WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy efforts aimed

  1. Policy efforts used to develop awareness aimed at increased students' scientific literacy and career choices in mathematics, science and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Frank Albert

    The lack of an adequate supply of human resources in science and engineering has been well documented. Efforts from a number of agencies, such as the National Science Foundation, have been implemented to alleviate this national problem. However, it is unclear what concerted efforts state agencies are taking to increase the number of African American students' scientific literacy, and career choices in science and engineering. The purpose of this study was to select a talent pool of African American students who are academically able to pursue a career in a math-based major. The selection of this talent pool lead to the recommendation of an encouragement process model to be used by the Tennessee Board of Regents (TBR) system to encourage the selectees of this talent pool to enter math-based programs at TBR universities. An integrated literature review was conducted. This review includes perspectives on national, state, and local educational policy decisions which affect educational purposes, institutional governance and secondary-postsecondary linkages. Existing TBR system data were analyzed and tabulated. This tabulated data along with the recommended model will be offered to the TBR system for possible adoption. The results of these data support the methodological notion that there are an appreciable number of potential TBR system African American students academically able to enter math related majors who, however, may be reluctant to choose a career direction in a math-based career field. Implications of this study and suggestions for further research are discussed. On an applied level, the study might suggest to other states ways in which to deal with similar problems.

  2. Joint force opportunities: Policy Aims And Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-26

    meet policy aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...aimed at the survival and prosperity of the nation. The dialog between the policy maker and military adviser requires a broader and deeper...father for feeding a passion for learning with a work ethic ; and your patient love. To D, B, and C: I love you eternally. v

  3. The fallacies of concurrent climate policy efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzki, Marian

    2010-05-01

    Climate policy has assumed an extreme degree of urgency in the international debate in recent years. This article begins by taking a critical look at the scientific underpinnings of the efforts to stabilize the climate. It points to several serious question marks on the purported relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and global warming, and expresses distrust about claims of impending catastrophes related to rising sea levels, hurricanes, and spread of infectious disease. It then reviews the concurrent climate policy efforts and concludes that they are incoherent, misguided and unduly costly, and that they have so far had no perceptible impact on anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The exceedingly ambitious policy plans currently under preparation suffer from similar fallacies. For these reasons, but also because of the remaining scientific doubts and the exorbitant costs that have to be incurred, skepticism is expressed about the preparedness to implement the climate policy plans currently on the table.

  4. Determination of aims military-technical policy of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Salnikova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article the aims of military-technical policy are considered. Determination of aims (tasks of military-technical policy, its maintenance, requirements to it and directions of its further development it must come true by the analysis of different factors of external and internal environment. Among such factors: geopolitical and military-political position of Ukraine and its military doctrine; realized and operating programs of development (reformation of the soldiery forming and them technical rigging; terms of future military operations and progress of their maintenance, forms, methods and characteristic signs of battle actions trend; substantive provisions of art of war; conceptions, theories and doctrines of battle application of the soldiery forming of the different states; resources dedicated by the state on development of military-technical sphere and others like that. The fundamental chart of sequence of forming of public military-technical policy is presented in the article.

  5. Policies and Programmatic Efforts Pertaining to Fatherhood: Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikes, Helen; Bellotti, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    The articles in this section focus attention on (1) the historical shift in policies that affect the young men of this nation (2) how fatherhood policies and programmatic efforts are expanding and (3) how fatherhood practices and policies could and perhaps should be expanded and elaborated further. These efforts are linked to a growing body of…

  6. Integrated assessment of biodiesel policies aimed at family farms in Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belo Leite, Dal J.G.; Nunes Vieira da Silva, J.V.; Ittersum, van M.K.

    2014-01-01

    With many of the poor people in Brazil living in rural areas, local governments have intensified their efforts to design and implement effective policies that boost rural development. In 2004, a national program for production and use of biodiesel was launched aiming at increasing income among less

  7. Effects of Economic Policies Aimed at Encouraging a Healthier Grain Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Jonas; Thunstrom, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effects of policy reforms aimed at achieving two policy objectives for grain consumption; (a) to double the intake of bread and breakfast cereals and (b) to ensure that half of the bread and breakfast cereals consumed are whole grain products. The overall aim of these policy objectives are to increase the dietary fibre intake from grain consumption so as to significantly contribute to the general recommended (minimum) increase of the fibre intake. Based on param...

  8. The orientation, principles, priorities and aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This chapter contains: (A) The orientation and priorities of state environmental policy of the government of the Slovak Republic which were approved 18 November 1993 by the resolution No 339. On the basis of the Strategy, principles and priorities of state environmental policy 70 short-terminable aims up to 1996, next 59 middle-terminable of aims up to years 2000 - 2010 and 33 general and partial long-terminable aims up to 2030 and longer were formulated. The Strategy is determined by next 5 branches oriented priorities: (1) air protection before pollutants and the global environmental safety; (2) organization of sufficiency of drinking water and decreasing of pollution of other waters under permissible limits; (3) soil protection before degeneration and organization of non-defected food-stuffs and other wares; (4) minimization of formation, use and good waste liquidate; (5) preservation of bio-diversity, preservation and rational use of natural reserves and optimization of place structure and use of the country. (B) The principles and priorities of state environmental policy determinate implementation and observance of then principles of the state environmental policy. (C) Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors. (D) The government of the Slovak republic has first National environmental

  9. Cost-effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing organ donation: the case of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, J; Harrison, R; Atal, R; Larraín, L

    2013-01-01

    In this article we present an economic evaluation of policies aimed at increasing deceased organ donation in Chile, a developing country that has low donation rates; it had 5.4 donors per million people (pmp) in 2010. Expert opinions of leading participants in donation and transplantation were analyzed, resulting in a set of local policies aimed at increasing donation rates. Using previous results of reported cost savings of increasing kidney transplantation in Chile, we estimated the net benefits of these policies, as a function of additional donors. The main problem of the Chilean system seems to be the low capability to identify potential donors and a deficit in intensive care unit (ICU) beds. Among considered policies central to increase donation are the following: increasing human and capital resources dedicated to identifying potential donors, providing ICU beds from private centers, and developing an online information system that facilitates procurement coordination and the evaluation of performance at each hospital. Our results show that there is a linear relationship between cost savings and incremental donors pmp. For example, if these policies are capable of elevating donation rates in Chile by 6 donors pmp net estimated cost savings are approximately US $1.9 million. Likewise, considering the effect on patients' quality of life, savings would amount to around $15.0 million dollars per year. Our estimates suggest that these policies have a large cost-saving potential. In fact, considering implementation costs, cost reduction is positive after 4 additional donors pmp, and increasing afterward. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE AIMS OF EMPLOYABILITY AND SOCIAL INCLUSION / ACTIVE CITIZENSHIP IN LIFELONG LEARNING POLICIES IN GREECE

    OpenAIRE

    Prokou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The argument of this article is that during the last two decades or so, in lifelong learning policies in Greece, priority was given to the confrontation of social exclusion that stems from unemployment and, thus, to the achievement of the aims of employability and social inclusion. EU funding and the relatively centralised character of the regulated part of adult/continuing education in Greece favoured the expansion of training programmes for the unemployed. As in the 1990s, so in the 2000s, ...

  11. A Policy Framework for Health Systems to Promote Triple Aim Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amol; Bhatia, Sacha

    2016-01-01

    With the expiry of the Health Accords, provincial governments must face the challenge of improving performance in the context of ageing demographics, increasing multi-morbidity, and real concerns about financial stability. The Institute for Healthcare Improvement Triple Aim articulates fundamental goals that can guide health system transformation: improved population health, enhanced patient experience and reduced or stable per capita costs. Advancing fragmented and costly health systems in pursuit of these goals requires transformative, as opposed to iterative, change. Provincial governments are ideally suited to lead this change by acting as "integrators" who link healthcare organizations and align incentives across the spectrum of delivery. Although there is very limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of system-level reforms, we draw on initiatives from around the world to suggest policies that can promote system-level Triple Aim innovation. We categorize these policies within the classic functions ascribed to health systems: financing, stewardship and resource generation. As healthcare financers, governments should orient procurement policy towards the Triple Aim innovation and reform payment to reward value not volume. As health system stewards, governments should define a Triple Aim vision; measure and report outcomes, patient experience, and costs; integrate across sectors; and facilitate learning from failure and spread of successful innovation. As resource generators, governments should invest in health information technology to exploit "big data" and ensure that professional education equips front-line clinicians with skills necessary to improve systems. There are a number of barriers to system-level Triple Aim innovation. There is a lack of evidence for macro-level policy changes, innovation is costly and complicated, and system reform may not be politically appealing. Triple Aim innovation may also be conflated with organization-level quality

  12. Institutional policy changes aimed at addressing obesity among mental health clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knol, Linda L; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-05-01

    People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern United States. Clients live in small group homes, where they are served breakfast, dinner, and a snack, and attend outpatient day treatment programs, where they are served lunch and can purchase snacks from vending machines. This intervention included institutional policy changes that altered menus and vending machine options and implemented group walking programs. Primary outcome measures were changes in clients' weight at 3 and 6 months after policy implementation. At the 3-month follow-up, the median weight loss for overweight/obese clients (n = 45) was 1.4 kg. The 33 overweight/obese clients who were still in the group homes at the 6-month follow-up either maintained or continued to lose weight. Institutional policy changes aimed at improving dietary intake and physical activity levels among clients receiving mental health services can promote weight loss in overweight clients.

  13. Targeting women or transforming institutions? Policy lessons from NGO anti-poverty efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabeer, N

    1995-05-01

    Some research has found that the extent of gender-based discrimination in market-based institutions and unfair advantages within domestic and market institutions meant women were less successful in translating education and work into income and purchasing power. Anti-poverty programs functioned without specifically addressing the implications for women and children. Women-in-development efforts attempted to compensate for prior deficiencies by promotion of income generation schemes for women. In this article, the suggestion is made for policy makers to design projects with goals, objectives, and strategies that are clear, consistent, and well-informed about gender. Efforts should be made to avoid debates about women-only versus integrated projects. The experiences of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in the South Asian context offer lessons in good policy efforts to address all forms of marginalization. The definition of women's needs must be provided by women themselves; openness and flexibility are recommended. Participatory approaches serve the aims of needs identification, involvement in democratic processes, and awareness of constraints on women's use of resources. In credit lending, constraints were overcome by compensating for the absence of material collateral, guaranteeing physical access, simplifying procedures, and subsidizing access rather than interest rates. Underlying structural conditions that reinforce inequalities by gender are in need of change. Empowerment of women would assure that marginalization would not occur.

  14. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF TAX POLICY FOR INNOVATIONS AIMED AT INCREASING OIL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokarev A. N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Resource base in the Russian oil industry determines the need for the development and application of new technologies. The results of the application of innovative technologies are characterized by considerable uncertainty. Aim of this study is to develop a methodology for estimation the tax policy to encourage innovative technologies (taking into account the uncertainty of results of their application. Experience in the application of new technologies in the Russian oil companies analyzed. The developed approach (tools based on the methods of evaluation of investment projects and the Monte Carlo method. Estimates of the effectiveness of oil projects, taking into account uncertainty in the results of application of innovative technologies, presented. Stimulation of the use of new technologies should be integrated with measures to promote competition and the establishment of mechanisms of orienting the oil companies to the rational development of mineral resources. The state should adopt policies aimed at improving oil recovery, including the tax system that encourages innovation. State should create conditions for stability and protection of the interests of companies that invest in a long process of development and application of new technologies to improve oil recovery. The developed approach can be used during formation and implementation of innovation policy in the oil companies.

  15. A Systemic Perspective on Innovation from Energy Efficiency Policy efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruby, Tobias Møller

    the subject of much research in the innovation studies field, where most attention is given towards energy supply technologies and energy end-use technologies tend to be left in the dark. This thesis applies different qualitative and quantitative research methods to analyse how actors are collaborating...... on innovation activities within energy efficiency. It furthermore investigates the long and complex process of innovation activities in energy efficiency with attention to the co-evolutionary dynamics of technology development, policy and market transformation. The findings cover different aspects...... of the research topic. At the cross-sectoral level it contributes with insights into the collaborative RD&D activities in energy efficiency and how the structure of these development activities has an impact on the innovation output of the RD&D projects. It furthermore identifies the driving forces of energy...

  16. Charter School Discipline: Examples of Policies and School Climate Efforts from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Nora; Kim, Suzie

    2016-01-01

    Students need a safe and supportive school environment to maximize their academic and social-emotional learning potential. A school's discipline policies and practices directly impact school climate and student achievement. Together, discipline policies and positive school climate efforts can reinforce behavioral expectations and ensure student…

  17. [The proposal of policies aimed at tackling health inequalities in Korea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Tae Ho

    2007-11-01

    Although the New National Health Promotion Plan 2010 target to reduce health inequalities, whether the program will be effective for reducing the health inequalities in Korea remains quite unclear. More and more developed countries have been started to concentrate on comprehensive policies for reducing health inequalities. The health policies of the UK, Netherlands, and Sweden are the most wellknown. I propose that a comprehensive blueprint for tackling health inequalities in Korea should be made and that it must contain five domains: a target, structure and process, life-course approach, area-based approach, and reorganization of health care resources. The target should be based on determinants of health and more attention should be paid to socioeconmic factors. The structure and process require changes from the national health care policy based on medical services to the national health policy that involves the establishment of a Social Deputy Prime Minister and the strengthening multidisciplinary action. A life-course approach especially focused on the early childhood years. Area-based approach such as the establishment of healthy communities, healthy schools, or healthy work-places which are focused on deprived areas or places is also required. Finally, health care resources should be a greater investment on public resources and strengthening primary care to reduce health inequalities. The policy or intervention studies for tackling health inequalities should be implemented much more in Korea. In addition, it is essential to have political will to encourage policy action.

  18. The Conflicting Aims of the European Neighborhood Policy and its Secondary Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    to guarantee the security of Europe’s borders. The European Neighborhood Policy has played a pivotal role in ensuring that the neighbors complied with the EU’s interest by offering political and economic rewards. Compliance is also enhanced through the “Seville Doctrine.” The paper challenges the idea...

  19. The Compelling Influence of Nonlinguistic Aims in Language Status Policy Planning in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Helen M.

    1992-01-01

    On April 5, 1991, Spanish was made the sole official language of Puerto Rico, a move that replaced the 1902 Official Languages Act, which had put English and Spanish on an equal footing on the island, in name if not in practice. This paper analyzes this language status policy decision in terms of both its linguistic and extralinguistic purposes…

  20. On the Directionality and Maintenance of Language Policy in Revitalization Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clankie, Shawn M.

    This paper examines efforts to save rapidly declining indigenous languages around the world. The entire process of language preservation and revitalization is a massive undertaking that requires immense long-term planning and support. These problems extend well beyond the linguistic concerns of the language itself. Language policy is inherently…

  1. Armed To Learn: Aiming At California K 12 School Gun Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    ideology results when culture and capacity support firearms on campus. To date, this ideology has been most prevalent in states with liberal gun laws...where neither gun advocates nor gun opponents achieve their fundamental goal. This approach is characterized primarily by the following: • The culture ...the complexity of implementing a gun policy, each district must assess its own culture , resources, and capabilities in order to determine a course of

  2. Institutional Policy Changes Aimed at Addressing Obesity Among Mental Health Clients

    OpenAIRE

    Knol, Linda L.; Pritchett, Kelly; Dunkin, Jeri

    2010-01-01

    Background People with mental illness often experience unique barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. For these clients, interventions should focus on changes in the immediate environment to change behaviors. The purpose of this project was to implement and evaluate policy changes that would limit calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure of clients receiving mental health services. Context This intervention was implemented in a rural mental health system in the southeastern U...

  3. After the Conference of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development. The aims of the state environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Total 162 aims of the Strategy of the state environmental policy and next followed programs, projects and measures of the environmental policy of the Slovak Republic can be grouped into 4 blocks: (1) the environmental policy in the protection of air, water and before of risk factors, in the nuclear safety and waste economy (environmental safety; (2) the environmental policy in protection of the nature and the country, protection and use of mineral surroundings, soils and forest;; (3) the environmental policy in the economy; (4) the environmental policy in the guidance, education, public information, organization, control and coordination of the ministration on the environment. These aims are grouped into 10 sectors: Sector A - Protection of the air and ozone layer; Sector B - Protection and rationalize waters use; Sector C - Waste economy; Sector D - Risk factors and nuclear safety; Sector E - The ministration on the nature and the country and land development; Sector F - The protection and using of mineral surroundings, soils and forest; Sector G - The economy of the environment; Sector H - Environmental information science and monitoring; Sector I - Environmental guidance, education, and promotion; Sector J - Organization and control of the ministration on the environment

  4. Optimal pricing and promotional effort control policies for a new product growth in segmented market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jha P.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation enables the marketers to understand and serve the customers more effectively thereby improving company’s competitive position. In this paper, we study the impact of price and promotion efforts on evolution of sales intensity in segmented market to obtain the optimal price and promotion effort policies. Evolution of sales rate for each segment is developed under the assumption that marketer may choose both differentiated as well as mass market promotion effort to influence the uncaptured market potential. An optimal control model is formulated and a solution method using Maximum Principle has been discussed. The model is extended to incorporate budget constraint. Model applicability is illustrated by a numerical example. P.C. Jha, P. Manik, K. Chaudhary, R. Cambini / Optimal Pricing and Promotional 2 Since the discrete time data is available, the formulated model is discretized. For solving the discrete model, differential evolution algorithm is used.

  5. Upending the social ecological model to guide health promotion efforts toward policy and environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Shelley D; McLeroy, Kenneth R; Green, Lawrence W; Earp, Jo Anne L; Lieberman, Lisa D

    2015-04-01

    Efforts to change policies and the environments in which people live, work, and play have gained increasing attention over the past several decades. Yet health promotion frameworks that illustrate the complex processes that produce health-enhancing structural changes are limited. Building on the experiences of health educators, community activists, and community-based researchers described in this supplement and elsewhere, as well as several political, social, and behavioral science theories, we propose a new framework to organize our thinking about producing policy, environmental, and other structural changes. We build on the social ecological model, a framework widely employed in public health research and practice, by turning it inside out, placing health-related and other social policies and environments at the center, and conceptualizing the ways in which individuals, their social networks, and organized groups produce a community context that fosters healthy policy and environmental development. We conclude by describing how health promotion practitioners and researchers can foster structural change by (1) conveying the health and social relevance of policy and environmental change initiatives, (2) building partnerships to support them, and (3) promoting more equitable distributions of the resources necessary for people to meet their daily needs, control their lives, and freely participate in the public sphere. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Economic transition policies in Chinese resource-based cities: An overview of government efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Huijuan; Long, Ruyin; Chen, Hong

    2013-01-01

    Resource-based cities in China have made momentous contributions to the development of the national economy for decades. However, with the depletion of natural resources, their sustainable development is challenging and transition is important. The Chinese government has made great efforts to help resource-based cities. The purpose of this study is to investigate transition policies and their implementation. Firstly, we reviewed previous studies and summarized the essential elements of some successful resource-based cities, which are useful experiences for Chinese resource-based cities. Secondly, we studied the development of resource-based cities over the past 10 years with a focus on economic development, industrial structure, government revenue and environmental conditions. We found that resource-based cities were less developed compared to other cities. The main reasons are the after-effects of a planned economy, an unreasonable tax system, planning mistakes and misguided resources exploitation policies. Thirdly, we analyzed several aspects of the policy responses after the introduction of transition policies, including designating 69 resource-exhausted cities, supporting cities with funds and projects, formulating transition plans and evaluating transition performance. However, there are some deficiencies in the process of policy implementation. Finally, some recommendations were provided to improve transition performance and sustainable development for resource-based cities. - Highlights: ► Analyze the development of Chinese resource-based cities from four aspects. ► Analyze the causes of less development in resource-based cities. ► Investigate policies and their responses to transformation. ► Provide recommendations to improve transformation performance and sustainable development

  7. Efficiency of environmental policies aiming at fostering the adoption of new technologies: the case of renewable energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, M.L.

    2004-10-01

    This thesis aims to study the efficiency of promotion policies of renewable energies in electric power production taking into account the environment economy problems. The techniques at a commercial scale are particularly discussed. The first part deals with the incitement to technical progress in favor of the environmental protection. The second part proposes an empirical analysis based on the efficiency economical parameters and the last part analyses theoretically the efficiency of promotion tools of renewable energies. (A.L.B.)

  8. The efforts of a multidisciplinary approach in the rehabilitation institute for deaf children: A psychosocial intervention aimed at breaking the pattern of stalled productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langher Viviana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of hearing impaired children presented the work group with several tasks: the group had to integrate different competences and techniques, to share common treatment goals, to manage relational dynamics with the children and their parents, and to explore the families' expectancies. These efforts may create stressful conditions for the work group and, consequently, might negatively affect the quality of the intervention to be carried out. Our aim was to illustrate a psychosocial analysis performed in a religious Institute for hearing impaired children, intended to break the pattern of the Institute's stalled productivity, to avoid inefficient and fragmented treatments, to prevent unelaborated relational dynamics among the staff members and between the staff and the children's families. By means of the Content Analysis of semi-structured interviews administered to staff-members and families we have analyzed the quality of the teamwork, the relational arrangements towards the families and local services (25 interviews with 5 staff members; the family-Institute relationship and the family's representation and satisfaction of the Institute (7 interviews with 13 hearing impaired parents and non-hearing impaired parents. The institute activity seemed to be more characterized by the maintenance of the relationship with the families per se, rather than oriented to productive goals. The non hearing impaired parents seemed to be more satisfied than the hearing-impaired parents, possibly because the former are more prepared to receive the Institute's help. The stalled productivity can only be overcome by the elaboration of those relational/emotional dynamics which prevent staff members and children's parents from focusing on productive goals. The staffmembers' training should be improved in order to develop specific competences, to perform an integrated, multidisciplinary approach in treatments, to negotiate

  9. The feasibility of multisectoral policy options aimed at reducing trans fats and encouraging its replacement with healthier oils in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne-Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-05-01

    The World Health Organization recommends replacement of trans fat with polyunsaturated fat to reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Although several high-income countries have been successful in reducing trans fat in the food supply, low- and middle-income countries such as India may face additional contextual challenges such as the large informal sector, lack of consumer awareness, less enforcement capacity and low availability and affordability of healthier unsaturated fats. The objective of this study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of multisectoral policy options aimed at supporting trans fat reduction and its replacement with polyunsaturated fats in India. Multisectoral policy options examined in this study were identified using food supply chain analysis. Semi-structured interviews (n = 17) were conducted with key informants from agriculture, trade, finance, retail, industry, food standards, non-governmental organizations and the health professions to gain their views on the feasibility and acceptability of the policy options. Purposive sampling was used to identify key informants. Data were coded and organized based on key themes. There was support for policies aimed at improving the quality of seeds, supporting farmer co-operatives and developing affordable farming equipment suited to smallholders to improve the production of healthier oils. Increasing the role of the private sector to improve links among producers, processors and retailers may help to streamline the fats supply chain in India. Blending healthier oils with oils high in saturated fat, which are currently readily available, could help to improve the quality of fat in the short term. Improving consumer awareness through mass media campaigns and improved labelling may help increase consumer demand for healthier products. Reorienting agricultural policies to support production of healthier oils will help increase their uptake by industry. Policy coherence across sectors will be

  10. Realist review of policy intervention studies aimed at reducing exposures to environmental hazards in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorie E. Apollonio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to pollution is a significant risk to human health. However few studies have attempted to identify the types of policy interventions that can reduce the health risks of pollution exposure in the United States. The study objective was to conduct a realist review of policy interventions conducted or aimed at reducing chemical exposures in humans or the environment where exposure was measured. Methods A systematic literature search identified published articles that assessed policy interventions using exposure data. Two coders independently extracted data from the studies, assessing methods, context, details of interventions, outcomes, and risks of bias. Data were analyzed iteratively and manually to identify the most effective and transferrable types of interventions. The reasons for variability in the success of different interventions were explored. Results The review found that regulatory interventions that eliminate point sources of pollution appeared to reduce exposure to environmental hazards. Regular monitoring to provide environmental and human exposure data helped assess compliance with the regulatory standards. Educational and economic interventions were less successful. Conclusions Although some types of regulatory interventions appear to reduce exposures, our findings are limited by the nature of existing interventions, the weaknesses of the study designs used in the literature, and the lack of details on implementation. Information on contextual factors that influence implementation would assist with future reviews and could help identify effective interventions.

  11. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union-level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Saborido, Carlos; Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia; Caldeira, Sandra; Wollgast, Jan

    2016-11-01

    The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy.

  12. Measuring Sexual Orientation: A Review and Critique of U.S. Data Collection Efforts and Implications for Health Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Margaret; Wells, Brooke; Ventura-DiPersia, Christina; Renson, Audrey; Grov, Christian

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' (HHS) Healthy People 2020 goals sought to improve health outcomes among sexual minorities; HHS acknowledged that a dearth of sexual orientation items in federal and state health surveys obscured a broad understanding of sexual minority-related health disparities. The HHS 2011 data progression plan aimed to advance sexual orientation data collection efforts at the national level. Sexual orientation is a complex, multidimensional construct often composed of sexual identity, sexual attraction, and sexual behavior, thus posing challenges to its quantitative and practical measurement and analysis. In this review, we (a) present existing sexual orientation constructs; (b) evaluate current HHS sexual orientation data collection efforts; (c) review post-2011 data progression plan research on sexual minority health disparities, drawing on HHS survey data; (d) highlight the importance of and (e) identify obstacles to multidimensional sexual orientation measurement and analysis; and (f) discuss methods for multidimensional sexual orientation analysis and propose a matrix for addressing discordance/branchedness within these analyses. Multidimensional sexual orientation data collection and analysis would elucidate sexual minority-related health disparities, guide related health policies, and enhance population-based estimates of sexual minority individuals to steer health care practices.

  13. The pathways of high school science teachers and policy efforts to alter the pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, Tim

    2012-03-01

    There is currently much interest in improving the quality of science education in K-12 schools and encouraging more students, particularly minorities and women, to pursue careers in STEM fields. Two interrelated issues are at the forefront: the quality of science teachers and the supply of science teachers. Education research in general finds that the single most important school-based factor affecting student achievement is teacher quality. While there is little evidence that teacher credentials matter for student achievement in the lower grades, there is at least some evidence that content knowledge is an important determinant of teacher quality in middle and secondary schools. However, little is known about the pre-service preparation of high school science teachers and how the training of science teachers affects their performance in the classroom. While there are many efforts underway to increase the supply of science teachers, little is known about the supply of science teachers from different pathways and the factors that lead science teachers to leave the profession. In this presentation I discuss recent work on the supply of teachers from alternative pathways, focusing on high school science teachers. I also summarize the literature on teacher quality and attrition, emphasizing the current state of knowledge on secondary school teachers. Finally, I present current policy initiatives and discuss the likelihood of their success given current research findings.

  14. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomson Nick

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia.

  15. UNDERSTANDING POLICY FAILURE IN THE EFFORT TO SITE FACILITIES FOR NUCLEAR WASTE DISPOSAL. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. THE IMPORTANCE OF TAX AMNESTY POLICY IN EFFORTS TO OVERCOME TAX EVASION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sholihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental problems of taxation in Indonesia is a low tax ratio and management of the tax systemhas not been well ordered, especially the handling of the tax evaders. Tax amnesty policy is presentas one of the solutions of the problems of taxation and is part of the tax reform. There are pros andcons to this policy as it pertains to the settings in the Tax Forgiveness Act is considered less sense offairness and legal certainty and are vulnerable to abuse of authority. This policy became importantalthough it is less sense of fairness if the review facilities subject to tax amnesty even though thestate would get the revenue the state in large numbers in a short period of short-term benefits, butif managed by the management and human resources professionals, socialization, and optimizedcontrol, a long-term positive impact to minimize state income tax evasion. Keywords: tax amnesty, policy, tax evation (avoidance

  17. How Politicians' Reelection Efforts Can Reduce Public Trust, Electoral Support, and Policy Approval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild, Troels

    2016-01-01

    Politicians’ desire for reelection motivates them to be responsive to voters’ policy preferences. In the traditional view, voters choose between candidates based on their delivery of favorable outcomes such as ideologically appealing policies or a prospering economy. However, research in psychology...... were described as motivated by reelection considerations than when no such motive was present. The findings advance our understanding of how citizens view political representation and have important implications for research on public opinion, legislative behavior, and democratic theory....

  18. ROTC Cadets in Summer Training Worry about Campus Protests Aimed at the Pentagon's Policy Banning Homosexual Recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Some protesters contend that a Defense Department policy barring homosexuals from becoming commissioned military officers contradicts campus regulations against discrimination. The controversy concerns ROTC cadets, whose scholarships may be in jeopardy if the corps were banned from their campus. Cadets also find the summer training builds…

  19. [Health promotion policy and urban planning: joint efforts for the development of healthy cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandio, Ana Maria Girotti; Francisco, Lauro Luiz; Mattos, Thiago Pedrosa

    2016-06-01

    The National Health Promotion Policy (PNPS) defines strategies for devising inter-sectoral public policies that ensure the development of healthy cities. Urban planning constitutes a tool to improve the quality of life and enhance health promotion. Using the studies and cooperation actions conducted by the Urban Research Laboratory (LABINUR/FEC-Unicamp) as a reference, this article describes relevant aspects of the PNPS that have an interface with urban planning policies in Brazil. An increase in interdisciplinary and inter-sectoral measures related to the new PNPS after the passing of Ordinance 2.446/14 was identified, which include: mobility and accessibility; safe development (sanitation, housing and transport); healthy eating with social inclusion and reduction of poverty (community vegetable gardens); corporal activities and physical exercise and the enhancement of urban spaces. The conclusion drawn is that social participation, inter-sectoral activities and the role of the university are important aspects for the promotion of healthy cities.

  20. Forty Years of State Alcohol and Pregnancy Policies in the USA: Best Practices for Public Health or Efforts to Restrict Women's Reproductive Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Sarah C M; Thomas, Sue; Treffers, Ryan; Drabble, Laurie

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol consumption during pregnancy remains a public health problem despite >40 years of attention. Little is known about how state policies have evolved and whether policies represent public health goals or efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights. Our data set includes US state policies from 1970 through 2013 obtained through original legal research and from the National Institute for Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's (NIAAA)'s Alcohol Policy Information System. Policies were classified as punitive to women or supportive of them. The association between numbers of punitive policies and supportive policies in 2013 with a measure of state restrictions on reproductive rights and Alcohol Policy Effectiveness Scores (APS) was estimated using a Pearson's correlation. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased from 1 in 1974 to 43 in 2013. Through the 1980s, state policy environments were either punitive or supportive. In the 1990s, mixed punitive and supportive policy environments began to be the norm, with punitive policies added to supportive ones. No association was found between the number of supportive policies in 2013 and a measure of reproductive rights policies or the APS, nor was there an association between the number of punitive policies and the APS. The number of punitive policies was positively associated, however, with restrictions on reproductive rights. Punitive alcohol and pregnancy policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than effective efforts to curb public health harms due to alcohol use in the general population. Future research should explore the effects of alcohol and pregnancy policies. The number of states with alcohol and pregnancy policies has increased since 1970 (1 in 1974 and 43 in 2013). Alcohol and pregnancy policies are becoming increasingly punitive. These punitive policies are associated with efforts to restrict women's reproductive rights rather than

  1. Multicultural Efforts and Affirmative Action in Brazil: Policies Influencing Education in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Ramalho, Elizabeth; da Silva, Maria Auxiliadora Lima Dias

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the intercultural movements toward social justice in education in the Americas, most particularly, North America, and how U.S. multicultural movements and policies influence countries like Brazil. First we analyzed the movement toward multicultural practices to understand how those are developed both in the U.S., and in Brazil.…

  2. The Desegregation Aims and Demographic Contexts of Magnet Schools: How Parents Choose and Why Siting Policies Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrekar, Claire; Honey, Ngaire

    2015-01-01

    This paper is designed to specify a set of new opportunities for educators, school administrators, and scholars to realize the practical aims and strategic advantages envisioned in magnet schools. The paper is divided into three distinct sections. In Section I, we examine the extensive research literature on parents' choice patterns and…

  3. Sustainable Development Policies as Indicators and Pre-Conditions for Sustainability Efforts at Universities: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal Filho, Walter; Brandli, Luciana Londero; Becker, Deisi; Skanavis, Constantina; Kounani, Aristea; Sardi, Chrysoula; Papaioannidou, Dimitra; Paço, Arminda; Azeiteiro, Ulisses; de Sousa, Luiza Olim; Raath, Schalk; Pretorius, Rudi Wessel; Shiel, Christine; Vargas, Valeria; Trencher, Gregory; Marans, Robert W.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: There is a widely held belief that sustainable development (SD) policies are essential for universities to successfully engage in matters related to sustainability, and are an indicator of the extent to which they are active in this field. This paper aims to examine the evidence which currently exists to support this assumption. It…

  4. SEAS-ERA: An overarching effort to coordinate marine research policies across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Albaigés Riera, Joan

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. The aim of the SEAS-ERA initiative (2010-2014), developed within the European Union Framework Programme (EU FPVII) (contract 249552), was to coordinate the structure of national and regional marine and maritime research programs to empower and strengthen marine research all across Europe. A major goal was the development and implementation of common research strategies and programs related to European seas basins. To achieve this goal, SEAS-ERA was applied at two differen...

  5. Policy Reform Efforts and Equal Opportunity – An Evidence-Based Link? An Analysis of Current Sector Reforms in the Austrian School System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Geppert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the present paper is to answer two different questions: From the perspective of Austrian education policy, which core areas of schooling are linked to the demand for equal opportunity? Can these reform efforts sustain the current state of research, and what are the consequences for schooling? The paper draws on an analysis by Hopmann, Geppert & Bauer (2010. Fifteen official self-presentations (political programmes of Austrian political parties were analysed for statements concerning the improvement of the education system. This resulted in about seventy different statements, which were aggregated into eight core areas.We conducted a systematic analysis of four of these core areas, dealing with the topics of equal opportunity: comprehensive school, all-day schooling, school autonomy and standardisation of students’ achievements. The aim was not to judge the legitimacy or the political content of the claims made. In line with evaluative discourse, we asked whether the combination of political demands and their associated expectations met the current state of research. In many policy programmes, it is assumed that comprehensive schooling, all-day schooling, education standards, standardised general certification for university attendance, school autonomy or language surveys go hand in hand with more equality of opportunity, justice andquality in education, but an analysis of the current state of research could not confirm this. The analysis showed that, with regard to education policy demands, statements having empirically little or nothing to do with each other are often linked.

  6. Public social monitoring reports and their effect on a policy programme aimed at addressing the social determinants of health to improve health equity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, Frank; Valentine, Nicole B; Matheson, Don; Rasanathan, Kumanan

    2014-01-01

    The important role that monitoring plays in advancing global health is well established. However, the role of social monitoring as a tool for addressing social determinants of health (SDH) and health equity-focused policies remains under-researched. This paper assesses the extent and ways in which New Zealand's (NZ) Social Reports (SRs) supported a SDH- and health equity-oriented policy programme nationally over the 2000-2008 period by documenting the SRs' history and assessing its impact on policies across sectors in government and civil society. We conducted key-informant interviews with five senior policy-makers and an e-mail survey with 24 government and civil society representatives on SRs' history and policy impact. We identified common themes across these data and classified them accordingly to assess the intensity of the reports' use and their impact on SDH- and health equity-focused policies. Bibliometric analyses of government publications and media items were undertaken to empirically assess SRs' impact on government and civil society. SRs in NZ arose out of the role played by government as the "benevolent social welfare planner" and an understanding of the necessity of economic and social security for "progress". The SRs were linked to establishing a government-wide programme aimed at reducing inequalities. They have been used moderately to highly in central and local government and in civil society, both within and outside the health sector, but have neither entered public treasury and economic development departments nor the commercial sector. The SRs have not reached the more universal status of economic indicators. However, they have had some success at raising awareness of, and have stimulated isolated action on, SDH. The NZ case suggests that national-level social monitoring provides a valuable tool for raising awareness of SDH across government and civil society. A number of strategies could improve social reports' effectiveness in stimulating

  7. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years waste management has received increased attention not only at the national level but also internationally in order to harmonise to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard in this field. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short term but also the longer term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition to the discussion of policies and practices, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority particularly as far as high level waste and alpha bearing wastes are concerned. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high level radioactive waste. As a result of these efforts an international R and D programme is being established at the site of the Eurochemic reprocessing plant on the incorporation of high level waste into metal matrices. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes in detail the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities [fr

  8. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Guide Focus Group Development of Messages Aimed at Increasing Compliance With a Tobacco-Free Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Record, Rachael A; Harrington, Nancy G; Helme, Donald W; Savage, Matthew W

    2018-01-01

    This study details the persuasive message development for a theory-based campaign designed to increase compliance with a university's tobacco-free policy. The theory of planned behavior (TPB) guided message design and evaluation for focus group-tested messages that were adapted to the context of complying with a tobacco-free policy. The study was conducted at a university located in the tobacco belt. Undergraduate focus group participants (n = 65) were mostly male (69%), white (82%), and freshman (62%) who smoked at least 1 cigarette in the last 30 days; on-campus smoking percentages were never/rare (60%), occasionally (23%), and often/frequently (16%). Data analysis used a theoretical thematic approach to identify how the TPB constructs related to perceptions of message effectiveness. Participants responded favorably to attitudinal strategies about health, respect, and university figures; they rejected approaches they considered juvenile and offensive. They also discussed the impact of noncompliance and avoiding overgeneralized statements for addressing subjective norms, suggesting shortening text, adjusting picture location, and emphasizing the importance of compliance to increase perceptions of behavioral control. Applying theory to preexisting messages is challenging. The design approach in this study is an evidence-based strategy that can be used as a universal process for message adaptation. Results offer health promotion suggestions for designing messages aimed at improving undergraduate smokers' willingness to comply with tobacco-free campus policies.

  9. Public health economic evaluation of different European Union–level policy options aimed at reducing population dietary trans fat intake12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouratidou, Theodora; Livaniou, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Background: The adverse relation between dietary trans fatty acid (TFA) intake and coronary artery disease risk is well established. Many countries in the European Union (EU) and worldwide have implemented different policies to reduce the TFA intake of their populations. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the added value of EU-level action by estimating the cost-effectiveness of 3 possible EU-level policy measures to reduce population dietary TFA intake. This was calculated against a reference situation of not implementing any EU-level policy (i.e., by assuming only national or self-regulatory measures). Design: We developed a mathematical model to compare different policy options at the EU level: 1) to do nothing beyond the current state (reference situation), 2) to impose mandatory TFA labeling of prepackaged foods, 3) to seek voluntary agreements toward further reducing industrially produced TFA (iTFA) content in foods, and 4) to impose a legislative limit for iTFA content in foods. Results: The model indicated that to impose an EU-level legal limit or to make voluntary agreements may, over the course of a lifetime (85 y), avoid the loss of 3.73 and 2.19 million disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), respectively, and save >51 and 23 billion euros when compared with the reference situation. Implementing mandatory TFA labeling can also avoid the loss of 0.98 million DALYs, but this option incurs more costs than it saves compared with the reference option. Conclusions: The model indicates that there is added value of an EU-level action, either via a legal limit or through voluntary agreements, with the legal limit option producing the highest additional health benefits. Introducing mandatory TFA labeling for the EU common market may provide some additional health benefits; however, this would likely not be a cost-effective strategy. PMID:27680991

  10. State Policies on School Climate and Bully Prevention Efforts: Challenges and Opportunities for Deepening State Policy Support for Safe and Civil Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscatelli, Jennifer; Lee, Chiqueena

    2011-01-01

    The National School Climate Center (NSCC) completed a 50-state policy scan on state school climate and anti-bullying policies to better understand the current state policy infrastructure supporting the development of positive school climates. This policy brief examines the current status of school climate and anti-bullying policies in each state,…

  11. Present trends in radioactive waste management policies in OECD countries, and related international co-operative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    In recent years, waste management has received increased attention at the national level and also internationally, to harmonize to some extent the policies and practices to be followed and to continue to achieve a high safety standard. In particular, discussions are taking place between OECD Member countries on the definition of objectives, concepts and strategies for radioactive waste management with a view to presenting coherent overall systems, covering not only the treatment and storage aspects for the short-term but also the longer-term problems of disposal in the context of a rapidly developing nuclear fuel cycle. The technical, administrative, legal and financial aspects of the waste management problems are being discussed and various approaches are envisaged for the future. In addition, a significant effort is also being initiated on research and development. The disposal problem has been given priority, particularly regarding high-level waste and alpha-bearing wastes. Close international co-operation has been initiated in this sector as well as on the conditioning of high-level radioactive waste. Increased co-operation is also taking place concerning other waste management problems such as the management of gaseous waste, alpha waste and cladding hulls and the question of dismantling and decommissioning of obsolete nuclear facilities. The paper describes the results achieved so far through this co-operation between OECD Member countries and presents current plans for future activities. (author)

  12. Legislative responses to wrongful conviction: Do partisan principals and advocacy efforts influence state-level criminal justice policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T

    2015-07-01

    The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Creating supportive nutrition environments for population health impact and health equity: an overview of the Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network's efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, Heidi M; Kim, Sonia A

    2012-09-01

    Childhood obesity is a major threat to individual health and society overall. Policies that support healthier food and beverage choices have been endorsed by many decision makers. These policies may reach a large proportion of the population or in some circumstances aim to reduce nutrition disparities to ensure health equity. The Nutrition and Obesity Policy Research and Evaluation Network (NOPREN) evaluates policy as a tool to improve food and beverage environments where Americans live, work, play, and learn. The network aspires to address research and evaluation gaps related to relevant policies, create standardized research tools, and help build the evidence base of effective policy solutions for childhood obesity prevention with a focus on reach, equity, cost effectiveness, and sustainability. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Changing policy and practice in the child welfare system through collaborative efforts to identify and respond effectively to family violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Duren; Landsverk, John; Wang, Kathleen

    2008-07-01

    The Greenbook provides a roadmap for child welfare agencies to collaborate and provide effective responses to families who are experiencing co-occurring child maltreatment and domestic violence. A multisite developmental evaluation was conducted of six demonstration sites that received federal funding to implement Greenbook recommendations for child welfare agencies. Surveys of child welfare caseworkers show significant changes in several areas of agency policy and practice, including regular domestic violence training, written guidelines for reporting domestic violence, and working closely and sharing resources with local domestic violence service providers. Case file reviews show significant increases in the level of active screening for domestic violence, although this increase peaks at the midpoint of the initiative. These findings, coupled with on-site interview data, point to the importance of coordinating system change activities in child welfare agencies with a number of other collaborative activities.

  15. Strengthening advocacy efforts with empirical evidence: A case example of the conduct, uptake and utilisation of research in drug policy decision-making in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Thu; Ritter, Alison; Nguyen, Nhu; Ali, Robert

    2017-11-01

    During the last decade, international aid agencies and advocates have been working with Southeast Asian governments to move away from punitive responses towards people who use drugs to more public health, humane approaches. The lack of local scientific evidence about the effectiveness of different treatment approaches has made this advocacy work more challenging. This paper reflects on a generation of treatment research evidence and how it can assist advocacy efforts. The case example is the cost-effectiveness research, comparing centre-based compulsory treatment with community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment in Vietnam (2012-2015). Using our long-term and on-going connections with key Vietnamese decision-makers and government agencies, our collective experiences in drug policy advocacy and our unique insight into the working of government in Vietnam, we have used strategies to maximise opportunities for research to inform policy discussions. We have made an assessment here about the extent to which study findings have contributed to policy change in Vietnam and the challenges that impede progressive policy implementation. In doing this, we hope to make a contribution to the research evidence use literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Using research to change public policy: reflections on 20 years of effort to eliminate corporal punishment in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, I A

    1996-10-01

    In the past 20 years, over half of the states have abolished corporal punishment in schools. Without the use of ethically questionable, experimental studies in which students were randomly assigned to paddlings, advocacy researchers were able to integrate the literature and experimental research on reward, punishment, and motivation, and conduct enough studies to provide sufficient data for policy changes. Further, every popular school discipline training program promotes well-proven positive and preventive techniques and punishments that do not inflict physical pain. Research on alternatives, naturalistic evidence from schools that eliminated corporal punishment, and survey research prove that schools do not need to use corporal punishment. The movement to eliminate parental spanking is at a stage similar to the beginning of the school corporal punishment debate in 1976. Even though some studies may show that moderate parental spanking may do no short-term harm, there is little scientific evidence that it is necessary. There are no data to indicate that schools which eliminated corporal punishment became any worse. The same demographic factors and political polarizations that have kept about half of American school children from the protections against paddling afforded students in almost all other Western democracies also impede the movement to eliminate parental spanking. Since we know that corporal punishment too often leads to excesses, and since we have a multitude of effective positive approaches, what is the worst thing that would happen if all Americans stopped hitting children in any setting? The same children who are hit for misbehavior would continue that misbehavior and other ineffective punishments would be used. Most parents and teachers would discover what behavioral scientists already know. A combination of reward, positive motivational techniques and appropriate, nonphysical punishments would prevent most misbehavior. Other factors being equal, in

  17. When grammars collide: Harm reduction, drug detention and the challenges of international policy reform efforts in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edington, Claire; Bayer, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the 1990s, a dramatic rise in HIV prevalence rates among drug users in Vietnam attracted the attention of international observers concerned about the prospect of a more generalised epidemic. Vietnam subsequently became the target of extensive funding and advocacy which sought to introduce needle exchange and methadone in a country where drug use was considered a 'social evil', and drug users were subjected to what international observers viewed as draconian incarceration measures. What were the goals of proponents of harm reduction when they came to Vietnam? How did they perceive the state of prevailing approaches to drug users in the context of the Vietnamese HIV epidemic? How did they understand the strategic challenges they faced and the dilemmas they had to confront? Based on in-depth interviews with international harm reduction proponents working in Vietnam, this paper explores the encounter of two grammars of harm reduction, one based on broadly accepted international approaches, the other rooted in Vietnam's own history and politics. From this encounter a set of policies and practices characterised by needle exchange and methadone maintenance emerged, as well as an extensive network of closed centres where tens of thousands of drug users are currently detained.

  18. Evaluating U.S. medical schools' efforts to educate faculty researchers on research integrity and research misconduct policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Sandra Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how well U.S. medical school institutions are doing to promote research integrity. It is an important question to ask in order to determine whether there are sufficient and adequate protections in place to protect the U.S. Public Health Service's (PHS) resources devoted to medical research. This paper focuses on 5,100 medical school researchers' knowledge of what constitutes research misconduct as well as their willingness to report it to the research integrity officer (RIO) and educate their Ph.D. trainees. We learned that 5.6% of researchers could correctly distinguish seven or more of the nine scenarios that depicted likely research misconduct, as defined by the PHS regulations, from scenarios describing other ethical issues. Instead, researchers had expansive definitions and often inappropriately identified infractions such as conflicts of interest, Institutional Review Board (IRB) violations, and other breaches in ethical standards to be research misconduct. In addition, researchers who correctly identified four instances of likely research misconduct in the test items were highly unlikely to report their observations to a RIO. Researchers also provided insight on the factors they believe influence their decision making process of whether to report research misconduct. In addition, this paper also reports on the guidance that faculty said they provided their trainees on research misconduct issues. We conclude with a discussion and recommendations on what institutional leaders might consider doing in order to enhance their research integrity efforts and protect their institution's reputation.

  19. When technical achievements aren't enough: Lessons learned from efforts to catalyze policy action on supply chain in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicko, Modibo; Souare, Batouo; Sarr, Lamine Cisse; Gueye, Babacar

    2017-04-19

    Before 2013, Senegal public health supply system was pull-based and fully public-run. Lengthy and recurrent stockouts of essential health products (incl. contraceptives) were the rule, not the exception as they used to strike more than 80% of public service delivery points (SDPs). Following a successful pilot in two districts in 2012, the Senegalese Ministry of Health and Social Action (MSAS) implemented the Informed Push Model (IPM) Project (2013-2016). In its first two years, IPM bridged key gaps and expanded the distribution of contraceptives by private third party logistics operators to all public SDPs in Senegal and nearly eliminated stockouts. However, the MSAS was slow to take ownership of the project. Understanding the roots of this reluctance, executing a range of targeted communication and advocacy efforts and preparing a strong transition plan are succeeding to push Government toward full ownership to enable the National Supply Pharmacy to distribute all health products going to SDPs, including vaccines, consistently with their Strategic Plan 2014-2018. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Contaminated Sediment Management in Dam Removals and River Restoration Efforts: Critical Need for Research and Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Over 1,000 U.S. dams have been removed (1975-2015) for reasons including obsolescence, liability concerns, water quality upgrades, fisheries, or ecosystem enhancements. Contaminated sediment can significantly complicate the approval process, cost, and timeline of a dam removal, or stop it entirely. In a dam removal, reservoir sediment changes from a sink to a source of contaminants. Recently, the Sierra Club sued to stop the removal of a large dam in Ohio because of the potential impact of phosphate releases on toxic algal blooms in Lake Erie. Heavy metals, PCBs, PAHs, pesticides, and petroleum hydrocarbons can be present in reservoir sediments. In a non-dam removal scenario, reservoir management tools range from "no action" to dredging, dewatering and removal, or sediment capping. But it is not clear how these reservoir management techniques apply to dam removals. Case studies show typically >80% of the reservoir sediment is eventually eroded, precluding sediment capping as a containment option. However, the released contaminants are diluted by mixing with "clean" sediment and are transported to different physio-chemical environments which may immobilize or biodegrade the contaminants. Poorly understood options include phased drawdown/reseeding the former reservoir to contain sediments, diking contaminant "hot spots," and addressing contaminant stratigraphy (where historical use created "hot layers" in the reservoir sediment). Research and policy development needs include: (1) assessment methods based on synergistic effects of multiple contaminants being present; (2) ways to translate the pre-removal contaminant concentrations to post-removal health risks downstream; (3) evaluation of management practices for contaminant "hot spots" and "hot layers;" (4) tools to forecast the presence of contaminated sediment using easily accessible information; and (5) ways to limit liability risk for organizations participating in dam removals involving contaminated sediment.

  1. 'Manage and mitigate punitive regulatory measures, enhance the corporate image, influence public policy': industry efforts to shape understanding of tobacco-attributable deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kelley; Carrillo Botero, Natalia; Novotny, Thomas

    2016-09-20

    Deforestation due to tobacco farming began to raise concerns in the mid 1970s. Over the next 40 years, tobacco growing increased significantly and shifted markedly to low- and middle-income countries. The percentage of deforestation caused by tobacco farming reached 4 % globally by the early 2000s, although substantially higher in countries such as China (18 %), Zimbabwe (20 %), Malawi (26 %) and Bangladesh (>30 %). Transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have argued that tobacco-attributable deforestation is not a serious problem, and that the industry has addressed the issue through corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives. After reviewing the existing scholarly literature on tobacco and deforestation, we analysed industry sources of public information to understand how the industry framed deforestation, its key causes, and policy responses. To analyse industry strategies between the 1970s and early 2000s to shape understanding of deforestation caused by tobacco farming and curing, the Truth Tobacco Documents Library was systematically searched. The above sources were compiled and triangulated, thematically and chronologically, to derive a narrative of how the industry has framed the problem of, and solutions to, tobacco-attributable deforestation. The industry sought to undermine responses to tobacco-attributable deforestation by emphasising the economic benefits of production in LMICs, blaming alternative causes, and claiming successful forestation efforts. To support these tactics, the industry lobbied at the national and international levels, commissioned research, and colluded through front groups. There was a lack of effective action to address tobacco-attributable deforestation, and indeed an escalation of the problem, during this period. The findings suggest the need for independent data on the varied environmental impacts of the tobacco industry, awareness of how the industry seeks to work with environmental researchers and groups to

  2. Geographic overlaps between priority areas for forest carbon-storage efforts and those for delivering peacebuilding programs: implications for policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Nunez, Augusto; Mertz, Ole; Sosa, Chrystian C.

    2017-05-01

    Of the countries considering national-level policies for incentivizing reductions in forest-based greenhouse gas emissions (REDD+), some 25 are experiencing (or are emerging from) armed-conflicts. It has been hypothesized that the outcomes of the interactions between carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts could result in either improved or worsened forest conservation and likewise increased or decreased conflict. Hence, for this study we explore potential interactions between forest carbon-storage and peacebuilding efforts, with Colombia as a case study. Spatial associations between biomass carbon and three conflict-related variables suggest that such interactions may exist. Nonetheless, while priority areas for carbon-focused conservation are presumably those at highest risks of deforestation, our research indicates that forests with lower risk of deforestation are typically those affected by armed-conflict. Our findings moreover highlight three possible roles played by Colombian forested municipalities in armed groups’ military strategies: venues for battle, hideouts, and sources of natural resources to finance war.

  3. Provider Burnout and Patient Engagement: The Quadruple and Quintuple Aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epperson, William Jackson; Childs, Susan Fink; Wilhoit, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    The Triple Aim has become the guiding light and benchmark by which healthcare organizations plan their future efforts. It has been adopted into healthcare policies with little regard for including the skill sets of compassion and emotional intelligence. The multiple increasing demands on providers of healthcare are unsustainable and will cripple the system, resulting in outcomes that are counter to the Triple Aim goals. Patient engagement with shared decision-making should become the primary focus of care delivery. New delivery models and care plans are unaffordable to far too many patients and payers, despite the efforts of futurists who seek to advance quality and lower costs. Clinical care delivery and patient engagement efforts must be drastically redirected to innovative and sustainable value-based delivery models that support the goals of the Triple Aim.

  4. Sustainability transition dynamics: Towards overcoming policy resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2016-01-01

    Sustainability transitions receive major scholarly attention, often explicitly with the intention to develop policy recommendations aimed towards progressing such transitions. Despite these efforts, many implemented transition policies have not been able to meet expectations. This tendency of

  5. Toward an Ideal Democracy: The Impact of Standardization Policies on the American Indian/Alaska Native Community and Language Revitalization Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erik; Allen, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the impact of standardization policies of the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 on the American Indian/Alaska Native community and the ability of educational policy to promote sovereignty, liberty and equity within indigenous communities. Examining current research and data generated from the National Indian Education…

  6. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Daniel S [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States). National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA); Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Weissman, Jon [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Turilli, Matteo [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    This is the final technical report for the AIMES project. Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). This is evidenced by missing design principles for DCI, and an absence of generally acceptable and usable distributed computing abstractions. The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scientific distributed applications. AIMES laid the foundations to address the tripartite challenge of dynamic resource management, integrating information, and portable and interoperable distributed applications. Four abstractions were defined and implemented: skeleton, resource bundle, pilot, and execution strategy. The four abstractions were implemented into software modules and then aggregated into the AIMES middleware. This middleware successfully integrates information across the application layer (skeletons) and resource layer (Bundles), derives a suitable execution strategy for the given skeleton and enacts its execution by means of pilots on one or more resources, depending on the application requirements, and resource availabilities and capabilities.

  7. Cotton, Prof. Aime Auguste

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1935 Honorary. Cotton, Prof. Aime Auguste. Date of birth: 9 October 1869. Date of death: 16 April 1951. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on the ...

  8. AIM Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Scholz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM Data Services as a virtual facility provides virtual 3D reference tracks for simulation applications in the domain of automotive and railway systems. It offers tools for management and analysis of experiment data and a platform for survey and processing of vehicle data in the public transport domain. Collected spatial data is bundled in a database cluster and published through common web mapping interfaces.

  9. AIMES Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, Shantenu [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Many important advances in science and engineering are due to large-scale distributed computing. Notwithstanding this reliance, we are still learning how to design and deploy large-scale production Distributed Computing Infrastructures (DCI). The AIMES project was conceived against this backdrop, following on the heels of a comprehensive survey of scienti c distributed applications [1]. The survey established, arguably for the rst time, the relationship between infrastructure and scienti c distributed applications. It examined well known contributors to the complexity associated with infrastructure, such as inconsistent internal and external interfaces, and demonstrated the correlation with application brittleness. It discussed how infrastructure complexity reinforces the challenges inherent in developing distributed applications.

  10. A New Zealand Scientific Perspective on 20+ Years of Efforts to Introduce Policies Setting Limits on Emissions: What's the Way Forward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baisden, T. W.

    2013-12-01

    Setting limits on pollution is an inherently political process negotiated between stakeholders within society. Science has a critical, but not dominant role in setting environmental limits. Over the past 20 years, nations have had the opportunity to build on a period of major international successes, limiting ozone-depleting chemicals and sulphur emissions causing acid rain. The science and politics of solutions attempted during this time has become vastly more complicated, and the outcome has been disappointing: global greenhouse gas emissions remain at business-as-usual trajectories. It seems logical and timely to examine the landscape before forging onward. In a brief review of lessons learned from the perspective of earth-system science within New Zealand, I highlight key examples and opportunities for creating more promising way forward. Among the lessons are that small-scale limit setting can host important innovation, while collapses can occur when systems that are too-big-to-fail but lack critical pre-requisites. In this sense, implementation of cap-and-trade for water quality may represent the former, while the collapse of C prices highlight the latter. Of critical importance is the simple observation that perceived uncertainties must be brought within bounds that make decisions possible. The way in which system are framed scientifically can be of overarching significance. Cap and trade for nutrients in New Zealand catchments has enabled small-scale illustrations of how the system frame can be vital in successful policy. For example, the N budget of Lake Taupo is simplified by focusing on inputs to the land, while 100-year forcing equivalence still raises questions about managing climate change. Relationships between emissions and activity must be distilled based on sound science, in a manner simple and certain enough for people and businesses to meaningfully consider in decisions that are made every day. With trust becoming a major limiting factor in the

  11. Locally specific measures for employment aimed at regional development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Cini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The oldest and largest sub-region in the world functioning on the principle of economic union is the European Union. The creation of a single market has initiated the process of conditional adjustment of markets in the EU member states, which has a significant impact on the social welfare of its citizens. It is necessary to tackle this issue by joint efforts within the European Union. As globalization processes push for economic integration and development of competitive advantage, the regions will have to make some challenging adjustments. The development tends to concentrate in highly competitive regions, while regions in the periphery lag behind. However, this pertains not only to the economic lag, but also to a potential negative political situation. Locally specific active employment policy measures are a continuation of the effort to make these measures more flexible. They refer to the Joint Assessment of Employment Policy Priorities and the IPA Human Resources Development Operational Programme - a regional policy instrument of the European Union. Both documents highlight the issue of disproportional development of regions, which requires special local measures and active labour market policy programmes. To reduce regional differences in development, it is necessary to invest more resources in the regions that lag behind. In this particular case, this means the counties in Croatia with high unemployment rates, a large number of registered unemployed persons and low employment rate. Consequently, this paper explains the importance of the adoption of locally specific measures for employment, which unfortunately did not take hold in the Republic of Croatia, and highlights the need for further decentralization of public services, with the aim of balancing regional development

  12. Multidisciplinary Efforts Driving Translational Theranostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tony Y.

    2014-01-01

    This themed issue summarizes significant efforts aimed at using “biological language” to discern between “friends” and “foes” in the context of theranostics for true clinical application. It is expected that the success of theranostics depends on multidisciplinary efforts, combined to expedite our understanding of host responses to “customized” theranostic agents and formulating individualized therapies. PMID:25285169

  13. PUBLIC POLICY AND TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOSIF MOLDOVAN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The state administration process and hence also the economy coordination effort requires the promotion of robust, consistent and transparent public policy, which must be accepted by all stakeholders of economic development. Public policy is a set of measures taken by the authorities legally constituted as public power. Under normal conditions these policy aims at improving living conditions of citizens by developing grounded strategies which are applied by measures implemented to stimulate economic development in all its complexity by harmonizing the efforts of the institutional and non-institutional bodies responsible for ensuring the overall public interest. In Romania, public policies, especially fiscal ones on which we dwell, not reached in many cases the expected effects primarily because of their superficial grounding, lack of transparency, unpredictability, poor communication and secondly as an effect of ineffective management of public financial resources.

  14. Description of the effort sharing approaches as presented in the Ecofys' policy brief The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehne, N.; Hagemann, M.; Fekete, H. [Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    The paper 'The next step in Europe's climate action. Setting targets for 2030' explains how setting 2030 targets will reinvigorate the ETS and will put EU emissions on track to limit global temperature increase below two degrees Celsius (2C). The paper describes four key findings for EU policymakers engaged in preparing EU energy and climate measures for 2030 and for the longer term. This document aims to provide background information on the effort sharing approaches, as presented in fore-mentioned paper.

  15. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  16. The diverse aims of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potochnik, Angela

    2015-10-01

    There is increasing attention to the centrality of idealization in science. One common view is that models and other idealized representations are important to science, but that they fall short in one or more ways. On this view, there must be an intermediary step between idealized representation and the traditional aims of science, including truth, explanation, and prediction. Here I develop an alternative interpretation of the relationship between idealized representation and the aims of science. I suggest that continuing, widespread idealization calls into question the idea that science aims for truth. If instead science aims to produce understanding, this would enable idealizations to directly contribute to science's epistemic success. I also use the fact of widespread idealization to motivate the idea that science's wide variety aims, epistemic and non-epistemic, are best served by different kinds of scientific products. Finally, I show how these diverse aims—most rather distant from truth—result in the expanded influence of social values on science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Safeguarding EU policy aims and requirements in smart grid standardization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The EU electricity market is changing. We are leaving a decade of liberalization and enter a period in which the sustainability of the system and consumer participation play a more significant role. The application of ICT technology, especially by way of smart grids, is presumed to support these

  18. Aims, assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-03-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. Calling on evidence mainly from the UK, it reviews analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the senior physics professors in the UK. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  19. Hands-on Workshops Aim to Strengthen Tobacco Control Efforts in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2011 by the Indonesian National Institute of Health Research and Development and the U.S. Center for Disease Control and Prevention, showed that more than 67% of men and almost 40% of boys aged 13-15 use tobacco.

  20. Importance of the systematic effort which aimed at educating of civic environmental and scientific literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, K.; Matsumoto, I.

    2012-12-01

    It is fresh in memory that there were a big earthquake and a tidal wave in Tohoku District, Japan in 11th March 2011. Importance of the environmental education and disaster prevention education in a citizen Levels is increasingly larger after it. An author's one-person Fukumoto has been concerned with coverage and an editing of an environmental public relations magazine "Eco Town MATSUE" of matsue city for two years from a University student's position. Then, We arranged various information and data by our coverage and the reaction from citizen. By this research, we report the importance of the environmental education and science reteracy which were seen from the citizen Levels based on it. It seems that citizens have had big concern in disaster prevention and an energy problem since a big earthquake in 11th March 2011. Before a big earthquake, It is contrastive with the space of a magazine having had many the education and measures towards reduction of carbon dioxide. However, a common important thing occurs. It is a feeling of the citizen of building the National which also keeps the Environment of this earth in the future and where a Nature and a human being live together as a citizen. Therefore, the environment information based on the "right science" needs to be provided for "the environment information magazine" of a citizen Levels. In addition, it is important also because of promotion of the activity of a citizen with a systematic report of citizen's opinion, discussion, and activity to various Earth's and Local Environments. That is, by sending the above factor by a civic environment information magazine, civic environmental education and training of scientific literacy are promoted.

  1. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  2. Listening Effort With Cochlear Implant Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Başkent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing

  3. Respecting the Rights of Others in a Violent Society: A Public Policy Perspective. The Need for a Concerted Effort To Teach Children Respect for People and Property. Boys Town National Family Home Program Informational Series, Volume No. 104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Val J.

    This Boys' Town publication for parents presents guidelines for a parental and societal response to purse-snatching, shoplifting, and other kinds of stealing that are a part of violence. The guide maintains that a comprehensive public policy approach is needed, one that is based on an appreciation of the development of learning respect for the…

  4. Taking aim at novel vaccines market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Sita

    2009-10-01

    The World Vaccine Congress Washington 2009 was held in Chantilly, VA USA April 2O -23rd. The Vaccine congress attracted over 400 participants from across the world, including leading vaccine manufacturers, biotechs, governmental agencies, NGOs, research and academic institutes, venture capital and legal firms, contract service and equipment manufacturers. The speakers covered a wide range of topics, including the role of government and regulatory agencies, funding availability, research and development, manufacturing, packaging and post vaccine evaluations. Past vaccine development efforts have historically focused on infectious diseases. With advancements in the field of immunology, molecular biology and vaccinology, the vaccine field has begun moving in new directions. "Taking aim at novel vaccines market" session chaired by Dr. Una Ryan, Chief Executive Officer of Waltham Technologies, was focused on traditional approaches to novel targets (nosocomial infections), novel approaches to traditional targets (flu and rabies), novel approaches to novel targets (Type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis and smoking) and vaccines for developing markets (TB, malaria, rabies). The importance of collaborations among academic institutions, industries, and philanthropic foundations for developing markets was also emphasized.

  5. Combined Sales Effort and Inventory Control under Demand Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the joint inventory and sales effort management problems of a retailer in a broad context and investigate the optimal policies for a single item, periodic-review system. In each period, the demand is uncertain depending on the sales effort level exerted by the retailer, which incurs an associated cost. The retailer’s objective is to find a joint optimal inventory replenishment and sales effort policy to maximize the discounted profit over a finite horizon. We first consider a basic setting with zero setup cost and no batch ordering, under which the base stock list sales effort policy is optimal. Two extensions are then investigated: (1 the case with nonzero setup cost, under which we show that (s,S,e policy is optimal; and (2 the case with batch ordering, under which we prove the optimality of the (r,Nq,e policy. Finally, we conduct numerical studies to provide additional managerial insights.

  6. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  7. Resolution proposition aiming to create an inquiry commission on the capacities and the financial results of the Total Group, on the resources use, the industrial policy and on the employment, wages and country planing policy, as on the social and environmental liabilities. (refer to the economical, environmental and country affairs commission, for lack of special commission in due time by the articles 30 and 31 of the regulation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-03-01

    This document denounces the Total Group policy oriented to the profit and reveals the resulting environmental and social negative effects. It proposes the creation of an inquiry commission on the Group policy activities. (A.L.B.)

  8. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  9. Japan's Science and Technology Aim toward Globalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepkowski, Wil

    1989-01-01

    Investigates Japanese efforts to enter a new phase of its postwar technological period with a focus on internationalization of its economy and industry. Analyzes which technologies will dominate the early 21st century and their relationships to each other. (MVL)

  10. [Social marketing--seduction with the aim of healthy behavior?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, J; Nagel, E

    2010-01-01

    SOCIAL MARKETING - SEDUCTION WITH THE AIM OF HEALTHY BEHAVIOR? Social marketing is the use of marketing principles to design and implement programs that promote socially beneficial behaviour change. Contrary to the marketing of consumption goods, social marketing does not deal with material products, but with behaviour, e. g. not smoking. This 'product' has a basic benefit (i. e. reduction of health risks in the long run), which is, however, difficult to convey. Therefore, the intended change in behaviour has to be related to a further reward which consists of symbolic goods, e. g. social appreciation or a better body feeling. The communication policy is essential for information on and motivation for the preventive issue. Social marketing campaigns whose development and management follow the principles of classical marketing can render preventive efforts more effective. In addition, social marketing can lead to a better quality management as compared to conventional preventive activities. These advantages can be explained by a) tailoring the campaign more specifically to the target group's needs and motives, b) presenting health risks more convincingly, and c) continuously analysing and evaluating the campaign and its effects. On the other hand, the marketing of preventive aims through mass media can bear several risks, as exemplified by different national and international public health campaigns. The necessity to communicate briefly and succinctly can lead to misleading simplifications and, in case of cancer screening, to the trivialization of a behaviour's consequences and adverse effects. Also, many campaigns do not intend to educate and inform, but try to persuade target persons of a certain behaviour, using emotions such as fear. This has led to social marketing being criticized as manipulation. Sometimes, social marketing campaigns cause stigma and discrimination of certain population subgroups, e. g. obese or HIV-positive people. Health promoters who plan

  11. Nordic cultural policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2008-01-01

    A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity......A critical view on Nordic Cultural Policy 1961-2008 - Aims, measures, forms of organisation, state og national identity...

  12. REDD+ policy networks: exploring actors and power structures in an emerging policy domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Brockhaus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Policy making is often neither rational nor solution-oriented, but driven by negotiations of interests of multiple actors that increasingly tend to take place in policy networks. Such policy networks integrate societal actors beyond the state, which all aim, to different degrees, at influencing ongoing policy processes and outcomes. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+ can be considered as such an emerging policy domain, in which actors cooperate and conflict in network structures, build coalitions and try to control information and finance flows relevant for REDD+ decision making. This special feature is the result of an extensive comparative research effort to investigate national level REDD+ policy processes and emerging policy networks. This unique collection of seven country cases and a comparative study provides evidence on how power, coalitions, and different interactions among actors in policy networks enable the transformational change required for an effective, efficient, and equitable national REDD+ design. However, as we will see in most of the cases, where the dominant coalitions fail to tackle the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation, they also hinder such major policy reforms required for REDD+. The aim of this editorial serves four purposes: first, we provide an argument about "why" policy network analysis is highly relevant to the study of REDD+ policy processes; second, we explain "how" policy network analysis is used in this special feature to investigate policy processes in this domain; and third, we explore the "so what?" or how a policy network lens helps us understand the political opportunities and challenges for REDD+. Finally, we provide an outlook for the relevance and future research design of policy network analysis when applied to REDD+ and to policy network structures more broadly.

  13. Net Resource Assessment (NetRA): A Collaborative Effort Between USGS Science and Decisions Center, the Science Impact Laboratory for Policy and Economics (University of New Mexico) and Sandia National Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookshire, D.; Bernknopf, R.; Adhikari, D. R.; Babis, C.; Broadbent, C. D.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2015-12-01

    Department of Interior Secretarial Order No. 3330, "… establishes a Department-wide mitigation strategy that will ensure consistency and efficiency in the review and permitting of infrastructure development projects and in conserving our Nation's valuable natural and cultural resources." The USGS Organic Act authorizes resource assessments to estimate the in-place potential capacity of energy, mineral, hydrologic, and biologic resources (20 Stat. 394; 43 U.S.C. 31) and later amendments. These two statements form the basis for the development of the Net Resources Assessment (NetRA) framework. NetRA is a policy-relevant, interdisciplinary approach to assessing natural resources availability in examining the regional-scale interrelationships between energy or mineral extraction and impact on ecosystem services. The systems dynamics approach (SD) emphasizes the interdependence of natural resource development and its effect on collocated ecosystem services over space and time. The example of the NetRA that will be presented focuses on tradeoffs associated with land management decisions in the West. The Piceance Basin, CO example that will be discussed involves development of a continuous gas deposit and its impact on Mule Deer and water quality. The SD is the hub for generating a range of simulated landscape outcomes. The probabilistic model provides an economic indicator as to the expected net societal benefit of economic development and biophysical indicators for ecosystem services affected in the region. Both natural and economic indicators are associated with each outcome via a tradeoff analysis the can be used for risk analysis. The NetRA also retains map attributes for before and after map comparisons to specific alternatives for an existing baseline. The model has three stages: map-based scenario development with slider bars (choice variables), side-by-side extraction and ecosystem services sub-models, and integrated multiple resource trade-off outcomes.

  14. Repositioning Science Reform Efforts: Four Practical Recommendations from the Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Daniel; Farenga, Stephen J.; Shah, Vishal; Garofalo, Salvatore G.

    2016-01-01

    Appeals to reform science education by policy makers are not new phenomena. To be sure, while science reform efforts have been ongoing occurrences for nearly six decades, perpetual educational reform efforts as a whole have been evolving and gaining momentum in number for more than a century. The general motivation for continual reform appears to…

  15. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  16. National Policy on Nuclear Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedyartomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    National policy on nuclear fuel cycle is aimed at attaining the expected condition, i.e. being able to support optimality the national energy policy and other related Government policies taking into account current domestic nuclear fuel cycle condition and the trend of international nuclear fuel cycle development, the national strength, weakness, thread and opportunity in the field of energy. This policy has to be followed by the strategy to accomplish covering the optimization of domestic efforts, cooperation with other countries, and or purchasing licences. These policy and strategy have to be broken down into various nuclear fuel cycle programmes covering basically assesment of the whole cycle, performing research and development of the whole cycle without enrichment and reprocessing being able for weapon, as well as programmes for industrialization of the fuel cycle stepwisery commencing with the middle part of the cycle and ending with the edge of the back-end of the cycle

  17. Journal of Contemporary European Research User You are logged in as... jcer_editor My Profile Log Out Subscribe... Sign up for issue alerts Follow JCER on Twitter Font Size Make font size smaller Make font size default Make font size larger Journal Content Search Search Scope Browse By Issue By Author By Title Information For Readers For Authors For Librarians Journal Help Keywords CFSP Communication ESDP EU EU enlargement EU trade policy Energy, EU, External Policy Europe European Commission European Parliament European Union European integration Europeanisation Euroscepticism First Enlargement Germany Liberty Lisbon Treaty Poland Russia Security The UACES Blog Power shift? The EU’s pivot to Asia 100 Books on Europe to be Remembered For a Global European Studies? EU Member State Building in the... Same aims, different approaches?... Open Journal Systems Home About User Home Search Current Archives Announcements UACES Home > Vol 9, No 4 (2013 > De Ville The Promise of Critical Historical Institutionalism for EU Trade Policy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdi de Ville

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to convince the reader of the potential of a critical version of historical institutionalism (HI as a theoretical perspective for EU trade policy analysis. It argues that critical HI sensitises the analyst to important but hitherto often neglected factors including: the influence of the past on EU trade policy; the complex, multiarena and multilevel nature of contemporary trade policy; and issues of distributional conflict. The core concept in critical HI is ‘reactive sequencing’, conceiving of policy evolution as a chain of events produced by reactions and counter-reactions. This paper demonstrates that this is invaluable to understand contemporary EU trade politics. Some examples of EU trade policy decisions and its general strategic evolution since the conclusion of the Uruguay Round are given to show the value of critical HI. Finally, the external dimension of “Europe 2020” as the latest trade policy strategy is analysed from a critical historical institutionalist angle.

  18. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  19. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  20. Photovoltaics: US aims for zero-energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbose, G.; Wiser, R.; Bolinger, M.

    2006-01-01

    The strategies used in nine US states to support the use of photovoltaics (PV) in new market-rate homes are described. Standard buy-down programmes, the use of competitive bidding to support renewable energy technologies in larger projects, and general research and development funding for clean energy and green buildings are discussed. Targeted efforts to support PV in new houses, and market impacts are considered. Basic lessons learnt are outlined and include the need to track key information about PV installations in new dwellings, to ensure adequate funding, to consider higher incentive levels, coordinate PV and energy efficiency programmes, cultivate the installer infrastructure, educate key professionals, and engage the building community

  1. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Many organizations, companies, and so on are committed to certain representational aims as regards the composition of their workforce. One motivation for such aims is the assumption that numerical underrepresentation of groups manifests discrimination against them. In this article, I articulate...... representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  2. AIM: An Integrated Approach to Organizational Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald A. Styron, Jr.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This concept paper is based on the new problem-solving model of Blended Leadership called Alloy Improvement Model (AIM. This model consists of an integration of change theory, leadership theory, and democratic principles and practices to form a comprehensive problem-solving strategy for organizational leaders. The utilization of AIM will assist leaders in moving from problems to solutions while engaging stakeholders in a comprehensive, efficient, inclusive, informative, integrated and transparent process.

  3. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  4. Effort rights-based management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Squires, Dale; Maunder, Mark; Allen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    populations and providing TACs or TAEs. Both approaches have advantages and disadvantages, and there are trade-offs between the two approaches. In a narrow economic sense, catch rights are superior because of the type of incentives created, but once the costs of research to improve stock assessments...... employed to manage marine fisheries to capture the advantages of both approaches. In hybrid systems, catch or effort RBM dominates and controls on the other supplements. RBM using either catch or effort by itself addresses only the target species stock externality and not the remaining externalities......Effort rights-based fisheries management (RBM) is less widely used than catch rights, whether for groups or individuals. Because RBM on catch or effort necessarily requires a total allowable catch (TAC) or total allowable effort (TAE), RBM is discussed in conjunction with issues in assessing fish...

  5. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (poximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper airway dynamics indicative of the effort to breathe. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Is Fitts' law continuous in discrete aiming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sleimen-Malkoun

    Full Text Available The lawful continuous linear relation between movement time and task difficulty (i.e., index of difficulty; ID in a goal-directed rapid aiming task (Fitts' law has been recently challenged in reciprocal performance. Specifically, a discontinuity was observed at critical ID and was attributed to a transition between two distinct dynamic regimes that occurs with increasing difficulty. In the present paper, we show that such a discontinuity is also present in discrete aiming when ID is manipulated via target width (experiment 1 but not via target distance (experiment 2. Fitts' law's discontinuity appears, therefore, to be a suitable indicator of the underlying functional adaptations of the neuro-muscular-skeletal system to task properties/requirements, independently of reciprocal or discrete nature of the task. These findings open new perspectives to the study of dynamic regimes involved in discrete aiming and sensori-motor mechanisms underlying the speed-accuracy trade-off.

  7. From Effort to Value: Preschool Children's Alternative to Effort Justification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benozio, Avi; Diesendruck, Gil

    2015-09-01

    In the current studies, we addressed the development of effort-based object valuation. Four- and 6-year-olds invested either great or little effort in order to obtain attractive or unattractive rewards. Children were allowed to allocate these rewards to an unfamiliar recipient (dictator game). Investing great effort to obtain attractive rewards (a consonant situation) led 6-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, to enhance the value of the rewards and thus distribute fewer of them to others. After investing effort to attain unattractive rewards (a dissonant situation), 6-year-olds cognitively reduced the dissonance between effort and reward quality by reappraising the value of the rewards and thus distributing fewer of them. In contrast, 4-year-olds reduced the dissonance behaviorally by discarding the rewards. These findings provide evidence for the emergence of an effort-value link and underline possible mechanisms underlying the primacy of cognitive versus behavioral solutions to dissonance reduction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Discrimination and the aim of proportional representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert-Rasmussen, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    representational aims in a way that best captures this rationale. My main claim is that the achievement of such representational aims is reducible to the elimination of the effects of wrongful discrimination on individuals and that this very important concern is, in principle, compatible with the representation...... of discrimination against numerically overrepresented groups, or overlook the innocently different ambitions of some numerically underrepresented groups. In relation to the latter point, I appeal to the fact that many luck egalitarians think justice should be ambition sensitive (but endowment insensitive). Also...

  9. Implementation of an Anesthesia Information Management System (AIMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, James R; Ritter, Melody J

    2011-01-01

    During the administration of anesthesia, the anesthesia provider has historically created a paper record, charted manually, that included extensive patient care-related data (vital signs, other parameters, etc) and commentaries. DocuSys, a proprietary anesthesia information management system (AIMS), creates an electronic version of the anesthesia record and provides additional information. It electronically captures data from clinical monitors and other sources, including scheduling applications and laboratory computers. The AIMS facilitates chart entries such as drug doses and case narratives. Benefits of an AIMS include improved legibility of the anesthesia record and greater efficiency in documentation efforts. Use of the AIMS assists the practitioner with decision support logic, such as the timing of antibiotic administration and the inclusion of legally required documentation. Upon case completion, the AIMS data are immediately available to other information systems, such as billing and medical records. Data can be made available from a single case or, more important, from thousands of cases to analyze variables such as efficiency of services, adherence to best practices, patient outcomes, and clinical research. The AIMS was deployed at the main campus of the Ochsner Health System on March 26, 2009. In this article, we discuss the issues involved in the AIMS implementation process: the successes, surprises, and continued challenges.

  10. To Conclude: India can aim big

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... Transmission and Distribution Losses. If 100 million middle class homes deploy 1 kW on rooftops. 100 GW peak power capacity added at homes alone; 40% of current peak power installed in India today. India must aim by 2030. To have 50% of its electric power from SOLAR; To have 50% of vehicles as Electric Vehicles ...

  11. Pragmatics and the aims of language evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Phillips, Thomas C

    2017-02-01

    Pragmatics has historically played a relatively peripheral role in language evolution research. This is a profound mistake. Here I describe how a pragmatic perspective can inform language evolution in the most fundamental way: by making clear what the natural objects of study are, and hence what the aims of the field should be.

  12. Reproductive effort decreases antibody responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deerenberg, Charlotte; Arpanius, Victor; Daan, Serge; Bos, Nicolaas

    1997-01-01

    The prevalence and intensity of parasitic infection often increases in animals when they are reproducing. This may be a consequence of increased rates of parasite transmission due to reproductive effort. Alternatively, endocrine changes associated with reproduction can lead to immunosuppression.

  13. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  14. CURRICULUM MATTERS: Aims assessments and workplace needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Paul

    1997-09-01

    This paper attempts to consider the aims that undergraduate physics degree courses actually reflect and serve in the light of the employment patterns of graduates and of the expressed needs of employers. It reviews the results of analyses of what degree examinations actually test, and goes on to quote criticisms of their courses and radical proposals to change them adopted by the UK conference of physics professors. The discussion is then broadened by discussion of evidence, about the employment of graduates and about the priorities that some industrialists now give in the qualities that they look for when recruiting new graduates. The evidence leads to a view that radical changes are needed, both in courses and examinations, and that there is a need for university departments to work more closely with employers in re-formulating the aims and priorities in their teaching.

  15. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  16. Governing EU employment policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva; Triantafillou, Peter; Damgaard, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    In the European Union (EU), employment policy is a prerogative of the member states. Therefore the EU's ability to govern in this area depends on its capability to involve national governments and relevant stakeholders in a collaborative effort to formulate and implement shared policy objectives....... Drawing an analytical distinction between cooperation, coordination and collaboration, the article analyses the formulation and implementation of EU employment policies. It concludes that while the formulation of policy objectives and the discussion of national policy approaches do involve elements...... of collaboration, the implementation phase mainly consists in the less demanding forms of cooperation and coordination....

  17. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  18. Vaccine adverse event monitoring systems across the European Union countries: time for unifying efforts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Zanoni, Giovanna

    2009-05-26

    A survey conducted among 26 European Countries within the Vaccine European New Integrated Collaboration Effort (VENICE) project assessed the status of organization in prevention and management of adverse events following immunization (AEFI) and level of interconnection, with the aim at individuating points of strength and weakness. The emerging picture is for a strong political commitment to control AEFIs in Member States (MS), but with consistent heterogeneity in procedures, regulations and capacity of systems to collect, analyze and use data, although with great potentialities. Suggestions are posed by authors to promote actions for unifying strategies and policies among MS.

  19. Rifkin takes aim at USDA animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jeffrey L

    1984-10-19

    Jeremy Rifkin has filed a lawsuit to block U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) experiments involving the transfer of human growth hormone genes into sheep and pigs, which he rejects on environmental, economic, and ethical grounds. His real target is the Department's animal breeding program; his ultimate aim is "to establish the principle that there should be no crossing of species barriers in animals." USDA officials have not yet responded to the lawsuit but they intend to continue the experiments, which they consider crucial to the progress of research, until told to stop.

  20. User gains and PD aims

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus; Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    2010-01-01

    We present a study of user gains from their participation in a participatory design (PD) project at Danish primary schools. We explore user experiences and reported gains from the project in relation to the multiple aims of PD, based on a series of interviews with pupils, teachers, administrators...... relationships among people, stretching across organizations and project groups. Moreover, we demonstrate how users' gains related to their acting within these networks. These results suggest a heightened focus on the indirect and distributed channels through which the long-term impact of PD emerges....

  1. Language Policy and Communication Policy - Same Same but Different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Henning; Johnsen, Mia

    2006-01-01

    Surprisingly, no attempts have yet been made to relate language policy and communication policy. This is the case in theoretical contributions on language policy and theoretical contributions on communication policy alike, none of which mentions the other concept. It is also the case in existing...... language policies where the term communication policy is not mentioned at all. Likewise, the term language policy is not found in communication policies, even where a particular company or organisation has a language policy as well as a communication policy. This contribution aims to define both terms...

  2. Preceding movement effects on sequential aiming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Darian T; De Grosbois, John; Smirl, Jonathan; Heath, Matthew; Binsted, Gordon

    2011-11-01

    In this study, two experiments were devised to examine the control strategy used by individuals when performing sequential aiming movements. Of particular interest was the aiming behavior displayed when task difficulty was changed midway through a sequence of movements. In Experiment 1, target size was manipulated, as the targets were made either larger or smaller, between the 8th and 12th movement of the sequence. In Experiment 2, the amplitude between the two targets was similarly changed while the target size remained constant. Results revealed that in Experiment 1, individuals took two movements following the perturbation to target size, to re-tune their movement times in order to correspond with the new task difficulty. Conversely for Experiment 2, movement time changed immediately and in correspondence with the new target amplitude. These findings demonstrate that participants can use information from the preceding movement to prepare and guide subsequent movements--but only when target size is changed. When response amplitude changes mid-sequence, it seems individuals rely more on immediate, target-derived information. Therefore, counter to some current accounts of visual movement control, it appears that memory representations of the preceding movement can guide subsequent movements; however, this information appears selectively accessed in a context-dependent fashion.

  3. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D Salamone

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements. Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  4. Maximum effort in the minimum-effort game

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engelmann, Dirk; Normann, H.-T.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 3 (2010), s. 249-259 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : minimum-effort game * coordination game * experiments * social capital Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.868, year: 2010

  5. AIM cryocooler developments for HOT detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühlich, I.; Mai, M.; Withopf, A.; Rosenhagen, C.

    2014-06-01

    Significantly increased FPA temperatures for both Mid Wave and Long Wave IR detectors, i.e. HOT detectors, which have been developed in recent years are now leaving the development phase and are entering real application. HOT detectors allowing to push size weight and power (SWaP) of Integrated Detectors Cooler Assemblies (IDCA's) to a new level. Key component mainly driving achievable weight, volume and power consumption is the cryocooler. AIM cryocooler developments are focused on compact, lightweight linear cryocoolers driven by compact and high efficient digital cooler drive electronics (DCE) to also achieve highest MTTF targets. This technology is using moving magnet driving mechanisms and dual or single piston compressors. Whereas SX030 which was presented at SPIE in 2012 consuming less 3 WDC to operate a typical IDCA at 140K, next smaller cooler SX020 is designed to provide sufficient cooling power at detector temperature above 160K. The cooler weight of less than 200g and a total compressor length of 60mm makes it an ideal solution for all applications with limited weight and power budget, like in handheld applications. For operating a typical 640x512, 15μm MW IR detector the power consumption will be less than 1.5WDC. MTTF for the cooler will be in excess of 30,000h and thus achieving low maintenance cost also in 24/7 applications. The SX020 compressor is based on a single piston design with integrated passive balancer in a new design achieves very low exported vibration in the order of 100mN in the compressor axis. AIM is using a modular approach, allowing the chose between 5 different compressor types for one common Stirling expander. The 6mm expander with a total length of 74mm is now available in a new design that fits into standard dewar bores originally designed for rotary coolers. Also available is a 9mm coldfinger in both versions. In development is an ultra-short expander with around 35mm total length to achieve highest compactness. Technical

  6. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  7. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  8. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  9. Manager’s Dilemma: Stockholders’ and Consumers’ Responses to Corporate Environmental Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayag Lal Yadav

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal that different stakeholders have different environmental preferences by demonstrating the managers’ dilemma of selecting an appropriate environmental strategy to achieve firms’ corporate goals. It analyzes the effects of firms’ efforts in environmental impact through actual environmental practices and environmental considerations in environmental management on stockholders’ and consumers’ responses by using the Newsweek Green Rankings 2012 for large US-based firms. The study uses the event study methodology and the ordinary least squares multivariate regression model conditioned with relevant firm and industry-specific characteristics. The results indicate that both stockholders and consumers appreciate corporate efforts in reducing environmental damage; however, consumers exhibit a significant and negative response against firms’ environmental management efforts. The conflicting results provide valuable insights into the alignment of environmental efforts for developing core competencies that lead firms toward sustainability. Further, this research makes a valuable contribution to the existing literature and provides guidelines for the formulation of public policies that encourage corporate environmental efforts to ensure simultaneous development of business and society.

  10. Plasma health care - Aims, constraints and progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morfill, G.E.; Zimmerman, J.L.

    2013-01-01

    Health Care covers three areas of interest for cold atmospheric pressure plasmas: Cosmetics, Hygiene and Medicine. These areas can be subdivided into personal and professional care. In this review will concentrate on Hygiene and Medicine. In professional hygiene the most important plasma contribution is sterilization, decontamination and disinfection. The main aim is the prevention of diseases or their containment. Progress in the development of efficient bactericidal plasma sources has been rapid, so that it appears realistic to use plasmas to combat nosocomial infections as well as community associated infections in the not too distant future. The advantages of plasma devices – they use air and electricity only, there are no waste products, they are inexpensive to manufacture and operate, easy to transport and install, and bactericidal effects are fast (seconds). Plasmas can efficiently kill resistant bacteria (e.g. MRSA) and tests have shown no resistance build-up so far. With an estimated 2 Million hospital induced infections each year in the US alone, and about 100.000 resulting deaths, very efficient, safe and fast hospital plasma hygiene devices would appear to be a very important weapon to help contain the spread of infectious diseases. In Medicine there are a number of ambitious ideas and aims. Plasmas can be “designed” to some extent. They can include different active species that can have an effect at the cellular level. There are ionic atoms and molecules, whose medical use need to be evaluated – the vision is that a new area of “plasma pharmacy” could develop. First steps are currently being taken in biological studies. Also the excited atoms in cold atmospheric plasmas may make cell walls more permeable for such species. (author)

  11. Effort problem of chemical pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okrajni, J.; Ciesla, M.; Mutwil, K. [Silesian Technical University, Katowice (Poland)

    1998-12-31

    The problem of the technical state assessment of the chemical pipelines working under mechanical and thermal loading has been shown in the paper. The pipelines effort after the long time operating period has been analysed. Material geometrical and loading conditions of the crack initiation and crack growth process in the chosen object has been discussed. Areas of the maximal effort have been determined. The material structure charges after the long time operating period have been described. Mechanisms of the crack initiation and crack growth in the pipeline elements have been analysed and mutual relations between the chemical and mechanical influences have been shown. (orig.) 16 refs.

  12. Drug policy constellations: A Habermasian approach for understanding English drug policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Alex; Zampini, Giulia Federica

    2018-04-24

    It is increasingly accepted that a view of policy as a rational process of fitting evidence-based means to rationally justified ends is inadequate for understanding the actual processes of drug policy making. We aim to provide a better description and explanation of recent English drug policy decisions. We develop the policy constellation concept from the work of Habermas, in dialogue with data from two contemporary debates in English policy; on decriminalisation of drug possession and on recovery in drug treatment. We collect data on these debates through long-term participant observation, stakeholder interviews (n = 15) and documentary analysis. We show the importance of social asymmetries in power in enabling structurally advantaged groups to achieve the institutionalisation of their moral preferences as well as the reproduction of their social and economic power through the deployment of policies that reflect their material interests and normative beliefs. The most influential actors in English drug policy come together in a 'medico-penal constellation', in which the aims and practices of public health and social control overlap. Formal decriminalisation of possession has not occurred, despite the efforts of members of a challenging constellation which supports it. Recovery was put forward as the aim of drug treatment by members of a more powerfully connected constellation. It has been absorbed into the practice of 'recovery-oriented' drug treatment in a way that maintains the power of public health professionals to determine the form of treatment. Actors who share interests and norms come together in policy constellations. Strategic action within and between constellations creates policies that may not take the form that was intended by any individual actor. These policies do not result from purely rational deliberation, but are produced through 'systematically distorted communication'. They enable the most structurally favoured actors to institutionalise

  13. On correlations in IMRT planning aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arkajyoti; Das, Indra J.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose was to study correlations amongst IMRT DVH evaluation points and how their relaxation impacts the overall plan. 100 head‐and‐neck cancer cases, using the Eclipse treatment planning system with the same protocol, are statistically analyzed for PTV, brainstem, and spinal cord. To measure variations amongst the plans, we use (i) interquartile range (IQR) of volume as a function of dose, (ii) interquartile range of dose as a function of volume, and (iii) dose falloff. To determine correlations for institutional and ICRU goals, conditional probabilities and medians are computed. We observe that most plans exceed the median PTV dose (average D50 = 104% prescribed dose). Furthermore, satisfying D50 reduced the probability of also satisfying D98, constituting a negative correlation of these goals. On the other hand, satisfying D50 increased the probability of satisfying D2, suggesting a positive correlation. A positive correlation is also observed between the PTV V105 and V110. Similarly, a positive correlation between the brainstem V45 and V50 is measured by an increase in the conditional median of V45, when V50 is violated. Despite the imposed institutional and international recommendations, significant variations amongst DVH points can occur. Even though DVH aims are evaluated independently, sizable correlations amongst them are possible, indicating that some goals cannot be satisfied concurrently, calling for unbiased plan criteria. PACS number(s): 87.55.dk, 87.53.Bn, 87.55.Qr, 87.55.de. PMID:27929480

  14. Energy policy and foreign policy in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venanzi, F.

    2001-01-01

    Energy policy in Italy is principally a matter of foreign policy. As a result, extensive programmes for the exploration, development, transport and marketing of oil and natural gas have to be planned and carried out together with the producing countries. In this effort, the country shall need the support of its national energy companies. That is why ENI's controlling interest as well as its mission had better be on Italian hands [it

  15. Reproductive effort in viscous populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, Ido

    Here I study a kin selection model of reproductive effort, the allocation of resources to fecundity versus survival, in a patch-structured population. Breeding females remain in the same patch for life. Offspring have costly, partial long-distance dispersal and compete for breeding sites, which

  16. Energy efficiency advocacy groups: A study of selected interactive efforts and independent initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweitzer, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment, and Resources Center

    1994-03-01

    Non-utility groups participate in a myriad of activities--initiated by themselves and others--aimed at influencing the policies and actions of utilities and their regulators related to Integrated Resource Planning (IRP) and Demand-Side Management (DSM). Some of these activities are not directed toward a particular regulatory body or utility but are designed to influence public knowledge and acceptance of IRP and DSM. Other activities involve interaction with a particular utility or regulatory body. The traditional forum for this interaction is an adversarial debate (i.e., litigation or regulatory intervention) over the merits of a utility`s plan or proposed action. However, an increasingly common forum is one in which non-utility groups and utilities cooperatively develop plans, policies, and/or programs. Arrangements of this type are referred to in this report as ``interactive efforts``. This report presents the findings derived from ten case studies of energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAG) activities to influence the use of cost-effective DSM and to promote IRP; nine of these ten cases involve some form of interactive effort and all of them also include other EEAG activities. The goal of this research is not to measure the success of individual activities of the various groups, but to glean from a collective examination of their activities an understanding of the efficacy of various types of interactive efforts and other EEAG activities and of the contextual and procedural factors that influence their outcomes.

  17. A critic of maternal mortality reduction efforts in Nigeria | Adinma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gaps identified to militate against maternal mortality reduction efforts include discontinuity and disconnect in government policies and programmes; legislation and other services emanating from change in government or between the executive and legislature within the same government; poor leadership of the health sector ...

  18. A critical evalluation of internal revenue generating efforts of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a bid to enhance improvement of local government internal revenue efforts, the federal government has embarked on several policies some of these include; the creation of more local government areas from 96 divisions in 1963 to 774 local government areas in 1993. The local government reform of 1976 and the use of ...

  19. Economic response to harvest and effort control in fishery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans

    for fisheries management. The report outlines bio-economic models, which are designed to shed light on the efficiency of different management tools in terms of quota or effort restrictions given the objectives of the Common Fisheries Policy about sustainable and economic viable fisheries. The report addresses...... the complexities of biological and economic interaction in a multispecies, multifleet framework and outlines consistent mathematical models....

  20. Anti-Money Laundering Efforts - Failures, Fixes and the Future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deleanu, I.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this PhD thesis I address important topics in the debate on and the organisation of the Anti-Money Laundering efforts, which are related to the legitimacy and the effectiveness of the Anti-Money Laundering policies. First of all, this thesis provides a reflection on the assessments of concern

  1. Slow growth efforts renewed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghajanian, A

    1992-10-01

    Iran's first population policy was developed under the Shah in 1967. Policymakers brought in with the Islamic Revolution of 1979, however, rejected much of the earlier regime's views on women and childbearing. During the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-88, large population size and rapid growth were seen as advantageous to the war effort. After the war, the government of Iran again began to voice concern about rapid population growth. The pragmatic and proactive approach taken by the government since 1988 may, indeed, accelerate a decline in fertility began in the late 1960s, but stalled in the 1980s. The following are examples of the new governmental attitude: the Iranian government announced March 1992 that it would begin importing Norplant and make it available along with other contraceptives at public clinics; last year, the government announced that the fourth child of a family would not be eligible for food rationing or nutritional supplements and other public child benefits; the Minister of Health in 1991 for the first time publicly encouraged male sterilization; and last fall, Iran conducted a special census of the population five years before the regular decennial census date of 1996. These actions represent dramatic policy changes on population growth and family planning in this country of 60 million, the largest and one of the fastest growing in the Middle East.

  2. Status of US storage efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leasburg, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Tasks involved in the implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act are discussed. The need for speedy action on applications to deal with spent fuel storage problems is stressed. The problems faced by the Virginia Electric and Power Company, where full core discharge capability at the 1600-megawatt Surry power station is expected to be reached in early 1986, are reviewed. It is pointed out that although the Nuclear Waste Policy Act does not apply in this case, the problems illustrate the situation that may be faced after the Act is implemented. Problems involved in intro-utility transhipments and dry cask storage of spent fuel from Surry, including transportation ordinances at state and local levels and approval for the use of dry casks for storage, are reported. The suggestion that dry casks be used for interim storage and eventual transport to monitored retrievable storage facilities or permanent storage sites is considered. It is pointed out that data from a proposed 3-utility demonstration program of dry cask storage of consolidated fuels and the storage of fuels in air should give information applicable to the timely implementation of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act

  3. Internet Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehr, William H.; Pupillo, Lorenzo Maria

    The Internet is now widely regarded as essential infrastructure for our global economy and society. It is in our homes and businesses. We use it to communicate and socialize, for research, and as a platform for E-commerce. In the late 1990s, much was predicted about what the Internet has become at present; but now, we have actual experience living with the Internet as a critical component of our everyday lives. Although the Internet has already had profound effects, there is much we have yet to realize. The present volume represents a third installment in a collaborative effort to highlight the all-encompassing, multidisciplinary implications of the Internet for public policy. The first installment was conceived in 1998, when we initiated plans to organize an international conference among academic, industry, and government officials to discuss the growing policy agenda posed by the Internet. The conference was hosted by the European Commission in Brussels in 1999 and brought together a diverse mix of perspectives on what the pressing policy issues would be confronting the Internet. All of the concerns identified remain with us today, including how to address the Digital Divide, how to modify intellectual property laws to accommodate the new realities of the Internet, what to do about Internet governance and name-space management, and how to evolve broadcast and telecommunications regulatory frameworks for a converged world.

  4. Surveillance Systems to Track and Evaluate Obesity Prevention Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoelscher, Deanna M; Ranjit, Nalini; Pérez, Adriana

    2017-03-20

    To address the obesity epidemic, the public health community must develop surveillance systems that capture data at levels through which obesity prevention efforts are conducted. Current systems assess body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity behaviors at the individual level, but environmental and policy-related data are often lacking. The goal of this review is to describe US surveillance systems that evaluate obesity prevention efforts within the context of international trends in obesity monitoring, to identify potential data gaps, and to present recommendations to improve the evaluation of population-level initiatives. Our recommendations include adding environmental and policy measures to surveillance efforts with a focus on addressing underserved populations, harmonizing existing surveillance systems, including more sensitive measures of obesity outcomes, and developing a knowledgeable workforce. In addition, the widespread use of electronic health records and new technologies that allow self-quantification of behaviors offers opportunities for innovative surveillance methods.

  5. Tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kaufman, Nancy; Sarna, Linda

    2003-11-01

    To review and summarize tobacco control policies, their impact in curbing the tobacco epidemic, and to describe a role for nursing advocacy. Published articles and research studies. Comprehensive tobacco control policy is one of the most effective mechanisms to prevent tobacco-related cancers and other illnesses. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Master Settlement Agreement in the United States have provided new opportunities for tobacco control. Nursing participation in the policy process can expand and strengthen these policies' activities. Involvement in tobacco control should be integral to oncology nursing efforts to prevent cancer, promote health, and quality of life.

  6. Políticas públicas en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires dirigidas a juventudes vulnerables: Continuidades y transformaciones en la última década Políticas públicas na cidade de Buenos Aires destinadas a jovens vulneráveis: Continuidades e transformações ao longo da última década Public policy in the city of Buenos Aires aimed at vulnerable youth: Continuities and transformations in the last decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Raggio

    2012-07-01

    íticas recentes e conseqüências socioculturais das políticas neoliberais nos países da região.As part of broader research on public policy aimed at vulnerable youth in the City of Buenos Aires, this article discusses a set of programs based on diagnosis regarding urban "insecurity" in general, and youth at risk in particular. Specifically, it addresses the so-called "Crime Prevention Plan" and various actions of cultural policy, reflecting on their characteristics and possible convergence, which bring into play social representations regarding the relationship between crime, culture and vulnerable youth. Through case studies and considering public policy recommendations aimed at youth from various international agencies and institutions, the emphasis and agendas of our own Latin American region are underlined, in relation to recent political changes and socio-cultural consequences of neoliberal policies in the region.

  7. Analysis of efforts on a tubular chassis

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Ripa, Diego

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to design a tubular chassis of a speed car, based on a earlier design of this type of car. When it is designed, the aim is to design it with a finite element program, in this case, is going to be used the software Abaqus, for after establish a method of calculation in a manner in which can be measured all the parameters, like deformations and stresses, suffered by the chassis submited to the efforts supported by the chassis in different situatio...

  8. Ecolabel and ecodesign. Aims impossible for small and medium companies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luciani, R.; Andriola, L.; Masoni, P.

    2000-01-01

    It is commonly held by now that a policy of sustainable development in the production sector cannot be faced in terms of simply reducing the environmental impact at the end of the production chain but should be imprinted with a preventive approach which, intervening on the production cycles and the products themselves, helps minimize pressure on the environment. To be competitive manufacturing industry must contribute a determinant amount to sustainable development by reducing the material content of products and increasing their use value, through processes and products-services that are innovative, safer, cleaner and based on a low use of natural resources. To be effective and avoid merely shifting the problem, this work should not be aimed at the level of individual plants or industries but be broadly planned, taking into account the entire value chain and hence the product's whole life-cycle. In addition, support should be given to small and medium-sized companies that characterize Italian production, because they find it hard to use the tools of a product policy originally ideated for big business [it

  9. Fact-Challenged Policy. Policy Memorandum #182

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothstein, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a response on the topic of school reform efforts being promoted by Bill Gates and other prominent education policy advocates. Last week, Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates published an op-ed in the Washington Post, "How Teacher Development could Revolutionize our Schools," proposing that American public schools should do a…

  10. Microwave dielectric absorption spectroscopy aiming at novel dosimetry using DNAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izumi, Yoshinobu; Hirayama, Makoto; Matuo, Youichirou [Research Institute of Nuclear Engineering, University of Fukui, Fukui (Japan); Sunagawa, Takeyoshi [Fukui University of Technology, Fukui (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    We are developing L-band and S-band microwave dielectric absorption systems aiming novel dosimetry using DNAs, such as plasmid DNA and genomic DNA, and microwave technology. Each system is composed of a cavity resonator, analog signal generator, circulator, power meter, and oscilloscope. Since the cavity resonator is sensitive to temperature change, we have made great efforts to prevent the fluctuation of temperature. We have developed software for controlling and measurement. By using this system, we can measure the resonance frequency, f, and ΔQ (Q is a dimensionless parameter that describes how under-damped an oscillator or resonator is, and characterizes a resonator’s bandwidth relative to its center frequency) within about 3 minutes with high accuracy. This system will be expected to be applicable to DNAs evaluations and to novel dosimetric system.

  11. Voluntary versus Enforced Team Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Keser

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a model where each of two players chooses between remuneration based on either private or team effort. Although at least one of the players has the equilibrium strategy to choose private remuneration, we frequently observe both players to choose team remuneration in a series of laboratory experiments. This allows for high cooperation payoffs but also provides individual free-riding incentives. Due to significant cooperation, we observe that, in team remuneration, participants make higher profits than in private remuneration. We also observe that, when participants are not given the option of private remuneration, they cooperate significantly less.

  12. POLÍTICAS PÚBLICAS PARA INCENTIVAR EL ACCESO A LA FINANCIACIÓN DE LAS PYMES EN ESPAÑA: EL MERCADO ALTERNATIVO BURSÁTIL (MAB / PUBLIC POLICY TO PROMOTE ACCESS TO FINANCING OF SMES IN SPAIN: THE ALTERNATIVE INVESTMENT MARKET (AIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro GONZÁLEZ LORENTE

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available La crisis económica actual ha afectado a las posibilidades de captación de financiación de las pequeñas y medianas empresas españolas. Al endurecimiento de las condiciones crediticias hay que sumarle también el aumento del riesgo debido, por un lado, al incremento de la morosidad y, por otro, a la caída del volumen de ventas provocado tanto por la notable pérdida de poder adquisitivo de los consumidores como por el aumento de su desconfianza. En este contexto el Mercado Alternativo Bursátil –en adelante MAB-, surge como un mercado de valores creado y destinado a proveer de financiación a empresas de menor capitalización que, no obstante, desean expandirse y poder llegar a más mercados de lo que su propia estructura financiera podría permitir. El principal objetivo del MAB es dotar de recursos financieros, mediante la aportación de recursos propios, a empresas en fase de expansión, tanto nacional como internacional. En el presente trabajo se analizarán las principales características de este novedoso mercado, así como las ventajas fiscales que incorpora tanto para los inversores como para las empresas. / The current economic crisis has affected the chances of attracting financing of small and medium-sized Spanish companies. To the tightening of credit conditions we must add also the increased risk because, on the one hand, the increase in defaults and, secondly, the fall in sales volume caused both by the significant loss of purchasing power of consumers as by increasing distrust. In this context the Alternative Investment Market (AIM, emerges as an alternative stock exchange market to provide financing to smaller companies, that however, want to expand and reach more markets than its own financial structure could afford. The main objective of the AIM is to provide financial resources, by increasing equity to companies undergoing expansion, both nationally and internationally. In this paper we analyze the main characteristics

  13. Tendencies in applied policy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sophie Danneris; Jensen, Tanja Dall

    2018-01-01

    Within the policy area addressing long-term unemployed individuals with health and social problems in addition to unemployment, we have witnessed three parallel developments over the last decades: The development of active labour market policies (ALMP) extending conditionality and economic...... incentives to the more vulnerable groups of unemployed individuals; of New Public Management (NMP) focused on increasing efficiency and lowering expenditures through performance measurement and standardization of procedures, and; of evidence based policy research (EBPR) that seek to support policy efforts...

  14. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  15. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  16. French nuclear energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, A.; Bertel, E.

    1980-11-01

    The French energy policy is supported by a lucid view of the situation of our country and the constraints linked to the international context. This statement implies, the definition of a French policy or energy production essentially based on national resources, uranium, and especially for long term, technical know how which allows using plutonium in breeder reactors. This policy implies an effort in R and D, and industrial development of nuclear field, both in reactor construction and at all levels of fuel cycle. This coherent scientific and financial effort has been pursued since the beginning of years 60, and has placed France among the first nuclear countries in the world. Now this effort enables the mastership of a strong nuclear industry capable to assure the energy future of the country [fr

  17. Termination of prehospital resuscitative efforts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Søren; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Caroline; Binderup, Lars Grassmé

    2017-01-01

    . The medical records with possible documentation of ethical issues were independently reviewed by two philosophers in order to identify explicit ethical or philosophical considerations pertaining to the decision to resuscitate or not. RESULTS: In total, 1275 patients were either declared dead at the scene......BACKGROUND: Discussions on ethical aspects of life-and-death decisions within the hospital are often made in plenary. The prehospital physician, however, may be faced with ethical dilemmas in life-and-death decisions when time-critical decisions to initiate or refrain from resuscitative efforts...... need to be taken without the possibility to discuss matters with colleagues. Little is known whether these considerations regarding ethical issues in crucial life-and-death decisions are documented prehospitally. This is a review of the ethical considerations documented in the prehospital medical...

  18. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved.

  19. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  20. Pursuing the Triple Aim: The First 7 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, John W; Nolan, Kevin; Lewis, Ninon; Torres, Trissa

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) proposed the Triple Aim, strategic organizing principles for health care organizations and geographic communities that seek, simultaneously, to improve the individual experience of care and the health of populations and to reduce the per capita costs of care for populations. In 2010, the Triple Aim became part of the US national strategy for tackling health care issues, especially in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. Since that time, IHI and others have worked together to determine how the implementation of the Triple Aim has progressed. Drawing on our 7 years of experience, we describe 3 major principles that guided the organizations and communities working on this endeavor: creating the right foundation for population management, managing services at scale for the population, and establishing a learning system to drive and sustain the work over time. In 2008, researchers at the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) described the Triple Aim as simultaneously "improving the individual experience of care; improving the health of populations; and reducing the per capita costs of care for populations." IHI and its close colleagues had determined that both individual and societal changes were needed. In 2007, IHI began recruiting organizations from around the world to participate in a collaborative to implement what became known as the Triple Aim. The 141 participating organizations included health care systems, hospitals, health care insurance companies, and others closely tied to health care. In addition, key groups outside the health care system were represented, such as public health agencies, social services groups, and community coalitions. This collaborative provided a structure for observational research. By noting the contrasts between the contexts and structures of those sites in the collaborative that progressed and

  1. Efforts to Achieve Healthy Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Chung Leung

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Longevity is a blessing as long as good health is not lost. However, the tendency to have a decline on normal physiological activities is inevitable because of the natural processes of degeneration at all levels: molecular, cellular and organic. Hence, the elderly people frequently suffer from cardiovascular problems and skeletal deteriorations that gradually develop to disabilities. Awareness of factors leading to unhealthy aging has led to the formation of different professional groups that aim at the maintenance of health of aging community. The approach tends to be target orientated for the European and US groups, aiming at hormonal replacements and detoxifi cation. In contrast, the oriental groups have been keeping their traditional belief of prevention and internal balance, using nutritional arrangements and non-strenuous exercise as means of maintaining health.

  2. Reassessing US Policy Toward Iran

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Russillo, Victor

    2003-01-01

    ..., comprehensive policy toward Iran. Iran has concerned the US due to its support for terrorist organizations, its efforts to develop weapons of mass destruction, its attempts to export the Islamic Revolution...

  3. National Climate Policies: Aiming at the Factor 4 Target by 2050?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godard, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The paper considers how the governments of midsize developed countries could define national strategies to control greenhouse gas emissions, assuming that such strategies are the product of cognitive and ethical choices relating to global climate scenarios and the rule for allocating shares of expected global climate damage to individual States. After evaluating the carbon value linked to each cognitive-ethical configuration, I identify the configurations that justify the target of dividing national emissions by 4 between 1990 and 2050 - a goal known as 'Factor 4'. Lastly, I examine the resulting constraints on the shape of the control trajectory leading to that target

  4. European Union Fiscal Policy Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Eugen Radu

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy is a key component of economic policy, which, through taxation and taxation system aims to influence (stimulate) economic activity in the aggregate. It includes all measures relating to the amount and perceptions/use taxes in an economy.

  5. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  6. 12 CFR 361.6 - What outreach efforts are included in this program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... with the FDIC in minority- and women-owned media; and (5) Monitoring to assure that FDIC staff... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.6 What outreach efforts...

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program. Annual progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrell, C.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy in the Department of Energy. The mission of the AIM Program is to conduct applied research, development, and applications engineering work, in partnership with industry, to commercialize new or improved materials and materials processing methods that will improve energy efficiency, productivity, and competitiveness. AIM is responsible for identifying, supporting, and coordinating multidisciplinary projects to solve identified industrial needs and transferring the technology to the industrial sector. Program investigators in the DOE National Laboratories are working closely with approximately 100 companies, including 15 partners in Cooperative Research and Development Agreements. Work is being done in a wide variety of materials technologies, including intermetallic alloys, ceramic composites, metal composites, polymers, engineered porous materials, and surface modification. The Program supports other efforts in the Office of Industrial Technologies to assist the energy consuming process industries, including forest products, glass, steel, aluminum, foundries, chemicals, and refineries. To support OITs {open_quotes}Industries of the Future{close_quotes} initiatives and to improve the relevance of materials research, assessments of materials needs and opportunities in the process industries are being made. These assessments are being used for program planning and priority setting; support of work to satisfy those needs is being provided. Many new materials that have come into the marketplace in recent years, or that will be available for commercial use within a few more years, offer substantial benefits to society. This document contains 28 reports on advanced materials research. Individual reports have been processed separately for entry onto the Department of Energy databases.

  8. VIOLENCE IN MARKETING COMMUNICATION EFFORTS OF FASHION BRANDS: SHOCKVERTISING

    OpenAIRE

    BAYAZIT, Zeynep; PANAYIRCI, Uğur Cevdet

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary social and technological changes inevitably affect consumer behaviour. Today’s customer is savvy, have no time and hard to persuade. This new relationship between customers and brands has a deeper impact on competitive industries such as fashion. Fashion brands are eager to adopt shocking themes for their marketing communication efforts in order to emotionally affect and challenge consumers. Aim of this study is to study with a critical perspective the advertisement efforts of fa...

  9. Supporting Students as Scientists: One Mission's Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J.; Chambers, L. H.; Trepte, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    NASA's CALIPSO satellite mission provides an array of opportunities for teachers, students, and the general public. In developing our latest plan for education and public outreach, CALIPSO focused on efforts that would support students as scientists. CALIPSO EPO activities are aimed at inspiring young scientists through multiple avenues of potential contact, including: educator professional development, student-scientist mentoring, curriculum resource development, and public outreach through collaborative mission efforts. In this session, we will explore how these avenues complement one another and take a closer look at the development of the educator professional development activities. As part of CALIPSO's EPO efforts, we have developed the GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations Programs (AIP). The program encourages students to engage in authentic science through research on the atmosphere. The National Research Council (NRC) has emphasized the importance of teaching scientific inquiry in the National Science Education Standards (1996, 2000) and scientific practice in the recent Framework for K-12 Science Education (2011). In order to encourage student-centered science inquiry, teacher training utilizing GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations and GLOBE's Student Research Process are provided to middle and high school teachers to assist them in incorporating real scientific investigations into their classroom. Through participation in the program, teachers become a part of GLOBE (Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment) - an international community of teachers, students, and scientists studying environmental science in over 24,000 schools around the world. The program uses NASA's satellites and the collection of atmosphere data by students to provide an engaging science learning experience for the students, and teachers. The GLOBE Atmosphere Investigations program offers year-long support to both teachers and students through direct involvement with NASA

  10. Communications Policies and Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigeat, Henri; And Others

    These two papers discuss communications policies and structures in France and in the United States. The first paper reports that efforts to develop new electronic communication systems in France are hindered by rivalry between two public monopolies and by governmental protection against foreign influence. The second paper assesses ownership of…

  11. Canadian parliamentarians gain insight into Japan's effort to support population programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R

    1998-01-01

    This article focuses on the lessons learned from Japan's development experiences for Canadian legislators. Japanese Parliamentarian's Federation for Population (JPFP) discussed policy issues involving population growth and food security in Asia with Canadian parliamentarians. The Japanese expressed concern about growing food insecurity in Asia and the need for appropriate national population policies. The region's rice production is declining. There is a need to increase rice exports, but exports have contributed to Southeast Asia's valuable foreign exchange at the expense of the region's poor. Rice shortages have led to emergency food assistance in Indonesia and Thailand. JPFP suggested the establishment of a food bank that would take a country's surplus and circulate it to food-deficit countries. In 1974, JPFP was one of the first groups to lobby for greater foreign aid for population assistance. JPFP's assistance in 1996 amounted to $35 million in grants to other countries for population-related programs, $54 million in 1997 to UNFPA, and $20 million to the International Planned Parenthood Federation. JPFP includes 140 members including former Prime Ministers and other ministers. JPFP works closely with the Asian Population and Development Association. JPFP formed this advocacy group, in 1981, to influence other developed nations. The Canadian delegation also met with JOICEP and learned about their innovative fund-raising efforts and programs. The Canadians aim to pressure their government to increase support for both overseas development aid and population/reproductive health policies.

  12. Including environmental concerns in energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potier, Michel

    2014-05-01

    In this article, the author comments the different impacts on the environment and risks related to energy, provided that all energies have an impact on the environment (renewable energies are generally cleaner than fossil energies) and these impacts can be on human health, ecosystems, buildings, crops, landscapes, and climate change. He comments the efforts made in the search for a higher energetic efficiency, and proposes an overview of the various available tools implemented by environmental policies in the energy sector: regulatory instruments, economic instruments, negotiated agreements, and informational instruments. He comments the implementation of an energetic taxing aimed at developing a greater respect of the environment

  13. Tendances Carbone no. 94. SUMO policies: smart monetary policies aimed at giving a boost to green investments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, Camille; Morel, Romain

    2014-09-01

    Among the publications of CDC Climat Research, 'Tendances Carbone' bulletin specifically studies the developments of the European market for CO 2 allowances. Beside some statistical figures about energy production/consumption and carbon markets, this issue specifically addresses the following points: - New EU Commissioner: Miguel Arias Canete (Spain) has been appointed as the new energy and climate commissioner. - EU ETS Reform: Denmark, Latvia, Slovenia, and Sweden support Germany's proposal for the mechanism becoming operational ahead of schedule as from 2017. - Climate and Energy package 2030: the European Commission has published a new proposal at the end of July with the goal of improving energy efficiency by 30% in 2030

  14. Social capital and Regional Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2009-01-01

    There needs to be a clear and explicit distinction between policy interventions aimed at increasing income and growth (“efficiency” objectives in the terminology of the Report) and those aimed at reducing inequalities (“social inclusion” objectives in the Report), not least in order to be able to......, attract political and public attention to the measures implemented and enable the Commission to better focus its human resources and efforts and play a more strategic role. There needs to be a reform of governance based on ten “pillars” as listed in this scientific report.......There needs to be a clear and explicit distinction between policy interventions aimed at increasing income and growth (“efficiency” objectives in the terminology of the Report) and those aimed at reducing inequalities (“social inclusion” objectives in the Report), not least in order to be able...

  15. Economic and Policy Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The NESG Economic and Policy Review (EPR) is a quarterly publication of the Nigerian Economic Summit Group (NESG), established to serve as an avenue for constructive analysis of economic policies and their impacts on different aspects of the business and economic environment. The EPR aims to provide unbiased, ...

  16. Assessing sustainable freight policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine transportation demand management strategies related to long haul freight. It investigates freight : movements and truck vehicle miles traveled (TVMT) changes in response to certain transportation policies, inc...

  17. Global Health and Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health. PMID:20423936

  18. Global health and foreign policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldbaum, Harley; Lee, Kelley; Michaud, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Health has long been intertwined with the foreign policies of states. In recent years, however, global health issues have risen to the highest levels of international politics and have become accepted as legitimate issues in foreign policy. This elevated political priority is in many ways a welcome development for proponents of global health, and it has resulted in increased funding for and attention to select global health issues. However, there has been less examination of the tensions that characterize the relationship between global health and foreign policy and of the potential effects of linking global health efforts with the foreign-policy interests of states. In this paper, the authors review the relationship between global health and foreign policy by examining the roles of health across 4 major components of foreign policy: aid, trade, diplomacy, and national security. For each of these aspects of foreign policy, the authors review current and historical issues and discuss how foreign-policy interests have aided or impeded global health efforts. The increasing relevance of global health to foreign policy holds both opportunities and dangers for global efforts to improve health.

  19. Aerodynamic and acoustic features of vocal effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Allison L; Lowell, Soren Y; Colton, Raymond H

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the aerodynamic and acoustic features of speech produced at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. Prospective, quasi-experimental research design. Eighteen healthy participants with normal voice were included in this study. After task training, participants produced repeated syllable combinations at comfortable, maximal and minimal levels of vocal effort. A pneumotachometer and vented (Rothenberg) mask were used to record aerodynamic data, with simultaneous recording of the acoustic signal for subsequent analysis. Aerodynamic measures of subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, maximum flow declination rate (MFDR), and laryngeal resistance were analyzed, along with acoustic measures of cepstral peak prominence (CPP) and its standard deviation (SD). Participants produced significantly greater subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR during maximal effort speech as compared with comfortable vocal effort. When producing speech at minimal vocal effort, participants lowered subglottal pressure, MFDR, and laryngeal resistance. Acoustic changes associated with changes in vocal effort included significantly higher CPP during maximal effort speech and significantly lower CPP SD during minimal effort speech, when each was compared with comfortable effort. For healthy speakers without voice disorders, subglottal pressure, translaryngeal airflow, and MFDR may be important factors that contribute to an increased sense of vocal effort. Changes in the cepstral signal also occur under conditions of increased or decreased vocal effort relative to comfortable effort. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Almeida Laires

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Aging of the population and early retirement translates into productivity losses to society. Persistence of working life is crucial to counteract this sustainability issue faced by western countries. Musculoskeletal and rheumatic diseases (RD may cause work disability and early exit from work, including early retirement. The objective of this article is to review the current knowledge about interventions aiming to reduce early retirement due to RD. Methods: We searched PubMed and The Cochrane Library for studies either in English or Portuguese between January 2000 and June 2016 that evaluated the impact of interventions targeting early retirement in RD patients still at work. We also searched for grey literature from Portuguese institutional repositories. Results: We identified several published studies testing pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic vocational rehabilitation interventions. None was specifically identified for Portugal. The general low quality of the literature and its inconsistency makes it unfeasible to draw definitive conclusions. However, some broad recommendations might be outlined. An effective intervention must: 1 act upon different levels (e.g. RD patient, workplace, involving several stakeholders (e.g. rheumatologists, occupational physicians, employers; 2 prioritize the right patients (e.g. more disabling RD; and 3 consider the patients’ role, for instance by including an element of patient education and support. Despite the lack of good quality evidence on this field, there seems to be a growing interest in the international scientific community with several ongoing studies promoting such interventions. This promising data will be very useful to set up effective policies. Conclusions: This article summarizes the current knowledge about the impact of interventions to avoid or mitigate early retirement in RD patients. It highlights the demand for further research and it also contributes to aware decision

  1. Tough Policies, Incredible Policies?

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Velasco; Alejandro Neut

    2003-01-01

    We revisit the question of what determines the credibility of macroeconomic policies here, of promises to repay public debt. Almost all thinking on the issue has focused on governments' strategic decision to default (or erode the value of outstanding debt via inflation/devaluation). But sometimes governments default not because they want to, but because they cannot avoid it: adverse shocks leave them no option. We build a model in which default/devaluation can occur deliberately (for strategi...

  2. APA efforts in promoting human rights and social justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Pickren, Wade E; Vasquez, Melba J T

    2017-11-01

    This article reviews the American Psychological Association's (APA) efforts in promoting human rights and social justice. Beginning with a historical review of the conceptualizations of human rights and social justice, the social challenges that have faced the United States over time are discussed in relation to the APA's evolving mission and strategic initiatives enacted through its boards, committees, and directorates. From early efforts on the Board for Social and Ethical Responsibility in Psychology and the Board of Ethnic Minority Affairs to the establishment of the Public Interest Directorate, the APA's efforts to address these human rights and social justice challenges through its task force reports, guidelines, and policies are described. Specifically, issues related to diversity and underrepresentation of minority group members and perspective within the APA, as well as women's issues (prochoice, violence against women, sexualization of young girls, human trafficking) were central to these efforts. These minority groups included racial and ethnic minority groups; immigrants and refugees; lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgendered, and queer individuals; and those with disabilities. Later attention shifted to broader social justice challenges within a public health perspective, such as AIDS, obesity, and violence. Also included is a brief discussion of the Hoffman Report. The article ends with a discussion of future directions for the APA's efforts related to human rights and social justice related to health disparities, violent extremism, social inequality, migration, cultural and racial diversity, and an evidence-based approach to programming. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Effort sharing in ambitious, global climate change mitigation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekholm, Tommi; Soimakallio, Sampo; Moltmann, Sara; Hoehne, Niklas; Syri, Sanna; Savolainen, Ilkka

    2010-01-01

    The post-2012 climate policy framework needs a global commitment to deep greenhouse gas emission cuts. This paper analyzes reaching ambitious emission targets up to 2050, either -10% or -50% from 1990 levels, and how the economic burden from mitigation efforts could be equitably shared between countries. The scenarios indicate a large low-cost mitigation potential in electricity and industry, while reaching low emission levels in international transportation and agricultural emissions might prove difficult. The two effort sharing approaches, Triptych and Multistage, were compared in terms of equitability and coherence. Both approaches produced an equitable cost distribution between countries, with least developed countries having negative or low costs and more developed countries having higher costs. There is, however, no definitive solution on how the costs should be balanced equitably between countries. Triptych seems to be yet more coherent than other approaches, as it can better accommodate national circumstances. Last, challenges and possible hindrances to effective mitigation and equitable effort sharing are presented. The findings underline the significance of assumptions behind effort sharing on mitigation potentials and current emissions, the challenge of sharing the effort with uncertain future allowance prices and how inefficient markets might undermine the efficiency of a cap-and-trade system.

  4. Policy Research Environment and Policy Research Organizations in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project aims to better understand the nature of policy research organizations in South Asia. It will do so through a series of studies, analyses and roundtables with leading researchers, and a survey of policy research institutions. The idea is to generate an understanding of the policy research environment with a view to ...

  5. The dynamic of non-communicable disease control policy in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiani, Yodi; Dugdale, Paul; Tavener, Meredith; Byles, Julie E

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine non-communicable disease (NCD) policy formation and implementation in Indonesia. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 Indonesian health policy workers. The processes and issues relating to NCD policy formation were mapped, exploring the interactions between policy makers, technical/implementation bodies, alliances across various levels and the mobilisation of non-policy actors. Results Problems in NCD policy formation include insufficient political interest in NCD control, disconnected policies and difficulty in multisectoral coordination. These problems are well illustrated in relation to tobacco control, but also apply to other control efforts. Nevertheless, participants were optimistic that there are plentiful opportunities for improving NCD control policies given growing global attention to NCD, increases in the national health budget and the growing body of Indonesia-relevant NCD-related research. Conclusion Indonesia's success in the creation and implementation of NCD policy will be dependent on high-level governmental leadership, including support from the President, the Health Minister and coordinating ministries. What is known about the topic? The burden of NCD in Indonesia has increased gradually. Nationally, NCD-related mortality accounted for 65% of deaths in 2010. Indonesia is also a country with the highest burden of tobacco smoking in the world. However, the government has not instituted sufficient policy action to tackle NCDs, including tobacco control. What does this paper add? This paper deepens our understanding of current NCD control policy formation in Indonesia, including the possible underlying reason why Indonesia has weak tobacco control policies. It describes the gaps in the current policies, the actors involved in policy formation, the challenges in policy formation and implementation and potential opportunities for improving NCD control. What are the implications for

  6. Institutionalisation of Japan Identity Construction Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zadvornaya Elena S.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the development of the modern politics of identity construction in Japan, which actively refers to the practice of designing self-image in international relations. This trend dates back to the 19th century, when there was the end of Sakoku (Japan’s policy of isolation. It is now possible to talk about the institutionalization of the identity construction policy to organized structures and regulations. Enhanced efforts in the field of Japanese traditional and popular culture, education and creative content has led to a number of institutions appearance (like Japan Foundation Fund, Japan Creative Agency, Japan Culture Fund, Agency for Cultural Affairs, Cool Japan Fund, Japan brand Fund and changing idea about the role of culture in foreign policy realization (it is fixed the documents of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, as well as a number of projects (Cool Japan, Visit Japan, Japan Culture Power, Japan Manga Awards, Kawaii Ambassadors, Cosplay International Fest and etc.. These efforts are aimed at forming Japan identity abroad to solve a number of foreign policy challenges of the future and the development of economic cooperation. The Japanese government nearest plans is to increase funding in order to create a positive image of Japan in the region of East Asia. All of these allows us to speak about the policy of the Japanese construction of identity as an institutionalized process in which there was clearance of organizations and regulatory activities.

  7. Changing Landscapes in Documentation Efforts: Civil Society Documentation of Serious Human Rights Violations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne McGonigle Leyh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wittingly or unwittingly, civil society actors have long been faced with the task of documenting serious human rights violations. Thirty years ago, such efforts were largely organised by grassroots movements, often with little support or funding from international actors. Sharing information and best practices was difficult. Today that situation has significantly changed. The purpose of this article is to explore the changing landscape of civil society documentation of serious human rights violations, and what that means for standardising and professionalising documentation efforts. Using the recent Hisséne Habré case as an example, this article begins by looking at how civil society documentation can successfully influence an accountability process. Next, the article touches upon barriers that continue to impede greater documentation efforts. The article examines the changing landscape of documentation, focusing on technological changes and the rise of citizen journalism and unofficial investigations, using Syria as an example, as well as on the increasing support for documentation efforts both in Syria and worldwide. The changing landscape has resulted in the proliferation of international documentation initiatives aimed at providing local civil society actors guidelines and practical assistance on how to recognise, collect, manage, store and use information about serious human rights violations, as well as on how to minimise the risks associated with the documentation of human rights violations. The recent initiatives undertaken by international civil society, including those by the Public International Law & Policy Group, play an important role in helping to standardise and professionalise documentation work and promote the foundational principles of documentation, namely the ‘do no harm’ principle, and the principles of informed consent and confidentiality. Recognising the drawback that greater professionalisation may bring, it

  8. Cumulative assessment : Strategic choices to influence students' study effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerdijk, Wouter; Tio, Rene A.; Mulder, B. Florentine; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke

    2013-01-01

    Background: It has been asserted that assessment can and should be used to drive students' learning. In the current study, we present a cumulative assessment program in which test planning, repeated testing and compensation are combined in order to influence study effort. The program is aimed at

  9. Anticipated emotions and effort allocation in weight goal striving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelissen, R.M.A.; de Vet, H.C.W.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the influence of anticipated emotions on preventive health behaviour if specified at the level of behavioural outcomes. Consistent with predictions from a recently developed model of goal pursuit, we hypothesized that the impact of emotions on effort levels

  10. Rhetorical Analysis in Critical Policy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Rhetorical analysis, an approach to critical discourse analysis, is presented as a useful method for critical policy analysis and its effort to understand the role policies play in perpetuating inequality. A rhetorical analysis of Character "Matters!", the character education policy of a school board in Ontario, Canada, provides an…

  11. Turning health research into policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A longtime advocate of advancing health research and policy in Africa, Sewankambo led the effort that established the REACH Policy Initiative, an East African institutional brokerage mechanism linking research to health policy and action. His 25-year contribution to HIV/AIDS and health research in Africa has been ...

  12. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on biographical…

  13. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  14. Energy Policy. Highlights. 2013 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Energy Policy Highlights showcases recent developments in energy policies among all 28 IEA member countries. Each contribution underscores the changing nature of both global and domestic energy challenges, as well as the commonality of energy concerns among member countries. The policies highlighted in this publication identify an urgent need to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a clear policy objective. Electricity, enhancing energy efficiency and increasing the share of renewables in the energy mix in a cost effective manner are likewise areas of common focus. On the end-user side, increasing public awareness of domestic energy policies through improved transparency and engagement is an important facet of policy support among IEA member countries. The successful implementation of policies and other initiatives benefitted from efforts to inform the public.

  15. Modeling environmental policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, W.E.; McDonald, L.A.

    1997-01-01

    The eight book chapters demonstrate the link between the physical models of the environment and the policy analysis in support of policy making. Each chapter addresses an environmental policy issue using a quantitative modeling approach. The volume addresses three general areas of environmental policy - non-point source pollution in the agricultural sector, pollution generated in the extractive industries, and transboundary pollutants from burning fossil fuels. The book concludes by discussing the modeling efforts and the use of mathematical models in general. Chapters are entitled: modeling environmental policy: an introduction; modeling nonpoint source pollution in an integrated system (agri-ecological); modeling environmental and trade policy linkages: the case of EU and US agriculture; modeling ecosystem constraints in the Clean Water Act: a case study in Clearwater National Forest (subject to discharge from metal mining waste); costs and benefits of coke oven emission controls; modeling equilibria and risk under global environmental constraints (discussing energy and environmental interrelations); relative contribution of the enhanced greenhouse effect on the coastal changes in Louisiana; and the use of mathematical models in policy evaluations: comments. The paper on coke area emission controls has been abstracted separately for the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

  16. Different effort constructs and effort-reward imbalance: Effects on employee well-being in ancillary health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vegchel, N. van; Jonge, J. de; Meijer, T.; Hamers, J.P.H.

    2001-01-01

    Aims of the study. The present study investigates the relationship between Effort–Reward Imbalance (ERI) and employee well-being, using three different concepts of efforts (i.e. psychological demands, physical demands and emotional demands). Background. The ERI model had been used as a theoretical

  17. Thailand's Low-Carbon Scenario 2050: The AIM/CGE analyses of CO2 mitigation measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thepkhun, Panida; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Masui, Toshihiko; Shrestha, Ram M.

    2013-01-01

    Climate change and CO 2 mitigation have become increasingly important environmental issues. Recently Thailand has proposed policies on GHG mitigation such as Thailand’s Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA), which aims at GHG mitigation in the energy sector. This study used the computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, called “AIM/CGE” model, to analyse GHG mitigation measures under emission trading and carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology in Thailand. Results show that the international free emission trading policy can drive more GHG reduction by decreasing energy supply and demand, and increasing prices of emissions. The CCS technologies would balance emission reduction but they would reduce energy efficiency improvement and renewable energy utilization. In the energy security aspect, the policy options in this study would improve energy security, energy import dependency, and co-benefits of GHG mitigation in forms of improving local air quality. Results are also helpful to GHG mitigation policy in developing countries. -- Highlights: •A Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model was used to analyze GHG mitigation policies in Thailand. •The CCS and emission trading will increase GHG mitigation in Thailand. •The 30% GHG mitigation target with 50% emission trading will give the best result in GDP. •The share of biomass resource and energy efficiency will decrease with CCS. •The emission trading will play an important role in decreasing fossil consumption and increasing renewable energy utilization

  18. A Real-Effort Experiment on Gift Exchange with Temptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia

    We conduct a real-effort experiment to test whether workers reciprocate generous wages by managers when workers are tempted to surf the internet. Further, we investigate how an active policy of restricting the usage of the internet affects the workers' motivation. We observe that the temptation...... of the internet hampers workers' willingness to reciprocate fair wages. Yet, when the manager makes an active choice not to deny internet access, workers perceive the "freedom from control" as a gift which they reciprocate with high effort. Whether the positive "freedom from control" aspect or the negative...... temptation aspects dominates depends on the worker's reciprocity: for highly reciprocal workers the control aspect dominates; for non-reciprocal workers the temptation aspect dominates....

  19. Policies to promote on physical activity and healthy eating in kindergartens from theory to practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that there seems to be a relation between the existence of a policy and at least some health behaviours of children. The purpose of this paper is to give a brief account of the value of policy as a tool that can be used at local level to guide action to promote healthy...... lifestyle in kindergartens. A policy can be defi ned as a set of adopted principles that guide the work of an organization and aim to achieve a well defi ned goal, but only policies that rely on the active participation and involvement of concerned actors will be effi cient. A number of studies suggest...... that local level policy on nutrition and on physical activity seems to have the potential to work as a good frame for the organizational efforts that the kindergarten undertakes in order to promote healthy eating and physical activity among children in kindergarten. However, kindergartens need to make...

  20. Industrial Policy - Challenges caused by Globalisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cartas

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The branch of industry remains a major activity within an economy, ensuring the necessary technical and technological basis for the development of all other activities such as agriculture, constructions, transportation and, more than that, it has the main contribution to the GNP, trade, employment, generating value added and new jobs, as well as increasing competitiveness and economic and social progress for the nation. To successfully fullfill its role, industrial development needs adequate industrial policies capable to coagulate the public and private enterprises energies into an unique innovative effort aimed at a better use of resources as well as an effective industrial structural adjustment able to promote increasing competitivenes at all levels. Though a controversial subject, because of its several failures along the history, industrial policy becomes more and more actual. Many countries - developed, rapidly increasing emergent economies, as well as poorer countries are reconsidering the role of industrial policy. Western scholars reveal the fact that, after decades of denying the need for it, the World Bank itself is now recomending that developping countries should implement industrial policies.

  1. African Journal of Economic Policy: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The primary aim of this journal, an offshoot of the Trade Policy Research and Training Programme in Economics Department, University of Ibadan, is to provide a forum for development and equity on the African continent. It, therefore, welcomes well researched papers on the implications of a specific ...

  2. The policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laruelle, Ph.; Snegaroff, Th.; Moreau, S.; Tellenne, C.; Brunel, S.

    2005-01-01

    Fourth chapter of the book on the geo-policy of the sustainable development, this chapter deal with the different and international policies concerned by the problem. The authors analyze the american energy attitude and policy, the economical equilibrium facing the environmental equilibrium for the european policy, the sanctified and sacrificed nature and the japanese attitude, India and China, the great fear of the 21 century and the sustainable development in Africa. (A.L.B.)

  3. Time preferences, study effort, and academic performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Non, J.A.; Tempelaar, D.T.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the relation between time preferences, study effort, and academic performance among first-year Business and Economics students. Time preferences are measured by stated preferences for an immediate payment over larger delayed payments. Data on study efforts are derived from an electronic

  4. The Role of Effort Justification in Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axsom, Danny; Cooper, Joel

    The possible influence of cognitive dissonance in psychotherapy was examined by conceptualizing therapy as an effort justification process. It was predicted that freely choosing to undergo a highly effortful procedure would aid in positive therapeutic change. Subjects (N=52) participated in a weight-reduction experiment in which the degree of…

  5. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  6. Effort and Selection Effects of Incentive Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    We show that the improved effort of employees associated with incentive contracts depends on the properties of the performance measures used in the contract.We also find that the power of incentives in the contract is only indirectly related to any improved employee effort.High powered incentive

  7. Unanswered Questions in Colombia’s Foreign Language Education Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Andrés Bonilla Carvajal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its multiple transitions over the past decades through a historical description that overviews all previous policies, the critical reception by scholars, and present-day initiatives. We then move on to analysing the choice of English as a synonym for bilingualism and conclude with emerging questions that are to be considered for future debates and reassessments of Colombia’s English-Spanish bilingual education policy.

  8. Random maintenance policies

    CERN Document Server

    Nakagawa, Toshio

    2014-01-01

    Exploring random maintenance models, this book provides an introduction to the implementation of random maintenance, and it is one of the first books to be written on this subject.  It aims to help readers learn new techniques for applying random policies to actual reliability models, and it provides new theoretical analyses of various models including classical replacement, preventive maintenance and inspection policies. These policies are applied to scheduling problems, backup policies of database systems, maintenance policies of cumulative damage models, and reliability of random redundant systems. Reliability theory is a major concern for engineers and managers, and in light of Japan’s recent earthquake, the reliability of large-scale systems has increased in importance. This also highlights the need for a new notion of maintenance and reliability theory, and how this can practically be applied to systems. Providing an essential guide for engineers and managers specializing in reliability maintenance a...

  9. Dividend Policy Controverses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Vidučić

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Dividend theory shares with capital structure theories the attribute of area of high controversy. Financial literature discusses whether there is an interdependency of dividends and share price, i.e. value of the firm. The main views may be defined with three theories of dividend policy. However, unambiguous solutions are still lacking. Literature on dividends highlights several concepts that may be important in defining the dividend policy. Dividend policy aims to define payout ratio, sort of dividend and way of maintaining dividend stability, since stability of dividend is found to be of interest in practice. Managers, namely, prefer stability of dividend policy and the amount of dividends taking in account the signalling effect. If stability of dividends is preferred by investors it follows that stable dividend policy will lead to minimization of cost of capital and maximization of share price.

  10. Low-effort thought promotes political conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidelman, Scott; Crandall, Christian S; Goodman, Jeffrey A; Blanchar, John C

    2012-06-01

    The authors test the hypothesis that low-effort thought promotes political conservatism. In Study 1, alcohol intoxication was measured among bar patrons; as blood alcohol level increased, so did political conservatism (controlling for sex, education, and political identification). In Study 2, participants under cognitive load reported more conservative attitudes than their no-load counterparts. In Study 3, time pressure increased participants' endorsement of conservative terms. In Study 4, participants considering political terms in a cursory manner endorsed conservative terms more than those asked to cogitate; an indicator of effortful thought (recognition memory) partially mediated the relationship between processing effort and conservatism. Together these data suggest that political conservatism may be a process consequence of low-effort thought; when effortful, deliberate thought is disengaged, endorsement of conservative ideology increases.

  11. Policy Learning and Organizational Capacities in Innovation Policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrás, Susana

    2011-01-01

    advances, the paper identifies three levels of policy learning and argues that their effects on innovation systems are related to specific capacities of the relevant organizations implementing change. This analytical framework is used in the study of trans-national policy learning in Europe in the area......Bengt-Åke Lundvall’s work has underlined the importance of policy learning for inducing innovation systems’ adaptability. In spite of his efforts and of the general interest in this topic, studies of policy learning in innovation policy continue to be scarce. Elaborating from recent theoretical...... of science–industry relations, showing the importance of capacities (or lack thereof). This calls for the practical need of addressing organizational capacity-building, in particular of analytical capacity, for truly strategic innovation policy-making....

  12. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  13. Aiming High: Setting Performance Standards for Student Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gary; Garcia, Alicia N.

    2015-01-01

    Content standards, not performance standards, have been almost the sole focus of state policies and recent conversations about academic standards. Without rigorous content and performance standards, we cannot adequately prepare students for the global marketplace. A recent AIR study shows that state performance standards are consistently low and…

  14. Gaz de France: A public utility aiming at environment preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dauger, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to environment preservation by natural gas utilization. Themes covered in this paper are the French natural gas market, characteristics of the European and French energy sectors and environment preservation by natural gas contribution, and European framework for environment policy

  15. Community energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo Melchor, N.; Redondo Quintela, F.

    1994-01-01

    The twelve Member states of the European Union will attempt to make their national energy policies converge. Nevertheless the basis of the so called ''Community Energy Policy'' is not this convergence but rather the achievement of a new internal market, the Energy Market, where sources and forms of energy may circulate freely between countries. This aim derives from a change of orientation, dating back some years, when market integration was attempted instead of continuing with the mere unification of national policies. In this paper we summarize the most relevant aspects of the liberalization process and give some of its internal and external repercussions on the European Union. (Author)

  16. Urban photovoltaic electricity policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban photovoltaic electricity policies. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy as a significant and sustainable renewable energy option. The objective of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The goal of the study presented was to evaluate a standardised basis for urban policies regarding photovoltaic integration in a set of cities in the countries participating in the IEA's Task 10, Urban Scale PV. The investigation was focused on three topics: the present state of the policies, the prospects for future policies fostering photovoltaic deployment and the prospects for future policies to cope with large-scale photovoltaic integration. The first section analyses the state of the policies; this analysis is then confirmed in section 2, which deals with present obstacles to PV deployment and solutions to overcome them. The third section investigates future prospects for PV deployment with the question of mastering large scale integration. The report concludes that cities could formulate urban solutions by developing integrated, specific provisions for PV deployment in their urban infrastructure planning.

  17. Inpo/industry job and task analysis efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigley, W.W.

    1985-01-01

    One of the goals of INPO is to develop and coordinate industrywide programs to improve the education, training and qualification of nuclear utility personnel. To accomplish this goal, INPO's Training and Education Division: conducts periodic evaluations of industry training programs; provides assistance to the industry in developing training programs; manages the accreditation of utility training programs. These efforts are aimed at satisfying the need for training programs for nuclear utility personnel to be performance-based. Performance-based means that training programs provide an incumbent with the skills and knowledge required to safely perform the job. One of the ways that INPO has provided assistance to the industry is through the industrywide job and task analysis effort. I will discuss the job analysis and task analysis processes, the current status of JTA efforts, JTA products and JTA lessons learned

  18. Determining Sincerity of Effort Based on Grip Strength Test in Three Wrist Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcharatana Bhuanantanondh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several grip strength tests are commonly used for detecting sincerity of effort. However, there is still no widely accepted standardized sincerity of effort test. Therefore, this study aimed to examine whether grip strength test in three wrist positions could distinguish between maximal and submaximal efforts. Methods: Twenty healthy individuals (10 men and 10 women with a mean age of 26.7 ± 3.92 years participated in this study. All participants completed two test conditions (maximal and submaximal efforts in three wrist positions (neutral, flexion, and extension using both hands. Each participant exerted 100% effort in the maximal effort condition and 50% effort in the submaximal effort condition. The participants performed three repetitions of the grip strength test for each session. Results: The results showed that there is a significant main effect of the type of effort (p < 0.001, wrist position (p < 0.001, and hand (p = 0.028. There were also significant types of effort and wrist position interactions (p < 0.001 and effort and hand interactions (p < 0.028. The results also showed that grip strength was highest at the wrist in neutral position in both the maximal and the submaximal effort condition. Grip strength values of the three wrist positions in the maximal effort condition were noticeably greater than those in the submaximal effort condition. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that grip strength test in three wrist positions can differentiate a maximal effort from a submaximal effort. Thus, this test could potentially be used to detect sincerity of effort in clinical setting. Keywords: grip strength, maximal effort, sincerity of effort, submaximal effort, wrist position

  19. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  20. Policy insights from the nutritional food market transformation model: the case of obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struben, Jeroen; Chan, Derek; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics policy model of nutritional food market transformation, tracing over-time interactions between the nutritional quality of supply, consumer food choice, population health, and governmental policy. Applied to the Canadian context and with body mass index as the primary outcome, we examine policy portfolios for obesity prevention, including (1) industry self-regulation efforts, (2) health- and nutrition-sensitive governmental policy, and (3) efforts to foster health- and nutrition-sensitive innovation. This work provides novel theoretical and practical insights on drivers of nutritional market transformations, highlighting the importance of integrative policy portfolios to simultaneously shift food demand and supply for successful and self-sustaining nutrition and health sensitivity. We discuss model extensions for deeper and more comprehensive linkages of nutritional food market transformation with supply, demand, and policy in agrifood and health/health care. These aim toward system design and policy that can proactively, and with greater impact, scale, and resilience, address single as well as double malnutrition in varying country settings. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  2. People's opinion of climate policy. Popular support for climate policy alternatives in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marino, Sjoevaag Marit; Bjoerge, Nils Erik; Ericson, Torgeir; Garnaasjordet, Per Arild; Karlsen, Haakon T.; Randers; Joergen; Rees, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    How can we evaluate whether national climate policies are sufficient? Which moral principles should be the basis of our policy efforts? The answers to these questions are central to the development of any climate policy framework, but not always made explicit in daily political discourse. In this article we seek to redress this imbalance through a survey of popular opinion in Norway.(Author)

  3. EU grid computing effort takes on malaria

    CERN Multimedia

    Lawrence, Stacy

    2006-01-01

    Malaria is the world's most common parasitic infection, affecting more thatn 500 million people annually and killing more than 1 million. In order to help combat malaria, CERN has launched a grid computing effort (1 page)

  4. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2015. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  5. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-04

    This report provides a summary of the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in recycling : reclaimed materials in highway construction during calendar year 2016. This report meets the requirements of Illinois Publ...

  6. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This report presents the sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling and reclaiming materials for use in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of : Illinois Public Act 097-0314 by docum...

  7. Illinois highway materials sustainability efforts of 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report presents the 2014 sustainability efforts of the Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) in : recycling reclaimed materials in highway construction. This report meets the requirements of Illinois : Public Act 097-0314 by documenting I...

  8. IAEA Patient Protection Effort Reaches Key Milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    Full text: An International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) effort to help people track their radiation exposure from medical procedures achieved a significant milestone this week. The Agency received the final approval from a group of medical oversight organizations for the 'Joint Position Statement on the IAEA Patient Radiation Exposure Tracking', a set of principles to guide patient protection efforts at the sub-national, national, and international level. The joint statement endorses the IAEA's three-year-old Smart Card/SmartRadTrack project, which aims to help nations develop systems to track medical radiation procedures and radiation doses. The statement has been agreed by the World Health Organization (WHO), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Society of Radiology (ESR), the International Organization for Medical Physics (IOMP), the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists (ISRRT), and the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors, USA (CRCPD). 'This system is critical if the medical community is going to keep patients safe when they are being referred for more and more diagnostic scans. These scans, over the years, are made using more and more powerful machines', said Madan Rehani, Radiation Safety Specialist in the IAEA's Radiation Protection of Patients Unit. 'The tracking system will draw doctors' attention to previous radiological examinations, both in terms of clinical information and radiation dose and thus help them assess whether the 11th or 20th CT scan is really appropriate, whether it will do more good than harm.' Advances in radiation-based diagnostic technologies, such as the CT scan, have led to patients receiving such procedures more frequently. The convenience of CT with the added advantage of increased information has resulted in increased usage to the point that there are instances of patients getting tens of CT scans in a few years, not all of which may be justified, or getting CT

  9. Leveraging Trade Agreements to Meet U.S. Security Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    but ultimately resulted in the three country North American Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ) in 1994. Historically, Mexico sought economic relationships...Free Trade Agreement ( NAFTA ).2 European Union: Trading To Control In post-World War II Europe, age-old tensions remained between France and Germany...pursued a foreign policy initiative referred to as the “North American Accord,” explaining, A developing closeness among Canada, Mexico , and the United

  10. Overview of California's Efforts to Understand and Reduce Methane Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, B. E.; Chen, Y.; Duren, R. M.; Falk, M.; Franco, G.; Herner, J.; Ingram, W.; Kuwayama, T.; McCarthy, R.; Scheehle, E.; Vijayan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Methane is an important short-lived climate pollutant (SLCP) and also has significant health implications as a tropospheric ozone precursor. As part of a comprehensive effort to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions overall by 40% from 1990 levels by 2030, California has proposed an SLCP Strategy that includes a 40% reduction of methane emissions from 2013 levels by 2030, with goals to reduce oil and gas related emissions and capture methane emissions from dairy operations and organic waste. A recent analysis of satellite data found a large methane "hot spot" over the Central Valley in California, likely the second largest over the entire U.S. In light of this finding, the California legislature passed Assembly Bill 1496 in 2015, which requires the California Air Resources Board (CARB) to undertake measurements to understand the sources of methane hot spots, evaluate life-cycle emissions from natural gas imported into California, and update relevant policies and programs. There is growing evidence in the recent scientific literature suggesting that a small fraction of methane sources within a category emit disproportionately higher emissions than their counterparts, usually referred to as "super emitters". As such, controlling these sources may provide a lower cost opportunity for methane reductions needed to meet near- and long-term climate goals. In order to achieve a comprehensive understanding of sources contributing to "hot spots", CARB, the California Energy Commission, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are implementing a large-scale statewide methane survey using a tiered monitoring and measurement program, which will include airborne and ground-level measurements of the various regions and source sectors in the State. This presentation will discuss research and program implementation efforts to evaluate and mitigate methane super emitters and hot spots. These efforts are expected to improve our understanding of methane emission source distributions

  11. Enhancing the contribution of research to health care policy-making: a case study of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegger, Ingrid; Marks, Lisanne K; Janssen, Susan W J; Schuit, Albertine J; van Oers, Hans A M

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch Health Care Performance Report, issued by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, aims to monitor health care performance in The Netherlands. Both the National Institute and the Ministry of Health wish to increase the contribution of the Report to health care policy-making. Our aim was to identify ways to achieve that. We used contribution mapping as a theoretical framework that recognizes alignment of research as crucial to managing contributions to policy-making. To investigate which areas need alignment efforts by researchers and/or policy-makers, we interviewed National Institute researchers and policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and assessed the process for developing the 2010 Report. We identified six areas where alignment is specifically relevant for enhancing the contributions of future versions of the Dutch Health Care Performance Report: well-balanced information for different ministerial directorates; backstage work; double role actors; reports of other knowledge institutes; data collection/generation and presentation forms. The contribution of health care performance reporting to policy-making is complex and requires continuous alignment efforts between researchers and policy-makers. These efforts should form an inseparable part of health care performance reporting and although this demands considerable resources, it is worth considering since it may pay back in better contributions to policy-making. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Anne Marie; Karn, Sumit; Devkota, Madhu Dixit; Rasheed, Sabrina; Roy, S K; Suleman, Yasmeen; Hazir, Tabish; Patel, Archana; Gaidhane, Abhay; Puri, Seema; Godakandage, Sanjeeva; Senarath, Upul; Dibley, Michael J

    2017-06-13

    South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  13. Opportunities for strengthening infant and young child feeding policies in South Asia: Insights from the SAIFRN policy analysis project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Thow

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Asian countries experience some of the highest levels of child undernutrition in the world, strongly linked to poor infant and young child feeding (IYCF practices. Strong and responsive policy support is essential for effective interventions to improve IYCF. This study aimed to identify opportunities for strengthening the policy environment in the region to better support appropriate infant and young child feeding. Methods We mapped policies relevant to infant and young child feeding in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Nepal, based on a common matrix. The matrix described potentially relevant policies ranging from high-level strategic policy documents to implementation-level guidelines. We analyzed the data based on themes focused on caregiver interactions with IYCF interventions: provision of correct information to mothers, training of frontline workers, enabling mothers to engage with service providers and strategic support for IYCF. Results Policy support for IYCF was present in relation to each of the themes assessed. In all countries, there was support for nutrition in National Development Plans, and all countries had some level of maternity protection and restrictions on marketing of breast milk substitutes. Sectoral and implementation-level policy documents contained provisions for system strengthening for IYCF and for training of frontline workers. Conclusions The key opportunities for strengthening IYCF policy support were in relation to translating strategic directives into implementation level documents; improving multi-sectoral support and coordination; and increased clarity regarding roles and responsibilities of frontline workers interacting with mothers. These findings can support efforts to strengthen IYCF policy at the national and regional level.

  14. Non-market valuation of the coastal environment--uniting political aims, ecological and economic knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östberg, Katarina; Hasselström, Linus; Håkansson, Cecilia

    2012-11-15

    In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using an approach for estimating Willingness-To-Pay for marine environmental improvements, based on a holistic, policy-determined scenario. Conducting valuation studies based on a policy-determined scenario is beneficial for decision-makers in terms of practical applicability but also for research in terms of e.g. data availability. Using a case study in two Swedish coastal areas, we examine whether respondents are able to understand and attach a monetary value to these types of scenarios. The tested scenarios are based on improving water quality according to the EU Water Framework Directive and reducing noise and littering according to standard-type measures in a Swedish archipelago setting. The results are promising, paving the ground for future valuation studies using this approach. However, there might be tradeoffs, since the use of scenarios like this require much preparation by researchers and much efforts by respondents. We recommend environmental managers to adopt this approach when possible, but to have these potential tradeoffs in mind. Mean monthly WTP per household for the water quality improvement scenario is estimated to 71 and 102 SEK(1) in the two study areas, respectively. The corresponding numbers for the less noise and littering scenario are 38 and 46 SEK. Valuation of noise and littering in archipelago areas has previously not been very common, making these estimates especially important for marine policy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon emissions in China: How far can new efforts bend the curve?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Karplus, Valerie J.; Qi, Tianyu; Zhang, Da; He, Jiankun

    2016-01-01

    While China is on track to meet its global climate commitments through 2020, China's post-2020 CO 2 emissions trajectory is highly uncertain, with projections varying widely across studies. Over the past year, the Chinese government has announced new policy directives to deepen economic reform, to protect the environment, and to limit fossil energy use in China. To evaluate how new policy directives could affect energy and climate change outcomes, we simulate two levels of policy effort—a continued effort scenario that extends current policies beyond 2020 and an accelerated effort scenario that reflects newly announced policies—on the evolution of China's energy and economic system over the next several decades. We perform simulations using the China-in-Global Energy Model, C-GEM, a bespoke recursive-dynamic computable general equilibrium model with global coverage and detailed calibration of China's economy and future trends. Importantly, we find that both levels of policy effort would bend down the CO 2 emissions trajectory before 2050 without undermining economic development. Specifically, in the accelerated effort scenario, we find that coal use peaks around 2020, and CO 2 emissions level off around 2030 at 10 bmt, without undermining continued economic growth consistent with China reaching the status of a “well-off society” by 2050. - Highlights: • We develop a simulation model that captures energy system and technological detail in China. • We simulate China's recently announced climate and energy policies. • New policies in China are consistent with peak coal around 2020, and peak CO 2 emissions around 2030. • New policies cause modest leakage of coal use outside of China, especially to Southeast Asia.

  16. Automated Instructional Management Systems (AIMS) Version III, System Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York Inst. of Tech., Old Westbury.

    This document sets forth the procedures necessary to understand and utilize the internal characteristics of the Automated Instructional Management System (AIMS), a computer-based system for the management of educational processes. In this manual, overall design concepts governing the development of AIMS are specified; and overview of its…

  17. Refractive aim and visual outcome after phacoemulsification: A 2 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-24

    Mar 24, 2016 ... Aim: To review the short‑term visual outcome of phacoemulsification in adults with uncomplicated cataracts in Eye. Foundation Hospital ... aim, intraoperative complications, postoperative unaided, and best‑corrected visual acuity at 1 and 3 months were analyzed. ..... Financial support and sponsorship. Nil.

  18. Teaching Design Education for Cultural, Pedagogical, and Economic Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vande Zande, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The aims of educating for economic, cultural, and pedagogical purposes have existed since the early inception of art education. Looking at how and why these aims evolved in the early era of art and design education has potential for better understanding how and why design should be incorporated into the art education curricula today. This article…

  19. Student Teachers' Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Victoria I.; Tur, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain) in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers' perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims.…

  20. The Aims of Education and the Leap of Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, SunInn

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the place of freedom in discussions of the aims of education. Bearing in mind remarks of R.S. Peters to the affect that the singling out of aims can "fall into the hands of rationalistically minded curriculum planners", it begins by considering the views of Roland Reichenbach regarding Bildung and his account of this…

  1. Found in Translation: Interdisciplinary Arts Integration in Project AIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Lara; Ingram, Debra; Weiss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This paper will share the arts-integration methodology used in Project AIM and address the question; "How is translation evident in interdisciplinary arts instruction, and how does it affect students?" Methods: The staff and researchers from Project AIM, (an arts-integration program of the Center for Community Arts Partnerships at…

  2. The compatibility between extension aims of staff and their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This pilot investigation was done to investigate the compatibility between extension aims of extension staff and those of their employer. It shows that only 50 percent of respondents have an acceptable understanding of the official aims (vision), and that none of the components of the official vision has sufficient compatibility ...

  3. Selection patterns, gender and friendship aim in classroom networks.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baerveldt, Chris; Van de Bunt, Gerhard G.; Vermande, Marjolijn M.

    2014-01-01

    The social networks of students, and the underlying processes of selection, can have strong effects on their psychological and academic adjustment. The effects of gender, friendship aim (intimacy or social activities) and the combination of gender and friendship aim on selection patterns (student’s

  4. The Asteroid Impact Mission - Deflection Demonstration (AIM - D2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küppers, M.; Michel, P.; Carnelli, I.

    2017-09-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is ESA's contribution to the international Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA) cooperation, targeting the demonstration of deflection of a hazardous near-earth asteroid. AIM will also be the first in-depth investigation of a binary asteroid and make measurements that are relevant for the preparation of asteroid resource utilisation. AIM is foreseen to rendezvous with the binary near-Earth asteroid (65803) Didymos and to observe the system before, during, and after the impact of NASA's Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) spacecraft. Here we describe the observations to be done by the simplified version Asteroid Impact Mission - Deflection Demonstration (AIM-D2) and show that most of the original AIM objectives can still be achieved.

  5. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  6. Laying the Groundwork for an Interdisciplinary Effort Aimed at Prevention of Pregnancy among Middle School Students. Phase IV: Revised Curriculum. Final Report. July 1981 to June 1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of West Florida, Pensacola.

    This revised curriculum, developed for use in Florida middle schools, is a comprehensive family life education course. The content of the course was determined (1) through a "Needs Assessment Inventory for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention," which was sent to more than 1,200 home economics teachers in Florida (and returned by the majority of…

  7. Predicting Intersystem Crossing Rates with AIMS-DFT Molecular Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, Dmitry A; Lykhin, Aleksandr O; Varganov, Sergey A

    2018-03-23

    Accurate prediction of the intersystem crossing rates is important for many different applications in chemistry, physics, and biology. Recently, we implemented the ab initio multiple spawning (AIMS) molecular dynamics method to describe the intersystem crossing processes, where nonradiative transitions between electronic states with different spin multiplicities are mediated by spin-orbit coupling. Our original implementation of the direct AIMS dynamics used the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method to describe multiple coupled electronic states on which multidimensional Gaussian wave packets were propagated. In this work, we improve the computational efficiency and versatility of the AIMS dynamics by interfacing it with the density functional theory (DFT). The new AIMS-DFT and the earlier AIMS-CASSCF implementations are used to investigate the effects of electronic structure methods on the predicted intersystem crossing rate constants and the lowest triplet state lifetime in the GeH 2 molecule. We also compare the rates and lifetimes obtained from the AIMS simulations with those predicted by the statistical nonadiabatic transition state theory (NA-TST). In NA-TST, the probabilities of spin transitions are calculated using the Landau-Zener, weak coupling, and Zhu-Nakamura formulas. Convergence of the AIMS rate constants with respect to the simulation time and the number of initial trajectories (Gaussian wave packets) is analyzed. An excellent agreement between AIMS-DFT and AIMS-CASSCF can be explained by cancelation of two effects: higher energy barriers and a stronger spin-orbit coupling in DFT relative to CASSCF. The rate constants obtained with the AIMS-DFT dynamics are about a factor of 2 larger than those predicted by the statistical NA-TST. This is likely due to the importance of the nonlocal interstate transitions missing from the NA-TST description.

  8. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis. Copyright © 2012 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy Innovation in Innovation Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    as with national and sub-national governments in Europe, all of them introducing interesting novelties in their innovation policy. These changes refer to different aspects of policy, mainly the content of policy initiatives towards science, technology and innovation; the instruments governments are using...... to achieve their goals; and the actors in the policy system that are being mobilised in pursuing these goals. This paper deals with these policy changes, paying special attention to the novelties introduced since the early 1990s in Europe. The perspective of this paper deals mainly on the changes introduced...... at the EU level, and mentions similar trends taking place at national and sub-national levels. The questions that guide the contents here are essentially three, namely, what are the main traits of innovation policies in Europe since the 1990s and how have the EU and different national governments approached...

  10. The policy trail methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holford, John; Larson, Anne; Melo, Susana

    In recent years, the “policy trail” has been proposed as a methodology appropriate to the shifting and fluid governance of lifelong learning in the late modern world (Holford et al. 2013, Holford et al. 2013, Cort 2014). The contemporary environment is marked by multi-level governance (global....../national/regional/local), but also by a diversification of types of actor (public/private; for-profit/not-for-profit). Multi-level governance has been particularly marked – and has taken specific forms – in the European context, but it is by no means limited to the EU. The policy trail method aims to capture the increased influence...... of transnational organisations and public-private networks in policymaking. The concept of policy trails sought to theorise how this widened policy space – including new and variously-sited actors – is negotiated and how power is distributed across sites (Holford & McKenzie, 2013). Cort (2014) developed the notion...

  11. Strengthening Foreign Policy Through Public Diplomacy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Claud

    2004-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War and the terrorist attacks of September 11 2001 the United States of America is engaged in a major effort to inform and influence understanding of its foreign policy around the world...

  12. Interactions Among Insider Ownership, Dividend Policy, Debt Policy, Investment Decision, and Business Risk

    OpenAIRE

    F., Indri Erkaningrum

    2013-01-01

    The study of interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk is still conducted. This research aims at investigating theinfluencing factors of insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, business risk, and the interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk. The samples of the research are 137 manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchan...

  13. INTERACTIONS AMONG INSIDER OWNERSHIP, DIVIDEND POLICY, DEBT POLICY, INVESTMENT DECISION, AND BUSINESS RISK

    OpenAIRE

    F., Indri Erkaningrum

    2015-01-01

    The study of interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk is still conducted. This research aims at investigating theinfluencing factors of insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, business risk, and the interaction among insider ownership, dividend policy, debt policy, investment decision, and business risk. The samples of the research are 137 manufacturing companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchan...

  14. Financial inclusion: Policies and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thankom Arun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a key enabler for development, financial inclusion is firmly placed on the agenda of most governments as a key policy priority. Against this background, this round table provides a global and regional perspective on the policies and practices of financial inclusion. Using macro data, the collection reveals the diversity in the efforts towards achieving financial inclusion and the need for a progressive approach in financial inclusion. Further to this, the round table provides the regional perspectives on the policies and practices of financial inclusion in India, South Africa, and Australia.

  15. Challenges of Data Dissemination Efforts Within a Community-Based Participatory Project About Persistent Racial Disparities in Excess Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Bernice R; Wendel, Josefine; Banks, Chandra; Goodridge, Ardeene; Harding, Richard; Harris, Robin; Hacker, Karen; Chomitz, Virginia R

    2015-01-01

    Despite universal environmental and policy-focused initiatives that resulted in declines in obesity among children in Cambridge, Massachusetts, disparities persist among racial/ethnic groups. In response, a community coalition formed the Healthy Eating and Living Project (HELP), to investigate and disseminate findings regarding disparities in excess weight among Cambridge Black youth (ages 6-14), with the aim of facilitating reciprocal learning and community mobilization to ultimately increase community engagement and inform prevention efforts. This paper details the theoretical framework, methods, and results of disseminating HELP findings to various sectors of the Cambridge Black/African American (Black) community. First, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach, the HELP coalition analyzed existing data and conducted qualitative studies with Cambridge Black families to better understand the sociocultural and familial determinants of excess weight. We then developed presentation and print materials and used different dissemination approaches. We solicited feedback to inform the dissemination process and mobilization of obesity prevention efforts. We disseminated information through six community groups (parents, students, pastors, men's health group, community leaders, and a health coalition), email lists, and websites. Reciprocal learning among and between HELP and community members yielded data presentation challenges, as well as prevention effort ideas and barriers. Dissemination of local health data should be considered both as a strategy to increase community engagement and as an intervention to promote collective efficacy and community change. Careful attention should be dedicated to the language used when communicating racial disparities in excess weight to various community groups.

  16. Circulating AIM Prevents Hepatocellular Carcinoma through Complement Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsumi Maehara

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a widespread fatal disease and the third most common cause of cancer deaths. Here, we show the potent anti-HCC effect of the circulating protein AIM. As in adipocytes, AIM is incorporated into normal hepatocytes, where it interferes with lipid storage. In contrast, AIM accumulates on the HCC cell surface and activates the complement cascade via inactivating multiple regulators of complement activation. This response provokes necrotic cell death specifically in AIM-bound HCC cells. Accordingly, AIM−/− mice were highly susceptible to steatosis-associated HCC development, whereas no AIM+/+ mouse developed the disease despite comparable liver inflammation and fibrosis in response to a long-term high-fat diet. Administration of AIM prevented tumor development in AIM−/− mice, and HCC induction by diethylnitrosamine was more prominent in AIM−/− than wild-type mice. These findings could be the basis for novel AIM-based therapeutic strategies for HCC.

  17. Informed policies

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    cation technology (ICT) and now. Minister of Science and Technology, was one of the architects of Mozam- bique's ICT policy in 2000 — the first in Africa. Nationwide access to these technologies is one of the pillars of the government's science and technology policy. “We don't believe in politicians, but we believe in politics.

  18. Integrated planning aimed at sustainability city logistics solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of city logistics system is sustainability, or efficiency, wide acceptability, environmental protection and safety. On the other hand, the city logistics system is very complex. It is characterized by a large number of participants, with different, usually conflicting goals and complex interactions. In addition, the system of city logistics is part of a wider system of the town, the region, and there are complex interactions with the external environment. The system depends on the specific characteristics of the city, affects other forms of urban mobility and is subject to the policies of higher rank (regional, national policy. Given the exceptional complexity, sustainable city logistics solution requires an integrated approach in all phases of planning, from stages of problem identification, definition of alternative solutions and effects assessment, to implementation and by exploitation. In this way, the solution of city logistics is becoming widely accepted and not only affects the efficiency of the socio-economic system of town, already on the sustainability of the whole region.

  19. A review of intervention studies aimed at household energy conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, W; Steg, L; Vlek, C; Rothengatter, T; Rothengatter, J.A.

    This article reviews and evaluates the effectiveness of interventions aiming to encourage households to reduce energy consumption. Thirty-eight studies performed within the field of (applied) social and environmental psychology are reviewed, and categorized as involving either antecedent strategies

  20. Mitochondrial ROS potentiates indirect activation of the AIM2 inflammasome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah D Crane

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of the inflammasome is important for the detection and clearance of cytosolic pathogens. In contrast to avirulent F. novicida (Fn, infection with virulent F. tularensis ssp tularensis does not trigger activation of the host AIM2 inflammasome. Here we show that differential activation of AIM2 following Francisella infection is due to sensitivity of each isolate to reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS present at the outset of Fn infection contributes to activation of the AIM2 inflammasome, independent of NLRP3 and NADPH oxidase. Rather, mitochondrial ROS (mROS is critical for Fn stimulation of the inflammasome. This study represents the first demonstration of the importance of mROS in the activation of the AIM2 inflammasome by bacteria. Our results also demonstrate that bacterial resistance to mROS is a mechanism of virulence for early evasion of detection by the host.

  1. Psychoneuroendocrine interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, M.E.; Muller, G.C.; Correa, B.L.; Vianna, P.; Turner, J.E.; Bosch, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting that immunosenescence can be accelerated by external factors such as chronic stress. Here we review potential psychoneuroendocrine determinants of premature aging of the immune system and discuss available interventions aimed at attenuating immunosenescence. Chronic

  2. Americans aim to overhaul science teaching by 2061

    CERN Multimedia

    1990-01-01

    Project 2061 is a long-term initiative by the AAAS to reform classroom science. Deputy director Walter Gillespie claims that the aim is for schools to teach less content but teach it better (1/2 page).

  3. Toolkit for local decision makers aims to strengthen environmental sustainability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Murambadoro, M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Members of the South African Risk and Vulnerability Atlas were involved in a meeting aimed at the development of a toolkit towards improved integration of climate change into local government's integrated development planning (IDP) process....

  4. Evaluation and cultural adaptation of a German version of the AIMS2-SF questionnaire (German AIMS2-SF).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosemann, T.J.; Korner, T.; Wensing, M.J.P.; Schneider, A.; Szecsenyi, J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the validity of a translated and culturally adapted version of the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales 2, Short Form (AIMS2-SF) in patients suffering from osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care. METHODS: A structured procedure was used for the translation

  5. Ethics and aims in psychotherapy: a contribution from Kant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, J S

    1998-08-01

    Psychotherapy is an activity which takes many forms and which has many aims. The present paper argues that it can be viewed as a form of moral suasion. Kant's concepts of free will and ethics are described and these are then applied to the processes and outcome of psychotherapy. It is argued that his ideas, by linking rationality, free will and ethics into a single philosophical system, offer a valuable theoretical framework for thinking about aims and ethical issues in psychotherapy.

  6. Liberal Coercion? - Prostitution, Human Trafficking and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Seo-Young Cho

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  7. The Index of Asia-Pacific Regional Integration Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Yifan Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Asia-Pacific region is not typically seen as one geographic or socio-economic space. Yet, 58 regional economies occupying the space of 28 million square kilometers from Turkey in the West, Russian Federation in the North, French Polynesia in the East and New Zealand in the South belong to the Economic and Social Commission of Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP. This commission provides a forum for member states that "promotes regional cooperation and collective action, assisting countries in building and sustaining shared economic growth and social equity". In 2013, ESCAP's members adopted the Bangkok Declaration to enhance efforts towards deeper regional economic integration. Yet this document neither proposes a concrete modality or modalities of achieving deeper integration, nor provides a sense of distance of individual countries to a "perceived" integrated Asia-Pacific.This paper aims to comprehensively quantify recent integration efforts of economies in the Asia-Pacific region. We provide an "index of integration effort" based on twelve metrics that measure the relative distance of a given economy to the region as an economic entity. Generally, we find that while the region has trended towards becoming integrated in general, both the level of integration and integration effort are inconsistent among Asia-Pacific economies. We discuss potential applications and extensions of the index in developing our perspective of the region's economic and social dynamics.

  8. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  10. Behavior Contracts: A Home School Cooperative Effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitely, Rose Patton

    1978-01-01

    This paper focuses on behavior contracts at school which attempt to promote a home school cooperative effort. The contract is drawn up at school, and classroom teachers award points for appropriate school behaviors; parents in turn reward the student if the report is good. (DS)

  11. Nash Equilibria in Shared Effort Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polevoy, G.; Trajanovski, S.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shared effort games model people's contribution to projects and sharing the obtained profits. Those games generalize both public projects like writing for Wikipedia, where everybody shares the resulting benefits, and all-pay auctions such as contests and political campaigns, where only the winner

  12. Has Malaysia's antidrug effort been effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorzelli, J F

    1992-01-01

    It is a common belief that a massive effort in law enforcement, preventive education and rehabilitation will result in the elimination of a country's drug problem. Based on this premise. Malaysia in 1983 implemented such a multifaceted anti-drug strategy, and the results of a 1987 study by the author suggested that Malaysia's effort had begun to contribute to a steady decrease in the number of identified drug abusers. Although the number of drug-addicted individuals declined, the country's recidivism rates were still high. Because of this high relapse rate, Malaysia expanded their rehabilitation effort and developed a community transition program. In order to determine the impact of these changes on the country's battle against drug abuse, a follow-up study was conducted in 1990. The results of this study did not clearly demonstrate that the Malaysian effort had been successful in eliminating the problem of drug abuse, and raised some questions concerning the effectiveness of the country's drug treatment programs.

  13. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  14. Net benefits of wildfire prevention education efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David T. Butry; Karen L. Abt; Ronda. Sutphen

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire prevention education efforts involve a variety of methods, including airing public service announcements, distributing brochures, and making presentations, which are intended to reduce the occurrence of certain kinds of wildfires. A Poisson model of preventable Florida wildfires from 2002 to 2007 by fire management region was developed. Controlling for...

  15. Coordinating the United States Interagency Partnering Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    operations now will mean throwing 18 away hard-fought gains, and expose the United States to new risks from across the globalising ...effort and how they present themselves. OIP will leverage technology and training to provide the best information and personnel for interagency

  16. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  17. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  18. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South ... practitioners and all those concerned with policy-making across the continent, thus contributing to the development of shared knowledge and cooperative effort.

  19. Efforts to Address the Aging Academic Workforce: Assessing Progress through a Three-Stage Model of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskie, Brian; Walker, Mark; Andersson, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The aging of the academic workforce is becoming more relevant to policy discussions in higher education. Yet there has been no formal, large-scale analysis of institutional efforts to develop policies and programs for aging employees. We fielded a representative survey of human resource specialists at 187 colleges and universities across the…

  20. Manifestations of integrated public health policy in Dutch municipalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Dorothee; Harting, Janneke; van Oers, Hans; Schuit, Jantine; de Vries, Nanne; Stronks, Karien

    2016-01-01

    Integrated public health policy (IPHP) aims at integrating health considerations into policies of other sectors. Since the limited empirical evidence available may hamper its further development, we systematically analysed empirical manifestations of IPHP, by placing policy strategies along a

  1. Science and Security Policy: The Case of Advanced Pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, E. D.

    2007-01-01

    The revolution in biotechnology presents unprecedented opportunities and dangers for the health and well being of mankind. Today, one can plausibly imagine the eradication of many historic diseases. One can also envisage the creation of new diseases that would endanger a substantial proportion of the entire human species. As powerful applications for biotechnology research are identified, appropriate arrangements for managing their extraordinary consequences will inevitably become necessary. This presentation will explore recent efforts to balance science and security policy in the area of advanced biotechnology research. Key developments on the dual-use issue will be discussed, together with a variety of governance options aimed at mitigating the risk from such research. (author)

  2. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  3. Property value management aimed at promoting economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Odobašić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing the property value at the micro level of individuals, households, businesses and other orga - nisations on one hand, and the government at the macro level is a key factor in achieving a faster GDP growth and getting closer to the developed countries. Natural resources of a country are important, as is the structure, dynamics, education and culture, traditions, working habits, consumption habits and savings of the population. A key factor, however, is the way in which property is treated. Available property must constantly generate revenue. Ignoring the way in which the population treats property might hold back the development. An adequate government policy plays a crucial role in increasing the value of property, and should include the introduction of property tax.

  4. The subversion of Mill and the ultimate aim of nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snelling, Paul C

    2018-01-01

    This is lightly edited and referenced version of a presentation given at the 20th International Philosophy of Nursing conference in Quebec on 23rd August 2016. Philosophical texts are not given the same prominence in nurse education as their more valued younger sibling, primary research evidence, but they can influence practice through guidelines, codes and espoused values. John Stuart Mill's harm principle, found in On Liberty, is not a universal law, and only a thoroughgoing libertarian would defend it as such, though it, or its remnants, can be seen can be seen in policy documents. But its influence is weakening. Smoking bans in enclosed spaces were initially justified with other-regarding considerations, but judgements from unsuccessful legal challenges from patients in UK psychiatric hospitals rely on preventing harm to the smoker, even when smoking outside, which does not harm others. In the wake of legislation, no-smoking policies enacted by hospitals are becoming more aggressive, banning smoking both inside and outside, and extending the use of power gained through employment to prevent nurses assisting patients enjoy a lawful habit. Mill's dictum has been subverted, and this speaks to the fundamental purpose of nursing. Should nurses collude and willingly exert their power for their version of the good of the patient? Or should they instead reaffirm values that support and facilitate life choices made by autonomous people? The paper supports the latter option, and this has wider application for nursing which can be illuminated, if not settled, by revisiting Mill and his famous dictum. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Policy stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm; Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard

    planning and execution and of event outcomes beyond the narrow confines of bed nights and legacies. Second, we introduce policies as an entry point to unlock discussions and manifestations of value and futures which connect to AWG. In order to exemplify the workings of the AWG event in these domains, we...... present three central policy stories from the field. The stories tell of how the event was first interested, then activated and finally evaluated. Besides adding a new understanding to policy-driven events as a locus of value creation, we also argue that the AWG 2016 offer speculative bets for new...

  6. Central and Eastern Europe aim to protect their ecological backbone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, J.P.

    1992-12-01

    Important environmental issues face the newly democratic countries in Central and Eastern Europe. The problems of habitat and wildlife conservation are given less attention than other issues such as air and water pollution. However, a variety of opportunities exist to protect the remaining wild areas. Existing national parks, undeveloped lands especially along borders, and the Danube delta ecosystem still retain wild character, at least in part. Lack of money and equipment, the rush to privatization, lack of government priority, small core areas of wild land, and the effects of pollution all stand in the way of conservation efforts. Technical aid is coming from aid funding through US agencies and environmental and conservation organizations, but the future remains a concern.

  7. YOUTH HOMELESSNESS: PREVENTION AND INTERVENTION EFFORTS IN PSYCHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JHON J. SANABRIA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I review the prevention and intervention efforts addressing youth homelessness in the fieldof psychology between 1994 and 2004. Analyses of the literature revealed that the majority of papersincluding homeless youth as a population for study have focused on issues other than homelessness.These issues include HIV/AIDS and substance abuse prevention. Eleven journal articles addressing youthhomelessness were reviewed. These articles focused on outcomes, interventions, and recommendationsfor clinical practice. Literature findings revealed that demographic variables did not predict outcomesfor homeless youth; youth returning home with their parents have more positive outcomes than youthmoving into other locations, emergency shelter services improve youth’s mental health and social condition,and services should be comprehensive and move beyond the individuals. Implications for communitypsychology, policy makers, and shelters are discussed.

  8. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Linking effort and fishing mortality in a mixed fisheries model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, Thomas Talund; Hoff, Ayoe; Frost, Hans Staby

    2012-01-01

    Since the implementation of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union in 1983, the management of EU fisheries has been enormously challenging. The abundance of many fish stocks has declined because too much fishing capacity has been utilised on healthy fish stocks. Today, this decline...... in fish stocks has led to overcapacity in many fisheries, leading to incentives for overfishing. Recent research has shown that the allocation of effort among fleets can play an important role in mitigating overfishing when the targeting covers a range of species (multi-species—i.e., so-called mixed...... fisheries), while simultaneously optimising the overall economic performance of the fleets. The so-called FcubEcon model, in particular, has elucidated both the biologically and economically optimal method for allocating catches—and thus effort—between fishing fleets, while ensuring that the quotas...

  10. Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) Spending and Tobacco Control Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayawardhana, Jayani; Bradford, W. David; Jones, Walter; Nietert, Paul J.; Silvestri, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether the distributions to the states from the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) in 1998 is associated with stronger tobacco control efforts. We use state level data from 50 states and the District of Columbia from four time periods post MSA (1999, 2002, 2004, and 2006) for the analysis. Using fixed effect regression models, we estimate the relationship between MSA disbursements and a new aggregate measure of strength of state tobacco control known as the Strength of Tobacco Control (SoTC) Index. Results show an increase of $1 in the annual per capita MSA disbursement to a state is associated with a decrease of −0.316 in the SoTC mean value, indicating higher MSA payments were associated with weaker tobacco control measures within states. In order to achieve the initial objectives of the MSA payments, policy makers should focus on utilizing MSA payments strictly on tobacco control activities across states. PMID:25506827

  11. Uncertainty in aiming movements and its association to hand function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Priscila de Paiva Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of the uncertainty of target location on the planning and execution of aiming movements performed towards the ipsilateral and contralateral directions by the right and left upper limbs. In addition, the association between the performance of aiming movements and the performance of functional manual tasks was investigated. Two tasks were proposed: with prior knowledge of the movement direction (simple reaction time or not (choice reaction time. The grip strength and manual dexterity were measured. The choice option in response (i.e. uncertainty influenced planning of the aiming movements, but not its execution, while movements performed towards the contralateral direction were worse in execution as compared to the ipsilateral direction. Manual dexterity was significantly correlated with reaction times, while the performance during movement execution was significantly correlated with handgrip/pinch strength.

  12. The FAST-AIMS Clinical Mass Spectrometry Analysis System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeh Fananapazir

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Within clinical proteomics, mass spectrometry analysis of biological samples is emerging as an important high-throughput technology, capable of producing powerful diagnostic and prognostic models and identifying important disease biomarkers. As interest in this area grows, and the number of such proteomics datasets continues to increase, the need has developed for efficient, comprehensive, reproducible methods of mass spectrometry data analysis by both experts and nonexperts. We have designed and implemented a stand-alone software system, FAST-AIMS, which seeks to meet this need through automation of data preprocessing, feature selection, classification model generation, and performance estimation. FAST-AIMS is an efficient and user-friendly stand-alone software for predictive analysis of mass spectrometry data. The present resource review paper will describe the features and use of the FAST-AIMS system. The system is freely available for download for noncommercial use.

  13. Understanding the process of establishing a food and nutrition policy: the case of Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugelberg, Susanna; Jönsson, Kristina; Yngve, Agneta

    2012-09-01

    There has been an increasing effort across Europe to develop national policies in food and nutrition during the last decade. However, little is known about how public health nutrition issues get on the public health agenda and the roles individuals have when these agendas are being set. The aims of this study were to scrutinise the development process of the Slovenian national food and nutrition policy, and to identify the roles and functions of individuals who have contributed to that process. This study undertook a qualitative approach. Data collection included 18 semi-structured interviews between 2007 and 2011, and grey and scientific literature search. Text analysis was based on Kingdon's streams model, which involved highlighting the relationship between problem identification, policy solutions and political opportunities. Data were coded to identify the roles and functions of individuals participating in the agenda-setting process. The analysis showed that the opportunity for the Slovenian food and nutrition policy to be developed was largely explained by a change in political circumstances, namely the accession of Slovenia to the European Union and the Common Agricultural Policy. Individuals with experience in policy development were identified because of their analytical, strategic and policy entrepreneurial skills. The analyst was responsible for communicating the key nutrition issues to policy-makers, the strategist joined international networks and promoted policy solutions from international experts including the World Health Organization, and the policy entrepreneur took advantage of the political situation to enlist the participation of previous opponents to a national nutrition policy. This study found that individuals, their roles and skills, played an important role in the development of the Slovenian National Food and Nutrition Policy. The roles and functions of these individuals, which are identified in this study, may assist future endeavours

  14. S3T working group. Report 1: group aims

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouey, M.

    1983-04-01

    The work group S3T which is aimed to designing and developing devices using unconventional holographic optics is presented. These devices find applications that are classified here in four items high resolution spectrometers, high definition imaging, high flux devices, metrology and interferometry. The problems to solve and the aims of the group in each of these cases are presented. Three synthesis of lectures are in this report. The main one concerns stigmatism conditions of concave holographic gratings used in normal incidence. This new process of focusing is very interesting for hot plasma diagnostics [fr

  15. Extracurricular Activities in the Steps of Aim-Based Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Yildiz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Teachers and students’ competence applying the required steps in learning process takes paramount place depending on the aim-based education. Hence, by this study, it is aimed to enhance the students’ motivation by applying the right learning steps. In addition, this study facilitates teachers’ ability to make a decision about which methods, approaches and stage orders to follow confidently while teaching a foreign language to any learner. Consequently, it is emphasized that quality learning process needs motivation which may be provided by extracurricular activities.

  16. Aims and Formats of performance measurement at Danish Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffnsøe-Møller, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Abstract This article traces the aims and formats of performance measurement of Danish Universities as they originate from the Ministry of Finance’s plan for governance of the public sector. The article further show that the fierce conflicts between central administration and the universities over...... these performance initiatives are due to two main factors: A clash between external and internal regimes of performance management and a conflict over the interpretation of the overall aims of the university. A distinction between three Performance management paradigms – target regimes, ranking regimes...

  17. Environmental Education Curriculum Policy in Tanzanian Schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This viewpoint paper examines environmental education policy in practice in Tanzania in the context of the primary school curriculum. This policy review stretches back to the mid-1960s, when major curricula changes were effected, to the present. The paper highlights efforts during this period to provide relevant education ...

  18. Mexico's "ley de narcomenudeo" drug policy reform and the international drug control regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Tim K; Werb, Daniel; Beletsky, Leo; Rangel, Gudelia; Arredondo, Jaime; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2014-11-14

    It has been over half a century since the landmark Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs was adopted, for the first time unifying international drug policy under a single treaty aimed at limiting use, manufacture, trade, possession, and trafficking of opiates, cannabis, and other narcotics. Since then, other international drug policy measures have been adopted, largely emphasizing enforcement-based approaches to reducing drug supply and use. Recently, in response to concerns that the historic focus on criminalization and enforcement has had limited effectiveness, international drug policies have begun to undergo a paradigm shift as countries seek to enact their own reforms to partially depenalize or deregulate personal drug use and possession. This includes Mexico, which in 2009 enacted national drug policy reform partially decriminalizing possession of small quantities of narcotics for personal consumption while also requiring drug treatment for repeat offenders. As countries move forward with their own reform models, critical assessment of their legal compatibility and effectiveness is necessary. In this commentary we conduct a critical assessment of the compatibility of Mexico's reform policy to the international drug policy regime and describe its role in the current evolving drug policy environment. We argue that Mexico's reform is consistent with flexibilities allowed under international drug treaty instruments and related commentaries. We also advocate that drug policy reforms and future governance efforts should be based on empirical evidence, emphasize harm reduction practices, and integrate evidence-based evaluation and implementation of drug reform measures.

  19. Adaptation policies to increase terrestrial ecosystem resilience. Potential utility of a multicriteria approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Bremond, Ariane [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Engle, Nathan L. [World Bank, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Climate change is rapidly undermining terrestrial ecosystem resilience and capacity to continue providing their services to the benefit of humanity and nature. Because of the importance of terrestrial ecosystems to human well-being and supporting services, decision makers throughout the world are busy creating policy responses that secure multiple development and conservation objectives- including that of supporting terrestrial ecosystem resilience in the context of climate change. This article aims to advance analyses on climate policy evaluation and planning in the area of terrestrial ecosystem resilience by discussing adaptation policy options within the ecology-economy-social nexus. The paper evaluates these decisions in the realm of terrestrial ecosystem resilience and evaluates the utility of a set of criteria, indicators, and assessment methods, proposed by a new conceptual multi-criteria framework for pro-development climate policy and planning developed by the United Nations Environment Programme. Potential applications of a multicriteria approach to climate policy vis-A -vis terrestrial ecosystems are then explored through two hypothetical case study examples. The paper closes with a brief discussion of the utility of the multi-criteria approach in the context of other climate policy evaluation approaches, considers lessons learned as a result efforts to evaluate climate policy in the realm of terrestrial ecosystems, and reiterates the role of ecosystem resilience in creating sound policies and actions that support the integration of climate change and development goals.

  20. Energy poverty policies in the EU: A critical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzarovski, Stefan; Petrova, Saska; Sarlamanov, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Once confined to the UK context – where it was struggling to receive political recognition for years – the concept of energy (or fuel) poverty is slowly entering the EU's agenda, where it has crept into a number of regulatory documents and policy proposals. Using evidence gathered from an international workshop and semi-structured interviews with decision-makers, experts and advocacy activists in Brussels and Sofia, this paper explores the adoption of policies aimed at addressing energy poverty within (i) the organisational context of the EU; and (ii) national state institutions in Bulgaria – a member state facing considerable problems at the energy affordability – social inequality nexus. While the former are largely nascent and poorly co-ordinated, the latter have already been implemented de jure to a significant extent. However, many unresolved issues surrounding their de facto implementation remain. At the same time, national policy makers remain largely unaware of the existence of direct energy poverty related initiatives at the EU level. - Highlights: ► This paper explores the adoption of energy poverty policies within the EU and Bulgaria. ► We establish the existence of a range of nascent efforts to address the issue at EU level. ► Bulgaria has been good at implementing EU energy poverty relevant directives. ► However, policy makers speak a different language when it comes to direct energy poverty action.

  1. CONVERGENCE IN THE EUROPEAN SOCIAL POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Iovitu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union has developed a series of strategies that aim to limit the consequences of non-employment (due to the continuing crisis. These strategies aim by the objectives and mechanisms specific to the eco-social area, to improve the access to employment, social services, professional education and a more efficient European fund management. All this are subordinated to the coupling policy public-private in terms of partnerships both at a national level and European level. The problem is related to differences manifested between the social objectives at the national level and those imposed by the European context. The differences come from different degrees of economic development of the member states, economic development which is reflected on the living standards. The convergence between the social policies is based on the economic convergence, which represents the only way to ameliorate the discrepancies between the united nations of Europe. Social Europe dream or certainty? The answer can be found in the words of Jean Monnet: “we are not bringing together states, we are uniting people”. The efforts to define the four types of actions regarding the free movement of labor force and the correlation of the social security schemes, ensuring equal opportunities, respecting labor rights and the fight against discrimination can be found in the results obtained on these priorities.

  2. Social Science Research and School Diversity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sheneka M.; McDermott, Kathryn A.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, policy makers, advocates, and researchers have been engaged in efforts to make educational opportunity more equal for students from different racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups. A great deal of research has been conducted on their efforts; however, there is some disagreement on the extent to which the research has been…

  3. Parents' Pasts and Families' Futures: Using Family Assessments to Inform Perspectives on Reasonable Efforts and Reunification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithgall, Cheryl; DeCoursey, Jan; Yang, Duck-Hye; Haseltine, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Whether parents can overcome the problems that led to abuse and neglect of their children is the essence of questions surrounding efforts to return children to their parents once legal custody of a child has been granted to the child welfare agency. Consistent with a legal and policy framework protecting parental rights in the United States, the…

  4. Paradigms, Power, and PR in New York City: Assessing Two School Accountability Implementation Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This policy study critically compares two different efforts to implement an accountability system in the New York City public schools. In 1971, the New York City Board of Education contracted with the Educational Testing Service (ETS), which created a lengthy accountability plan for the district. Fitful maneuvers to execute the ETS plan fizzled…

  5. One State's Systems Change Efforts to Reduce Child Care Expulsion: Taking the Pyramid Model to Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinh, Megan; Strain, Phil; Davidon, Sarah; Smith, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the efforts funded by the state of Colorado to address unacceptably high rates of expulsion from child care. Based on the results of a 2006 survey, the state of Colorado launched two complementary policy initiatives in 2009 to impact expulsion rates and to improve the use of evidence-based practices related to challenging…

  6. The alcohol industry's way to discipline pleasure. Prevention campaigns aimed at Danish youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob Johan; Houborg, Esben

    2011-01-01

    people. Both campaigns aim to associate alcohol consumption with a disciplined pleasure that does not involve intoxication. In this way alcohol policy becomes a politics of pleasure. Conclusion – Alcohol prevention that aims to moderate alcohol consumption among young people by associating alcohol......Aims – To analyze how two youth alcohol prevention campaigns funded by the Danish alcohol industry articulate the relationship between alcohol, intoxication and pleasure. Design – The two campaigns are first analyzed by applying an analytical model developed by Karlsson and Bergmark (2009......) to analyze drug prevention campaigns in Sweden. After this a more detailed analysis of how the two campaigns articulate pleasure is done. Results – Both campaigns recognize recreational motives for consuming alcohol. In both campaigns pleasure is central to the regulation of alcohol consumption among young...

  7. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program annual progress report, FY 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program is a part of the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, US Department of Energy (DOE). The mission of AIM is to support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve energy efficiency, productivity, product quality, and reduced waste in the major process industries. OIT has embarked on a fundamentally new way of working with industries--the Industries of the Future (IOF) strategy--concentrating on the major process industries that consume about 90% of the energy and generate about 90% of the waste in the industrial sector. These are the aluminum, chemical, forest products, glass, metalcasting, and steel industries. OIT has encouraged and assisted these industries in developing visions of what they will be like 20 or 30 years into the future, defining the drivers, technology needs, and barriers to realization of their visions. These visions provide a framework for development of technology roadmaps and implementation plans, some of which have been completed. The AIM Program supports IOF by conducting research and development on materials to solve problems identified in the roadmaps. This is done by National Laboratory/industry/university teams with the facilities and expertise needed to develop new and improved materials. Each project in the AIM Program has active industrial participation and support.

  8. Oxysterol Restraint of Cholesterol Synthesis Prevents AIM2 Inflammasome Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Eric V; McDonald, Jeffrey G; Russell, David W; Cyster, Jason G

    2017-11-16

    Type I interferon restrains interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-driven inflammation in macrophages by upregulating cholesterol-25-hydroxylase (Ch25h) and repressing SREBP transcription factors. However, the molecular links between lipid metabolism and IL-1β production remain obscure. Here, we demonstrate that production of 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) by macrophages is required to prevent inflammasome activation by the DNA sensor protein absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2). We find that in response to bacterial infection or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, macrophages upregulate Ch25h to maintain repression of SREBP2 activation and cholesterol synthesis. Increasing macrophage cholesterol content is sufficient to trigger IL-1β release in a crystal-independent but AIM2-dependent manner. Ch25h deficiency results in cholesterol-dependent reduced mitochondrial respiratory capacity and release of mitochondrial DNA into the cytosol. AIM2 deficiency rescues the increased inflammasome activity observed in Ch25h -/- . Therefore, activated macrophages utilize 25-HC in an anti-inflammatory circuit that maintains mitochondrial integrity and prevents spurious AIM2 inflammasome activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Furthering the aim of multi-lingualism through integrated terminology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at giving a brief account of how the activities of the Unit for isiXho-sa, one of the five units of the Stellenbosch University Language Centre, contributes to the devel-opment of integrated technical terminology lists for all departments of the University. After the reason for this terminology development has been ...

  10. Autonomy as the guiding aim of entrepreneurship education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gelderen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be

  11. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program: Annual progress report FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    In many ways, the Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven ``Vision Industries`` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to ``Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.`` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is essential that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains reasonably healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. This Annual Report for FY 1995 contains the technical details of some very remarkable work by the best materials scientists and engineers in the world. Areas covered here are: advanced metals and composites; advanced ceramics and composites; polymers and biobased materials; and new materials and processes.

  12. A Question of Aims and Assumptions in Canadian Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIver, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    This article concurs with a critique in the OECD Report that Canadian education is organized along industrial lines and that this organization is for the purpose of achieving academic goals. Major criticism is aimed at the "over academization" of the schools and the influence of this on society. (Author/SJL)

  13. Autonomy as the Guiding Aim of Entrepreneurship Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gelderen, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has three purposes: first, to present a vision of entrepreneurship education that has the student's capacity for autonomous action as its ultimate aim; second, to convince the reader of the timeliness and relevance of such an approach; third, to outline how this can be implemented. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  14. [Content analysis of food adverts aimed at children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce-Blandón, José Antonio; Pabón-Carrasco, Manuel; Lomas-Campos, María de Las Mercedes

    To determine the contents and persuasive techniques used in processed food adverts aimed at children in Andalusia, comparing them with those aimed at adults. Study based on advert content analysis with two phases: a descriptive design phase and an analytical observational design phase. A sample of adverts from 60hours of broadcasting from the two most watched television channels in Andalusia. A total of 416 food and non-alcoholic beverage adverts were obtained, for 91 different products. Approximately 42.9% (n=39) was aimed at children and 53.8% (n=49) were products classified as "unhealthy". Unhealthy foods were more common in adverts for children (p adverts for children. Food advertising aimed at children in Andalusia is mainly based on offering products with a low nutritional value and using persuasive resources based on fantasy or gifts. The message is focused on the incentive and not the food. More effective measures than the current self-regulatory systems must be put in place to counter these distorted adverts. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Anxiety and ironic effects in aiming at a far target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.C.; Binsch, O.

    2011-01-01

    In far aiming the negative intention not to miss may ironically increase the tendency to do precisely that. Although cognitive constraints enhance the occurrence of ironic effects in the perceptual-motor domain the role of anxiety in inducing such effects has rarely been investigated while anxiety

  16. 'Omics' approaches in tomato aimed at identifying candidate genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adriana

    2013-12-04

    Dec 4, 2013 ... that provides a virtual workbench for researchers working ... lab, we undertook two different 'omics' approaches to in- .... In our laboratory, an association mapping approach by candidate gene has been undertaken with the aim of identifying among 96 different genotypes new alleles in genes that could.

  17. Ecological radiation monotoring in NPP region, aims and tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, Yu.A.

    1986-01-01

    Aims and tasks of ecological radiation monitoring in the NPP region are discussed. The aims of monitoring are: to determine possible sequences of NPP radioactive release effects on ecosystems, taking place on the background of chemical and thermal pollution to develop standard of radiation effect on ecosystems; the aims includes also obtaining of information for forecasting and evaluating long-term radiation effects, establishment of factors characterizing the ecosystem state, establishment of a combined effect of radioactive wastes with chemical and thermal ones. Finally, the aim of monitoring consists in providing the natural object conservation in the NPP region under optimal operation conditions. Thus it is necessary to solve the following problems: to observe systematically release, transport and transformation, when transporting radioactive and chemical contaminants in terrestial and aquatic biocenoses, as well as injection and transport in them of waste heat; to observe systematically the natural physico-chemical, chemico-biological processes affecting the injection and transport of contaminants in ecosystem components; to observe systematically the natural and, probably, antropogenic processes; to carry out systematically observations of the ecosystem state in the NPP region and eco-systems-monitors

  18. EFFORT ADAPTATION OR SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musat Carmina Liana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available During training processes, the human body gradually adapts itself, yet it is hard to believe that it has beenconceived in such way that it could endure the conditions of winning a modern Olympic or world medal. Withrespect to the physical effort, there is the following paradox: if the physical effort is acknowledged as a protector of the heart on the long term, then what causes these sports-related conditions that may result in sudden death?Thus arises the necessity of tracking and evaluating the cardiovascular risk targeting the professional sportsmen, their EKG fluctuations, the cardiovascular causes of sudden death, the part played by the physician and the sportsman in preventing the sudden death, as well as numerous clinical cases of sports cardiology

  19. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  20. Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Ackerman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.

  1. Some recent efforts toward high density implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClellan, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Some recent Livermore efforts towards achieving high-density implosions are presented. The implosion dynamics necessary to compress DT fuel to 10 to 100 times liquid density are discussed. Methods of diagnosing the maximum DT density for a specific design are presented along with results to date. The dynamics of the double-shelled target with an exploding outer shell are described, and some preliminary experimental results are presented

  2. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  3. How do feelings influence effort? An empirical study of entrepreneurs' affect and venture effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Maw-Der; Uy, Marilyn A; Baron, Robert A

    2009-07-01

    How do feelings influence the effort of entrepreneurs? To obtain data on this issue, the authors implemented experience sampling methodology in which 46 entrepreneurs used cell phones to provide reports on their affect, future temporal focus, and venture effort twice daily for 24 days. Drawing on the affect-as-information theory, the study found that entrepreneurs' negative affect directly predicts entrepreneurs' effort toward tasks that are required immediately. Results were consistent for within-day and next-day time lags. Extending the theory, the study found that positive affect predicts venture effort beyond what is immediately required and that this relationship is mediated by future temporal focus. The mediating effects were significant only for next-day outcomes. Implications of findings on the nature of the affect-effort relationship for different time lags are discussed.

  4. Policies promoting Biofuels in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmgren, Kristina [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden); Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Div. of Heat and Power Technology., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    This report was written as part of a course in Environmental Economics and Policy Instruments at the University of Gothenburg. It aims at summarizing the policy instruments introduced to directly affect the production and use of biofuels in Sweden. Since Sweden is part of the EU also EU policies were included. There are additional policy instruments which affect the production and utilization of biofuels in a more indirect way that are not presented here. The economic analysis in this paper is limited and could be developed from the information presented in order to draw further conclusions on necessary changes in order to reach set targets.

  5. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  6. Local government alcohol policy development: case studies in three New Zealand communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, Brett; Kypri, Kypros; Room, Robin; Langley, John

    2013-01-01

    Aims Local alcohol policies can be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. The aim of this study was to examine local government responses to alcohol-related problems and identify factors influencing their development and adoption of alcohol policy. Designsettings and participants Case studies were used to examine local government responses to alcohol problems in three New Zealand communities: a rural town, a provincial city and a metropolitan city. Newspaper reports, local government documents and key informant interviews were used to collect data which were analysed using two conceptual frameworks: Kingdon's Streams model and the Stakeholder model of policy development. Measurements Key informant narratives were categorized according to the concepts of the Streams and Stakeholder models. Findings Kingdon's theoretical concepts associated with increased likelihood of policy change seemed to apply in the rural and metropolitan communities. The political environment in the provincial city, however, was not favourable to the adoption of alcohol restrictions. The Stakeholder model highlighted differences between the communities in terms of power over agenda-setting and conflict between politicians and bureaucrats over policy solutions to alcohol-related harm. These differences were reflected in the ratio of policies considered versus adopted in each location. Decisions on local alcohol policies lie ultimately with local politicians, although the policies that can be adopted by local government are restricted by central government legislation. Conclusions The adoption of policies and strategies to reduce alcohol-related harm may be better facilitated by an agenda-setting process where no ‘gate-keepers’ determine what is included into the agenda, and community mobilization efforts to create competitive local government elections around alcohol issues. Policy adoption would also be facilitated by more enabling central government legislation. PMID:23130762

  7. European Commission action aimed at constructing a European regulatory framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ristori, D.

    2010-01-01

    The challenge of a low-carbon economy provides a new incentive for the development of renewable energies as well as of nuclear energy. The latter calls for a high level of safety and security. The EU has a role in providing a legal framework for this purpose as well as ensuring that these standards are respected internationally. For over 50 years the EURATOM Treaty has offered the legal basis for a wide range of initiatives supporting this policy. The EU has competences under chapter 3, 'Health and Safety', for the establishment of basic safety standards for the protection against ionizing radiation. These have extended beyond the scope of nuclear energy and now include medical exposures as well as natural radiation sources. The latest revision of the BSS-Directive, to be proposed in 2011, was an opportunity for the consolidation of all Community legislation. A ruling of the Court of Justice in 1999 paved the way for the establishment of standards on the safety of nuclear installations. A common vision on this matter was achieved through the creation of a body of European Safety Regulators (ENSREG) and the adoption of a specific Safety Directive in 2009. This new Directive translates internationally agreed safety standards into legally binding EU legislation and strengthens the position of national Regulators. (author)

  8. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  9. Research methodology the aims, practices and ethics of science

    CERN Document Server

    Pruzan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book is an in-depth guide to effective scientific research. Ranging from the philosophical to the practical, it explains at the outset what science can – and can’t – achieve, and discusses its relationship to mathematics and laws. The author then pays extensive attention to the scientific method, including experimental design, verification, uncertainty and statistics. A major aim of the book is to help young scientists reflect upon the deeper aims of their work and make the best use of their talents in contributing to progress. To this end, it also includes sections on planning research, on presenting one’s findings in writing, as well as on ethics and the responsibilities of scientists. .

  10. Learning object for teacher training aimed to develop communication skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Esmeralda RODRÍGUEZ RAMÍREZ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the results and reflections obtained across a research aimed to analyze the quality criteria of an opened learning object oriented to develop communication skills in order to be able to report and validate it according to its content, pedagogic structure, technological structure, graphical and textual language and usability to teacher training, in order to base it theoretically, pedagogically and technologically. The research question was: Which are the quality criteria that a learning object aimed to develop communication skills must cover? Under a quantitative approach, there were electronic questionnaires applied to: 34 Technological University teachers, eight experts about of communicative competence, teaching, technology and graphic design. The results indicated that some of the quality criteria of learning object are: the effective managing of the learning content, the balanced composition of his pedagogic structure, the technological structure efficiency and the proper managing of graphical and textual language.

  11. Dendritic cell-based vaccine efficacy: aiming for hot spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Andrea Pizzurro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many approaches for cancer immunotherapy have targeted dendritic cells (DC, directly or indirectly, for the induction of antitumor immune responses. DC-based vaccines have been developed using a wide variety of ex vivo DC culture conditions, antigen source and loading strategies, maturation agents and routes of vaccination. Adjuvants are used to activate innate immune cells at the vaccine injection site, to promote antigen transport to the draining lymph nodes (LNs and to model adaptive immune responses. Despite years of effort, the effective induction of strong and durable antitumor T cell responses in vaccinated patients remains a challenge. The study of vaccine interactions with other immune cells in the LNs and, more recently, in the injection site has opened new doors for understanding antitumor effector T cell licensing and function. In this review, we will briefly discuss the relevant sites and up-to-date facts regarding possible targets for antitumor vaccine refinement. We will focus on the processes taking place at the injection site, adjuvant combinations and their role in DC-based vaccines LN homing and modeling vaccine-induced immune responses capable of controlling tumor growth and generating immune memory.

  12. Decent work: an aim for all made by all

    OpenAIRE

    Ferraro, Tânia; Pais, Leonor; dos Santos, Nuno R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyse the 11 substantive elements of the Decent Work concept developed by the International Labour Organization. We identify 4 main aspects regarding the pursuit of decent work, which are challenges for the different agents who operate in society: (1) the responsibility shared among the various social agents; (2) cultural differentiation in expressing Decent Work; (3) its evolving character arising from the advancement of scientific knowledge; and finally, (4) ...

  13. Retrospective study of thyroid cancer treatment: aims and data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosmikova, K.; Hermanska, J.; Jirsa, L.; Karny, M.; Samal, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although opinions preferring individual administration of activity in the treatment of thyroid cancer with 131 I predominate, sufficient quantitative arguments in favor of this approach are unavailable as yet. Therefore, a retrospective study involving statistical processing was proposed with the aim to evaluate the relations between available data of the patients and success of treatment. Ideally, recommendations regarding activity to be administered in dependence on the biophysical status of the patient should emerge from the study

  14. How students perceive teachers' activities aimed at stimulating critical thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Mirkov, Snežana; Gutvajn, Nikoleta

    2014-01-01

    Research in the field of education show that the application of modern methods and techniques of in-class learning enhance the development of critical thinking of students. We were interested in finding out the attitudes of students towards the stimulation of critical thinking, how students perceive the activities of teachers aimed at stimulating critical thinking and their relations. The questionnaire designed for a larger research on stimulating the inititative, cooperation and creativity d...

  15. Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) program. Annual progress report. FY 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    The Advanced Industrial Materials (AIM) Program underwent a major transformation in Fiscal Year 1995 and these changes have continued to the present. When the Program was established in 1990 as the Advanced Industrial Concepts (AIC) Materials Program, the mission was to conduct applied research and development to bring materials and processing technologies from the knowledge derived from basic research to the maturity required for the end use sectors for commercialization. In 1995, the Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) made radical changes in structure and procedures. All technology development was directed toward the seven `Vision Industries` that use about 80% of industrial energy and generated about 90% of industrial wastes. These are: aluminium; chemical; forest products; glass; metal casting; refineries; and steel. OIT is working with these industries, through appropriate organizations, to develop Visions of the desired condition of each industry some 20 or 25 years in the future and then to prepare Road Maps and Implementation Plans to enable them to reach their goals. The mission of AIM has, therefore, changed to `Support development and commercialization of new or improved materials to improve productivity, product quality, and energy efficiency in the major process industries.` Though AIM remains essentially a National Laboratory Program, it is necessary that each project have industrial partners, including suppliers to, and customers of, the seven industries. Now, well into FY 1996, the transition is nearly complete and the AIM Program remains healthy and productive, thanks to the superb investigators and Laboratory Program Managers. Separate abstracts have been indexed into the energy database for articles from this report.

  16. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cervical cancer screening policies and coverage in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anttila, Ahti; von Karsa, Lawrence; Aasmaa, Auni

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare current policy, organisation and coverage of cervical cancer screening programmes in the European Union (EU) member states with European and other international recommendations. According to the questionnaire-based survey, there are large variations in cervical...... cancer screening policies and inadequacies in the key organisational elements of the programme such as registration and monitoring required for quality-assurance and fail-safe mechanisms. Based on data from available screening registers, coverage of the screening test taken within the population...... with education, training and communication among women, medical professionals and authorities are required, accordingly. The study indicates that, despite substantial efforts, the recommendations of the Council of the EU on organised population-based screening for cervical cancer are not yet fulfilled. Decision...

  18. Fiscal policy is still an effective instrument of macroeconomic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy, what has come to be known as “New Consensus in Macroeconomics”, downgrades the role of fiscal policy and upgrades that of monetary policy. This contribution aims to consider this particular contention by focusing on fiscal policy. We consider fiscal policy within the current “new consensus” theoretical framework, which views fiscal policy as ineffective, and argue that it deserves a great deal more attention paid to it than it has been recently. We review and appraise recent and not so recent theoretical and empirical developments on the fiscal policy front. The possibility of fiscal and monetary policy coordination is proposed and discussed to conclude that it deserves a great deal more attention and careful consideration than it has been given to in the past. Our overall conclusion is that discretionary application of fiscal and monetary policy in a coordinated and focused manner as a tool of macroeconomic policy deserves serious attention paid to it than hitherto.

  19. The CONECOFOR Programme: general presentation, aims and co-ordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno PETRICCIONE

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Following EU Regulation no. 1091/94, the Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry Policy (National Forest Service has since 1995 sponsored the "National Integrated Programme for Forest Ecosystems Monitoring" (CONECOFOR, implemented to study the effects of atmospheric pollution and climate change on forest ecosystems. The Programme also operates within the framework of the Geneva Convention on Trans-boundary air pollution (L.R.T.A.P. U.N.-E.C.E., ratified by Italy in 1982, and of the Resolutions of the Ministerial Conferences on the protection of forests in Europe (Res. no. 1, Strasbourg, 1990, Res. H4, Helsinki, 1993. The Programme involves the development of the so-called Level I investigations, which have been in progress since 1987 on a European grid made up of 16×16 km2. At present there are in Italy 265 monitoring plots distributed over the whole country, where annual assessments are made of the state of the tree crowns. At selected points within the same square, in 1995/6, pedological investigations were carried out and the chemical content of the leaves analysed. The Level II CONECOFOR Programme is currently based on 28 permanent plots in the framework of the International Co-operative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests; 11 areas are also classed as "biomonitoring sites", in the framework of the International Co-operative Programme on Integrated Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Ecosystems. Nine different researches have since 1996 been in progress in the permanent plots, involving the following analyses: geological and geomorphological (preliminary, vegetation (yearly, crown condition (yearly, chemical content of leaves (every 2 years, soil (every 10 years, variations in tree growth (every 5 years, atmospheric depositions (continuous, meteorological (continuous, atmospheric pollutants (continuous. Since 2000, surveys of soil solution (continuous, tree phenology (continuous and ozone visible

  20. Law proposition aiming to organize the sustainable management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Ayrault, J.M.; Hollande, F.; Dose, F.; Dumont, J.L.; Brottes, F.; Le Deaut, J.Y.

    2006-02-01

    In 1991 the France decided to intensify its researches in the high activity radioactive wastes management domain. The law of the 30 December 1991 relative to the radioactive wastes management, decided that a period of 15 years would be devoted to the research of very long dated solutions. This law proposition takes into account these researches results and aims to define a policy of radioactive wastes management in the framework of a sustainable development. The authors present and discuss the different articles of the law proposition. (A.L.B.)

  1. Enhancing renewable energy in the Arab States of the Gulf: Constraints and efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patlitzianas, Konstantinos D.; Doukas, Haris; Psarras, John

    2006-01-01

    The development of renewable energy in the Arab States of the Gulf has been relatively low in spite of the large geographical potential for the use of these solutions. This market has been stifled by a combination of constraints, such as the absence of relative legal and policy framework, the high initial capital costs and the lack of commercial skills and information. Even though these states have not been interested in these energy solutions for many years, something seems to have changed recently, due to their accession to the Kyoto Protocol. The government, the private sector and the general public have started realizing the inevitability of putting climate change issues on the top of the list of priorities in the process of economic and social development. Apart from this, some renewable energy investments seem to be more available and effective solutions in the region, because of specified conditions and requirements in remote and isolated areas. The aim of this paper is to analyze in a coherent and integrated way the specific constraints hampering the development of renewable energy, to describe the relative efforts that are connected with the stated role of the renewable energy and to propose some useful recommendations for their future development

  2. The Conservation Efforts of Wood Apple, An Identity Plant of Rembang Regency, Based on Ethnobotany Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enni Suwarsi Rahayu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feronia limonia (L. Swingle better known as wood apple is an identity plant of Rembang Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. However, the population is very limited. In order to identify the conservation efforts, this ethnobotany study was aimed to determine traditional knowledge on the existence, economic value, utility, breeding technique and conservation of wood apple. The survey was conducted on a total of 102 local people from 10 sub-districts which were determined by proportionally stratified random sampling. Data were collected by questionnaires and individual interviews and then were analyzed descriptively. The results showed that all of respondents knew the figure of wood apple, but only 79.50% understood its status as an identity plant. Most of respondents (96% stated that the fruits have low economic value, 80.39% respondents have utilized ripe fruit as ingredients of beverages and stems as firewood. This utilization was only equal to 29.72% compared to the potential usability based on research results. It was concluded that the traditional knowledge about the existence, economic value, and breeding technique were good and on the contrary, the knowledge about the plant’s usability was bad. The results will form a basic knowledge for in-depth studies to provide a government policy of Rembang Regency in order to develop an efficient strategy of management and conservation of wood apple as plant identity.

  3. Biomedical foundation supports technology aimed at destroying cancer cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nystrom, Lynn A.

    2008-01-01

    A new technology, using electric pulses to destroy cancer tissue and named by NASA Tech Briefs as one of seven key technological breakthroughs of 2007, is receiving additional support aimed at moving the procedure to the marketplace. One of its lead developers, Rafael V. Davalos, a faculty member of the Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences (SBES), received a $240,000 grant from the Wallace H. Coulter Foundation and $25,000 from the Wake Forest Com...

  4. NASA tells physicists to aim for the stars

    CERN Document Server

    MacIlwain, C

    1999-01-01

    Dan Goldin, administrator at NASA, suggested that the next generation of instruments for high-energy physics research should be built in space. This did not go down well at Fermilab where a case is being made for a new ground-based accelerator. Goldin's aim though was simply to tell the scientific community that NASA is prepared to spend big money on physics in space. NASA also wants to work more closely with the DOE and the NSF to support space-based experiments (1 page).

  5. Acid activation of natural clays aiming their application in adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, M.M. da; Sousa, A.K.F. de; Lima, W.S.; Vasconcelos, P.N.M. de; Rodrigues, M. G.F.

    2012-01-01

    Clays of smectite type have wide application in industrial, mainly due to their adsorption properties. However, it is necessary to subject them to chemical treatments to optimize their potential. This study aimed to analyze the effects of acid activation on the clay Brasgel fresh. In the acid activation was used concentrated hydrochloric acid at different concentrations (3M, 4.5 M and 6 M) at a temperature of 70 ° C for 30 minutes. The samples fresh and activated technique were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The results show that the properties of clay after activation are improved, it could be used as adsorbents in the treatment of wastewater. (author)

  6. No norm needed: on the aim of belief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steglich-Petersen, Asbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Does transparency in doxastic deliberation entail a constitutive norm of correctness governing belief, as Shah and Velleman argue? No, because this presupposes an implausibly strong relation between normative judgements and motivation from such judgements, ignores our interest in truth, and cannot...... explain why we pay different attention to how much justification we have for our beliefs in different contexts. An alternative account of transparency is available: transparency can be explained by the aim one necessarily adopts in deliberating about whether to believe that p. To show this, I reconsider...... the role of the concept of belief in doxastic deliberation, and I defuse 'the teleologian's dilemma'....

  7. PUBLIC POLICIES TO R&D IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF THE EU STATE AID POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bacila Nicolae

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available From an economic perspective, the importance of EU state aid policy refers to correcting “market failure” situations that may occur in the economy, aiming at maintaining an undistorted competition in the economic environment. In the context of the Commission focusing its efforts towards promoting R&D investment through Europe 2020 strategy, Romania is a modest innovator and is facing a relatively low level of economic competitiveness. The present paper aims at providing a contribution to the literature on public policies to R&D in the EU, developing both a quantitative and a qualitative analysis of public policies to R&D in Romania in the context of the EU state aid policy. Our research hypothesis considers that public policies to R&D in Romania, as in other Central and Eastern European countries, are following a convergence process with the practices from the EU level. Based on data provided by Eurostat, we have stressed that the existing gap between the national level and the EU level tends to maintain in the state aid field even in the future, in spite of Romanian government sector R&D expenditure tending to converge with the EU level, which highlights the potential of catching up with the European model. We believe that the success of the convergence process will depend in the future, to a large extent, on the implementation of the modernised legal and institutional framework of state aid policy, as well as on the capacity to build consensus by policy makers around the necessity to structure future economic development around R&D investment. In order to successfully address these structural R&D problems, the National Strategy for Research, Development and Innovation aims to establish R&D as engine for increasing economic competitiveness, while at the same time strengthening strategic areas with comparative advantages, supporting public-private partnerships, funding clusters in areas of smart specialisation, developing intellectual

  8. Pioneering efforts to control AIDS. Review: IHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterji, A; Sehgal, K

    1995-01-01

    The Indian Health Organisation (IHO) is a nongovernmental organization based in Bombay with more than 12 years experience in HIV/AIDS prevention and control efforts. It has attacked ignorance and prejudice via communication efforts. IHO has created a bond with some hospital systems of Bombay. IHO disseminated information about HIV/AIDS in Bombay's red light districts and has bridged the gap between the city's medical establishment and the community most in need. IHO's aggressive street-level fighting in a sector replete with sensitive issues has somewhat isolated it from mainstream national NGOs involved in HIV/AIDS education and control as well as from the medical establishment and potential partners. IHO funds have been reduced, forcing IHO to reduce intervention programs and responses to field demands. It suffers from a high rate of turnover among middle management staff. IHO's chief advantage is its confidence gained over the past 12 years. IHO has clearly delineated the direction it wants to go: care and support programs for persons affected by HIV/AIDS and for commercial sex workers to allow them to quit prostitution, orphan care, and development of training institutions for the education and motivation of medical personnel on HIV/AIDS care and prevention. It plans to build a hospice for AIDS patients and orphans and a training center. Training activities will vary from one-week orientation programs to three-month certificate courses for medical workers, NGOs, and managers from the commercial sector. IHO is prepared to share its experiences in combating HIV/AIDS in Bombay in a team effort. As official and bilateral funding has been decreasing, IHO has targeted industry for funding. Industry has responded, which enables IHO to sustain its core programs and approaches. IHO observations show a decrease in the number of men visiting red-light districts. IHO enjoys a positive relationship with Bombay's media reporting on AIDS.

  9. Cognitive effort and pupil dilation in controlled and automatic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querino, Emanuel; Dos Santos, Lafaiete; Ginani, Giuliano; Nicolau, Eduardo; Miranda, Débora; Romano-Silva, Marco; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    The Five Digits Test (FDT) is a Stroop paradigm test that aims to evaluate executive functions. It is composed of four parts, two of which are related to automatic and two of which are related to controlled processes. It is known that pupillary diameter increases as the task's cognitive demand increases. In the present study, we evaluated whether the pupillary diameter could distinguish cognitive effort between automated and controlled cognitive processing during the FDT as the task progressed. As a control task, we used a simple reading paradigm with a similar visual aspect as the FDT. We then divided each of the four parts into two blocks in order to evaluate the differences between the first and second half of the task. Results indicated that, compared to a control task, the FDT required higher cognitive effort for each consecutive part. Moreover, the first half of every part of the FDT induced dilation more than the second. The differences in pupil dilation during the first half of the four FDT parts were statistically significant between the parts 2 and 4 (p=0.023), and between the parts 3 and 4 (p=0.006). These results provide further evidence that cognitive effort and pupil diameter can distinguish controlled from automatic processes.

  10. [Sincerity of effort: isokinetic evaluation of knee extension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, R; Demaiti, G; Sartorio, F; Orlandini, D; Vercelli, S; Ferriero, G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to find a reliable method to evaluate the sincerity of the muscular maximal effort performed in a dynamometric isokinetic test of knee flexion-extension. The coefficient of variation of the peak torque (CV) and 3 new indices were analysed: (1) the average coefficient of variation calculated on the complete peak torque curve (CVM); (2) the slope of the regression line in an endurance test (PRR); (3) the correlation coefficient of the peak torques in the same endurance test (CCR). Twenty healthy subjects underwent assessment in two different trials, maximal (MX) and 50% submaximal (SMX), with 20 minutes of rest between trials. Each trial consisted of 4 tests, each of 3 repetitions, at angular speed of 30, 180, 30, and 180 degrees/s, respectively, and 1 test of 15 repetitions at 240 degrees/s. Our findings confirmed the ability of CV to detect a high percentage of sincere efforts: at 30 degrees/s Sensibility (Sns)=100% and Specificity (Spc)=70%; at 180 degrees/s Sns=75%, Spc=95%. The 3 new indices here proposed showed high characteristics of Sns and Spc, generally better than those of CV. CVM showed at 180 degrees/s Sns=90% and Spc=100%, while at 30 degrees/s Sns=90%, Spc=75%. PRR was the best index identifying all the efforts, except one (Sns=100%, Spc=95%). The CCR coefficient showed Sns and Spc values both of 90%.

  11. Effort variation regularization in sound field reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefanakis, Nick; Jacobsen, Finn; Sarris, Ioannis

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, active control is used in order to reproduce a given sound field in an extended spatial region. A method is proposed which minimizes the reproduction error at a number of control positions with the reproduction sources holding a certain relation within their complex strengths......), and adaptive wave field synthesis (AWFS), both under free-field conditions and in reverberant rooms. It is shown that effort variation regularization overcomes the problems associated with small spaces and with a low ratio of direct to reverberant energy, improving thus the reproduction accuracy...... in the listening room....

  12. Smart FPA's: are they worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; Theuwissen, Albert; Magnan, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    CMOS APS technology allows including signal processing in the sensor array. Inclusion of functionality however will come at a cost both financially and in the field of limited applicability. Based on two real world examples (micro digital sunsensor core and lightning flash detector for Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)) it will be demonstrated that large system gains can be obtained by devising smart focal planes. Therefore it is felt that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages for some applications, making it worth to spend the effort on system integration.

  13. Effort - Final technical report on task 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Niels; Henningsen, Poul; Eriksen, Morten

    The present report is documentation for the work carried out at DTU on the Brite/Euram project No. BE96-3340, contract No. BRPR-CT97-0398, with the title Enhanced Framework for forging design using reliable three-dimensional simulation (EFFORTS). The objective of task 3 is to determine data...... on the tool/workpiece interface conditions. The task includes the following four sub-tasks: Subtask 3.1 Simulative testing of friction in cold forming Subtask 3.2 Simulative testing of friction in warm and hot forming Subtask 3.3 Validation of measured friction values by process tests Subtask 3.4 Heat...

  14. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives.

  15. Philosophy as Inquiry Aimed at the Absolute Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Snarskaya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Philosophy as the absolute knowledge has been studied from two different but closely related approaches: historical and logical. The first approach exposes four main stages in the history of European metaphysics that marked out types of “philosophical absolutism”: the evolution of philosophy brought to light metaphysics of being, method, morals and logic. All of them are associated with the names of Aristotle, Bacon/Descartes, Kant and Hegel. Then these forms are considered in the second approach that defined them as subject-matter of philosophy as such. Due to their overall, comprehensive character, the focus of philosophy on them justifies its claim on absoluteness as far as philosophy is aimed at comprehension of the world’s unity regardless of the philosopher’s background, values and other preferences. And that is its prerogative since no other form of consciousness lays down this kind of aim. Thus, philosophy is defined as an everlasting attempt to succeed in conceiving the world in all its multifold manifestations. This article is to try to clarify the claim of philosophy on the absolute knowledge.

  16. Student Teachers’ Attitude towards Twitter for Educational Aims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Marín

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an educational experience with 100 student teachers from different courses of the University of the Balearic Islands (Spain in which Twitter is used for various different activities. The aim of this experiment was to explore student teachers’ perceptions in order to value their attitude towards Twitter for educational aims. Afterwards, students were asked to write down their reflections on an eportfolio. Data was collected from their eportfolio evidence, which was analysed to review their attitude towards the use of Twitter for educational purposes and for their future teaching and professional development. The conclusions indicate the need to conduct different educational activities in which Twitter is used in various ways. In addition, conclusions reflect on the real impact of Twitter on students’ learning enhancement, in order to improve student teachers’ attitudes towards social media in education. Therefore, this article contributes to the body of existing research on the use of technology in education, specifically to the possibilities of the use of social media and microblogging in Teacher Education.

  17. Linking aims, paradigm and method in nursing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Hunter, Andrew; Meskell, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    To explore the use of paradigms as ontological and philosophical guides for conducting PhD research. A paradigm can help to bridge the aims of a study and the methods to achieve them. However, choosing a paradigm can be challenging for doctoral researchers: there can be ambiguity about which paradigm is suitable for a particular research question and there is a lack of guidance on how to shape the research process for a chosen paradigm. The authors discuss three paradigms used in PhD nursing research: post-positivism, interpretivism and pragmatism. They compare each paradigm in relation to its ontology, epistemology and methodology, and present three examples of PhD nursing research studies to illustrate how research can be conducted using these paradigms in the context of the research aims and methods. The commonalities and differences between the paradigms and their uses are highlighted. Creativity and flexibility are important when deciding on a paradigm. However, consistency and transparency are also needed to ensure the quality and rigour necessary for conducting nursing research. When choosing a suitable paradigm, the researcher should ensure that the ontology, epistemology and methodology of the paradigm are manifest in the methods and research strategies employed.

  18. Program for accident and incident management support, AIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, M.A.

    1993-12-01

    A prototype of an advisory computer program is presented which could be used in monitoring and analyzing an ongoing incident in a nuclear power plant. The advisory computer program, called the Accident and Incident Management Support (AIMS), focuses on processing a set of data that is to be transmitted from a nuclear power plant to a national or regional emergency center during an incident. The AIMS program will assess the reactor conditions by processing the measured plant parameters. The applied model of the power plant contains a level of complexity that is comparable with the simplified plant model that the power plant operator uses. A standardized decay heat function and a steam water property library is used in the integral balance equations for mass and energy. A simulation of the station blackout accident of the Borssele plant is used to test the program. The program predicts successively: (1) the time of dryout of the steam generators, (2) the time of saturation of the primary system, and (3) the onset of core uncovery. The coolant system with the actual water levels will be displayed on the screen. (orig./HP)

  19. Measuring the "triple aim" in transition care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Megan; McManus, Margaret; White, Patience; Davidson, Laurie

    2014-12-01

    Without adequate support, adolescents transitioning from the pediatric to the adult health care system are at increased risk for poor health outcomes. Numerous interventions attempt to improve this transition, yet few comprehensively evaluate efficacy. To advance evaluation methods and ultimately the quality of transition services, it is necessary to understand the current state of health care transition measurement. This study examines and categorizes transition measures by using the "Triple Aim" framework of experience of care, population health, and cost of care. Ovid Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2013. Two reviewers independently screened studies and included those that evaluated the impact of a health care transition intervention. Measures were subsequently classified according to population health, experience of care, and costs of care. Of the 2282 studies initially identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Population health measures were used in 27 studies, with disease-specific measures collected most frequently. Fifteen studies measured cost, most often service utilization. Eight studies measured experience of care, with satisfaction assessed most commonly. Only 3 studies examined all 3 domains of the "Triple Aim." Transition interventions described in the gray literature were not reviewed. Transition programs are inconsistently evaluated in terms of their impact on population health, patient experience, and cost. To demonstrate improvement in the transition from pediatric to adult health care, a more robust and consistent set of measures is needed. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Complementary coordination strategies in a joint Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konvalinka, Ivana; Skewes, Lea; Michael, J.

    How do dyads coordinate their actions to achieve a common goal when one person has the more difficult task? In the present study, dyads were instructed to engage in a Fitts’s reciprocal aiming task as accurately as possible, and at a given tempo sent through their headphones. They were in conditi......How do dyads coordinate their actions to achieve a common goal when one person has the more difficult task? In the present study, dyads were instructed to engage in a Fitts’s reciprocal aiming task as accurately as possible, and at a given tempo sent through their headphones. They were...... in conditions where they either received auditory feedback of 1) SELF-generated taps, 2) taps generated by the OTHER co-actor, or 3) regular, COMPUTER-generated taps. In conditions 2) and 3), they were also instructed to synchronize with their feedback as best as possible. In each trial, each participant...... a joint goal, by taking on leader-follower roles....

  1. Aims or purposes of school mediation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Isabel Viana-Orta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mediation continues to expand, both geographically and in terms of scope. Depending on its purpose, there are three main consolidated mediation models or schools worldwide: the Traditional-Linear Harvard model, which seeks to find an agreement between the parties; the Circular-Narrative model, which apart from the agreement also emphasizes communicational aspects; and the Transformational model, more focused on relational aspects between the parties than in the adoption of agreements. The aim of this study is to determine which is the goal or purpose of mediation, confining it to the school environment and to the Spanish context. A brief comparative study is presented to this end, in which the comparative units are all the Comunidades Autónomas [Autonomous Regions] that make up the Spanish territory (n = 17 and the variable compared is the aim or purpose of mediation in schools as established by all the regional rules on school life (n = 17 with the force of a decree.

  2. Policy Reader

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    This policy reader comprises: Correspondence; Memorandum of Understanding between the US Department of Transportation and the US Department of Energy for the Transportation of Radioactive Materials under the Nuclear Waste Policy Act; Internal Guidelines for Interactions with Communities and Local Governments; Statement by Ben C. Rusche before the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment, US House of Representatives, September 13, 1985; Speech presented by Ben C. Rusche before the ANS/CNS/AESJ/ENS Topical Meeting, Pasco, Washington, September 24, 1985 - ''Status of the United States' High-Level Nuclear Waste Disposal Program''; and ''DOE Seeks Comments on Nuclear Transportation Planning,'' DOE News, September 30, 1985

  3. Population policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  4. Language Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Like any other text, instructive texts function within a given cultural and situational setting and may only be available in one language. However, the end users may not be familiar with that language and therefore unable to read and understand the instructions. This article therefore argues...... that instructive texts should always be available in a language that is understood by the end users, and that a corporate communication policy which includes a language policy should ensure that this is in fact the case for all instructive texts....

  5. Global Think Tank Initiative Policy Engagement and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Think tanks in developing countries aim to produce quality, evidence-based research to address the policy challenges faced by the countries or regions within which they operate. The potential for think tanks to inform policy and contribute to development debates depends on their ability to engage in the policy process.

  6. Indiscriminate polyandry and male parental effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Michael A; Stone, Lewi

    2004-01-01

    Extrapair paternity involves cooperation between mated females and extrapair males. On the other hand, mated males exhibit a spectrum of anti-cuckolding strategies. Hence, extrapair attributes of diverse species and populations reported in the literature are particular solutions of evolutionary games involving gender-specific cuckolding/anti-cuckolding strategies. Here we use game theoretical methods to study the effect of male paternal effort conserving strategies in situations where females seek extrapair fertilizations (EPF) for reasons of genetic compatibility and/or in pursuit of genetic diversity for their offspring. In such cases, females cannot make a pre-copulatory selection of the optimal genetic partners, and therefore combine promiscuous copulation with the use of in copula and/or post-copulatory selection mechanisms to optimize the genetic endowment of their offspring-indiscriminate polyandry. Our results indicate that, when indiscriminate polygamy is constrained by the availability of extrapair male partners, there are three possible (parameter regime wise) evolutionary stable strategy solutions. (1). All females seek EPF, while all males restrict parental care. (2). All females seek EPF, while all males are unconditionally parental. (3). Females use a combination strategy where pursuit of EPF is mixed-on either a population, or an individual level-with genetic monogamy, while all males use a conditional paternal care strategy, which involves adjusting their parental efforts according to their certainty of paternity.

  7. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  8. Tracking, aiming, and hitting the UAV with ordinary assault rifle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racek, František; Baláž, Teodor; Krejčí, Jaroslav; Procházka, Stanislav; Macko, Martin

    2017-10-01

    The usage small-unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is significantly increasing nowadays. They are being used as a carrier of military spy and reconnaissance devices (taking photos, live video streaming and so on), or as a carrier of potentially dangerous cargo (intended for destruction and killing). Both ways of utilizing the UAV cause the necessity to disable it. From the military point of view, to disable the UAV means to bring it down by a weapon of an ordinary soldier that is the assault rifle. This task can be challenging for the soldier because he needs visually detect and identify the target, track the target visually and aim on the target. The final success of the soldier's mission depends not only on the said visual tasks, but also on the properties of the weapon and ammunition. The paper deals with possible methods of prediction of probability of hitting the UAV targets.

  9. An intervention aimed at reducing plagiarism in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Alison; Crawford, Tonia; Cloete, Linda

    2015-05-01

    Plagiarism is a current and developing problem in the tertiary education sector where students access information and reproduce it as their own. It is identified as occurring in many tertiary level degrees including nursing and allied health profession degrees. Nursing specifically, is a profession where standards and ethics are required and honesty is paramount. The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in nursing student's knowledge and understanding of plagiarism before and after an educational intervention in their first semester of the Bachelor of nursing degree at a private college of higher education in Sydney, Australia. This study concluded that an educational intervention can increase knowledge and awareness of plagiarism among nursing students. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Energy policy of France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revol, H.

    2001-01-01

    In November 1997, the French senate decided the creation of an inquiry commission in order to start up a study about the future of the French energy policy. The commission has interviewed the overall actors of the energy policy: ministers, heads of energy companies, higher officials, syndicates, consumer and environment protection associations, scientists and economists. The inquiry has been extended to other countries of the European community, and also to China, Japan, the USA and Canada. Despite various economical contexts and resources, all these countries have developed energy policies which aim at ensuring an energy independence and at supplying energy at the best price for a better economic competitiveness. This report presents first the French experience and the evolution of the French energy policy during the last 50 years with respect to the economical and political constraints encountered. The second part is a reflection about the principles that will guide the French energy policy in the context of deregulation of the European energy market and of the environmental constraints imposed by the Kyoto summit. Detailed proposals for the increase of the French energy independence are presented in conclusion of the report. (J.S.)

  11. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  12. Vena Cava Responsiveness to Controlled Isovolumetric Respiratory Efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anna; Benzo, Marco; Pasquero, Paolo; Laguzzi, Andrea; Mesin, Luca; Messere, Alessandro; Porta, Massimo; Roatta, Silvestro

    2017-10-01

    Respirophasic variation of inferior vena cava (IVC) size is affected by large variability with spontaneous breathing. This study aims at characterizing the dependence of IVC size on controlled changes in intrathoracic pressure. Ten healthy subjects, in supine position, performed controlled isovolumetric respiratory efforts at functional residual capacity, attaining positive (5, 10, and 15 mmHg) and negative (-5, -10, and -15 mmHg) alveolar pressure levels. The isovolumetric constraint implies that equivalent changes are exhibited by alveolar and intrathoracic pressures during respiratory tasks. The IVC cross-sectional area equal to 2.88 ± 0.43 cm 2 at baseline (alveolar pressure = 0 mmHg) was progressively decreased by both expiratory and inspiratory efforts of increasing strength, with diaphragmatic efforts producing larger effects than thoracic ones: -55 ± 15% decrease, at +15 mmHg of alveolar pressure (P < .01), -80 ± 33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg diaphragmatic (P < .01), -33 ± 12% at -15 mmHg thoracic. Significant IVC changes in size (P < .01) and pulsatility (P < .05), along with non significant reduction in the response to respiratory efforts, were also observed during the first 30 minutes of supine rest, detecting an increase in vascular filling, and taking place after switching from the standing to the supine position. This study quantified the dependence of the IVC cross-sectional area on controlled intrathoracic pressure changes and evidenced the stronger influence of diaphragmatic over thoracic activity. Individual variability in thoracic/diaphragmatic respiratory pattern should be considered in the interpretation of the respirophasic modulations of IVC size. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. The role of partnerships in U.S. Food Policy Council policy activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L Clayton

    Full Text Available Food Policy Councils (FPC help to identify and address the priorities of local, state, and regional food systems with the goal of improving food systems through policy. There is limited research describing FPCs' strategies for accomplishing this goal. As part of a larger study examining FPC policy efforts, this paper investigates the role of partnerships in food systems policy change. We conducted interviews with representatives from 12 purposefully selected FPCs in the United States and 6 policy experts identified by the selected FPC representatives to document and describe their policy work. One theme that emerged from those interviews was the role of partners. Interviewees described a range of partners (e.g., stakeholders from government, business, and education and credited FPC partnerships with advancing their policy goals by increasing the visibility and credibility of FPCs, focusing their policy agenda, connecting FPCs to key policy inputs (e.g., local food community knowledge and priorities, and obtaining stakeholder buy-in for policy initiatives. Partnerships were also described as barriers to policy progress when partners were less engaged or had either disproportionate or little influence in a given food sector. Despite these challenges, partnerships were found to be valuable for FPCs efforts to effectively engage in the food policy arena.

  14. Organizational technologies for transforming care: measures and strategies for pursuit of IOM quality aims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamm, Larry; Kash, Bita; Bolin, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Progress on the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 6 aims to bridge the "quality chasm" requires both measurement and the concerting of multiple organizational technologies. The basic thesis of this article is that rapid progress on the IOM's multiple aims calls for transformative change within and among healthcare organizations. The promise of a number of types of transformative approaches is closely linked to their ability to simultaneously build upon several organizational technologies: clinical, social, information, and administrative technologies. To encourage and advance such efforts, this article identifies illustrative measures of attainment of the IOM's 6 aims or targeted areas for improvement that reflect the contributions of the 4 organizational technologies. It discusses examples of relationships between the IOM aims and the organizational technologies considered. Finally, the article offers illustrations of the interplay of these organizational technologies and IOM aims-across an array of organizational innovations with transformative potential. Included among such innovations are information technology in the form of electronic medical records, computer-based physician order entry, and patient health records; organization-wide patient-centered cultural change such as Studer's Hardwiring Excellence; Six Sigma and Toyota Production Management/LEAN; major clinical technology change, for example, minimally invasive cardiac surgery and broader treatment innovations such as disease management.

  15. Export Promotion Aims and Reality: A Comparison of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éltető Andrea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the international crisis in 2008-2009, the role of exports in economic growth came into focus in most countries. Exports of EU Member States gained momentum from 2010 onward but with certain changes in their structure and direction. In several countries, the turn towards non-EU areas, such as China or Latin America was part of the state export strategy. On the one hand, our article describes these foreign trade strategies and their institutional framework of the Iberian, Baltic and Central European governments, detecting possible similarities. On the other hand, we analyse recent export data. This way we can get a picture on the structure and direction of exports of periphery economies and this can be compared to the aims of the given states. Our hypothesis is that there is a gap between the reality and the intentions of the governments. The size of this gap varies and is influenced by certain factors such as the different involvement of multinational companies in foreign trade or the different economic structure of these countries. In our paper we list which countries adopted a government strategy and with what aim. We provide a short literature review on state trade promotion policies and discuss these policies and their institutions in the Baltic, Visegrád and Iberian countries.

  16. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  17. Aims of combined modality therapy in rectal cancer (M0).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerard, J P; Benezery, K; Doyen, J; Francois, E

    2014-01-01

    OPTIMIZING THE COST/BENEFIT RATIO OF TREATMENT: Evidence Based The aim of a cancer treatment is always to achieve the maximum of cure rate with a minimum of toxicity and best quality of life at an acceptable cost for the society. It is always a multifactorial challenge depending on the patient, the tumor, the doctor, and the society cultural and financial backgrounds. The goal is to find the best cost/benefit ratio between all possible strategies in agreement with a well-informed patient. In rectal cancer (M0) surgery is the cornerstone of treatment. Combined modality therapies aim at optimizing the cost/benefit ratio of possible strategies and only randomized trials can bring strong evidence regarding their results and recommendations. LESSONS FROM RANDOMIZED TRIALS: quite modest During the past decades many phase III trials have shown that: (1) neoadjuvant treatment even with "TME" surgery was better than adjuvant, (2) chemoradiotherapy (CRT) was better than RT alone, (3) long course CRT was probably more efficient (in terms of ypCR) than short course (25/5), and (4) capecitabine was as efficient as 5 FU but oxaliplatin was not adding benefit. Overall, the gains of nCRT remain modest and it is mainly a reduction in local relapse not exceeding 5 %, but no benefit in survival and neither in sphincter saving surgery has been proven. The way forwards organ preservation in case of CCR. Local control: can probably be improved for T4 tumors by RT dose escalation. Survival: can be increased by innovative medical treatment either before or after surgery. may be reduced by a less aggressive treatment in elderly. Conservative treatment: A new field of clinical research is to achieve "organ preservation" (and not only sphincter saving). To modify the surgical approach and preserve the whole rectum, neoadjuvant treatment must achieve safely a clinical complete response. As rectal adenocarcinoma is a relatively radioresistant tumor endocavitary irradiation (contact X-Ray) is a

  18. Brazilian Scientific Policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voi, Dante Luiz; Borges, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    This work aimed to make an analysis of the Brazilian Scientific Policy, considering its multi ways of approaching, and was settled on several author's points of view, working on different scientific areas. The world scientific development panorama and its influence on science made in Brazil, including problems, conditions and consequences, are presented in an historical sequence. Central and peripherical (dependent) capitalist nations are defined and identified, and influences on the scientific, economical, political and cultural developments of the peripherical are remarked. (author)

  19. The assessment of efforts to return to work in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijzer, Anna; Groothoff, Johan W; de Boer, Wout E L; Geertzen, Jan H B; Brouwer, Sandra

    2010-12-01

    Assessment of efforts to promote return-to-work (RTW) includes all efforts (vocational and non-vocational) designed to improve the work ability of the sick-listed employee and increase the chance to return to work. Aim of the study was to investigate whether in 13 European countries these RTW efforts are assessed and to compare the procedures by means of six criteria. Data were gathered in the taxonomy project of the European Union of Medicine in Assurance and Social Security and by means of an additional questionnaire. In seven countries RTW efforts are subject of the assessment in relation to the application for disability benefits. Description of RTW efforts is a prerequisite in five countries. Guidelines on the assessment of RTW efforts are only available in the Netherlands and no countries report the use of the ICF model. Based on the results of the additional questionnaire, the assessor is a social scientist or a physician. The information used to assess RTW efforts differs, from a report on the RTW process to medical information. A negative outcome of the assessment leads to delay of the application for disability benefits or to application for rehabilitation subsidy. RTW efforts are assessed in half of the participating European countries. When compared, the characteristics of the assessment of RTW efforts in the participating European countries show both similarities and differences. This study may facilitate the gathering and exchange of knowledge and experience between countries on the assessment of RTW efforts.

  20. Policy initiatives to promote healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infeld, Donna Lind; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2002-08-01

    involve improving housing, nutrition, transportation, and other arenas that play a role in the health of communities and cities. According to the IOM, the most successful interventions are aimed at families, neighborhoods and communities. Interventions are also most likely to be successful when legislative, media, and marketing efforts support them [50]. These broader policies may actually have the most potential impact in terms of developing sustainable lifestyle changes that reach all Americans, especially those with the greatest health needs. Within the aging population, those with greatest health needs include members of minority groups, recent immigrants, and the old-old. These groups are often overlooked when designing and implementing health promotion programs. It is important, however, to remember, for patients and for ourselves, you are never too old to benefit from prevention.

  1. Safety enhancement efforts after Fukushima accident in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, U.C.

    2014-01-01

    , 2011. The regulatory function was hence completely separated from the promotion and utilization of nuclear power. Since its establishment, NSSC has continuously been putting in effort to strengthen regulatory practice and system up to international standards. In particular, it has been proceeding with statute revision in relation to obligating severe accident evaluation, enhancing periodic safety evaluation etc and reviewing safety evaluation measure during extreme disaster situation. Additionally, it is revising the bill to expand regulatory scope to include the operator, design, manufacture, supply, qualification test companies throughout the life cycle of NPPs. Furthermore, 'Coordination Committee on Nuclear Safety Policy' (tentative) is to be established for the purpose of supporting and promoting consistency in nuclear safety related policies such as nuclear safety research, accident-failure information, safety of food and medical equipment, radiation in agriculture-livestock-marine product and ground water which are under jurisdiction of different Ministries. One of the most important lessons-learned from the Fukushima accident is communication with the public. NSSC has been emphasizing active and transparent disclosure of information through websites, blogs, SNS etc in order to relieve anxiety and restore public confidence. Other efforts include securing constant communication channel by organizing regional conference to disclose information, discuss issues, and receive feedbacks. Apart from the lessons learned from the Fukushima accident, the Korean Government is expanding its efforts to ensure nuclear safety in other areas such as CFSI issues. It is pushing forward to broaden regulatory scope to include the operator, design, manufacture, supply as well as investigation agencies. As for the management of performance verification agencies, it is to be under direct jurisdiction of the regulatory body. (author)

  2. Fluency: an aim in teaching and a criterion in assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aud Marit Simensen

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the concept ‘fluency’ from different perspectives. When fluency is an aim in teaching, a thorough comprehension of the concept among teachers is a prerequisite for appropriate planning of instruction, including the choice of appropriate classroom activities. When fluency is an assessment criterion, it is even more important that examiners have a shared perception of the concept. The present article starts by presenting common perceptions of the concept and goes on to explore some of the current research. Next, it provides a historical overview of the place of fluency in teaching theory and explains some of the preconditions for the inclusion of this concept among teaching objectives and assessment criteria. It will also, as an illustration, give an outline of the position of the concept over time in the Norwegian school system on the basis of an analysis of the relevant syllabuses. Finally, the article explicates the notion of language use as a complex cognitive skill and explores current method¬ological ideas about teaching towards fluency.

  3. A proper methodology aimed at surface wave tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Badal

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available When applying a methodology for obtaining the 3D shear-wave velocity structure of a medium from surface wave dispersion data, the problem must be considered with caution since one inverts path-averaged velocities and the use of any inversion method entails some drawbacks such as lack of uniqueness, unwarranted stability and constraints affecting the data. In order to avoid the application of consecutive inversions and to overcome these drawbacks, we propose alternative mapping methods, for example spatial prediction methods, or else the use of an algorithm that, from a mathematical viewpoint, can be understood through the application of the orthogonal projection theorem onto convex sets (POCS. Among the first ones, we try inverse weighted distance interpolation. The POCS algorithm we have used discretises a second order differential equation for the velocity field with boundary conditions. All these imaging techniques aimed at volumetric modelling and the visualisation of data are discussed, and finally we show some results based on ray path velocities obtained previously by inversion of phase and group velocities of Rayleigh waves propagating across the Iberian peninsula.

  4. Education and religion in advertising aimed at children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ponick

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a theoretical and analytical reflection on the issue of education and religion in advertising aimed at children. It describes distinctive features of postmodernity – immediacy, consumerism and secularization – as constitutive elements of our time and characterizes media as a sort of all-powerful being that channels, processes, produces and disseminates these postmodern attributes, while offering products that form and shape the way of life of Western society. The article goes on to analyze the content of two advertisements, identifying in them the possible presence of an educational religious-theological discourse. It contends that there is an intrinsic relation between education and religion in advertising, one which strongly influences the learning, thinking and acting patterns of children through such practices as gaining power by what they consume and seeing consumption as a means to attain a more prominent position in this world. In advertising, forms of socialization are presented to children. Finally, it is suggested that one way to introduce and discuss advertisements in educational contexts is by reading and analyzing the narratives of advertising together with the children.

  5. Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alginate Immobilization of Metabolic Enzymes (AIME) for High-Throughput Screening Assays DE DeGroot, RS Thomas, and SO SimmonsNational Center for Computational Toxicology, US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC USAThe EPA’s ToxCast program utilizes a wide variety of high-throughput screening (HTS) assays to assess chemical perturbations of molecular and cellular endpoints. A key criticism of using HTS assays for toxicity assessment is the lack of xenobiotic metabolism (XM) which precludes both metabolic detoxification as well as bioactivation of chemicals tested in vitro thereby mischaracterizing the potential risk posed by these chemicals. To address this deficiency, we have developed an extracellular platform to retrofit existing HTS assays with XM activity. This platform utilizes the S9 fraction of liver homogenate encapsulated in an alginate gel network which reduces the cytotoxicity caused by direct addition of S9 to cells in culture. Alginate microspheres containing encapsulated human liver S9 were cross-linked to solid supports extending from a 96-well plate lid and were assayed using a pro-luciferin substrate specific for CYP3A4 (IPA). We demonstrate that S9 was successfully encapsulated and remained enzymatically active post-encapsulation with 5-10X the CYP3A4 activity as compared to 1 µg solubilized human liver S9. Ketoconazole, a known inhibitor of human CYP3A4, inhibited CYP3A4 activity in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50: 0.27 µM) and inhibiti

  6. An Economic Aspect of the AVOID Programme: Analysis Using the AIM/CGE Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken'ichi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2010-05-01

    This presentation purposes to show the results of the analysis that the AIM/CGE [Global] model contributed to Work Stream 1 of the AVOID programme. Three economic models participate in this WS to analyze the economic aspects of defined climate policies, and the AIM/CGE [Global] model is one of them. The reference scenario is SRES A1B and five policy scenarios (2016.R2.H, 2016.R4.L, 2016.R5.L, 2030.R2.H, and 2030.R5.L) are considered. The climate policies are expressed as emissions pathways of several gases such as greenhouse gases and aerosols. The AIM/CGE [Global] model is a recursive dynamic global CGE model with 21 industrial sectors and 24 world regions. These definitions are based on the GTAP6 database and it is used as the economic data of the base year. Some important characteristics of this model can be summarized as follows: power generation by various sources (from non-renewables to renewables) are considered; CCS technology is modeled; biomass energy (both traditional and purpose-grown) production and consumption are included; not only CO2 emissions but also other gases are considered; international markets are modeled for international trade of some fossil fuels; relationships between the costs and resource reserves of fossil fuels are modeled. The model is run with 10-year time steps until 2100. For the reference case, there are no constraints and the model is run based on the drivers (assumptions on GDP and population for A1B) and AEEI. The reference case does not have the same emissions pathways as the prescribed emissions for A1B in AVOID. For scenario cases, the model is run under emissions constraints. In particular, for each policy scenario, the constraint on each gas in each 10-year step is derived. The percentage reduction in emissions that occurs between the AVOID A1B scenario and the particular policy scenario, for each gas in each 10-year period is first calculated, and then these percentage reductions are applied to the AIM reference case

  7. The European fusion nuclear technology effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darvas, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of fusion technology in the European fusion development strategy is outlined. The main thrust of the present fusion technology programme is responding to development needs of the Next European Torus. A smaller, but important and growing R and D effort is dealing with problems specific to the Demonstration, or Fusion Power, Reactor. The part of the programme falling under the somewhat arbitrarily defined category of 'fusion nuclear technology' is reviewed and an outlook to future activities is given. The review includes tritium technology, blanket technology and breeder materials development, technology and materials for the protection of the first wall and of other plasma facing components, remote handling technology, and safety and environmental impact studies. A few reflections are offered on the future long-term developments in fusion technology. (orig.)

  8. Peru continues to press privitization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Peru has again extended the deadline for bids on a 30 year operating contract for state owned Petromar SA's offshore Block Z-2b. The tender is key to efforts to privatize Petromar, a subsidiary of state oil company Petroleos del Peru. The committee charged with implementing Petromar privatization extended the deadline for bids another 70 days Oct. 30, following a 60 day extension made in September. The latest deadline for bids is Feb. 10, with the contract expected to be awarded Feb. 26. A bid package on Block Z-2b is available from Petroperu's Lima headquarters for $20,000. Petromar operates the former Belco Petroleum Corp. offshore assets Peru's government expropriated in 1985. It currently produces 17,600 b/d, compared with 27,000 b/d at the time of expropriation

  9. KEK effort for high field magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Nakamoto, T

    2011-01-01

    KEK has emphasized efforts to develop the RHQNb3Al superconductor and a sub-scale magnet reaching 13 T towards the HL-LHC upgrade in last years. In addition, relevant R&D regarding radiation resistance has been carried out. For higher field magnets beyond 15 T, HTS in combination with A15 superconductors should be one of baseline materials. However, all these superconductors are very sensitive to stress and strain and thorough understanding of behaviour is truly desired for realization of high field magnets. KEK has launched a new research subject on stress/strain sensitivity of HTS and A15 superconductors in collaboration with the neutron diffraction facility at J-PARC and High Field Laboratory in Tohoku University. Present activity for high field magnets at KEK is reported.

  10. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  11. Qualitative approaches to use of the RE-AIM framework: rationale and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtrop, Jodi Summers; Rabin, Borsika A; Glasgow, Russell E

    2018-03-13

    There have been over 430 publications using the RE-AIM model for planning and evaluation of health programs and policies, as well as numerous applications of the model in grant proposals and national programs. Full use of the model includes use of qualitative methods to understand why and how results were obtained on different RE-AIM dimensions, however, recent reviews have revealed that qualitative methods have been used infrequently. Having quantitative and qualitative methods and results iteratively inform each other should enhance understanding and lessons learned. Because there have been few published examples of qualitative approaches and methods using RE-AIM for planning or assessment and no guidance on how qualitative approaches can inform these processes, we provide guidance on qualitative methods to address the RE-AIM model and its various dimensions. The intended audience is researchers interested in applying RE-AIM or similar implementation models, but the methods discussed should also be relevant to those in community or clinical settings. We present directions for, examples of, and guidance on how qualitative methods can be used to address each of the five RE-AIM dimensions. Formative qualitative methods can be helpful in planning interventions and designing for dissemination. Summative qualitative methods are useful when used in an iterative, mixed methods approach for understanding how and why different patterns of results occur. In summary, qualitative and mixed methods approaches to RE-AIM help understand complex situations and results, why and how outcomes were obtained, and contextual factors not easily assessed using quantitative measures.

  12. Japan’s arctic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry V. Streltsov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article is devoted to the public policy of modern Japan in the Arctic. The Japanese government has put forward clear and well-specifi ed targets of the intensifi cation of Japan’s efforts in the economic development of the Arctic region. Among the priorities of the Arctic policy one should mention such areas as the development of maritime transportation, development of hydrocarbon deposits of the Arctic shelf, sea fi shing, as well as the preservation and increase of the sea bioresources.

  13. Self-regulating the effortful "social dos".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Kassandra; Kammrath, Lara K; Scholer, Abigail A; Peetz, Johanna

    2014-03-01

    In the current research, we explored differences in the self-regulation of the personal dos (i.e., engaging in active and effortful behaviors that benefit the self) and in the self-regulation of the social dos (engaging in those same effortful behaviors to benefit someone else). In 6 studies, we examined whether the same trait self-control abilities that predict task persistence on personal dos would also predict task persistence on social dos. That is, would the same behavior, such as persisting through a tedious and attentionally demanding task, show different associations with trait self-control when it is framed as benefitting the self versus someone else? In Studies 1-3, we directly compared the personal and social dos and found that trait self-control predicted self-reported and behavioral personal dos but not social dos, even when the behaviors were identical and when the incentives were matched. Instead, trait agreeableness--a trait linked to successful self-regulation within the social domain--predicted the social dos. Trait self-control did not predict the social dos even when task difficulty increased (Study 4), but it did predict the social don'ts, consistent with past research (Studies 5-6). The current studies provide support for the importance of distinguishing different domains of self-regulated behaviors and suggest that social dos can be successfully performed through routes other than traditional self-control abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. SaudiVeg ecoinformatics: Aims, current status and perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Sheikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots were established in many countries around the world. These databases contain valuable phytosociological information assisting both governmental and NGO (Non-governmental organizations agencies to formulate strategies and on-ground plans to manage and protect nature resources. This paper provides an account on aims, current status and perspectives of building of a vegetation database for the Central Region (Najd of Saudi Arabia – the founding element of the Saudi Vegetation Database (SVD. The data stored by the database are sample plots (vegetation relevés collected according to the field techniques of the Braun-Blanquet approach (lists of taxa accompanied by semi-quantitative cover assessment, and are accompanied by general vegetation characteristics such as vegetation layering and cover, information on life-form of the recorded species, geographical coordinates, altitude, soil typology, topography and many more. More than 2900 vegetation-plot records (relevés have so far been collected in the Najd region; of these more than 2000 have already been stored using the Turboveg database platform. These field records cover many habitats such as depressions, wadis (dry river beds, agricultural lands, sand dunes, sabkhas, and ruderal habitats. The ecological information collected in the database is currently the largest set of vegetation data collated into a database in the Middle East. These data are of great importance for biodiversity studies in Saudi Arabia, since the region is recording a loss of biodiversity at a fast rate due to environmental problems such as global warming and land-use changes. We envisage that this database would catalyze further data collection on vegetation of the entire Arabian Peninsula, and shall serve as one of the most important datasets for classification and mapping of the vegetation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

  15. Ready! Aim! Fire! targeting the right medical science journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardman, Timothy C; Serginson, James M

    2017-09-01

    Inadvertently submitting a paper to a journal that is unlikely to publish it is a waste of resources and ultimately delays dissemination of one's research. A high proportion of manuscripts are rejected by their author's first-choice journal. The aim of the present work was to review guidance provided within the literature for journal selection that might minimize the chance of manuscript rejection. We also consider papers that encompass more than one main medical science and describe the selection process that we used with a paper that was published in Cardiovascular Endocrinology . A database search (Embase, PubMed and Medworm) was performed for all articles published in the scientific literature providing guidance on journal selection. Articles were identified that either had journal selection as their principal topic or included journal selection as part of a broader discussion of publishing. The relative performance of four free-to-use, web-based applications that claim to provide guidance on journal selection was compared. The searches identified 286 hits, of which 249 were in English. Of these papers, 16 discussed journal selection and a further 10 articles were identified from citations within the original 16 articles. Only one article described a comprehensive model for submission decision-making. Identification of appropriate candidate journals by various web-based applications was erratic, with the Jane database providing the most robust suggestions. Our work suggests that little attention has been focused in the scientific literature on the mechanisms that authors use to select a journal for their work. Nevertheless, scientists for the most part seem to have a good sense of where their papers are most likely to be accepted. Beyond ensuring that a manuscript fulfils all the target journal's requirements, the literature suggests that it is important to have an objective view of the scientific contribution or 'value' of your work.

  16. Construction of a narrative network aimed at implementing inclusive processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of inclusion in its complex aspects aimed at overcoming barriers to learning and involvement has led this research in university, in the light of special pedagogy and didactics, on the basis of inclusion index parameters, detecting the levels of integrated planning with the territory. The purpose of this study is not limited to disability and to special education needs but goes further than that encompassing isolation and/or exclusions. As far as the university system is concerned, it becomes significant to enquire about the inclusion process, in this case by means of a narrative approach, bearing in mind that organizational and learning models, together with access modes may give rise to social exclusion.Università e territorio: costruzione di una rete narrativa per l’implementazione dei processi inclusiviIl costrutto di inclusione nelle sue complesse sfaccettature mirate al superamento delle barriere all’apprendimento e alla partecipazione, ha guidato il presente lavoro di ricerca in ambito universitario alla luce della pedagogia e didattica speciale, sulla base dei parametri dell’Index for Inclusion, rilevando i livelli di progettazione integrata con il territorio. Il suo raggio di azione non si limita alla disabilità ma abbraccia tutti i bisogni educativi speciali, e l’isolamento, la marginalizzazione e/o le esclusioni che ne derivano. Rispetto al sistema universitario è rilevante interrogarsi sul processo di inclusione, in questo caso sulla base dell’approccio narrativo, preso atto che il modello organizzativo e le modalità di accesso e formative possono essere causa di esclusione formativa e sociale.

  17. [The policy of disseminating Germanism through the Bayer periodicals Revista Terapêutica and O Farmacêutico Brasileiro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolim, Marlom Silva; Sá, Magali Romero

    2013-03-01

    The article analyzes two periodicals published by the chemical and pharmaceutical company Bayer - as they played into scientific relations between Brazil and Germany. At the close of World War I, a number of countries, including Brazil, broke off political, economic, and scientific relations with Germany. Germany's medical and scientific community moved to implement a policy of disseminating Germanism through science and medicine, aimed above all at Latin America. Germany's chemical and pharmaceutical industry was impacted by this policy, as it both supported and was a beneficiary of the endeavor to disseminate German science and to promote international scientific exchange, which opened new markets. In Brazil, these efforts were backed by physician Renato Kehl.

  18. Anti-terror/non-proliferation efforts and South Korea's planning for atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Chae Sung

    2006-01-01

    This study deals with the relationship between rapidly changing international security environments, the US security policy on the one hand, and policy environments of atomic energy. Based on the notion that the issue of atomic energy development is closely interrelated with the situation of international security especially after the tragic incident of 9/11, this study focuses on the impact of changing security environments on the conditions under which South Korea uses atomic power. It also deals with the subject of how the new framework of NPT, and the policy of IAEA influences upon South Korea's atomic polices in the future. This study examines the nature and contents of the US foreign policy and its efforts toward nonproliferation and counterproliferation. This study also deals with the Iranian case in which the US efforts of counterproliferation and Iranian argument for the rights of peaceful use of atomic energy based on the concept of national sovereignty. The Iranian case sheds light on the most acute aspect of current stage of nonproliferation, but also on the way of solving the North Korean nuclear crisis. This study also take issue with the future course of nonprolieration and the South Korea's policy for its maximum use of atomic energy

  19. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V; Sperle, Ida; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Gore, Charles; Cebolla, Beatriz; Spina, Alexander

    2017-07-26

    As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS). WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI), health expenditure and physician density. This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0-340). Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  20. Associations between national viral hepatitis policies/programmes and country-level socioeconomic factors: a sub-analysis of data from the 2013 WHO viral hepatitis policy report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey V Lazarus

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As more countries worldwide develop national viral hepatitis strategies, it is important to ask whether context-specific factors affect their decision-making. This study aimed to determine whether country-level socioeconomic factors are associated with viral hepatitis programmes and policy responses across WHO Member States (MS. Methods WHO MS focal points completed a questionnaire on national viral hepatitis policies. This secondary analysis of data reported in the 2013 Global Policy Report on the Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis in WHO Member States used logistic regression to examine associations between four survey questions and four socioeconomic factors: country income level, Human Development Index (HDI, health expenditure and physician density. Results This analysis included 119 MS. MS were more likely to have routine viral hepatitis surveillance and to have a national strategy and/or policy/guidelines for preventing infection in healthcare settings if they were in the higher binary categories for income level, HDI, health expenditure and physician density. In multivariable analyses, the only significant finding was a positive association between having routine surveillance and being in the higher binary HDI category (adjusted odds ratio 26; 95% confidence interval 2.0–340. Conclusion Countries with differing socioeconomic status indicators did not appear to differ greatly regarding the existence of key national policies and programmes. A more nuanced understanding of the multifaceted interactions of socioeconomic factors, health policy, service delivery and health outcomes is needed to support country-level efforts to eliminate viral hepatitis.

  1. Assessing NHS trusts' compliance with child health policy standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Leslie; Glasper, Alan; Battrick, Cath; Brown, Sara

    An audit tool to undertake a baseline assessment of NHS trust compliance with contemporary healthcare polices was designed collaboratively by senior children's nurses across one English strategic health authority (SHA). Children's units in hospitals across the SHA were benchmarked against the audit tool standards throughout 2009. The aim was to identify good and less optimum compliance with best practice policy-driven benchmarks of care, using a 1-5 scale. Each NHS trust within the SHA was contacted to make arrangements with members of the interprofessional team to complete the baseline benchmarking exercise. The audit was conducted over 1 or 2 days. The majority of the evidence sourced comprised documented evidence and verbal affirmation of the individual perceptions of key informants with regard to how the range of clinical areas scored against the best practice benchmarks. Scores of policy compliance in some trusts audited ranged from 1 (non-compliant) to 5 (full compliance). The results demonstrate that many trusts are making good efforts to ensure full compliance to policy guidelines and mandates. However, there are some aspects of policy standards that trusts have yet to fully embrace. This initial benchmarking exercise on behalf of an English SHA has revealed many areas of outstanding and good practice which have the potential to be shared.

  2. Assess, Identify, Make it Happen (AIM) for Preschools: A Tool to Decrease Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farewell, Charlotte V; Puma, Jini E; Powers, Jamie; Belansky, Elaine S

    2017-12-01

    Early childhood obesity is at epidemic proportions and is a major risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in adulthood. Since the majority of preschoolers are placed in center-based care, best practice policy, system, and environment (PSE) changes in early child care settings plays an important role in defining early development of obesogenic behaviors. However, implementation of best practice PSE changes is often a challenge in low resource settings due to staff turnover, time constraints, cultural beliefs, and lack of health-related knowledge. Assess, Identify, Make it Happen for Preschools (AIM-P) is a strategic planning process that was used with wellness teams in early child care centers to implement PSE changes that support adoption of health behaviors. AIM-P uses key change-making strategies based on intervention mapping including assets and needs assessments, prioritization of changes based on importance and feasibility, development of action steps and action plans, and identification of dissemination and sustainability plans. The AIM-P process resulted in implementation of 6.5 best practice PSE changes per site. Qualitative findings highlight lessons learned and the facilitators and barriers associated with using AIM-P to implement PSEs.

  3. Differential identification of aims and results of formation plans: an application to the Spanish aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Monserrat Cruz González

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aims of the formation, related theoretically to the performance of human resources, self-training, information and effectiveness, have been identified as the amount in which the company goes further from knowledge to learning. In this paper three hypotheses applied to the Spanish aquaculture are proposed to model the differential aim follow-up and the achievements of the formation plans. The empirical analysis has been carried out with the data of 99 representative companies of the aquaculture sector. The SPSS 19 statistical program was used for the data analysis. A factor analysis was made by the method of principal components. Eighteen nonparametric tests of Kruskal-Wallis type were applied, as well as 36 chi-squared tests. As a result, three principal components were identified that explain 80% of the variance of the aims: the first one refers to policies of implication of human resources, the second one is relatedto objective circumstances and the third one is associated to dynamism. It was confirmed that the relevance of aims is proportional to the percentage of expense in formation and, specifically, it is greater in suppliers. Finally, significantdifferences in the results of the formation with respect to the reduction of errors were observed, this reduction being greater in fish distribution and production. Significant differences were also observed in the effect of the formation on the motivation of the employee, this being greater in fish suppliers and producers

  4. Ecosystem-Based Adaptation for Food Security in the AIMS SIDS: Integrating External and Local Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Mercer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper critically reviews ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA approaches for food security under climate change, specifically for the Small Island Developing States (SIDS comprising the Africa, Indian Ocean, Mediterranean and South China Sea (AIMS region. The focus is on integrating different knowledge forms. An analysis of current EbA approaches for food security is undertaken, alongside a review of methodologies for integrating local and external knowledge. Key gaps and actions for EbA for food security in the AIMS region, and potentially further afield, are identified. The gaps indicate the lack of coherence in AIMS SIDS approaching food security, in terms of policies and actions not reflecting the ecosystem-food-climate nexus, the lack of a regional framework despite similarities amongst the SIDS, and the infrequency with which knowledge integration occurs. To fill these gaps, suggested actions highlight knowledge identification and combination, learning from others and from history, using local champions, and regularly monitoring and evaluating progress. These actions will push forward the EbA agenda through improved development and use of knowledge, better connections amongst the AIMS SIDS and farther afield, and more local-national-regional collaboration.

  5. Electricity diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization: The role of U.S. state energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carley, Sanya

    In response to mounting concerns about climate change and an over-dependence on fossil fuels, U.S. state governments have assumed leadership roles in energy policy. State leaders across the country have constructed policies that target electricity sector operations, and aim to increase the percentage of renewable electricity generation, increase the use of distributed generation, and decrease carbon footprints. The policy literature, however, lacks compelling empirical evidence that state initiatives toward these ends are effective. This research seeks to contribute empirical insights that can help fill this void in the literature, and advance policy knowledge about the efficacy of these instruments. This three-essay dissertation focuses on the assessment of state energy policy instruments aimed at the diversification, decentralization, and decarbonization of the U.S. electricity sector. The first essay considers the effects of state efforts to diversify electricity portfolios via increases in renewable energy. This essay asks: are state-level renewable portfolio standards (RPS) effective at increasing renewable energy deployment, as well as the share of renewable energy out of the total generation mix? Empirical results demonstrate that RPS policies so far are effectively encouraging total renewable energy deployment, but not the percentage of renewable energy generation. The second essay considers state policy efforts to decentralize the U.S. electricity sector via instruments that remove barriers to distributed generation (DG) deployment. The primary question this essay addresses is whether the removal of legal barriers acts as a primary motivating factor for DG deployment. Empirical results reveal that net metering policies are positively associated with DG deployment; interconnection standards significantly increase the likelihood that end-users will adopt DG capacity; and utility DG adoption is related to standard market forces. The third essay asks: what are

  6. Aiming at Targets: The Autobiography of Robert C. Seamans, Jr.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Bob Seamans originally was inspired to write this book for his family and friends. That is a large audience. By his own count his immediate family numbers twenty-four, not counting brothers and cousins and their families. His friends are uncounted but surely run to hundreds. As one of them and as a colleague at NASA, I am pleased and honored that he asked me to write this foreword. While written in Bob's unique and informal style, this autobiography has significance for many readers beyond his large circles of family and friends. Leaders and students of large, complex technological endeavors should be able to learn much from reading how Bob faced the daunting technical and management challenges in his career. As the title of this book implies, Bob has always set high goals for himself and then kept his eyes focused on both the necessary details and the broader picture. His ability to shift smoothly among jobs that required seemingly disparate abilities and skills speaks volumes about his insight, dedication, and enthusiasm for achievement. The book spans a truly remarkable life story. Bob first takes us through his growing up, education, and early professional and family life. Next he focuses on the crucial years when he was the general manager of NASA. Then he moves on to his career in the top jobs at the Air Force, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Energy Research and Development Administration. Finally, he touches on his later leadership activities in the academic and business worlds. Aiming at Targets is a series of fascinating topical vignettes covering his professional life. Taken together, like broad brushstrokes in an impressionist painting, they give a better picture of Bob Seamans and his work than a detailed recitation of facts and dates could hope to do. This is a cheerful account of an interesting and successful career. The book is full of good stories, with many memorable characters. Like the proverbial sundial, it counts the sunny hours

  7. Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Marcelo Campos Moraes; Tirapelli, Luis Fernando; Carlotti, Carlos Gilberto; Colli, Benedicto Oscar

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE Accurate knowledge of the anatomy of the straight sinus (SS) is relevant for surgical purposes. During one surgical procedure involving the removal of part of the SS wall, the authors observed that the venous blood flow was maintained in the SS, possibly through a vein-like structure within the dural sinus or dural multiple layers. This observation and its divergence from descriptions of the histological features of the SS walls motivated the present study. The authors aimed to investigate whether it is possible to dissect the SS walls while keeping the lumen intact, and to describe the histological and ultrastructural composition of the SS wall. METHODS A total of 22 cadaveric specimens were used. The SS was divided into three portions: anterior, middle, and posterior. The characteristics of the SS walls were analyzed, and the feasibility of dissecting them while keeping the SS lumen intact was assessed. The thickness and the number of collagen fibers and other tissues in the SS walls were compared with the same variables in other venous sinuses. Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff's stains were used to assess collagen and elastic fibers, respectively. The data were analyzed using Zeiss image analysis software (KS400). RESULTS A vein-like structure independent of the SS walls was found in at least one of the portions of the SS in 8 of 22 samples (36.36%). The inferior wall could be delaminated in at least one portion in 21 of 22 samples (95.45%), whereas the lateral walls could seldom be delaminated. The inferior wall of the SS was thicker (p < 0.05) and exhibited less collagen and greater amounts of other tissues-including elastic fibers, connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerve fibers (p < 0.05)-compared with the lateral walls. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of muscle fibers at a level deeper than that of the subendothelial connective tissue in the inferior wall of the SS, extending from its junction with the great cerebral vein

  8. Nisin Production Utilizing Skimmed Milk Aiming to Reduce Process Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jozala, Angela Faustino; de Andrade, Maura Sayuri; de Arauz, Luciana Juncioni; Pessoa, Adalberto; Penna, Thereza Christina Vessoni

    Nisin is a natural additive for conservation of food, pharmaceutical, and dental products and can be used as a therapeutic agent. Nisin inhibits the outgrowth of spores, the growth of a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study was performed to optimize large-scale nisin production in skimmed milk and subproducts aiming at low-costs process and stimulating its utilization. Lactococcus lactis American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 11454 was developed in a rotary shaker (30°C/36 h/100 rpm) in diluted skimmed milk and nisin activity, growth parameters, and media components were also studied. Nisin activity in growth media was expressed in arbitrary units (AU/mL) and converted to standard nisin concentration (Nisaplin®, 25 mg of pure nisin is 1.0×106 AU/mL). Nisin activity in skimmed milk 2.27 gtotal solids was up to threefold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 4.54 gtotal solids and was up to 85-fold higher than transfers in skimmed milk 1.14 gtotal solids. L. lactis was assayed in a New Brunswick fermentor with 1.5 L of diluted skimmed milk (2.27 gtotal solids) and airflow of 1.5 mL/min (30°C/36/200 rpm), without pH control. In this condition nisin activity was observed after 4 h (45.07 AU/mL) and in the end of 36 h process (3312.07 AU/mL). This work shows the utilization of a low-cost growth medium (diluted skimmed milk) to nisin production with wide applications. Furthermore, milk subproducts (milk whey) can be exploited in nisin production, because in Brazil 50% of milk whey is disposed with no treatment in rivers and because of high organic matter concentrations it is considered an important pollutant. In this particular case an optimized production of an antimicrobial would be lined up with industrial disposal recycling.

  9. SOFTWARE TOOLS FOR COMPUTING EXPERIMENT AIMED AT MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS IMPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tyurin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A concept for organization and planning of computational experiment aimed at implementation of multivariate analysis of complex multifactor models is proposed. It is based on the generation of calculations tree. The logical and structural schemes of the tree are given and software tools, as well, for the automation of work with it: calculation generation, carrying out calculations and analysis of the obtained results. Computer modeling systems and such special-purpose systems as RACS and PRADIS do not solve the problems connected with effective carrying out of computational experiment, consisting of its organization, planning, execution and analysis of the results. Calculation data storage for computational experiment organization is proposed in the form of input and output data tree. Each tree node has a reference to the calculation of model step performed earlier. The storage of calculations tree is realized in a specially organized directory structure. A software tool is proposed for creating and modifying design scheme that stores the structure of one branch of the calculation tree with the view of effective planning of multivariate calculations. A set of special-purpose software tools gives the possibility for the quick generation and modification of the tree, addition of calculations with step-by-step change in the model factors. To perform calculations, software environment in the form of a graphical user interface for creating and modifying calculation script has been developed. This environment makes it possible to traverse calculation tree in a certain order and to perform serial and parallel initiation of computational modules. To analyze the results, software tool has been developed, operating on the base of the tag tree. It is a special tree that stores input and output data of the calculations in the set of changes form of appropriate model factors. The tool enables to select the factors and responses of the model at various steps

  10. Mobile TV: An assessment of EU policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tadayoni, Reza; Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    The aim of the paper is to discuss EU policies in the area of mobile TV. The European Commission has strongly promoted an EU-wide common policy on mobile TV including the choice of DVB-H as the standard to be used. The paper aims at discussing this policy in view of the technological and market...... developments in the field of mobile media....

  11. Impact of uncertain oil prices on investment and integration efforts in the oil and gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Banbi, H.A.

    1996-01-01

    A rapid review of the energy resources situation in the world today shows the important role that oil and gas play in human life. World economies will continue to rely on oil and gas as a major energy source. It is absolutely critical that policy makers--governments, investment decisions makers, and oil companies--cooperative in securing a supply of energy for future generations. The international oil industry, in its sustained efforts to optimize resources in a cost-conscious and challenging environment, has been working under several constraints: reduction in investments, environmental issues and policies, and workforce optimization. This paper highlights recommendations for facing these challenges

  12. Antibiotic policy

    OpenAIRE

    Gyssens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    There is a clear association between antibiotic use and resistance both on individual and population levels. In the European Union, countries with large antibiotic consumption have higher resistance rates. Antibiotic resistance leads to failed treatments, prolonged hospitalisations, increased costs and deaths. With few new antibiotics in the Research & Development pipeline, prudent antibiotic use is the only option to delay the development of resistance. Antibiotic policy consists of prescrib...

  13. A Policy Guide on Integrated Care (PGIC: Lessons Learned from EU Project INTEGRATE and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Borgermans

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Efforts are underway in many European countries to channel efforts into creating improved integrated health and social care services. But most countries lack a strategic plan that is sustainable over time, and that reflects a comprehensive systems perspective. The Policy Guide on Integrated Care (PGIC as presented in this paper resulted from experiences with the EU Project INTEGRATE and our own work with healthcare reform for patients with chronic conditions at the national and international level. This project is one of the largest EU funded projects on Integrated Care, conducted over a four-year period (2012–2016 and included partners from nine European countries. Project Integrate aimed to gain insights into the leadership, management and delivery of integrated care to support European care systems to respond to the challenges of ageing populations and the rise of people living with long-term conditions. The objective of this paper is to describe the PGIC as both a tool and a reasoning flow that aims at supporting policy makers at the national and international level with the development and implementation of integrated care. Any Policy Guide on Integrated should build upon three building blocks, being a mission, vision and a strategy that aim at capturing the large amount of factors that directly or indirectly influence the successful development of integrated care.

  14. Climate change policy position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-11-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) is a firm believer in the need to take action to mitigate the risks associated with climate change, and that clear government policy is called for. The principles of sustainable development must guide this policy development effort. The initiatives required to address greenhouse gas emissions over both the short and long term must be carefully considered, and it is up to industries to ensure their production efficiency and emission intensity. Promoting improved performance of industries in Canada and developing technology that can be deployed internationally for larger global effects represents Canada's best contribution to progress on greenhouse gas emissions. The increase in energy demand along with increases in population and economic growth have contributed to an increase in greenhouse gas emissions despite improved energy efficiency in industry. Significant damage to the economy will result if Canada is to meet its commitment under the Kyoto Protocol, forcing the country to buy large quantities of foreign credits instead of using those funds for increased research and development. CAPP indicated that an effective plan must be: balanced, equitable, responsible, competitive, focused on technology and innovation, and based on agreements on sectoral plans. Each of these principles were discussed, followed by the fundamentals of approach for upstream oil and gas. The framework for climate change policy was described as well as the elements of a sector plan. CAPP wants to work with all levels of government on an appropriate plan for Canada, that considers our unique circumstances. Canada can play a significant role on the international stage by properly implementing the policy position proposed by the CAPP without unnecessary risks to the economy. refs

  15. The effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); L. den Dulk (Laura)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of work alienation on organizational commitment, work effort and work-to-family enrichment. Background: There is substantial research on the effects of work alienation on passive job performance, such as organizational commitment.

  16. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  17. Compliance. Regulatory policy P-211

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-05-01

    This regulatory policy describes the basic principles and directives for establishing and conducting the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) Compliance Program. The program is aimed at securing compliance by regulated persons with regulatory requirements made under the Nuclear Safety and Control Act ('the Act'). The policy applies to persons who are regulated by the CNSC through the Act, regulations and licences, as well as by decisions and orders made under the Act. The policy applies to officers and employees of the CNSC, and its authorized representatives or agents, who are involved in developing and carrying out compliance activities. Compliance, in the context of this policy, means conformity by regulated persons with the legally binding requirements of the Act, and the CNSC regulations, licences, decisions, and orders made under the Act. Compliance activities are CNSC measures of promotion, verification and enforcement aimed at securing compliance by regulated person with the applicable legally binding requirements. (author)

  18. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    2013-01-01

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  19. Contemporary and emerging efforts on material degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Peter L.

    2011-01-01

    After decades of surprises and lost capacity in commercial nuclear power plants, there are major efforts throughout the world to address materials degradation proactively, although to date there has been vastly more paper studies than R and D. Proactivity requires sufficient knowledge and extrapolation/projection of prior and yet-to-be-observed degradation in reactors. This is complex because relatively subtle variations of conditions that gave rise to historical problems can reduce or enhance their incidence, and of course simple evolution vs. time leads to increased incidence. Problems not yet observed are even more difficult to assess, and extremes of opinion range from a vast array of imaginative potential degradation mechanisms to the view that if a problem has not yet surfaced in plant, then it won't be a future problem. Environmentally assisted cracking in high temperature water has been extensively studied. But it is sufficiently complex-involving dozens of important parameters - that important issues continue to emerge as careful studies have been performed. This paper summarizes a number of emerging issues, and highlights the need for improvements in experimental sophistication and for deeper probing into the nature and importance of these emerging issues. With sophisticated laboratory measurements that can reproduce plant conditions and degradation, it is reasonable to conclude that lab data can act as a preview of future field experience. (author)

  20. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  1. ICRP new recommendations. Committee 2's efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckerman, K.F.

    2007-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) may release new primary radiation protection recommendation in 2007. Committee 2 has underway reviews of the dosimetric and biokinetic models and associated data used in calculating dose coefficients for intakes of radionuclides and exposures to external radiation fields. This paper outlines the work plans of Committee 2 during the current term, 2005-2009, in anticipation of the new primary recommendations. The two task groups of Committee 2 responsible for the computations of dose coefficients, INDOS and DOCAL, are reviewing the models and data used in the computations. INDOS is reviewing the lung model and the biokinetic models that describe the behavior of the radionuclides in the body. DOCAL is reviewing its computational formulations with the objective of harmonizing the formulation with those of nuclear medicine, and developing new computational phantoms representing the adult male and female reference individuals of ICRP Publication 89. In addition, DOCAL will issue a publication on nuclear decay data to replace ICRP Publication 38. While the current efforts are focused on updating the dose coefficients for occupational intakes of radionuclides plans are being formulated to address dose coefficients for external radiation fields which include consideration of high energy fields associated with accelerators and space travel and the updating of dose coefficients for members of the public. (author)

  2. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  3. Global efforts to combat smoking: an economic evaluation of smoking control policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goel, Rajeev K; Nelson, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    ... have asserted their right under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, to be identified as the authors of this work. Published by Ashgate Publishing Limited Gower House Croft Road Aldershot Hampshire GU11 3HR England Ashgate Publishing Company Suite 420 101 Cherry Street Burlington, VT 05401-4405 USA Ashgate website: http://www.ashgate.com British Library...

  4. State efforts toward creating a national policy on healthy aging and long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempthorne, Dirk

    2004-10-01

    The Honorable Dirk Kempthorne served Idaho as a U.S. senator for six years prior to his election as governor in 1998. He has since served in this role with marked distinction--one poll lauded him as Idaho's "most popular figure" in the state's history. His leadership capabilities were recognized by the National Governors Association (NGA), which elected him chairman in 2003. Upon his election, Gov. Kempthorne asserted--and the NGA collectively agreed--to make long-term care for America's seniors and persons with disabilities the No. 1 item on the NGA agenda. Idaho's governor has since led the NGA through a series of hearings and fact-finding missions on long-term care culminating in a report that comprised the central focus of the NGA's Annual Meeting in July 2004. The following is a summary of Gov. Kempthorne's statements regarding long-term care and the reports he presented on the topic at that gathering. In recognition of his work, the Idaho governor has been selected to receive NAHC's highest accolade--The Claude Pepper Award--presented annually to the one person who has done the most to promote the interests of senior citizens and persons with disabilities within the past year.

  5. The Tobacco Industry's Successful Efforts to Control Tobacco Policy Making in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Yol MD, MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette consumption among people 15 years or older peaked in Switzerland in the early 1970’s with 3,700 cigarettes per capita and per year, followed by a decline to 2,800 cigarettes per capita and per year in 1994. After a decline of the proportion of smokers from 37% in 1980 to 31% in 1992, this proportion has increased again to 33% in 1997. Women, particularly the young, and children and adolescents, have shown a continued increase in smoking prevalence, despite the focus of tobacco preve...

  6. Innovation Policy in European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta-Christina Suciu

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The innovation policies aim to analyze priority factors shaping innovative performance and to reflect the increasing appreciation of the economic and social importance of innovation. This paper is commissioned to examine topics of current interest or concern to innovation policy-makers in Europe. Based on literature and the framework of the European Action Plan for Innovation, this paper investigates different levels and fields of European innovational systems and practices.

  7. The global financial crisis and health: scaling up our effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonté, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Economic events of the past year are beginning to create hardships for tens of thousands of Canadians. There are likely to be health effects as well, to the extent that unemployment and poverty rates rise. Conditions, however, will be much worse for those living in poorer countries. High-income countries are committing trillions of dollars in countercyclical spending and banking bail-outs. Poorer countries need to do the same, but lack the resources to do so. Yet foreign aid and fairer trade are widely expected to be among the first high-income country victims of the recession fallout as nations turn inwards and protectionist. This is neither good for global health nor necessary given the scale of untaxed (or unfairly taxed) wealth that could be harnessed for a truly global rescue package. Policy choices confront us. The Canadian public health community must hold our political leadership accountable for making those choices that will improve health globally and not further imperil the well-being of much of the world's population in efforts to secure our own future economic revival.

  8. The Practice of Industrial Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    of poverty reduction. In 2014, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and United Nations University World Institute for Development Economics Research (UNU-WIDER) launched a joint research project: The Practice of Industrial Policy. The aim is to help African policy makers develop better...... coordination between public and private sectors in order to identify the constraints to faster structural transformation and design, implement, and monitor policies to remove them. This book, written by national researchers and international experts, presents the results of that research by combining a set...

  9. Economic aspects of addiction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, A

    1986-05-01

    One definition of policy or government action in the Oxford English Dictionary is "craftiness" i.e. cunning or deceit. Such qualities have to be employed by governments because of the potential vote-losing effects of radical addiction policies. Health promotion, in relation to addictive substances such as alcohol and tobacco in particular, involves a trade-off between the costs of such policies, especially to industry (which seeks regulation to protect itself from competitors), and the benefits--improvements in the quality and length of life. Measures of such benefits (quality-adjusted life-years or QALYs) are available now to use in the evaluation of competing health promotion policies to determine their efficiency at the margin. Analysis of the market for tobacco indicates that consumption has been falling generally in the UK except among teenagers who appear to be the target of the industry's advertising and sponsorship efforts. This fall in consumption appears to be explained by health promotion rather than the active use of fiscal instruments of control. The recognition of the health effects of passive smoking and the impact of advertising and sponsorship, especially on the young, are policy areas requiring careful review and the evaluation of the costs and benefits of competing policies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Quality-oriented efforts in IPD, - a framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1998-01-01

    It is generally expected that modern quality efforts like TQM and ISO9000 should deliver a sufficient framework for quality efforts in industrial companies. Our findings in Danish industry shows a fragmented picture of islands of efforts and a weak understanding of basic quality concepts between...... designers. The paper propose a framework for quality efforts, illustrated by simple metaphors....

  11. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to ±5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications

  12. Manager's effort and endogenous economic discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Orrillo

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Assume a labor supply consisting of two types of workers, 1 and 2. Both workers are equally productive and exhibit supply functions with the same elasticity. We consider a firm (entrepreneur or shareholders that is competitive in the output market and monopsonistic in input markets. The firm uses the services of a manager who has a high human capital and whose wage is given by the market. It is supposed that the manager does not like to work with one type of worker, say type 1. If we allow the manager's effort to be an additional input without any extra (in addition to his salary cost for the firm, then the firm's pricing decision will be different for both workers. That is, there will be a wage differential and therefore endogenous economic discrimination2 in the labor markets.Vamos assumir que a oferta de trabalho consiste de dois tipos de trabalhadores, 1 e 2. Ambos os trabalhadores são igualmente produtivos e exibem funções de oferta com a mesma elasticidade. Consideramos uma firma (empresário ou acionistas, a qual é competitiva no mercado de produtos e monopsonista nos mercados de insumos. A firma usa os serviços de um gerente quem tem um alto capital humano e cujo salário é dado pelo mercado. Suponhamos que o gerente não gosta de trabalhar com um tipo de trabalhador, digamos o tipo 1. Se permitirmos que o esforço do gerente seja um insumo adicional sem nenhum custo extra (além de seu salário, a decisão de salários será diferente para ambos os trabalhadores. Isto é, haverá um diferencial de salários e, em conseqüência, uma discriminação econômica1 endógena nos mercados de trabalho.

  13. Efforts to Improve Writing Skills of High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Inayah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing in English is one of the language skills that are taught in the context of learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL in Indonesian senior high schools. According to previous studies, most of the students consider writing is the most difficult of the four skills. This research was aimed at finding out the main difficulties in writing faced by the grade XI students at SMA Negeri 10 Fajar Harapan, Banda Aceh, and the efforts made by their teacher to overcome those problems. The design of this study was a descriptive qualitative study. To obtain the data, the writers used document collection and interviews. The results from the document collection showed that the highest percentages of problems faced by the students were in the aspect of language use and the least problems were in the aspect of content. The results from the interviews showed that the most common correcting efforts made by the teacher were giving written feedback for all aspects of writing i.e. language use, mechanics, vocabulary, organization, and content. Likewise, teachers need to develop systemized forms of feedback and make it clear to students what the feedback means and what they are to do with them to assist students in improving their writing skills.

  14. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, C Michel; Kolb, Edward A; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S J M; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E S; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E; Smith, Owen P; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J L

    2015-09-20

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML--supportive care--and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  15. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  16. Ozone pollution: rising concentrations despite French and EU efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, M.; Elichegaray, Ch.

    2003-11-01

    Ozone is the main indicator of photochemical pollution which is caused by a complex combination of primary pollutants formed by chemical reactions in the troposphere, in the presence of sunlight. These primary pollutants, otherwise known as precursors of ozone (nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds and carbon monoxide), are emitted both by natural sources and human activities. In urban areas, during the summer months, ozone is often the main cause of deterioration in air quality. Directive 2002/3/EC relating to ozone in ambient air entered into force on 9 September 2003, superseding the first ozone Directive (92/72/CE) of 21 September 1992. In the last 10 years, monitoring of ozone pollution has considerably progressed in France (the number of analysers has increased tenfold). Emissions of the ozone precursors fell significantly (-27%) between 1990 and 2000 in France as a result of combined efforts in all sectors of activity. However, between 1994 and 2002, ozone levels remained above the information threshold for the protection of human health and vegetation on average more than 100 days a year in rural areas and over 40 days a year in urban and peri-urban areas. Efforts undertaken both in France and other European countries aim to improve the situation and ensure compliance with the requirements of Directive 2002/3/EC. (author)

  17. Environmental Communication Instruments for Environmental Policy Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagzdina, Erika

    2010-01-01

    Two public policy concepts - modernization of governance and environmental policy integration - serve as the basis for this work. The author links them up with environmental communication (EC) as an integration instrument approach, and tests application at the local level in Latvia. Totally 30 case studies were analysed and survey methods used to interview over 70 people. The article verifies driving forces affecting the internal and external integration of environmental policy, explicates EC instrumentality for integration by assessing policy instruments and stakeholders. The final conclusions affirm that, in order to integrate environmental management into municipal development, it is necessary to establish a complementary set of policy instruments, what might be enabled by wise use of all EC components in their interactivity. The complementarity of EC instruments and stakeholder group efforts forms synergy and enhances better environmental policy integration.

  18. A disjointed effort: paediatric musculoskeletal examination.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, Irwin

    2012-07-01

    Musculoskeletal (MSK) symptoms are a frequent cause of emergency department attendance for children, and while most often indicative of benign or self-limiting disease, such symptoms can occasionally be the first presentation of serious illness such as leukaemia or juvenile idiopathic arthritis. MSK examination, however, is often not included as part of the routine paediatric examination. The authors aimed to evaluate how often and how thoroughly MSK examination was performed during admissions to the paediatric ward and to compare it with the examination of other symptoms in relation to the presenting complaint and eventual diagnosis.

  19. How well could existing sensors detect the deployment of a solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering effort?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurd, Alan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-29

    While the stated reason for asking this question is “to understand better our ability to warn policy makers in the unlikely event of an unanticipated SRM geoengineering deployment or large-scale field experiment”, my colleagues and I felt that motives would be important context because the scale of any meaningful SRM deployment would be so large that covert deployment seems impossible. However, several motives emerged that suggest a less-than-global effort might be important.

  20. Cyber Selection Test Research Effort for U.S. Army New Accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-12

    Cyber Selection Test Research Effort for U.S. Army New Accessions U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Dr...construed as official policy or position of the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Army, or the U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social ...For each cyber job we will: 1. Solicit assistance from potential sponsors 2. Review available task and knowledge/skills/abilities lists 3. Meet

  1. Optimal Management during the Microorganism Culture Based on the Continuous Purifying Effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianbin Wu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problem of selective harvesting in a chemostat model. Here, we have taken the purifying effort as a dynamic variable and tax as a control instrument. The existence of the possible steady states along with their globally stable equilibrium is discussed. The optimal tax policy is also discussed with the help of Pontryagin's maximum principle. Finally, numerical examples are taken to illustrate some of the key results.

  2. Health Care Organizations and Policy Leadership: Perspectives on Nonsmoker-Only Hiring Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2018-02-01

    To explore employers' decisions to base hiring policies on tobacco or nicotine use and community perspectives on such policies, and analyze the implications for organizational identity, community engagement, and health promotion. From 2013 to 2016, 11 executives from six health care organizations and one non-health-care organization with nonsmoker-only hiring policies were interviewed about why and how their policies were created and implemented, concerns about the policies, and perceptions of employee and public reactions. Focus groups were conducted with community members (n = 51) who lived in or near cities where participating employers were based, exploring participants' opinions about why an employer would stop hiring smokers and their support (or not) for such a policy. Most employers excluded from employment those using all forms of nicotine. Several explained their adoption of the policy as a natural extension of a smoke-free campus and as consistent with their identity as health care organizations. They regarded the policy as promoting health. No employer mentioned engaging in a community dialogue before adopting the policy or reported efforts to track the policy's impact on rejected applicants. Community members understood the cost-saving appeal of such policies, but most opposed them. They made few exceptions for health care organizations. Policy decisions undertaken by health care organizations have influence beyond their immediate setting and may establish precedents that others follow. Nonsmoker-only hiring policies may fit with a health care organization's institutional identity but may not be congruent with community values or promote public health.

  3. Assessing biofuels: Aiming for sustainable development or complying with the market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio A.

    2011-01-01

    The growing interest in biofuels has led to increasing concern about their wider implications, particularly if grown for transport use in large scale. Such concerns include environmental, social and economic issues. To counterbalance the possible negative effects, a series of measures are being put in place to help their sustainability. Nevertheless, considering the different meanings of sustainability in different parts of the world and the need to expand productive rural activities, the differences between trying to assure a commodity and the benefits or impacts at local level raise the questions between the aims of sustainability and the need to comply with a market. The ideal situation would be to reconcile both aspects, which in practise represent a major challenge for governments and industry. This paper provides an overview on the sustainability assessment of biofuels to consider a possible way forward. - Highlights: → Multi-interactions in biomass production for bioenergy are a new paradigm to develop policies. → Certification and verification schemes are limited to assess broader sustainability issues. → Improved agricultural and forestry systems for biomass use will boost policies and investment.

  4. What Aims, what Motives? Determining Research Priorities in the International Indian Ocean Expedition, 1960-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, R.

    2016-12-01

    Fundamental tensions affected planning for United States involvement in the International Indian Ocean Expedition (IIOE). At the highest levels of the US state, science advisors and State Department officials praised the proposed Indian Ocean research plan—loosely modeled on the recently completed International Geophysical Year of 1957-58—as a way of promoting scientific internationalism, seeing this undertaking as a way to help bring India more firmly within the Western sphere amid Cold War East-West conflicts. Dwight D. Eisenhower's presidential science advisor, George Kistiakowsky, had the IIOE in mind when he advised the National Security Council that a key role science could play in American foreign relations lay "in relation with the neutral and less-developed countries." At the same time, American scientists invited to take part in the Indian Ocean Expedition—while generally sympathetic with U.S. foreign policy aims—prioritized research programs in the physical branches of the environmental sciences. While policy-makers hoped to encourage biological research, with the aim of encouraging fisheries and protein production to aid Indian citizens, earth scientists—better-funded, better-organized, supported by military agencies because their studies were crucial to national security—came to dominate the IIOE. While the IIOE was later judged a success, for it extended long-running research programs in physical and chemical oceanography into a less-explored ocean, hopes to advance biological programs on an equal footing proved premature.

  5. Constitutionally-Legal Policy as Base Type of Legal Policy of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anichkin, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with reasons for formation, nature and specifics of the constitutionally legal policy of modern Russia. The special attention is spared to the exposure of the aim, long-term and short-term tasks, and principles of national constitutionally legal policy. The functions of constitutionally legal policy are separately considered:…

  6. Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seewooruttun, Leila; Scior, Katrina

    2014-12-01

    Despite policies aimed at ensuring equal rights and maximising respect and social inclusion for people with intellectual disabilities, in their daily lives many continue to face negative attitudes and discrimination within society. Misconceptions about what it means to have an intellectual disability and about the capabilities of people with intellectual disabilities appear widespread, and may contribute to prejudice and discrimination. This review provides a summary and evaluation of empirical interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and targeting negative attitudes towards this population among lay people of working age. An electronic search using PsycINFO, Web of Science and PubMed identified 22 English language studies published between 1990 and early 2014 that reported a specific intervention with a lay population sample. The majority of studies reported promising outcomes, particularly those aimed at increasing knowledge of intellectual disability through education. Support for the positive influence of contact with people with intellectual disabilities was demonstrated across several interventions. Interventions delivered at least partly by individuals with intellectual disabilities, and educational interventions appear to hold the most promise. The evidence is limited though by the weaknesses of measurement tools employed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  8. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-01-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort

  9. The public service-motivated volunteer devoting time or effort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costello, Joyce; Homberg, Fabian; Secchi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    and thus may inform subsequent empirical work. First, we address academic debates concerning the measurement of volunteer effort. Second, we propose using public service motivation (PSM) theory as a means to understand the motivation of volunteers across sectors. We suggest that different PSM dimensions......The purpose of this conceptual article is to further our understanding of how evolving volunteer trends impact on volunteering intensity. The aim is to provide clarity by applying to the volunteer literature a theoretical framework that can be adapted to different ways in which people volunteer...... may be more dominant in certain volunteer settings than others and incorporate person–organisation fit as a means to understand the relationship between PSM and volunteering intensity. Finally, this article proposes directions for future research....

  10. Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea A. Nehorayoff

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.

  11. Student employment and study effort for engineering students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Harder, D. E.

    2015-01-01

    to answer if the full-time student is under demise in these settings as opposed to settings without financial support [1, 2]. The research consisted of a web-based survey amongst all students at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The students in this survey had fewer employment hours and studied......The aim of this paper is to examine which factors effect student employment and study effort in a setting where engineering students are financially supported, such that their education is free of cost and that they receive financial support for living costs while studying. In addition, we wish...... more than those in studies from e.g. UK and US [3, 4, 5]. A similar trend was seen in a study from Norway [6]. Government financial support seems to limit the amount of hours spent on paid work but not the percentage of students who take on paid work. Thus, full-time studies with benefits of increased...

  12. Analysis of intelligent green building policy and developing status in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Lin, Chieh-Hung; Hsu, Ming-Wen

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, Taiwan launched a program dubbed “four emerging intellectual industries” that lists intelligent green buildings. The aim of promoting of intelligent green building is to stimulate the architecture technology industry. This has been combined with Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and the concept of green building to provide a safe and healthy living environment. While doing this it will also aim to reduce carbon emissions and save energy. This study investigates intelligent green building policies and the promotion of progress in Taiwan. It probes into cases from 1988 to 2014. Key success factors are derived from analyzing and summarizing intelligent green building experiences in Taiwan. This is done through Secondary Data Analyses by: 1. Establishing clear norms and standards for intelligent green building design and improvement; 2. First carrying out policies in public sector, in order to provide field trial and safeguarded market opportunities for industries; 3. Implementing rating-based assessments, in order to raise the quality of design; 4. Mandatory or incentive policies are introduced, depending on local specialties and conditions; 5. Respectively planning incentives for relevant interested parties in industrial chain; 6. Strengthening marketing efforts and proactively promoting policies. - Highlights: •Aggregate and analyze the results of Intelligent Green Building policy in Taiwan. •Chi-square Test of Independence is used for inspecting successful factors. •Organize experiences and propose recommended feasible scheme for future.

  13. Geographic health information systems: a platform to support the 'triple aim'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Marie Lynn; Ferranti, Jeffrey; Strauss, Benjamin; Neelon, Brian; Califf, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Despite the rapid growth of electronic health data, most data systems do not connect individual patient records to data sets from outside the health care delivery system. These isolated data systems cannot support efforts to recognize or address how the physical and environmental context of each patient influences health choices and health outcomes. In this article we describe how a geographic health information system in Durham, North Carolina, links health system and social and environmental data via shared geography to provide a multidimensional understanding of individual and community health status and vulnerabilities. Geographic health information systems can be useful in supporting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Triple Aim Initiative to improve the experience of care, improve the health of populations, and reduce per capita costs of health care. A geographic health information system can also provide a comprehensive information base for community health assessment and intervention for accountable care that includes the entire population of a geographic area.

  14. New missions aim to make a short list of exo-Earths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clery, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Thanks to NASA's pioneering Kepler probe, we know our galaxy is teeming with exoplanets. Now, a new generation of exoplanet hunters is set to home in on rocky worlds closer to home. Over 9 years in space, Kepler has found more than 2600 confirmed exoplanets. The new efforts sacrifice sheer numbers and target Earth-size planets whose composition, atmosphere, and climate—factors in whether they might be hospitable to life—could be probed. Leading the charge is the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), a NASA mission due for launch on 16 April. The $337 million TESS project aims to identify at least 50 rocky exoplanets—Earth-size or bigger—close enough for their atmospheres to be scrutinized by the much larger James Webb Space Telescope, due for launch in 2020.

  15. STAR Infrastructure Database: An effort to know each other

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, J.C.; Real, Almudena [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas - CIEMAT (Spain); Vesterbacka, Pia; Outola, Iisa [STUK - Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland); Barnett, Catherine; Beresford, Nick [Natural Environment Research Council - NERC-CEH (United Kingdom); Bradshaw, Clare [Stockholm University (Sweden); Skipperud, Lindis [Norwegian University of Life Sciences - UMB (Norway); Wilrodt, Christine; Steiner, Martin [Federal Office for Radiation Protection - BfS (Germany); Vanhoudt, Nathalie [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN (Belgium); Komperoed, Mari [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority - NRPA (Norway); Gurriaran, Rodolfo; Gilbin, Rodolphe; Hinton, Thomas [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    Effort over the last decade to make radioecology stronger and sustainable within Europe crystallized in the creation of the European Radioecology Alliance. The first step for this integrative effort was the establishment of a network of excellence (NoE) under the EU FP7 Strategy for Allied Radioecology (STAR www.star-radioecology.org) project which commenced in 2011. One of the project objectives was to share knowledge of European radioecological capabilities. To help achieve this, a register of these capabilities at each of the STAR laboratories has been created. An Infrastructure Database was designed and programmed using web 2.0 technologies on a 'wiki' platform. Its intended use was to identify what assets were held and where improvements could be made. Information collated includes an inventory of the radioanalytical or conventional equipment and methods, bio-informatics equipment and methods, sample and data archives held, and models and codes used. It also provides a summary of the radioecological expertise of the 170 radio-ecologists at STAR institutes whose knowledge is wide-ranging and encompasses: atmospheric dispersion, dosimetry, ecology, ecotoxicology, environmental radiation protection, environmental surveillance, foodstuffs, terrestrial, freshwater and marine radioecology, modelling, radiobiology and radionuclide analyses, emergency preparedness, education and training, amongst others. In 2013, the EU FP7 Coordination and implementation of a pan-European instrument for radioecology (COMET, www.comet-radioecology.org) project, involving the STAR partners and additionally one Japanese and two Ukrainian research institutes, was initiated. The capabilities of these additional partners will be added to the database in 2014. The aim of the database was to gather information to: - avoid duplication of effort and thereby increase efficiency, - improve synergy and collaboration between the STAR project partners and others involved in

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  19. Evaluating the Effect of Control Flow on the Unit Testing Effort of Classes: An Empirical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Badri, Mourad; Toure, Fadel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate empirically the relationship between a new metric (Quality Assurance Indicator—Qi) and testability of classes in object-oriented systems. The Qi metric captures the distribution of the control flow in a system. We addressed testability from the perspective of unit testing effort. We collected data from five open source Java software systems for which JUnit test cases exist. To capture the testing effort of classes, we used different metrics to quantify the...

  20. Pedagogy, policy and preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornerup, Ida; Schrøder, Vibeke

    The aim of this study is to conduct a discourse analysis on how global, national and local policy documents influence preschool teacher education and the practical pedagogical work in preschools. The study is part of a larger Nordic research study (Gjems, Vatne, Schrøder and Kornerup). Previous...... studies of preschool teacher education (Vatne, Gjems 2014) shows that professional knowledge vary according to the consolidation act of education and that there seems to be connections between both global and national policy and the educational field (Kornerup, 2011). The discourse analysis...... of the implementation of the learning curriculum in Danish preschools. This focus has affected both preschools and education. During this century, the preschool teacher education has been revised three times....

  1. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Ten groups of policy instruments for promoting energy efficiency are actively used in Denmark. Among these are the EU instruments such as the CO2 emissions trading scheme and labelling of appliances, labelling of all buildings, combined with national instruments such as high taxes especially...... of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... was assigned with this task. The evaluation aimed to answer the crucial questions: Is the overall design of the portfolio of instruments appropriate? Does the impact of the instruments justify the costs, so that we reach the national goals in a cost efficient way? Will the current instrument portfolio be able...

  2. Results and tasks of the implementation of federal target programs aimed at overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents and catastrophes in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.

    2002-01-01

    Major results are presented on the implementation of federal target programs on overcoming the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, radiation accidents and incidents at the 'Mayak' Industrial Association, nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk test site in the period of 1992-2000. The status of the standards and legislation regulating the activities aimed at population protection and rehabilitation of territories is analyzed. The current state of the problem is evaluated. The proposals are laid down for major directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation in overcoming the consequences of radiation accidents for the period until 2010, and the outlook for the efforts in the above domain and the above period is given. About 130 thousand square kilometers of the territories of 20 Russian Federation subjects with a population of around 4 million people were affected by accidents at nuclear fuel cycle sites/facilities, and nuclear and hydrogen weapons tests. The accidents entailed a host of grave radioecological, medical, demographic, and socio-economic consequences, exerted a significant unfavorable impact upon the socio-economic development of the affected territories. (author)

  3. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengni Chen

    Full Text Available A country's total fertility rate (TFR depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  4. A new method of identifying target groups for pronatalist policy applied to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengni; Lloyd, Chris J; Yip, Paul S F

    2018-01-01

    A country's total fertility rate (TFR) depends on many factors. Attributing changes in TFR to changes of policy is difficult, as they could easily be correlated with changes in the unmeasured drivers of TFR. A case in point is Australia where both pronatalist effort and TFR increased in lock step from 2001 to 2008 and then decreased. The global financial crisis or other unobserved confounders might explain both the reducing TFR and pronatalist incentives after 2008. Therefore, it is difficult to estimate causal effects of policy using econometric techniques. The aim of this study is to instead look at the structure of the population to identify which subgroups most influence TFR. Specifically, we build a stochastic model relating TFR to the fertility rates of various subgroups and calculate elasticity of TFR with respect to each rate. For each subgroup, the ratio of its elasticity to its group size is used to evaluate the subgroup's potential cost effectiveness as a pronatalist target. In addition, we measure the historical stability of group fertility rates, which measures propensity to change. Groups with a high effectiveness ratio and also high propensity to change are natural policy targets. We applied this new method to Australian data on fertility rates broken down by parity, age and marital status. The results show that targeting parity 3+ is more cost-effective than lower parities. This study contributes to the literature on pronatalist policies by investigating the targeting of policies, and generates important implications for formulating cost-effective policies.

  5. The cocaine and heroin markets in the era of globalisation and drug reduction policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Storti, Cláudia; De Grauwe, Paul

    2009-11-01

    Despite the large volume of public effort devoted to restrain drug supply and the growing attention given to drug demand reduction policies, the use of cocaine and heroin remains steady. Furthermore, retail drug prices have fallen significantly in Europe and the US. This puzzling evidence leads us to develop a model aiming at systematically analysing illicit drug markets. We model the markets of cocaine and heroin from production to the final retail markets. One novelty of the analysis consists in characterising the retail market as a monopolistic competitive one. Then, upper level dealers have some market power in the retail market. This allows them to charge a markup and to earn extra profits. These extra profits attract newcomers so that profits tend to fall over time. Theoretical model was used to analyse the effect of supply containment policies on the retail market, the producer market and the export-import business. This introduces the discussion of the impact of demand reduction policies on the high level traffickers' profit. Finally, globalisation enters in the model. Law enforcement measures increase the risk premia received by the lower and higher level traffickers. Consequently, trafficking intermediation margins tend to increase. However, globalisation has the opposite effect. It lowers intermediation margins and, then, pushes retail prices down, thereby stimulating consumption. In doing so, globalisation offsets the effects of supply containment policies. Finally, we discuss how the effectiveness of supply containment policies can be enhanced by combining them with demand reduction policies.

  6. Cognitive enhancement. Effort of definition, and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Gunia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The idea of cognitive enhancement refers to multifaceted and interdisciplinary approach aimed at improving human mental processes. Cognitive enhancement is the amplification or extension of core mind capacities through improvement or augmentation of either internal or external information processing systems. This includes improvements of intelligence and attention, reinforcement of creativity and memory, or extension of perception range. The main feature of cognitive enhancement is voluntariness of use for overcoming natural mental limitations. This article is a synthesis of current trends in cognitive enhancement from the perspective of transhumanism. The article presents various definitions of cognitive enhancement, methods of cognitive enhancement (biotechnological methods, non-pharmacological methods, IT methods as well as challenges and questions concerning improving human mental processes.

  7. Advancing institutional efforts to support research mentorship: a conceptual framework and self-assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyser, Donna J; Lakoski, Joan M; Lara-Cinisomo, Sandraluz; Schultz, Dana J; Williams, Valerie L; Zellers, Darlene F; Pincus, Harold Alan

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this article is to assist institutions in advancing their efforts to support research mentorship. The authors begin by describing how institutions can shape the key domains of research mentorship: (1) the criteria for selecting mentors, (2) incentives for motivating faculty to serve effectively as mentors, (3) factors that facilitate the mentor-mentee relationship, (4) factors that strengthen a mentee's ability to conduct research responsibly, and (5) factors that contribute to the professional development of both mentees and mentors. On the basis of a conceptual analysis of these domains as currently documented in the literature, as well as their collective experience examining mentoring programs at a range of academic medicine institutions and departments, the authors provide a framework that leaders of institutions and/or departments can adapt for use as a tool to document and monitor policies for guiding the mentorship process, the programs/activities through which these policies are implemented, and the structures that are responsible for maintaining policies and implementing programs. The authors provide an example of how one hypothetical institution might use the self-assessment tool to track its policies, programs, and structures across the key domains of research mentorship and, on the basis of this information, identify a range of potential actions to strengthen its research mentoring efforts. The authors conclude with a brief discussion of the limitations of the self-assessment tool, the potential drawbacks and benefits of the overall approach, and proposed next steps for research in this area.

  8. Shifting gears: Diversification, intensification, and effort increases in small-scale fisheries (1950-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergel, Sarah E.; Vincent, Amanda C. J.

    2018-01-01

    Locally sustainable resource extraction activities, at times, transform into ecologically detrimental enterprises. Understanding such transitions is a primary challenge for conservation and management of many ecosystems. In marine systems, over-exploitation of small-scale fisheries creates problems such as reduced biodiversity and lower catches. However, long-term documentation of how governance and associated changes in fishing gears may have contributed to such declines is often lacking. Using fisher interviews, we characterized fishing gear dynamics over 60 years (1950–2010) in a coral reef ecosystem in the Philippines subject to changing fishing regulations. In aggregate fishers greatly diversified their use of fishing gears. However, most individual fishers used one or two gears at a time (mean number of fishing gears fishing effort (days per year) was fairly steady over the study period, but cumulative fishing effort by all fishers increased 240%. In particular, we document large increases in total effort by fishers using nets and diving. Other fishing gears experienced less pronounced changes in total effort over time. Fishing intensified through escalating use of non-selective, active, and destructive fishing gears. We also found that policies promoting higher production over sustainability influenced the use of fishing gears, with changes in gear use persisting decades after those same policies were stopped. Our quantitative evidence shows dynamic changes in fishing gear use over time and indicates that gears used in contemporary small-scale fisheries impact oceans more than those used in earlier decades. PMID:29538370

  9. U.S. Conservation Policy Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Amy Whritenour

    2007-01-01

    Research related to the Endangered Species Act tends to take the presence of that policy as given and focus on issues of implementation and effects. This paper seeks to reconsider U.S. conservation policy entirely. The ESA does not protect species or ecosystems that are not endangered, and formally requires that conservation efforts be spread evenly across endangered species to prevent their extinctions. However, the focus of conservation science has evolved in recent years towards ecosystems...

  10. How hearing aids, background noise, and visual cues influence objective listening effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate factors that influence the listening effort experienced when processing speech for people with hearing loss. Specifically, the change in listening effort resulting from introducing hearing aids, visual cues, and background noise was evaluated. An additional exploratory aim was to investigate the possible relationships between the magnitude of listening effort change and individual listeners' working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, or lipreading skill. Twenty-seven participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were fitted with linear behind-the-ear hearing aids and tested using a dual-task paradigm designed to evaluate listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition and the secondary task was a visual reaction time task. The test conditions varied by hearing aids (unaided, aided), visual cues (auditory-only, auditory-visual), and background noise (present, absent). For all participants, the signal to noise ratio was set individually so that speech recognition performance in noise was approximately 60% in both the auditory-only and auditory-visual conditions. In addition to measures of listening effort, working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, and lipreading ability were measured using the Automated Operational Span Task, a Lexical Decision Task, and the Revised Shortened Utley Lipreading Test, respectively. In general, the effects measured using the objective measure of listening effort were small (~10 msec). Results indicated that background noise increased listening effort, and hearing aids reduced listening effort, while visual cues did not influence listening effort. With regard to the individual variables, verbal processing speed was negatively correlated with hearing aid benefit for listening effort; faster processors were less likely to derive benefit. Working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, and lipreading ability were related to benefit from visual cues. No

  11. Policy Scientificity 3.0: Theory and Policy Analysis in-and-for This World and Other-Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, P. Taylor; Gulson, Kalervo N.

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the epistemologies and ontologies of education policy studies. Our aim is to posit a reinvigoration of policy studies to hedge against undue ossification and co-option of critical policy studies. We do so by arguing for the need to develop new concepts for policy studies using the "posts" (e.g., post-structuralism and…

  12. Policy content and stakeholder network analysis for infant and young child feeding in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Karn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite concerted effort from government and partners, Nepal continues to have a high burden of under nutrition among children. Identifying opportunities to strengthen policy support for infant and young child feeding (IYCF is a key component to improve child survival, growth and development. This study aims to explore policy support for IYCF and to identify the influential stakeholders for IYCF for effective future policy development and programmatic action. Methods Policies relevant to IYCF were identified through web searches and direct approaches to relevant government ministries. Policy content was analysed based on four key domains focussed on mothers, using a qualitative synthesis approach. Three group interviews were conducted using the participatory tool “Net-Map”, to identify the influential stakeholders in IYCF policy and programming processes. Results Twenty-six relevant policy documents were analysed for content relating to IYCF. General support for IYCF was found in most of the development plans and high-level health sector policies. Most implementation level documents included support for provision of correct information to mothers. Capacity building of frontline workers for IYCN and system strengthening were well supported through sectoral plans and policies. However, gaps were identified regarding maternity protection, support for monitoring and evaluation, and translation of high-level policy directives into implementation level guidelines, resulting in a lack of clarity over roles and responsibilities. Both government and non-governmental stakeholders, particularly donors, emerged as influential drivers of IYCF policy decisions in Nepal, through technical assistance and funding. The Nutrition Technical Committee under the Ministry of Health, UNICEF, Suaahara, USAID and WHO were identified as key actors providing technical assistance. Key funding agencies were identified as UNICEF and USAID. Conclusions

  13. Public policy action and CCC implementation: benefits and hurdles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Carter; Daniel, Kelley; Gurian, Gary L; Petherick, J T; Stockmyer, Chris; David, Annette M; Miller, Sara E

    2010-12-01

    Policy change continues to be an increasingly effective means of advancing the agenda of comprehensive cancer control. Efforts have moved progressively from describing how public policy can enhance the comprehensive cancer control agenda to implementation of public policy best practices at both the state and federal levels. The current political and economic contexts bring additional challenges and opportunities to the efforts surrounding comprehensive cancer control and policy. The purpose of this paper is to highlight recent policy successes, to illustrate the importance of policy as a means of advancing the comprehensive cancer control agenda, and to discuss continued policy action as we move forward in a time of healthcare reform and continuing economic uncertainty.

  14. Methodological Considerations When Quantifying High-Intensity Efforts in Team Sport Using Global Positioning System Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varley, Matthew C; Jaspers, Arne; Helsen, Werner F; Malone, James J

    2017-09-01

    Sprints and accelerations are popular performance indicators in applied sport. The methods used to define these efforts using athlete-tracking technology could affect the number of efforts reported. This study aimed to determine the influence of different techniques and settings for detecting high-intensity efforts using global positioning system (GPS) data. Velocity and acceleration data from a professional soccer match were recorded via 10-Hz GPS. Velocity data were filtered using either a median or an exponential filter. Acceleration data were derived from velocity data over a 0.2-s time interval (with and without an exponential filter applied) and a 0.3-second time interval. High-speed-running (≥4.17 m/s 2 ), sprint (≥7.00 m/s 2 ), and acceleration (≥2.78 m/s 2 ) efforts were then identified using minimum-effort durations (0.1-0.9 s) to assess differences in the total number of efforts reported. Different velocity-filtering methods resulted in small to moderate differences (effect size [ES] 0.28-1.09) in the number of high-speed-running and sprint efforts detected when minimum duration was GPS. Changes to how high-intensity efforts are defined affect reported data. Therefore, consistency in data processing is advised.

  15. Drug Policy in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucek Psenkova, Maria; Visnansky, Martin; Mackovicova, Stanislava; Tomek, Dominik

    2017-09-01

    Slovak law sets clear rules and timelines in the process of approving the price and reimbursement of drugs. During the last decade, the Ministry of Health adopted several cost-containment measures in the price and reimbursement policy. The most effective measures were the implementation of the external referencing of drug prices in 2008 and the reimbursement law in 2011. The new act introduced several regulations such as making stricter rules for the referencing of prices, setting cost per quality-adjusted life-year threshold, and defining new rules for the setting of reimbursements. On one side, implementation of these measures helped to achieve visible cost savings, but, on the other side, cost-containment policies have had some unintended consequences. In recent years, Slovakia has been facing a decreased availability of drugs because of parallel exports. As a result of the government's effort, Slovakia is the only country in the European Union that implemented a legal ban on the re-export of medicines. During the decade before 2011, many innovative drugs were included in the reimbursement system. Because of stricter legal conditions introduced in 2011, there has been a gradual shift in reimbursing innovative drugs from the standard reimbursement system to reimbursement by way of exceptions of health insurance companies. Recently, there has been an ongoing discussion on possible changes to the reimbursement law. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Progress of MCT Detector Technology at AIM Towards Smaller Pitch and Lower Dark Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eich, D.; Schirmacher, W.; Hanna, S.; Mahlein, K. M.; Fries, P.; Figgemeier, H.

    2017-09-01

    We present our latest results on cooled p-on- n planar mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) photodiode technology. Along with a reduction in dark current for raising the operating temperature ( T op), AIM INFRAROT-MODULE GmbH (AIM) has devoted its development efforts to shrinking the pixel size. Both are essential requirements to meet the market demands for reduced size, weight and power and high-operating temperature applications. Detectors based on the p-on- n technology developed at AIM now span the spectrum from the mid-wavelength infrared (MWIR) to the very long wavelength infrared (VLWIR) with cut-off wavelengths from 5 μm to about 13.5 μm at 80 K. The development of the p-on- n technology for VLWIR as well as for MWIR is mainly implemented in a planar photodetector design with a 20- μm pixel pitch. For the VLWIR, dark currents significantly reduced as compared to `Tennant's Rule 07' are demonstrated for operating temperatures between 30 K and 100 K. This allows for the same dark current performance at a 20 K higher operating temperature than with previous AIM technology. For MWIR detectors with a 20- μm pitch, noise equivalent temperature differences of less than 30 mK are obtained up to 170 K. This technology has been transferred to our small pixel pitch high resolution (XGA) MWIR detector with 1024 × 768 pixels at a 10- μm pitch. Excellent performance at an operating temperature of 160 K is demonstrated.

  17. Fiscal policy under alternative monetary policy regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Diaz-Roldan; Carmelo Monteagudo-Cuerva

    2013-01-01

    In the particular policy framework of a monetary union, the management of fiscal policy becomes an issue of special relevance, because the fiscal discipline imposed by the monetary agreements could limit the scope of stabilization fiscal policies, and its implications on economic growth. Therefore, is not trivial to manage fiscal policy in such particular economic framework. In this paper we will review the implications of fiscal policy in open economies. But we will pay special attention to ...

  18. Improving adolescent health policy: incorporating a framework for assessing state-level policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindis, Claire D; Moore, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Many US policies that affect health are made at the state, not the federal, level. Identifying state-level policies and data to analyze how different policies affect outcomes may help policy makers ascertain the usefulness of their public policies and funding decisions in improving the health of adolescent populations. A framework for describing and assessing the role of federal and state policies on adolescent health and well-being is proposed; an example of how the framework might be applied to the issue of teen childbearing is included. Such a framework can also help inform analyses of whether and how state and federal policies contribute to the variation across states in meeting adolescent health needs. A database on state policies, contextual variables, and health outcomes data can further enable researchers and policy makers to examine how these factors are associated with behaviors they aim to impact.

  19. Identification of efforts required for continued safe operation of KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghafoor, M.A.; Hashmi, J.A.; Siddiqui, Z.H.

    1991-01-01

    Kanupp, the first commercial CANDU PHWR, rated at 137 MWe, was built on turnkey basis by the Canadian General Electric Company for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission, and went operational in October, 1972 near Karachi. It has operated since then with a lifetime average availability factor of 51.5% and capacity factor of 25%. In 1976, Kanupp suffered loss of technical support from its original vendors due to the Canadian embargo on export of nuclear technology. Simultaneously, the world experienced the most explosive development and advancement in electronic and computer technology, accelerating the obsolescence of such equipment and systems installed in Kanupp. Replacement upgrading of obsolete computers, control and instrumentation was thus the first major set of efforts realized as essential f or continued safe operation. On the other hand, Kanupp was able to cope with the normal maintenance of its process, mechanical and electrical equipment till the late 80's. But now many of these components are reaching the end of their useful life, and developing chronic problems due to ageing, which can only be solved by complete replacement. This is much more difficult for custom-made nuclear process equipment, e.g. the reactor internals and the fuelling machine. Public awareness and international concern about nuclear safety have increased significantly since the TMI and Chernobyl events. Corresponding realization of the critical role of human factors and the importance of operational experience feedback, has helped Kanupp by opening international channels of communication, including renewed cooperation on CANDU technology. The safety standards and criteria for CANDU as well as other NPPs have matured and evolved gradually over the past two decades. First Kanupp has to ensure that its present ageing-induced equipment problems are resolved to satisfy the original safety requirements and public risk targets which are still internationally acceptable. But as a policy, we

  20. Effect of effort-reward imbalance and burnout on infection control among Ecuadorian nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colindres, C V; Bryce, E; Coral-Rosero, P; Ramos-Soto, R M; Bonilla, F; Yassi, A

    2017-11-07

    Nurses are frequently exposed to transmissible infections, yet adherence to infection control measures is suboptimal. There has been inadequate research into how the psychosocial work environment affects compliance with infection control measures, especially in low- and middle-income countries. To examine the association between effort-reward imbalance, burnout and adherence to infection control measures among nurses in Ecuador. A cross-sectional study linking psychosocial work environment indicators to infection control adherence. The study was conducted among 333 nurses in four Ecuadorian hospitals. Self-administered questionnaires assessed demographic variables, perceived infection risk, effort-reward imbalance, burnout and infection control adherence. Increased effort-reward imbalance was found to be a unique incremental predictor of exposure to burnout, and burnout was a negative unique incremental predictor of nurses' self-reported adherence with infection control measures. Results suggest an effort-reward imbalance-burnout continuum, which, at higher levels, contributes to reduce adherence to infection control. The Ecuadorean government has made large efforts to improve universal access to health care, yet this study suggests that workplace demands on nurses remain problematic. This study highlights the contribution of effort-reward-imbalance-burnout continuum to the chain of infection by decreased adherence to infection control of nurses. Health authorities should closely monitor the effect of new policies on psychosocial work environment, especially when expanding services and increasing public accessibility with limited resources. Additionally, organizational and psychosocial interventions targeting effort-reward imbalance and burnout in nurses should be considered part of a complete infection prevention and control strategy. Further study is warranted to identify interventions that best ameliorate effort-reward imbalance and burnout in low- and middle

  1. Environmental science-policy interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis

    In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge on the environ......In response to a history of contended and ineffective policy initiatives aimed at arresting environmental problems, scientific knowledge is increasingly called for to inform decision makers in their design of better policy solutions. Based on the rationale that scientific knowledge...... on the environment is indispensable in environmental policy making, significant human and financial resources are being allocated to activities that are able to generate the required scientific knowledge. However, for many involved in such activities, the question arises: when do policy makers actually listen...... by an epistemic community, which in a current situation of weak and contradictory empirical evidence is able to sustain a deforestation discourse centered on high forest loss and neo-Malthusian causal explanations. The third paper examines how knowing about deforestation is closely linked to issues of framing...

  2. Combined research effort on aggregate road materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Hoff, Inge; Willy Danielsen, Svein; Wigum, Børge Johannes; Fladvad, Marit; Rieksts, Karlis; Loranger, Benoit; Barbieri, Diego

    2017-04-01

    In European countries, the average aggregate consumption per capita is 5 tons per year (European Aggregates Association 2016), while the corresponding number in Norway is 11 tons (Neeb 2015). Due to the increased demand for sand and gravel for construction purposes, e.g. in road construction, the last decade has seen a significant trend towards the use of crushed rock aggregates. Neeb (2015) reports that half of the Norwegian aggregate production (sand, gravel and crushed rock) is used for road construction, and 33 % of the overall sold tonnage of crushed rock is exported. This resource has been more and more preferred over sand and gravel due to the significant technological development of its process and utilization phase. In Norway, the development and implementation of crushed aggregate technology has been the main approach to solve natural resource scarcity (Danielsen and Kuznetsova 2015). In order to reduce aggregates transportation, it is aimed to use local aggregates and aggregates processed from rock excavations, tunneling, road cuts, etc. One issue focused in this research is the influence from blasting and processing on the final quality of the crushed aggregates, specifically relating to the properties for road construction purposes. It is therefor crucial to plan utilization of available materials for use in different road layers following the same production line. New developments and improved availability of mobile crushing and screening equipment could produce more sustainable and profitable sources of good quality aggregate materials from small volume deposits in proximity to construction sites. One of the biggest challenges today to use these materials is that the pavement design manual sets rigid requirements for pavement layers. Four research projects are being conducted in Norway to improve the use of local materials for road construction. Four aspects are to be covered by the research: a) geological characteristics of the materials, their b

  3. Private sector joins family planning effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-12-01

    Projects supported by the Directorate for Population (S&T/POP) of the U.S. Agency for International Development and aimed at increasing for-profit private sector involvement in providing family planning services and products are described. Making products commercially available through social-marketing partnerships with the commercial sector, USAID has saved $1.1 million in commodity costs from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Indonesia, and Peru. Active private sector involvement benefits companies, consumers, and donors through increased corporate profits, healthier employees, improved consumer access at lower cost, and the possibility of sustained family planning programs. Moreover, private, for-profit companies will be able to meet service demands over the next 20 years where traditional government and donor agency sources would fail. Using employee surveys and cost-benefit analyses to demonstrate expected financial and health benefits for businesses and work forces, S&T/POP's Technical Information on Population for the Private Sector (TIPPS) project encourages private companies in developing countries to invest in family planning and maternal/child health care for their employees. 36 companies in 9 countries have responded thus far, which examples provided from Peru and Zimbabwe. The Enterprise program's objectives are also to increase the involvement of for-profit companies in delivering family planning services, and to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of private volunteer organizations in providing services. Projects have been started with mines, factories, banks, insurance companies, and parastatals in 27 countries, with examples cited from Ghana and Indonesia. Finally, the Social Marketing for Change project (SOMARC) builds demand and distributes low-cost contraceptives through commercial channels especially to low-income audiences. Partnerships have been initiated with the private sector in 17 developing countries, with examples provided from

  4. Secrecy and misguided policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossin, A.D. [Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford, California (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  5. Secrecy and misguided policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossin, A.D.

    2001-01-01

    The atomic bomb was born in secrecy. After the war, scientists and statesmen committed themselves to develop the promise of nuclear energy without the proliferation of nuclear weapons. The most obvious tool available to them was secrecy. But secrecy was not the sword that could easily be beaten into the plowshare. It proved to be a double-edged sword. It could not stop the spread of basic scientific information, and it turned out to be a weapon for marketing information to promote political aims. It served that purpose in promoting President Carter policy to stop reprocessing of spent fuel. (author)

  6. English obesity policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2015-01-01

    Problem definitions constitute a crucial part of the policy process. In 2008 the Labour Government presented a plan to reduce the obesity prevalence in England. Only three years later the Conservative-Liberal Government introduced a plan on the same topic, which it presented as new and innovative....... The aim of this study is to analyse the respective governments' problematisations of obesity and to identify similarities and differences. Despite the different hues of the two governments, the programmes are surprisingly similar. They seek to simultaneously govern and not to govern. They adhere...

  7. An exploration of the theoretical concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs at the Swedish public health arena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldbrandsson, Karin; Fossum, Bjöörn

    2009-12-01

    In John Kingdon's Policy Streams Approach policy formation is described as the result of the flow of three 'streams', the problem stream, the policy stream and the politics stream. When these streams couple, a policy window opens which facilitate policy change. Actors who promote specific solutions are labelled policy entrepreneurs. The aim of this study was to test the applicability of the Policy Streams Approach by verifying whether the theoretical concepts 'policy windows' and 'policy entrepreneurs' could be discernable in nine specified cases. Content analyses of interviews and documents related to child health promoting measures in three Swedish municipalities were performed and nine case studies were written. The policy processes preceding the municipal measures and described in the case studies were scrutinized in order to find statements related to the concepts policy windows and policy entrepreneurs. All conditions required to open a policy window were reported to be present in eight of the nine case studies, as was the most important resource of a policy entrepreneur, sheer persistence. This study shows that empirical examples of policy windows and policy entrepreneurs could be identified in child health promoting measures in Swedish municipalities. If policy makers could learn to predict the opening of policy windows, the planning of public health measures might be more straightforward. This also applies to policy makers' ability to detect actors possessing policy entrepreneur resources.

  8. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  9. Policy implications for familial searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joyce; Mammo, Danny; Siegel, Marni B; Katsanis, Sara H

    2011-11-01

    In the United States, several states have made policy decisions regarding whether and how to use familial searching of the Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) database in criminal investigations. Familial searching pushes DNA typing beyond merely identifying individuals to detecting genetic relatedness, an application previously reserved for missing persons identifications and custody battles. The intentional search of CODIS for partial matches to an item of evidence offers law enforcement agencies a powerful tool for developing investigative leads, apprehending criminals, revitalizing cold cases and exonerating wrongfully convicted individuals. As familial searching involves a range of logistical, social, ethical and legal considerations, states are now grappling with policy options for implementing familial searching to balance crime fighting with its potential impact on society. When developing policies for familial searching, legislators should take into account the impact of familial searching on select populations and the need to minimize personal intrusion on relatives of individuals in the DNA database. This review describes the approaches used to narrow a suspect pool from a partial match search of CODIS and summarizes the economic, ethical, logistical and political challenges of implementing familial searching. We examine particular US state policies and the policy options adopted to address these issues. The aim of this review is to provide objective background information on the controversial approach of familial searching to inform policy decisions in this area. Herein we highlight key policy options and recommendations regarding effective utilization of familial searching that minimize harm to and afford maximum protection of US citizens.

  10. The argument for pharmaceutical policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Almarsdóttir, Anna Birna

    2005-01-01

    Pharmaceutical policy is a global concern. It has become a hot political topic in most countries--developed as well as developing--and can be found on the agenda of international organizations such as WHO, OECD, EU, WTO and even the World Bank. Pharmaceutical policy affects everyone in the world...... of pharmacy and it is therefore imperative that it be understood, discussed and debated within the pharmacy profession and included in the curriculum of schools of pharmacy. This, the first article in a series, argues for the importance of the academic discipline of pharmaceutical policy analysis...... and the involvement of pharmacists in this endeavour. The aim of the authors is to stimulate an informed and critical appreciation of this field. The authors begin with an introduction to the field of pharmaceutical policy, introducing several important concepts and current trends including: medicines regulation; how...

  11. Strengthening the Indonesia's Health Policy Network to Promote ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening the Indonesia's Health Policy Network to Promote Equity and Social Protection. Despite sustained economic growth and efforts to ... Outputs. Journal articles. Evaluasi implementasi public private mix pengendalian tuberkulosis di kabupaten Ende provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur tahun 2012. Download PDF.

  12. Aligning California's Transportation Funding with Its Climate Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    California has established itself as a leader in efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation. At the same time, the state has not reflected its ambitious policies for GHG reduction and climate action in its practices for allo...

  13. Energy policies of IEA countries: Japan - 2008 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-06-15

    Declaring climate change and environment as a top priority of the 2008 G8 Summit in Hokkaido, host country Japan has demonstrated its commitment to pressing ahead in these domains. Already a world leader in advancing energy technology transfer and environmental policy, the country is determined to further improve its domestic policies, moving it towards a more sustainable and secure energy pathway for the long term. Along with other accomplishments, government support for energy R and D is very strong and policies to enhance the efficiency of appliances - both for domestic consumption and export - are models for other countries. Yet there is still room for progress. Most importantly, a greater reliance on market forces throughout the system could lead customers to choices that enhance security, raise economic efficiency and promote environmental protection. Particularly with respect to climate change goals - Japan is the world's fifth-largest greenhouse gas emitter - strengthening the value on greenhouse gas emissions would help give consumers the appropriate signals they need to make the right choices. Enhancing energy savings through efforts aimed at particular sectors (sectoral approaches) could be a part of the overall policy mix, along with ongoing leadership in promoting energy efficiency. The government should continue to work to complement existing voluntary instruments with stronger ones, including ones that rely more on market incentives, and standards and requirements. This review takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Japan today and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements to help guide the country towards a more sustainable energy future.

  14. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Conservation efforts may increase malaria burden in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Denis; Clark, James

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale forest conservation projects are underway in the Brazilian Amazon but little is known regarding their public health impact. Current literature emphasizes how land clearing increases malaria incidence, leading to the conclusion that forest conservation decreases malaria burden. Yet, there is also evidence that proximity to forest fringes increases malaria incidence, which implies the opposite relationship between forest conservation and malaria. We compare the effect of these environmental factors on malaria and explore its implications. Using a large malaria dataset (~1,300,000 positive malaria tests collected over ~4.5 million km(2)), satellite imagery, permutation tests, and hierarchical Bayesian regressions, we show that greater forest cover (as a proxy for proximity to forest fringes) tends to be associated with higher malaria incidence, and that forest cover effect was 25 times greater than the land clearing effect, the often cited culprit of malaria in the region. These findings have important implications for land use/land cover (LULC) policies in the region. We find that cities close to protected areas (PA's) tend to have higher malaria incidence than cities far from PA's. Using future LULC scenarios, we show that avoiding 10% of deforestation through better governance might result in an average 2-fold increase in malaria incidence by 2050 in urban health posts. Our results suggest that cost analysis of reduced carbon emissions from conservation efforts in the region should account for increased malaria morbidity, and that conservation initiatives should consider adopting malaria mitigation strategies. Coordinated actions from disparate science fields, government ministries, and global initiatives (e.g., Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation; Millenium Development Goals; Roll Back Malaria; and Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria), will be required to decrease malaria toll in the region while preserving these

  16. Orchestration in work environment policy programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasle, Peter; Limborg, Hans Jørgen; Grøn, Sisse

    2017-01-01

    In spite of many years’ efforts, it is difficult to prove substantial improvements of the work environment and policymakers are continuously searching for new efficient strategies. This paper examines the concept of orchestration of work environment programs, based on an empirical analysis...... type of regulation, which is not only emerging in network but also includes more explicitly orchestrated policy programs. The stakeholders participate in the network with different interests and the orchestration of work environment policies is therefore built on a platform of regulation......, as it is especially important for employers and unions as key stakeholders in order to accept these shared policies....

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  20. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.