of online, technology-based, nutrition, health, and fitness education challenges using social media as a means of helping consumers develop healthy lifestyle changes. Participants completed preassessments and postassessments to determine overall program impact and to self-report perceptions of knowledge gained and practice/behavior change. Results from the challenges indicated participants gained knowledge on nutrition, health and fitness topics while making strides towards lifestyle changes and adoption of healthy habits. Results revealed healthier eating habits were developed and physical activity was increased with many participants losing weight. Ease of participating was the most reported reason for participating in the challenges. To determine “best practice,” varying lengths of time for the challenges from four, seven, and thirteen weeks allowed the educators to derive implications for future programming, including branding, length of the challenge, frequency, and participant behavior change. To remain relevant and reach a greater diversity of populations, educators need to continue to explore and utilize various social media tools.

  17. The use of law to encourage smaller families in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, T W

    1980-01-01

    To pursue its goal of rapid economic development, Singapore provides family planning services and has vigorously encouraged its citizens to limit family size. The government has legislated disincentives for families to have more than 2 children. This discussion reviews the history of these legal measures and their usefulness as a tool to promote social change and development. Singapore has used the law as a means to encourage family planning in order to supplement the overall thrust for economic development in the late 1960s. Freed from obligations to the Malaysian Federation and lacking the support of the British military as of 1969, Lee Kuan Yew led his people's economic development along a Western model. Reduction of population growth is an essential component of that model. Lee stressed family planning by providing clinics, by advertising, by promoting housing and lifestyles conducive to nuclear families, and by gradually adopting a set of laws favoring small families. These laws were introduced in different sectors of the economy at different times and were revised as social conditions changed. Typically, they set a minor monetary or priority penalty for parents of 3 or more children. The laws discourage additional births rather than prohibit them, guiding rather than forcing family planning decisions. To what extent the laws were the cause of decreasing family size in Singapore is uncertain, but they contributed to some extent to the country's phenomenal progress in income and lifestyle. The Abortion Act of 1969 legalized abortion on nonmedical grounds with the Singapore Family Planning and Population Board (SFPPB) approval. The Act was amended twice in 1974 to make abortions available "on demand." The charging of progressive delivery (accouchement) fees in government hospitals for mothers with 2 or more children might be considered as the focal point of the total disincentives system. The fees placed financial pressure directly on those who violated the

  18. Toward a Population Revolution? The Threat of Extinction and Family Policy in Czechoslovakia 1930s–1950s

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rákosník, J.; Šustrová, Radka

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 2 (2018), s. 177-193 ISSN 0363-1990 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-35273S Institutional support: RVO:67985921 Keywords : Czechoslovakia, 1930s-1950s * family policy * social policy Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.239, year: 2016

  19. Parental encouragement of dieting promotes daughters' early dieting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Savage, Jennifer S; Marini, Michele E; Birch, Leann L

    2014-09-01

    Dieting to lose weight is common among female adolescents. This research investigated the association between maternal and paternal encouragement to diet and their daughters' self-reported "early dieting" (prior to age 11 y) and adolescent dieting (between 11 y and 15 y), and how parental encouragement to diet is related to changes in daughters' BMI percentiles. Participants in this study were 174 non-Hispanic white girls and their parents, assessed when daughters were 9-, 11-, 13-, and 15 y. The Parent Encouragement of Child Weight Loss Scale was used to measure encouragement to diet. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between parental encouragement to diet and daughters' reports of dieting by 11 y and by 15 y, adjusting for daughters' weight status at baseline. Compared with girls whose mothers didn't encourage dieting, girls who were encouraged to diet were twice as likely to diet by 11 y; girls who were encouraged by their fathers were also twice as likely to diet by 11 y. Girls who were encouraged to diet by both parents were 8 times more likely to report early dieting than girls who were not. Neither maternal nor paternal encouragement predicted the emergence of dieting during adolescence. Girls who dieted and had parental encouragement to do so had increases in BMI percentile from 9 y to 15 y. Findings reveal that parental encouragement to diet may be counterproductive and that parents need alternative approaches to promote healthy patterns of intake and growth among young girls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sex differences in educational encouragement and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aqeel

    2012-08-01

    Sex differences in educational encouragement and their predictiveness of academic achievement were examined among 442 secondary school students (M age = 13.2 yr., SD = 1.9). Education-related encouragement received from mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers was assessed. Academic achievement was based on student self-reports and grades. Female adolescents reported receiving statistically significantly more educational encouragement from their mothers, fathers, friends, and teachers than did male adolescents. In regression, sex and educational encouragement from parents, friends, and teachers were found to be significant predictors of academic achievement.

  1. China attempts to soften its one-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernman, J

    1999-02-13

    This paper reports an attempt by the People's Republic of China to subdue its one-child policy. Widespread poverty threatened China in the mid-1970s as a result of the cultural evolution during the Mao Zedong rule, wherein the population was encouraged to produce many children. In this context the government adopted the one-child policy, which encourages late marriage among couples and allows only one child. On the other hand, there have been reports of mass sterilizations and forced abortions among rural women. Since the start of his term, President Jiang Zemin has led the country to consider amending the one-child policy and opening its doors to western journalists. Health care facilities, previously used to accommodate forced abortion and sterilization procedures, now offer maternal/child care, mammography screening, Pap smear and fertility treatments, as well as friendly lectures on one-child policy for couples during their visit. Family planning in China now involves a choice between IUD and female sterilization, with an implemented fine for those who prefer having more than one child. Despite these efforts, population experts predict a continuous rise in the Chinese population by the mid-21st century, before the population rate starts to level off and eventually decline.

  2. The Development of National Beef-Cattle Population in Relation to Beef-Cattle Population at the Centre and Non Centre Area, and the Policy of National Development Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sodiq

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were (1 to find out the development of beef-cattle population at national level, at the Centre Area of Population (CAP and Non Centre Area of Population (NCAP, (2 to assess the relation between population of national beef-cattle and beef-cattle population at CAP and NCAP, (3 to study the policy of beef-cattle development program in Indonesia. The target of this study addressed to the Directorate General of Livestock Services, Republic of Indonesia. A literature review and communication methods were applied in this study. Descriptive and regression analysis were used for data analysis.  The study revealed that: (1 During 1995-2005, beef-cattle population at national level, CAP and NCAP were unstable.  Due to financial crises (1997, the population at national and CAP tended to decrease, but the population at NCAP was relatively constant.  During 2003-2005, national population tended to increase (0.83% per year, and that figure was less than national target (1.05%,  (2 Population of national beef-cattle (Y was highly related (r2: 0,95; MSE: 108508 to the population of beef-cattle at NCAP (X;  Y = 4764492 + 0.896 X;  (3 An increase in beef-cattle population during 2000-2005 was due to an increase in calving and cattle importation. Slaughtering of cows should be controlled to increase calving. The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program revealed that there were failures in achieving main goals of the program. It is recommended that to improve the contribution of CAP to national needs, the development of cattle population should be focused in those areas.  The evaluation results of beef self-sufficiency program could be considered in the future policy in term of the development cattle population. Some causes of the policy failures: (1 the formulated policy was not equipped with detailed operation plans. The program formulation was limited to title and goal without elaborating the way to achieve the

  3. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological–economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild Costo Económico con Referencia Espacial y de Beneficio a la Biodiversidad y la Efectividad de una Estrategia de Determinación de Costos Resumen Entre 1990 y 2007, en promedio fueron cazados ilegalmente cada año 15 rinocerontes sureños blancos (Ceratotherium simum simum) y negros (Diceros bicornis) en Sudáfrica. Desde 2007 la caza ilegal de rinocerontes sureños blancos por su cuerno ha escalado a más de 950 individuos al año en 2013. Llevamos a cabo un análisis ecológico-económico para determinar si el comercio legal de cuerno de rinoceronte sureño blanco podría facilitar la protección del rinoceronte. Se usaron modelos lineales generalizados para examinar a los conductores socio-económicos de la caza furtiva, con base en datos colectados desde 1990 hasta 2013, y

  4. Responsive and Responsible: Faculty Encouragement of Civic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Eddie R.; Howe, Elijah C.; Laird, Thomas F. Nelson

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how often faculty members encourage students to engage with campus, local, state, national, and global issues. Using data from the 2013 administration of the Faculty Survey of Student Engagement (FSSE), the results show that faculty members are more likely to encourage students to engage in state, national, or global issues…

  5. Female Counselor Educators: Encouraging and Discouraging Factors in Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nicole R.; Leinbaugh, Tracy; Bradley, Carla; Hazler, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The current study explores the encouraging and discouraging factors influencing female counselor educators. This study asked 115 female counselor educators to rate each of 91 items as to how encouraging or discouraging each item was to them as faculty members. The means and standard deviations were calculated for each of the 91 items of the PMBCE.…

  6. Interdisciplinary Intellect: HASTAC and the Commitment to Encourage Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Kimberly Alecia

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Humanities, Arts, Science, and Technology Advanced Collaboratory (HASTAC) in facilitating and encouraging a collaborative community of junior and senior scholars on issues of technology and humanistic learning. As a result of its emphasis on collaboration and discussion, HASTAC encourages a form of collective…

  7. D2.3 - ENCOURAGE platform reference architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Luis Lino; Pinho, Luis Miguel; Albano, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the reference architecture of the ENCOURAGE platform, together with the interconnection of the platform with the external environment. The document is the outcome of task 2.3 (Design of System Architecture) of the ENCOURAGE project, and sets, together with the remaining...... documents produced in work package WP2, the framework for the detailed specification activities to be developed in the technical work packages of the project (WP3-WP6). In order to provide the required background for the ENCOURAGE platform reference, the document describes the most relevant standards...... and standardization initiatives, in the areas addressed by ENCOURAGE. Also, related existing architectures are analysed for consistency and state-of-the-art survey. This allows for ENCOURAGE to build on current practice, innovating in its modularity, scalability and support for seamless interoperability...

  8. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  9. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  10. Locked Up and Locked Out: An Educational Perspective on the U.S. Prison Population. Policy Information Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Richard J.; Barton, Paul E.

    2006-01-01

    In this important and sobering report, the authors provide a broad perspective on the U.S. prison population and offer judgments about the status of prison education programs. This report brings together data and information from a variety of sources to provide an educational perspective on the nation's prison population. It examines the size and…

  11. Review and Assessment of UNESCO's Major Policies and Programmes in Education Services Affecting Population Changes. Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This report is concerned with the development of population education in Asian countries through the assistance of UNESCO. It includes guidelines and goals for a comprehensive population education program feasible for most Asian nations. Included in the program goals are the development and implementation of educational programs at all grade…

  12. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  13. Use of the 10-Group Classification System to analyze how the population control policy change in China has affected cesarean delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yihui; Gu, Ning; Wang, Zhiqun; Zheng, Mingming; Hu, Yali; Dai, Yimin

    2017-08-01

    To analyze the initial effect following the relaxation of China's population control policy on the cesarean delivery (CD) rate using the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS). A retrospective study included all deliveries at a center in Nanjing, China, during 2014-2015. The deliveries were classified using the TGCS. The obstetric populations and the CD rates in each group were compared between 2014 and 2015. Overall, 11 006 deliveries were analyzed. The overall CD rate increased from 28.3% (1623/5737) in 2014 to 33.8% (1782/5269) in 2015 (Pone-third of all CDs-were nulliparous women with a single cephalic term pregnancy and induced labor or prelabor CD (group 2); the CD rate in this group increased from 27.2% to 31.4%. Moreover, the proportion of women with a single cephalic term pregnancy with previous CD (group 5) steeply increased from 6.4% to 10.4% of all deliveries; the CD rate in this group during 2014-2015 was 76.6%. With China ending its one-child policy, the characteristics of the obstetric population changed. Women with a single cephalic term pregnancy with previous CD were the largest contributor to the CD rate increase. © 2017 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.

  14. Policy planning under uncertainty: efficient starting populations for simulation-optimization methods applied to municipal solid waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gordon H; Linton, Jonathan D; Yeomans, Julian Scott; Yoogalingam, Reena

    2005-10-01

    Evolutionary simulation-optimization (ESO) techniques can be adapted to model a wide variety of problem types in which system components are stochastic. Grey programming (GP) methods have been previously applied to numerous environmental planning problems containing uncertain information. In this paper, ESO is combined with GP for policy planning to create a hybrid solution approach named GESO. It can be shown that multiple policy alternatives meeting required system criteria, or modelling-to-generate-alternatives (MGA), can be quickly and efficiently created by applying GESO to this case data. The efficacy of GESO is illustrated using a municipal solid waste management case taken from the regional municipality of Hamilton-Wentworth in the Province of Ontario, Canada. The MGA capability of GESO is especially meaningful for large-scale real-world planning problems and the practicality of this procedure can easily be extended from MSW systems to many other planning applications containing significant sources of uncertainty.

  15. An assessment of schoolyard renovation strategies to encourage children's physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greenwood Emily

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children in poor and minority neighborhoods often lack adequate environmental support for healthy physical development and community interventions designed to improve physical activity resources serve as an important approach to addressing obesity. In Denver, the Learning Landscapes (LL program has constructed over 98 culturally-tailored schoolyard play spaces at elementary schools with the goal to encourage utilization of play spaces and physical activity. In spite of enthusiasm about such projects to improve urban environments, little work has evaluated their impact or success in achieving their stated objectives. This study evaluates the impacts of LL construction and recency of renovation on schoolyard utilization and the physical activity rates of children, both during and outside of school, using an observational study design. Methods This study employs a quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals and associated environmental characteristics in play and leisure environments. Schools were selected on the basis of their participation in the LL program, the recency of schoolyard renovation, the size of the school, and the social and demographic characteristics of the school population. Activity in the schoolyards was measured using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity (SOPLAY, a validated quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals in play and leisure environments. Trained observers collected measurements before school, during school recess, after school, and on weekends. Overall utilization (the total number of children observed on the grounds and the rate of activity (the percentage of children observed who were physically active were analyzed. Observations were compared using t-tests and the data were stratified by gender for further analysis. In order to assess the impacts of LL renovation, recently-constructed LL schoolyards were

  16. An assessment of schoolyard renovation strategies to encourage children's physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthamatten, Peter; Brink, Lois; Lampe, Sarah; Greenwood, Emily; Kingston, Beverly; Nigg, Claudio

    2011-04-09

    Children in poor and minority neighborhoods often lack adequate environmental support for healthy physical development and community interventions designed to improve physical activity resources serve as an important approach to addressing obesity. In Denver, the Learning Landscapes (LL) program has constructed over 98 culturally-tailored schoolyard play spaces at elementary schools with the goal to encourage utilization of play spaces and physical activity. In spite of enthusiasm about such projects to improve urban environments, little work has evaluated their impact or success in achieving their stated objectives. This study evaluates the impacts of LL construction and recency of renovation on schoolyard utilization and the physical activity rates of children, both during and outside of school, using an observational study design. This study employs a quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals and associated environmental characteristics in play and leisure environments. Schools were selected on the basis of their participation in the LL program, the recency of schoolyard renovation, the size of the school, and the social and demographic characteristics of the school population. Activity in the schoolyards was measured using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity (SOPLAY), a validated quantitative method for evaluating levels of physical activity of individuals in play and leisure environments. Trained observers collected measurements before school, during school recess, after school, and on weekends. Overall utilization (the total number of children observed on the grounds) and the rate of activity (the percentage of children observed who were physically active) were analyzed. Observations were compared using t-tests and the data were stratified by gender for further analysis. In order to assess the impacts of LL renovation, recently-constructed LL schoolyards were compared to LL schoolyards with older construction

  17. Safeguarding slaves: smallpox, vaccination, and governmental health policies among the enslaved population in the Danish West Indies, 1803-1848.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Niklas Thode

    2009-01-01

    During the first half of the nineteenth century, a unique system of vaccination against smallpox was developed in the island of St. Croix in the Danish West Indies. The primary intention was to protect the population of enslaved workers, which was of fundamental importance to the economy of the colony. However, because the Danish abolition of the slave trade in 1803 had stopped the imports of new enslaved workers from Africa, the population was also decreasing. The vaccination system's success was due to a high degree of governmental control of the enslaved population that was virtually unseen anywhere else in the Caribbean.

  18. [Scientific population policies? On how to appear to be what one is not...and not to appear to be what one is (J. P. Sartre's definition of hypocrisy)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livenais, P

    1986-11-01

    The author suggests that most of the population policies in developing countries since World War II are based on unproven scientific argument. Such arguments disguise the inadequacy of current knowledge concerning the relationship between population and development. He notes that the practical implication of such policies has generally been confined to the creation of a family planning program designed to reduce fertility. The need for the development of a new politically oriented demography is stressed. (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  19. An investigation of women's attitudes towards fertility and China's family planning policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shixiong; Tian, Tao; Qi, Fan; Ma, Li; Wang, Guosheng

    2010-05-01

    Reducing China's population has formerly been considered a good thing because of the perceived environmental and social risks of overpopulation, but it has recently become apparent that the resulting population decline may create problems that will become increasingly serious in the future. The results of a survey of 4600 women in nineteen Chinese provinces in 2005 indicated that young age, high income, high education level, urban location and good employment all decreased a woman's willingness to bear children. The risks created by declining fertility in these groups have been intensified by China's 'one child' family planning policy. However, as a result of current trends and China's policies, the country's population will continue to age, leading to social problems and difficulties for sustainable development both in China and around the world. Therefore, China's policy-makers must begin planning to adjust their policy by encouraging women to give birth to more than one child.

  20. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy in emerging countries? Amal Satte, Eric Heath Kossoff, Mohamed Belghiti, Abderrahim Zerhouni, Hamid Ouhabi, Hassania Guerinech, Jamal Mounach ...

  1. Encouraging alternative transportation behavior among baby boomers via simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Due to disruptions prompted by changing demographic patterns, aging infrastructure, and a : growing green culture New England states have been at the forefront of searching for options : to encourage sustainable transportation alternatives. How...

  2. Do new cancer drugs offer good value for money? The perspectives of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilla, Tatiana; Lizan, Luís; Paz, Silvia; Garrido, Pilar; Avendaño, Cristina; Cruz-Hernández, Juan J; Espinosa, Javier; Sacristán, José A

    2016-01-01

    In oncology, establishing the value of new cancer treatments is challenging. A clear definition of the different perspectives regarding the drivers of innovation in oncology is required to enable new cancer treatments to be properly rewarded for the value they create. The aim of this study was to analyze the views of oncologists, health care policy makers, patients, and the general population regarding the value of new cancer treatments. An exploratory and qualitative study was conducted through structured interviews to assess participants' attitudes toward cost and outcomes of cancer drugs. First, the participants were asked to indicate the minimum survival benefit that a new treatment should have to be funded by the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Second, the participants were requested to state the highest cost that the NHS could afford for a medication that increases a patient's quality of life (QoL) by twofold with no changes in survival. The responses were used to calculate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). The minimum improvement in patient survival means that justified inclusions into the NHS were 5.7, 8.2, 9.1, and 10.4 months, which implied different ICERs for oncologists (€106,000/quality-adjusted life year [QALY]), patients (€73,520/QALY), the general population (€66,074/QALY), and health care policy makers (€57,471/QALY), respectively. The costs stated in the QoL-enhancing scenario were €33,167, €30,200, €26,000, and €17,040, which resulted in ICERs of €82,917/QALY for patients, €75,500/QALY for the general population, €65,000/QALY for oncologists, and €42,600/QALY for health care policy makers, respectively. All estimated ICER values were higher than the thresholds previously described in the literature. Oncologists most valued gains in survival, whereas patients assigned a higher monetary value to treatments that enhanced QoL. Health care policy makers were less likely to pay more for therapeutic

  3. To have or not to have: the critical importance of reproductive rights to the paradox of population policies in the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Gill

    2009-08-01

    Reproductive rights continue to be under threat, even some 15 years after the landmark International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo declared the importance of a satisfying and safe sex life, the capability to have children, and the right to decide on the timing, number, and spacing. The right to choose whether and when to have children is at risk both from some who seek to increase birth rates through pronatalist policies and from some who seek a return to "population control" as a response to global climate change, environmental degradation, endemic poverty, global recession, and food shortages. This paper argues the success of the rights-based approach to family planning, reproductive health and health education, and outlines issues and policy responses related to low fertility. This is contrasted with the unmet need for family planning in the poorest countries. It calls for health providers to advocate for reproductive rights, affirming that the freedom of women to control their fertility is the basis for other essential freedoms.

  4. Targeting carbonic anhydrase to treat diabetic retinopathy: Emerging evidences and encouraging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiwei, Zhang [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China); Hu, Renming, E-mail: taylorzww@gmail.com [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, HuaShan Hospital, Institute of Endocrinology and Diabetology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, No. 12 Wulumuqi Road, Shanghai 200040 (China)

    2009-12-18

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of vision loss among working-age populations in developed countries. Current treatment options are limited to tight glycemic, blood pressure control and destructive laser surgery. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are a group of enzymes involving in the rapid conversion of carbon dioxide to bicarbonate and protons. Emerging evidences reveal CA inhibitors hold the promise for the treatment of DR. This article summarizes encouraging results from clinical and animal studies, and reviews the possible mechanisms.

  5. Policy evaluation in diabetes prevention and treatment using a population-based macro simulation model : the MICADO model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, A. A. W. A.; Feenstra, T. L.; Hoogenveen, R. T.; Niessen, L. W.; de Bruijne, M. C.; Dekker, J. M.; Baan, C. A.; Nijpels, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aims To test a simulation model, the MICADO model, for estimating the long-term effects of interventions in people with and without diabetes. Methods The MICADO model includes micro-and macrovascular diseases in relation to their risk factors. The strengths of this model are its population scope and

  6. Overview of session and situation in Fukushima. Stakeholder Involvement and the CRPPH: A Learning Process - From Chernobyl to Fukushima. Public dialogue and policy making: The UK's Science-wise programme. Post-Chernobyl experience: Sami reindeer herders in Norway. JAEC's initiative to encourage public understanding in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayano, Ryugo; Boyd, Mike; ); Mayall, Andrew; Tomkiv, Yevgeniya; Oughton, Deborah; Liland, Astrid; Skuterud, Lavrans; Eikelmann, Inger; Kawabuchi, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    them understand situations and take decisions. Professionals may need to mount a steep learning curve to provide information and guidance in an accessible way, but engaging in the exchange and dialogue can lead to better, more effective protection decisions. Another example of the need for government, experts and local populations to work together on addressing radiological protection concerns was found in Norway following the 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Ms Tomkiv highlighted the success of the Norwegian government's intervention with Sami reindeer herders, and discussed how a flexible approach, sensitive to stakeholder needs, produced decisions that significantly improved the livelihoods and also the well-being of these herders. Reindeer meat in Norway, a key food source for the Sami indigenous population, had high levels of radiation contamination following the accident. The Norwegian government provided compensation to farmers who lost their herd due to mandatory slaughter of animals with high exposure levels; raised the intervention level to 6000 Becquerel per kilogram for reindeer meat in Norway; changed slaughter season from winter to autumn; and fed reindeer caesium binders in order to prevent transfer of caesium into meat. These successful and effective protection decisions were built with and accepted by the Sami reindeer herders of Norway and allowed them to maintain their traditional livelihood and culture. Mr Kawabuchi, representing Japan's Atomic Energy Commission, described how the commission has worked to improve messaging and transparency regarding nuclear power. In response to the public's concern about nuclear safety following Fukushima, Japan's Atomic Energy Commission has promoted relations with the public through interactive dialogue, open meetings that are broadcast live on the internet, and a knowledge-based internet offering intended to be accessible to both the general public and experts

  7. Women's NGOs mobilize for population summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) encouraged representatives from women's nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to attend the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) in Cairo, Egypt. ICPD policy makers held issues meetings in September, 1993, for women's NGOs. the ICPD will have a direct bearing on women's issues such as access to family planning, reproductive health care, the fate of girls, and gender equality. 31 alumni of CEDPA met with UN officials and other NGO leaders at the second ICPD Preparatory Committee meeting in New York. CEDPA was encouraged that US policy supported women-managed and women-centered health services. CEDPA president Peggy Curlin recommends health and girl's education as the best means for improving the quality of life in developing countries. CEDPA has a Leadership and Advocacy Project, which promotes women's leadership in population policy at ICPD, regionally, and nationally. CEDPA recommends that women's NGOs and CEDPA link up with appropriate regional networks (in Bangladesh, Ghana, India, Kenya, Mexico, Nigeria, and Pakistan). Women can become involved in the ICPD by becoming an NGO representative to the conference. Women can also become involved by writing to CEDPA about their concerns regarding gender equity and women's empowerment, reproductive rights, girl child initiatives, and adequate resources for NGOs.

  8. THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF MICROBUSINESS AND SMALL ENTERPRISES BY PROVIDING SPECIAL TREATMENT ON PUBLIC BIDDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonelle Wivian Nascimento

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to show the different treatment by the Government towards micro and small enterprises. The study is based on an analysis of data from electronic auctions conducted by the Instituto Federal e Ciência e Tecnologia – Campus Recife contained in COMPRASNET (site where the electronic trading sessions of the Federal Government are performed. The study showed that in the timeline analyzed the public policies to encourage micro and small enterprises have been effective as to its purpose.

  9. Population and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramana, D V

    1977-10-01

    Between 1950-1976 world population increased by 1.5 billion and was accompanied by unprecedented levels of poverty, unemployment, and inequality. Additional problems associated with this marked population increase are related to food supply, human resource development, the infrastructure component of human organization - housing, water supply, and lighting - and environment. Consequently, it becomes apparent that for purposes of development over the next generation or so, it is the absolute population size and its built-in momentum for increase that becomes relevant rather than the declaration of the population growth rate. Necessary is a model of development in which both consumption and investment expenditures are planned in such a way as to yield the highest possible social rate of return. Investment and consumption planning is required as instrumentalities for making income accrue directly to as great a section of the poor as possible. Simultaneously, the following action should be initiated for decreasing the fertility rate to replacement levels: provision of family planning services, education of all social groups regarding the effects of large families and rapid population growth, provision of alternative careers to motherhood, equal rights for women, and reshaping economic and social policies to encourage small families.

  10. Shaping Policy Curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broome, André; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    provide a conceptual framework for understanding how IOs seek to use their own cognitive authority to foster ‘diagnostic coordination’ across technocratic economic policy communities. This encourages officials to adapt to a common policy language and delimits the policy space within which they identify......International organizations (IOs) such as the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank are assumed to rely on ‘sympathetic interlocutors’ at the national level to drive through economic reforms that conform to global policy norms. In this article we answer the following question: How do...... sympathetic interlocutors for IOs emerge in the first place? We address this question by examining how IOs engage in teaching norms to national officials via transnational policy training in order to increase the number of domestic reformers who are sympathetic to their prescriptions for policy change. We...

  11. Implementing health policy: lessons from the Scottish Well Mens policy initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Douglas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little is known about how health professionals translate national government health policy directives into action. This paper examines that process using the so-called Well Men's Services (WMS policy initiative as a ‘real world’ case study. The WMS were launched by the Scottish Government to address men's health inequalities. Our analysis aimed to develop a deeper understanding of policy implementation as it naturally occurred, used an analytical framework that was developed to reflect the ‘rational planning' principles health professionals are commonly encouraged to use for implementation purposes. Methods and materials: A mixed-methods qualitative enquiry using a data archive generated during the WMS policy evaluation was used to critically analyze (post hoc the perspectives of national policy makers, and local health and social care professionals about the: (a ‘policy problem’, (b interventions intended to address the problem, and (c anticipated policy outcomes. Results and conclusions: This analysis revealed four key themes: (1 ambiguity regarding the policy problem and means of intervention; (2 behavioral framing of the policy problem and intervention; (3 uncertainty about the policy evidence base and outcomes, and; (4 a focus on intervention as outcome. This study found that mechanistic planning heuristics (as a means of supporting implementation fails to grapple with the indeterminate nature of population health problems. A new approach to planning and implementing public health interventions is required that recognises the complex and political nature of health problems; the inevitability of imperfect and contested evidence regarding intervention, and, future associated uncertainties.

  12. Environmental law, policy, and economics: reclaiming the environmental agenda

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caldart, Charles C; Ashford, Nicholas Askounes

    2008-01-01

    ... of Information Regarding Chemical Risks 771 11 Enforcement: Encouraging Compliance with Environmental Statutes 807 12 Alternative Forms of Government Intervention to Promote Pollution Reduction 879 13 Polici...

  13. The link between inequality and population health in low and middle income countries: policy myth or social reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; van Oorschot, Wim; van Ingen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    An influential policy idea states that reducing inequality is beneficial for improving health in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). Our study provides an empirical test of this idea: we utilized data collected by the Demographic and Health Surveys between 2000 and 2011 in as much as 52 LMICs, and we examined the relationship between household wealth inequality and two health outcomes: anemia status (of the children and their mothers) and the women' experience of child mortality. Based on multi-level analyses, we found that higher levels of household wealth inequality related to worse health, but this effect was strongly reduced when we took into account the level of individuals' wealth. However, even after accounting for the differences between individuals in terms of household wealth and other characteristics, in those LMICs with higher household wealth inequality more women experienced child mortality and more children were tested with anemia. This effect was partially mediated by the country's level and coverage of the health services and infrastructure. Furthermore, we found higher inequality to be related to a larger health gap between the poor and the rich in only one of the three examined samples. We conclude that an effective way to improve the health in the LMICs is to increase the wealth among the poor, which in turn also would lead to lower overall inequality and potential investments in public health infrastructure and services.

  14. Ceausescu’s population policy: a moral or an economic choice between compulsory and voluntary incentivised motherhood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Stanica Soare

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to explain why, in 1966, the Romanian leadership adopted a wholly restrictive pronatalist policy, based on the strict limitation of abortion, instead of one based on socioeconomic incentives to families, as suggested by technocrats. Previous literature shows disagreement on whether the choice was motivated by moralistic or economic considerations. In order to find an answer to this question, hundreds of pages of archival material unpublished so far have been analysed, including the minutes of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, statistics, documents identified in the Ministry of Health Archive, and the technical reports that were on the table at the time of the decision. The conclusion of this study, drawn on the basis of these documents, indicates that at the time of 1966, regardless of the suggestions of the technocrats, a decision had already been taken by Ceausescu himself. This decision was influenced directly by economic considerations, namely the wish to obtain the maximum pronatalist effect at a minimum budgetary cost.

  15. Encouraging Second Language Use in Cooperative Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, George; Kimura, Harumi

    2013-01-01

    This article begins by discussing whether students of second and foreign languages (hereafter, "second language" will be used to refer to both foreign and second languages) should be encouraged to use their second language (L2) with classmates when doing group activities. Reasons for both L2 and L1 (first language) use are discussed with reference…

  16. Encouraging Doubt and Dialogue: Documentation as a Tool for Critique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Maggie; Sutter, Cheryl J.

    2004-01-01

    The way in which the culture of ethnography has been developed in classrooms that encourages teachers and students to question, doubt, reflect, revise and remain open to new possibilities, is discussed. Through the documentation of interactions and talks between teachers and students, a critical examination of the teachers and capabilities and…

  17. Business Plan Competitions in Tertiary Institutions: Encouraging Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Roslyn; Atchison, Mary; Brooks, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The development of entrepreneurial skills and knowledge is a priority for governments that want to encourage an innovative and enterprising society. Furthermore, education institutions are becoming increasingly required by employers to produce graduates that have practical, real-world skills. Business plan competitions, although primarily aimed at…

  18. Encouraging innovation in business relationships - A research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, E.A.; Frambach, R.T.

    2012-01-01

    How do buyer-supplier relationships affect innovation? This study suggests that the relational exchange norms of flexibility, information sharing, and solidarity (the bright side) encourage buyer innovation. However, negative (dark side) aspects of relationships with suppliers-loss of supplier

  19. Four simple recommendations to encourage best practices in research software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiménez, Rafael C.; Kuzak, Mateusz; Alhamdoosh, Monther

    2017-01-01

    Scientific research relies on computer software, yet software is not always developed following practices that ensure its quality and sustainability. This manuscript does not aim to propose new software development best practices, but rather to provide simple recommendations that encourage the ad...

  20. ENCOURAGEing results on ICT for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Skou, Arne Joachim; Olsen, Petur

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents how the ICT infrastructure developed in the European ENCOURAGE project, centered around a message oriented middleware, enabled energy savings in buildings and households. The components of the middleware, as well as the supervisory control strategy, are overviewed, to support ...

  1. Encouraging Reflection and Critical Friendship in Preservice Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognar, Branko; Krumes, Irena

    2017-01-01

    Reflectivity is an important professional competence of contemporary teachers. In order to explore how to encourage students' reflection, we conducted a two-year action research project impelling them to become mutual critical friends. For critical friendship communication and other project activities, we utilised Moodle--an online learning…

  2. When a Carton Becomes a Car: Encouraging Imaginative Play Outdoors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Margie; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the importance of outdoor play as a space for active learning, discovery, and development of motor skills. Provides suggestions for creating an outdoor curriculum, including how to get started, important materials, and activity ideas. Encourages teachers and caregivers to devote plenty of time and energy to outdoor learning. (SD)

  3. The ENCOURAGE ICT architecture for heterogeneous smart grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albano, Michele; Ferreira, Luis; Le Guilly, Thibaut

    2013-01-01

    The ENCOURAGE project aims at rationalizing energy usage in building by implementing a smart energy grid based on intelligent scheduling of energy consuming appliances, renewable energy production, and inter-building energy trading. This paper presents the reference architecture proposed in the c...

  4. Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Do Bilateral Investment Treaties Encourage FDI in the GCC Countries? W Mina. Abstract. This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner.

  5. Why should modified Atkins diet be encouraged for treating epilepsy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for example, can be replaced by hemp flour, almonds or sesame in some dishes. Conclusion and recommendation. For all these reasons, we think that dietary therapies, es- pecially MAD, should be encouraged as a therapeutic op- tion in developing countries, not only for drug resistant epilepsy, but also potentially as a first ...

  6. Encouraging Students to Consider Music Education as a Future Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Ann M.; Payne, Phillip D.; Burrack, Frederick W.; Fredrickson, William E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes, communication, and opportunities provided by music teachers to encourage consideration of the music teaching profession. Survey participants (N = 436) were music educators from the Southeast (235), Midwest (51), and Southwest (149) National Association for Music Education regions of the…

  7. Earthworms, Stamps and Butterfly Wings: Encouraging Children's Interests and Collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Ann

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the importance of encouraging children's interests and the pursuit of collections and hobbies as strategies for developing talent and abilities. Excerpts are cited from eminent people's lives as examples of early interests/collections and eventual success. Letters from children on their collections are included. (Contains…

  8. Population Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  9. 77 FR 74625 - Policy To Encourage Trial Disclosure Programs; Information Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... collection associated with applications submitted by companies seeking Bureau approval to conduct trial... authority to provide certain legal protections to companies to conduct trial disclosure programs. This..., for the duration of an agreed testing period, the Bureau will deem the testing company's disclosure...

  10. Policy Options for Encouraging Energy Efficiency Best Practices in Shandong Province's Cement Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Lynn [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lu, Hongyou [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sambeek, Emiel van [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yowargana, Ping [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuang, Liu [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kejun, Jiang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-07-12

    This research intends to explore possible design options for a sectoral approach in the cement sector in Shandong Province and to consider its respective advantages and disadvantages for future application. An effort has been made in this research to gather and analyze data that will provide a transparent and robust basis for development of a Business-As-Usual (BAU) scenario, maximum technology potential scenario, and ultimately a sector crediting baseline. Surveys among cement companies and discussions with stakeholders were also conducted in order to better understand the industry and local needs related to the sectoral approach.

  11. 48 CFR 23.1104 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENT, ENERGY AND WATER EFFICIENCY, RENEWABLE ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES, OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY, AND DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Encouraging Contractor Policies to Ban Text Messaging While Driving 23.1104 Policy. Agencies shall... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 23.1104 Section 23...

  12. The thyroid cancer policy model: A mathematical simulation model of papillary thyroid carcinoma in The U.S. population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Lubitz

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer affects over ½ million people in the U.S. and the incidence of thyroid cancer has increased worldwide at a rate higher than any other cancer, while survival has remained largely unchanged. The aim of this research was to develop, calibrate and verify a mathematical disease model to simulate the natural history of papillary thyroid cancer, which will serve as a platform to assess the effectiveness of clinical and cancer control interventions.Herein, we modeled the natural pre-clinical course of both benign and malignant thyroid nodules with biologically relevant health states from normal to detected nodule. Using established calibration techniques, optimal parameter sets for tumor growth characteristics, development rate, and detection rate were used to fit Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER incidence data and other calibration targets.Model outputs compared to calibration targets demonstrating sufficient calibration fit and model validation are presented including primary targets of SEER incidence data and size distribution at detection of malignancy. Additionally, we show the predicted underlying benign and malignant prevalence of nodules in the population, the probability of detection based on size of nodule, and estimates of growth over time in both benign and malignant nodules.This comprehensive model provides a dynamic platform employable for future comparative effectiveness research. Future model analyses will test and assess various clinical management strategies to improve patient outcomes related to thyroid cancer and optimize resource utilization for patients with thyroid nodules.

  13. HABITAT AND HABITANTS IN THE CATALAN PYRENEES: DYNAMICS AND POLICIES FOR UNDER-POPULATED HIGH MOUNTAIN VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Bonet Casas

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a research carried out in 2006 in a partnership between the Universitat de Barcelona and the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, which was aimed to define guidelines to recover the architectural and scenic values of villages in almost abandoned Pyrenean valleys in Catalunya. The research studied at different levels (geographical, urban and architectural the villages of several valleys in order to find out the factors more determinant to explain their degree of revitalization or decay. As a result of the research, the paper presents some conclusions on how to intervene on those pyrenean valleys: to work at the level of geographical units rather than with singular villages or individuals; to establish degrees of priority of intervention between the valleys in order to increase the efficiency of the actions; to ensure high quality infrastructure levels on the selected valleys; to fix strict limits to the construction of new vacation houses in high mountain villages in order to orient the real state demand to the rehabilitation of existing buildings; to create a program of subsidies to help the permanent population working on the primary sector to rehabilitate their dwellings; to promote the display of the natural and cultural richness of the valleys as a main factor for their revitalization; to support private and civic actions oriented to the recover of the valleys.

  14. Article on the World Population Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadik, N

    1990-07-01

    The world's population stands at about 5.3 billion. It increases by about 90 million/year. 90% of this growth is in the developing world where about 75% of the world population live. In Arab countries, the population is growing 2.6%/year and total fertility rates (TFRs) stand 5 whereas the TFR for the entire world is a bit 3. Much of the growth has occurred in cities, e.g., Cairo, where the population has outpaced basic services. Cities require food and fuel thereby stressing rural areas which rural-urban migration only exacerbates. Population growth and distribution have a more profound and long term effect on the planet than does the destruction of rain forests and desertification. Indeed they contribute heavily to these very problems. Even though people have the right to decide how many children they have and their spacing, they also have the responsibility, as Islam professes, to have only number of children they can afford. Likewise governments have the right and responsibility to develop population policies each suited to the individual nation's needs and conditions. Each government must set policies that improve the role and status of women, such as ensuring literacy and education for girls and women. In fact, women must be involved in designing and managing population and development policies to ensure success of any related endeavors. The Arab would agrees on the safer motherhood strategy (providing means to prevent and space births) as a means to reduce population growth. The UNFPA encourages the Arab world to develop a unique Arab population policy which is in accordance with Islamic teachings and is acceptable to all countries and to both men and women.

  15. Collecting Evidence to Inform Salt Reduction Policies in Argentina: Identifying Sources of Sodium Intake in Adults from a Population-Based Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Elorriaga

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum content of sodium in selected processed foods (PF in Argentina was limited by a law enacted in 2013. Data about intake of these and other foods are necessary for policy planning, implementation, evaluation, and monitoring. We examined data from the CESCAS I population-based cohort study to assess the main dietary sources among PF and frequency of discretionary salt use by sex, age, and education attainment, before full implementation of the regulations in 2015. We used a validated 34-item FFQ (Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess PF intake and discretional salt use. Among 2127 adults in two Argentinean cities, aged 35–76 years, mean salt intake from selected PFs was 4.7 g/day, higher among male and low education subgroups. Categories of foods with regulated maximum limits provided near half of the sodium intake from PFs. Use of salt (always/often at the table and during cooking was reported by 9% and 73% of the population, respectively, with higher proportions among young people. Reducing salt consumption to the target of 5 g/day may require adjustments to the current regulation (reducing targets, including other food categories, as well as reinforcing strategies such as education campaigns, labeling, and voluntary agreement with bakeries.

  16. The impact of alcohol policies on alcohol-attributable diseases in Taiwan-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yung-Hsiang; Weng, Yung-Ching; Chang, Koyin

    2017-11-01

    Taiwan has some of the strictest alcohol-related driving laws in the world. However, its laws continue to be toughened to reduce the ever-increasing social cost of alcohol-related harm. This study assumes that alcohol-related driving laws show a spillover effect such that behavioral changes originally meant to apply behind the wheel come to affect drinking behavior in other contexts. The effects of alcohol driving laws and taxes on alcohol-related morbidity are assessed; incidence rates of alcohol-attributable diseases (AAD) serve as our measure of morbidity. Monthly incidence rates of alcohol-attributable diseases were calculated with data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) from 1996 to 2011. These rates were then submitted to intervention analyses using Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average models (ARIMA) with multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS). ARIMA is well-suited to time series analysis while MARS helps fit the regression model to the cubic curvature form of the irregular AAD incidence rates of hospitalization (AIRH). Alcoholic liver disease, alcohol abuse and dependence syndrome, and alcohol psychoses were the most common AADs in Taiwan. Compared to women, men had a higher incidence of AADs and their AIRH were more responsive to changes in the laws governing permissible blood alcohol. The adoption of tougher blood alcohol content (BAC) laws had significant effects on AADs, controlling for overall consumption of alcoholic beverages. Blood alcohol level laws and alcohol taxation effectively reduced alcohol-attributable morbidities with the exception of alcohol dependence and abuse, a disease to which middle-aged, lower income people are particularly susceptible. Attention should be focused on this cohort to protect this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  18. Nursing Teaching Strategies by Encouraging Students’ Questioning, Argumentation and Explanation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Neri de Souza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing students need to develop competences in the field of explanation, argumentation and questioning as they are pivotal to foster a relationship with their patients and achieve a greater humanisation of care. The objective of this paper is to analyse the perception of 1st-year nursing students with regard to the humanisation of care provided to patients by encouraging them to discuss real-life episodes. The study is qualitative and content analysis used the students’ questions, explanations and argumentation as core discourses. Among other conclusions, results point towards the importance of promoting activities that encourage the different nursing students’ discourses and the ability to understand the humanisation and dehumanisation patterns arising from the real-life episodes used as case study.

  19. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Suzi Hellmundt; Dallas Baker

    2017-01-01

    Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013). But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS) as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gl...

  20. Encouraging creativity and employability skills in undergraduate microbiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verran, Joanna

    2010-02-01

    Key skills such as communication and critical thinking are essential for today's microbiology graduate. There are many opportunities within the undergraduate curriculum to help students to use, develop and appreciate their own unique set of skills. This article describes personal experiences of research-led teaching at Manchester Metropolitan University (UK) which have been used successfully to encourage creativity and other employability skills in both large and smaller classroom settings, and through individual student project work. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Creating a board game for encouraging emotional intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Galič, Kaja

    2016-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is on creating a board game for encouraging emotional intelligence of children in early childhood. Game is based on the Four-Branch Model which was proposed by Mayer and Salovey (1997). Board game covers emotional skills, which include the abilities to perceive emotions in oneself and other, to use emotions, to understand emotions and to manage emotions. Game was tested in Kindergarten Ledina Ljubljana and Kindergarten Mavrica Brežice. 57 children, aged five and ...

  2. A new multidimensional population health indicator for policy makers: absolute level, inequality and spatial clustering - an empirical application using global sub-national infant mortality data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benn K.D. Sartorius

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for a multidimensional measure of population health that accounts for its distribution remains a central problem to guide the allocation of limited resources. Absolute proxy measures, like the infant mortality rate (IMR, are limi- ted because they ignore inequality and spatial clustering. We propose a novel, three-part, multidimensional mortality indi- cator that can be used as the first step to differentiate interventions in a region or country. The three-part indicator (MortalityABC index combines absolute mortality rate, the Theil Index to calculate mortality inequality and the Getis-Ord G statistic to determine the degree of spatial clustering. The analysis utilises global sub-national IMR data to empirically illu- strate the proposed indicator. The three-part indicator is mapped globally to display regional/country variation and further highlight its potential application. Developing countries (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa display high levels of absolute mortality as well as variable mortality inequality with evidence of spatial clustering within certain sub-national units (“hotspots”. Although greater inequality is observed outside developed regions, high mortality inequality and spatial clustering are com- mon in both developed and developing countries. Significant positive correlation was observed between the degree of spatial clustering and absolute mortality. The proposed multidimensional indicator should prove useful for spatial allocation of healthcare resources within a country, because it can prompt a wide range of policy options and prioritise high-risk areas. The new indicator demonstrates the inadequacy of IMR as a single measure of population health, and it can also be adapted to lower administrative levels within a country and other population health measures.

  3. Public policy response, aging in place, and big data platforms: Creating an effective collaborative system to cope with aging of the population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Peipei; Chen, Yu

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rapid aging of the population is poised to become the next global public health challenge, as is apparent by the fact that 23.1% of the total global burden of disease is attributable to disorders in people aged 60 years and older. Aging of the population is the biggest driver of substantial increases in the prevalence of chronic conditions, and the prevalence of multi-morbidity is much higher in older age groups. This places a large burden on countries' health and long-term care systems. Many behavioral changes and public policy responses to aging of the population have been implemented to cope with these challenges. A system of "aging in place" has been implemented in some high-income countries in order to better provide coordinated and cost-effective health services for the elderly. This approach reduces institutional care while supporting home- or community-based care and other services. Advances in information and communications technology (ICT), assistive devices, medical diagnostics, and interventions offer many ways of more efficiently providing long-term care as part of aging in place. The use of big data on a web services platform in an effective collaborative system should promote systematic data gathering to integrate clinical and public health information systems to provide support across the continuum of care. However, the use of big data in collaborative system is a double-edged sword, as it also bring challenges for information sharing, standardized data gathering, and the security of personal information, that warrant full attention.

  4. Measuring cancer in indigenous populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfati, Diana; Garvey, Gail; Robson, Bridget; Moore, Suzanne; Cunningham, Ruth; Withrow, Diana; Griffiths, Kalinda; Caron, Nadine R; Bray, Freddie

    2018-02-15

    It is estimated that there are 370 million indigenous peoples in 90 countries globally. Indigenous peoples generally face substantial disadvantage and poorer health status compared with nonindigenous peoples. Population-level cancer surveillance provides data to set priorities, inform policies, and monitor progress over time. Measuring the cancer burden of vulnerable subpopulations, particularly indigenous peoples, is problematic. There are a number of practical and methodological issues potentially resulting in substantial underestimation of cancer incidence and mortality rates, and biased survival rates, among indigenous peoples. This, in turn, may result in a deprioritization of cancer-related programs and policies among these populations. This commentary describes key issues relating to cancer surveillance among indigenous populations including 1) suboptimal identification of indigenous populations, 2) numerator-denominator bias, 3) problems with data linkage in survival analysis, and 4) statistical analytic considerations. We suggest solutions that can be implemented to strengthen the visibility of indigenous peoples around the world. These include acknowledgment of the central importance of full engagement of indigenous peoples with all data-related processes, encouraging the use of indigenous identifiers in national and regional data sets and mitigation and/or careful assessment of biases inherent in cancer surveillance methods for indigenous peoples. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Políticas de población y salud reproductiva en el Paraguay Population policies and reproductive health in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Simancas

    1998-01-01

    planning. National governments had, and currently have, an ambivalent perception of this issue, since population growth is simply considered a positive factor. This concept results from an economic view of the consequences of a reduced domestic market in absolute terms. The lack of a Development Plan, the management deficit, and the shortage of training leave doubts as to the establishment of organically connected policies or programs concerning population.

  6. Rational use of medicines--an important issue in pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna; Traulsen, Janine M

    2005-01-01

    and interpretations are presented and compared. This is followed by a presentation of the concerns associated with pharmaceutical marketing from a policy perspective, including the fear that the dominance of information produced by industry may lead to irrational drug use. Next, the authors review the tools...... to adapt its way of thinking to include the issue of context. They point out that clinical pharmacists today already adapt their decisons to each patient and patient group. Policy-makers are encouraged to adopt a similar approach because populations as well as particular market situations vary...

  7. Extension encourages parents to take a stand against bullying

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    As students return to classrooms and playgrounds around the commonwealth for a new school year, Virginia Cooperative Extension is urging parents to talk to their child about bullying and to understand their school's policies on this important topic.

  8. The software improvement process - tools and rules to encourage quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigerud, K.; Baggiolini, V.

    2012-01-01

    The Applications section of the CERN accelerator controls group has decided to apply a systematic approach to quality assurance (QA), the 'Software Improvement Process' - SIP. This process focuses on three areas: the development process itself, suitable QA tools, and how to practically encourage developers to do QA. For each stage of the development process we have agreed on the recommended activities and deliverables, and identified tools to automate and support the task. For example we do more code reviews. As peer reviews are resource intensive, we only do them for complex parts of a product. As a complement, we are using static code checking tools, like FindBugs and Checkstyle. We also encourage unit testing and have agreed on a minimum level of test coverage recommended for all products, measured using Clover. Each of these tools is well integrated with our IDE (Eclipse) and give instant feedback to the developer about the quality of their code. The major challenges of SIP have been to 1) agree on common standards and configurations, for example common code formatting and Javadoc documentation guidelines, and 2) how to encourage the developers to do QA. To address the second point, we have successfully implemented 'SIP days', i.e. one day dedicated to QA work to which the whole group of developers participates, and 'Top/Flop' lists, clearly indicating the best and worst products with regards to SIP guidelines and standards, for example test coverage. This paper presents the SIP initiative in more detail, summarizing our experience since two years and our future plans. (authors)

  9. Encouraging Students to Have Positive Attitudes toward Learning English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Syukur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A positive attitude is a powerful tool that fosters enthusiasm, promotes self-esteem, and creates an atmosphere conducive to learning. Achievement in a target language relies not only on intellectual capacity, but also on the learner’s attitudes towards language learning. Attitudes could be viewed as a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing, idea, person, situation etc. The attitudes that the students should have are attitude towards the language, attitude towards learning the language, attitude towards the language teacher, and attitude towards school in general. This study focuses on discussing about encouraging students to have positive attitudes toward learning English.

  10. Green Team Hosts Plant Swap to Encourage Gardening | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Carolynne Keenan, Contributing Writer What started out as a way for Howard Young, Ph.D., to thin out his garden last fall turned into the NCI at Frederick Green Team’s Plant Swap. The group held its Fall Plant Swap on October 24, encouraging all members of the Fort Detrick community to pick up a free plant or swap a plant of theirs for another. “Those who love to garden introduce others to the joy of gardening,” said Dolores Winterstein, a member of the Green Team and the coordinator of the Fall Plant Swap.

  11. CDC’s Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population is a valuable tool for researchers and policy makers123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Christine M.; Sternberg, Maya R.; Schleicher, Rosemary L.; Haynes, Bridgette M.H.; Rybak, Michael E.; Pirkle, James L.

    2016-01-01

    The CDC’s National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the US Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the population’s nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003–2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutpoint-based prevalence data during 2003–2006, and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (≥60 y) compared to younger (20–39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks compared to non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (≥6 y) were not at risk for deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (A, B-6, B-12, C, D, E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. About 90% of women (12–49 y) were not at risk for iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk for deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20–39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated, mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy. PMID:23596164

  12. [Population science serves human happiness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, X

    1983-03-29

    4 areas are covered in this speech delivered on January 10, 1983. 1) Looking back on China's post-Liberation population problems: as early as the 1950s, the Party and scholars such as Ma Yinchu recognized the need to control population growth. For instance, a 1952 directive instructed the Public Health Bureau to encourage the use of condoms and diaphrams. When Ma Yinchu's studies showing alarming population increases were made known to Mao Zedong and published in the People's Daily in 1957, the "new population theory" was formed, which advocated population control. But before this idea gained currency, Ma suffered criticism in 1958 and population studies was virtually halted. Between 1958-61, as China entered difficult times, the birthrate declined. By 1962 the rate increased, leading the Central Committee of the Chinese Communist Party to issue a directive to control population. Again in 1971 the Central Government set population goals and incorporated population policies into national economic planning. When the wrongs of the Cultural Revolution were redressed, Ma Yinchu regained favor and demography entered a new era. 2) The responsibility of demographic studies: one of the most important tasks of demography is to solve the problem of confining the birthrate to 16-17/1000 annually, so that by 2000 the total population would be 1,200,000,000. This can only be done by advocating 1 child per couple, closely con trolling a 2nd birth and discouraging all 3rd births. 3) The contents of demographic studies: both immediate and future problems must be addressed. Areas of study can include sex ratio, marriage, family, population and land distribution, fertility, or an aging society. 4) Science research must embody a scientific attitude: it is best to follow the example set by Ma Yinchu, whose work was based on actual investigations in the field. Any development and production of scientific theory must stem from practical experience.

  13. SUHARTO’S POPULATION POLICY IN CONTEMPORARY INDONESIA : FAMILY PLANNING PROGRAM, MARRIAGE ACT OR COMPULSORY EDUCATION HAS THE GREATEST IMPACT TO FERTILITY DECLINE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Anantalia Widyastari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in Indonesia has been falling significantly, from an average total fertility rate of 5.6 children per women in 1970s to 4.1 in 1980, and 2.6 in 2010. This paper attempts to explore which and how Suharto’s population policies have played role in Indonesia’s fertility decline. Whilst the adoption of modern contraceptive was perceived as the major determinant of fertility decline in Indonesia, changes in Indonesia’s political order and socio-economic development also contribute a considerable effect to Indonesians’ familial norms. The implementation of 9-year compulsory education had placed a strong foundation for the future Indonesian human capital and enabled women to obtain higher opportunities for schooling. Beside facilitates the diffusion of ideas among young people and opened up their perspective toward reproductive rights and self actualization, education also increases women’s opportunities to participate in laborforce. With the increasing roles outside the domestic sector, delaying age of marriage and limiting family size becomes a choice for women in contemporary Indonesia. The marriage act, however, was perceived as an accelerator rather than a predictor in increasing age of first marriage. Regardless the existence of the Marriage Law 1974, age of first marriage is likely to increase with increasing of education, although maybe in a slower rate.

  14. IPA Seminar, Montreux, Aug. 15-20, 1975. Recommendations for action programmes to encourage breast feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    The International Pediatric Association is encouraged to promote breastfeeding on an international level to educate about breastfeeding, to curtail the promotion of bottle feeding, to reorganize health services to maintain breastfeeding, to provide facilities at work for women who breastfeed, to establish a policy on weaning, and to do research. Those in the medical profession should disseminate information about breastfeeding and those who comprise the public sector should be made aware of the advantages of breastfeeding. National organizations should be supported in their encouragement to breastfeed. Students should learn that breastfeeding has advantages for the baby. The promotion of artificial feeding should be curtailed. The reorganization of health care services should include not separating the baby from mother and education about the importance and benefits of breastfeeding during a woman's pregnancy. Modifications in the work environment should result in a place to breastfeed, alterations in the workday to fit around the breastfeeding schedule, and extending maternity leave to accommodate breastfeeding. Solid foods should be introduced no earlier than 4 months and information should be provided with regard to weaning food. Surveillance should continue on trends in feeding practice and research should be directed at discovering factors which motivate change.

  15. The Software Improvement Process - Tools And Rules To Encourage Quality

    CERN Document Server

    Sigerud, K

    2011-01-01

    The Applications section of the CERN accelerator Controls group has decided to apply a systematic approach to quality assurance (QA), the “Software Improvement Process”, SIP. This process focuses on three areas: the development process itself, suitable QA tools, and how to practically encourage developers to do QA. For each stage of the development process we have agreed on the recommended activities and deliverables, and identified tools to automate and support the task. For example we do more code reviews. As peer reviews are resource-intensive, we only do them for complex parts of a product. As a complement, we are using static code checking tools, like FindBugs and Checkstyle. We also encourage unit testing and have agreed on a minimum level of test coverage recommended for all products, measured using Clover. Each of these tools is well integrated with our IDE (Eclipse) and give instant feedback to the developer about the quality of their code. The major challenges of SIP have been to 1) agree on com...

  16. Health co-benefits of climate change mitigation policies in the transport sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Caroline; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa; Edwards, Richard

    2014-06-01

    Theory, common sense and modelling studies suggest that some interventions to mitigate carbon emissions in the transport sector can also have substantial short-term benefits for population health. Policies that encourage active modes of transportation such as cycling may, for example, increase population physical activity and decrease air pollution, thus reducing the burden of conditions such as some cancers, diabetes, heart disease and dementia. In this Perspective we systematically review the evidence from 'real life' transport policies and their impacts on health and CO2 emissions. We identified a few studies that mostly involved personalized travel planning and showed modest increases in active transport such as walking, and reductions in vehicle use and CO2 emissions. Given the poor quality of the studies identified, urgent action is needed to provide more robust evidence for policies.

  17. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  18. Elements of a war-survival policy for the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chester, C.V.

    1978-01-01

    The Soviet Union has been vigorously pursuing a war-survival policy for several years, whereas the United States has relied entirely on deterring nuclear war. This has resulted in a situation in which the U.S. population is of the order of ten times more vulnerable to nuclear war than is the Soviet population. Increasingly wide-spread perception of the disparity in vulnerability could undermine credibility of the U.S. deterrent forces and leave the United States in a very poor bargaining position in a confrontation. A program recommended to reestablish parity in vulnerability consists of the following: (1) make national survival in the event of nuclear war explicit policy, (2) develop crisis relocation plans for the population of all potential target areas, (3) teach a course in nuclear-war survival in high school, (4) assign to Minuteman and/or B-1 the role of preventing the reloading of Soviet pop-up silos, (5) reinstitute air defense in the United States if the Soviets continue to deploy the Backfire bomber, (6) continue policies encouraging relocation of population and industry outside cities, (7) avoid the development of new target concentrations especially in the new synthetic liquid fuel industry, and (8) develop and encourage integration of blast and fallout protection into new energy-conserving construction

  19. Encouraging engagement in enabling programs: The students’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzi Hellmundt

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Student retention is a key concern in tertiary education enabling programs with research showing that early engagement leads to higher completion rates (Hodges et al., 2013. But how do students new to university education learn how to engage effectively? This article outlines an engagement framework that foregrounds Guidance, Encouragement, Modelling and Structure (GEMS as a holistic approach to facilitating effective student engagement. This framework was developed from qualitative data gleaned from students enrolled in the Preparing for Success Program at Southern Cross University, New South Wales, Australia. The findings from the students indicate that the GEMS framework activates student potential and enables them to use existing knowledge and experience to not only deepen and broaden their learning but also successfully prepare for further study.

  20. Designing an Assistant System Encouraging Ergonomic Computer Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin GÜRÜLER

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Today, people of almost every age group are users of computers and computer aided systems. Technology makes our life easier, but it can also threaten our health. In recent years, one of the main causes of the proliferation of diseases such as lower back pain, neck pain or hernia, Arthritis, visual disturbances and obesity is wrong computer usage. The widespread use of computers also increases these findings. The purpose of this study is to direct computer users to use computers more carefully in terms of ergonomics. The user-interactive system developed for this purpose controls distance of the user to the screen and calculates the look angle and the time spent looking at the screen and provides audio or text format warning when necessary. It is thought that this system will reduce the health problems caused by the frequency of computer usage by encouraging individuals to use computers ergonomically.

  1. Educational technologies to encourage (self) care in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Eryjosy Marculino Guerreiro; Sousa, Albertina Antonielly Sydney de; Vasconcelos, Mardênia Gomes Ferreira; Carvalho, Rhanna Emanuela Fontenele Lima de; Oriá, Mônica Oliveira Batista; Rodrigues, Dafne Paiva

    2016-06-01

    to evaluate national and international literature regarding the use of educational technologies to encourage self care in postpartum women. an integrative review of the literature. The articles were collected from the CINAHL, SCOPUS, PubMed, SciELO, LILACS and Cochrane databases; the time period for the articles referred to January/2004 to July/2014; the languages used in the articles were Portuguese, English, Spanish and French; the articles were selected from the following descriptors: postpartum care period, educational technology, nursing and self care. Twenty-seven articles were selected for analysis Results: based on the information found, the scales, counseling and home visits were among the most recommended educational technologies. the technologies promote communication, but are sometimes dependent on computer and internet access, which hinder their use by low-income women.

  2. Encouraging Editorial Flexibility in Cases of Textual Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Because many technical descriptions of scientific processes and phenomena are difficult to paraphrase and because an increasing proportion of contributors to the scientific literature are not sufficiently proficient at writing in English, it is proposed that journal editors re-examine their approaches toward instances of textual reuse (similarity). The plagiarism definition by the US Office of Research Integrity (ORI) is more suitable than other definitions for dealing with cases of ostensible plagiarism. Editors are strongly encouraged to examine cases of textual reuse in the context of both, the ORI guidance and the offending authors' proficiency in English. Editors should also reconsider making plagiarism determinations based exclusively on text similarity scores reported by plagiarism detection software. PMID:28244278

  3. Encouraging data citation and discovery with the Data Citation Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Force, Megan M; Robinson, Nigel J

    2014-10-01

    An overview of the Data Citation Index is provided. Thomson Reuters developed this resource in response to a stated desire among members of the research community for increased attribution of non-traditional scholarly output. Launched in October of 2012 on the Web of science research platform, its aims include linking published research articles to their underlying data sets and tracking the citation of the data, as well as encouraging bibliographic citation of data. Cross-disciplinary search capabilities in the Index enable new possibilities for data discovery and synthesis. Data repositories are evaluated with respect to various selection criteria, with particular attention to their relevance to scientific and scholarly research. Index content reflects current data deposition practices. As data citation standards and practices continue to move toward widespread formalization and adoption, the initiative seeks to address issues of data citation, reuse, and author credit in a developing climate.

  4. Population explosion and population control programmes in Bangladesh: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, A S; Nazneen, D R

    1992-01-01

    "The authors discuss in detail efforts made by [the] Bangladesh Government to control its population through planned efforts since 1953. Covering persistent setbacks and reasons thereof in governmental efforts, the authors highlight shifts in policies and strategy.... The [government family planning] programme provides a wide range of contraceptive choice to eligible couples in a manner as acceptable and convenient as possible to the client. The programme is totally voluntary and the government is firmly opposed to coercion or pressure on couples to accept contraception. As a strategy, the programme has integrated health and [family planning] while various ministries have attempted to encourage the acceptance of low-fertility behaviour through socio-economic incentives and educational motivation programmes." excerpt

  5. Remark on receiving encouraging prize; Shoreisho jusho shokan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, Tomichika [Meji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-07-31

    The 1998 fiscal year Japan Solar Energy Soc. encouraging prize is received this time, and it is really sure of thank you and this winning prize for future research activity with large encouragement, while research activity in the university becomes in the good commemoration. This study also put environmental problem in visual field oil crisis energy resource worldwide new, and it was noticed in the wave energy which was one of the natural energy, it was started. That the wave energy was noticed, when the research of various natural energy was advanced, Over 10 years, it is the idea which was produced by the process in which the mechanics laboratory studies the vibration problem, and it is regarded as connecting with present winning prize as a summing-up of research result kept since the front. In the keyword of 'new{exclamation_point}' it began to leave Mr.Taichi Matsuoka and cooperation of the science graduate student as a partner of the graduation thesis the research the present it was a start from the nothing as a thing of this type. It is negative to advance this study in which the failure was always given here, when the new work began, of Mr.Matsuoka of the passion for the research. Away from the research of the wave power generation, solar light and wind power generation are noticed a little, and I aim at the hybridization of the wave power generation, and the research is advanced. Therefore, the vibration-proof stage for installing sun and wind energy conversion system on the wave-power device at present has been designed. At the end, the gratitude is shown to the everybody who received the enthusiastic guidance for this study. (translated by NEDO)

  6. Biocarburants : la Commission propose d’encourager leur utilisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeersch Georges

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Depuis longtemps, la Commission, le Parlement et le Conseil encouragent le développement des sources d’énergie renouvelables, et plus particulièrement des biocarburants. Cela s’est traduit, entre autres, par la publication en novembre 2000 d’un livre vert intitulé « Vers une stratégie européenne de sécurité d’approvisionnement énergétique », qui fixe comme objectif, d’ici 2020, le remplacement de 20% des carburants classiques par des carburants de substitution pour le transport routier. Plus récemment, en juin 2001, au sommet de Göteborg, a été souligné le rôle important des biocarburants dans la lutte contre le changement climatique et le développement des énergies propres. Ces encouragements restaient au niveau de la déclaration d’intention faute de moyens administratifs et fiscaux pour bâtir une véritable stratégie. Depuis le 7 novembre 2001, les choses semblent évoluer : en effet, à cette date, le collège des Commissaires a adopté une communication sur les carburants de substitution pour les transports routiers et une série de mesures visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants. De plus - et c’est ce qui est fondamental - cette communication était assortie de deux propositions de directives, l’une visant à promouvoir l’utilisation des biocarburants dans les transports, l’autre concernant la possibilité d’appliquer un taux d’accises réduit sur certaines huiles minérales qui contiennent des biocarburants et sur les biocarburants.

  7. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A; Odden, Michelle C; Coxson, Pamela G; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  8. Prevalence and pathways of recovery from drug and alcohol problems in the United States population: Implications for practice, research, and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, John F; Bergman, Brandon; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Vilsaint, Corrie; White, William L

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems confer a global, prodigious burden of disease, disability, and premature mortality. Even so, little is known regarding how, and by what means, individuals successfully resolve AOD problems. Greater knowledge would inform policy and guide service provision. Probability-based survey of US adult population estimating: 1) AOD problem resolution prevalence; 2) lifetime use of "assisted" (i.e., treatment/medication, recovery services/mutual help) vs. "unassisted" resolution pathways; 3) correlates of assisted pathway use. Participants (response=63.4% of 39,809) responding "yes" to, "Did you use to have a problem with alcohol or drugs but no longer do?" assessed on substance use, clinical histories, problem resolution. Weighted prevalence of problem resolution was 9.1%, with 46% self-identifying as "in recovery"; 53.9% reported "assisted" pathway use. Most utilized support was mutual-help (45.1%,SE=1.6), followed by treatment (27.6%,SE=1.4), and emerging recovery support services (21.8%,SE=1.4), including recovery community centers (6.2%,SE=0.9). Strongest correlates of "assisted" pathway use were lifetime AOD diagnosis (AOR=10.8[7.42-15.74], model R2=0.13), drug court involvement (AOR=8.1[5.2-12.6], model R2=0.10), and, inversely, absence of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis (AOR=0.3[0.2-0.3], model R2=0.10). Compared to those with primary alcohol problems, those with primary cannabis problems were less likely (AOR=0.7[0.5-0.9]) and those with opioid problems were more likely (AOR=2.2[1.4-3.4]) to use assisted pathways. Indices related to severity were related to assisted pathways (R2resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Health benefits of reducing sugar-sweetened beverage intake in high risk populations of California: results from the cardiovascular disease (CVD policy model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekeshe A Mekonnen

    Full Text Available Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD. Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified.We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model - CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10-20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars.Over the next decade, a 10-20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8-3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5-1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5-0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320-620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14-27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided.A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits.

  10. Studying abroad: encouraging students to return to Kyrgyzstan

    OpenAIRE

    Thieme, Susan; Elebaeva, Ainur; Bruce, Zarina; Samanchina, Jarkyn

    2013-01-01

    More and more students from Kyrgyzstan are now studying at foreign universities, where they gain knowledge and skills that are vital for Kyrgyzstan’s development and prosperity. But many face difficulties in finding opportunities to apply their new skills upon their return. This issue of evidence for policy examines the causes and consequences of this situation, and examines challenges of making student migration advantageous for Kyrgyzstan.

  11. Communicating Program Outcomes to Encourage Policymaker Support for Evidence-Based State Tobacco Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison M. Schmidt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use, the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S., can be reduced through state-level tobacco prevention and cessation programs. In the absence of research about how to communicate the need for these programs to policymakers, this qualitative study aimed to understand the motivations and priorities of policymakers in North Carolina, a state that enacted a strong tobacco control program from 2003–2011, but drastically reduced funding in recent years. Six former legislators (three Democrats, three Republicans and three lobbyists for health organizations were interviewed about their attitudes towards tobacco use, support of state-funded programs, and reactions to two policy briefs. Five themes emerged: (1 high awareness of tobacco-related health concerns but limited awareness of program impacts and funding, (2 the primacy of economic concerns in making policy decisions, (3 ideological differences in views of the state’s role in tobacco control, (4 the impact of lobbyist and constituent in-person appeals, and (5 the utility of concise, contextualized data. These findings suggest that building relationships with policymakers to communicate ongoing program outcomes, emphasizing economic data, and developing a constituent advocacy group would be valuable to encourage continued support of state tobacco control programs.

  12. Small Business Taxation: Revamping Incentives to Encourage Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study adopts a new approach in assessing the impact of taxes on small business growth and suggests the need to consider new incentives that would be more effective in encouraging small business growth and would also improve the neutrality of the existing tax system. In recent years, federal and provincial governments have provided various corporate tax incentives to small businesses with the aim of helping them grow. While it is commonly believed that small businesses are responsible for most job creation, unfortunately the only study available has shown that while many small businesses are created, few grow. Yet many governments believe that the incentives are important even though little evidence supports the effectiveness of small business corporate concessions. Some provinces have actually eliminated corporate taxes on small businesses or reduced such taxes to a symbolic level (e.g., one to two percent without there being any empirical support in favour of the effectiveness of such actions. In contradiction to the widely held view that small business tax concessions encourage growth, such small business tax relief could actually be antithetical to growth by creating a “taxation wall.” First, it could result in the breakup of companies into smaller, less efficient-sized units in order to take advantage of tax benefits even if there are economic gains to growing in size. Second, it could encourage individuals to create small corporations in order to reduce their personal tax liabilities rather than grow companies. And third, it could lead to a “threshold effect” that holds back small business from growing beyond the official definition of “smallness,” regardless of the criteria for measuring size (e.g., the size of revenue or assets, or the number of employees. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of both corporate and personal taxes on the growth of small business and we focus in particular on the likely consequences of the

  13. Project Activities and Encouraging Critical Thinking: Exploring Teachers’ Attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Pejić Papak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary education process frequently emphasises the importance of teaching and learning by focusing teaching activities towards research and collaborative work, the encouragement of critical thinking, the creative and productive application of knowledge, an active approach to the teaching content, and solving specific problems in project activities. A survey was conducted on a sample of 220 elementary school teachers from three counties in Croatia (Primorje-Gorski Kotar, Lika-Senj, and Istria regarding the frequency of implementing project activities that encourage critical thinking in pupils. The objectives of the research were to determine the regularity of implementing project activities at the class level and at the level of the entire school, and to examine possible differences between teachers who estimated regular implementation of project activities in their schools and those who estimated the levels of irregular implementation of project activities, in the application of contemporary work strategies, as well as in the attitudes on the contemporary paradigm of childhood and the education process. The research results showed that the majority of teachers estimated that project activities were carried out regularly at their school (66.5% on a class level and 65% on a school level. Teachers who reported the regular implementation of project activities at the class level and at the school level more frequently applied contemporary work strategies and techniques of critical thinking than their colleagues did. The research results also indicated that those teachers more frequently use established approaches to the educational process (teacher should explain, exhibit facts, and point out important conclusions than their colleagues do. There were no statistically significant differences in contemporary attitudes between the two groups of teachers. Since the objective behind the implementation of project activities was to create the

  14. Políticas sanitarias de ámbito estatal y autonómico para la población inmigrante en España Health policies of national and regional level for the immigrant population in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Terraza Núñez

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Analizar el contenido de las políticas sanitarias estatales y autonómicas dirigidas a inmigrantes en España. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio comparativo descriptivo de las políticas sanitarias para inmigrantes, estatales y autonómicas, mediante análisis de contenido. Se seleccionaron Andalucía, Comunidad Valenciana, Comunidad de Madrid y País Vasco por tener políticas específicas, proporción diferente de inmigrantes y evaluación de la política. Se seleccionaron planes estatales o autonómicos con intervenciones sanitarias dirigidas a inmigrantes. Se realizó un análisis de contenido cuyas dimensiones iniciales fueron: principios, objetivos, estrategias y evaluación. Posteriormente se clasificaron las estrategias según el ámbito de actuación. Resultados: Las políticas sanitarias dirigidas a inmigrantes se definen principalmente en los planes de inmigración. Los principios se basan en la igualdad de derechos en salud con la población autóctona, y los objetivos se dirigen a su consecución. Buena parte de las acciones están encaminadas a la mejora del acceso a la atención. Además, contemplan estrategias específicas para adaptación de los servicios, promoción de la salud, análisis de las necesidades y formación de los profesionales. Las políticas autonómicas siguen las directrices generales marcadas para todo el Estado, pero con acciones más concretas. Las evaluaciones de las políticas son muy limitadas. Conclusión: El contenido de las políticas sanitarias, especialmente estatales, responden a aspectos importantes a considerar en la atención a la población inmigrante. Sin embargo, la ausencia de evaluaciones, junto a la persistencia de problemas en la atención e inequidades en el acceso, podría indicar una insuficiente implantación y requiere un seguimiento cuidadoso.Objectives: To analyze the content of health policies for the immigrant population developed by central and regional governments in

  15. 32 CFR 249.4 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF DoD-RELATED SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL PAPERS AT MEETINGS § 249.4 Policy. It is DoD policy to: (a) Encourage the presentation of scientific and technical information generated by or for the Department of... DoD employee and contractor papers intended for presentation at scientific and technical conferences...

  16. Family Policy in the USSR Since 1944.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Frank, April A.

    This study examines Soviet family policies since 1944 concerning family allowances, abortion and contraception, divorce and illegitimacy, child care facilities and maternity benefits, and motherhood awards. The problems of Soviet society which brought about these policies are discussed and their use in encouraging fertility and promoting female…

  17. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10−5, 4.67 × 10−5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  18. Scholarships for scientific initiation encourage post-graduation degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Gabriela S; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Mendes, Matheus S; Ogliari, Fabrício A; Demarco, Flávio F; Correa, Marcos B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with the decision to attend an academic post-graduation program by dental students. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012, last-year undergraduate students from Dental Schools of Southern Brazil. A closed questionnaire was applied including questions grouped in three different blocks: pre-graduate, undergraduate period and future perspectives. The outcome was the decision to pursuit an academic post-graduation degree. Associations were tested using chi-squared test and chi-squared test for linear trends when appropriate. Multivariate Poisson regression was also performed. The sample was composed by 671 students (response rate of 69.9%, n=467). In relation to future perspectives, 68% of the interviewed students intended to attend a post-graduation program, but only 17.5% would choose a program with academic and research post-graduation program (Master and PhD programs). In the final model, students from public universities (PR 2.08, 95%CI 1.41-3.08) and students that received scientific initiation scholarship (PR 1.93 95%CI 1.14-3.27) presented a twice greater prevalence to seek academic post-graduate programs. Students with higher family incomes showed a lower prevalence to seek these programs (PR 0.50, 95%IC 0.28-0.90). Scholarships seem to encourage undergraduate students to pursue stricto sensu post-graduation.

  19. Facilitating small groups: how to encourage student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Mark

    2012-02-01

    Many clinicians are involved in medical education, with small group teaching (SGT) forming a significant part of their work. Most facilitate these sessions by experience and common sense: less than one-third of them have received formal training in SGT. Evidence suggests small group productivity depends on good facilitation rather than on topic knowledge. Applying the fundamental concepts of SGT will lead to improvements in the quality of clinicians' teaching and in student learning. Good SGT creates the perfect environment for learning and discussion, without the need for didactic teaching. SGT emphasises the role of students in sharing and discussing their ideas in a safe learning environment, without domination by the tutor. This article provides clinicians with basic requirements for effective session design and planning, explains how to encourage student participation, how to manage students as a group, how to manage student learning, and how to recognise and deal with problems. Active facilitation and group management is the key to success in SGT, and consequently better learning outcomes. Improving the facilitation skills of clinical teachers makes teaching more effective, stimulating, and enjoyable for both tutors and students. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  20. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Antó, Josep M; Brauer, Michael; Briggs, David; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Cavill, Nick; Cooper, Ashley R; Desqueyroux, Hélène; Fruin, Scott; Hoek, Gerard; Panis, Luc Int; Janssen, Nicole; Jerrett, Michael; Joffe, Michael; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; van Kempen, Elise; Kingham, Simon; Kubesch, Nadine; Leyden, Kevin M; Marshall, Julian D; Matamala, Jaume; Mellios, Giorgos; Mendez, Michelle; Nassif, Hala; Ogilvie, David; Peiró, Rosana; Pérez, Katherine; Rabl, Ari; Ragettli, Martina; Rodríguez, Daniel; Rojas, David; Ruiz, Pablo; Sallis, James F; Terwoert, Jeroen; Toussaint, Jean-François; Tuomisto, Jouni; Zuurbier, Moniek; Lebret, Erik

    2011-05-01

    Substantial policy changes to control obesity, limit chronic disease, and reduce air pollution emissions, including greenhouse gasses, have been recommended. Transportation and planning policies that promote active travel by walking and cycling can contribute to these goals, potentially yielding further co-benefits. Little is known, however, about the interconnections among effects of policies considered, including potential unintended consequences. We review available literature regarding health impacts from policies that encourage active travel in the context of developing health impact assessment (HIA) models to help decision-makers propose better solutions for healthy environments. We identify important components of HIA models of modal shifts in active travel in response to transport policies and interventions. Policies that increase active travel are likely to generate large individual health benefits through increases in physical activity for active travelers. Smaller, but population-wide benefits could accrue through reductions in air and noise pollution. Depending on conditions of policy implementations, risk tradeoffs are possible for some individuals who shift to active travel and consequently increase inhalation of air pollutants and exposure to traffic injuries. Well-designed policies may enhance health benefits through indirect outcomes such as improved social capital and diet, but these synergies are not sufficiently well understood to allow quantification at this time. Evaluating impacts of active travel policies is highly complex; however, many associations can be quantified. Identifying health-maximizing policies and conditions requires integrated HIAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tariffs Can Be Structured to Encourage Photovoltaic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2008-08-31

    The solar power market is growing at a quickening pace, fueled by an array of national and local initiatives and policies aimed at improving the value proposition of customer-sited photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though these policies take many forms, they commonly include up-front capital cost rebates or ongoing production incentives, supplemented by net metering requirements to ensure that customer-sited PV systems offset the full retail rate of the customer-hosts. Somewhat less recognized is the role of retail rate design, beyond net metering, on the customer-economics of grid-connected PV. Over the life of a PV system, utility bill savings represent a substantial portion of the overall economic value received by the customer. At the same time, the design of retail electricity rates, particularly for commercial and industrial customers, can vary quite substantially. Understanding how specific differences in rate design affect the value of customer-sited PV is therefore essential to supporting the continued growth of this market.

  2. Acceptability of financial incentives and penalties for encouraging uptake of healthy behaviours: focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Emma L; Sniehotta, Falko F; McColl, Elaine; Adams, Jean

    2015-01-31

    There is evidence that financial incentive interventions, which include both financial rewards and also penalties, are effective in encouraging healthy behaviours. However, concerns about the acceptability of such interventions remain. We report on focus groups with a cross-section of adults from North East England exploring their acceptance of financial incentive interventions for encouraging healthy behaviours amongst adults. Such information should help guide the design and development of acceptable, and effective, financial incentive interventions. Eight focus groups with a total of 74 adults were conducted between November 2013 and January 2014 in Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Focus groups lasted approximately 60 minutes and explored factors that made financial incentives acceptable and unacceptable to participants, together with discussions on preferred formats for financial incentives. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and analysed in Nvivo 10. Participants largely distrusted health promoting financial incentives, with a concern that individuals may abuse such schemes. There was, however, evidence that health promoting financial incentives may be more acceptable if they are fair to all recipients and members of the public; if they are closely monitored and evaluated; if they are shown to be effective and cost-effective; and if clear health education is provided alongside health promoting financial incentives. There was also a preference for positive rewards rather than negative penalties, and for shopping vouchers rather than cash incentives. This qualitative empirical research has highlighted clear suggestions on how to design health promoting financial incentives to maximise acceptability to the general public. It will also be important to determine the acceptability of health promoting financial incentives in a range of stakeholders, and in particular, those who fund such schemes, and policy-makers who are likely to be involved with the design

  3. Encouraging self-regulated learning through electronic portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Abrami

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At the Centre for the Study of Learning and Performance (CSLP at Concordia University in Montreal, Quebec, we have developed the Electronic Portfolio Encouraging Active Reflective Learning Software (ePEARL to promote student self-regulation and enhance student core competencies. This paper summarizes the literature on electronic portfolios (EPs, describes ePEARL, and documents our research findings to date including analyses of teacher and student reactions. Participants in this study were 62 school teachers, mostly from elementary schools, and their students (approximately 1200 from seven urban and rural English school boards across Quebec. Student and teacher post-test questionnaire responses suggested that the use of portfolios, and the learning processes they support, were positively viewed and learned well enough to be emerging skills among students. Contrariwise, teachers commented that teaching SRL strategies was new and thus required a change in teaching strategies, strategies that they were not yet accustomed to. Focus groups also revealed the challenges of using portfolios to teach children to self-regulate. And finally, the analysis of student portfolios evidenced only small amounts of student work or high levels of student self-regulation. Résumé : Au Centre d’études sur l’apprentissage et la performance (CEAP de l’Université Concordia à Montréal, Québec, nous avons conçu le logiciel de portfolio électronique réflexif pour l’apprentissage des élèves (PERLE afin d’encourager l’apprentissage autorégulé chez les élèves et d’accroître leurs compétences de base. Cet article présente un résumé de la documentation sur les portfolios électroniques, une description de PERLE, ainsi que nos résultats de recherche documentés à ce jour, y compris des analyses des réponses des enseignants et des élèves. Les participants à cette étude se composaient de 62 enseignants, la plupart dans des

  4. Encouraging formative assessments of leadership for foundation doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Lindsay; Black, David; Welch, Jan; Reynolds, Peter; Penlington, Clare

    2015-08-01

    Clinical leadership is considered essential for maintaining and improving patient care and safety in the UK, and is incorporated in the curriculum for all trainee doctors. Despite the growing focus on the importance of leadership, and the introduction of the Medical Leadership Competency Framework (MLCF) in the UK, leadership education for doctors in training is still in its infancy. Assessment is focused on clinical skills, and trainee doctors receive very little formal feedback on their leadership competencies. In this article we describe the approach taken by Health Education Kent, Sussex and Surrey (HEKSS) to raise the profile of leadership amongst doctors in training in the South Thames Foundation School (STFS). An annual structured formative assessment in leadership for each trainee has been introduced, supported by leadership education for both trainees and their supervisors in HEKSS trusts. We analysed over 500 of these assessments from the academic year 2012/13 for foundation doctors in HEKSS trusts, in order to assess the quality of the feedback. From the analysis, potential indicators of more effective formative assessments were identified. These may be helpful in improving the leadership education programme for future years. There is a wealth of evidence to highlight the importance and value of formative assessments; however, particularly for foundation doctors, these have typically been focused on assessing clinical capabilities. This HEKSS initiative encourages doctors to recognise leadership opportunities at the beginning of their careers, seeks to help them understand the importance of acquiring leadership skills and provides structured feedback to help them improve. Leadership education for doctors in training is still in its infancy. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Development of an intervention programme to encourage high school students to stay in school for lunch instead of eating at nearby fast-food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Dominique; Godin, Gaston

    2012-08-01

    Many schools have recently adopted food policies and replaced unhealthy products by healthy foods. Consequently, adolescents are more likely to consume a healthy meal if they stay in school for lunch to eat a meal either prepared at home or purchased in school cafeterias. However, many continue to eat in nearby fast-food restaurants. The present paper describes the development of a theory-based intervention programme aimed at encouraging high school students to stay in school for lunch. Intervention Mapping and the Theory of Planned Behaviour served as theoretical frameworks to guide the development of a 12-week intervention programme of activities addressing intention, descriptive norm, perceived behavioural control and attitude. It was offered to students and their parents with several practical applications, such as structural environmental changes, and educational activities, such as audio and electronic messages, posters, cooking sessions, pamphlets, improvisation play theatre, quiz, and conferences. The programme considers theoretical and empirical data, taking into account specific beliefs and contexts of the target population. This paper should help programme planners in the development of appropriate interventions addressing the problem. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How to encourage road noise abatement in Nordic municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard

    2008-01-01

    Road noise nuisance is a huge problem in the Nordic countries, and it seems diffi cult for Nordic countries to meet national targets for its reduction. One reason for this is the lack of municipal activities in the fi eld. Th us the research question that this article seeks to answer in relation...... to already existing residential areas and roads is: which conditions in the municipal organisation and its institutional environment contribute to making municipalities provide and implement noise abatement measures? Th e assumption is that three factors infl uence how the municipalities prioritize among...... political issues: the municipal organisation itself, the local institutional environment (citizens, business and NGOs), and the state and trans-municipal networks. A study of the anatomy of municipal road noise abatement policy shows that conditions for implementing road noise abatement in existing...

  7. 78 FR 22841 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Programs... contractors to develop science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) programs. FOR FURTHER... 2012, which requires DoD to encourage contractors to develop science, technology, engineering, and...

  8. Insurance Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry; Harms, Lisbeth

    2008-01-01

    A 'Pay As You Speed' project, devised by the University of Aalborg, utilizes satellite technology and financial incentives to encourage a reduction in vehicle speeds. Udgivelsesdato: January......A 'Pay As You Speed' project, devised by the University of Aalborg, utilizes satellite technology and financial incentives to encourage a reduction in vehicle speeds. Udgivelsesdato: January...

  9. Actively Encouraging Learning and Degree Persistence in Advanced Astrophysics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel H.

    2018-01-01

    The need to grow and diversify the STEM workforce remains a critical national challenge. Less than 40% of college students interested in STEM achieve a bachelor's degree. These numbers are even more dire for women and URMs, underscoring a serious concern about the country's ability to remain competitive in science and tech. A major factor is persistent performance gaps in rigorous 'gateway' and advanced STEM courses for majors from diverse backgrounds leading to discouragement, a sense of exclusion, and high dropout rates. Education research has clearly demonstrated that interactive-engagement (`active learning') strategies increase performance, boost confidence, and help build positive 'identity' in STEM. Likewise, the evidence shows that traditional science education practices do not help most students gain a genuine understanding of concepts nor the necessary skill set to succeed in their disciplines. Yet, lecture-heavy courses continue to dominate the higher-ed curriculum, thus, reinforcing the tired notion that only a small percentage of 'special' students have the inherent ability to achieve a STEM degree. In short, very capable students with less experience and confidence in science, who belong to groups that traditionally are less identified with STEM careers, are effectively and efficiently 'weeded out' by traditional education practices. I will share specific examples for how I successfully incorporate active learning in advanced astrophysics courses to encourage students from all backgrounds to synthesize complex ideas, build bedrock conceptual frameworks, gain technical communication skills, and achieve mastery learning outcomes all necessary to successfully complete rigorous degrees like astrophysics. By creating an inclusive and active learning experience in junior-level extragalactic and stellar interiors/atmospheres courses, I am helping students gain fluency in their chosen major and the ability to 'think like a scientist', both critical to

  10. Government Policies for Corporate Social Responsibility in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen; Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses policies of 22 European Union member governments, designed to encourage corporate social responsibility (CSR) between 2000 and 2011. It categorises these policies by their regulatory strength and identifies the range of issues to which CSR policies are directed. The paper argu...

  11. Smoke-Free Policies at Home, Church, and Work: Smoking Levels and Recent Quit Attempts Among a Southeastern Rural Population, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Swan, Deanne W.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Fredrick, George; Daniel, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of smoke-free policies and social support for smoking cessation in the home, at church, and at work on smoking levels and quit attempts in the context of a community-based study of rural African Americans and whites in the Southeast. Methods We conducted a baseline survey to assess sociodemographics, smoking behavior, level of social support for smoking cessation, and smoke-free policies at home, church, and work. W...

  12. [Mexican migration policies after IRCA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba, F

    1999-01-01

    The evolution since 1964 of Mexican government policy regarding migrant workers in the US is discussed. For a decade after the "bracero" program was terminated by the US, the Mexican government attempted to encourage creation of another legal framework for migration, regarded as inevitable whether legal or clandestine. Around 1974-75, a more distant attitude, termed the "policy of no policy," acquired considerable support in Mexican government and academic circles. The no-policy strategy allowed Mexico to achieve certain objectives regarding migration without prompting US intervention in its internal affairs, as for example by a linkage of US migration policy to specific Mexican government actions. The 1986 passage of the US Immigration Reform and Control Act effectively ended the no-policy strategy that had allowed the Mexican government to count on the continued emigration of Mexican workers without compromising its position of promoting respect for migrant rights. The unilateral change in the status quo by the US led to substitution of the "policy of dialogue," a clear signal of the Mexican government's search for a new migration agreement. The policy of dialogue has entailed greater discussion of the two traditional Mexican objectives regarding migration. Some progress has apparently been made concerning migrant rights, but the second and less explicit objective, that of preventing abrupt changes in US immigration policy and in migratory flows, is harder to judge. The atmosphere of freer public debate in Mexico is politicizing migratory policy.

  13. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  14. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  15. Encouraging appropriate, evidence-based use of oral nutritional supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Rebecca J; Elia, Marinos

    2010-11-01

    With the considerable cost of disease-related malnutrition to individuals and to society (estimated to be >£13×109 for the UK, 2007 prices), there is a need for effective and evidence-based ways of preventing and treating this condition. The wide range of oral nutritional supplements that may be prescribed for the dietary management of malnutrition and other conditions account for only about 1% (about £99×106, 2007 data) of the prescribing budget in England. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses consistently suggest that ready-made, multi-nutrient liquids which may be prescribed can improve energy and nutritional intake, body weight and have a variety of clinical and functional benefits in a number of patient groups. Meta-analyses have repeatedly shown that oral nutritional supplements produce significant reductions in complications (e.g. infections) and mortality, and a recent meta-analysis shows a reduction in hospital admissions (OR 0·56 (95% CI 0·41, 0·77), six randomised controlled trials). Such benefits suggest that the appropriate use of oral nutritional supplements should form an integral part of the management of malnutrition, particularly as there is currently a lack of evidence for alternative oral nutrition strategies (e.g. food fortification and counselling). As with all therapies, compliance to oral nutritional supplements needs to be maximised and the use monitored. To make sure that those at risk of malnutrition are identified and treated appropriately, there is a need to embed national and local policies into routine clinical practice. In doing so, the economic burden of this costly condition can be curtailed. As recently suggested by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, substantial cost savings could be made if screening and treatment of malnourished patients was undertaken.

  16. Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen HARDIN

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Teach them to Fly: Strategies for Encouraging Active Online Learning Karen HARDIN Cameron University Lawton, OK, USA PROBLEM One of the hot topics in education in the past 10 years has been the shift of the role of the educator. Whereas, he has traditionally been the owner and deliverer of the knowledge (Sage on the stage, now his role is shifting to a guide and facilitator (guide by the side. The purpose is to give the students ownership in their own learning process. As technology becomes more sophisticated, automation is replacing students’ problem solving skills, critical thinking and sometimes patience. On one of my evaluations in a 1999 online course, a student criticized that, “she’s not doing the teaching, I’m doing the learning.” Of course in my desire to encourage active learning, I took the response as a compliment, but the student meant it as a criticism. I began pondering the reluctance of students to take control of the learning process. I’ve noticed this lack of problem solving, critical thinking and patience with young adults in the workplace. For example, I often visit Sam’s, a warehouse store owned by Wal-Mart. When I check out, I pay with a check. The computerized register will print the check for me, so I allow the cashier to do that. I often ask him or her to add $15 to the total to give me cash back. It’s amazing how long it takes these young adults to add $15 to the total because of their reliance on computers. In another situation, when I was in an outlet shoe store in Texas, I purchased a pair of sandals. After I checked out, I noticed a sign that promoted, “buy one, get a second for one cent.” Of course, I wanted to take advantage of this opportunity, so I told the cashier that I wanted to find another pair of shoes. She replied, “It’s too late, your transaction is complete. I wouldn’t know what to do.” I said, “It’s simple, I owe you one cent.” She said, “I don’t know how to make the computer fix it

  17. Using Motion-Sensor Games to Encourage Physical Activity for Adults with Intellectual Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael J; Taylor, David; Gamboa, Patricia; Vlaev, Ivo; Darzi, Ara

    2016-01-01

    Adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) are at high risk of being in poor health as a result of exercising infrequently; recent evidence indicates this is often due to there being a lack of opportunities to exercise. This pilot study involved an investigation of the use of motion-sensor game technology to enable and encourage exercise for this population. Five adults (two female; 3 male, aged 34-74 [M = 55.20, SD = 16.71] with ID used motion-sensor games to conduct exercise at weekly sessions at a day-centre. Session attendees reported to have enjoyed using the games, and that they would like to use the games in future. Interviews were conducted with six (four female; two male, aged 27-51 [M = 40.20, SD = 11.28]) day-centre staff, which indicated ways in which the motion-sensor games could be improved for use by adults with ID, and barriers to consider in relation to their possible future implementation. Findings indicate motion-sensor games provide a useful, enjoyable and accessible way for adults with ID to exercise. Future research could investigate implementation of motion-sensor games as a method for exercise promotion for this population on a larger scale.

  18. An Untapped Resource for Increasing College Attainment: Estimating the Population of Potential First-Generation Students in Wisconsin. WISCAPE Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenby, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Potential first-generation students make up a large segment of Wisconsin's teenage population. To increase the pool of educated workers in Wisconsin, policymakers must work to recruit, retain, and graduate these students. Estimates of the size of the first-generation student population in the state are crucial for these efforts. This brief…

  19. Encouraging Combined Heat and Power in California Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Groissbock, Markus [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cardoso, Goncalo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Muller, Andreas [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lai, Judy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    2030 it will be only 2.5 GW due to the anticipated grid decarbonization. The 2030 result requires a 60% electric efficiency and 20 year life time for fuel cells, a payback period of 10 years, and a CO2 minimization strategy of building owners. Finally, the possible CHP potential in 2030 shows a significant variance between 0.2 GW and 2.5 GW, demonstrating the complex interactions between technologies, policies, and customer objectives.

  20. 2008 Issues on Serials Policy Formulation for Nigerian University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gbaje E.S

    Notwithstanding, Ola (2006) in her own studies, itemized the need to formulate and adopt every policy as thus:- i. Encourages advice from the academic staff regarding what materials to add to collection. ii. Encourages Input from students iii. Ensures participation of the collection development librarian iv. Defines clearly the ...

  1. The relationships between menthol cigarette preference and state tobacco control policies on smoking behaviors of young adult smokers in the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahijevych, Karen; Ford, Jodi

    2010-12-01

    To examine relationships between the preference for menthol cigarettes and young adult smoking behaviors, including the extent to which state tobacco control policies moderate these relationships. Cross-sectional design using secondary data from the 2006-07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Surveys (TUS CPS) surveys appended with 2006 state-policy data. United States nationally representative survey. A total of 2241 young adult daily smokers and 688 young adult non-daily smokers. The two dependent variables of smoking behaviors were smoking first cigarette within 30 minutes of waking (TTF) and number of cigarettes smoked per day (cpd). Primary independent variables included menthol brand preference and state tobacco control policies (youth access laws, clean indoor air laws and cigarette excise taxes), adjusting for controls. Among daily smokers, there were no significant associations between menthol brand preference and TTF or cpd. However, lower educational attainment, not being in the labor force and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with shorter TTF, being white and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with cpd. Among daily smokers, state excise taxes were associated negatively with higher cpd. Among non-daily smokers, menthol brand preference was associated positively with shorter TTF, but associations did not vary with state tobacco control policies. Menthol brand preference was not associated significantly with cpd, but male gender, unmarried status and the lack of home smoking rules were associated positively with greater cpd among non-daily smokers. Young adult non-daily smokers who preferred menthol cigarettes were significantly more dependent than those who preferred non-menthol cigarettes, as shown through the shorter TTF. Associations between menthol brand preference and smoking behaviors did not vary with state tobacco control policies. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the

  2. Malnutrition in the UK: policies to address the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elia, M; Russell, C A; Stratton, R J

    2010-11-01

    In 2007, the estimated cost of disease-related malnutrition in the UK was in excess of £13×109. At any point in time, only about 2% of over 3 million individuals at risk of malnutrition were in hospital, 5% in care homes and the remainder in the community (2-3% in sheltered housing). Some government statistics (England) grossly underestimated the prevalence of malnutrition on admission and discharge from hospital (1000-3000 annually between 1998 and 2008), which is less than 1% of the prevalence (about 3 million in 2007-2008) established by national surveys using criteria based on the 'Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool' ('MUST'). The incidence of malnutrition-related deaths in hospitals, according to government statistics (242 deaths in England in 2007), was also policies have reduced the number of hospital and care home beds and encouraged care closer to home. Such policies have raised issues about education and training of the homecare workforce, including 6 million insufficiently supported informal carers (10% of the population), the commissioning process, and difficulties in implementing nutritional policies in a widely distributed population. The four devolved nations in the UK (England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales) have developed their own healthcare polices to deal with malnutrition. These generally aim to span across all care settings and various government departments in a co-ordinated manner, but their effectiveness remains to be properly evaluated.

  3. Environmental management: The bank's policy approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In order to play a leadership role in the environmental recovery of central and eastern Europe, the Bank will pursue the following policy priorities: assistance to the countries of operations in environmental policy formulation, including the development of effective legal and regulatory instruments, the adoption of appropriate emissions and effluents standards and the creation of the institutional and human resources capacity to monitor and enforce them; promoting the use of a variety of economic instruments to address the underlying cause of environmental degradation and the adoption of market-based techniques in environmental management programmes; encouraging the development of an environmental goods and services industry in the countries of operations, of commercially viable investments in environmental technologies and pollution prevention and control, and by funding environmental infrastructure projects; initiation of, or support for, special studies and programmes to address regional and national environmental problems and to promote environmental education within the population and institutions of the countries of operations; adoption of adequate environmental assessment, management planning, audit and monitoring procedures throughout its activities; and promoting the adoption and implementation of procedures for provision of information to, and consultation with, all levels of government and the general public - especially potentially affected parties - concerning environmental matters

  4. The effects of policy actions to improve population dietary patterns and prevent diet-related non-communicable diseases: scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyseni, L; Atkinson, M; Bromley, H; Orton, L; Lloyd-Williams, F; McGill, R; Capewell, S

    2017-06-01

    Poor diet generates a bigger non-communicable disease (NCD) burden than tobacco, alcohol and physical inactivity combined. We reviewed the potential effectiveness of policy actions to improve healthy food consumption and thus prevent NCDs. This scoping review focused on systematic and non-systematic reviews and categorised data using a seven-part framework: price, promotion, provision, composition, labelling, supply chain, trade/investment and multi-component interventions. We screened 1805 candidate publications and included 58 systematic and non-systematic reviews. Multi-component and price interventions appeared consistently powerful in improving healthy eating. Reformulation to reduce industrial trans fat intake also seemed very effective. Evidence on food supply chain, trade and investment studies was limited and merits further research. Food labelling and restrictions on provision or marketing of unhealthy foods were generally less effective with uncertain sustainability. Increasingly strong evidence is highlighting potentially powerful policies to improve diet and thus prevent NCDs, notably multi-component interventions, taxes, subsidies, elimination and perhaps trade agreements. The implications for policy makers are becoming clearer.

  5. Involving the public in epidemiological public health research: a qualitative study of public and stakeholder involvement in evaluation of a population-wide natural policy experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson de Cuevas, Rachel; Nylén, Lotta; Burström, Bo; Whitehead, Margaret

    2018-04-20

    Public involvement in research is considered good practice by European funders; however, evidence of its research impact is sparse, particularly in relation to large-scale epidemiological research. To explore what difference public and stakeholder involvement made to the interpretation of findings from an evaluation of a natural policy experiment to influence the wider social determinants of health: 'Flexicurity'. Stockholm County, Sweden. Members of the public from different occupational groups represented by blue-collar and white-collar trade union representatives. Also, members of three stakeholder groups: the Swedish national employment agency; an employers' association and politicians sitting on a national labour market committee. Total: 17 participants. Qualitative study of process and outcomes of public and stakeholder participation in four focused workshops on the interpretation of initial findings from the flexicurity evaluation. New insights from participants benefiting the interpretation of our research findings or conceptualisation of future research. Participants sensed more drastic and nuanced change in the Swedish welfare system over recent decades than was evident from our literature reviews and policy analysis. They also elaborated hidden developments in the Swedish labour market that were increasingly leading to 'insiders' and 'outsiders', with differing experiences and consequences for financial and job security. Their explanation of the differential effects of the various collective agreements for different occupational groups was new and raised further potential research questions. Their first-hand experience provided new insights into how changes to the social protection system were contributing to the increasing trends in poverty among unemployed people with limiting long-standing illness. The politicians provided further reasoning behind some of the policy changes and their intended and unintended consequences. These insights fed into

  6. Learning through Civic Participation: Policy Actors' Perspectives on Curriculum Reform Involvement in Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Laura Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    When citizens participate in policy production, the advantages go beyond policy outcomes--though the presumption is that participation leads to better public policy. Robust democracy characterized by agonistic exchanges among policy actors ought to encourage learning, dialogue, empow­erment, equity, and a shared spirit of inquiry. This article…

  7. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  8. Population growth in S. E. Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athak, G S; Narain, J P

    1976-01-01

    In opening remarks before the Conference on Population Growth and Human Development (November 19-22, 1973) Pathak said India must find human solutions to the population problems which are essentially the problems of ordinary men and women. Family limitation decisions should always be voluntary. Population policy must also always be an integral part of the total development strategy. There has already been a good deal of international cooperation in the restricted field of population assistance; now there must be broader cooperation in the perspective of social and economic development. In a valedictory address Narain, lead of the Sarvodaya Movement, indicated his view of the population problem was different from Ghandi's. He felt voluntary organizations which were mobile and committed to the service of the people were more able to achieve results than government agencies. The conference then adopted the following resolutions: 1) raise agricultural production by increasing irrigation and providing necessary communication networks; 2) integrate health and family planning services; 3) provide functional education; 4) make cheap credit available; 5) increase employment opportunities by encouraging village industry. Safe, simple, acceptable family planning methods are needed. Research also is needed to investigate the cultural determinants of family size and fertility patterns. In addition, micro-projects for raising the economic level of villages should avoid the pitfalls of macro-projects and make sure the benefits are quickly apparent to the people affected.

  9. Should the public be encouraged to visit nuclear plant sites?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferte, J. de la

    1993-01-01

    local population. Prior to the meeting, the NEA had conducted an inquiry into some 60 visitor centres at nuclear sites in 16 countries within and outside the OECD area, in an attempt to draw-up the typical profile of such centres, their public, their messages, and their impact on public opinion. Two-thirds of the replies came from centres at nuclear power stations, and one third from centres attached to nuclear fuel cycle installations (uranium mines, enrichment plants, reprocessing plants, waste management storage or disposal installations). Visitor centres at nuclear energy sites must be considered today as primary communication means between the nuclear community and the public. This is substantiated by the rapidly increasing figures of visitors at each site, as well as by the rate of opening of new visitor centres to meet new information requirements, such as at radioactive waste management sites. Also, a vast effort of modernisation and improvement of equipment of existing centres is to be noted. Perhaps the keyword which best qualifies the efforts spent on visitor centres in recent years is that of professionalism, referring to their design, construction and operation, and to the evolution of the information methods and tools on which they base their operations. There is not much in common between the simple panels of written explanations and pictures of the 1970's and the 'user-friendly' equipment now available in most centres, some of which are based on highly sophisticated technology. But, beyond this major progress, a major point remains the unique role of personnel toward the visitors. Not only is it important for the visitor to feel the 'human touch' from the first instant of his visit, but opinion polls confirm that many visitors look for opportunities to discuss with plant personnel themselves. Arranging for such opportunities brings forward the need for training personnel in communicating with the public, and above all, for personnel to have received

  10. Macroeconomic ambiance in the function of encouraging innovations and entrepreneurship: Case study of the state of Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Daliborka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject matter of the paper includes the main factors necessary for the establishment of macroeconomic ambiance that fosters the development of innovations and entrepreneurship. The aim of the paper is to show that the role of the state (fiscal policy is not only important, but often decisive in the forming of macroeconomic conditions for self-initiative economic efforts of entrepreneurs and innovators. Therefore, the method used in this paper is the analysis of the fiscal policy, its instruments and measures as well as other activities in its domain, which contribute to the increase of entrepreneurship and innovations. Additionally, the method of case study is also used. Namely, since the State of Israel is worldly known as the 'start-up nation', the secondary research is conducted by analysis of the efforts of the fiscal policy and other activities in the State of Israel as a good practice for continuous improvement of macroeconomic ambience that encourages the ever increasing innovations and entrepreneurship undertakings. The main conclusion refers to the fact that empowering the innovations and entrepreneurship is necessary for the economic growth, and for the change of the economy's structure towards the more technically and technologically developed economic sectors.

  11. Designing Courses that Encourage Post-College Scientific Literacy in General Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.

    2010-12-01

    In a time when domestic and foreign policy is becoming increasingly dependent on a robust understanding of scientific concepts (especially in regards to climate science), it is of vital importance that non-specialist students taking geoscience courses gain an understanding not only of Earth system processes, but also of how to discern scientific information from "spin". An experimental introductory level environmental geology course was developed at the Glendale Community College in Glendale, Arizona, in the fall of 2010 that sought to integrate collaborative learning, online resources, and science in the media. The goal of this course was for students to end the semester with not just an understanding of basic Earth systems concepts, but also with a set of tools for evaluating information presented by the media. This was accomplished by integrating several online sites that interface scientific data with popular web tools (ie, Google Maps) and collaborative exercises that required students to generate ideas based on their observations followed by evaluation and refinement of these ideas through interactions with peers and the instructor. The capstone activity included a series of homework assignments that required students to make note of science-related news stories in the media early in the semester, and then gradually begin critically evaluating these news sources, which will become their primary source of post-college geoscience information. This combination of activities will benefit students long after the semester has ended by giving them access to primary sources of scientific information, encouraging them to discuss and evaluate their ideas with their peers, and, most importantly, to critically evaluate the information they receive from the media and their peers so that they can become more scientifically literate citizens.

  12. Are peer reviewers encouraged to use reporting guidelines? A survey of 116 health research journals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Hirst

    Full Text Available Pre-publication peer review of manuscripts should enhance the value of research publications to readers who may wish to utilize findings in clinical care or health policy-making. Much published research across all medical specialties is not useful, may be misleading, wasteful and even harmful. Reporting guidelines are tools that in addition to helping authors prepare better manuscripts may help peer reviewers in assessing them. We examined journals' instructions to peer reviewers to see if and how reviewers are encouraged to use them.We surveyed websites of 116 journals from the McMaster list. Main outcomes were 1 identification of online instructions to peer reviewers and 2 presence or absence of key domains within instructions: on journal logistics, reviewer etiquette and addressing manuscript content (11 domains.Only 41/116 journals (35% provided online instructions. All 41 guided reviewers about the logistics of their review processes, 38 (93% outlined standards of behaviour expected and 39 (95% contained instruction about evaluating the manuscript content. There was great variation in explicit instruction for reviewers about how to evaluate manuscript content. Almost half of the online instructions 19/41 (46% mentioned reporting guidelines usually as general statements suggesting they may be useful or asking whether authors had followed them rather than clear instructions about how to use them. All 19 named CONSORT for reporting randomized trials but there was little mention of CONSORT extensions. PRISMA, QUOROM (forerunner of PRISMA, STARD, STROBE and MOOSE were mentioned by several journals. No other reporting guideline was mentioned by more than two journals.Although almost half of instructions mentioned reporting guidelines, their value in improving research publications is not being fully realised. Journals have a responsibility to support peer reviewers. We make several recommendations including wider reference to the EQUATOR Network

  13. Night club patrons who feel safe will return: Evidence to encourage management to address club violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark B; Voas, Robert; Miller, Brenda A; Byrnes, Hilary; Bourdeau, Beth

    2016-02-01

    There is substantial evidence that heavy drinking is associated with aggression and violence. Most managers of drinking establishments are required to maintain a security staff to deal with disruptive patrons who threaten an organization's business or legal status. However, managers may focus little on minor instances of aggression even though these may escalate into more serious events. We hypothesize that proactive security efforts may positively affect patrons' perceptions of nighttime safety and influence their decisions to return to the club, thereby affecting the club's bottom line. Data for this study were collected from entry and exit surveys with 1714 attendees at 70 electronic music dance events at 10 clubs in the San Francisco Bay Area (2010-2012). Participants were asked to report on observations and experiences with aggressive behavior while in the club, their overall perception of club safety, and their plans to return to the same club in the next 30 days. Mediational multiple regression analysis was used to relate observations of club security to perceptions of personal safety and plans to return to the club. Reported observations of an active club security staff were positively related to perceptions of personal safety. Safety perceptions, in turn, were significantly related to plans to return to the club. The indirect path between perceptions of security and plans to return was significant as well. The results suggest that an active security presence inside clubs can encourage club attendance by providing an environment where minor altercations are minimized, contributing to the perception of club safety. Evidence that proactive security efforts appear to increase return customers might motivate managers to implement better security policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  14. Employee perception of a mandated helmet policy at Vail Resorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher B; Brownson, Mark R; Levy, Brent J; Valley, Morgan A; Evans, Bruce; Lowenstein, Steven R

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure support for a mandated helmet policy among resort employees along with the impact of such a policy on job satisfaction, and additionally, to measure the prevalence of barriers to helmet use among this population. In all, 728 Vail Resort employees were surveyed regarding their opinions on the helmet policy and on general helmet use. The majority of the 728 employees surveyed (66.5%; 95% CI: 63% to 70%) agreed with the helmet policy. Only 18% (95% CI: 16% to 21%) reported a negative effect on job satisfaction. Older employees (>25 years old) were more likely to disagree with the policy (odds ratio [OR] 3.1; 95% CI: 2.2 to 4.3) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 4.8; 95% CI: 3.0 to 7.6). Skiers were much more likely than snowboarders to report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 5.2 to 18.1). Among resort employees, ski patrollers were more likely to disagree with the mandate (OR 9.8; 95% CI: 6.8 to 13.9) and report a negative effect on job satisfaction (OR 13.2; 95% CI: 8.3 to 21.). Forty-three percent of participants (95% CI: 39% to 46%) agreed with the statement that wearing a helmet encourages reckless behavior whereas 51.0% (95% CI: 47% to 54%) believed that wearing a helmet limits sensory perception. A mandatory helmet use policy was supported by most resort employees. However, ski patrollers and older, more experienced employees were more likely to report a negative effect on job satisfaction. Barriers to helmet use continue to persist in the ski industry and represent a target for further educational efforts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Encouraging Women Entrepreneurship to Join the Global Market (Case study on Fashion Industry in West Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanni Mashithoh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The integration of global market has opened today for the foreign products to entry any countries and has threatened the future of women entrepreneurs. Women entrepreneurs have to compete with foreign businessmen who have superiority in terms of funds, technology, infrastructure, market information and government support. Indonesia is one of developing country who encourages the development of rural areas. Women entrepreneurship in rural areas indicated will increase the local economy, creating employment opportunities, and decreasing the poverty currently. One province in Indonesia that successfully promotes the fashion industries to local and international tourist is West Java. This study aims to analyze the effect of network development strategy toward the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction. Hypothesis were tested by multivariate statistics- Partial Least Square. The population is owners or managers of SMEs in fashion or garment industries. Stratified random sampling is occupied to get 78 women entrepreneurs in West Java. This study shows that network strategy is significantly influenced the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction Proactive entrepreneur is proved to positively strengthen the impact of network strategy on the women entrepreneurs’ satisfaction. This result becomes a guide for SMEs, especially in fashion or garment industry to support the tourism of West Java.

  16. Mud crab ecology encourages site-specific approaches to fishery management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, P.; Léopold, M.; Frotté, L.; Peignon, C.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of mud crabs population patterns on their exploitation. We used complementary approaches (experimental, fisher-based) to investigate how small-scale variations in density, size and sex-ratio related to the ecology of S. serrata may impact fishing practices in New Caledonia. Crabs were measured/sexed across 9 stations in contrasted mangrove systems between 2007 and 2009. Stations were described and classified in different kinds of mangrove forests (coastal, riverine, and estuarine); vegetation cover was qualitatively described at station scale. Annual catch was used as an indicator of fishing pressure. Middle-scale environmental factors (oceanic influence, vegetation cover) had significant contributions to crab density (GLM, 84.8% of variance), crab size and sex-ratio (social implications in the Pacific area, where land tenure system and traditional access rights prevent most fishers from freely selecting their harvest zones. This offers a great opportunity to encourage site-specific management of mud crab fisheries.

  17. Comorbidity and age affect treatment policy for cervical cancer: a population-based study in the south of The Netherlands, 1995-2004

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aa, M.A.; Siesling, Sabine; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Lybeert, M.L.M.; Coebergh, J.W.W.; Janssen-Heijnen, M.L.G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the effects of age and comorbidity on the choice of treatment modalities and prognosis for patients with cervical cancer. METHODS: All patients with cervical cancer newly diagnosed between 1995 and 2004 (n=775) were selected from the population-based

  18. Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional wildlife habitat in Southern New England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffum, Bill; Modisette, Christopher; McWilliams, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging family forest owners to create early successional habitat is a high priority for wildlife conservation agencies in the northeastern USA, where most forest land is privately owned. Many studies have linked regional declines in wildlife populations to the loss of early successional habitat. The government provides financial incentives to create early successional habitat, but the number of family forest owners who actively manage their forests remains low. Several studies have analyzed participation of family forest owners in federal forestry programs, but no study to date has focused specifically on creation of wildlife habitat. The objective of our study was to analyze the experience of a group of wildlife-oriented family forest owners who were trained to create early successional habitat. This type of family forest owners represents a small portion of the total population of family forest owners, but we believe they can play an important role in creating wildlife habitat, so it is important to understand how outreach programs can best reach them. The respondents shared some characteristics but differed in terms of forest holdings, forestry experience and interest in earning forestry income. Despite their strong interest in wildlife, awareness about the importance of early successional habitat was low. Financial support from the federal government appeared to be important in motivating respondents to follow up after the training with activities on their own properties: 84% of respondents who had implemented activities received federal financial support and 47% would not have implemented the activities without financial assistance. In order to mobilize greater numbers of wildlife-oriented family forest owners to create early successional habitat we recommend focusing outreach efforts on increasing awareness about the importance of early successional habitat and the availability of technical and financial assistance.

  19. Parental Encouragement in Relation to Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…

  20. IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEM OF MATERIAL STIMULATION AND MATERIAL ENCOURAGEMENT OF WORK OF HEALTH WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Deryabina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In article are considered possibilities of a solution of the problem of quality of medical services by improvement of system of material stimulation and encouragement of health workers. Are developed the methodical recommendations about material stimulation and encouragement of work of medical personnel directed on increase of individual and collective productivity, improvement of quality of medical services.

  1. 76 FR 39341 - Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 [REG-114206-11] RIN 1545-BK21 Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments; Correction AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service... how the new markets tax credit program may be amended to encourage non-real estate investments. FOR...

  2. From Refuse to Refuge: Create a Game Plan for Your Library to Encourage Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman-Whitson, Jill

    2011-01-01

    It is important for students to be good readers. In order to encourage reading for the fun of it, the author developed a game plan for the library. In this article, the author discusses how to make the library the place to be. She suggests that librarians need to encourage students to read, read, read. They must make their libraries places of…

  3. 76 FR 32880 - Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    ... proceeds is affiliated with the primary CDE or the qualified equity investment investors; and (iii) the... be a non-profit entity or the affiliate of a non-profit entity? B. Encouraging Equity Investments in... Encouraging New Markets Tax Credit Non-Real Estate Investments AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS...

  4. Teaching about Designer Babies and Genetically Modified Foods: Encouraging the Teaching of Biotechnology in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Glenda; Schibecci, Renato

    2006-01-01

    Biotechnology is a cutting edge science/technology which impacts the community in many ways. For this and other reasons, it is important we encourage teachers to include biotechnology in the science curriculum. First, however, we need to know what hinders and encourages teachers. We surveyed the views of 88 high school science teachers. The …

  5. Troublesome trends: population growth, distribution, migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The upcoming International Conference on Population and Development and its draft plan of action call for international cooperation in protecting and assisting refugees and displaced persons and in assuring positive consequences in host and origin countries. The draft plan also aims to protect the elderly through enhancing self-reliance and continued work and independent living in their own communities. Social support systems for the elderly must also be strengthened. The document is also concerned with the movement of population to cities and across borders. Recommendations on migration encourage governments to evaluate the impact of economic and environmental policies on population distribution and migration, to promote development of medium-sized urban centers, to encourage rural economic development and placement of industries in rural areas, and to support access to land ownership or use and access to water resources in rural areas. Rural infrastructure and social services need to be improved. Grassroots organizations and cooperatives for establishing credit and marketing products are emphasized. Weak local area management is an obstacle to socioeconomic development, environmental protection, and population distribution. Waste, water, and land management strategies should be adopted. Prevention of the root causes of displacement is particularly important when environmental damage is the consequence or the cause. Women, children, and the elderly who are displaced need protection. Refugee numbers have swelled from 8.5 million in 1985 to 19 million in 1993. Sudden and mass refugee arrivals should be afforded temporary protection until a solution can be found. Conditions must be created for safe and dignified, voluntary repatriation. The social and economic integration of documented, longterm migrants must be assured.

  6. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingunn M Tombre

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size. The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  7. Towards a solution to the goose-agriculture conflict in North Norway, 1988-2012: the interplay between policy, stakeholder influence and goose population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988-2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics.

  8. Towards a Solution to the Goose-Agriculture Conflict in North Norway, 1988–2012: The Interplay between Policy, Stakeholder Influence and Goose Population Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombre, Ingunn M.; Eythórsson, Einar; Madsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents results from a multidisciplinary study of a negotiation process between farmers and wildlife authorities which led to an agricultural subsidy scheme to alleviate conflicts between agriculture and geese in Norway. The Svalbard-breeding population of pink-footed geese Anser brachyrhynchus has increased considerably over the last decades and conflicts with farmers have escalated, especially at stopover sites in spring when geese feed on newly sprouted pasture grass. In Vesterålen, an important stopover site for geese in North Norway, farmers deployed scaring of geese at varying intensity dependent on the level of conflict during 1988–2012. We assessed the efficiency of a subsidy scheme established in 2006, in terms of its conflict mitigation, reflected in a near discontinuation of scaring activities. The presence of pink-footed geese was analysed in relation to scaring intensity, the total goose population size and the increasing occurrence of another goose species, the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Scaring significantly affected the number of geese staging in Vesterålen, both in absolute and relative terms (controlling for total population size). The geese responded immediately to an increased, and reduced, level of scaring. Despite the establishment of the subsidy scheme, the number of pink-footed geese has recently declined which is probably caused by the increasing number of barnacle geese. For the farmers, the subsidy scheme provides funding that reduces the economic costs caused by the geese. Sustaining a low level of conflict will require close monitoring, dialogue and adaptation of the subsidy scheme to cater for changes in goose population dynamics. PMID:23977175

  9. Encouraging Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author features the Opportunity Funding Corporation's (OFC) Venture Challenge, a business competition that allows HBCU (historically Black colleges and universities) students to develop and foster sustainable business ventures. The OFC Venture Challenge was established to help HBCUs develop a comprehensive entrepreneurship…

  10. Policy tools to encourage community-level defensible space in the United States: A tale of six communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Stidham; Sarah McCaffrey; Eric Toman; Bruce. Shindler

    2014-01-01

    Within the wildland-urban interface (WUI), wildfire risk contains both individual and collective components. The likelihood that a particular home will be threatened by wildfire in any given year is low, but at a broader scale the likelihood that a home somewhere in the WUI will be threatened is substantially higher. From a risk mitigation perspective, individuals may...

  11. 48 CFR 310.001 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be capable of performing the requirement. The Contracting Officer shall attach a copy of the analysis... PLANNING MARKET RESEARCH § 310.001 Policy. (a) OPDIVs are encouraged to conduct market research, to the... information necessary—see FAR 10.001(b), to determine whether they have the apparent capability to perform a...

  12. Policy and Ethical Implications of Biosocial Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    Social scientists are often concerned that research on biological causes of behavior will encourage biologically-based public policy. By simultaneously examining both social and biological causes of behavior, biosocial research models prevent simplistic biological thinking. Concludes that biosocial models clarify ethical problems rather than…

  13. Environmental policy, assessment and communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canter, D.; Krampen, M.; Stea, D.

    1988-01-01

    This second volume in the Gower ethnoscapes Series explores the realm of environmental policy and presents analysis of three major public policy issues: growing public concern over environmental factors; growing awareness of the relationship between environment, crime and adolescent development; and increased environmental awareness in relation to population growth and housing needs (especially housing for the elderly and mass housing for third world nations).

  14. Smoking practices in New York City: the use of a population-based survey to guide policy-making and programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostashari, Farzad; Kerker, Bonnie D; Hajat, Anjum; Miller, Nancy; Frieden, Thomas R

    2005-03-01

    To inform New York City's (NYC's) tobacco control program, we identified the neighborhoods with the highest smoking rates, estimated the burden of second-hand smoke exposure, assessed the early response to state taxation, and examined cessation practices. We used a stratified random design to conduct a digit-dialed telephone survey in 2002 among 9,674 New York City adults. Our main outcome measures included prevalence of cigarette smoking, exposure to second-hand smoke, the response of smokers to state tax increases, and cessation practices. Even after controlling for sociodemographic factors (age, race/ethnicity, income, education, marital status, employment status, and foreign-born status) smoking rates were highest in Central Harlem and in the South Bronx. Sixteen percent of nonsmokers reported frequent exposure to second-hand smoke at home or in a workplace. Among smokers with a child with asthma, only 33% reported having a no-smoking policy in their homes. More than one fifth of smokers reported reducing the number of cigarettes they smoked in response to the state tax increase. Of current smokers who tried to quit, 65% used no cessation aid. These data were used to inform New York City's smoke-free legislation, taxation, public education, and a free nicotine patch give-away program. In conclusion, large, local surveys can provide essential data to effectively advocate for, plan, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive tobacco control program.

  15. Pricing Strategies to Encourage Availability, Purchase, and Consumption of Healthy Foods and Beverages: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittelsohn, Joel; Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kim, Hyunju

    2017-11-02

    Food pricing policies to promote healthy diets, such as taxes, price manipulations, and food subsidies, have been tested in different settings. However, little consensus exists about the effect of these policies on the availability of healthy and unhealthy foods, on what foods consumers buy, or on the impact of food purchases on consumer health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of studies of the effect of food-pricing interventions on retail sales and on consumer purchasing and consumption of healthy foods and beverages. We used MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Cochrane Library to conduct a systematic search for peer-reviewed articles related to studies of food pricing policies. We selected articles that were published in English from January 2000 through December 2016 on the following types of studies: 1) real-world experimental studies (randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies, and natural experiments); 2) population studies of people or retail stores in middle-income and high-income countries; 3) pricing interventions alone or in combination with other strategies (price promotions, coupons, taxes, or cash-back rebates), excluding studies of vending-machine or online sales; and 4) outcomes studies at the retail (stocking, sales) and consumer (purchasing, consumption) levels. We selected 65 articles representing 30 studies for review. Sixteen pricing intervention studies that sought to improve access to healthy food and beverage options reported increased stocking and sales of promoted food items. Most studies (n = 23) reported improvement in the purchasing and consumption of healthy foods or beverages or decreased purchasing and consumption of unhealthy foods or beverages. Most studies assessed promotions of fresh fruits and vegetables (n = 20); however, these foods may be hard to source, have high perishability, and raise concerns about safety and handling. Few of the pricing studies we reviewed

  16. Health resources in a 200,000 urban Indian population argues the need for a policy on private sector health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheya Melo Furtado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are limited primary data on the number of urban health care providers in private practice in developing countries like India. These data are needed to construct and test models that measure the efficacy of public stewardship of private sector health services. Objective: This study reports the number and characteristics of health resources in a 200 000 urban population in Pune. Materials and Methods: Data on health providers were collected by walking through the 15.46 sq km study area. Enumerated data were compared with existing data sources. Mapping was carried out using a Global Positioning System device. Metrics and characteristics of health resources were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0 and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, Version 16.0 software. Results: Private sector health facilities constituted the majority (424/426, 99.5% of health care services. Official data sources were only 39% complete. Doctor to population ratios were 2.8 and 0.03 per 1000 persons respectively in the private and public sector, and the nurse to doctor ratio was 0.24 and 0.71, respectively. There was an uneven distribution of private sector health services across the area (2-118 clinics per square kilometre. Bed strength was forty-fold higher in the private sector. Conclusions: Mandatory registration of private sector health services needs to be implemented which will provide an opportunity for public health planners to utilize these health resources to achieve urban health goals.

  17. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  18. Climate policy and nonrenewable resources : The green paradox and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittel, Karen; van der Ploeg, Rick; Withagen, Cees

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments suggest that well-intended climate policies–including carbon taxes and subsidies for renewable energy – might not accomplish what policy makers intend. Hans-Werner Sinn has described a "green paradox," arguing that these policies could hasten global warming by encouraging owners

  19. Underlying Paradox in the European Union's Multilingualism Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fern L.

    2013-01-01

    The European Union (EU) has developed comprehensive policies in recent years to promote multilingualism. In this article, major EU policy statements on multilingualism are analyzed to demonstrate how their underlying language ideology produces paradox by both encouraging multilingualism and regulating its definition within the EU. The first…

  20. Reflections on the process of implementing a social program in the field of physical activity in vulnerable populations: Contributions to the Teacher Education in Physical Education and to the improvement of public policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Campomar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze the process of implementing a social program of intervention in vulnerable populations through sport, physical activity and recreational games, which has been developed since 2011 in three slums (‘villas’ in La Matanza. The social program is analyzed in various key aspects of the implementation process. These issues were addressed through qualitative research with broad objectives and a comprehensive approach. We reflect on a research breakthrough that privileges the perceptions and representations of technical teachers who worked in this Program. Also, we make some contributions to improve future actions and teacher training. Six focus groups were formed and it is estimated that the input generated will be useful for planning better teaching practices and specific training of future teachers. It also hopes to provide elements of analysis and judgment for the management of public policies in the field of sport and physical activity as a strategy for social integration

  1. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  2. [On problems of population in minority nationalities (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, C L; Liang, S Q; Wang, J

    1981-01-01

    China's large population is made up mostly of Han people, but there are more than 50 other ethnic groups. Population policies must be made taking into consideration the different historical and economic characteristics of each group. An example of the ill effects of high population growth is the Lin Xia autonomous state, inhabitated by the Hui ethnic group. In 1956 living conditions and food supply were still good for a population of 839,000. By 1978 the population had increased to 1,370,000, per capita income had dropped from 80 yuans to 40 yuans, and gross agricultural product could not meet the needed food supply. Although the number of schools had increased, by 1978 32% of elementary school children, 10% of elementary school graduates, and 60% of junior high school graduates were unable to enter school for lack of facilities. The standard of education decreased, and unemployment increased. In 1973 the birth control program was initiated in the province. Natural increase went from 28.7% in 1973 to 14.7%, and the total birth rate was 58,232 births less than expected; result was an increased school budget and better food and clothing for all. The opposite problem is presented by the Akesa autonomous state of Hasake ethnicity. In 1949 the population of this ethnicity was 1700 people and the standard of living was high; however, natural population increase was only 1.5/1000, not enough to provide needed labor to cope with economical development. In this area population increase should be encouraged through various means of health care. As for other minorities living in areas mainly inhabited by other ethnic groups, they should keep their customs and beliefs but follow the population policies of the majority of the people. Birth control is a communist idea; it serves to improve the health and welfare of the whole nation, and it will not interfere with the stable unity of the various ethnicities.

  3. Population, development, and climate change: links and effects on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Judith; Crane, Susan F; Levy, Caren; Maslin, Mark

    2013-11-16

    Global health, population growth, economic development, environmental degradation, and climate change are the main challenges we face in the 21st century. However, because the academics, non-governmental organisations, and policy makers in these specialties work within separate communities, our understanding of the associations between them is restricted. We organised an international symposium in May, 2011 in London, UK, for academics and technical experts from population, developmental, and environmental science to encourage debate and collaboration between these disciplines. The conference provided the impetus for this Review, which describes, in historical context, key events and fundamental intercommunity debates from the perspectives of population, development, and climate change communities. We consider the interconnections between population, development, and climate change and their effects on health, including new analysis of longstanding debates, and identify opportunities for effective collaboration on shared goals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Institutional and Policy Support for Tourism Social Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne

    2017-01-01

    and operation of social enterprises as part of an inclusive and sustainable tourism system, and they can assist in the creation of institutional conditions that encourage, legitimize and synergize social entrepreneurship. The chapter offers concrete considerations for policy makers in terms of making...... the characteristics of supportive institutional and policy environments for tourism social entrepreneurship. It argues that governments can contribute in two broad ways to creating the conditions for tourism social entrepreneurship to flourish: they can develop policies that support and encourage the development...

  5. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  6. Mental Health Care--Can the USAF do More to Encourage Help Seeking Behavior

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    MacLeod, Craig

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper is to demonstrate how the USAF can take additional steps to de-stigmatize mental health treatment, and encourage help seeking behavior among its active duty members...

  7. SmartTrips Ithaca : encouraging sustainable transportation options through a personalized educational campaign : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    SmartTrips Ithaca is a neighborhood-based personalized educational campaign that encouraged residents : of downtown Ithaca to try out sustainable modes of transportation such as walking, biking, transit, and : carsharing through incentives and commun...

  8. 78 FR 13604 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Fiscal Year 2012 (Pub. L. 112-81). 226.7201 Definition. ``Science, Technology, Engineering, and..., Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Programs (Date) (a) Definition. ``Science, Technology... Regulation Supplement: Encouragement of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Programs...

  9. National Drought Policy: Shifting the Paradigm from Crisis to Risk-based Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhite, D. A.; Sivakumar, M. K.; Stefanski, R.

    2011-12-01

    Drought is a normal part of climate for virtually all of the world's climatic regimes. To better address the risks associated with this hazard and societal vulnerability, there must be a dramatic paradigm shift in our approach to drought management in the coming decade in the light of the increasing frequency of droughts and projections of increased severity and duration of these events in the future for many regions, especially in the developing world. Addressing this challenge will require an improved awareness of drought as a natural hazard, the establishment of integrated drought monitoring and early warning systems, a higher level of preparedness that fully incorporates risk-based management, and the adoption of national drought policies that are directed at increasing the coping capacity and resilience of populations to future drought episodes. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO), in partnership with other United Nations' agencies, the National Drought Mitigation Center at the University of Nebraska, NOAA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and other partners, is currently launching a program to organize a High Level Meeting on National Drought Policy (HMNDP) in March 2013 to encourage the development of national drought policies through the development of a compendium of key policy elements. The key objectives of a national drought policy are to: (1) encourage vulnerable economic sectors and population groups to adopt self-reliant measures that promote risk management; (2) promote sustainable use of the agricultural and natural resource base; and (3) facilitate early recovery from drought through actions consistent with national drought policy objectives. The key elements of a drought policy framework are policy and governance, including political will; addressing risk and improving early warnings, including vulnerability analysis, impact assessment, and communication; mitigation and preparedness, including the application of effective and

  10. Applying Modern Stage Theory to Mauritania: A Prescription to Encourage Entrepreneurship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    STAGE THEORY TO MAURITANIA: A PRESCRIPTION TO ENCOURAGE ENTREPRENEURSHIP by Jennifer M. Warren December 2014 Thesis Advisor: Robert E...PRESCRIPTION TO ENCOURAGE ENTREPRENEURSHIP 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Jennifer M. Warren 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Naval...a chapter in which Dr. Looney relates modern stage theory to emerging economies. With an understanding that entrepreneurship is key for sustained

  11. Maternal encouragement and discouragement: Differences by food type and child weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Megan H; Appugliese, Danielle P; Kaciroti, Niko; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-06-01

    Childhood obesity prevention practice guidelines recommend that parents encourage the intake of certain types of foods and discourage the intake of others. It is unknown if parents of children of different weight statuses encourage or discourage their child's intake differently based on food type. The objective of this study was to determine the association of child weight status with maternal encouragement and discouragement of for four different types of food. A total of 222 mother-child dyads were video-taped during the standardized, sequential presentation of four foods to both participants: cupcakes (familiar dessert), green beans (familiar vegetable), halva (unfamiliar dessert) and artichoke (unfamiliar vegetable). Mother's encouragements and discouragements of child intake were reliably coded for each food type. Poisson regression models were used to test the independent association of child weight status (normal weight, overweight and obese) with encouragement and discouragement for each food type. Mothers of an obese, vs. normal or overweight child, had lower rates of encouragement for a familiar dessert (p = 0.02), and a higher rates of discouragements for a familiar dessert (p = 0.001), a familiar vegetable (p = 0.01), and an unfamiliar vegetable (p = 0.001). There were no differences in encouragements or discouragements between mothers of an overweight, vs. obese child, for any of the 4 food types. Mothers of obese children may alter their feeding behavior differentially based on food type. Future work should examine how interventions promoting maternal encouragement or discouragement of different food types impact child weight status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals’ pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers. PMID:28178270

  13. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Roach

    Full Text Available This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  14. Maternal Encouragement to Approach Novelty: A Curvilinear Relation to Change in Anxiety for Inhibited Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Elizabeth J; Premo, Julie E; Buss, Kristin A

    2016-04-01

    Various parenting behaviors (e.g., protection, intrusiveness, sensitivity) have been shown to impact young children's anxiety development, particularly for temperamentally inhibited children. These behaviors have sometimes predicted both increases and decreases in anxiety in inhibited children, suggesting that linear relations may not adequately model their influence. In the current study, we proposed the dimension of encouragement to approach novelty to characterize parenting behavior ranging from very little encouragement (i.e., protective behavior) to very strong encouragement (i.e., intrusiveness), with gentle encouragement residing in the middle. In a sample of 110 toddlers (48 female, 62 male) and their mothers, the linear and curvilinear effects of this parenting dimension were investigated in relation to change in child separation anxiety and shyness from age 2 to age 3. Inhibited temperament was also investigated as a moderator. Encouragement to approach novelty displayed the hypothesized curvilinear relation to change in separation anxiety, but not shyness, at extreme levels of inhibited temperament. Toddlers increased in separation anxiety when mothers' encouragement resided at either extreme end of the continuum, with lower child anxiety occurring when mothers displayed behavior closer to the middle of the continuum. Implications for the study of parenting outcomes for inhibited toddlers are discussed.

  15. Encouraging entrepreneurship in university labs: Research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates how the encouragement of entrepreneurship within university research labs relates with research activities, research outputs, and early doctorate careers. Utilizing a panel survey of 6,840 science & engineering doctoral students at 39 R1 research universities, this study shows that entrepreneurship is widely encouraged across university research labs, ranging from 54% in biomedical engineering to 18% in particle physics, while only a small share of labs openly discourage entrepreneurship, from approximately 3% in engineering to approximately 12% in the life sciences. Within fields, there is no difference between labs that encourage entrepreneurship and those that do not with respect to basic research activity and the number of publications. At the same time, labs that encourage entrepreneurship are significantly more likely to report invention disclosures, particularly in engineering where such labs are 41% more likely to disclose inventions. With respect to career pathways, PhDs students in labs that encourage entrepreneurship do not differ from other PhDs in their interest in academic careers, but they are 87% more likely to be interested in careers in entrepreneurship and 44% more likely to work in a startup after graduation. These results persist even when accounting for individuals' pre-PhD interest in entrepreneurship and the encouragement of other non-academic industry careers.

  16. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dake Fidelia AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Method Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey to arrive at the results. Results While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0% exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0% exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. Conclusion The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  17. Healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults in the phase of a health policy change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagoe, Henry A; Dake, Fidelia Aa

    2011-04-07

    Many countries have adopted health policies that are targeted at reducing the risk factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. These policies promote a healthy population by encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle behaviours. This paper examines healthy lifestyle behaviour among Ghanaian adults by comparing behaviours before and after the introduction of a national health policy. The paper also explores the socio-economic and demographic factors associated with healthy lifestyle behaviour. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariate regression techniques were employed on two nationally representative surveys (2003 World Health Survey (Ghana) and 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey) to arrive at the results. While the prevalence of some negative lifestyle behaviours like smoking has reduced others like alcohol consumption has increased. Relatively fewer people adhered to consuming the recommended amount of fruit and vegetable servings per day in 2008 compared to 2003. While more females (7.0%) exhibited healthier lifestyles, more males (9.0%) exhibited risky lifestyle behaviours after the introduction of the policy. The improvement in healthy lifestyle behaviours among female adult Ghanaians will help promote healthy living and potentially lead to a reduction in the prevalence of obesity among Ghanaian women. The increase in risky lifestyle behaviour among adult male Ghanaians even after the introduction of the health policy could lead to an increase in the risk of non-communicable diseases among men and the resultant burden of disease on them and their families will push more people into poverty.

  18. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sherin Susan Paul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a “senior recreation day care” model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  19. Geriatric health policy in India: The need for scaling-up implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, N Sherin Susan; Asirvatham, Mathew

    2016-01-01

    In an anticipation of the rising geriatric population in India, the Central government constituted the National Policy for Older Persons in 1999 to promote the health and welfare of senior citizens in India. A major strategy of this policy is to encourage families to take care of their older family members. The policy also encourages voluntary organizations to supplement the care provided by the family and provide care and protection to vulnerable elderly people. The implementation of this policy, particularly in the rural areas, has been negligible and calls for a scaling-up of programs to address the physical, psychological, and social needs of the poor. Due to breakdown of the joint family system and the migration of the younger generation to the towns and cities, the elderly parents in the villages are left to fend for themselves. Too old to work and with little or no source of income, the elders are struggling even to satisfy their basic needs. This article primarily focuses on the various facets of elderly care in India. As a fledgling nation in elderly care, we should take cues from other nations who have pioneered in this field and should constantly evolve to identify and face the various challenges that come up, especially from rural India. The Rural Unit for Health and Social Affairs Department of a well-known Medical College in South India has developed a "senior recreation day care" model which proves to be a useful replicable model to improve the quality of life and nutritional status of the elderly in the lower rungs of society. More than a decade since its inception, it is now the right time to assess the implementation of our geriatric health policy and scale-up programs so that the elderly in our country, irrespective of urban and rural, will have a dignified and good quality life.

  20. A FRAMEWORK ANALYSIS OF EUROPEAN LABOUR MARKET POLICIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graţiela Georgiana Carica

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyse European labour market policies and their integrated guidelines, by highlighting various measures that need to be adopted in order to increase labour productivity, with positive effects on long-term economic development. The paper methodizes the main conditions complied by structural reforms in order to encourage labour employment and the policies that frame a more efficient unemployment insurance system crucial to increase security while encouraging the unemployed to look for a job and to accept a job offer, respectively on flexicurity policies. We found that employment rates are generally associated with large expenses on labour market policies and with an increased number of participants to programs developed within these types of policies. The degree of influence and strong dependence between outcome and labour market policies are illustrated in various ways and discussed within the paper.

  1. Old-growth Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Vosick

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Most federal legislation and policies (e.g., the Wilderness Act, Endangered Species Act, National Forest Management Act fail to speak directly to the need for old-growth protection, recruitment, and restoration on federal lands. Various policy and attitudinal barriers must be changed to move beyond the current situation. For example, in order to achieve the goal of healthy old growth in frequent-fire forests, the public must be educated regarding the evolutionary nature of these ecosystems and persuaded that collaborative action rather than preservation and litigation is the best course for the future of these forests. Land managers and policy makers must be encouraged to look beyond the single-species management paradigm toward managing natural processes, such as fire, so that ecosystems fall within the natural range of variability. They must also see that, given their recent evidence of catastrophic fires, management must take place outside the wildland-urban interface in order to protect old-growth forest attributes and human infrastructure. This means that, in some wilderness areas, management may be required. Land managers, researchers, and policy makers will also have to agree on a definition of old growth in frequent-fire landscapes; simply adopting a definition from the mesic Pacific Northwest will not work. Moreover, the culture within the federal agencies needs revamping to allow for more innovation, especially in terms of tree thinning and wildland fire use. Funding for comprehensive restoration treatments needs to be increased, and monitoring of the Healthy Forest Initiative and Healthy Forest Restoration Act must be undertaken.

  2. State policy affecting pain management: recent improvements and the positive impact of regulatory health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, Aaron M; Maurer, Martha A; Joranson, David E

    2005-10-01

    Criteria-driven policy analysis resources from the University of Wisconsin Pain and Policy Studies Group (PPSG) evaluated drug control and professional practice policies that can influence use of controlled substances for pain management, and documented changes over a 3-year period. Additional research was needed to determine the extent of change, the types of messages contained in the policies, and what has contributed to changing policy content. Four research aims guided this study: (1) evaluate change between 2000 and 2003 of state policy that can affect pain relief, (2) describe content differences for statutes, regulations, guidelines, and policy statements, (3) evaluate differences between policies specific to pain management and policies governing general healthcare practice, and (4) compare content of policies specific to pain management created by healthcare regulatory boards to those created by state legislatures. Results showed that more current policies, especially policies regulating health professionals, tend to encourage pain management and avoid language that restricts professional decision-making and patient treatment. In addition, pain policies from healthcare regulatory boards were generally less restrictive than statutes or policies that govern general healthcare practice. These findings suggest that the positive policy change results primarily from state medical, pharmacy, and nursing boards adopting policies promoting pain management and the use of opioids, while containing few if any restrictions. Despite this improvement, further progress can be made when states continue to abrogate additional restrictions or clinically obsolete provisions from policies. PPSG policy evaluations provide guidance to lawmakers, healthcare regulators, and clinicians who are striving to achieve balanced policy, an attainable but redoubtable goal, to benefit patient care.

  3. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  4. Basic Science and Public Policy: Informed Regulation for Nicotine and Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D; Gipson, Cassandra D; Kleykamp, Bethea A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Harrell, Paul T; Rees, Vaughan W; Gould, Thomas J; Oliver, Jason; Bagdas, Deniz; Damaj, M Imad; Schmidt, Heath D; Duncan, Alexander; De Biasi, Mariella

    2017-08-03

    Scientific discoveries over the past few decades have provided significant insight into the abuse liability and negative health consequences associated with tobacco and nicotine-containing products. While many of these advances have led to the development of policies and laws that regulate access to and formulations of these products, further research is critical to guide future regulatory efforts, especially as novel nicotine-containing products are introduced and selectively marketed to vulnerable populations. In this narrative review, we provide an overview of the scientific findings that have impacted regulatory policy and discuss considerations for further translation of science into policy decisions. We propose that open, bidirectional communication between scientists and policy makers is essential to develop transformative preventive- and intervention-focused policies and programs to reduce appeal, abuse liability, and toxicity of the products. Through these types of interactions, collaborative efforts to inform and modify policy have the potential to significantly decrease the use of tobacco and alternative nicotine products and thus enhance health outcomes for individuals. This work addresses current topics in the nicotine and tobacco research field to emphasize the importance of basic science research and provide examples of how it can be utilized to inform public policy. In addition to relaying current thoughts on the topic from experts in the field, the article encourages continued efforts and communication between basic scientists and policy officials. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Brazilian Soybean Policy: The International Effects of Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gary W. Williams; Robert L. Thompson

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the complex set of Brazilian soybean sector policies on the world soybean and products market. Brazilian policy makers have intended to encourage domestic crushing of soybeans and exports of processed rather than raw soybeans. Removal of the Brazilian policy set for the period 1960–78 is simulated with an econometric model of the world soybean market. The results indicate that the intervention objectives were not achieved. Moreover, the U.S. soybean industry...

  6. Migrant family language practices and language policies in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Haque, Shahzaman

    2011-01-01

    International audience; This article investigates the language practices and language policies of an Indian migrant family in their daily life in Finland. The purpose of this paper is to consider the potential of an empirical case study on migration to understand the interrelationship between macro and micro analyses of language policies and practices. Though the migrant language instruction is encouraged and executed under the national language policy in Finland, the second generation of the...

  7. Governing the GM crop revolution: policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  8. Poverty, not radiation: A new policy paradigm for Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osiatynski, J.

    2005-01-01

    This presentations outlines the past and present socio-economic policies regarding the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine and proposes policy changes that will alleviate economic problems in the affected areas. Recommendations to improve economic environment include: Revise legislation to encourage local economic development; Combine policy revision at national level with special measures at local level; Enable greater fiscal decentralization; Facilitate access to credit through trust funds, credit unions, cooperative banks; Adopt international product certification

  9. "It Encourages Them to Complain": A Qualitative Study of the Unintended Consequences of Assessing Patient-Reported Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Sangeeta C; Giannitrapani, Karleen F; Dobscha, Steven K; Cromer, Risa; Lorenz, Karl A

    2018-02-05

    The "Pain as the 5th Vital Sign" initiative intended to address undertreatment of pain by encouraging routine pain assessment and management. In the Veterans Health Administration, routine pain screening has been practiced in primary care for more than a decade, but has not improved the quality of pain management measured using several process indicators, and some have expressed concerns of potentially fostering undesirable use of prescription opioids. We sought to evaluate the consequences of routine pain screening on clinical practice. We conducted 9 interdisciplinary focus groups with 60 primary care providers and staff from 5 outpatient Veterans Health Administration clinics. We identified 5 themes reflecting 1 intended and 4 unintended consequences of routine pain screening: it 1) facilitates identification of patients with pain who might otherwise be overlooked, 2) may need to be targeted toward specific patients and contexts rather than universally applied, 3) often shifts visit focus away from more emergent concerns, 4) may encourage "false positives" and prompt providers to intervene when treatment is not a priority, and 5) engenders a "pain problem" and hinders patients from considering alternative strategies. These findings suggest changes to support patient-centered pain assessment and improve targeted screening and interventions for population pain management. This article describes some of the potential unintended consequences of implementing routine pain screening in primary care. This information may help clinicians be more strategic in their consideration and use of pain screening among their patients. Copyright © 2018 The American Pain Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Curbing population growth in Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo-hyun, S

    1983-01-26

    The population of Korea is expected to increase by another 1/4 of the current population by the year 2000 if the government family planning program is successful. Aggravating Korea's demographic situation is the worldwide phenomenon of urban congestion. According to official statistics, Seoul's population increased from only 1 million in 1953 to 8.5 million in 1980, the latest year for which figures are available. While Seoul's population alone accounts for 22.3% of the total population, that of the greater Seoul area comprises 13,542,000 people or 35.5% of Korea's population. Most of the country's best institutions of higher learning are concentrated in Seoul, and in 1979 Seoul accounted for nearly half (47.7%) of the nation's college and graduate students. Seoul is also the center of the country's political, economic and cultural life and provides better employment opportunities than elsewhere in the country. The exodus of young people from rural areas and the growing census figures have triggered fears that the subsequently reduced agricultural productivity would result in a food supply crisis. In an attempt to remedy the demographic disparity between urban and rural areas, the government initiated a 10-year program in 1982 to promote jobs and improve medicare and the educational system in provincial cities. The plan encourages the establishment of factories and other auxiliary facilities outside the Seoul area that are necessary to support the 1988 Seoul Olympics. The program's success remains in question as it requires consistent, determined, and well coordinated efforts on the part of policy makers to curb the historical trend which has been gaining momentum over the past 100 years. 2 approaches have been adopted in the government's efforts to integrate population dynamics into the development process, overseas migration, and planned parenthood. Despite the 1981 liberalization of overseas travel for Koreans, Korean migration overseas is not expected to grow

  11. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaël Schwarzinger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In July 2009, French public health authorities embarked in a mass vaccination campaign against A/H1N1 2009 pandemic-influenza. We explored the attitudes and behaviors of the general population toward pandemic vaccination. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 2,253 French representative adults aged 18 to 64 from November 17 to 25, 2009 (completion rate: 93.8%. The main outcome was the acceptability of A/H1N1 vaccination as defined by previous receipt or intention to get vaccinated ("Yes, certainly", "Yes, probably". Overall 17.0% (CI 95%, 15.5% to 18.7% of respondents accepted A/H1N1 vaccination. Independent factors associated with acceptability included: male sex (p = .0001; older age (p = .002; highest or lowest level of education (p = .016; non-clerical occupation (p = .011; having only one child (p = .008; and having received seasonal flu vaccination in prior 3 years (p<.0001. Acceptability was also significantly higher among pregnant women (37.9% and other at risk groups with chronic diseases (34.8% (p = .002. Only 35.5% of respondents perceived A/H1N1 influenza illness as a severe disease and 12.7% had experienced A/H1N1 cases in their close relationships with higher acceptability (p<.0001 and p = .006, respectively. In comparison to 26.0% respondents who did not consult their primary care physician, acceptability was significantly higher among 8.0% respondents who were formally advised to get vaccinated, and lower among 63.7% respondents who were not advised to get vaccinated (respectively: 15.8%, 59.5% and 11.7%- p<.0001. Among respondents who refused vaccination, 71.2% expressed concerns about vaccine safety. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our survey occurred one week before the peak of the pandemic in France. We found that alarming public health messages aiming at increasing the perception of risk severity were counteracted by daily personal experience which did not confirm the threat

  12. Social Acceptance of Smoking Restrictions During 10 Years of Policy Implementation, Reversal, and Reenactment in the Netherlands: Findings From a National Population Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Karin; Willemsen, Marc C; de Vries, Hein; Monshouwer, Karin; Nagelhout, Gera E

    2017-02-01

    Little is known about the extent to which smoking restrictions are socially accepted in a country such as the Netherlands where smoking restrictions have been implemented and reversed several times. The current study assessed trends as well as factors associated with two indicators of social acceptance of smoking restrictions in the Netherlands: acceptance of smoking in public places and implementation of home smoking bans. We used data from the Dutch Continuous Survey of Smoking Habits (DCSSH) between 2005 and 2014 (n = 182826). The DCSSH is a national population survey with a cross-sectional design in which respondents aged 15 years and older are surveyed weekly. Acceptance of smoking in public places decreased for six out of eight included venues, with the largest decrease for smoking in restaurants. The decrease in acceptance was larger among younger respondents and smokers. Smoking on terraces was an exception: decrease in acceptance there was larger among older respondents and ex-smokers. Implementation of home smoking bans increased over time. Having implemented a home smoking ban was associated with being male, being younger, having a high socioeconomic status, and being ex- or never smoker. Social acceptance of smoking restrictions has increased in the Netherlands, despite a suboptimal implementation process of smoking restrictions. However, there is still potential for improvement as acceptance of smoking is still quite high for some public venues like bars. It is important to strengthen smoking restrictions in order to further denormalize smoking in the Netherlands. We examined the extent to which smoking restrictions are socially accepted in the Netherlands where smoking restrictions have been implemented and reversed several times. Acceptance of smoking in public places decreased and implementation of home smoking bans increased between 2005 and 2014. Social acceptance of smoking restrictions increased in the Netherlands despite a suboptimal

  13. Factors associated with long-stay nursing home admissions among the U.S. elderly population: comparison of logistic regression and the Cox proportional hazards model with policy implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qian; Salmon, J Warren; Rodgers, Mark E

    2009-01-01

    Two statistical methods were compared to identify key factors associated with long-stay nursing home (LSNH) admission among the U.S. elderly population. Social Work's interest in services to the elderly makes this research critical to the profession. Effectively transitioning the "baby boomer" population into appropriate long-term care will be a great societal challenge. It remains a challenge paramount to the practice of social work. Secondary data analyses using four waves (1995, 1998, 2000, and 2002) of the Health Retirement Study (HRS) coupled with the Assets and Health Dynamics among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) surveys were conducted. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards model were performed and compared. Older age, lower self-perceived health, worse instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), psychiatric problems, and living alone were found significantly associated with increased risk of LSNH admission. In contrast, being female, African American, or Hispanic; owning a home; and having lower level of cognitive impairment reduced the admission risk. Home ownership showed a significant effect in logistic regression, but a marginal effect in the Cox model. The Cox model generally provided more precise parameter estimates than logistic regression. Logistic regression, used frequently in analyses, can provide a good approximation to the Cox model in identifying factors of LSNH admission. However, the Cox model gives more information on how soon the LSNH admission may happen. Our analyses, based on two models, dually identified the factors associated with LSNH admission; therefore, results discussed confidently provide implications for both public and private long-term care policies, as well as improving the assessment capabilities of social work practitioners for development of screening programs among at-risk elderly. Given the predicted surge in this population, significant factors found from this study can be utilized in a strengths

  14. On the relationship between population growth and social and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, D

    1983-01-01

    China's population has grown rapidly since 1949, reaching a size of 1,008,170,000 by 1982. Rapid population growth has been encouraged by a high birth rate coupled with low mortality, traditional preference for sons, and the incorrect assumption that man is only a producer and not a consumer. Rapid population growth directly decreases economic development while producing a rapidly increasing labor force requiring an increase in the number of jobs available. Population growth has already reduced arable land from 3 MN in 1949 to 1.5 MN at present and can also cause sanitation and pollution problems. Only by adopting family plnning and the 1 child family can China gradually slow population growth to correspond with economic development; then the state will be able to improve health care and education and, therefore, population quality. China's population policy is not one of NeoMalthusianism, which advocates birth control and late marriage, and assumes the existence of a capitalist system and does not apply to communist systems. Malthus may have attempted to absolve the nourgeoisie from all blame by aiming his preaching against blind reproduction at the poor; he thought that overpopulation would be reduced by pestilence, war, and famine. Protecting capitalism motivated Malthus and other capitalists, but the Chinese want to promote economic development. Marx has refuted Malthus' views on population. While Chinese population policy and NeoMalthusianism agree on advocating birth control and late marriage, their underlying philosophies are different. The author supports laws and policies on fertility and family planning, and feels that population scientists must be involved in all aspects--study, propaganda, and education--relating to family planning.

  15. Exploring the use of a gamified intervention for encouraging physical activity in adolescents: a qualitative longitudinal study in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corepal, Rekesh; Best, Paul; O'Neill, Roisin; Tully, Mark A; Edwards, Mark; Jago, Russell; Miller, Sarah J; Kee, Frank; Hunter, Ruth F

    2018-04-20

    To explore the temporal changes of adolescents' views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour and associated processes of behaviour change. A qualitative longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1-year follow-up). The framework method was used to thematically analyse the data. Secondary schools (n=3), Belfast (Northern Ireland). A subsample (n=19 at four time-points) of individuals aged 12-14 years who participated in the StepSmart Challenge, a gamified intervention involving a pedometer competition and material rewards to encourage physical activity behaviour change. Three core themes were identified: (1) competition; (2) incentives and (3) influence of friends. Participants indicated that a pedometer competition may help initiate physical activity but suggested that there were a number of barriers such as participants finding it ' boring ', and feeling as though they had a remote chance of ' winning '. 'Incentives' were viewed favourably, although there were participants who found not winning a prize ' annoying '. Friends were a motivator to be more physically active, particularly for girls who felt encouraged to walk more when with a friend. The intervention in general and specific gamified elements were generally viewed positively and deemed acceptable. Results suggest that gamification may have an important role to play in encouraging adolescents to engage in physical activity and in creating interventions that are fun and enjoyable. The longitudinal approach added additional depth to the analysis as themes were refined and tested with participants over time. The findings also suggest that gamified Behaviour Change Techniques align well with core concepts of Self-determination Theory and that various game elements may require tailoring for

  16. Stepping Outside: Collaborative Inquiry-Based Teacher Professional Learning in a Performative Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Simon N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a critique of the performative assumptions of the teacher professional learning policy direction being adopted in Australia. Through international policy borrowing, the policy direction in Australia is similar to many other countries in that it encourages increasingly standardised teaching practice to afford a more quantitative…

  17. Contested Spaces in Policy Enactment: A Bourdieusian Analysis of Language Policy in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhorst-Heng, Wendy D.; Silver, Rita Elaine

    2017-01-01

    The basic structure and rhetoric of national language policy in multilingual Singapore has remained essentially unchanged since independence with four official languages positioned within the national quadrilingual framework and used in all public spheres, and individual bilingualism encouraged in the private sphere. However, also since…

  18. International Education Policies, Issues, and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Burnett

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This short chapter discusses the rights and capabilities of, and development approaches to, education in developing countries, the recent evolution of developing countries’ education systems in the present century, the ‘leaderless globalisation’ of the international institutions currently responsible for education, and the initial effects of the data and evaluation revolution on education. It concludes with five recommendations: evidence should be used more in education strategies, policies and practices; innovation needs to be encouraged; international funding should target more the neediest countries; assessment, benchmarking, and evaluation should be further encouraged; and a new international governance mechanism is needed for education, possibly led from outside the education sector itself.

  19. Whistleblowing: Don’t Encourage It, Prevent It; Comment on “Cultures of Silence And Cultures of Voice: The Role Of Whistleblowing in Healthcare Organisations”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Robert MacDougall

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article, Mannion and Davies argue that there are a multitude of ways in which organizations (such as the National Health Service [NHS] can deal with wrongdoing or ethical problems, including the formation of policies that encourage and protect would-be whistleblowers. However, it is important to distinguish internal reporting about wrongdoing from whistleblowing proper, because the two are morally quite different and should not be dealt with in the same way. This article argues that we should not understand the authors’ conclusions to apply to “whistleblowing” proper, because their recommended approach would be both unfeasible and undesirable for addressing whistleblowing defined in this way.

  20. Most parents do not think receiving human papillomavirus vaccine would encourage sexual activity in their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Daron G; Cromwell, Lee; Waller, Jennifer L; Horn, Leslie

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether parents think receiving human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine encourages sexual activity in their children. Parents of children 9 to 17 years old living in Georgia and South Carolina completed a 53-item questionnaire that evaluated their opinions about the HPV vaccine and their feelings about whether receiving it encourages sexual intercourse in their children. Fisher exact tests and t tests were used to identify differences between groups. Participants tended to be white, protestant mothers, 30 to 39 years old with private health insurance. Most parents (301/322, 93.5%) did not believe receiving the HPV vaccine would encourage their child to have sex. Parents who believed the vaccine would encourage sex were more likely to have 15- to 17-year-old children (76% vs 37%, p =.0007), were 40 years or older (62% vs 35%, p =.019), have religious objections to vaccines in general (10% vs 0.3%, p =.01) and the HPV vaccine (14% vs 2%, p =.02), and believed the vaccine would not reduce the risk of cervical cancer in their daughters (50% vs 9%, p =.001). Most parents do not think the HPV vaccine would actually encourage sexual activity in their children. Therefore, health care providers can be less hesitant in recommending the vaccine to young sexually naive girls. Additional education should help improve overall parental understanding about the HPV vaccine and, consequently, vaccination rates.

  1. The politics of population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfson, M

    1986-03-01

    This article suggests some of the principal factors behind the decisions by an increasing number of countries deciding that the achievement of their national objectives required a policy for population, and the way that they are likely to work out. By 1983, 35 developing countries had an official policy to reduce their population growth rate, and in 34 others, the government supported family planning activities--usually for reasons of health or as a human right. The number is remarkable given the many compelling reasons that governments have for not attempting anything so difficult as to modify demographic trends. The future results of population programs, in social and economic terms, are very difficult to quantify, thus defying cost-benefit analysis of the desirability of investing resources in this area, rather than in something else. There are also powerful political reasons why a government might well hesitate before embarking on a policy to reduce the nation's fertility. At the very least, it implies government interference in the most private and personal of human relations, an invasion of human rights, and a disturbance of the traditional patterns of society and behavior. For many countries that are pursuing a policy to limit population growth, the decision has been taken only after the grievous consequences of not having such a policy have already become manifest. The critical question is how soon a government will make the connection among political disobedience, economic and social distress, and the population explosion, and adopt a population policy. Although the number of developing countries that have officially proclaimed a strongly pro-natalist population policy is relatively small, many have Marxist governments. Overall, governments have several strategies at their disposal: 1) improving the accessability and the quality of the service; 2) promoting population education and family planning motivation (with the assistance of the media, folk art, and

  2. What are older adults seeking? Factors encouraging or discouraging retirement village living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Dimity A; Windsor, Tim D; Butterworth, Peter; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-09-01

    (1) To identify factors that older adults find encouraging or discouraging about the prospect of relocation to a retirement village; and (2) to identify features or facilities often associated with retirement communities that are most appealing to prospective residents. Randomly selected community residents (n = 517), aged 55-94 years, from the Australian Capital Territory completed postal surveys to identify the characteristics associated with retirement villages that influence relocation decisions. The provision of outdoor living areas, support in maintaining independence, assisted living facilities and accessibility to medical facilities were identified as factors that would encourage relocation. Luxury services (e.g. heated swimming pools) were indicated as least likely to encourage relocation. Negative perceptions most influential in discouraging relocation reflected a fear of losing independence and privacy. Through identifying the expectations of prospective residents, retirement village providers may better tailor facilities to the needs of their target demographic. © 2012 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2012 ACOTA.

  3. Methods for clustered encouragement design studies with noncompliance and missing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Leslie; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2011-04-01

    Encouragement design studies are particularly useful for estimating the effect of an intervention that cannot itself be randomly administered to some and not to others. They require a randomly selected group receive extra encouragement to undertake the treatment of interest, where the encouragement typically takes the form of additional information or incentives. We consider a "clustered encouragement design" (CED), where the randomization is at the level of the clusters (e.g. physicians), but the compliance with assignment is at the level of the units (e.g. patients) within clusters. Noncompliance and missing data are particular problems in encouragement design studies, where encouragement to take the treatment, rather than the treatment itself, is randomized. The motivating study looks at whether computer-based care suggestions can improve patient outcomes in veterans with chronic heart failure. Since physician adherence has been inadequate, the original study focused on methods to improve physician adherence, although an equally important question is whether physician adherence improves patient outcomes. Here, we reanalyze the data to determine the effect of physician adherence on patient outcomes. We propose causal inference methodology for the effect of a treatment versus a control in a randomized CED study with all-or-none compliance at the unit level. These methods extend the current approaches to account for nonignorable missing data and use an alternative approach to inference using multiple imputation methods, which have been successfully applied to a wide variety of missing data problems and have recently been applied to the potential outcomes framework of causal inference (Taylor and Zhou, 2009b).

  4. Transport sector CO2 emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO 2 emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO 2 emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO 2 emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO 2 emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO 2 emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  5. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  6. Sticks and Stones: The Impact of the Definitions of Brownfield in Policies on Socio-Economic Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Tang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Many countries encourage brownfield regeneration as a means of sustainable development but define “brownfield” differently. Specifically, the definitions of brownfield in the regeneration policies of countries with higher population densities usually promote recycling land that is previously developed, whether or not there is chemical contamination. Further, the de facto definition of brownfield used by the UK government focuses on previously developed land that is unused or underused. The ANOVA in this study revealed that local authorities in England (n = 296 with higher percentages of derelict and vacant land tended to be more deprived based on the English Indices of Multiple Deprivation, which evaluate deprivation from the aspects of income, employment, health, education, housing, crime, and living environment. However, the percentage of previously developed land in use but with further development potential had no significant effect on the deprivation conditions. The Blair-Brown Government (1997~2010 encouraged more than 60% of new dwellings to be established on the previously developed land in England. The analyses in this study showed that this target, combined with the definition of brownfield in the policy, may have facilitated higher densities of residential development on previously developed land but without addressing the deprivation problems. These observations indicate that a definition of brownfield in regeneration policies should focus on previously developed land that is now vacant or derelict if land recycling is to contribute to sustainable communities.

  7. Analysis of National and EU Policies Supporting CSR and Impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Slager, Rieneke; Anastasiadis, Stephanos

    The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the place of governmental policies in encouraging and supporting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and their effectiveness therein. By: Moon, Jeremy - Slager, Rieneke - Brunn, Christoph - Hardi, Peter - Steen Knudsen, Jette - 2012 The very...... but it is also increasingly explicit in government policies (Matten and Moon 2008). In other words, it is not simply that government policies structure the environment in which companies choose to behave responsibly or otherwise, but also that policies are precisely designed to encourage such behaviour...... society organizations); to mandate (e.g. for accounting or reporting standards). However, the trajectories between and combinations of these policy types also vary among countries (see below). Collectively they tend to reflect broader trends in new governance which stress participation, networks...

  8. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Georgina; Bowen, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1) the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2) the context within which the policy was developed; 3) the relevant processes; and 4) the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should also be revised to consider climate change and its impact on human

  9. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Morrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design: The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1 the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2 the context within which the policy was developed; 3 the relevant processes; and 4 the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results: The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions: The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should

  10. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  11. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  12. Global Health Systems and Policy Development: Implications for Health Literacy Research, Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Gillian; Dodson, Sarity; Leung, Angela; Levin-Zamir, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Accessible and responsive health systems are critical to population health and human development. While progress has been made toward global health and development targets, significant inequities remain within and between countries. Expanding health inequities suggest a widespread and systemic neglect of vulnerable citizens, and a failure to enshrine within policies a responsibility to tailor care to the variable capabilities of citizens. Implementation of health and social policies that drive the design of accessible health systems, services, products and infrastructure represents the next frontier for health reform. Within this chapter we argue the need to consider health and health literacy across policy domains, to operationalize the intent to address inequities in health in meaningful and pragmatic ways, and to actively monitor progress and impact within the context of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). We contend that viewing and developing policies and systems within a health literacy framework will assist in placing citizens and equity considerations at the center of development efforts. In this chapter, we explore the relationship between health literacy and equitable access to health care, and the role of health system and policy reform. We first explore international policies, health literacy, and the SDGs. We then explore national policies and the role that national and local services and systems play in building health literacy, and responding to the health literacy challenges of citizens. We discuss the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework for Integrated People-Centered Health Services and the way in which health services are being encouraged to understand and respond to citizen health literacy needs. Each section of the chapter ends with a summary and a review of health literacy research and practice. Throughout, we illustrate our points through 'vignettes' from around the world.

  13. The Role of Sub-National Actors in Climate Change Policy. The Case of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roppongi, Hitomi

    2016-06-01

    Tokyo is known as a pioneer throughout the history of Japan's environmental policy, often being compared to California in the United States or Paris in France. Following the global trend of growing local initiatives tackling climate change, Tokyo introduced a cap-and-trade scheme in 2010 ahead of a national implementation. The Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program is the first of its kind that regulates CO 2 emissions from all business sectors, where energy consumers are defined in terms of the business establishments they own. Tokyo's initiative is largely seen as a reaction to the modest national commitment, following the tradition of center-local rivalry. This study first explains the centre-local relationship in the history of Japan's environmental governance. It then analyzes the development of the Tokyo's flagship climate policy and its implications for national and other sub-national governments in Japan. The tactics used by the Tokyo Metropolitan Government to overcome business opposition typically seen in the introduction of GHG control, and future policy challenges are also discussed. The study finds that Tokyo's policy encourages behavioral changes and technological improvement in the business sector, going a step beyond the existing culture of energy conservation in Japan. An emission trading scheme is often associated with the collapse of carbon markets and the 'money game', rather than a practical tool to reduce CO 2 emissions, but the Tokyo Cap-and-Trade Program has demonstrated a policy impact that recasts such an image. A known case of policy diffusion to Saitama prefecture, an immediate neighbor of Tokyo with the fifth largest population in Japan, is also discussed to elaborate on the potential domestic diffusion of the policy. (author)

  14. Conservation program of fuelwood in Cambodia : the looming of a network of skills with encouraging results; Programme economie de bois de feu au Cambodge : emergence d'un reseau de competences avec des resultats encourageants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozis, J.-F.; Rondet, M.; Vitou, S.

    2000-06-01

    Some studies indicate that the deforestation process initiated in Kompong Chnang Province, in Cambodia has led to the loss of 59 per cent of the thick forest between 1985 and 1993, mainly to fuelwood. The first two years of this study were aimed at laboratory and field testing of different basic models aimed at reducing the consumption of fuelwood while adapting to the acquisition possibilities of users. The first axis concerned domestic cooking. The introduction of baked clay stockpots based on an Indonesian model for the rural communities and a coal-burning Thai model for the urban communities. Field experiments indicated a reduction of 25 to 30 per cent of fuelwood. The production of sugar palm also utilized large quantities of fuelwood, approximately 6 per cent of all fuelwood utilized in the province. The substitution of single stockpot by double stockpot with chimney led to a gain in time, better boiling and a better taste since the smoke was not returning in the stockpot. The successes encountered encouraged decision-makers for the program to establish a network of skills, from the training of professionals, technicians, popular science writers, stockpot manufacturers,etc.. This network was established on March 14, 2000 and comprised 40 government and non-government agencies. The next phase planned involves the development of a national policy on fuelwood, the formation of technicians, the advising of decision-makers, as well as the development of a research and development program.

  15. Local government and climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burger, H.; Menkveld, M.; Coenen, F.H.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Local government in the Netherlands could play a greater role than they currently do in reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the country. This fact formed the motivation for initiating the research project on Local Government and Climate Policy. Many local climate options are known in theory. Options for reduction that lie within the sphere of influence of Dutch local government are, for example, sustainable building or encouraging the utilisation of sustainable energy. But actual practice turns out to be rather refractory. If such options are to be implemented, then one has to overcome institutional barriers, such as the co-operation between different departments in the same local authority. The objective of this research is to improve the contribution that local government makes to climate policy

  16. The Potential of Social Entrepreneurship: Conceptual Tools for Applying Citizenship Theory to Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Kate; Harris, Sarah Parker; Renko, Maija

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary policy encourages self-employment and entrepreneurship as a vehicle for empowerment and self-sufficiency among people with disabilities. However, such encouragement raises important citizenship questions concerning the participation of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). As an innovative strategy for…

  17. 76 FR 36094 - Draft NOAA Scientific Integrity Policy and Handbook; Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ..., Deputy Chief Financial Officer, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, National Oceanic and... the key role of science in informing policy; Encourages scientists to publish data and findings to...

  18. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  19. Do we have a car for you? Encouraging the uptake of electric vehicles at point of sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, Lindsay; Lynes, Jennifer; Riemer, Manuel; Del Matto, Tania; Cloet, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates shopping experiences at dealerships selling electric vehicles (EVs) in Ontario, Canada. In 2014, twenty mystery shoppers were trained and sent into 24 EV-certified dealerships (with a total of 95 shopping experiences) to observe the sales approach towards EVs. Results show that a common barrier for shoppers is the unavailability of EVs at the dealership – including a lack of EV models on site to view or test-drive as well as a three- to four-month waiting period to receive the vehicle once ordered. A multiple regression model was developed to explore which factors influence the likelihood of deciding to purchase an EV. Findings suggest that, controlling for brand, the key success factors are a salesperson's positive attitude and the availability of an EV on site. It is important for future policy makers to acknowledge the influential role of market intermediaries, such as dealerships, in the adoption of EVs. The research findings demonstrate a potential for government agencies to work with dealerships and/or salespeople to improve EV uptake by encouraging the presence of floor models and vehicles for test-driving on site, and by increasing the accuracy of information being provided to customers. - Highlights: • Mystery shopping was used to observe EV sales interactions at dealerships in Ontario. • A common barrier for customers is the lack of availability of vehicles on site. • Salespeople were enthusiastic about EVs but sometimes relayed inaccurate information. • Government EV policy needs to acknowledge the importance of market intermediaries.

  20. Affective Policy Performance Evaluation Model: A Case of an International Trade Policy Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inwon Kang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Firms often superficially adopt policies because of governmental rules and regulations, so as to avoid penalties or to gain benefits. However, the evaluation and characterization of those kinds of adoptions as policy performance distorts the true level of policy performance: social sustainability. This study proposes an affective policy performance evaluation model. The attitudes of employees toward adopting a policy are characterized into genuine and superficial compliance. Their behaviors are explained through voluntary and opportunistic adoptions. In order to validate the proposed model, a survey was conducted on an international trade policy target group (n = 216 for the Strategic Trade Control System (STCS, in order to understand their attitudes toward adopting the policy. The survey data was analyzed by a structural equation modeling method. The measures of the factors in the proposed model are adopted and modified from existing studies. The most effective resources of policy implementation on the firms’ genuine and superficial compliance and ultimately on the firms’ voluntary policy adoption are revealed through the analysis. Based on the results, this study presents a strategy for allocating and managing policy implementation resources to exclusively encourage firms’ trade policy adoptions.