WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy effective immediately

  1. Immediate challenge of combating climate change: Effective implementation of energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morvaj, Zoran; Bukarica, Vesna

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the most readily available, rapid and cost-effective way to achieve desired greenhouse gases reductions. Therefore, it is the focus of energy and climate change policies world wide. The results of these policies are still missing in the desired extent, even in the EU, which has the most advanced energy efficiency policy. The main reason behind this policy failure is a complete lack of focus on implementing capacities that would ensure full policy uptake. Embracing full-scale energy management systems in public and business sectors and mobilisation of and cooperation between all stakeholders are the way towards higher efficiency.

  2. Characterization of Medicaid policy for immediate postpartum contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moniz, Michelle H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Davis, Matthew M; Forman, Jane; Iott, Bradley; Landgraf, Jessica; Chang, Tammy

    2015-12-01

    Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is safe, effective and cost-saving when provided immediately postpartum but currently underutilized due to nonreimbursement by Medicaid and other insurers. The objectives of this study were to (a) determine which state Medicaid agencies provide specific reimbursement for immediate postpartum LARC and (b) identify modifiable policy-level barriers and facilitators of immediate postpartum LARC access. We conducted semistructured telephone interviews with representatives of 40 Medicaid agencies to characterize payment methodology for immediate postpartum LARC. We coded transcripts using grounded theory and content analysis principles. Three categories of immediate postpartum LARC payment methodology emerged: state Medicaid agency (a) provides separate or increased bundled payment (n=15), (b) is considering providing enhanced payment (n=9) or (c) is not considering enhanced payment (n=16). Two major themes emerged related to Medicaid decision-making about immediate postpartum LARC coverage: (a) Health effects: States with payment for immediate postpartum LARC frequently cited improved maternal/child health outcomes as motivating their reimbursements. Conversely, states without payment expressed misinformation about LARC's clinical effects and lack of advocacy from local providers about clinical need for this service. (b) Financial implications: States providing payment emphasized overall cost savings. Conversely, states without reimbursement expressed concern about immediate budget constraints and potential adverse impact on existing global payment methodology for inpatient care. Many states have recently provided Medicaid coverage of immediate postpartum LARC, and several other states are considering such coverage. Addressing misinformation about clinical effects and concerns about cost-effectiveness of immediate postpartum LARC may promote adoption of immediate postpartum LARC reimbursement in Medicaid agencies currently

  3. Application of Implementation Science Methodology to Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception Policy Roll-Out Across States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Kristin M; Kroelinger, Charlan D; DeSisto, Carla L; Pliska, Ellen; Akbarali, Sanaa; Mackie, Christine N; Goodman, David A

    2016-11-01

    Purpose Providing long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) in the immediate postpartum period is an evidence-based strategy for expanding women's access to highly effective contraception and for reducing unintended and rapid repeat pregnancy. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the application of implementation science methodology to study the complexities of rolling-out policies that promote immediate postpartum LARC use across states. Description The Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community, sponsored by the Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO), is made up of multi-disciplinary, multi-agency teams from 13 early-adopting states with Medicaid reimbursement policies promoting immediate postpartum LARC. Partners include federal agencies and maternal and child health organizations. The Learning Community discussed barriers, opportunities, strategies, and promising practices at an in-person meeting. Implementation science theory and methods, including the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), and a recent compilation of implementation strategies, provide useful tools for studying the complexities of implementing immediate postpartum LARC policies in birthing facilities across early adopting states. Assessment To demonstrate the utility of this framework for guiding the expansion of immediate postpartum LARC policies, illustrative examples of barriers and strategies discussed during the in-person ASTHO Learning Community meeting are organized by the five CFIR domains-intervention characteristics, outer setting, inner setting, characteristics of the individuals involved, and process. Conclusion States considering adopting policies can learn from ASTHO's Immediate Postpartum LARC Learning Community. Applying implementation science principles may lead to more effective statewide scale-up of immediate postpartum LARC and other evidence-based strategies to improve women and children's health.

  4. Common Modality Effects in Immediate Free Recall and Immediate Serial Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenfell-Essam, Rachel; Ward, Geoff; Tan, Lydia

    2017-01-01

    In 2 experiments, participants were presented with lists of between 2 and 12 words for either immediate free recall (IFR) or immediate serial recall (ISR). Auditory recall advantages at the end of the list (modality effects) and visual recall advantages early in the list (inverse modality effects) were observed in both tasks and the extent and…

  5. Effect of immediate or delayed loading following immediate placement of implants with a modified surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liñares, A; Mardas, N; Dard, M; Donos, N

    2011-01-01

    to evaluate the effect of the timing of loading on bone-to-implant contact (BIC) following immediate placement of implants with a hydrophilic sandblasted, large-grit and acid-etched surface (modSLA) into fresh extraction sockets in a minipig model. six minipigs were used in this study. In each hemi-mandible, two conical shape implants (TE, Straumann implants) with a hydrophilic surface (modSLA) were placed in fresh extraction sockets. In one side of the mandible (control), two implants were immediately placed in fresh extraction sockets. The implants were loaded after 4 weeks of healing. At the contralateral side (test), two implants were immediately placed and loaded. After 8 weeks of healing, the animals were sacrificed and histologically analysed. during the experimental period, no implants were lost and all of them presented to be osseointegrated. The percentage of BIC was similar in both groups: 66.1% and 65.1% for the control and test group, respectively. Furthermore, the distance from the shoulder of the implant to bone crest and the distance from the shoulder to the first BIC were similar in both groups. immediate implant placement and loading showed similar BIC with immediate placement and delayed loading when implants with a modSLA surface were used. Both procedures showed similar buccal bone crest levels, which presented some resorption irrespective of the treatment modality.

  6. The immediate effect of vibration therapy on flexibility in female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immediate effect of vibration therapy on flexibility in female junior elite gymnasts. ... Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of vibration therapy on the flexibility of female gymnasts. A pre-test ... Keywords: Static stretching, vibration training, vibration therapy, acute effect, artistic gymnastics.

  7. Effective Vaccination Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    effective” vaccine can stop the virus spread by causing herd immunity and the disease will die out. Vaccines that have this capability are in the vaccine ...Effective Vaccination Policies L. Shawa, W. Spears∗,b, L. Billingsc, P. Maximd aDepartment of Computer Science, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY...this study is to develop tools that determine the optimal distribution of a vaccine supply in the model. Using plausible benchmark vaccine allocation

  8. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  9. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  10. Immediate Effect of Positioning Devices on Infant Leg Movement Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Crystal; de Armendi, Joyce T; Smith, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immediate effects of constraining or encouraging positioning devices on leg movement of infants with typical development (TD) and at-risk for developmental delay (AR). Twenty-six infants (13 TD, 13 AR) were placed in the supine position, a jungle gym, or a car seat. Movement sensors on infants' ankles measured acceleration and angular velocity. We calculated the number of leg movements, peak acceleration, and peak rotational rate of each leg movement. A 2 (group) × 3 (condition) analysis of variance with repeated measures on condition tested for a group effect, a condition effect, and a group by condition interaction for leg movement quantity, average peak acceleration, and average peak rotation. Leg movement quantity and average peak acceleration were significantly lower for the car seat condition compared with the supine position or the gym. Positioning device use has an immediate effect on infant leg movement characteristics. Long-term effects remain unknown.

  11. The Policy Design Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    Public and individual support for a policy is affected by how it is designed – that is, how eligibility is determined. This results in universal policies being more popular than contributions-based policies, which in turn enjoy more public support than the selective kind. The literature on welfare...... benefits in Denmark shows a large impact on attitudes from being proximate to recipients under selective policies, little or no impact from universal policies and a pattern that falls in-between for the contributions-based policy. This article thus provides micro-level evidence for the different impacts...

  12. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  13. Recency and suffix effects with immediate recall of olfactory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C; Jenkins, R

    2000-05-01

    In contrast to our understanding of the immediate recall of auditory and visual material, little is known about the corresponding characteristics of short-term olfactory memory. The current study investigated the pattern of immediate serial recall and the associated suffix effect using olfactory stimuli. Subjects were trained initially to identify and name correctly nine different odours. Experiment 1 established an immediate correct recall span of approximately six items. In Experiment 2 participants recalled serially span equivalent lists which were followed by a visual, auditory, or olfactory suffix. Primacy was evident in the recall curves for all three suffix conditions. Recency, in contrast, was evident in the auditory and visual suffix conditions only; there was a strong suffix effect in the olfactory suffix condition. Experiment 3 replicated this pattern of effects using seven-item lists, and demonstrated that the magnitude of the recency and suffix effects obtained in the olfactory modality can equate to that obtained in the auditory modality. It is concluded that the pattern of recency and suffix effects in the olfactory modality is reliable, and poses difficulties for those theories that rely on the presence of a primary linguistic code, sound, or changing state as determinants of these effects in serial recall.

  14. Immediate effects of tooth extraction on ridge integrity and dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Hegde, Rachana; Yildiz, Vedat O; Tatakis, Dimitris N

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to assess possible immediate post-extraction changes in ridge integrity and width. Tooth extractions (53 teeth in 30 adults) were performed following atraumatic techniques. Root trunk and ridge width were measured at the crest level in buccolingual direction. Similarly, socket width and buccal plate thickness were also determined. Pre- and post-extraction buccal plate dehiscence, fenestration, or fracture was recorded. Diameter and length of extracted tooth root were also measured. Multinomial logistic regression was used to reveal relationships between ridge outcome (expanded, stable, or collapsed groups) and assessed tooth/site parameters. Post-extraction, buccal plate fracture developed in 5 (9%), dehiscence in 15 (28%), and complete buccal plate loss in 2 sites (4%). Following extraction, ridge width was expanded in 30 (57%), collapsed in 12 (23%), and remained unchanged in 11 (21%) sites. In most sites (72%), post-extraction socket size was wider than pre-extraction root trunk width (p ridge outcome (expansion or collapse compared to stable) (p ridge integrity is uncommon, while ridge width expansion is a common finding immediately following tooth extraction. The significance of such expansion compared to integrity of socket walls remains to be established. Tooth extraction approaches that preserve ridge integrity are accompanied by mainly ridge expansion in ridge width. The significance of such immediate changes for the long-term ridge outcomes (i.e., effect on bone remodeling especially in relation to buccal bone integrity) needs further investigation.

  15. Distributional learning has immediate and long-lasting effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    Evidence of distributional learning, a statistical learning mechanism centered on relative frequency of exposure to different tokens, has mainly come from short-term learning and therefore does not ostensibly address the development of important learning processes. The present longitudinal study examines both short- and long-term effects of distributional learning of phonetic categories on non-native sound discrimination over a 12-month period. Two groups of listeners were exposed to a two-minute distribution of auditory stimuli in which the most frequently presented tokens either approximated or exaggerated the natural production of the speech sounds, whereas a control group listened to a piece of classical music for the same length of time. Discrimination by listeners in the two distribution groups improved immediately after the short exposure, replicating previous results. Crucially, this improvement was maintained after six and 12 months, demonstrating that distributional learning has long-lasting effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Calculating effective gun policies

    OpenAIRE

    Wodarz, D; Komarova, NL

    2017-01-01

    Following recent shootings in the USA, a debate has erupted, one side favoring stricter gun control, the other promoting protection through more weapons. We provide a scientific foundation to inform this debate, based on mathematical, epidemiological models that quantify the dependence of firearm-related death rates of people on gun policies. We assume a shooter attacking a single individual or a crowd. Two strategies can minimize deaths in the model, depending on parameters...

  17. The Effect of D-Cycloserine on Immediate vs. Delayed Extinction of Learned Fear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Julia M.; Richardson, Rick

    2010-01-01

    We compared the effect of D-cycloserine (DCS) on immediate (10 min after conditioning) and delayed (24 h after conditioning) extinction of learned fear in rats. DCS facilitated both immediate and delayed extinction when the drug was administered after extinction training. However, DCS did not facilitate immediate extinction when administered prior…

  18. Unemployment effects of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, Mustafa H.; Eckaus, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions. The politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often dominated by relatively short-term considerations. Yet the current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, in particular, the politically sensitive unemployment rate. Moreover, only a few of these studies also consider policies that would offset the negative direct economic effects of emissions restrictions. For plausible estimates of the parameters, the model shows that, with the labor market imperfections, if there were no offsetting policies, the reductions in GNP in the U.S. in the first 10 years after emissions restrictions were imposed would be as much as 4%. However, if there were two policies, instead of just one: a counteracting labor market policy, as well as the emissions restrictions, the negative direct economic effects could be completely eliminated

  19. Immediate and delayed effects of invented writing intervention in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofslundsengen, Hilde; Hagtvet, Bente Eriksen; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    This study examined the effects of a 10 week invented writing program with five-year-old preschoolers (mean age 5.7 years) on their immediate post intervention literacy skills and also the facilitative effects of the intervention on the subsequent learning to read during the first 6 months of schooling. The study included 105 children (54 girls) from 12 preschools in Norway. The preschools were randomly assigned to the experimental group with the invented writing program, or the control group with the ordinary program offered to preschoolers. The classroom-based programs (40 sessions) were conducted by the children's regular teachers. The children's emergent literacy skills were evaluated using a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test 6 months later, and the data were analyzed using latent autoregressive models. The results showed that the invented writing group performed significantly better than the control group on the post-test for the measures of phoneme awareness ( d  = .54), spelling ( d  = .65) and word reading ( d  = .36). Additionally, indirect effects were observed on the delayed follow-up tests on phoneme awareness ( d  = .45), spelling ( d  = .48) and word reading ( d  = .26). In conclusion, we argue that invented writing appeared to smooth the progress of emergent literacy skills in preschool, including the subsequent reading development in school. Contextualized in a semi-consistent orthography and a preschool tradition that does not encourage the learning of written language skills, the findings add to our knowledge of how children learn to write and read.

  20. Immediate side effects of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rudoler, Shari; Preston, Peter E.; Hauck, Walter W.; Downes, Beverly M.; Leeper, Dennis; Andrews, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Despite increased utilization of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the incidence and nature of immediate side effects (ISE) associated with these treatment techniques are not well defined. We report immediate side effects from a series of 78 patients. Materials and Methods: Intracranial lesions in 78 adult patients were treated with SRT or SRS, using a dedicated linear accelerator. Those lesions included 13 gliomas, 2 ependymomas, 19 metastatic tumors, 15 meningiomas, 12 acoustic neuromas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 1 optic neuroma, 1 chondrosarcoma, and 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVM). SRT was used in 51 and SRS in 27 patients. Mean target volume was 9.0 cc. Eleven patients received prior external-beam radiation therapy within 2 months before SRT/SRS. Any side effects occurring during and up to 2 weeks after the course of radiation were defined as ISE and were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. The incidence of ISE and the significance of their association with several treatment and pretreatment variables were analyzed. Results: Overall, 28 (35%) of 78 patients experienced one or more ISE. Most of the ISE (87%) were mild, and consisted of nausea (in 5), dizziness/vertigo (in 5), seizures (in 6), and new persistent headaches (in 17). Two episodes of worsening neurological deficit and 2 of orbital pain were graded as moderate. Two patients experienced severe ISE, requiring hospitalization (1 seizure and 1 worsening neurological deficit). ISE in 6 cases prompted computerized tomography of the brain, which revealed increased perilesional edema in 3 cases. The incidence of ISE by diagnosis was as follows: 46% (6 of 13) for gliomas, 50% (6 of 12) for acoustic neuromas, 36% (4 of 11) for AVM, 33% (5 of 15) for meningiomas, and 21% (4 of 19) for metastases. A higher incidence of dizziness/vertigo (4 of 12 = 33%) was seen among acoustic neuroma patients than among other patients (p < 0.01). There was no

  1. Immediate side effects of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rudoler, Shari; Preston, Peter E.; Downes, Beverly M.; Andrews, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Rosenstock, Jeffrey; Curran, Walter J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Despite increased utilization of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the incidence and nature of immediate side effects (ISE) associated with these treatment techniques is not well defined. Materials and Methods: Intracranial lesions in 78 adult patients were treated with SRT or SRS, using a dedicated linear accelerator. They comprised 13 gliomas, 2 ependymomas, 19 metastatic tumors, 15 meningiomas, 12 acoustic neuromas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 1 optic neuroma, 1 chondrosarcoma and 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVM). SRT was used in 51 and SRS in 27 patients. Mean target volume was 9.0 cc. Eleven patients received prior external beam radiation therapy within 2 months before SRT/SRS. Any side effects occurring during and up to two weeks after radiation course were defined as ISE and were graded as mild, moderate or severe. The incidence of ISE and the significance of their association with several pretreatment variables were analyzed. Results: Overall, (28(78)) (35%) patients experienced one or more ISE. Most of ISE (87%) were mild and consisted of nausea (5), dizziness/vertigo (5), seizures (7) and new persistent headaches (17). Two episodes of worsening neurological deficit and 2 of orbital pain were graded as moderate. Two patients experienced severe ISE, requiring hospitalization (1 seizure and 1 worsening neurological deficit). ISE in 5 cases prompted computerized tomography of the brain which revealed increased perilesional edema in 3 cases. The incidence of ISE by diagnosis was as follows: 46% ((6(13))) for gliomas, 50% ((6(12))) for acoustic neuromas, 36% ((4(11))) for AVM, 33% ((5(15))) for meningiomas and 21% ((4(19))) for metastases. Increasing dose to the margin and increasing maximum dose were associated with a higher incidence of ISE (p=0.02 and 0.005, respectively). Prior recent conventional external beam radiation therapy, target volume, number of isocenters, collimator size, dose

  2. LABOR MARKET POLICIES AND EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRITAN SHORAJ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper will be examined some important issues of the labor market policies in Albania. As well, the analysis of labor market institutions such as the Social Insurances or the Syndicates on the efficiency of employing active labor forces. Which are the policies on the protection of the labor forces and the criteria of definition of the minimum salary? Furthermore, it continues with the importance of reforms in the labor market policies, to be examined in the labor market aspect as a production factor and as a regulator of the internal market. Fast globalization is causing continuous risk and movement for the active labor forces. The increase and development of technology puts out of the market many employees, decreasing the number of unqualified employees and increases the demand for the qualified ones. Does the globalization really affect the labor market, efficiency and as a consequence increase production, or the latter are benefits only for the developed economic countries? At the same time, we shall examine the movement of the labor forces from one country to another and the fluctuation of the relevant salaries. In general, the analysis of this paper faces two key issues: the first being raised on discussion of the kinds of programs on the active labor forces, such as programs of direct employment or consideration of employment in public sector, and the second regarding the methodology of evaluating these programs. How effective are them on the domestic market? The paper ends with conclusions and recommendations on the efficiency of policies for the labor market forces.

  3. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities.

  4. Clinical Effectiveness of Dry Needling Immediately After Application on Myofascial Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeifar, Maryam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Nourbakhsh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling (DN) on pain intensity and pressure pain threshold (PPT) compared with ischemic compression (IC) immediately and 48 hours after each treatment session in individuals with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle. Thirty-one patients with myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned to a standard (N = 17) or experimental group (N = 14). The treatment protocol for the standard group consisted of IC, whereas the patients in the experimental group received DN. The results indicated that the effect size of the DN methods for pain intensity and PPT was considerably greater after 2 days compared with immediately after the treatment session. In contrast, the effect of the IC for PPT was greater immediately after treatment compared with the measures after 2 days. There was also no noticeable difference in the effect size for IC on pain intensity between the scores obtained immediately and 2 days after treatment. However, our data also revealed a greater effect size for DN on PPT after 2 days compared with the IC technique. In this study, DN improved the pain intensity and PPT after 2 days. However, it had no clinical improvement immediately after application because of muscle soreness. Thus, assessment of the effect of DN immediately after application can be criticized, and the results should be interpreted with caution.

  5. Optimising the effect of policy instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Christensen, Tove

    2012-01-01

    Economic modelling generally assumes that businesses are profit maximisers. However, behavioural economics holds that businesses pursue multiple objectives and may even sacrifice some profit. This has implications for the effectiveness of incentive-based environmental policies. Using Danish farme...... to policy instruments; farmers who focus on yield indicate less responsiveness to economic policy instruments. The results imply that it is important to implement a broad array of policy instruments to match different farmer rationales....

  6. Effects of Sublingual Captopril in Immediate Treatment of Hypertensive Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kazerani

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Sublingual captopril was shown to be a safe and effective drug to control hypertensive urgencies. However the exact time and efficacy of lowering blood pressure (BP is a matter of interest and importance. In this study we evaluated the time and efficacy of 25 mg sublingual captopril in lowering blood pressure. Materials & Methods: In a randomized clinical trial 101 patients (34 men, 67 women with blood pressure of 180/110 mmHg (or more who had no finding of major organ damage (heart – brain -eyes –renal were studied by prescription of 25 mg sublingual captopril. Then systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105, 120 minutes following drug administration. Data analysis was performed using paired t-test and SPSS software. Results: The results showed that almost all the patients had some decrease in BP. After 120 minutes blood pressure dropped about 5% in 30%, and 5-30% in 70% of patients, compared to first measured BP. Maximal effect was observed in 25-30 minutes after drug administration: after 30 minutes systolic pressure dropped in 68.4% and diastolic pressure in 65.3% of patients about 5-25%. 47 patients had low response to therapy after 60 minutes, so they received another 25 mg captopril sublingual, which BP dropped in 45% of them. 19 patients were prescribed IV furosemide after 120 minutes. This group had resistant HTN and 25 cases of them were treated with ACEI previously. BP decreased gradually and not more than 30% of first BP. None of the patients encountered side effects. Conclusion: Sublingual captopril is a good, safe, effective, available and cost effective drug, with very low side effects in treating patients with hypertensive crisis. It is recommended to use this drug instead of Nifedipine in all hypertensive patients.

  7. The relationship of multispectral satellite imagery to immediate fire effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew T. Hudak; Penelope Morgan; Michael J. Bobbitt; Allstair M. S. Smith; Sarah A. Lewis; Leigh B. Lentile; Peter R. Robichaud; Jess T. Clark; Randy A. McKinley

    2007-01-01

    The Forest Service Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC) and the U.S. Geological Survey Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Data Center produce Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps for use by Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams in rapid response to wildfires. BAER teams desire maps indicative of fire effects on soils, but green and...

  8. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  9. School Uniform Policies: Students' Views of Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Teresa M.; Moreno, Josephine

    2001-01-01

    Focus-group interviews of New York City middle-school students about their perceptions of the effectiveness of the school-uniform policy. Finds that students' perceptions of the effects of school-uniform policy on school culture varied considerably with those intended by the principal. (Contains 40 references.) (PKP)

  10. Do testing effects change over time? Insights from immediate and delayed retrieval speed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, G.S.E. van den; Segers, P.C.J.; Takashima, A.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.

    2014-01-01

    Retrieving information from memory improves recall accuracy more than continued studying, but this testing effect often only becomes visible over time. In contrast, the present study documents testing effects on recall speed both immediately after practice and after a delay. A total of 40

  11. Semantic effects in sentence recall: the contribution of immediate vs delayed recall in language assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polišenská, Kamila; Chiat, Shula; Comer, Amanda; McKenzie, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    Sentence recall is increasingly used to assess language. It is widely debated what the task is actually testing, but one rarely explored aspect is the contribution of semantics to sentence recall. The few studies that have examined the role of semantics in sentence recall have employed an 'intrusion paradigm', following Potter and Lombardi (1990), and their paradigm relies on interference errors with conclusions based on an analysis of error patterns. We have instead manipulated the semantic plausibility of whole sentences to investigate the effects of semantics on immediate and delayed sentence recall. In Study 1, adults recalled semantically plausible and implausible sentences either immediately or after distracter tasks varying in lexical retrieval demands (backward counting and picture naming). Results revealed significant effects of plausibility, delay, and a significant interaction indicating increasing reliance on semantics as the demands of the distracter tasks increased. Study 2, conducted with 6-year-old children, employed delay conditions that were modified to avoid floor effects (delay with silence and forward counting) and a similar pattern of results emerged. This novel methodology provided robust evidence showing the effectiveness of delayed recall in the assessment of semantics and the effectiveness of immediate recall in the assessment of morphosyntax. The findings from our study clarify the linguistic mechanisms involved in immediate and delayed sentence recall, with implications for the use of recall tasks in language assessment. The reader will be able to: (i) define the difference between immediate and delayed sentence recall and different types of distractors, (ii) explain the utility of immediate and delayed recall sentence recall in language assessment, (iii) discuss suitability of delayed recall for the assessment of semantics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of maintenance policy violations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, Christiaan; Tinga, Tiedo

    2014-01-01

    Motivation Maintenance policy assessments usually rely on expert judgement. We seek for some history based validation. Organisations may use our inference to assess risks of maintenance policy violations. Approach We depart from the arbitrary viewpoint that decisions have observable effects. We

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Immediate Compared With Delayed Postpartum Etonogestrel Implant Insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariepy, Aileen M; Duffy, Jennifer Y; Xu, Xiao

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of immediate compared with delayed (6 weeks) postpartum etonogestrel implant insertion in preventing future unintended pregnancy. We constructed a decision-analytic model to examine a hypothetical population of women who request a contraceptive implant after giving birth. The timeframe for analysis was from the time of childbirth to 1 year postpartum. Model inputs were derived from a comprehensive literature review. We compared immediate (before discharge from the childbirth hospital stay) compared with delayed (at first postpartum office visit) postpartum placement of the contraceptive implant from a health care system's perspective. Implant insertion and removal, loss to follow-up at the postpartum visit, use of alternative contraceptive methods, and contraceptive failure were incorporated into the model. We calculated the incremental cost of immediate insertion for each pregnancy prevented during the first postpartum year and cost savings associated with pregnancies prevented. One-way sensitivity analyses were also performed. Cost estimates are reported in 2014 U.S. dollars. Immediate postpartum implant insertion is associated with higher expected cost than delayed insertion ($1,091/patient compared with $650/patient) but is more effective in preventing pregnancies (expected pregnancy rate: 2.4% and 21.6%, respectively). This results in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $2,304 per pregnancy prevented. When taking into consideration medical costs of the resulting unintended pregnancies that could be avoided, immediate implant insertion is expected to save $1,263 per patient. Immediate postpartum provision of the contraceptive implant is cost-effective in preventing unintended pregnancies and should be provided to women requesting this form of contraception.

  14. Pharmacodynamics of immediate and delayed effects of paclitaxel: role of slow apoptosis and intracellular drug retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, J L; Li, D; Gan, Y; Gao, X; Johnson, A L; Johnston, J; Millenbaugh, N J; Jang, S H; Kuh, H J; Chen, C T; Wientjes, M G

    1998-05-15

    The kinetics of the time-dependent antitumor effects of paclitaxel are not fully understood; some literature reports indicate a higher activity by prolonging treatment durations, whereas other reports indicate no enhancement under in vitro conditions. The present study was designed to address this controversy and to determine the mechanism of the higher cytotoxicity associated with longer treatment durations. Six human epithelial cancer cell lines (bladder RT4, breast MCF7, pharynx FaDu, ovarian SKOV3, and prostate PC3 and DU145) were used. To determine whether the higher activity observed for the longer treatment durations is due to a delayed exhibition of drug effects and/or a reflection of cumulative effects that required a continuous drug exposure, cells were treated with paclitaxel for 3-96 h and then either: (a) immediately processed for drug effect measurement; or (b) washed, incubated in drug-free medium, and processed for drug effect measurement at 96 h. The overall drug effect (i.e., combination of cytostatic and apoptotic effects) was determined by the sulforhodamine B assay, which measures the cellular protein. In addition, to determine whether apoptosis occurs with a time delay, apoptosis was measured in cells that were collected immediately after drug treatment for various durations or in cells that were treated with drugs for 3 h but collected at later time points. Apoptosis was determined using agarose gel electrophoresis and by measuring the cytoplasmic DNA-histone complex using ELISA. The contribution of the intracellularly retained drug to the delayed drug effect was studied by characterizing the kinetics of cellular drug uptake and efflux and by examining the effect of removal of the intracellularly retained drug. All six cell lines showed similar results, as follows: (a) paclitaxel produced cytotoxicity that was exhibited immediately after treatment (immediate effect) and after treatment was terminated (delayed effect); (b) the immediate and

  15. Immediate placement of tapered effect (TE) implants: 5-year results of a prospective, multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas G; Roccuzzo, Mario; Ucer, Cemal; Beagle, Jay R

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the success and survival of immediately placed tapered implants to support fixed restorations in the maxilla and mandible. The study was a prospective, multicenter, non-interventional study of patients requiring tooth extraction who requested an implant-supported restoration in the maxilla or mandible. Patients received at least one tapered implant (either immediately after tooth extraction or at a later time point). Abutments were placed 42 to 56 days after surgery, and prostheses were placed after a further 14 days. Treatment and implant success were the primary effectiveness criteria, and secondary parameters included radiographic bone loss, patient satisfaction, and gingival health. A total of 436 patients were enrolled, of whom 376 were included in the safety analysis. Single implants were placed in 77% of patients, two implants in 16%, and three or more implants in the remainder. The cumulative implant survival rates for immediately placed implants were 98.3% after 1 year and 97.7% from 2 to 5 years. Patient satisfaction was good or excellent in most patients and the majority of implants showed no or immediately placed tapered implants was comparable to that found in other studies. Immediate implant placement with tapered implants can allow rapid rehabilitation with no adverse impact on implant survival.

  16. 75 FR 11951 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61650; File No. SR-BATS-2010-005] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 4, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  17. 78 FR 62855 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...,'' rather than stockholders, in the initial sentence, to ensure that the coverage of the rule applies to all...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend EDGX Rules 3.2, 13.3, and Adopt Rule 12.14, Front Running of Block Transactions To...

  18. 78 FR 62842 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... of Rule 13.3 to reference ``security holders,'' rather than stockholders, in the initial sentence, to...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend EDGA Rules 3.2, 13.3, and Adopt Rule 12.14, Front Running of Block Transactions To...

  19. 77 FR 61463 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ... entry of erroneous orders. In addition, the Market Access Rule requires certain regulatory risk... authorized by the broker-dealer. These regulatory risk management controls also include measures designed to...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  20. 78 FR 73577 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Risk Monitoring Functionality Offered by the Exchange December 2, 2013....19b-4(f)(6)(iii). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the...

  1. 78 FR 62785 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; Topaz Exchange, LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Market Maker Risk Parameters October 9, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance...

  2. 77 FR 63393 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68028; File No. SR-BATS-2012-041] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 10, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  3. 75 FR 33875 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62241; File No. SR-BATS-2010-015] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 8, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  4. 78 FR 56955 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70360; File No. SR-BATS-2013-049] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 10, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  5. 77 FR 68862 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68204; File No. SR-BATS-2012-043] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. November 9, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  6. 76 FR 44388 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64914; File No. SR-BATS-2011-022] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Expand the Short Term Option Program July 19, 2011. Pursuant to Section...

  7. 78 FR 37865 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69793; File No. SR-BATS-2013-034] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. June 18, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  8. 76 FR 50803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65085; File No. SR-BATS-2011-025] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 10, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  9. 75 FR 27847 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62074; File No. SR-BATS-2010-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. May 11, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  10. 78 FR 77736 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71129; File No. SR-BATS-2013-062] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify BATS Options Market Maker Continuous Quoting Obligation Rules December 18, 2013...

  11. 76 FR 13243 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64033; File No. SR-BATS-2011-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 4, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  12. 76 FR 57092 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65307; File No. SR-BATS-2011-034] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Offer a Bulk-Quoting Interface To All Users of BATS Options September 9, 2011. Pursuant to...

  13. 76 FR 62884 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65473; File No. SR-BATS-2011-043] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 3, 2011 . Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  14. 78 FR 7826 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68752; File No. SR-BATS-2013-003] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rules in Connection With the Elimination of Discretionary Orders for BATS Options...

  15. 77 FR 58195 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67855; File No. SR-BATS-2012-037] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 13, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  16. 76 FR 12155 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63969; File No. SR-BATS-2011-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. to Adopt BATS Rule 11.21, entitled ``Input of Accurate Information...

  17. 78 FR 61422 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70548; File No. SR-BATS-2013-052] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Trading Halt Rule of BATS Options September 27, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19...

  18. 78 FR 51261 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70190; File No. SR-BATS-2013-042] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  19. 76 FR 1205 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63632; File No. SR-BATS-2010-038] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 3, 2011 Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  20. 78 FR 19559 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69237; File No. SR-BATS-2013-021] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 26, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  1. 78 FR 78460 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71140; File No. SR-BATS-2013-063] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 19, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  2. 77 FR 35719 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67165; File No. SR-BATS-2012-021] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt Rules Related to Risk Management Functionality for BATS Options June 8, 2012. Pursuant to...

  3. 78 FR 53814 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70257; File No. SR-BATS-2013-047] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Registration and Continuing Education Fees for BATS Exchange, Inc. August 26...

  4. 77 FR 20858 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66723; File No. SR-BATS-2012-014] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Certificate of Incorporation of BATS Global Markets, Inc. April 3, 2012...

  5. 78 FR 62804 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70664; File No. SR-BATS-2013-054] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  6. 78 FR 62921 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70687; File No. SR-BATS-2013-055] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 15, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  7. 76 FR 9841 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63916; File No. SR-BATS-2011-005] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend BATS Rule 11.13, Entitled ``Order Execution'' February 15, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  8. 77 FR 11179 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66422; File No. SR-BATS-2012-010] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 17, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  9. 78 FR 51257 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70196; File No. SR-BATS-2013-043] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  10. 76 FR 50525 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65076; File No. SR-BATS-2011-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 9, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  11. 77 FR 63396 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-16

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68026; File No. SR-BATS-2012-040] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. October 10, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  12. 77 FR 7216 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66327; File No. SR-BATS-2012-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 6, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  13. 76 FR 61127 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65407; File No. SR-BATS-2011-037] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 27, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  14. 76 FR 28108 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64445; File No. SR-BATS-2011-017] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add BATS Rule 11.22, Entitled ``Data Products'' May 9, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  15. 76 FR 70192 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65694; File No. SR-BATS-2011-046] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. November 4, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  16. 78 FR 76355 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-71041; File No. SR-BATS-2013-061] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 11, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  17. 78 FR 51235 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70197; File No. SR-BATS-2013-044] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. August 14, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  18. 75 FR 55838 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62858; File No. SR-BATS-2010-023] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 7, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  19. 78 FR 16306 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69079; File No. SR-BATS-2013-017] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 8, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  20. 76 FR 77576 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-65907; File No. SR-BATS-2011-049] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. December 7, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  1. 76 FR 20414 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-64211; File No. SR-BATS-2011-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 6, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  2. 77 FR 8310 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-66358; File No. SR-BATS-2012-006] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 8, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  3. 76 FR 1208 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-07

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63630; File No. SR-BATS-2010-039] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 3, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  4. 75 FR 20418 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-61883; File No. SR-BATS-2010-007] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. April 9, 2010. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  5. 76 FR 2734 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-14

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63663; File No. SR-BATS-2011-001] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. January 6, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  6. 78 FR 56760 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-70348; File No. SR-BATS-2013-048) Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. September 9, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  7. 78 FR 19555 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69238; File No. SR-BATS-2013-020] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. March 26, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the...

  8. 78 FR 16750 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-69121; File No. SR-BATS-2013-014] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Modify the Operation of Market Orders for BATS Options March 12, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b...

  9. 75 FR 57097 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-62901; File No. SR-BATS-2010-024] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Adopt BATS Rule 2.12, Entitled ``BATS Trading, Inc. as Inbound Router'' and To Make Related...

  10. 76 FR 7891 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-63857; File No. SR-BATS-2011-004] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 7, 2011. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  11. 77 FR 43892 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-26

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67477; File No. SR-BATS-2012-028] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change by BATS Exchange, Inc. To Amend BATS Rules Related to Telemarketing July 20, 2012. Pursuant to...

  12. 78 FR 12803 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68951; File No. SR-BATS-2013-012] Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Related to Fees for Use of BATS Exchange, Inc. February 19, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of...

  13. 77 FR 56243 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-67791; File No. SR-OPRA-2012-05] Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Amendment to the Plan for...'') \\1\\ and Rule 608 thereunder,\\2\\ notice is hereby given that on August 27, 2012, the Options Price...

  14. 75 FR 51122 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... as paid advertising.'' EDGA agrees with FINRA's reasoning for proposing changes to its Rule 5230... exceptions in the rule beyond paid advertising to also include compensation paid in connection with research...

  15. 75 FR 51138 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule.... * * * '' The rule includes an exception for any matter that is ``clearly distinguishable as paid advertising... beyond paid advertising to also include compensation paid in connection with research reports and...

  16. 77 FR 28643 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... practices and ethical behavior; overseeing all activities of the Exchange's internal audit function...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule...

  17. 77 FR 28649 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... practices and ethical behavior; overseeing all activities of the Exchange's internal audit function...-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule...

  18. Is a radiographer led immediate reporting service for emergency department referrals a cost effective initiative?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Maryann; Hutton, John; Snaith, Beverly

    2013-01-01

    Rationale, aims, objectives: Demand for both Emergency Department (ED) and radiology services continues to increase across the UK while simultaneously, healthcare organisations are being asked to evaluate the quality of care provided and constrain service costs. National guidance on radiograph reporting times recommends ED radiographs are reported on day of patient attendance but in practice, delays in reporting persist. This study considers whether a radiographer led immediate reporting service for ED referrals could provide a cost-effective service improvement solution. Methods: A pragmatic multi-centre randomised controlled trial was undertaken. 1502 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to an immediate or delayed reporting arm and treated according to group assignment. Patient health gain was measured in terms of change in utilities derived from EQ-5D responses at baseline and 8 week follow-up. Resources used and the costs of an immediate reporting service were analysed at the patient level and compared to standard reporting practices. Results: 1688 radiographic examinations were performed (1502 patients). 79 discordant radiographic interpretations were identified (n = 79/1688; 4.7%). Interpretive errors were significantly reduced within immediate reporting arm. No significant difference was noted in the relative improvement in patient perceived health status between the 2 arms of the study. The average cost saving per patient in the immediate reporting arm was £23.40. Conclusions: Radiographer led immediate reporting of ED radiographs is a cost-effective service development and its universal introduction could make a significant contribution to the current drive to increase service productivity within current budget constraints.

  19. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  20. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, G E; Timmerman, M F; Veldkamp, I; Van Winkelhoff, A J; Van der Velden, U

    2006-01-01

    To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at one deep pocket in 22 patients (11 smokers and 11 non-smokers). Immediately after initial therapy, experimental sites, under strict plaque control, were instrumented subgingivally. Microbiological evaluation was performed at pre-instrumentation, immediate post-instrumentation and 1 and 2 weeks post-instrumentation. Mean total anaerobic colony forming units (CFUs) dropped from 3.9 x 10(6) before to 0.09 x 10(6) immediately following instrumentation. Significant reductions were found for Tannerella forsythia, Micromonas micros, Fusobacterium nucleatum and spirochetes. Significant reductions were not observed for Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia and Campylobacter rectus. Except for spirochetes, no reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria was found immediately after instrumentation. During follow-up, mean total CFU tended to increase. Prevalence of periodontal bacteria further reduced. No effect of smoking was found. Results indicate that subgingival mechanical cleaning in itself, has a limited effect, in actually removing bacteria. The subsequent reduction in prevalence of specific periodontal bacteria shows that it is apparently difficult for these species to survive in treated pockets.

  1. The Primacy and Recency Effects in Successive Single-Trial Immediate Free Recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, I-Ning; Tomasini, Jerry; Nikl, Larry

    1977-10-01

    The present study of 82 male and female college students re-examined the primacy and recency effects in successive single-trial immediate free recall of lists of unrelated English words. With a trial-by-trial analysis of the serial position curve (SPC), it showed the shape of SPC was not invariant. The primacy effect was greater than the recency effect on the very first recall, and the relationship of these two effects immediately reversed and remained so thereafter. Analysis of the correlation between the presentation and recall order of the items recalled over successive recalls revealed an additional phenomenon-the rapid development of a recall strategy. The development of strategy concurred closely with reversal of the primacy and recency effects. An interlist proactive interference interpretation and a recall strategy interpretation have been suggested to account for the transitory change of the shape of the SPC in free recall.

  2. Deploying Renewables -- principles for effective policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-29

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables' share in the future global energy mix and how soon? This publication addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. The document provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  3. Donor policy rules and aid effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the macroeconomic impact of aid, by introducing endogenous aid allocations into a neoclassical growth framework. On this basis it is shown that donor policies can have important implications for the trajectory of recipients' GDP per capita. Depending on specific donor...... policy choices, aid disbursements may lead to faster transitional growth, stagnation or cyclical growth. Moreover, the analysis also suggests that donor policies may be part of the reason why foreign aid is not found to be uniformly effective in raising long-run productivity across recipients...

  4. Effect of immediate loading on the biomechanical properties of bone surrounding the miniscrew implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Masahiro; Nakagaki, Susumu; Yasuda, Yoshitaka; Handa, Keisuke; Koike, Toshiyuki; Muguruma, Takeshi; Saito, Takashi; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of immediate loading on the biomechanical properties of bone surrounding a miniscrew implant. Forty titanium alloy miniscrew implants were placed on the buccal side of the maxillae and mandibles in four beagle dogs. Twelve pairs of miniscrew implants were immediately loaded with approximately 150 g of continuous force using nickel-titanium coil springs and the remaining 16 implants were left unloaded for 8 weeks. Nanoindentation testing was performed (peak load 10 mN) and the hardness and elastic modulus were calculated. Two series of indentations (in cortical and trabecular bone) for both the compression and tension sides were made. For each site, five indentations were placed approximately 25 μm from the implant-bone interface and 250 μm from the screw thread. The mean hardness and elastic modulus were generally higher in mandibles than maxillae and were higher in cortical bone than in trabecular bone. The trabecular bone near the implant-bone interface on the compression side was significantly harder than that at other locations in trabecular bone. In conclusion, this is the first study that has investigated the biomechanical properties of bone surrounding a miniscrew implant under immediate loading using nanoindentation testing. The mechanical properties of bone surrounding a miniscrew implant may be influenced by immediate loading.

  5. The effectiveness of immediate feedback during the objective structured clinical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, R V; Rivington, R N; Calcutt, L E; Hart, I R

    1989-03-01

    Using eight different physical examination or technical stations, 400 examinations were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of immediate feedback during the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). The test group comprised 50 medical students who underwent a standard 4-minute examination followed by 2 minutes of feedback. Immediately following feedback the students repeated an identical 4-minute examination scored by the same examiners. The control group consisted of 50 students from the same class who underwent an identical testing sequence, but instead of receiving feedback, they were instructed to continue their examinations for an additional 2 minutes before repeating the stations. Simple repetition of the task did not significantly improve score (mean increase 2.0%, NS). Extending the testing period from 4 to 6 minutes resulted in a small but significant increase in score (mean 6.7%, P less than 0.001). However, there was a much larger increase in the scores obtained following 2 minutes of immediate feedback compared to pre-feedback performance (mean 26.3%, P less than 0.0001). The majority of students and examiners felt that feedback, as administered in this study, was valuable both as a learning and teaching experience. Short periods of immediate feedback during an OSCE are practical and can improve competency in the performance of criterion-based tasks, at least over the short term. In addition, such feedback provides students with valuable self-assessment that may stimulate further learning.

  6. Effectiveness of energy policy covenants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dijkgraaf, E.; De Jong, J.M.; Spijkerman, M.; Tanis, O.

    2009-10-01

    The Netherlands are relying heavily on covenants to realize a trend break in energy use and their related emissions. The question rises how effective these covenants really are, how their effectiveness relates to other instruments (such as taxes, regulation and grants) and if their effectiveness depends on the shaping of these covenants. This study answers all these questions based on an analysis of the theoretical and empirical literature and on own empirical research based on OECD data. The main conclusion of the study is that there is little to no evidence that these covenants are really effective. [nl

  7. Immediate acoustic effects of straw phonation exercises in subjects with dysphonic voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Marco; Higueras, Diego; Fincheira, Catherine; Muñoz, Daniel; Guajardo, Carlos; Dowdall, Jayme

    2013-04-01

    Abstract This study sought to measure any acoustic changes in the speaking voice immediately after phonation exercises involving plastic straws versus phonation exercises with the open vowel /a/. Forty-one primary school teachers with slightly dysphonic voices were asked to participate in four phonatory tasks. Phonetically balanced text at habitual intensity level and speaking fundamental frequency was recorded. Acoustical analysis with long-term average spectrum was performed. Significant changes after therapy for the experimental group include the alpha ratio, L1-L0 ratio and ratio between 1-5 kHz and 5-8 kHz. The results indicate that the use of phonatory tasks with straw exercises can have immediate therapeutic acoustic effects in dysphonic voices. Long-term effects were not assessed in this study.

  8. Effect of Schizonepeta tenuifolia extract on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, T Y; Jeong, H J; Jun, S M; Chae, H J; Kim, H R; Baek, S H; Kim, H M

    1999-11-01

    We investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of Schizonepeta tenuifolia (STAE) on mast cell-mediated immediate-type hypersensitivity. STAE inhibited systemic allergic reaction induced by compound 48/80 in rats dose-dependently. STAE also inhibited plasma histamine levels induced by compound 48/80. STAE inhibited local allergic reaction activated by anti-dinitrophenyl (DNP) IgE. In addition, STAE does-dependently inhibited histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) activated by compound 48/80 or anti-DNP IgE. However, STAE had a significant enhancing effect on anti-DNP IgE-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) production from RPMC. These results indicate that STAE inhibits immediate-type hypersensitivity and suggest that STAE can selectively activate the TNF-alpha production from RPMC.

  9. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  10. Working memory training shows immediate and long-term effects on cognitive performance in children

    OpenAIRE

    Pugin, Fiona; Metz, Andreas J; Stauffer, Madlaina; Wolf, Martin; Jenni, Oskar G; Huber, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Working memory is important for mental reasoning and learning processes. Several studies in adults and school-age children have shown performance improvement in cognitive tests after working memory training. Our aim was to examine not only immediate but also long-term effects of intensive working memory training on cognitive performance tests in children. Fourteen healthy male subjects between 10 and 16 years trained a visuospatial n-back task over 3 weeks (30 min daily), while 15 individuals...

  11. The Immediate Effects of Kinesiotm Taping on Shoulder External Rotation in People with Shoulder Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözbek, Arman; Üstün, Elif; İnal, Habibe Serap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Observing the immediate effect of KinesioTMTaping(KT) on dynamic balance(DB) and acceleration(ACC) of athletes and sedentary subjects. Methods: The mean ages of athletes(n=25) and sedentary(n=25) were 21,36±2,07 and 21,64±1,62 years, weight 82,36±1,75 and 79,48±7,41kg, height 1,81±0,65 and 1,77±0,56cm, and body mass index were 24,99±4,07 and 25,20±2,12kg/cm2, respectively. They were all male and students of Yeditepe University. The athletes were in the soccer and American football teams of the university. All gave their own written consent to participate in the test protocols of the study voluntarily.Their lower extremity (LE) muscle power (JTech Myometry), and the flexibility of the LE antigravity muscles were assessed before. Their DB (Prokin PK 200) of both sides, speed and acceleration in 30m sprint (Research Tracker RT6) were assessed as before and after the KT applications on both calves to observe their immediate effects on the gastrosoleus group of muscles (psedentary, except the M.Gluteus maximus and ankle invertors. They achieved higher performance in 30m sprint and in DB tests than the sedentary. KT on gastrosoleus group improved the DB of both sides as perimeter length(°) of the centre of pressure (COP) and the area covered (%) by COP (psedentary. Conclusion: The athletes benefited from the immediate effects of KT application during sprinting. It increased the ability of athletes to control the movements of COP in shorter distance and smaller area compared to sedentary. Since there is no difference in AP-ML displacement of COP of both groups, we can conclude that KT does not have immediate effect on ankle strategy for DB.

  12. Fiscal policy is still an effective instrument of macroeconomic policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arestis Philip

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy, what has come to be known as “New Consensus in Macroeconomics”, downgrades the role of fiscal policy and upgrades that of monetary policy. This contribution aims to consider this particular contention by focusing on fiscal policy. We consider fiscal policy within the current “new consensus” theoretical framework, which views fiscal policy as ineffective, and argue that it deserves a great deal more attention paid to it than it has been recently. We review and appraise recent and not so recent theoretical and empirical developments on the fiscal policy front. The possibility of fiscal and monetary policy coordination is proposed and discussed to conclude that it deserves a great deal more attention and careful consideration than it has been given to in the past. Our overall conclusion is that discretionary application of fiscal and monetary policy in a coordinated and focused manner as a tool of macroeconomic policy deserves serious attention paid to it than hitherto.

  13. Immediate Effects of Mirror Therapy in Patients With Shoulder Pain and Decreased Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Adriaan; Puentedura, Emilio J; Reese, Dave; Parker, Paula; Miller, Terra; Mintken, Paul E

    2017-10-01

    To determine the effects of a brief single component of the graded motor imagery (GMI) sequence (mirror therapy) on active range of motion (AROM), pain, fear avoidance, and pain catastrophization in patients with shoulder pain. Single-blind case series. Three outpatient physical therapy clinics. Patients with shoulder pain and limited AROM (N=69). Patients moved their unaffected shoulder through comfortable AROM in front of a mirror so that it appeared that they were moving their affected shoulder. We measured pain, pain catastrophization, fear avoidance, and AROM in 69 consecutive patients with shoulder pain and limited AROM before and immediately after mirror therapy. There were significant differences in self-reported pain (P=.014), pain catastrophization (Pshoulder flexion AROM immediately postmirror therapy (Ppain, pain catastrophization, fear avoidance, and shoulder flexion AROM in patients presenting with shoulder pain with limited AROM. The immediate changes may allow a quicker transition to multimodal treatment, including manual therapy and exercise in these patients. Further studies, including randomized controlled trials, are needed to investigate these findings and determine longer-term effects. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Immediate and 1-year chest compression quality: effect of instantaneous feedback in simulated cardiac arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Peter; Cooper, Clayton; Glick, Joshua; Terndrup, Thomas E

    2014-08-01

    Several studies have demonstrated subpar chest compression (CC) performance by trained health care professionals. The objective of this study was to determine the immediate and sustained effect of instantaneous audiovisual feedback on CC quality. A prospective, randomized, crossover study measuring the effect of audiovisual feedback training on the performance of CCs by health care providers and medical students in a simulated cardiopulmonary arrest scenario was performed. Compression rate, hand placement, depth, and recoil were collected using 60-second epochs of CC on a simulation mannequin. Data from 200 initial enrollments and 100 tested 1 year later were analyzed by evaluators using standard criterion. At initial testing, feedback trainees demonstrated significantly improved depth compliance, recoil compliance, and accuracy of hand placement. One year later, the previous year's control group now receiving feedback demonstrated immediate improvement in depth, hand placement, and rate. In the feedback group, the only statistically significant improvement from initial baseline to the baseline 1 year later was an 18% improvement in depth compliance. However, the same improvement rate was seen in the control group. Improved depth compliance performance was correlated to the number of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training sessions received external to the study. Instantaneous audiovisual feedback training on CC quality produces immediate improvements in compression rate, hand placement, as well as depth and recoil compliance. These improvements, however, are not retained 1 year later. Improved depth performance may be correlated to an increased training frequency.

  15. The Effectiveness of a Customized Titanium Mesh for Ridge Preservation with Immediate Implantation in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Min-Soo; Yang, Cheryl; Lee, Jung-Seok; Hong, Ji-Youn; Choi, Seong-Ho; Jung, Ui-Won

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a newly designed titanium mesh (TM) for preserving the buccal bone around an immediately placed implant following tooth extraction in dogs. Immediate implant placements were performed bilaterally in the mesial socket of the fourth premolar in five dogs. In one site, the TM was affixed to the fixture using its own stabilization components (TM group), and the contralateral site was left untreated (control group). All surgical sites were intended to be submerged with primary flap closure. Histologic and histomorphometric analyses were performed 16 weeks postoperatively. All implants were histologically osseointegrated, and buccal bone resorption was evident in both groups with the high rate of TM exposure (4/5). The most coronal level of bone-implant contact and the bone crest were not statistically different between the TM and the control group. A dense connective tissue layer consistently predominated under the TM, where mineralized tissue was not observed, and the vascularity and cellularity were minimal. It can be conjectured that preservation of buccal plate by using the TM in immediate implantation was not predictable due to vulnerability to wound dehiscence and substantial pseudoperiosteum formation beneath the TM. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Effect of Learner-generated Illustrations on the Immediate And Delayed Recall of English Idioms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afrouz Aeineh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effect of learner generated illustrations on the immediate and delayed idiom recall of Iranian EFL (English as a foreign language learners. To accomplish this end, 40 female students participated in this study. A placement test (Quick Placement Test, Version 2 was administered to the participants to ascertain that they were all at intermediate level of proficiency. Since the design of the study was quasi experimental, they were randomly assigned to control (N: 20 and experimental (N: 20 groups. A pretest of idioms was given to the participants to ensure that they were homogeneous in terms of their knowledge of idioms. Both groups were provided with the clarification of idioms through definitions and examples. However the experimental group was required to draw their own mental image of the idioms on a paper. At the end of the treatment, students took an immediate posttest of idioms. After an interval of 2 weeks, a similar posttest was given to the students to examine the delayed recall ability of the learners. The obtained results through an independent samples t-test indicated that the experimental group slightly outperformed the control group on immediate posttest, but the difference was not statistically significant. However the results on the delayed posttest suggested that there was a significant difference between the two groups and the participants in the experimental group had stronger delayed recall ability.

  17. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koordeman, R.; Anschutz, D.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to

  18. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites : A RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    AimTo assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Materials and methodsSixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and

  19. Immediate Feedback on Accuracy and Performance: The Effects of Wireless Technology on Food Safety Tracking at a Distribution Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goomas, David T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of wireless ring scanners, which provided immediate auditory and visual feedback, were evaluated to increase the performance and accuracy of order selectors at a meat distribution center. The scanners not only increased performance and accuracy compared to paper pick sheets, but were also instrumental in immediate and accurate data…

  20. Amplification Effects and Unconventional Monetary Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile BASTIDON GILLES

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Global financial crises trigger off amplification effects, which allow relatively small shocks to propagate through the whole financial system. For this reason, the range of Central banks policies is now widening beyond conventional monetary policies and lending of last resort. The aim of this paper is to establish a rule for this practice. The model is based on the formalization of funding conditions in various types of markets. We conduct a comprehensive analysis of the “unconventional monetary policies”, and especially quantify government bonds purchases by the Central bank.

  1. [Effectiveness research of medicated γ intrauterine device and medicated genefix intrauterine device inserted immediately after abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, K; Cheng, Y; Yang, H; Tang, Y H; Jiang, J; Ji, F; Li, L B; Wu, S C

    2016-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of medicated γ intrauterine device (IUD) and medicated genefix IUD inserted immediately after abortion. A multicenter clinical trail was performed for the study from Mar. 2012 to Jan. 2013. Totally 840 women who volunteered to participate were randomly allocated to γ-group (medicated γ IUD) or genefix-group (medicated genefix IUD) immediately after abortion. While 464 abortion women who had not used IUD or steroids contraceptive methods were chosen as control group. The effectiveness of the IUD were followed up for 1 year. All women were required to record the number of vaginal bleeding days and blood volume of vaginal bleeding within 3 months after abortion. At the 12(th) month, the expulsion was the most common reason for termination. The expulsion rates of genefix-group and γ-group were 2.48/100 women years and 3.12/100 women years, respectively (P>0.05). For the expulsion reasons, IUD moving down could account for more than seventy percent. The removal rate for IUD usage of two IUD groups were almost equal (3.91/100 women years verus 4.35/100 women years), the differences were not statistically significant (P>0.05). At the 90(th) day after abortion, comparing with control group, the bleeding and (or) spotting days of genefix-group and γ-group extended by 3.9 and 2.6 days respectively, the differences had statistical significance between the three groups (P0.05). The insertion of medicated genefix IUD and medicated γ IUD immediately after abortion is safe, feasible, has slight side effects and could be effective contraception.

  2. Effects of computer-based immediate feedback on foreign language listening comprehension and test-associated anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Su, Hui-Kai; Lee, Shin-Da

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of immediate feedback on computer-based foreign language listening comprehension tests and on intrapersonal test-associated anxiety in 72 English major college students at a Taiwanese University. Foreign language listening comprehension of computer-based tests designed by MOODLE, a dynamic e-learning environment, with or without immediate feedback together with the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI) were tested and repeated after one week. The analysis indicated that immediate feedback during testing caused significantly higher anxiety and resulted in significantly higher listening scores than in the control group, which had no feedback. However, repeated feedback did not affect the test anxiety and listening scores. Computer-based immediate feedback did not lower debilitating effects of anxiety but enhanced students' intrapersonal eustress-like anxiety and probably improved their attention during listening tests. Computer-based tests with immediate feedback might help foreign language learners to increase attention in foreign language listening comprehension.

  3. Immediate effects of quantified hamstring stretching: hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation versus static stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Huijbregts, Peter A; Celeste, Shelley; Edwards, Dale; In, Alastair; Landers, Merrill R; Fernandez-de-Las-Penas, Cesar

    2011-08-01

    To compare the immediate effects of a hold-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching (HR-PNF) versus static stretch (SS) on hamstring flexibility in healthy, asymptomatic subjects. Thirty subjects (13 female; mean age 25.7 ± 3.0, range 22-37) without excessive hamstring muscle flexibility were randomly assigned to one of two stretch groups: HR-PNF or SS. The left leg was treated as a control and did not receive any intervention. The right leg was measured for ROM pre- and post-stretch interventions, with subjects receiving randomly assigned interventions one week apart. Data were analyzed with a 3 (intervention: HR-PNF, SS, control) × 2 (time: pre and post) factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and appropriate post-hoc analyses. A significant interaction was observed between intervention and time for hamstring extensibility, F(2,58) = 25.229, p < .0005. Main effect of intervention for the tested leg was not significant, p = .782 indicating that there was no difference between the two stretch conditions. However, main effect for time was significant (p < .0005), suggesting that hamstring extensibility (for both stretching conditions) after intervention was greater than before. No significant differences were found when comparing the effectiveness of HR-PNF and SS techniques. Both stretching methods resulted in significant immediate increases in hamstring length. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. IFRS Mandatory Adoption Effect on the Information Asymmetry: Immediate or Delayed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hela Turki

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between the mandatory adoption of IFRS/IAS and the information content of earnings in the European Union. More accurately, this study aims to determine if the effect of IFRS adoption on the level of information asymmetry, apprehended by the cost of capital and the financial analysts’ forecasts, is immediate or delayed. Based on a longitudinal study, we find evidence that for the two first years of adoption, international standards reduces significantly the cost of capital and the dispersion of the financial analysts’ forecasts. Furthermore, the magnitude of this effect increases with increasing the number of years after IFRS adoption. The findings further show that the effect of IFRS adoption on financial analysts’ errors is not immediate and that the errors decrease from the third year following the date of the first adoption. Overall, the findings of this study highlight the importance of adopting IFRS in the reduction of information asymmetry.

  5. Immediate effects of whole body vibration on patellar tendon properties and knee extension torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, F; Wiesinger, H-P; Kösters, A; Müller, E; Seynnes, O R

    2016-03-01

    Reports about the immediate effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exposure upon torque production capacity are inconsistent. However, the changes in the torque-angle relationship observed by some authors after WBV may hinder the measurement of torque changes at a given angle. Acute changes in tendon mechanical properties do occur after certain types of exercise but this hypothesis has never been tested after a bout of WBV. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether tendon compliance is altered immediately after WBV, effectively shifting the optimal angle of peak torque towards longer muscle length. Twenty-eight subjects were randomly assigned to either a WBV (n = 14) or a squatting control group (n = 14). Patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus and knee extension torque-angle relationship were measured using ultrasonography and dynamometry 1 day before and directly after the intervention. Tendon CSA was additionally measured 24 h after the intervention to check for possible delayed onset of swelling. The vibration intervention had no effects on patellar tendon CSA, stiffness and Young's modulus or the torque-angle relationship. Peak torque was produced at ~70° knee angle in both groups at pre- and post-test. Additionally, the knee extension torque globally remained unaffected with the exception of a small (-6%) reduction in isometric torque at a joint angle of 60°. The present results indicate that a single bout of vibration exposure does not substantially alter patellar tendon properties or the torque-angle relationship of knee extensors.

  6. Immediate Effects of Osteopathic Treatment Versus Therapeutic Exercise on Patients With Chronic Cervical Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindez-Ibarbengoetxea, Xabier; Setuain, Igor; Ramírez-Velez, Robinson; Andersen, Lars L; González-Izal, Miriam; Jauregi, Andoni; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-11-14

    Context • Alternatives to medication for immediate pain relief are needed because long-term use of pain medication has been associated with adverse effects. High-velocity, low-amplitude (HVLA) manipulation techniques (MTs) and craniocervical flexion (CCF) exercises have been frequently used in the management of chronic cervical pain. Objective • The study intended to compare the immediate effects on pain of a treatment using HVLA manipulation versus one using a CCF exercise protocol. Design • The research team designed a single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. Setting • The study was conducted at osteopathic clinics. Participants • Participants were 25 volunteer patients with chronic neck pain. Intervention • Participants were randomly enrolled in one of 2 groups: the HVLA manipulation group (MT group), n = 12, or the CCF exercise protocol group (CCF group), n = 13. Participants in the CCF group performed the exercise for 10 repetitions of a 10-s duration, with a 10-s rest interval between each contraction, for a total contraction time of 100 s and a total time of the session of 190 s. Outcome Measures • The outcomes were measured at baseline and at 60 s postintervention. The measures included (1) a visual analogue scale (VAS) completed during range of motion (ROM) measurement, (2) an evaluation of the ROM of the cervical spine, (3) a test of pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), and (4) electromyographic (EMG) activation of sternocleidomastoid muscle during a craniocervical flexion test. Results • Following both interventions, significant changes were found between baseline and immediately postintervention in the VAS score during ROM measurement for both groups, with P = .004 and P = .015, respectively. In the MT group, the measures for flexion (P = .001), right-side bending (P = .002), and left rotation (P = .005) changed significantly between baseline and postintervention; however, only flexion (P = .026) and extension (P = .040) ROM changed

  7. Monetary and Fiscal Policy Analysis: Which is More Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Yunanto, Muhamad; Medyawati, Henny

    2014-01-01

    Fiscal policy is an adjustment in the income and expenditure of government as stipulated inthe state budget in order to achieve better economic stability and pace of development. Themain objective of this study was to measure and analyze Fiscal and Monetary Policy of theGross Domestic Product (GDP). Fiscal Policy Multiplier (FPM) and Monetary PolicyMultiplier (MPM) are used to answer the debate where more effective between fiscal policy andmonetary policy. Short-term models derived through er...

  8. Public Policy and the Prison System Failure Brazil: Legal Theses 17 and 18 of the Attorney General's Office - Ago, and Immediate Intervention Judicial Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Carvalho Almeida Da Costa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal feasibility of the judiciary determine the Executive to carry out works in prisons; confronting the reservation of the theory of financially possible and the immediate applicability of explicit fundamental rights in the Constitution, and the latest understanding of our Constitutional Court on the subject. Thus, it was taken as a backdrop the extraordinary appeal object if 592 581 / RS - which resulted in the legal arguments of nos 17 and 18 of the Attorney General - PGR, which concerned about the problem of "judicial control policies public "to ensure the preservation of the fundamental right to physical and moral integrity of prisoners, including renovation, expansion and construction of prisons in the event of failure of state entities. Finally, there was a brief analysis of the structural crisis of the Brazilian prison system, sign flagrant violation of the supreme value of human dignity.

  9. Immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyography in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Rafaela Barros; Pessoa, Maíra Florentino; Cavalcanti, Ana Gabriela Leal; Campos, Shirley Lima; Amorim, César; Dornelas de Andrade, Armèle

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the immediate effects of respiratory muscle stretching on chest wall kinematics and electromyographic activity in COPD patients. 28 patients with COPD were randomized into two groups: 14 to the treatment group (TG) and 14 to the control group (CG). The TG underwent a stretching protocol of the rib cage muscles, while the CG remained at rest under similar conditions. After a single session, TG increased the tidal volume of the pulmonary rib cage (Vrcp) (p=0.020) and tidal volume of abdominal rib cage (Vrca) (p=0.043) variations and their percentages in relation to the thoracic wall, Vrcp% (p=0.044) and Vrca% (p=0.022). Also, TG decreased the end-expiratory Vrcp (p=0.013) and the end-inspiratory Vrcp (p=0.011) variations. In addition, there was a reduction in respiratory rate (RR) (p=0.011) and minute volume (MV) (p=0.035), as well as an increase in expiratory time (Te) (p=0.026). There was also an immediate reduction in sternocleidomastoid (p=0.043) and upper trapezium (p=0.034) muscle electrical activity. Then, the study supports the use of stretching to improve COPD chest wall mobility with positive effects on chest wall mechanics, on volume distribution and electromyography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Immediate and proactive effects of controllability and predictability on plasma cortisol responses to shocks in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dess, N K; Linwick, D; Patterson, J; Overmier, J B; Levine, S

    1983-12-01

    Controllability and predictability are important modulators of the behavioral effects of aversive stimulation on animals. An experiment was conducted to further investigate both the immediate and proactive effects of controllability and predictability of shocks on adrenocortical responsivity. In an initial stress induction phase, the controllability and predictability of electric shocks were independently varied in groups of dogs, and plasma cortisol responses were measured. In a subsequent test phase, all groups of dogs received identical shocks in a novel situation. Cortisol responses to these test shocks were analyzed as a function of the controllability and predictability of previous induction shocks. The results showed that during stress induction, uncontrollable shocks produced significantly greater cortisol elevations that controllable shocks but that predictability had no significant effect on cortisol responses. However, unpredictable shocks during stress induction acted proactively to significantly increase cortisol response to novel test shocks, whereas prior controllability did not modulate subsequent responsivity to novel shocks.

  11. Early life trauma and attachment: Immediate and enduring effects on neurobehavioral and stress axis development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Millie eRincón-Cortés

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Over half a century of converging clinical and animal research indicates that early life experiences induce enduring neuroplasticity of the HPA-axis and the developing brain. This experience-induced neuroplasticity is due to alterations in the frequency and intensity of stimulation of pups’ sensory systems (i.e. olfactory, somatosensory, gustatory embedded in mother-infant interactions. This stimulation provides hidden regulators of pups’ behavioral, physiological and neural responses that have both immediate and enduring consequences, including those involving the stress response. While variation in stimulation can produce individual differences and adaptive behaviors, pathological early life experiences can induce maladaptive behaviors, initiate a pathway to pathology and increase risk for later life psychopathologies, such as mood and affective disorders, suggesting that infant attachment relationships program later life neurobehavioral function. Recent evidence suggests that the effects of maternal presence or absence during this sensory stimulation provide a major modulatory role in neural and endocrine system responses, which have minimal impact on pups’ immediate neurobehavior but a robust impact on neurobehavioral development. This concept is reviewed here using two complementary rodent models of infant trauma within attachment: infant paired odor-shock conditioning (mimicking maternal odor attachment learning and rearing with an abusive mother, that converge in producing a similar behavioral phenotype in later life including depressive-like behavior as well as disrupted HPA-axis and amygdala function. The importance of maternal social presence on pups’ immediate and enduring brain and behavior suggests unique processing of sensory stimuli in early life that could provide insight into the development of novel strategies for prevention and therapeutic interventions for trauma experienced with the abusive caregiver.

  12. Effect of Osteotomy Preparation on Osseointegration of Immediately Loaded, Tapered Dental Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, A; Cochran, D; Obrecht, M; Pippenger, B E; Dard, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present preclinical in vivo study was to evaluate whether a modified "drill-only" protocol, involving slight underpreparation of the implant site, may have an effect on aspects of osseointegration of a novel bone-level tapered implant, compared with the "standard drilling" protocol involving taping and profiling of the marginal aspect of the implant socket. In each side of the edentulated and completely healed mandible of 11 minipigs, 2 tapered implants (8 mm long × 4.1 mm Ø, BLT; Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) were installed either with the drill-only or the standard drilling protocol. Significantly lower average insertion torque values were recorded for the standard drilling protocol group (52 ± 29 Ncm) compared with the drill-only group (70 ± 27 Ncm) (t test, P ≤ 0.05); no significant difference was observed between the 2 groups regarding implant stability, by means of resonance frequency analysis (75 ± 8 vs. 75 ± 6, respectively). Half of the implants were immediately loaded and the rest were submerged, providing observation times of 8 or 4 wk, respectively. Non-decalcified histological and histomorphometric analysis of the implants with surrounding tissues showed no significant differences between the 2 drilling protocols regarding the distance from the implant platform to the first coronal bone-to-implant contact (f-BIC), the total bone-to-implant contact (BIC) as a percentage of the total implant perimeter, and the bone density in an area extending 1 mm laterally from the implant (BATA) within 2 rectangular regions of interest (ROIs) 4 mm in height, representing the coronal (parallel-walled) and apical (tapered) aspect of the implant (ROI 1 and ROI 2, respectively) in non-submerged implants. In general, marginal peri-implant bone levels were at or slightly apical to the implant platform, and large amounts of bone-to-implant contact were observed. In contrast, immediately loaded implants placed with the drill-only protocol

  13. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson\\'s disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  14. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; Tobin, W Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  15. Saving Teens: Using a Policy Discontinuity to Estimate the Effects of Medicaid Eligibility

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Meyer; Laura R. Wherry

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses a policy discontinuity to identify the immediate and long-term effects of public health insurance coverage during childhood. Our identification strategy exploits a unique feature of several early Medicaid expansions that extended eligibility only to children born after September 30, 1983. This feature resulted in a large discontinuity in the lifetime years of Medicaid eligibility of children at this birthdate cutoff. Those with family incomes at or just below the poverty line ...

  16. The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes on Adults Service...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes on Adults Service Use Patterns in Kentucky and Idaho According to findings reported in The Effects of Medicaid Policy Changes...

  17. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M

    2016-01-01

    knee brace on knee joint moments in patients following medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. DESIGN: Within-participant design. METHODS: Twenty-two patients (age 35-55 years) who had undergone medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy within the previous 8-15 months completed three......OBJECTIVES: Patients undergoing medial arthroscopic partial meniscectomy are at increased risk of developing and/or progressing knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial compartment load being a potential contributor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of a valgus unloader......-dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  18. The Immediate Effects of Kinesiotm Taping on Shoulder External Rotation in People with Shoulder Pain

    OpenAIRE

    G?zbek, Arman; ?st?n, Elif; ?nal, Habibe Serap

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Observing the immediate effect of KinesioTMTaping(KT) on dynamic balance(DB) and acceleration(ACC) of athletes and sedentary subjects. Methods: The mean ages of athletes(n=25) and sedentary(n=25) were 21,36?2,07 and 21,64?1,62 years, weight 82,36?1,75 and 79,48?7,41kg, height 1,81?0,65 and 1,77?0,56cm, and body mass index were 24,99?4,07 and 25,20?2,12kg/cm2, respectively. They were all male and students of Yeditepe University. The athletes were in the soccer and American football...

  19. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Electromechanical Reaction Times of Hip Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Ming; Wang, Hongzhao; Ge, Meng; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate the change in electromechanical reaction times (EMG-RT) of hip flexion of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 39 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 16 subjects (7 males, 9 females), and the PNF group consisted of 23 subjects (10 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the EMG-RT, the premotor time (PMT) and the motor time (MT) during hip flexion movement before and after the intervention in both groups. [Results] There were no significant differences among the results of the PNF group. For the NJF group, there were significant differences in PMT and EMG-RT after NJF treatment. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on electromechanical reaction times of hip flexion.

  20. Inpatient cognitive behaviour therapy for adolescents with anorexia nervosa: immediate and longer-term effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo eDalle Grave

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa is often successful in restoring body weight, but a high percentage of patients relapse following discharge. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term effects of a novel inpatient program for adolescents that was designed to produce enduring change. Method: Twenty-seven consecutive patients with severe anorexia nervosa were admitted to a 20-week inpatient treatment program based upon enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E. The patients were assessed before and after hospitalization, and six and 12 months later. Results: Twenty-six patients (96% completed the program. In these patients there was a substantial improvement in weight, eating disorder features and general psychopathology that was well maintained at 12-month follow-up. Conclusions: These findings suggest that inpatient CBT-E is a promising approach to the treatment of adolescents with severe anorexia nervosa.

  1. Irradiation of the head, immediate effect on growth hormone secretion in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dacou-Voutetakis, C.; Xypolyta, A.; Haidas, S.; Constantinidis, M.; Papavasiliou, C.; Zannos-Mariolea, L.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone (GH) was determined in samples obtained hourly from 1000 h to 0700 h before, and after a 3 week course of ''prophylactic'' cranial irradiation, in ten leukemic children who had no clinical or laboratory evidence of central nervous system involvement. The mean per hour value of GH prior to irradiation (4.1 +- 2.4 ng/ml) was similar to that of 7 endocrinologically normal children (4.09 +- 2.4 ng/ml), a finding strongly suggesting normal pituitary function prior to irradiation. Following irradiation GH levels at each hour were, in general, lower than before. The difference is statistically significant at 0100h. The peak GH responses were lower following the preceding irradiation (p less than 0.02). The findings suggest an immediate suppressive effect of irradiation on the apparently normal hypothalamic pituitary axis in children

  2. Immediate Loaded Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets - Effect on Marginal Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Neergaard-Richardt, Tobias; Väkiparta, Teemu

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the immediate implant placement in the maxillary aesthetic zone without flap elevation or enhancement of the hard tissue component with filler or membrane material. The aim of this paper is to study treatment outcome for immediate implant placement in fresh extraction socket in the maxillary anterior region regarding marginal bone level. This retrospective cross-sectional study includes data on 41 patients, total of 54 implants (n = 54), treated for immediate placed im...

  3. Immediate effects of physical therapy on gait disturbance and frontal assessment battery in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohmiya, Makoto; Wada, Naoki; Tazawa, Masayuki; Okamoto, Koichi; Shirakura, Kenji

    2013-07-01

    To examine whether the Frontal Assessment Battery is associated with the immediate effects of physical therapy on gait disturbance in patients with Parkinson's disease. A total of 18 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (Hoehn and Yahr stage range 3-4) who were able to ambulate independently and who were not demented were included. Patients were divided into two groups on the basis of Frontal Assessment Battery scores: the high score group (score ≥ 13, n=11) and the low score group (score ≤ 12, n=7). A 3-D motion analysis system was used to acquire gait parameter data before and after a 30-min physical therapy program. Stride length, step length, cadence, walking velocity, single support time and double support time were measured. The range of motion of the hip, knee and ankle joint, and maximal trunk displacement on the horizontal plane were measured. In the high-score group, significant improvement was observed in walking velocity, stride length and step length, and in the range of motion of the hip and knee joint. Maximal trunk displacement decreased significantly. In contrast, no significant improvement was observed in the low-score group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that Frontal Assessment Battery scores were a predictor of improvement in the range of motion of bilateral hip and knee joints, and maximal trunk displacement. We showed that the subtests of motor learning of the Frontal Assessment Battery might be associated with the immediate effects of physical therapy on gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Bone regeneration around implants in periodontally compromised patients: a randomized clinical trial of the effect of immediate implant with immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibly, Othman; Patel, Nishith; Albandar, Jasim M; Kutkut, Ahmad

    2010-12-01

    This 2-year randomized clinical trial compared bone regeneration and esthetic outcome between immediate and conventional loading of dental implants placed immediately after extraction in patients with a history of periodontal disease. Patients were randomly assigned to receive immediate implants with either immediate loading or conventional loading after 3 months. Both groups received a periodontal flap, tooth extraction, implant placement, allograft bone, and membrane placement. The immediate loading group received a temporary crown. In the conventional loading group primary closure was achieved. All patients were followed up at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. Evaluation included radiographic bone changes, papillary esthetic outcome, and implant survival rate. Seventy-two patients were recruited into the study. However, 60 patients received immediate implant placement after extraction: 30 with conventional loading and 30 with immediate loading. In the immediate loading group the implant survival rate at 2 years was 96.7%, and the mean bone gain was 1.19 mm. The corresponding figures in the conventional loading group were 93.3% and 1 mm. The gain in bone level occurred mainly from baseline to 1 year postoperatively in both groups (P Immediate loading of a single implant placed in a fresh extraction site in periodontally compromised patients resulted in similar bone gain and soft tissue esthetic outcomes compared to delayed loading. Primary closure and delayed loading to ensure bone regeneration around implants were not critical in this study.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIVIDEND POLICY AND OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE TOWARDS DEBT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Fransisca Santosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This research used multiple regression methods to examine the relationshipbetween the dividend policy, institutional ownership, and insider ownership withthe debt policy. Hypotheses tests of this researchused 64 manufacturingcompanies which were listed in the Indonesian StockExchange (IDX from theyear of 2007 until 2010 as the samples. The resultsof this research show that thedividend policies and the insider ownership had noeffects towards the debtpolicy, while the institutional ownership had a significant negative effect towardsthe debt policy.

  6. Is Monetary Policy Effective During Financial Crises?

    OpenAIRE

    Frederic S. Mishkin

    2009-01-01

    This short paper argues that the view that monetary policy is ineffective during financial crises is not only wrong, but may promote policy inaction in the face of a severe contractionary shock. To the contrary, monetary policy is more potent during financial crises because aggressive monetary policy easing can make adverse feedback loops less likely. The fact that monetary policy is more potent than during normal times provides a rationale for a risk-management approach to counter the contra...

  7. The word concreteness effect occurs for positive, but not negative, emotion words in immediate serial recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2009-02-01

    The present study examined the roles of word concreteness and word valence in the immediate serial recall task. Emotion words (e.g. happy) were used to investigate these effects. Participants completed study-test trials with seven-item study lists consisting of positive or negative words with either high or low concreteness (Experiments 1 and 2) and neutral (i.e. non-emotion) words with either high or low concreteness (Experiment 2). For neutral words, the typical word concreteness effect (concrete words are better recalled than abstract words) was replicated. For emotion words, the effect occurred for positive words, but not for negative words. While the word concreteness effect was stronger for neutral words than for negative words, it was not different for the neutral words and the positive words. We conclude that both word valence and word concreteness simultaneously contribute to the item and order retention of emotion words and discuss how Hulme et al.'s (1997) item redintegration account can be modified to explain these findings.

  8. The effect of alcohol advertising on immediate alcohol consumption in college students: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-05-01

    Survey studies have emphasized a positive association between exposure to alcohol advertising on television (TV) and the onset and continuation of drinking among young people. Alcohol advertising might also directly influence viewers' consumption of alcohol while watching TV. The present study therefore tested the immediate effects of alcohol advertisements on the alcohol consumption of young adults while watching a movie. Weekly drinking, problem drinking, positive and arousal expectancies of alcohol, ad recall, attitude, and skepticism toward the ads were tested as moderators. An experimental design comparing 2 advertisement conditions (alcohol ads vs. nonalcohol ads) was used. A total of 80 men, young adult friendly dyads (ages 18 to 29) participated. The study examined actual alcohol consumption while watching a 1-hour movie with 3 advertising breaks. A multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the effects of advertisement condition on alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol advertisement condition did not increase alcohol consumption. In addition, no moderating effects between advertisement condition and the individual factors on alcohol consumption were found. Viewing alcohol advertising did not lead to higher alcohol consumption in young men while watching a movie. However, replications of this study using other samples (e.g., different countries and cultures), other settings (e.g., movie theater, home), and with other designs (e.g., different movies and alcohol ads, cumulative exposure, extended exposure effects) are warranted. Copyright © 2011 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  9. Immediate Effects of Lumbopelvic Manipulation and Lateral Gluteal Kinesio Taping on Unilateral Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Westrick, Richard; Diebal, Angela; Marks, Christopher; Gerber, J. Parry

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the immediate effects of Kinesio taping directed to the hip and manipulation directed to the lumbopelvic region in individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). Background: PFPS affects up to 25% of the general population. Despite the high prevalence, this condition is not clearly understood, as evidenced by the numerous proposed causes and recommended treatments. Notwithstanding, recent evidence suggests that treatments directed at the hip or spine may lead to beneficial results. Methods: A convenience sample of 18 participants (12 men and 6 women, 19.5 ± 1.15 years old) with unilateral PFPS was recruited. Participants were randomized by sex to 1 of 3 groups: Kinesio taping, manipulation, and control taping. The main outcome measures included the Y-balance test, squatting range of motion (ROM), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Results: Compared with the lumbopelvic manipulation and control groups, those in the Kinesio taping group performed significantly better on the Y-balance test (F = 5.59, P = 0.02) and with squatting ROM (F = 3.93, P = 0.04). The Kinesio taping and lumbopelvic groups were also significantly better than the control (sham) group with double-leg squatting ROM performance 3 days later. Conclusion: Kinesio taping may facilitate gluteus medius activation and improve postural stability and a double-leg squat. Clinical Relevance: The improvement in affected limb reach and double-leg squatting ROM highlights the potential for Kinesio taping to improve gluteus medius activation. Lumbopelvic manipulation may also immediately improve rehabilitation programs for PFPS. PMID:24427391

  10. Immediate and Delayed Effects of Forearm Kinesio Taping on Grip Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhzad Mohammadi, Hosein; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro; Naeimi, Sedighe Sadat; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Shokri, Esmaeil; Tafazoli, Mojdeh; Dastjerdi, Mahboobeh; Kardooni, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to the fundamental role of gripping in most upper limb activities, grip strength promotion is a chief goal in the treatment of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Kinesio taping is a novel and effective therapeutic technique believed to facilitate muscle contraction through stimulating mechanoreceptors and increasing the sensory feedback around the taped region. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the best region (flexor, extensor and flexor/extensor regions) and time (immediate, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours) of forearm Kinesio taping to obtain the maximum improvement in grip strength. Materials and Methods: In this longitudinal study, 40 healthy men and women (the mean age of 22.3 ± 2.19 years) were selected among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran by simple, nonrandom sampling method. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength immediately and every 30 minutes during the two hours after I-shaped application of tape (with 50% stretch) to the flexor, extensor, and flexor/extensor forearm muscles. Results: Grip strength was significantly increased in various muscle groups for males (P = 0.002) and females (P = 0.000) of the forearm and at different intervals for males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Moreover, in both men and women, tape application to the extensor region provided greater grip strength compared to taping of the flexor and flexor/extensor regions (P = 0.000 for both). Furthermore, the maximum increase in grip strength were 0.5 (10.8% increase, P = 0.001) and 1.5 h (23.9% increase, P = 0.000) after taping in males and females, respectively. Conclusions: Taping the extensor region of forearm is recommended to achieve higher grip strength. Although grip strength increased at a slower pace in females than males, the final values were higher in women. PMID:25389492

  11. Immediate free recall of drug names: effects of similarity and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Bruce L; Chang, Ken-Yu; Lin, Swu-Jane

    2003-01-15

    The prescribing frequency, subjective familiarity, and two measures of similarity as predictors of error in immediate free recall of drug names were assessed. The study design utilized prospective, computer-based, word memory experiments in which 30 pharmacists and 66 college students were asked to immediately recall 15 lists of three three-syllable drug names. Intralist similarity was systematically varied. The number of words forgotten or incorrectly recalled was then examined as a function of similarity, subjective familiarity, and prescribing frequency. The primary outcome measure was the number of item errors in free recall. Pharmacists made fewer errors than college students. Familiarity reliably enhanced item recall among both pharmacists and college students. Prescribing frequency enhanced recall among both pharmacists and college students except when college students recalled generic names. Orthographic (i.e., spelling) similarity was reliably associated with item recall in both groups. Fewer errors were made when lists were more orthographically similar. Among pharmacists, there was an inverted U-shaped relationship between phonologic (i.e., sound) similarity and item errors, with the fewest errors being made on the most similar lists. Among college students, phonologic similarity was not reliably associated with item errors. Frequently prescribed and subjectively familiar drug names are more accurately recalled than rarely prescribed and unfamiliar names. Orthographically similar lists of drug names are easier to recall than dissimilar lists because similarity provides cues that facilitate the retrieval of degraded short-term memories. The effects of similarity, familiarity, and frequency on short-term memory of drug names vary as a function of task and stimulus characteristics.

  12. Immediate and delayed effects of forearm kinesio taping on grip strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhzad Mohammadi, Hosein; Khademi Kalantari, Khosro; Naeimi, Sedighe Sadat; Pouretezad, Mohammad; Shokri, Esmaeil; Tafazoli, Mojdeh; Dastjerdi, Mahboobeh; Kardooni, Leila

    2014-08-01

    Due to the fundamental role of gripping in most upper limb activities, grip strength promotion is a chief goal in the treatment of patients with upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. Kinesio taping is a novel and effective therapeutic technique believed to facilitate muscle contraction through stimulating mechanoreceptors and increasing the sensory feedback around the taped region. The present study aimed to identify the best region (flexor, extensor and flexor/extensor regions) and time (immediate, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 hours) of forearm Kinesio taping to obtain the maximum improvement in grip strength. In this longitudinal study, 40 healthy men and women (the mean age of 22.3 ± 2.19 years) were selected among students of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran by simple, nonrandom sampling method. A dynamometer was used to measure grip strength immediately and every 30 minutes during the two hours after I-shaped application of tape (with 50% stretch) to the flexor, extensor, and flexor/extensor forearm muscles. Grip strength was significantly increased in various muscle groups for males (P = 0.002) and females (P = 0.000) of the forearm and at different intervals for males (P = 0.000) and females (P = 0.000). Moreover, in both men and women, tape application to the extensor region provided greater grip strength compared to taping of the flexor and flexor/extensor regions (P = 0.000 for both). Furthermore, the maximum increase in grip strength were 0.5 (10.8% increase, P = 0.001) and 1.5 h (23.9% increase, P = 0.000) after taping in males and females, respectively. Taping the extensor region of forearm is recommended to achieve higher grip strength. Although grip strength increased at a slower pace in females than males, the final values were higher in women.

  13. Examining the Relationship between Immediate Serial Recall and Immediate Free Recall: Common Effects of Phonological Loop Variables but Only Limited Evidence for the Phonological Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Jessica; Ward, Geoff; Matthews, William J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of the phonological loop to immediate free recall (IFR) and immediate serial recall (ISR) of lists of between one and 15 words. Following Baddeley (1986, 2000, 2007, 2012), we assumed that visual words could be recoded into the phonological store when presented silently but that recoding would be prevented by…

  14. The Changing Effectiveness of Monetary Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E. Leightner

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the 2008 financial crisis, many countries are hoping that massive increases in their money supplies will revive their economies. Evaluating the effectiveness of this strategy using traditional statistical methods would require the construction of an extremely complex economic model of the world that showed how each country’s situation affected all other countries. No matter how complex that model was, it would always be subject to the criticism that it had omitted important variables. Omitting important variables from traditional statistical methods ruins all estimates and statistics. This paper uses a relatively new statistical method that solves the omitted variables problem. This technique produces a separate slope estimate for each observation which makes it possible to see how the estimated relationship has changed over time due to omitted variables. I find that the effectiveness of monetary policy has fallen between the first quarter of 2003 and the fourth quarter of 2012 by 14%, 36%, 38%, 32%, 29% and 69% for Japan, the UK, the USA, the Euro area, Brazil, and the Russian Federation respectively. I hypothesize that monetary policy is suffering from diminishing returns because it cannot address the fundamental problem with the world’s economy today; that problem is a global glut of savings that is either sitting idle or funding speculative bubbles.

  15. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Heather M; Stevenson, Richard J; Oaten, Megan J; Mahmut, Mehmet K; Yeomans, Martin R

    2017-01-01

    Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors - gender and habitual processed-food intake - that may moderate these effects. Participants [ n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; M age = 19.7 ( SD = 2.9); M BMI = 22.4 ( SD = 3.1)] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se , but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  16. Immediate Effects of Kinesiology Taping of Quadriceps on Motor Performance after Muscle Fatigued Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ick Keun Ahn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The purpose of this cross-sectional single-blind study was to investigate the immediate effects of Kinesiology taping of quadriceps on motor performance after muscle fatigued induction. Design. Randomized controlled cross-sectional design. Subjects. Forty-five subjects participated in this study. Participants were divided into three groups: Kinesiology taping group, placebo taping group, and nontaping group. Methods. Subjects performed short-term exercise for muscle fatigued induction, followed by the application of each intervention. Peak torque test, one-leg single hop test, active joint position sense test, and one-leg static balance test were carried out before and after the intervention. Results. Peak torque and single-leg hopping distance were significantly increased when Kinesiology taping was applied (p<0.05. But there were no significant effects on active joint position sense and single-leg static balance. Conclusions. We proved that Kinesiology taping is effective in restoring muscle power reduced after muscle fatigued induction. Therefore, we suggest that Kinesiology taping is beneficial for fatigued muscles.

  17. The Immediate Effect of Foot Orthoses on Subtalar Joint Mechanics and Energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Jayishni N; Cresswell, Andrew G; Lichtwark, Glen A

    2018-03-05

    Foot orthoses maybe used in the management of musculoskeletal disorders related to abnormal subtalar joint (STJ) pronation. However, the precise mechanical benefits of foot orthoses for preventing injuries associated with the STJ are not well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effect of foot orthoses on the energy absorption requirements of the STJ and subsequently tibialis posterior (TP) muscle function. Eighteen asymptomatic subjects with a pes planus foot posture were prescribed custom-made foot orthoses made from a plaster cast impression. Participants walked at preferred and fast velocities barefoot, with athletic footwear and with athletic footwear plus orthoses, as three-dimensional motion capture, force data and intramuscular electromyography of the TP muscle were simultaneously collected. Statistical parametric mapping was used to identify time periods across the stride cycle during which footwear with foot orthoses significantly differed to barefoot and footwear only. During early stance, footwear alone and footwear with orthoses significantly reduced TP muscle activation (1 - 12 %), supination moments (3 - 21 %) and energy absorption (5 - 12 %) at the STJ, but had no effect on STJ pronation displacement. The changes in TP muscle activation and STJ energy absorption were primarily attributed to footwear as the addition of foot orthoses provided little additional effect. We speculate that these results are most likely a result of the compliant material properties of footwear. These results suggest that athletic footwear may be sufficient to absorb energy in the frontal plane and potentially reducing any benefit associated with the addition of foot orthoses.

  18. The Immediate and Delayed Effects of TV: Impacts of Gender and Processed-Food Intake History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Francis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Eating while watching TV has generally been found to increase both immediate and delayed energy intake. Here we examine two factors – gender and habitual processed-food intake – that may moderate these effects. Participants [n = 153; 95 women, 58 men; Mage = 19.7 (SD = 2.9; MBMI = 22.4 (SD = 3.1] ate an ad libitum snack either with or without TV, followed around 1 h later by lunch. There was an interaction between TV and gender for both meals. Women tended to consume more snack food in the TV condition, with men consuming more in the no-TV condition. Participants who habitually consumed more processed food also ate more snacks, independent of any other variable, including rated liking. At lunch, men who had earlier snacked with TV ate more than men who had snacked without TV, but this effect was not evident in women. On memory recall, all participants underestimated how much snack food they had eaten, and this was a function of how much they had actually consumed, with greater error only predicted by greater consumption. The results indicate that the effects of TV on eating can vary with gender and that processed-food history can predict snack food intake. While previous findings suggest memory of prior-intake may be impaired by eating while watching TV, the current results suggest this is not necessarily because of TV per se, but because people sometimes consume more food under such conditions.

  19. Network Security: Policies and Guidelines for Effective Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Gana KOLO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Network security and management in Information and Communication Technology (ICT is the ability to maintain the integrity of a system or network, its data and its immediate environment. The various innovations and uses to which networks are being put are growing by the day and hence are becoming complex and invariably more difficult to manage by the day. Computers are found in every business such as banking, insurance, hospital, education, manufacturing, etc. The widespread use of these systems implies crime and insecurity on a global scale. In addition, the tremendous benefits brought about by Internet have also widened the scope of crime and insecurity at an alarming rate. Also, ICT has fast become a primary differentiator for institution/organization leaders as it offers effective and convenient means of interaction with each other across the globe. This upsurge in the population of organizations depending on ICT for business transaction has brought with it a growing number of security threats and attacks on poorly managed and secured networks primarily to steal personal data, particularly financial information and password.This paper therefore proposes some policies and guidelines that should be followed by network administrators in organizations to help them ensure effective network management and security of ICT facilities and data.

  20. Policy alienation of public professionals: the effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractNowadays, many public professionals face identification problems towards public policies they have to implement; that is, they experience policy alienation. We conceptualize policy alienation, starting from the sociological concept of alienation and showing how this can be used in the

  1. Immediate effects of plantar inputs on the upper half muscles and upright posture: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffolo, Fabio; Ferritto, Anna L; Muratore, Filippo; Tecco, Simona; Testa, Mauro; D'Attilio, Michele; Festa, Felice

    2006-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of plantar inputs on both the upper half muscle activity (anterior temporal, masseter, digastric, sternocleidomastoid, upper and lower trapezius, cervical) and the body posture, by means of electromyography (EMG) and vertical force platform, respectively. Twenty four (24) healthy adults, between the ages of 24 and 31 years (25.3 +/- 1.9), with no history of craniomandibular disorder or systemic musculoskeletal dysfunction, were randomly divided into two groups: test group (fourteen subjects) and control group (ten subjects). A first recording session (TO) measured the baseline EMG and postural patterns of both groups. After this session, the test group wore test shoes with insoles that stimulated the plantar surfaces, while the control group wore placebo shoes. After one hour, a second set of measurements (T1) were performed. Significant differences between the groups at baseline were observed in the left anterior temporal, left cervical, and left upper trapezius, as well as at T1 in the left anterior temporal and right upper trapezius (p postural blindness in the test group compared to the control group was observed. Further studies are warranted to investigate the short and long-term effects of this type of insole, in patients with both craniomandibular-cervical and lower extremity disorders.

  2. Immediate effects of the Finnish resonance tube method on behavioral dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Sabrina Mazzer; Zambon, Fabiana; Yamasaki, Rosiane; Simberg, Susanna; Behlau, Mara

    2013-11-01

    To investigate the immediate effects of the Finnish resonance tube method for teachers with behavioral dysphonia. Twenty-five female teachers (m=39.9 years of age) with at least a 5-year history of dysphonia were included. Additional inclusion criteria were the diagnosis of chronic behavioral dysphonia with an indication for speech therapy and the absence of any prior speech therapy. Subjects produced three sets of 10 tokens of sustained phonation with a 1-minute rest interval between tokens into a 27-cm glass tube immersed in at least 2 cm of water. Voice samples were recorded before and after these sets. The effects of these exercises were evaluated by self-assessment, auditory perceptual analysis, and acoustic evaluation involving extraction of fundamental frequency and visual spectrographic analysis. Sixty-eight percent of the teachers reported increased phonatory comfort and 52% reported improved voice quality after performing the exercises. Perceptual analysis indicated improved voice quality in the samples of counting numbers, confirmed by decreased instability, subharmonics, noise in high frequencies, and the tendency for reduced low frequency noise on spectrographic evaluation. Additionally, mean fundamental frequency decreased. The Finnish resonance tube method increased phonatory comfort and vocal changes suggestive diminished hyperfunction. Copyright © 2013 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of immediate dentine sealing on the fracture strength of lithium disilicate and multiphase resin composite inlay restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Breemer, Carline R G; Özcan, Mutlu; Cune, Marco S; van der Giezen, Rianne; Kerdijk, Wouter; Gresnigt, Marco M M

    Purpose: Limited information is available on the effect of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS) on the fracture strength of indirect partial posterior restorations. This study evaluated the effect of IDS on the fracture strength and failure types of two indirect restorative materials. Materials and

  4. 76 FR 39960 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the ``Act''). Upon effectiveness of a plan filed pursuant to Rule 17d-2...(a) through 9.25, which concern advertising and sales literature, would be deleted and the text of...

  5. 77 FR 65019 - DBI, Inc., Casper, WY; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... safety violations. A verification sheet for recipients to sign and date, then return to the Corporate... Safety Culture Policy Statement, and DBI management's support of the policy. DBI will provide a copy of NUREG/BR-0500, ``Safety Culture Policy Statement,'' (ADAMS Accession No. ML11165A021) to its employees...

  6. Stress-enhanced fear learning in rats is resistant to the effects of immediate massed extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Virginia A; Fanselow, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Enhanced fear learning occurs subsequent to traumatic or stressful events and is a persistent challenge to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Facilitation of learning produced by prior stress can elicit an exaggerated fear response to a minimally aversive event or stimulus. Stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) is a rat model of PTSD; rats previously exposed to the SEFL 15 electrical shocks procedure exhibit several behavioral responses similar to those seen in patients with PTSD. However, past reports found that SEFL is not mitigated by extinction (a model of exposure therapy) when the spaced extinction began 24 h after stress. Recent studies found that extinction from 10 min to 1 h subsequent to fear conditioning "erased" learning, whereas later extinction, occurring from 24 to 72 h after conditioning did not. Other studies indicate that massed extinction is more effective than spaced procedures. Therefore, we examined the time-dependent nature of extinction on the stress-induced enhancement of fear learning using a massed trial's procedure. Experimental rats received 15 foot shocks and were given either no extinction or massed extinction 10 min or 72 h later. Our present data indicate that SEFL, following traumatic stress, is resistant to immediate massed extinction. Experimental rats showed exaggerated new fear learning regardless of when extinction training occurred. Thus, post-traumatic reactivity such as SEFL does not seem responsive to extinction treatments.

  7. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric repetitions on the Cybex Normö dynamometer; the average torque was determined for both pre- and post-intervention measurements. These data were analyzed using the independent samples t-test with the significance level set at Phip abductor torque in the experimental group (P=0.03). The experimental group demonstrated a 17.35% increase in average torque whereas the control group demonstrated a 3.68% decrease in average torque. These findings are consistent with other studies demonstrating that the use of grade IV non-thrust mobilization improves strength immediately post-intervention in healthy individuals. The results of this pilot study provide physical therapists with further support for the utilization of manual therapy in conjunction with therapeutic exercise to enhance muscle strength.

  8. Stress-enhanced fear learning in rats is resistant to the effects of immediate massed extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Virginia A.; Fanselow, Michael S.

    2014-01-01

    Enhanced fear learning occurs subsequent to traumatic or stressful events and is a persistent challenge to the treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Facilitation of learning produced by prior stress can elicit an exaggerated fear response to a minimally aversive event or stimulus. Stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) is a rat model of PTSD; rats previously exposed to the SEFL 15 electrical shocks procedure exhibit several behavioral responses similar to those seen in patients with PTSD. However, past reports found that SEFL is not mitigated by extinction (a model of exposure therapy) when the spaced extinction began 24 h after stress. Recent studies found that extinction from 10 min to 1 h subsequent to fear conditioning “erased” learning, whereas later extinction, occurring from 24 to 72 h after conditioning did not. Other studies indicate that massed extinction is more effective than spaced procedures. Therefore, we examined the time-dependent nature of extinction on the stress-induced enhancement of fear learning using a massed trial’s procedure. Experimental rats received 15 foot shocks and were given either no extinction or massed extinction 10 min or 72 h later. Our present data indicate that SEFL, following traumatic stress, is resistant to immediate massed extinction. Experimental rats showed exaggerated new fear learning regardless of when extinction training occurred. Thus, post-traumatic reactivity such as SEFL does not seem responsive to extinction treatments. PMID:22176467

  9. The immediate and long-term effects of time perspective on Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukavská, Kateřina

    2018-01-09

    Backgrounds and aims This study focuses on the role of time perspective (TP) in Internet gaming disorder (IGD). An inventory-based study on 377 massive multiplayer online role playing game players was conducted, followed by a 3-year-follow-up in which 48 active players from the original sample participated. We proposed that TP factors (negative TP and future positive TP) will influence either the current presence of IGD symptoms or the further development of IGD over time. In other words, the effect of TP is stable. Finally, game usage patterns were analyzed in the sense of changes in playing time and IGD symptoms in gamers after 3 years. Methods To access the variables, two scales were administered through online inventory, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory-short, and Charlton and Danforths' Core Addiction Scale, both in 2012 (N = 377) and 2015 (N = 48). The amount of time that gamers usually spent playing were obtained through self-reports. Results The study's primary presumptions were confirmed. Both negative TP and future positive TP were confirmed as significant predictors of the presence of IGD symptoms, either immediately or in the following 3 years. Data on game usage showed a significant decrease in playing time and IGD symptoms between year 0 and year 3 of the study.

  10. The Immediate Effect of Neuromuscular Joint Facilitation (NJF) Treatment on Hip Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongdan; Huo, Ming; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Maruyama, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the change in hip muscle strength of younger persons after neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) treatment. [Subjects] The subjects were 45 healthy young people, who were divided into two groups: a NJF group and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) group. The NJF group consisted of 21 subjects (11 males, 10 females), and the PNF group consisted of 24 subjects (11 males, 13 females). [Methods] Participants in the NJF group received NJF treatment. We measured the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength during isokinetic movement of the hip joint before and after intervention in both groups. The angular velocities used were 60°/sec and 180°/sec. [Results] The NJF group showed significant increases in the maximal flexor strength and the maximal extensor strength after the intervention at each angular velocity. In the PNF group, the maximal flexor strength of 60°/sec and the maximal extensor strength of 180°/sec were significant increases. [Conclusion] These results suggest that there is an immediate effect of NJF intervention on hip muscle strength.

  11. Immediate effect of intertidal non-mechanised cockle harvesting on macrobenthic communities: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Miguel Sousa Leitão

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In Ria Formosa cockles (Cerastoderma edule have traditionally been harvested with a harvesting-knife (HK. However, over the last six years there has been an increase in the use of a hand-dredge (HD to exploit cockle beds. A comparative study on the impact of these harvesting methods on the benthic macrofauna was undertaken with the aim of evaluating the possible introduction of the hand-dredge in the fishery. Macrofaunal mortality was very low regardless of the gear. However, the total mortality resulting from using the HK was superior to the one observed for the HD. For the same fishing time the hand-dredge covers an area approximately five times greater that the one covered by the knife, with the former yielding 5 times the catch of the latter. Consequently, the use of hand-dredges increases the fishing effort, which may lead to the overexploitation of the cockle populations. Our results revealed that the immediate effect of both gears on macrobenthic communities was similar and minimal. Therefore, we believe that introducing the hand-dredge in the cockle fishery should only be authorised if other management measures, such as daily quotas, closed areas and limiting the number of fishing licenses, are implemented.

  12. Effect of radiotherapy on osseointegration of dental implants immediately placed in postextraction sites of minipigs mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramandinoli-Zanicotti, Roberta Targa; Sassi, Laurindo Moacir; Schussel, Juliana Lucena; Torres, Maria Fernanda; Matos Ferreira, Sergio Araquem; Carvalho, André Lopes

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the osseointegration and the survival of dental implants (DIs) immediately placed in postextraction sites, in mandibles of minipigs that underwent radiotherapy (RT). Twelve Brazilian minipigs were divided into the following groups: A, control; B, implants placement 15 days before RT; C, implants placement 3 months after RT. Implant loss rate (ILR), fibrointegration rate (FIR), bone-implant contact (BIC), and bone density inside the threads (BDIT) were determined in each group 90 days after implantation. ILR was higher in group C (68.7%) than in groups B (28.1%) and A (21.9%), (P = 0.001). FIR was more frequent in group C (30%) than in groups B (21.7%) and A (4%), although not statistically significant. The averages of BIC and BDIT were, respectively, 33.1 and 41.5 in group C; 18.5 and 26.6 in group B; and 11.5 and 16.3 in group A (P = 0.003 for both variables). RT showed a negative effect in periimplant bone regeneration. The implants placement before RT showed better results compared with the implants performed after RT, suggesting that DIs in head and neck cancer patients must be placed before RT or simultaneously during ablative tumor surgery.

  13. Kangaroo position: Immediate effects on the physiological variables of preterm and low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Cesário Defilipo

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC method is a significant neonatal alternative that ensures better quality humanized care for preterm and low birth weight newborns. Objective: To analyze the immediate physiological effects of the kangaroo position in critically ill newborns. Methods: Open clinical trial with parallel interventions, involving preterm (up to 28 days old low or very low birth weight newborns (minimum weight of 1,250 grams of both sexes, that were clinically stable and undergoing enteral nutrition. The degree of respiratory distress was assessed and quantified using the Silverman-Anderson scoring system. Heart rate and peripheral oxygen saturation were collected using a pulse oximeter. Respiratory rate was determined by auscultation for one minute. The newborns were submitted to the kangaroo position once only, for 90 minutes. Results: Participants were 30 newborns, 56.7% of which were girls. Comparison of the variables before and after application of the kangaroo position using the Wilcoxon test showed a statistically significant reduction in respiratory rate (p = 0.02 and Silverman-Anderson score (p < 0.01. The remaining variables showed no significant differences: heart rate (p = 0.21, peripheral oxygen saturation (p = 0.26 and axillary temperature (p = 0.12. Conclusion: There was a decline in the respiratory rate and Silverman-Anderson score after application of the kangaroo position, while peripheral oxygen saturation, axillary temperature and heart rate remained stable.

  14. Immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Mi; Rajgopal Bala, Harini; Cahill, Jennifer; Toholka, Ryan; Nixon, Rosemary

    2018-02-01

    Chlorhexidine is a widely used and effective antiseptic agent. Although skin contact is usually well tolerated, it may cause both immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions. We report a case of immediate hypersensitivity to chlorhexidine causing both skin and respiratory symptoms following occupational exposure to chlorhexidine in a health-care worker. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. The effect of immediate postpartum compared to delayed postpartum and interval etonogestrel contraceptive implant insertion on removal rates for bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Luu Doan; Goyal, Vinita; Raker, Christina A; Murray, Anne; Allen, Rebecca H

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the discontinuation rate of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant due to irregular vaginal bleeding among women with immediate postpartum insertion is increased compared to delayed postpartum and interval placement. This retrospective cohort study compared women who underwent immediate postpartum etonogestrel contraceptive implant insertion (within 96 h of delivery) to delayed postpartum (6 to 12 weeks postpartum) and interval insertion between January 2008 and December 2010. Charts were reviewed for date and reason for removal. A chi-squared test was used to compare discontinuation due to bleeding between cohorts. Baseline characteristics predictive of implant removal were evaluated by simple logistic regression. There were 259 women in the immediate postpartum group, 49 in the delayed postpartum group and 106 in the interval group. Average age at insertion was 22.6 (±5.5) years. Overall, 19.3% of women in the immediate postpartum group requested removal due to irregular bleeding compared to 18.4% in the delayed postpartum group [odds ratio (OR) 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48-2.33] and 20.8% in the interval group (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.52-1.60). There was no difference between groups in premature removal rates for any side effect. There were no sociodemographic or clinical characteristics predictive of removal in any group. One-fifth of etonogestrel contraceptive implant users requested premature removal due to irregular bleeding. Immediate postpartum implant insertion does not lead to increased removal rates and may help reduce unintended pregnancy. Mechanisms to help women manage irregular bleeding due to the implant are needed. Immediate postpartum insertion of the etonogestrel contraceptive implant does not lead to increased removal rates due to vaginal bleeding compared to delayed postpartum or interval insertion. Immediate postpartum implant insertion may increase uptake of long-acting reversible contraception and help reduce

  16. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  17. India′s draft National Health Policy, 2015: Improving policy to implementation effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nata Menabde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As the Government of India is working on drafting a new National Health Policy, developing national health accounts, and planning for a "health assurance mission," this opportunity has the potential to transform health status of millions of Indians and achieve universal health coverage. The draft of new National Health Policy of India was put in public domain for comments in early 2015. This editorial reviews the draft National Health Policy 2015 and proposes a few steps to improve implementation effectiveness.

  18. A literature review of the market effects of federal biofuel policy and recommendations for future policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Alex Elgin

    The United States has had a federal biofuels policy since the 1970s. The purpose of this policy was to help the development of a biofuel industry during a time of high fuel prices in order to provide a domestic alternative to expensive foreign oil. Later the policy was changed to help lower the environmental impact caused by conventional fuels. Since that time the industry has grown and currently produces around 15 billion gallons of biofuels every year. The current federal biofuel policy is largely based on one program, the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS), which mandates the production and blending of several different classes of biofuels and provides a form of subsidy to the biofuel industry. This paper examines the market effects of the federal biofuel policy and provides recommendations for improving the policy to counteract any negative effects. Federal biofuel policy has many far-reaching market effects. Some are easily calculable through expenditures and lost revenues, while others are harder to quantify because their full effects are not yet known. By evaluating these market effects, this paper will provide ample evidence that the federal biofuels policy needs to change, and will show what effects these changes could induce. The biofuels industry largely owes its existence to government policies, however as the research shows the industry can now stand on its own. This paper will examine what will happen if the federal policy is eliminated and what the future of the biofuels industry could hold. Based on these examinations, it is unlikely that the industry needs further government support and policies should be adjusted in light of this.

  19. IMMEDIATE AND DISTANT EFFECTS OF THE PANCREATIC DUCT OCCLUSION BY THE FIBRIN ADHESIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojin Savić

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper represent an experimental study whose aim was to determine immediate consequences of the pancreatic duct occlusion by the fibrin adhesive upon the pancreas parenchyma as well as distant negative effects upon the exocrine and endocrine pancreatic secretion.The experiment was carried out on the dogs divided into two groups of twenty animals, namely, into the experimental group of those animals that were subdued to the pancreas resection with the PJA formation and the anastomosis protection by means of the pancreatic duct occlusion with the fibrin adhesive (Tissucol - Immuno AG and the control group that was, under the same conditions, subdued to the pancreas resection and the PJA with no anastomosis protection. In the post-operative course the animals cere monitored for five months and during that time they were subjected to the clinic, biochemical, pathohistological, histochemical, immunocito-chemical and scanning electronic-microscopic examination.The fibrin cork lyse was noticed since the fifth post-operative day while it was fully completed on the thirteenth post-operative day. The statistical analysis of the biochemical parameters as well as pathohistological and scanning-electronic exami-nations have revealed the signs of easier, sub-clinic forms of edematose pancreatitis with a short-term increase of the amylase level. The examinations after 150 days have shown the preserved morphology and the functional integrity of the exocrine and en-docrine pancreas.The authors conclude that the fibrin adhesive application in preventing the loosening up of the pancreatic jejuna anastomosis represents a simple and efficient procedure with no negative effects upon the exocrine and endocrine function and the pancreas morphology.

  20. Immediate effect of blue-enhanced light on reproductive hormones in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilenko, Konstantin V; Sergeeva, Oksana Y

    2015-01-01

    Light is known to stimulate reproductive function in women. We here investigated the immediate effect of light on reproductive hormones, addressing the role of blue-sensitive (~480 nm) melanopsin-based photoreception mediating the non-visual effects of light. Sixteen healthy women attended the Institute at ~07:25 (shortly after waking; sunglasses worn) twice in 2-3 days in April-May, within days 4-10 of their menstrual cycle. During one session, a broad-spectrum white-appearing light with a superimposed peak at 469 nm was presented against 5-10 lux background; during the other session, short-spectrum red light peaked at 651 nm with similar irradiance level (~7.0 W/m², corresponds to ~1200 lux) was used. Venous blood was taken at 0, 22 and 44 minutes of light exposure to measure concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), prolactin, estradiol, progesterone and cortisol, and saliva was sampled to measure melatonin as a recognised indicator of the spectral-specific action of light. Melatonin values, as expected, were lower with white vs. red light (p=0.014), with the greatest difference at 22 minutes. Of the other hormones, only FSH concentrations differed significantly: they were mildly higher at white vs. red light (again, at 22 minutes; p=0.030; statistical analysis adjusted for menstrual cycle day and posture change [pre-sampling time seated]). Moderately bright blue-enhanced white light, compared to matched-by-irradiance red light, transiently (within 22 minutes) and mildly stimulated morning secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone in women in mid-to-late follicular phase of their menstrual cycle suggesting a direct functional link between the light and reproductive system.

  1. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    Do spatial dispersal policies on refugees promote their labour market outcomes? To investigate this we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugees subjected to the Danish spatial dispersal policy 1986....... These findings support dispersal policies. Second, on average geographical mobility had large, positive effects on the hazard rate into first job, suggesting that restrictions on placed refugees' subsequent out-migration would hamper labour market integration of refugees....

  2. 77 FR 30566 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... explanatory sentence is being added stating the 9000 Series of BX Rules will now govern the disciplinary... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule Change To Amend the Grandfathered Rules, BOX Trading Rules, BX By-Laws, BX Rules and Remove the BOXR Operating...

  3. 77 FR 1545 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ....15c3-5. Because these are NYSE Arca proprietary firms, the regulatory risk of extending the time to...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Trail System Rules, for Equity Trading Permit Holders That Are Not Financial Industry Regulatory...

  4. 77 FR 4077 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-26

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending the Real-Time Risk Management Fee and Other Clarifying Amendments January 20, 2012.... \\1\\ 15 U.S.C. 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the...

  5. 77 FR 45401 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... change. All such Regulatory Bulletins will contain information regarding changes to the risk settings in...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposed Rule... Applicable to the Market Maker Risk Limitation Mechanism Will Be Between One and 100 Executions per Second...

  6. 76 FR 64983 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change..., complex order, or Strategy Trade is marked QCC, it receives QCC billing treatment. The Exchange also...-related charges in the Fee Schedule, Marketing Charges will continue to apply to Electronic Complex Orders...

  7. 78 FR 79040 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Modify the Definition of ``System Securities'' in BX Rule 4751(b) December 20, 2013. Pursuant to Section... 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule...

  8. 77 FR 1543 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of a Proposal To Amend the Definition...-4(f)(6). I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance of the Proposed Rule... Rules of the Boston Options Exchange Group, LLC (``BOX'') to amend the definition of theoretical price...

  9. 78 FR 79039 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change to Modify the Definition of ``System Securities'' in PSX Rule 3301(b) December 20, 2013. Pursuant.... 78s(b)(1). \\2\\ 17 CFR 240.19b-4. I. Self-Regulatory Organization's Statement of the Terms of Substance...

  10. 75 FR 82109 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To... Notes and Broaden the Definition of ``Futures- Linked Securities'' December 21, 2010. Pursuant to... below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The Commission is publishing...

  11. 77 FR 5289 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Relating To Amend the Definition of Theoretical Price January 26, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) of the... by the self-regulatory organization. The Exchange filed the proposed rule change pursuant to Section...

  12. 78 FR 62928 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change Amending Rule 2-- Equities To Specify That the Definition of An Approved Person Does Not Include a... Indirectly Owns a Member Organization, Then the Member Organization Must Identify Such Governmental Entity to...

  13. 75 FR 80557 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change...-Traded Notes and Broaden the Definition of Futures Linked Securities December 15, 2010. Pursuant to... in Items I and II below, which Items have been prepared by the self-regulatory organization. The...

  14. Immediate Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching Programs Compared With Passive Stretching Programs for Hamstring Flexibility: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Kristian J; Robinson, Kendall P; Cuchna, Jennifer W; Hoch, Matthew C

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Increasing hamstring flexibility through clinical stretching interventions may be an effective means to prevent hamstring injuries. However the most effective method to increase hamstring flexibility has yet to be determined. For a healthy individual, are proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching programs more effective in immediately improving hamstring flexibility when compared with static stretching programs? Summary of Key Findings: A thorough literature search returned 195 possible studies; 5 studies met the inclusion criteria and were included. Current evidence supports the use of PNF stretching or static stretching programs for increasing hamstring flexibility. However, neither program demonstrated superior effectiveness when examining immediate increases in hamstring flexibility. Clinical Bottom Line: There were consistent findings from multiple low-quality studies that indicate there is no difference in the immediate improvements in hamstring flexibility when comparing PNF stretching programs to static stretching programs in physically active adults. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that PNF and static stretching programs equally increase hamstring flexibility immediately following the stretching program.

  15. 77 FR 35437 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... option fails to achieve greater than 200 Average National Daily Customer Contracts. For these reasons...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE MKT LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change... (``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which Items have been...

  16. 78 FR 9961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION [Release No. 34-68840; File No. SR-BX-2013-008] Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Add Routing Functionality to the NASDAQ OMX BX Equities Market February 6, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1...

  17. 75 FR 7528 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To... Influence Market Prices, Other than Paid Advertising); and 9810 (Initiation of Proceeding) to reflect recent... (Payment Designed to Influence Market Prices, Other than Paid Advertising); and 9810 (Initiation of...

  18. Immediate effect of a wrist and thumb brace on bimanual activities in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwers, Annoek; Meester-Delver, Anke; Folmer, Katinka; Nollet, Frans; Beelen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    AIM The aim of this study was to determine the immediate effect of wearing a wrist and thumb brace on the performance of bimanual activities in children with spastic hemiplegic cerebral palsy. METHOD In a pre- and post-test cohort study of 25 children (age range 4-11y; mean age 8y 4mo [SD 2y 2mo];

  19. 77 FR 30574 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... place at a price that is below $1 per option contract until May 31, 2013. The text of the proposed rule...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Option Contract Until May 31, 2013 May 17, 2012. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities...

  20. 77 FR 35462 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... the rule change is to correct Schedule 502 of the ICC Rules, which lists all the Contract Reference... extent applicable, derivative agreements, contracts and transactions. ICC believes that the proposed rule... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To...

  1. 77 FR 65039 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Schedule 502 of the ICC Rules To Update the Contract Reference Obligation ISINs Associated With... of, and Statutory Basis for, the Proposed Rule Change ICC is updating the Contract Reference...

  2. 78 FR 77536 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Option Contract Until January 5, 2015 December 17, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act'') \\2\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is hereby given that...

  3. 78 FR 34679 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-10

    ...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule... Option Contract Until January 5, 2014 June 4, 2013. Pursuant to Section 19(b)(1) \\1\\ of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the ``Act'') \\2\\ and Rule 19b-4 thereunder,\\3\\ notice is hereby given that, on May 24...

  4. 75 FR 14217 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... price that is below $1 per option contract. The text of the proposed rule change is attached as Exhibit... option contract. The purpose of this rule change is to temporarily amend the procedures through July 1...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  5. 76 FR 812 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...] Exchange Rule 1059 to allow cabinet trading to take place below $1 per option contract. The text of the... excess of $1.00 per contract. 2. Statutory Basis The Exchange believes the proposed rule change is...-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX PHLX LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

  6. 77 FR 73103 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    ... Organizations; ICE Clear Credit LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change To Amend Schedule 502 of the ICC Rules To Update the Contract Reference Obligation ISIN Associated With One... Change The purpose of the proposed rule change is to update the Contract Reference Obligation...

  7. 77 FR 30572 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... price that is below $1 per option contract until May 31, 2013. The text of the proposed rule change is... contract in any options series open for trading in the Exchange, except that the Rule is not applicable to...-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule Change...

  8. Immediate and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Proença

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: The efficiency of mucociliary transport may vary in different conditions, such as in exposure to harmful particles of the cigarette smoke. The present study evaluated the acute and short term effects of smoking on nasal mucociliary clearance in current smokers by the quantification of the Saccharin Transit Time (STT, and to investigate its correlation with the history of tobacco consumption. Methods: Nineteen current smokers (11 men, 51 ± 16 years; BMI 23 ± 9 kg/m2, 27 ± 11 cigarettes per day, 44 ± 25 pack-years, entering a smoking cessation intervention program, responded to a questionnaire concerning smoking history and were submitted to lung function assessment (spirometry and the STT test. STT was assessed immediately after smoking and 8 hours after smoking. The STT test was also performed in nineteen matched healthy non-smokers’ who served as control group. Results: When compared to STT in non-smokers’ (10 ± 4 min; mean ± standard deviation, smokers presented similar STT immediately after smoking (11 ± 6 min; p = 0.87 and slower STT 8 hours after smoking (16 ± 6 min; p = 0.005 versus non-smokers’ and p = 0.003 versus immediately after smoking. STT 8 hours after smoking correlated positively with age (r = 0.59; p = 0.007, cigarettes per day (r = 0.53; p = 0.02 and pack-years index (r = 0.74; p = 0.0003. Conclusions: In smokers, although the mucociliary clearance immediately after smoking is similar to non-smokers’, eight hours after smoking it is reduced, and this reduction is closely related to the smoking habits. Resumo: Introdução e objectivo: A eficiência do transporte mucociliar pode variar em diferentes condições, como na exposição a partículas nocivas do fumo do cigarro. O presente estudo avaliou os efeitos do cigarro

  9. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  10. Testing the associative-link hypothesis in immediate serial recall: Evidence from word frequency and word imageability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2007-08-01

    Two immediate serial recall experiments were conducted to test the associative-link hypothesis (Stuart & Hulme, 2000). We manipulated interitem association by varying the intralist latent semantic analysis (LSA) cosines in our 7-item study word lists, each of which consists of high- or low-frequency words in Experiment 1 and high- or low-imageability words in Experiment 2. Whether item recall performance was scored by a serial-recall or free-recall criterion, we found main effects of interitem association, word imageability, and word frequency. The effect of interitem association also interacted with the word frequency effect, but not with the word imageability effect. The LSA-cosinexword frequency interaction occurred in the recency, but not primacy, portion of the serial position curve. The present findings set explanatory boundaries for the associative-link hypothesis and we argue that both item- and associative-based mechanisms are necessary to account for the word frequency effect in immediate serial recall.

  11. Topical perfluorodecalin resolves immediate whitening reactions and allows rapid effective multiple pass treatment of tattoos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kavitha K; Brauer, Jeremy A; Anolik, Robert; Bernstein, Leonard; Brightman, Lori; Hale, Elizabeth; Karen, Julie; Weiss, Elliot; Geronemus, Roy G

    2013-02-01

    Laser tattoo removal using multiple passes per session, with each pass delivered after spontaneous resolution of whitening, improves tattoo fading in a 60-minute treatment time. Our objective was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical perfluorodecalin (PFD) in facilitating rapid effective multiple-pass tattoo removal. In a randomized, controlled study using Q-switched ruby or Nd:YAG laser, 22 previously treated tattoos were treated with 3 passes using PFD to resolve whitening after each pass ("R0 method"). In previously untreated symmetric tattoos, seven were treated over half of the tattoo with the R20 method, and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); two were treated over half with a single pass and the opposite half with 4 passes using PFD (R0 method); and six treated over half with a single pass followed by PFD and the opposite half with a single pass alone. Blinded dermatologists rated tattoo fading at 1-3 months. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of whitening was performed in two tattoos. Topical PFD clinically resolved immediate whitening reactions within a mean 5 seconds (range 3-10 seconds). Tattoos treated with the R0 method demonstrated excellent fading in an average total treatment time of 5 minutes. Tattoo areas treated with the R0 method demonstrated equal fading compared to the R20 method, and improved fading compared to a single pass method. OCT imaging of whitening demonstrated epidermal and dermal hyper-reflective "bubbles" that dissipated until absent at 9-10 minutes after PFD application, and at 20 minutes without intervention. Multiple-pass tattoo removal using PFD to deliver rapid sequential passes (R0 method) appears equally effective as the R20 method, in a total treatment time averaging 5 minutes, and more effective than single pass treatment. OCT-visualized whitening-associated "bubbles," upon treatment with PFD, resolve twice as rapidly as spontaneous resolution. Copyright © 2012 Wiley

  12. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF LOCALIZED VIBRATION ON HAMSTRING AND QUADRICEP MUSCLE PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabler, Geoff; Hopper, Kim; Kirk, David; McGregor, Cindy J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: A reduction in the maximal force output of muscles following pre-performance stretching has been reported. Several studies have suggested that localized vibration may enhance or replace stretching for gaining flexibility. It is important to know if localized vibration may also compromise muscle output. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the immediate effects of localized hamstring vibration on hamstrings (HAM) and quadriceps (QUAD) performance. Methods: Thirty asymptomatic participants, 19 female and 11 male, mean age 25.4 years (±SD 2.7) received either five minutes of localized vibration to the right hamstrings at 30 Hz and 6 mm amplitude, or sham. One week later, each participant received the alternate treatment. Following treatments, right (R) and left (L) isometric HAM and QUAD strength was measured twice by handheld dynamometer and maximal horizontal hop distance of each lower extremity was measured by single leg hop test (SLH). Treatment outcomes were compared using paired t-tests. Treatment order effect was measured by independent T-test. Pre-study intrarater reliability for dynamometry was established using ICC(3,2). Results: Mean (±SD) values for strength following vibration were 58.7 kg (15.7), 60.4 kg (14.0), 45.5 kg (14.2), 45.8 kg (13.2) for R QUAD, L QUAD, R HAM, L HAM respectively. SLH mean values were R SLH 153.8 cm (35 cm) and L SLH 155.4 cm (36 cm). There were no significant differences in means between vibration and sham treatment for any outcomes on either leg (p-values ranged .412-.971); p<.001 for all comparisons. Order had no significant effect (p-values .370–1.0). Intrarater ICCs were .888, .762, .884, .960 for R HAM, L HAM, R QUAD, L QUAD. Conclusions: Unilateral application of localized vibration to the hamstrings at a duration previously reported to increase flexibility did not diminish the isometric performance of the hamstrings or quadriceps of either leg. Level of Evidence: 1b PMID:22893858

  13. 77 FR 24742 - In the Matter of ABSG Consulting Inc. Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ...; 2. Directing ABSG's HR Manager of Employee Relations to draft an expanded anti-retaliation policy...) 50.7, ``Employee protection,'' involving a former ABSG employee who was terminated, in part, for... employees involved in its U.S. Nuclear Utilities Market Sector informing them of the Company's policy and...

  14. The Immediate and Delayed Effect of Dynamic Assessment on EFL Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajideh, Parviz; Nourdad, Nava

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic assessment rooted in sociolinguistic theory of Vygotsky has a long history in applied linguistics but has recently been the hot topic of EFL studies. The present study aimed at investigating the difference between applying dynamic and non-dynamic assessment of EFL reading comprehension ability and examining its immediate and delayed…

  15. The per-protocol effect of immediate vs. deferred ART initiation in the START randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Sharma, Shweta; Lundgren, Jens D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier...

  16. Effects of Immediate and Delayed Loading on Peri-Implant Trabecular Structures: A

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Yan; Van Dessel, Jeroen; LIANG, Xin; Depypere, Maarten; Zhong, Weijian; Ma, Guowu; LAMBRICHTS, Ivo; Maes, Frederik; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To develop a method for characterizing trabecular bone microarchitecture using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate trabecular bone changes after rehabilitation using immediate versus delayed implant protocols. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six mongrel dogs randomly received 27 titanium implants in the maxillary incisor or mandibular premolar areas, following one of four protocols: (1) normal extraction socket healing; (2) immedia...

  17. [Use of surgical staplers in proctocolectomy with ileal pouch. Effects on immediate results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesani, C; Pronio, A; De Milito, R; Narilli, P; D'Amato, A; Ribotta, G

    1992-04-01

    The immediate results of 37 restorative proctocolectomies are reported comparing morbidity of stapled vs manual procedures. The stapled technique is easier and faster but does not reduce the incidence of leakages and pelvic sepsis related to the ileal pouch. It seems, though, to be more useful in reducing the morbidity related to the ileoanal anastomosis.

  18. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part II: Empirical evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    How do dispersal policies affect labour market integration of refugee immigrants subjected to such policy? To investigate this, we estimate the effects of location characteristics and the average effect of geographical mobility on the hazard rate into first job of refugee immigrants subjected to ...

  19. Renewable fuels: Policy effectiveness and project risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leach, Andrew; Doucet, Joseph; Nickel, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of government policy on the risk profile of a small ethanol production facility. We derive four key results from a simulation model. First, we show that commodity price risk may discourage investment in a project, despite a positive expected rate of return. Second, we show that political uncertainty may have significant impacts on the risk profile of a project. Next, we show that using only production subsidies to attract investors is expensive, since the financial assistance is paid regardless of whether the plant is operating under positive or negative financial conditions. Finally, we show that a capital grant provides a valuable complement to a subsidy, because the grant reduces the amount of value investors must put at risk, and increases their leverage thereby enhancing returns, while the subsidy mitigates commodity price risk. Our results show that compared to a subsidy-only approach, a grant and subsidy combination provides an investment environment with similar downside protection and expected returns for less than 60% of the cost. Further, we show that the two policy tools combined yield a superior investment environment to that created by an equivalent or greater total investment deployed entirely in either of the policy tools without the other. - Research highlights: → We find that government policy may increase both project returns and risk. → We find a policy of capital grants combined with an output price support to be preferred. → Price supports alone will tend to reward those plants which need them the least.

  20. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies. Executive Summary [Russian Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Renewable energy can play a fundamental role in tackling climate change, environmental degradation and energy security. As these challenges have become ever more pressing, governments and markets are seeking innovative solutions. Yet, what are the key factors that will determine the success of renewable energy policies? How can current policies be improved to encourage greater deployment of renewables? What impact can more effective policies have on renewables’ share in the future global energy mix and how soon? Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies addresses these questions. Responding to the Gleneagles G8 call for a clean and secure energy future, it highlights key policy tools to fast-track renewables into the mainstream. This analysis illustrates good practices by applying the combined metrics of effectiveness and efficiency to renewable energy policies in the electricity, heating and transport sectors. It highlights significant barriers to accelerating renewables penetration, and argues that the great potential of renewables can be exploited much more rapidly and to a much larger extent if good practices are adopted. Carefully designed policy frameworks, customised to support technologies at differing stages of maturity, will deliver a strong portfolio of renewable energy technologies. Deploying Renewables: Principles for Effective Policies provides recommendations on key principles for policy design as a template for decision makers.

  1. Effective Management for National or Local Policy Objectives?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Søren; Skou, Mette; Beer, Frederikke

    This research considers the role of local policies and management in affecting street-level bureaucrats’ actions in implementing national policy mandates. The focus on sanctioning behavior by social workers provides a strong test of these effects, given that the behaviors are both visible and have...... consequential policy outcomes. We extend principal-agent theorizing to frame decisions by street-level bureaucrats as the result of a set of interlocking principal-agent chains that establish different information asymmetry problems. The setting is the implementation of a Danish welfare and employment policy...... workers with a better fit with the goals of the organization increases workers’ compliance with local policy goals, but only when these diverge from national ones! Increasing staff capacity and information provision have simpler effects in fostering more compliance with the national policy mandate among...

  2. The positive effect of immediate feedback on medical student education during the surgical clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Matthew S; Gusberg, Richard J; Kim, Anthony W

    2014-01-01

    Feedback from faculty to medical students is vital in medical education. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and educational benefits of a program that incorporates seeking immediate feedback by students from their faculty during the third-year medical student core surgery clerkship. Using a crossover model, students in the intervention group sought daily feedback from their faculty surgeons, whereas those in the nonfeedback comparison group did not seek feedback. These groups crossed over every 2 weeks for the 8 surgical weeks of their 12-week clerkship. Weekly surveys, using 7-point Likert scales, were used by the participating students and surgical faculty to measure outcomes. Among 53 potential students, 33 were enrolled. Students reported significantly more weekly immediate feedback sessions in the experimental group (1.21 vs 0.67, p = 0.002). Additionally, in the experimental group, there were significantly more occasions where faculty surgeons provided specific guidance as to how students could further their education (1.25 vs 0.83, p = 0.02). Although not significant, there were trends toward the experimental group reporting their faculty feedback to be more specific, sufficient, and including both more positive and negative feedback. There were no significant differences in student self-assessments or faculty assessments of knowledge and skills. Student participation was a major impediment to this study. Despite the challenges, there appear to be real educational gains associated with immediate feedback. The results suggest that an immediate feedback program can be implemented and may enhance the dialog in the student-faculty relationship. Further research could focus on improving student participation and the quality of attending faculty feedback. © 2013 Published by Association of Program Directors in Surgery on behalf of Association of Program Directors in Surgery.

  3. Brazilian Soybean Policy: The International Effects of Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Gary W. Williams; Robert L. Thompson

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the complex set of Brazilian soybean sector policies on the world soybean and products market. Brazilian policy makers have intended to encourage domestic crushing of soybeans and exports of processed rather than raw soybeans. Removal of the Brazilian policy set for the period 1960–78 is simulated with an econometric model of the world soybean market. The results indicate that the intervention objectives were not achieved. Moreover, the U.S. soybean industry...

  4. Effect of interim cement application on bond strength between resin cements and dentin: Immediate and delayed dentin sealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigagão, Vinícius C; Barreto, Luis F D; Gonçalves, Kellem A S; Amaral, Marina; Vitti, Rafael P; Neves, Ana C C; Silva-Concílio, Laís R

    2017-06-01

    Despite the advances in materials and techniques, adhesion to dentin is challenging because of the complex composition of dentin's mineral, organic, and fluid phases. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of 2 different resin cements (conventional and self-adhesive) with or without previous dentin sealing and the effect of interim cement. Forty-five molars were embedded into acrylic resin blocks and a flat dentin surface was exposed. Twenty teeth (n=5 per group) were treated with the conventional resin cement associated with etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive approaches, applied before (immediate dentin sealing) or after (delayed dentin sealing) the application/removal of interim cement. Another 25 teeth (n=5, per group) were treated with self-adhesive resin cement with (self-etch mode [immediate dentin sealing or delayed dentin sealing]) or without adhesive application. Furthermore, in the self-adhesive resin cement group, the application of polyacrylic acid for dentin etching before cementation was evaluated. Composite resin blocks were cemented onto flat, treated dentin surfaces, and the assemblies were sectioned into bar-shaped specimens for microtensile bond strength testing. The data were subjected to 1-way ANOVA followed by the post-hoc Tukey test (α=.05). The failure patterns were classified as cohesive, adhesive, or mixed. The application of adhesive before interim cement (immediate dental sealing) promoted the highest values of bond strength for both resin cements (Presin cement, polyacrylic acid-enhanced bond strength after the application of interim cement. The application of dental adhesive immediately after tooth preparation (immediate dentin sealing) and before the use of an interim cement promoted the highest values of bond strength to dentin with the resin cements tested. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesity prevention programs and policies: practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of feasibility and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Verity; McNeilly, Briohny; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2013-09-01

    The aims of this study were to map obesity prevention activity being implemented by government, non-government, and community-based organizations; to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of a range of evidence-based obesity prevention strategies; and to determine practitioner and policy-maker perceptions of preferred settings for obesity prevention strategies. This study involved a cross-sectional survey of 304 public health practitioners and policy-makers from government, non-government, and community organizations across Victoria, Australia. Participants reported their organizations' current obesity prevention programs and policies, their own perceptions of the feasibility and effectiveness of strategies to prevent obesity and their preferred settings for obesity prevention. Thirty-nine percent had an obesity prevention policy, and 92% were implementing obesity prevention programs. The most common programs focused on education, skill-building, and increasing access to healthy eating/physical activity opportunities. School curriculum-based initiatives, social support for physical activity, and family-based programs were considered the most effective strategies, whereas curriculum-based initiatives, active after-school programs, and providing access to and information about physical activity facilities were deemed the most feasible strategies. Schools were generally perceived as the most preferred setting for obesity prevention. Many organizations had obesity prevention programs, but far fewer had obesity prevention policies. Current strategies and those considered feasible and effective are often mismatched with the empirical literature. Systems to ensure better alignment between researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers, and identifying effective methods of translating empirical evidence into practice and policy are required. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  6. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniq...

  7. Promoting Effective Preschool Programs. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn; Zellman, Gail; Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This is one in a series of policy briefs on key education issues prepared by the RAND Corporation for the Obama administration. Preschool education plays an important role in increasing school readiness and closing achievement gaps for children at risk. However, access to high-quality preschool programs varies greatly. Therefore, policymakers…

  8. Fiscal Policy Reforms and Dynamic Laffer Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oudheusden, P.

    2010-01-01

    We examine the impact of fiscal policy reforms on the long-run government budget balance in a one-sector model of endogenous growth with factor income taxes, a tax on consumption, non-productive public goods expenditures, and a labour-leisure trade-off. In addition, we allow for different structures

  9. The Effectiveness of Dutch Municipal Recycling Policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Dijkgraaf (Elbert); R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The EU advocates a household waste recycling rate of more than 70%. Although the Netherlands already years ago invested in recycling policies heavily, this is still a large challenge as nowadays on average this rate is approximately 50% and nearly no municipalities

  10. Immediate effect of chandra nadi pranayama (left unilateral forced nostril breathing on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT. The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased

  11. Effect of Dutch waste policy on methane emissions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonk, J.

    1998-01-01

    For various reasons, Dutch waste policy has been dramatically changed in the last decade. Prevention of soil and groundwater pollution and a reduced occupation of the scarce space were important reasons for this change. An important effect of this policy is a reduction of the amount of organic

  12. Evolving An Effective Trade Policy Against Agricultural Subsidies Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The response of developing countries to this trend has been a weak and uncoordinated trade policy. They have been unable to effectively curtail the onslaught of dumping. This paper is an analysis of Nigeria's trade policy in tackling the issue of agricultural subsidies. This took the form of an in-depth assessment of the ...

  13. Effectiveness Of Foreign Direct Investment Policy In Nigeria (1986 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper dwells on an investigation of the effectiveness of foreign direct investment policy in Nigeria. Employing the ordinary least square regression technique, the null hypothesis of no significant relationship between foreign direct investment policy measures and foreign direct investment was tested. The null hypothesis ...

  14. The Relative Effectiveness of Monetary and Fiscal Policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Domestic Price Inflation taken as a proxy for price stabilization policy and the output stabilization function. These two equations were estimated and used to test the hypothesis on the relative effectiveness of monetary vis-à-vis fiscal policy. The model was an adaptation and subsequent modification of the St. Louis model ...

  15. Effect of delivery care user fee exemption policy on institutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To improve access to skilled attendance at delivery and thereby reduce maternal mortality, the Government of Ghana introduced a policy exempting all women attending health facilities from paying delivery care fees. Objective: To examine the effect of the exemption policy on delivery-related maternal mortality.

  16. Immediate and long-term effects of polysaccharides-based formulations on human skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Bueno de Camargo Junior

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new trend in cosmetic formulations is the use of biotechnological raw materials as the polysaccharides from Klebsiella pneumoniae, which are supposed to enhance cell renewal, improve skin hydration and micro-relief. Botanical extracts of Myrtus communis leaves contain different sugars, which may provide the same benefits. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate through objective and subjective analysis the immediate and long-term effects of cosmetic formulations containing polysaccharides biotechnologically-originated and / or the ones contained in Myrtus communis extracts. Three polysaccharide-based and placebo formulations were applied on the forearm skin of 40 volunteers. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL, viscoelasticity and skin micro-relief measurements were made before and 2 hours after a single application and after 15 and 30 day-periods of daily applications. Answers to a questionnaire about perceptions of formulation cosmetic features constituted the subjective analysis. All polysaccharide-based formulations enhanced skin hydration. Formulations with isolated or combined active substances improved skin barrier function as compared to placebo, in the short and long term studies. Formulations containing Myrtus communis extracts had the highest acceptance. Results suggest that daily use of formulations containing these substances is important for protection of the skin barrier function.Uma nova tendência em formulações cosméticas é a utilização de matérias-primas biotecnológicas como os polissacarídeos de Klebsiella pneumoniae, que pode aumentar a renovação celular e melhor a hidratação e micro-relevo da pele. Por outro lado, o extrato vegetal de Myrtus communis contém diferentes polissacarídeos, que também podem proporcionar benefícios à pele. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi a avaliação dos efeitos imediatos e em longo prazo, de formulações cosméticas contendo polissacarídeos obtidos por

  17. Eye movements reveal no immediate "WOW" ("which one's weird") effect in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Castelhano, Monica S; Au-Yeung, Sheena K; Rayner, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developed (TD) adult participants viewed pairs of scenes for a simple "spot the difference" (STD) and a complex "which one's weird" (WOW) task. There were no group differences in the STD task. In the WOW task, the ASD group took longer to respond manually and to begin fixating the target "weird" region. Additionally, as indexed by the first-fixation duration into the target region, the ASD group failed to "pick up" immediately on what was "weird". The findings are discussed with reference to the complex information processing theory of ASD (Minshew & Goldstein, 1998 ).

  18. Comparative clinical study of the effect of LLLT in the immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia due to surgical procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladalardo, Thereza C.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Castanho Garrini, Ana E.; Bologna, Elisangela D.; Takamoto, Marcia; Siqueira, Jose T.; Dias, Pedro; Campos, Roberto A. d. C.

    2002-06-01

    We evaluated the effect of LLLT in 68 patients who presented hypoesthesia due to odontological surgery procedures: dental implant surgeries (N=51); extraction of impacted lower third molars (N=10); endodontics in lower first molars (N=7). Lesions treated within 30 days after the nerve injury had occurred were part of the immediate group, and lesions with more than 30 days from the occurrence of the injury were part of the late group. Treatments were carried out with an infrared diode laser of 40 mW-830nm, continuous wave emission, spot size 3 mm2, and a total dosage of 18 joules per session in a contact mode of application, 20 sessions altogether. The efficacy of laser therapy in peripheral nerve regeneration is also related to the degree of the peripheral nerve lesion, and not only to the lesion duration. LLLT resulted in neurosensory functional improvement in both immediate and late treatments of hypoesthesia.

  19. 76 FR 72989 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... section replaces a Policy currently on the OPRA Web site that, although it is entitled ``Auditing... invoices for ``Professional Subscriber Device-based Fees'' that it sends directly to these Professional Subscribers. The Professional Subscribers to which the Vendor distributes OPRA data and for whose access it...

  20. 75 FR 49544 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... protected Web site, which provides members an electronic copy of current and historical invoices, as well as...'') participant transactions; (ii) specify certain policies to dispute billing invoices; and (iii) amend the index... Exchange will not make any adjustments to billing invoices where JBO transactions are commingled with other...

  1. Effectiveness of Botswana's policy on rural electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketlogetswe, C.; Mothudi, T.H.; Mothibi, J.

    2007-01-01

    Rural areas, the world over, are characterised by low levels of connectivity to electrical energy, despite the fact that electricity has been universally acknowledged as one of the most important propellant for community and national development. Botswana is not immune to this trend. Consequently, available evidence puts the overall level of electrical connectivity in Botswana rural areas to just 12%. A plethora of factors are responsible for inhibiting high levels of access to electrical energy by rural communities. Some major impediments often cited as causing ineffective energy provision to rural-based communities include, among others, the following: (a)geographical set-ups of the concerned communities; (b)inappropriately conceived energy policies; (c)low-income status of most rural inhabitants. This paper, therefore, examines Botswana's policy on energy supply with the view to confirm or deny any correlation between the above factors and the low-levels of electrical connectivity in the country's rural communities, as well as many others that may have impacted on this state of affairs. The policy is evaluated by undertaking a comparative study of its implementation on two seemingly geographical contrasting rural communities within the country

  2. The effects of China's universal two-child policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yi; Hesketh, Therese

    2016-10-15

    In October, 2015, China's one-child policy was replaced by a universal two-child policy. The effects of the new policy are inevitably speculative, but predictions can be made based on recent trends. The population increase will be relatively small, peaking at 1·45 billion in 2029 (compared with a peak of 1·4 billion in 2023 if the one-child policy continued). The new policy will allow almost all Chinese people to have their preferred number of children. The benefits of the new policy include: a large reduction in abortions of unapproved pregnancies, virtual elimination of the problem of unregistered children, and a more normal sex ratio. All of these effects should improve health outcomes. Effects of the new policy on the shrinking workforce and rapid population ageing will not be evident for two decades. In the meantime, more sound policy actions are needed to meet the social, health, and care needs of the elderly population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Immediate effects of the semi-occluded vocal tract exercise with LaxVox® tube in singers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadel, Congeta Bruniere Xavier; Dassie-Leite, Ana Paula; Santos, Rosane Sampaio; Santos, Celso Gonçalves Dos; Dias, Cláudio Antônio Sorondo; Sartori, Denise Jussara

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the immediate effects of the semi-occluded vocal tract exercise (SOVTE) using the LaxVox® tube in singers. Participants were 23 singers, classical singing students, aged 18 to 47 years (mean age = 27.2 years). First, data was collected through the application of a demographic questionnaire and the recording of sustained emission - vowel /ε/, counting 1-10, and a music section from the participants' current repertoire. After that, the participants were instructed and performed the SOVTE using the LaxVox® tube for three minutes. Finally, the same vocal samples were collected immediately after SOVTE performance and the singers responded to a questionnaire on their perception regarding vocal changes after the exercise. The vocal samples were analyzed by referees (speech-language pathologists and singing teachers) and by means of acoustic analysis. Most of the singers reported improved voice post-exercise in both tasks - speech and singing. Regarding the perceptual assessment (sustained vowel, speech, and singing), the referees found no difference between pre- and post-exercise emissions. The acoustic analysis of the sustained vowel showed increased Fundamental Frequency (F0) and reduction of the Glottal to Noise Excitation (GNE) ratio post-exercise. The semi-occluded vocal tract exercise with LaxVox® tube promotes immediate positive effects on the self-assessment and acoustic analysis of voice in professional singers without vocal complains. No immediate significant changes were observed with respect to auditory-perceptual evaluation of speech and singing.

  4. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF CERVICAL MANIPULATION ON PAIN AND RANGE OF MOTION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Isah Mayana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain has been reported as a prevalent musculoskeletal disorder globally with more than half of the general population being affected once or more within their life span. Methods: A randomized clinical trial research design was used which investigated the immediate effect of cervical manipulation on neck pain and cervical range of motion among patients with chronic mechanical neck pain. 20 male and female participants between the ages of 26 to 60 years with chronic mechanical neck pain attending physiotherapy clinics were recruited. They were randomly assigned into two groups (A and B of 10 patients each. Group A received soft tissue massage, and cervical manipulation and group B served as the control group, and they received only soft tissue massage. There were two outcomes measured; Pain intensity was rated using visual analog scale (VAS before and immediately after the intervention. Pre and Post intervention measurements of cervical spine range of motion using Goniometer were also taken. Results: Findings of the study revealed significant immediate improvement of pain and Cervical Range of Motions (p<0.05 in all dimensions in the experimental group while Pain, flexion and right side Cervical flexion significantly improved in the control group. It was also found out after comparing the outcomes between the two groups that, the experimental group had significantly (p<0.05 better improvement than the control group in post-intervention pain, cervical flexion, cervical extension and cervical (right and left lateral rotations. Conclusion: Cervical manipulation is effective in immediate pain relief and improvement in cervical range of motion in patients with mechanical neck pain

  5. Welfare effects of deterrence-motivated activation policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin

    We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self-select i......We investigate whether activation policy is part of optimal policy of a benevolent government, when the motivation for introducing activation is to deter some people from collecting benefits. The government offers a pure benefit programme and an activation programme, and individuals self......-select into programmes. Individuals differ with respect to disutility and wage. Activation programmes are relatively costly and favour individuals who are relatively well off. Hence, for activation policy to used, labour supply effects have to be relatively small. We discuss how labour supply effects depend...

  6. Immediate effects of scalp acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation on hemiplegia following acute ischemic stroke: a hidden association study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-zheng Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Data mining has the potential to provide information for improving clinical acupuncture strategies by uncovering hidden rules between acupuncture manipulation and therapeutic effects in a data set. In this study, we performed acupuncture on 30 patients with hemiplegia due to acute ischemic stroke. All participants were pre-screened to ensure that they exhibited immediate responses to acupuncture. We used a twirling reinforcing acupuncture manipulation at the specific lines between the bilateral Baihui (GV20 and Taiyang (EX-HN5. We collected neurologic deficit score, simplified Fugl-Meyer assessment score, muscle strength of the proximal and distal hemiplegic limbs, ratio of the maximal H-reflex to the maximal M-wave (H max /M max , muscle tension at baseline and immediately after treatment, and the syndromes of traditional Chinese medicine at baseline. We then conducted data mining using an association algorithm and an artificial neural network backpropagation algorithm. We found that the twirling reinforcing manipulation had no obvious therapeutic difference in traditional Chinese medicine syndromes of "Deficiency and Excess". The change in the muscle strength of the upper distal and lower proximal limbs was one of the main factors affecting the immediate change in Fugl-Meyer scores. Additionally, we found a positive correlation between the muscle tension change of the upper limb and H max /M max immediate change, and both positive and negative correlations existed between the muscle tension change of the lower limb and immediate H max /M max change. Additionally, when the difference value of muscle tension for the upper and lower limbs was > 0 or < 0, the difference value of H max /M max was correspondingly positive or negative, indicating the scalp acupuncture has a bidirectional effect on muscle tension in hemiplegic limbs. Therefore, acupuncture with twirling reinforcing manipulation has distinct effects on acute ischemic stroke patients

  7. HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients and Other...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — According to findings reported in HAC-POA Policy Effects on Hospitals, Patients, and Other Payers, published in Volume 4, Issue 3 of the Medicare and Medicaid...

  8. Did capital market convergence lower the effectiveness of monetary policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    International capital market convergence reduces the ability for monetary authorities to set domestic monetary conditions. Traditionally, monetary policy transmission is channelled through the short-term interest rate. Savings and investment decisions are effected through the response of the bond

  9. Immediate Effects of the Vocal Function Exercises Semi-Occluded Mouth Posture on Glottal Airflow Parameters: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croake, Daniel J; Andreatta, Richard D; Stemple, Joseph C

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to quantify immediate alterations in the airflow glottogram between the Vocal Function Exercises semi-occluded mouth posture (/ol/ with lip buzz) and the sustained vowel /o/ in individuals with normal voices, and to determine if noted changes were in agreement with established semi-occluded vocal tract aerodynamic theory. Based on semi-occluded vocal tract aerodynamic theory, we hypothesized the following immediate changes in the flow glottogram during the /ol-buzz/ condition: a greater open quotient, a greater skewing quotient, a greater maximum flow declination rate, increased average airflow, decreased peak airflow, and increased minimum airflow. A cohort of eight men with normal voices produced the sustained vowel /o/ and the Vocal Function Exercises semi-occluded mouth posture (/ol-buzz/). Flow glottograms for both conditions were obtained from the inverse-filtered oral airflow signal via a circumferentially vented pneumotachograph mask. Data revealed that open quotient and minimum airflow rates increased significantly between conditions. All other measures trended in the directions predicted by aerodynamic theory, but were not statistically significant. The Vocal Function Exercises semi-occluded mouth posture appeared to provide an effective vocal tract semi-occlusion that immediately altered the flow glottogram in accordance with predictions made by computer-modeled aerodynamic theory. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of macroprudential policies in Central and Eastern European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Dumicic

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends the available datasets on the use of macroprudential policies in CEE countries, and provides an econometric assessment of the effectiveness of these policies in mitigating financial stability risks associated with excessive credit growth before the global financial crisis. The model results imply that macroprudential policies were more effective in slowing credit to households than credit to the non-financial corporate sector, mainly because the latter had access to nonbank and cross-border credit in addition to domestic bank credit.

  11. Effectiveness of immediate bonding of etch-and-rinse adhesives to simplified ethanol-saturated dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Afonso Guimarães

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the immediate bond strength of etch-and-rinse adhesives to demineralized dentin saturated with either water or absolute ethanol. The research hypothesis was that there would be no difference in bond strength to dentin between water or ethanol wet-bonding techniques. The medium dentin of 20 third molars was exposed (n = 5. The dentin surface was then acid-etched, left moist and randomly assigned to be saturated via either water wet-bonding (WBT or absolute ethanol wet-bonding (EBT. The specimens were then treated with one of the following etch-and-rinse adhesive systems: a 3-step, water-based system (Adper Scotchbond Multipurpose, or SBMP or a 2-step, ethanol/water-based system (Adper Single Bond 2, or SB. Resin composite build-ups were then incrementally constructed. After water storage for 24 h at 37°C, the tensile strength of the specimens was tested in a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a = 5%. The failure modes were verified using a stereomicroscope (40'. For both adhesives, no significant difference in bond strength was observed between WBT and EBT (p > 0.05. The highest bond strength was observed for SB, regardless of the bonding technique (p < 0.05. No significant interaction between adhesives and bonding techniques was noticed (p = 0.597. There was a predominance of adhesive failures for all tested groups. The EBT and WBT displayed similar immediate bond strength means for both adhesives. The SB adhesive exhibited higher means for all conditions tested. Further investigations are needed to evaluate long-term bonding to dentin mediated by commercial etch-and-rinse adhesives using the EBT approach.

  12. Immediate effects of a single session of robot-assisted gait training using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL) for cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Mayumi; Mataki, Yuki; Mutsuzaki, Hirotaka; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Takahashi, Kazushi; Enomoto, Keiko; Sano, Kumiko; Mizukami, Masafumi; Tomita, Kazuhide; Ohguro, Haruka; Iwasaki, Nobuaki

    2018-02-01

    [Purpose] Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) using Hybrid Assistive Limb (HAL, CYBERDYNE) was previously reported beneficial for stroke and spinal cord injury patients. Here, we investigate the immediate effect of a single session of RAGT using HAL on gait function for cerebral palsy (CP) patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients (average age: 16.2 ± 7.3 years) with CP received a single session of RAGT using HAL. Gait speed, step length, cadence, single-leg support per gait cycle, hip and knee joint angle in stance, and swing phase per gait cycle were assessed before, during, and immediately after HAL intervention. [Results] Compared to baseline values, single-leg support per gait cycle (64.5 ± 15.8% to 69.3 ± 12.1%), hip extension angle in mid-stance (149.2 ± 19.0° to 155.5 ± 20.1°), and knee extension angle in mid-stance (137.6 ± 20.2° to 143.1 ± 19.5°) were significantly increased immediately after intervention. Further, the knee flexion angle in mid-swing was significantly decreased immediately after treatment (112.0 ± 15.5° to 105.2 ± 17.1°). Hip flexion angle in mid-swing also decreased following intervention (137.2 ± 14.6° to 129.7 ± 16.6°), but not significantly. Conversely, gait speed, step length, and cadence were unchanged after intervention. [Conclusion] A single-time RAGT with HAL improved single-leg support per gait cycle and hip and knee joint angle during gait, therapeutically improving gait function in CP patients.

  13. Immediate pain relief effect of low level laser therapy for sports injuries: Randomized, double-blind placebo clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenori, A; Ikuhiro, M; Shogo, U; Hiroe, K; Junji, S; Yasutaka, T; Hiroya, K; Miki, N

    2016-12-01

    To determine the immediate pain relief effect of low-level laser therapy on sports injuries in athletes and degree of pain relief by the therapy. Double-blind, randomized, comparative clinical study. Participants were 32 college athletes with motion pain at a defined site. Participants were randomized into two groups in which the tested or placebo laser therapy was administered to determine pain intensity from painful action before and after laser irradiation, using the Modified Numerical Rating Scale. The post-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score was subtracted from the pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale score to determine pain intensity difference, and the rate of pain intensity difference to pre-therapeutic Modified Numerical Rating Scale was calculated as pain relief rate. Low-level laser therapy was effective in 75% of the laser group, whereas it was not effective in the placebo group, indicating a significant difference in favor of the laser group (pPain relief rate was significantly higher in the laser group than in the placebo group (36.94% vs. 8.20%, respectively, ppain relief rate being 28.74%. Low-level laser therapy provided an immediate pain relief effect, reducing pain by 28.74%. It was effective for pain relief in 75% of participants. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE EFFECTS OF REGIONAL POLICIES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oțil (Beţa Maria - Daniela

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available If we were to consider that Romania was formed by the unification of provinces that experienced a strong unity through culture, language, religion, as well as through the intense trade relations existing between them over time, we may say that our country has an important historical experience regarding regionalisation. After 1989, Romania underwent a radical change of economic and political organisation (from a centralised economy to a free, market economy and the approximation to the Western economic structures, the European Union (EU. Under these conditions the national authorities had to take into account the principles and the organisation and functioning of the European capitalist economies. During the communist period, Romania had an administrative-territorial and economic organisation that favoured centralised decision making. In the case of market economies, organisation allows and encourages the decentralisation of decision making. In the mid '90s, the economic and social realities of Romania lead to the achieving of the regionalisation of the national territory in accordance with the subsidiarity principle of the EU. Regionalisation sought to identify the most appropriate spatial and territorial framework for guiding the economic development processes, by facilitating the use of tools and resources provided by the European Union. The regional development policy is a continuation of the policies of national economic growth and development, both aiming at improving the economic and social life of the national communities. The final aim of this paper is to identify the economic and social situation of the development regions in Romania. The study provides insight into Romania's relations with the European Union, with regard to the access and use of the pre-accession European funds. Furthermore, the paper achieves a qualitative analysis, through a positive approach, but also a quantitative one of the economic and social situation of each

  15. Evaluation of energy efficiency policy instruments effectiveness : case study Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukarica, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a theoretical basis for evaluating energy efficiency policy in the Republic of Croatia and corroborated it with the analysis of energy efficiency market development and transformation. The current status of the market was evaluated and policy instruments were adapted to achieve optimal results. In particular, the energy efficiency market in Croatia was discussed in terms of micro and macro environment factors that influence policy making processes and the choice of policy instruments. The macro environment for energy efficiency market in Croatia is the process of European Union pre-integration with all related national and international legislation, political and economical factors and potential to use financial funds. The micro environment consists of government institutions, local financing institutions and a range of market players on the supply and demand side. Energy efficiency is the most powerful and cost-effective way for achieving goals of sustainable development. Policy instruments developed to improve energy efficiency are oriented towards a cleaner environment, better standard of living, more competitive industry and improved security of energy supply. Energy efficiency is much harder to implement and requires policy interventions. In response to recent trends in the energy sector, such as deregulation and open competition, policy measures aimed at improving energy efficiency should shift from an end-users oriented approach towards a whole market approach. The optimal policy instruments mix should be designed to meet defined targets. However, market dynamics must be taken into consideration. 9 refs., 4 figs

  16. Ancillary effects of selected acid deposition control policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, R.J.; Lyke, A.J.; Nesse, R.J.

    1986-08-01

    NAPAP is examining a number of potential ways to reduce the precursors (sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) to acid deposition. However, the policies to reduce acid deposition will have other physical, biological and economic effects unrelated to acid deposition. For example, control policies that reduce sulfur dioxide emissions may also increase visibility. The effects of an acid deposition policy that are unrelated to acid deposition are referred to as ''ancillary'' effects. This reserch identifies and characterizes the principle physical and economic ancillary effects associated with acid deposition control and mitigation policies. In this study the ancillary benefits associated with four specific acid deposition policy options were investigated. The four policy options investigated are: (1) flue gas desulfurization, (2) coal blending or switching, (3) reductions in automobile emissions of NO/sub x/, and (4) lake liming. Potential ancillary benefits of each option were identified and characterized. Particular attention was paid to the literature on economic valuation of potential ancillary effects.

  17. [The policies of structural adjustment and population policies and their effect on demographic aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, C

    1998-01-01

    This work argues that policies derived from the structural adjustment programs imposed upon Mexico by international financial institutions will have devastating effects on the living conditions of the elderly. The spread of poverty and the disappearance of social security systems based on the principal of generational solidarity affect ever larger proportions of the aged. Lack of pensions and of employment opportunities sentence many to misery in their last years. Because of demographic aging resulting from reduced fertility and mortality levels, the elderly will comprise an increasing share of the population. The change is particularly significant for women, who most often care for the elderly and whose greater survival at a time of smaller families will lead many to live alone in poverty. Social security reforms produced by the adjustment leave increasing proportions of women unprotected, despite their earlier economic activity. It is evident that the differential effects of aging on men and women are another reflection of gender inequity, exacerbated by adjustment policies. Public actions to confront the problems of older adults should be part of a population policy contained within an integrated social policy. It remains to be seen whether a model featuring reduced state action will be capable of explicit policies and concrete programs to protect the elderly.

  18. Self-control and the Effects of Movie Alcohol Portrayals on Immediate Alcohol Consumption in Male College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renske eKoordeman

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: In movies alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals.Methods: A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30 watched a 1-hour movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Results: Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Conclusion: Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  19. Self-control and the effects of movie alcohol portrayals on immediate alcohol consumption in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koordeman, Renske; Anschutz, Doeschka J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    In movies, alcohol-related cues are frequently depicted and there is evidence for a link between movie alcohol cues and immediate alcohol consumption. Less is known about factors influencing immediate effects movie alcohol exposure on drinking. The exertion of self-control is thought to be important in avoiding or resisting certain temptations. The aim of the present study was to assess the immediate effects of movie alcohol portrayals on drinking of male social drinkers and to assess the moderating role of self-control in this relation. It was hypothesized that participants would drink more when exposed to movie alcohol portrayals and that especially participants with low self-control would be affected by these portrayals. A between-subjects design comparing two movie conditions (alcohol or no portrayal of alcohol) was used, in which 154 pairs of male friends (ages 18-30) watched a 1-h movie in a semi-naturalistic living room setting. Their alcohol consumption while watching was examined. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing self-control as well as their self-reported weekly alcohol use. A multivariate regression analysis was conducted to test the effects of movie condition on alcohol comsumption. Self-control moderated the relation between movie condition and alcohol consumption. Assignment to the alcohol movie condition increased alcohol consumption during the movie for males with high self-control but not for males with low self-control. Viewing a movie with alcohol portrayals can lead to higher alcohol consumption in a specific sample of young men while watching a movie.

  20. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  1. Immediate therapist self-disclosure bolsters the effect of brief integrative psychotherapy on psychiatric symptoms and the perceptions of therapists: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv-Beiman, Sharon; Keinan, Giora; Livneh, Elad; Malone, Patrick S; Shahar, Golan

    2017-09-01

    We report a first randomized clinical trial examining the effect of immediate and non-immediate therapist self-disclosure in the context of a brief integrative psychotherapy for mild to moderate distress. A total of 86 patients with mild to moderate forms of distress were randomly divided into three 12-session integrative psychotherapy conditions based primarily on [Hill, C. E. (2009). Helping skills: Facilitating, exploration, insight, and action (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.] three-stage model. Therapists trained in this treatment modality were instructed to use either immediate self-disclosure (expressing feelings towards the patient/treatment/therapeutic relationship) or non-immediate self-disclosure (expressing personal or factual information regarding the therapist's life outside the treatment). In the comparison condition, the therapists were instructed to refrain from self-disclosure altogether. Immediate therapist self-disclosure reduced psychiatric symptoms among patients with elevated pretreatment symptoms (as assessed by the Brief Symptoms Inventory) and bolstered a favorable perception of the therapist. Therapists in both the immediate and non-immediate self-disclosure group evaluated themselves more favorably than their counterparts in the non-disclosure group. Therapist self-disclosure, particularly of the immediate type, might enhance the effect of brief integrative treatment on psychiatric symptoms of high symptomatic patients and contribute to favorable perception of therapists.

  2. Do you mind if I vape? Immediate effects of electronic cigarettes on perfusion in buccal mucosal tissue--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuther, William J; Hale, Beverley; Matharu, Jas; Blythe, John N; Brennan, Peter A

    2016-04-01

    The association between smoking and postoperative complications is compounded in patients who have oral and maxillofacial operations by an additional local effect, and patients often continue to smoke after operation despite advice to stop. Recent studies have suggested that nicotine may reduce inflammation and improve angiogenesis, so topical application may be beneficial for smokers. The electronic cigarette is increasing in popularity and more patients ask whether they can vape after operation. We investigated the effect of electronic cigarettes (of which half contained nicotine and half did not) on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers immediately after vaping. Smokers were excluded as this was considered an additional variable in a small pilot study and our Trust has a no-smoking policy. After vaping for 5 minutes, capillary blood flow was measured in the buccal mucosa at 5-minute intervals using a laser Doppler probe, and the results were expressed as arbitrary perfusion units. There was a wide variation in results and a small but significant rise (p=0.008) as a result of nicotine vaping, but these fell to the same levels as before within 30 minutes. Electronic cigarettes may have an effect on blood flow to the oral mucosa, although further studies are needed to show whether they improve healing time after operation. Additional work is also needed to compare them with cigarettes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Differential immediate and sustained memory enhancing effects of alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonists and allosteric modulators in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; El-Sayed, Mona; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2011-01-01

    of repeated administration of α7 nAChR agonists. We further compare the effect of agonists to that of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), which do not induce upregulation of the α7 nAChR. Using the social discrimination test as a measure of short-term memory, we show that the α7 nAChR agonist A......The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a potential target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, ADHD and Alzheimer's disease. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulation of α7 nAChR levels underlies the enhanced and sustained procognitive effect......-582941 improves short-term memory immediately after repeated (7× daily), but not a single administration. The α7 nAChR PAMs PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 do not affect short-term memory immediately after a single or repeated administration. This demonstrates a fundamental difference in the behavioral effects...

  4. Immediate effect of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on hip adductor flexibility in female ballet dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Ercole C; Souza, Andréa C; Mello, Mônica L; Bacurau, Reury F P; Cabral, Leonardo F; Farinatti, Paulo T V

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the immediate effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on the flexibility of hip adductors in female ballet dancers. Forty-five subjects (age: 28.5 ± 8.0 years; minimum two years of ballet training) were randomly assigned to three groups: PNF (contract-release technique), Static, and Control. Subjects in the PNF and Static groups performed four sets of 30 second stretching with an interval of 30 seconds between sets. The control group stayed at rest for the same time spent by the PNF and Static groups during the stretching sessions. Maximal range of motion was measured before and immediately after the experimental and control protocols in all groups. The results indicated significant differences between pre- and post-stretching flexibility in both PNF and Static groups (p < 0.0001; effect size = 0.24 and 0.39, respectively), whereas no change was identified in the Control group (p = 0.265). However, no differences in post-exercise flexibility were found between PNF and Static groups (p = 0.235). It is concluded that static and PNF stretching methods provoked similar post-exercise acute effects on the maximal range of motion of hip adductors in highly flexible female ballet dancers.

  5. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise DalAva Augusto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n2p155 The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength.

  6. ARE PRICING POLICIES EFFECTIVE TO CHANGE CAR USE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geertje SCHUITEMA

    2007-01-01

    Results revealed that under pricing policies most people did not intend to change their car use. Pricing policies were relatively more effective when prices increased significantly. Especially visiting and shopping trips were affected, while commuting trips were hardly affected. Moreover, respondents were most likely to reduce their car use for short trips, which are an important source of CO2 emissions and local air pollution.

  7. Real effects of monetary policy in a world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Preston J. Miller; Richard M. Todd

    1992-01-01

    We present a 2-country model with heterogeneous agents in which changes in a country’s monetary policy affect real interest rates, relative prices of traded and nontraded goods and real exchange rates. Nontransitory real effects of monetary policy stem solely from a friction (country-specific reserve requirements) that generates separate demands for a country’s money and bonds. Without violating the classical assumptions of individual rationality and flexible prices, the model’s implications ...

  8. Policy Endogeneity and the Effects of Trade on the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent work on the implications of endogenous policy for the effects of trade on the environment and the sustainability of renewable resource stocks. A recognition that pollution policy is endogenous has had a major impact on the trade and environment literature and has reversed some of the previously established empirical findings. Work on pollution has proceeded faster than work on renewable resources. I suggest some directions for future work in this area.

  9. Subcutaneous insulin infusion: change in basal infusion rate has no immediate effect on insulin absorption rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrandt, P.; Birch, K.; Jensen, B.M.; Kuehl, C.

    1986-01-01

    Eight insulin-dependent diabetic patients were simultaneously given subcutaneous infusions (1.12 IU/h each) of 125 I-labeled Actrapid insulin in each side of the abdominal wall. After 24 h of infusion, the size of the infused insulin depots was measured by external counting for 5 h. The basal infusion rate was then doubled in one side and halved in the other for the next 4 h. Finally, 1.12 IU/h of insulin was given in both sides of the abdominal wall for an additional 3 h. The changes in the size of the depots were measured, and the absorption rates for each hour were calculated. During the first 5 h of infusion, the depot size was almost constant (approximately 5 IU) with an absorption rate that equaled the infusion rate. Doubling the infusion rate led to a significant increase in depot size, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h, and only thereafter was a significant increase seen. When the infusion rate was reduced to the initial 1.12 IU/h, the absorption rate remained elevated during the next 3 h. Correspondingly, when the infusion rate was decreased, the depot size also decreased, but the absorption rate remained unchanged for the first 3 h. The results show that a change in the basal insulin infusion rate does not lead to any immediate change in the insulin absorption rate. This should be considered when planning an insulin-infusion program that includes alteration(s) in the basal-rate setting

  10. The market and environmental effects of alternative biofuel policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Dusan

    This dissertation analyzes market and environmental effects of alternative U.S. and Brazilian biofuel policies. Although we focus on corn- and sugarcane-ethanol, the advanced analytical framework can easily be extended to other biofuels and biofuel feedstocks, such as biodiesel and soybean. The dissertation consists of three chapters. The first chapter develops an analytical framework to assess the market effects of a set of biofuel policies (including subsidies to feedstocks). U.S. corn-ethanol policies are used as an example to study the effects of biofuel policies on corn prices. We determine the 'no policy' ethanol price, analyze the implications for the 'no policy' corn price and resulting 'water' in the ethanol price premium due to the policy, and generalize the surprising interaction effects between mandates and tax credits to include ethanol and corn production subsidies. The effect of an ethanol price premium depends on the value of the ethanol co-product, the value of production subsidies, and how the world ethanol price is determined. U.S. corn-ethanol policies are shown to be a major reason for recent rises in corn prices. The ethanol policy-induced increase in corn prices is estimated to be 33 -- 46.5 percent in the period 2008 -- 2011. The second chapter seeks to answer the question of what caused the significant increase in ethanol, sugar, and sugarcane prices in Brazil in the period 2010/11 to 2011/12. We develop a general economic model of the Brazilian fuel-ethanol-sugar complex. Unlike biofuel mandates and tax exemptions elsewhere, Brazil's fuel-ethanol-sugar markets and fuel policies are unique in that each policy, in this setting, theoretically has an ambiguous impact on the market price of ethanol and hence on sugarcane and sugar prices. Our empirical analysis shows that there are two policies that seemingly help the ethanol industry but do otherwise in reality: a low gasoline tax and a high anhydrous tax exemption result in lower ethanol

  11. EFFECT OF IMMEDIATE AND DELAYED COLD WATER IMMERSION AFTER A HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE SESSION ON SUBSEQUENT RUN PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ned Brophy-Williams

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the effects of cold water immersion (CWI performed immediately or 3 h after a high intensity interval exercise session (HIIS on next-day exercise performance. Eight male athletes performed three HIIS at 90%VO2max velocity followed by either a passive recovery (CON, CWI performed immediately post-exercise (CWI(0 or CWI performed 3 h post-exercise (CWI(3. Recovery trials were performed in a counter balanced manner. Participants then returned 24 h later and completed a muscle soreness and a totally quality recovery perception (TQRP questionnaire, which was then followed by the Yoyo Intermittent Recovery Test [level 1] (YRT. Venous blood samples were collected pre-HIIS and pre-YRT to determine C-Reactive Protein (CRP levels. Significantly more shuttles were performed during the YRT following CWI(0 compared to the CON trial (p=0.017, ES = 0. 8, while differences between the CWI(3 and the CON trials approached significance (p = 0.058, ES = 0.5. Performance on the YRT between the CWI(0 and CWI(3 trials were similar (p = 0.147, ES = 0. 3. Qualitative analyses demonstrated a 98% and 92% likely beneficial effect of CWI(0 and CWI(3 on next day performance, compared to CON, respectively, while CWI(0 resulted in a 79% likely benefit when compared to CWI(3. CRP values were significantly lower pre-YRT, compared to baseline, following CWI(0 (p = 0.0.36 and CWI(3 (p = 0.045, but were similar for CON (p = 0.157. Muscle soreness scores were similar between trials (p = 1.10, while TQRP scores were significantly lower for CON compared to CWI(0 (p = 0.002 and CWI(3 (p = 0.024. Immediate CWI resulted in superior next-day YRT performance compared to CON, while delayed (3 h CWI was also likely to be beneficial. Qualitative analyses suggested that CWI(0 resulted in better performance than CWI(3. These results are important for athletes who do not have immediate access to CWI following exercise

  12. Redistribution effects of energy and climate policy: The electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, Lion; Ueckerdt, Falko

    2013-01-01

    Energy and climate policies are usually seen as measures to internalize externalities. However, as a side effect, the introduction of these policies redistributes wealth between consumers and producers, and within these groups. While redistribution is seldom the focus of the academic literature in energy economics, it plays a central role in public debates and policy decisions. This paper compares the distributional effects of two major electricity policies: support schemes for renewable energy sources, and CO 2 pricing. We find that the redistribution effects of both policies are large, and they work in opposed directions. While renewables support transfers wealth from producers to consumers, carbon pricing does the opposite. More specifically, we show that moderate amounts of wind subsidies can increase consumer surplus, even if consumers bear the subsidy costs. CO 2 pricing, in contrast, increases aggregated producer surplus, even without free allocation of emission allowances; however, not all types of producers benefit. These findings are derived from an analytical model of electricity markets, and a calibrated numerical model of Northwestern Europe. Our findings imply that if policy makers want to avoid large redistribution they might prefer a mix of policies, even if CO 2 pricing alone is the first-best climate policy in terms of allocative efficiency. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •CO 2 pricing and renewables support have strikingly different impacts on rents. •Carbon pricing increases producer surplus and decreases consumer surplus. •Renewable support schemes (portfolio standards, feed-in tariffs) do the opposite. •We model these impacts theoretically and quantify them for Europe. •Redistribution of wealth is found to be significant in size

  13. Immediate effects of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Rafael S; Donadio, Márcio V F; da Silva, Gabriela V; Blattner, Clarissa N; Melo, Denizar A S; Nunes, Fernanda B; Dias, Fernando S; Squizani, Eamim D; Pedrazza, Leonardo; Gadegast, Isabella; de Oliveira, Jarbas R

    2014-09-01

    Septic shock presents as a continuum of infectious events, generating tissue hypoxia and hypovolemia, and increased oxidative stress. Chest physiotherapy helps reduce secretion, improving dynamic and static compliance, as well as improving secretion clearance and preventing pulmonary complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of chest physiotherapy on hemodynamic, metabolic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters in subjects in septic shock. We conducted a quasi-experimental study in 30 subjects in septic shock, who underwent chest physiotherapy, without associated heart diseases and with vasopressors physiotherapy. Thirty subjects with a mean age of 61.8 ± 15.9 y and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment of 8 (range 6-10) were included. Chest physiotherapy caused a normalization of pH (P = .046) and P(aCO2) (P = .008); reduction of lactate (P = .001); and an increase in P(aO2) (P = .03), arterial oxygen saturation (P = .02), and P(aO2)/F(IO2) (P = .034), 15 min after it was applied. The results indicate that chest physiotherapy has immediate effects, improving oxygenation and reducing lactate and oxidative damage in subjects in septic shock. However, it does not cause alterations in the inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  14. Effect of postoperative brachytherapy and external beam radiotherapy on functional outcomes of immediate facial nerve repair after radical parotidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Qiu, Shan-Shan; Marré, Diego

    2014-01-01

    There is much controversy regarding the effect of radiotherapy on facial nerve regeneration. However, the effect of brachytherapy has not been studied. Fifty-three patients underwent total parotidectomy of which 13 were radical with immediate facial nerve repair with sural nerve grafts. Six patients (group 1) did not receive adjuvant treatment whereas 7 patients (group 2) received postoperative brachytherapy plus radiotherapy. Functional outcomes were compared using Facial Clima. Mean percentage of blink recovery was 92.6 ± 4.2 for group 1 and 90.7 ± 5.2 for group 2 (p = .37). Mean percentage of commissural excursion restoration was 78.1 ± 3.5 for group 1 and 74.9 ± 5.9 for group 2 (p = .17). Mean time from surgery to first movement was 5.7 ± 0.9 months for group 1 and 6.3 ± 0.5 months for group 2 (p = .15). Brachytherapy plus radiotherapy does not affect the functional outcomes of immediate facial nerve repair with nerve grafts. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Holding a handle for balance during continuous postural perturbations – immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Camernik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available When balance is exposed to perturbations, hand contacts are often used to assist postural control. We investigated the immediate and the transitionary effects of supportive hand contacts during continuous anteroposterior perturbations of stance by automated waist-pulls. Ten young adults were perturbed for five minutes and required to maintain balance by holding to a stationary, shoulder-high handle and following its removal. Centre of pressure (COP displacement, hip, knee, and ankle angles, leg and trunk muscle activity and handle contact forces were acquired. The analysis of results show that COP excursions are significantly smaller when the subjects utilize supportive hand contact and that the displacement of COP is strongly correlated to the perturbation force and significantly larger in the anterior than posterior direction. Regression analysis of hand forces revealed that subjects utilized the hand support significantly more during the posterior than anterior perturbations. Moreover, kinematical analysis showed that utilization of supportive hand contacts alters posture of the whole body and that postural readjustments after the release of the handle occur at different time scales in the hip, knee, and ankle joints. Overall, our findings show that supportive hand contacts are efficiently used for balance control during continuous postural perturbations and that utilization of a handle has significant immediate and transitionary effects on whole body posture.

  16. Non-specific Effect of Vaccines: Immediate Protection against Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection by a Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young J. Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-specific effects (NSEs of vaccines have been discussed for their potential long-term beneficial effects beyond direct protection against a specific pathogen. Cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine (CAIV induces local innate immune responses that provide a broad range of antiviral immunity. Herein, we examined whether X-31ca, a donor virus for CAIVs, provides non-specific cross-protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. The degree of RSV replication was significantly reduced when X-31ca was administered before RSV infection without any RSV-specific antibody responses. The vaccination induced an immediate release of cytokines and infiltration of leukocytes into the respiratory tract, moderating the immune perturbation caused by RSV infection. The potency of protection against RSV challenge was significantly reduced in TLR3-/- TLR7-/- mice, confirming that the TLR3/7 signaling pathways are necessary for the observed immediate and short-term protection. The results suggest that CAIVs provide short-term, non-specific protection against genetically unrelated respiratory pathogens. The additional benefits of CAIVs in mitigating acute respiratory infections for which vaccines are not yet available need to be assessed in future studies.

  17. Beneficial effects of radiation and regulatory policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworowski, Z. [Central Laboratory for Radiological Protection, Warsaw, (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    Adaptive and simulating effects of ionizing radiation occur at near natural doses. This disagrees with linear, no-threshold hypothesis on the dose/effect relationship, which is a basis of the current radiation protection. vast literature demonstrates that such effects, usually known as hormetic ones, occur at molecular, cellular and population levels, and often result in increased longevity and decreased cancer incidence. Exposure to lower than natural radiation causes deficiency symptoms in protozoa and bacteria. Hormetic effects suggest that the current radiation protection regulations may be too conservative. After the Chernobyl accident, adverse health effects and vast material losses were induced in the former USSR by practical implementation of the ICRP radiation protection recommendations. A revision of the current approach to managing the risks of ionizing radiation is needed for the public interest. (author). 67 refs., 8 tabs., 4 figs.

  18. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Ryan R; Oosthuizen, W Chris; Péron, Guillaume; Cory Toussaint, Dawn; Andrews, Russel D; de Bruyn, P J Nico

    2014-01-01

    Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1) the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2) the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3) the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4) the mid- (1 month) and long- (24 month) term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples) and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags). Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%), but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%). The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD). Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66%) and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%). Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy) was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes following

  19. Effect of connective tissue grafting on peri-implant tissue in single immediate implant sites: A RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuiderveld, Elise G; Meijer, Henny J A; den Hartog, Laurens; Vissink, Arjan; Raghoebar, Gerry M

    2018-02-01

    To assess the effect of connective tissue grafting on the mid-buccal mucosal level (MBML) of immediately placed and provisionalized single implants in the maxillofacial aesthetic zone. Sixty patients with a failing tooth were provided with an immediately placed and provisionalized implant. During implant placement, patients randomly received either a connective tissue graft from the maxillary tuberosity (n = 30, test group) or no graft (n = 30, control group). Follow-up visits were at one (T 1 ) and twelve months (T 12 ) after final crown placement. The primary outcome measure was any change in MBML compared to the pre-operative situation. In addition, gingival biotype, aesthetics (using the Pink Esthetic Score-White Esthetic Score), marginal bone level, soft tissue peri-implant parameters and patient satisfaction were assessed. The mean MBML change at T 12 was -0.5 ± 1.1 mm in the control group and 0.1 ± 0.8 mm in the test group (p = .03). No significant differences regarding other outcome variables were observed, neither was gingival biotype associated with a gain or loss in MBML. This one-year study shows that connective tissue grafting in single, immediately placed and provisionalized implants leads to less recession of the peri-implant soft tissue at the mid-buccal aspect, irrespective of the gingival biotype (www.trialregister.nl: TC3815). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Satellite tagging and biopsy sampling of killer whales at subantarctic Marion Island: effectiveness, immediate reactions and long-term responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan R Reisinger

    Full Text Available Remote tissue biopsy sampling and satellite tagging are becoming widely used in large marine vertebrate studies because they allow the collection of a diverse suite of otherwise difficult-to-obtain data which are critical in understanding the ecology of these species and to their conservation and management. Researchers must carefully consider their methods not only from an animal welfare perspective, but also to ensure the scientific rigour and validity of their results. We report methods for shore-based, remote biopsy sampling and satellite tagging of killer whales Orcinus orca at Subantarctic Marion Island. The performance of these methods is critically assessed using 1 the attachment duration of low-impact minimally percutaneous satellite tags; 2 the immediate behavioural reactions of animals to biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; 3 the effect of researcher experience on biopsy sampling and satellite tagging; and 4 the mid- (1 month and long- (24 month term behavioural consequences. To study mid- and long-term behavioural changes we used multievent capture-recapture models that accommodate imperfect detection and individual heterogeneity. We made 72 biopsy sampling attempts (resulting in 32 tissue samples and 37 satellite tagging attempts (deploying 19 tags. Biopsy sampling success rates were low (43%, but tagging rates were high with improved tag designs (86%. The improved tags remained attached for 26±14 days (mean ± SD. Individuals most often showed no reaction when attempts missed (66% and a slight reaction-defined as a slight flinch, slight shake, short acceleration, or immediate dive-when hit (54%. Severe immediate reactions were never observed. Hit or miss and age-sex class were important predictors of the reaction, but the method (tag or biopsy was unimportant. Multievent trap-dependence modelling revealed considerable variation in individual sighting patterns; however, there were no significant mid- or long-term changes

  1. Immediate effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and focal knee joint cooling on quadriceps activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrosimone, Brian G; Hart, Joseph M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2009-06-01

    To determine whether transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and focal knee joint cooling will affect the quadriceps central activation ratio (CAR) in patients with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis. Thirty-three participants with diagnosed tibiofemoral osteoarthritis were randomly allocated to the 45-min TENS treatment (six males and four females, 56 +/- 10.1 yr, 174.11 +/- 10.78 cm, 89.34 +/- 21.3 kg), the 20-min focal knee joint cooling treatment (six males and five females, 58 +/- 8.4 yr, 176.41 +/- 8.29 cm, 83.18 +/- 17.97 kg), or the control group (five males and seven females, 54 +/- 9.9 yr, 166.37 +/- 13.07 cm, 92.14 +/- 25.37 kg). Volitional quadriceps activation, maximal voluntary isometric contraction, and subjective pain measurements were conducted at baseline and at 20, 30, and 45 min. The 20-min focal knee joint cooling intervention consisted of two 1.5-L ice bags to the anterior and posterior aspects of the knee. The TENS group received 45 min of a sensory, biphasic square wave stimulation (150-mus phase duration and 150 pps) from four 2 x 2-inch electrodes positioned around the patella. : TENS resulted in a significantly higher percent change in CAR scores compared with control at 20 min (6.4 +/- 4.8 vs -3.5 +/- 8, P = 0.006), 30 min (9.7 +/- 10.16 vs -1 +/- 7.9, P = 0.025), and 45 min (11.25 +/- 6.96 vs 0.81 +/- 9.4, P = 0.029). Focal knee joint cooling resulted in significantly higher percent change scores compared with the control group at 20 min (5.75 +/- 7.25 vs -3.5 +/- 8, P = 0.009) and trended to be higher at 45 min (9.06 +/- 9.63 vs 0.81 +/- 9.4, P = 0.098). No significant differences in percent change for CAR were found between the TENS and the focal knee joint cooling group. Both TENS and focal knee joint cooling increased the quadriceps CAR immediately after application in participants with tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.

  2. Effects of Age and Stimulus Presentation Rate on Immediate and Delayed Recall in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, Gary S.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of stimulus presentation rate on recall and primacy-recency effects in children. Results indicated that the traditional interpretation of the primacy effect as reflecting long-term memory store may not be valid. (Author/SB)

  3. Moderating factors of immediate, gross, and net cross-brand effects of price promotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis article examines cross-price promotional effects in a dynamic context. Among other things, we investigate whether previously established findings hold when consumer and competitive dynamics are taken into account. Five main influential effects (asymmetric price effect, neighborhood

  4. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  5. Effects of Fiscal and Monetary Policy in the Great Recession

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Caballero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available World economy is living a time of change, and the complexity of change has implied a new research agenda on the role of economic policy in society. The role, types and effects of economic policy have been major issues in economic science since its origins. Jean Tinbergen (1956 [1] established the basis for the traditional theory of economic policy in economics and he tried to show how economic knowledge could be organized to regulate and guide economic systems. Nevertheless, this traditional approach has been improved through several contributions, for example when Eggertsson (1997 [2] incorporated the existence of incomplete knowledge, endogenous politics and institutional change in the theory of economic policy.

  6. Effectiveness of policy measures in transforming the energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, P.D.

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of public policy measures in creating energy impacts were investigated through 20 policy cases on renewable energy and efficient energy use. The policies were grouped into subsidy-type and catalyzing measures based on the use of the public financial resources. The policy cost of subsidies ranged from 1 Euro/MWh up to over 100 Euro/MWh, the feed-in tariffs being clearly the most expensive choice. The public measures that strive for catalyzing market breakthroughs lie in the range 0.1-1 Euro/MWh, but some business driven and procurement type measures could come down to even 0.01 Euro/MWh. The policy costs observed could decrease by 25-60% if accounting for lagging energy impacts. The better policy efficiency of catalytic measures is most likely due to a stronger market and business sensitiveness, understanding of market needs, and focusing more on the end-use sector with active stakeholder involvement. The magnitude of the energy impacts were in average larger from the subsidy instruments but a few end-use technologies linked to catalytic measures reached even higher effects due to the strong market penetration achieved. (author)

  7. Effects Of Trade Liberalisation Policy On Nigerian Agricultural Exports

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of trade liberalization on Agricultural exports in Nigeria. It was observed that the policy had tremendous effects on the level and value of exports in agricultural sub-sector. A regression analysis relating the total value of agricultural produce and the aggregated domestic prices, and other ...

  8. Immediate effects of lumbopelvic manipulation and lateral gluteal kinesio taping on unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph; Westrick, Richard; Diebal, Angela; Marks, Christopher; Gerber, J Parry

    2013-05-01

    To determine the immediate effects of Kinesio taping directed to the hip and manipulation directed to the lumbopelvic region in individuals with unilateral patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). PFPS affects up to 25% of the general population. Despite the high prevalence, this condition is not clearly understood, as evidenced by the numerous proposed causes and recommended treatments. Notwithstanding, recent evidence suggests that treatments directed at the hip or spine may lead to beneficial results. A convenience sample of 18 participants (12 men and 6 women, 19.5 ± 1.15 years old) with unilateral PFPS was recruited. Participants were randomized by sex to 1 of 3 groups: Kinesio taping, manipulation, and control taping. The main outcome measures included the Y-balance test, squatting range of motion (ROM), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale. Compared with the lumbopelvic manipulation and control groups, those in the Kinesio taping group performed significantly better on the Y-balance test (F = 5.59, P = 0.02) and with squatting ROM (F = 3.93, P = 0.04). The Kinesio taping and lumbopelvic groups were also significantly better than the control (sham) group with double-leg squatting ROM performance 3 days later. Kinesio taping may facilitate gluteus medius activation and improve postural stability and a double-leg squat. The improvement in affected limb reach and double-leg squatting ROM highlights the potential for Kinesio taping to improve gluteus medius activation. Lumbopelvic manipulation may also immediately improve rehabilitation programs for PFPS.

  9. The Immediate Effects of Deep Pressure on Young People with Autism and Severe Intellectual Difficulties: Demonstrating Individual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana Bestbier

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deep pressure is widely used by occupational therapists for people with autism spectrum disorders. There is limited research evaluating deep pressure. Objective. To evaluate the immediate effects of deep pressure on young people with autism and severe intellectual disabilities. Methods. Mood and behaviour were rated for 13 pupils with ASD and severe ID before and after deep pressure sessions. Results. Sufficient data was available from 8 participants to be analysed using Tau-U, a nonparametric technique that allows for serial dependence in data. Six showed benefits statistically. Five of these showed benefits across all domains, and one showed benefits on three out of five domains. Relevance to Clinical Practice. Deep pressure appears to be of immediate benefit to this population with autism and severe ID, but the heterogeneity of response suggests that careful monitoring of response should be used and deep pressure discontinued when it is no longer of benefit. Limitations. This is an open label evaluation study using rating scales. Recommendations for Future Research. Future studies of the use of deep pressure should use physiological response measures, in addition to blinded raters for aspects of behaviours such as attitude to learning psychological health not captured physiologically.

  10. Effects of a relaxation training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Li-Lan; Lin, Li-Chan; Cheng, Po-Jen; Chen, Chung-Hey; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Chang, Chuan-Lin

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a report of an experimental study of the effects of relaxation-training programme on immediate and prolonged stress responses in women with preterm labour. Hospitalized pregnant women with preterm labour experience developmental and situational stress. However, few studies have been performed on stress management in such women. An experimental pretest and repeated post-test design was used to compare the outcomes for two groups in northern Taiwan from December 2008, to May 2010. A total of 129 women were randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 68) or control (n = 61) group. The experimental group participants were instructed to listen daily to a 13-minute relaxation programme. Measurements involved the stress visual analogue scale, finger temperatures, State Trait Anxiety Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety. Two-way analysis of variance and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the group differences. Compared with those in the control group, participants in the experimental group showed immediate improvements in the stress visual analogue scale scores and finger temperatures. The State Trait Anxiety Inventory-State subscale score for the experimental group was significantly lower than that for the control group (P = 0·03). However, no statistically significant differences for the Perceived Stress Scale and Pregnancy-related Anxiety scores were found between the experimental group and the control group. The relaxation-training programme could improve the stress responses of women with preterm labour. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. The immediate effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with taping on gait parameters in patients with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Shin-Jun

    2017-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the immediate effects of simultaneous application of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) and elastic taping (T), and the removal of the elastic tape, on the gait parameters of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were divided into a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group (PNFG, n=7), a taping group (TG, n=6), and a proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with taping group (PNFTG, n=7). Relevant interventions were applied for 30 minutes, the tape was removed, and gait parameters were evaluated. [Results] Only the intervention of the PNFTG yielded significant differences in patient cadence, speed, and stride length. [Conclusion] The simultaneous application of PNF and taping for 30 minutes has carryover effects that can improve stroke patients' gait ability, even after the removal of the tape.

  12. The global effects of subglobal climate policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boehringer, Christoph; Fischer, Carolyn; Rosendahl, Knut Einar

    2010-01-01

    Individual countries are in the process of legislating responses to the challenges posed by climate change. The prospect of rising carbon prices raises concerns in these nations about the effects on the competitiveness of their own energy-intensive industries and the potential for carbon leakage,

  13. Moderating Factors of Immediate, Dynamic, and Long-run Cross-Price Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Horváth (Csilla); D. Fok (Dennis)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn this article the authors describe their comprehensive analysis of moderating factors of cross-brand effects of price changes and contribute to the literature in five major ways. (1) They consider an extensive set of potential variables influencing cross-brand effects of price changes.

  14. Estimates of immediate effects on world markets of a hypothetical disruption to Russia’s supply of six mineral commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safirova, Elena; Barry, James J.; Hastorun, Sinan; Matos, Grecia R.; Perez, Alberto Alexander; Bedinger, George M.; Bray, E. Lee; Jasinski, Stephen M.; Kuck, Peter H.; Loferski, Patricia J.

    2017-05-18

    The potential immediate effects of a hypothetical shock to Russia’s supply of selected mineral commodities on the world market and on individual countries were determined and monetized (in 2014 U.S. dollars). The mineral commodities considered were aluminum (refined primary), nickel (refined primary), palladium (refined) and platinum (refined), potash, and titanium (mill products), and the regions and countries of primary interest were the United States, the European Union (EU–28), and China. The shock is assumed to have infinite duration, but only the immediate effects, those limited by a 1-year period, are considered.A methodology for computing and monetizing the potential impacts was developed. Then the data pertaining to all six mineral commodities were collected and the most likely effects were computed. Because of the uncertainties associated with some of the data, sensitivity analyses were conducted to confirm the validity of the results.Results indicate that the impact on the United States arising from a shock to Russia’s supply, in terms of the value of net exports, would range from a gain of \\$336 million for titanium mill products to a loss of \\$237 million for potash; thus, the overall effect of a supply shock is likely to be quite modest. The study also demonstrates that, taken alone, Russia’s share in the world production of a particular commodity is not necessarily indicative of the size of potential impacts resulting from a supply shock; other factors, such as prices, domestic production, and the structure of international commodity flows were found to be important as well.

  15. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies on Refugee Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    and the transition rate into employment outside the local labour market, but decreases the transition rate into local employment. Thus, a decrease in current place utility decreases the overall job-finding rate if the local reservation wage effect dominates. We argue that spatial dispersal policies on refugees...... are characterised by low average values of current place utility. Hence, the model predicts that dispersal policies increase the geographical mobility rates of refugees and, for a sufficiently large local reservation wage effect, decrease their job-finding rates....

  16. Primacy and recency effects in immediate free recall of sequences of spatial positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Rita; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto

    2007-10-01

    This study evaluated the serial position curve based on free recall of spatial position sequences. To evaluate the memory processes underlying spatial recall, some manipulations were introduced by varying the length of spatial sequences (Exp. 1) and modifying the presentation rate of individual positions (Exp. 2). A primacy effect emerged for all sequence lengths, while a recency effect was evident only in the longer sequences. Moreover, slowing the presentation rate increased the magnitude of the primacy effect and abolished the recency effect. The main novelty of the present results is represented by the finding that better recall of early items in a sequence of spatial positions does not depend on the task requirement of an ordered recall but it can also be observed in a free recall paradigm.

  17. 75 FR 64753 - Options Price Reporting Authority; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ...-OPRA-2003-01. OPRA reorganized as a limited liability company effective as of January 1, 2010, and the current OPRA Plan is entitled ``Limited Liability Company Agreement of Options Price Reporting Authority...

  18. Immediate effect of subliminal priming with positive reward stimuli on standing balance in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Aoyama, Yasuhiro; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Sugi, Yasuyuki; Kawakami, Akinobu; Fujii, Miki; Kiso, Kanae; Kono, Ryota; Takebayashi, Takashi; Hirao, Kazuki

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Information received subconsciously can influence exercise performance; however, it remains unclear whether subliminal or supraliminal reward is more effective in improving standing balance ability when priming stimuli are subconsciously delivered. The present study aimed to compare the effects of subliminal priming-plus-subliminal reward stimuli (experimental) with subliminal priming-plus-supraliminal reward stimuli (control) on standing balance ability. Methods: This wa...

  19. Influence of esmolol on requirement of inhalational agent using entropy and assessment of its effect on immediate postoperative pain score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Context: Beta - blockers have been used for attenuation of stress response, decreasing anaesthetic requirement and augmentation of the effect of opioids during general anaesthesia. Aims and Objectives: The present study aims to evaluate the influence of esmolol on the requirement of an inhalational agent while monitoring the depth of anaesthesia by entropy and also its effect on immediate postoperative pain score. Methods: Fifty American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA I and II patients, between 25 and 65 years of age who underwent lower abdominal surgeries were randomly allocated to two groups: Group E and Group S of 25 patients each. Group E received esmolol infusion while Group S received the same volume of saline infusion. Demographic data, haemodynamics, amount of isoflurane used, end-tidal isoflurane concentration, postoperative pain score and total dose of morphine consumed in immediate postoperative period of 30 min were analyzed by using appropriate statistical tests. Value of P<0.05 was considered significant and P<0.001 as highly significant. Results: The two groups were comparable with respect to age, weight, ASA physical status, duration of surgery and amount of isoflurane used during anaesthesia. Assessment of postoperative pain was assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS which showed significant difference at 30 min. The total dose of morphine consumption was significantly less (P<0.05 in Group E for relief of postoperative pain. Conclusions: We conclude that in light of depth of anaesthesia monitor esmolol has no effect on requirement of isoflurane, but it decreases the postoperative pain as well as postoperative requirement of morphine without increasing the risk of awareness.

  20. Effects of the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum on maternal hemostasis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Milena B; Ferriani, Rui A; Meijers, Joost C M; Garcia, Andréa A; Quintana, Silvana M; Silva de Sá, Marcos F; Vieira, Carolina S

    2012-09-01

    The puerperium is the period of highest risk for thrombosis during a woman's reproductive life and it is an important time for initiating an effective contraceptive method in order to increase intergestational interval. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluated the effects of the etonogestrel (ENG)-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum on maternal hemostasis markers during the first six weeks of delivery. Forty healthy women aged 18 to 35 years-old were randomized to receive either the ENG-releasing implant 24-48 h after delivery (implant group; n=20) or nothing (control group) until the sixth postpartum week. Blood samples were collected at 24-48 h and at 6 weeks after delivery, and hemostatic variables, including fibrinogen, coagulation factors, protein C, free protein S, antithrombin, α2-antiplasmin, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), prothrombin fragment (PF)1+2, and D-dimers, as well as normalized activated protein C sensitivity ratio (nAPCsr), thrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and prothrombin time were evaluated. Insertion of the ENG-releasing contraceptive implant did not change the physiological reduction in overall coagulation (TAT and PF1+2) and fibrinolysis (D-dimer) markers, or nAPCsr. Reductions in factors II, VII, X and fibrinogen and increases in factor V were greater in the control than in the implant group. Clotting factors remained within normal limits throughout the study. The ENG-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum did not have negative effects on physiological variations of the hemostatic system during the first 6 weeks postpartum. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Climate policies: distributive effects and recycling revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-05-01

    Implementing the Environment Grenelle will involve the introduction of a 'climate-energy' contribution, compensated by a drop in overall tax burden. Last February, the French President ordered a study into the extent to which this contribution could compensate for the abolition of professional taxes. The Senate's Finance Commission has since constituted a work group on environmental taxation, chaired by Fabienne Keller, to analyse, by the yardstick of foreign experiences, the conditions for creating a 'carbon tax' in France. Such a tax could have a negative impact on the most disadvantaged households. However, it is possible - following the example of other countries - to use part of this new tax to neutralise regressive effects and allocate another part to an objective of growth, competitiveness and employment. (author)

  2. 75 FR 70311 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... availability of depth-of-book data for that market. Of particular importance is an empirical study by Terrence... available study, based on substantial empirical data and economic and statistical analysis, of the effects... following are among the elements of this empirical study that support the Commission's conclusion in the...

  3. The effect of stress, applied immediately before stunning, on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der P.G.; Engel, B.; Reimert, H.G.M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect on meat quality characteristics of stress, applied during a short period just before stunning, was studied on slaughterpigs (113 boars, 85 gilts). Sexes were kept separately and only pigs that had been stunned correctly were included. Aggressive behaviour during lairage occurred more

  4. 78 FR 39395 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGA Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    ... live trading and flood markets with message traffic such that those markets hit their capacity limits... Change to Offer and Establish Fees for a New Exchange Service, EdgeRisk Gateways June 25, 2013. Pursuant... effect of a trading disruption caused by any Member or Non-Member. \\9\\ As defined in Exchange Rule 1.5(cc...

  5. 78 FR 8617 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BATS Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    .... Purpose The Exchange currently offers various forms of sliding which, in all cases, result in the ranking... trading center; (ii) disseminated pursuant to an effective national market system plan; and (iii) an... Offer in an options series, respectively, that: (A) Is disseminated pursuant to the OPRA Plan; and (B...

  6. The Effects of Highlight Color on Immediate Recall on Subjects of Different Cognitive Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)

  7. 75 FR 12325 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... LLC To Increase the Monthly ATP Fee for All Options Market Makers and To Reduce the Per- Contract... Exchange Commission (the ``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III... Amex Trading Permit (``ATP'') for options Market Makers. Effective March 1, 2010 the Exchange proposes...

  8. 75 FR 4435 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Commission (the ``Commission'') the proposed rule change as described in Items I, II, and III below, which... officers of the Exchange and are not affiliated with ATP Holders. The Exchange is now proposing to permit... comments were solicited or received with respect to the proposed rule change. III. Date of Effectiveness of...

  9. 76 FR 7620 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; EDGX Exchange, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... levels at a particular venue to be excessive. The proposed rule change reflects a competitive pricing... increased rate, effective January 3, 2011. The Exchange notes that it operates in a highly competitive.... The Exchange believes the fees and credits remain competitive with those charged by other venues and...

  10. 75 FR 65693 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... Exchange has observed the popularity of $0.50 strikes. The open interest in the $2.50 August strike series... Commission may designate, it has become effective pursuant to Section 19(b)(3)(A) of the Act \\9\\ and Rule 19b... are filed with the Commission, and all written communications relating to the proposed rule change...

  11. Immediate effect of instrumentation on the subgingival microflora in deep inflamed pockets under strict plaque control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemrev, GE; Timmerman, MF; Veldkamp, A; Van Winkelhoff, AJ; Van der Velden, U

    Objective: To investigate (1) reduction in the number of microorganisms obtained directly after subgingival instrumentation, (2) rate of bacterial re-colonization during 2 weeks, under supragingival plaque-free conditions. Materials and Method: Effects of subgingival instrumentation were measured at

  12. 75 FR 33358 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; McGuire Nuclear Station; Confirmatory Order (Effective Immediately)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... must have a goal of achieving a drug-free workplace and a workplace free of the effects of such...-making authority assists the parties in reaching an agreement or resolving any differences regarding... Energy nuclear generation employees; ii. In the Duke Energy-specific Plant Access Training for a period...

  13. Individual Differences Influencing Immediate Effects of Internal and External Focus Instructions on Children's Motor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Abswoude, Femke; Nuijen, Nienke B; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2018-04-04

    A large pool of evidence supports the beneficial effect of an external focus of attention on motor skill performance in adults. In children, this effect has been studied less and results are inconclusive. Importantly, individual differences are often not taken into account. We investigated the role of working memory, conscious motor control, and task-specific focus preferences on performance with an internal and external focus of attention in children. Twenty-five children practiced a golf putting task in both an internal focus condition and external focus condition. Performance was defined as the average distance toward the hole in 3 blocks of 10 trials. Task-specific focus preference was determined by asking how much effort it took to apply the instruction in each condition. In addition, working memory capacity and conscious motor control were assessed. Children improved performance in both the internal focus condition and external focus condition (ŋ p 2  = .47), with no difference between conditions (ŋ p 2  = .01). Task-specific focus preference was the only factor moderately related to the difference between performance with an internal focus and performance with an external focus (r = .56), indicating better performance for the preferred instruction in Block 3. Children can benefit from instruction with both an internal and external focus of attention to improve short-term motor performance. Individual, task-specific focus preference influenced the effect of the instructions, with children performing better with their preferred focus. The results highlight that individual differences are a key factor in the effectiveness in children's motor performance. The precise mechanisms underpinning this effect warrant further research.

  14. Immediate effects of different types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwi S; Kim, Daeho; Park, Jihong

    2017-04-13

    Since different types of stretching exercises may alter athletic performance, we compared the effects of three types of stretching exercises on badminton jump smash. Sixteen male collegiate badminton players performed one of three different stretching exercises in a counterbalanced order on different days. Static stretching had seven typical stretches, while dynamic stretching involved nine dynamic movements, and resistance dynamic stretching was performed with weighted vests and dumbbells. Before and after each stretching exercise, subjects performed 20 trials of jump smashes. Dependent measurements were the jump heights during jump smashes, velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks, and drop points of jump-smashed shuttlecocks. To test the effects of each stretching exercise, we performed mixed model ANOVAs and calculated between-time effect sizes (ES). Each stretching exercise improved the jump heights during jump smashes (type main effect: F2,75= 1.19, p=0.31; static stretching: 22.1%, pstretching: 30.1%, pstretching: 17.7%, p=0.03, ES: 0.98) and velocities of jump-smashed shuttlecocks (type main effect: F2,75= 2.18, p=0.12; static stretching: 5.7%, p=0.61, ES: 0.39; dynamic stretching: 3.4%, p=0.94, ES: 0.28; resistance dynamic stretching: 6%, p=0.50, ES: 0.66). However, there were no differences among the stretching exercises for any measurement. The drop point of jump-smashed shuttlecocks did not change (interaction: F2,75= 0.88, p=0.42). All stretching exercises improved badminton jump smash performance, but we could not determine the best protocol. Since badminton requires high-speed movement and explosive force, we suggest performing dynamic stretching or resistance dynamic stretching.

  15. The immediate effects of soft tissue mobilization with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godges, Joseph J; Mattson-Bell, Melodie; Thorpe, Donna; Shah, Drashti

    2003-12-01

    Randomized controlled 2-group. pretest-posttest, multivariate study of patients with shoulder musculoskeletal disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of soft tissue mobilization (STM) with proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) to increase glenohumeral external rotation at 45 degrees of shoulder abduction and overhead reach. It is postulated that limitation in glenohumeral external rotation, when measured at 45 degrees of shoulder abduction, represents subscapularis muscle flexibility deficits and is associated with the inability to fully reach overhead. No research, however, is available to demonstrate whether intervention strategies intended to improve subscapularis flexibility and glenohumeral external rotation range of motion at 45 degrees of shoulder abduction will improve a patient's ability to reach overhead. Twenty patients (10 males, 10 females; age range, 21-83 years) with limited glenohumeral external rotation and overhead reach of 1 year duration or less served as subjects. The subjects were randomly assigned to a treatment group, which consisted of soft tissue mobilization to the subscapularis and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation to the shoulder rotators, or a control group. Goniometric measurements of glenohumeral external rotation at 45 degrees abduction and overhead reach were taken preintervention and immediately postintervention for the treatment group or at prerest and postrest periods for the control group. The treatment group improved by a mean of 16.4 degrees (95% confidence interval [CI, 12.5 degrees-20.3 degrees) of glenohumeral external rotation, as compared to less than a 1 degree gain (95% CI, -0.2 degrees-2.0 degrees) in the control group (P < .0005). Overhead reach in the treatment group improved by a mean of 9.6 cm (95% CI, 5.2-14.0 cm) in comparison to a mean gain of 2.4 cm (95% CI, -0.8-5.6 cm) for the control group (P = .009). These findings suggest that a single intervention

  16. The immediate effect of soft tissue manual therapy intervention on lung function in severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruz-Montecinos C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Cruz-Montecinos,1–3 Diego Godoy-Olave,4 Felipe A Contreras-Briceño,5 Paulina Gutiérrez,4 Rodrigo Torres-Castro,2 Leandro Miret-Venegas,3 Roger M Engel6 1Laboratory of Biomechanics and Kinesiology, San José Hospital, Santiago, Chile; 2Department of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile; 3Unit of Kinesiology and Physical Therapy, San José Hospital, Santiago, Chile; 4Departamento de Kinesiología, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Santiago, Chile; 5Facultad de Medicina, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile; 6Department of Chiropractic, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Background and objective: In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, accessory respiratory muscles are recruited as a compensatory adaptation to changes in respiratory mechanics. This results in shortening and overactivation of these and other muscles. Manual therapy is increasingly being investigated as a way to alleviate these changes. The aim of this study was to measure the immediate effect on lung function of a soft tissue manual therapy protocol (STMTP designed to address changes in the accessory respiratory muscles and their associated structures in patients with severe COPD.Methods: Twelve medically stable patients (n=12 with an existing diagnosis of severe COPD (ten: GOLD Stage III and two: GOLD Stage IV were included. Residual volume, inspiratory capacity and oxygen saturation (SpO2 were recorded immediately before and after administration of the STMTP. A Student’s t-test was used to determine the effect of the manual therapy intervention (P<0.05.Results: The mean age of the patients was 62.4 years (range 46–77. Nine were male. Residual volume decreased from 4.5 to 3.9 L (P=0.002, inspiratory capacity increased from 2.0 to 2.1 L (P=0.039 and SpO2 increased from 93% to 96% (P=0.001.Conclusion: A single application of an STMTP appears to have the potential to produce

  17. The Effects of Hyperbaric Exposure on Immediate and Delayed Changes in Core Temperature and Its Circadian Fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujawski Sławomir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Changes observed in the core body temperature of divers are the result of a multifaceted response from the body to the change of the external environment. In response to repeated activities, there may be a chronic, physiological adaptation of the body’s response system. This is observed in the physiology of experienced divers while diving. The purpose of this study is to determine the immediate and delayed effects of hyperbaric exposure on core temperature, as well as its circadian changes in a group of three experienced divers. During compression at 30 and 60 meters, deep body temperature values tended to increase. Subsequently, deep body temperature values showed a tendency to decrease during decompression. All differences in core temperature values obtained by the group of divers at individual time points in this study were not statistically significant.

  18. Minor Immediate Effects of a Dog on Children’s Reading Performance and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Schretzmayer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Literacy is a key factor in occupational success and social integration. However, an increasing number of children lack appropriate reading skills. There is growing evidence that dogs have positive effects on reading performance. We investigated the short-term effects of dogs on reading performance in 36 third-graders and monitored physiological parameters [heart rate (HR, heart rate variability (HRV, and salivary cortisol] as well as behavioral variables. Each child took part in two test sessions at the presence of a tutor, in one of which a dog and its handler were present. To assess reading performance two reading tests were used: two subtests of the standardized “Ein Leseverständnistest für Erst- bis Sechstklässler”, where the children have to carry out time-limited reading tasks, to assess sentence and text comprehension, and repeated reading (RR, where the children have to read the same text twice, to assess reading speed and short-term improvement. Although the dog had no effect on reading performance scores, within the first test session the children improved from the first to the second run of RR when a dog was present but not without dog. The behavior of the children indicated a calming effect of the dog in the first test session with less nervous movements and the children being less talkative. We found no impact of the dog on HR and HRV. However, the excitement about the dog in combination with the unknown situation in the first test session was reflected in a higher difference in the mean HR difference between the two test sessions for the children, who in the first test session had a dog present, compared to the children, who had the dog in the second test session. In the second test session, the children were more aroused with a dog present than with no dog present, as indicated by the area under the curve increase (AUCi of salivary cortisol values. We conclude that the presence of a dog had a minor short-term positive

  19. Immediate Effect of Grade IV Inferior Hip Joint Mobilization on Hip Abductor Torque: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Makofsky, Howard; Panicker, Siji; Abbruzzese, Jeanine; Aridas, Cynthia; Camp, Michael; Drakes, Jonelle; Franco, Caroline; Sileo, Ray

    2007-01-01

    Joint mobilization and manipulation stimulate mechanoreceptors, which may influence the joint and surrounding muscles. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the effect of grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization on hip abductor torque. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a control group (grade I inferior hip joint mobilization) or an experimental group (grade IV inferior hip joint mobilization). Subjects performed a pre- and post-intervention test of five isometric re...

  20. Analyzing the Effectiveness of Logistics Networks During the Immediate Response Phase of Three Different Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    homeless . The demographic, social, and economic impact varied from domestic to international in scope as well. The effects were devastating, especially...sigma, lean methods) were found that use technology and statistics to increase the operational efficiency within a company. But companies like Wal...Millions across Asia hunt for food as tsunami toll heads to 100,000. Australia . Moynihan, D. P. (2009). The response to Hurricane Katrina. Geneva

  1. Immediate detailed feedback to test-enhanced learning: an effective online educational tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcikowski, Ken; Kirk, Leslie

    2013-11-01

    Test-enhanced learning has gained popularity because it is an effective way to increase retention of knowledge; provided the student receives the correct answer soon after the test is taken. To determine whether detailed feedback provided to test-enhanced learning questions is an effective online educational tool for improving performance on complex biomedical information exams. A series of online multiple choice tests were developed to test knowledge of biomedical information that students were expected to know after each patient-case. Following submission of the student answers, one cohort (n = 52) received answers only while the following year, a second cohort (n = 51) received the answers with detailed feedback explaining why each answer was correct or incorrect. Students in both groups progressed through the series of online tests with little assessor intervention. Students receiving the answers along with the explanations within their feedback performed significantly better in the final biomedical information exam than those students receiving correct answers only. This pilot study found that the detailed feedback to test-enhanced learning questions is an important online learning tool. The increase in student performance in the complex biomedical information exam in this study suggests that detailed feedback should be investigated not only for increasing knowledge, but also be investigated for its effect on retention and application of knowledge.

  2. IMMEDIATE EFFECT OF KINESIO VERSUS MCCONNELL TAPING ON PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING FUNCTIONAL ACTIVITIES- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Kumar. N

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is a condition presenting with anterior knee pain or pain behind the patella (retro-patellar pain. The purpose of the study is to find the immediate effect of Kinesio taping versus McConnell taping in patellofemoral pain syndrome subjects during functional activities- stair ascent, stair descent and squat lift. Methods: An experimental study design with three groups, 45 subjects with patellofemoral pain syndrome was randomized. 15 subjects into each Kinesiotaping group, McConnell group and Sham group. Kinesiotaping group received patellofemoral kinesio taping technique, McConnell group received McConnell taping technique and Sham group received sham taping technique. Outcome measure pain was measured using visual analogue scale during pre and post taping pain levels that were measured during three functional activities: stair ascent, stair descent and squat lift. Results: When analysed within the group using paired ‘t’ test and wilcoxon signed rank test, there is statistically significant improvement in post pain levels in KT, MT and Sham group during stair climbing, stair descent and squat lift. When compared measuring of pre and post pain levels between three groups, there is no significant change in pain level between Kinesio taping and McConnell taping as also compared to sham taping. Conclusion: The study concluded that Kinesio taping, McConnell taping and sham taping shown immediate effect on reducing pain during functional activities such as stair climbing, stair descent and squat lift with greater percentage of pain reduction was found following Kinesiotaping and McConnell taping.

  3. Effect of immediate dentine sealing on the fracture strength of lithium disilicate and multiphase resin composite inlay restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Breemer, Carline R G; Özcan, Mutlu; Cune, Marco S; van der Giezen, Rianne; Kerdijk, Wouter; Gresnigt, Marco M M

    2017-08-01

    Limited information is available on the effect of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS) on the fracture strength of indirect partial posterior restorations. This study evaluated the effect of IDS on the fracture strength and failure types of two indirect restorative materials. Standard MOD inlay preparations were made on sound molars (N=40, n=10 per group) and randomly divided into four groups to receive the inlay materials with and without the application of IDS: Group L-IDS-: Li 2 Si 2 O 5 (Lithium disilicate, IPS e.max) without IDS; Group L-IDS+: Li 2 Si 2 O 5 with IDS; Group MR-IDS-: Multiphase resin composite (MR, Lava Ultimate) without IDS; MR-IDS+: MR with IDS. Inlays made of L were etched with 5% hydrofluoric acid, and MR inlays were silica coated. After silanization, they were cemented using adhesive resin cement (Variolink Esthetic DC). The specimens were thermo-mechanically aged (1.2×10 6 cycles, 1.7Hz, 8000 cycles, 5-55°C) and then subjected to load to failure (1 mm/min). Failure types and locations of debondings were classified. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA, Mann Whitney U-test and Chi-square tests (α=0.05). Two-parameter Weibull distribution values including the Weibull modulus, scale (m) and shape (0), values were calculated. After aging conditions, no apparent changes were observed in marginal integrity but occlusal wear facets were more common with MR than with L (p0.05). Immediate dentin sealing improves adhesion, and thereby the fracture strength of inlays made of lithium disilicate but not that multiphase resin composite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Immediate Effects of Sports Taping Applied on the Lead Knee of Low- and High-Handicapped Golfers During Golf Swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Gyu; Kim, Eun-Kuk; Park, Jong-Chul

    2017-04-01

    Kim, T-G, Kim, E-K, and Park, J-C. Immediate effects of sports taping applied on the lead knee of low- and high-handicapped golfers during golf swing. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 981-989, 2017-Elite golf athletes suffer from various musculoskeletal injuries due to repeated golf swings. Repetitive varus moment during golf swing has been suggested as a possible cause of injuries to the lead knee. The aim of this study was to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the immediate effects of sports taping on the lead knee of elite golfers to restrict varus moment. Thirty-one elite golfers were assigned to the low- (LHG, n = 15) or high-handicapped group (HHG, n = 16). Using 3-dimensional motion analysis, the lead knee position on the frontal plane with and without rigid taping (RT), elastic taping (ET), and placebo taping was identified in 4 separate phases by the 5 events of golf swing as follows: the peak of the backswing (E1), parallel to the ground during downswing (E2), ball impact (E3), parallel to the ground during follow-through (E4), and finish (E5). The LHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT and ET than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.001). The LHG when using a 5-iron club decreased movement toward knee varus with RT than that without it from E1 to E2 (p = 0.006) and from E2 to E3 (p = 0.019). The HHG when using a driver club had decreased movement toward knee varus with RT from E1 to E2 (p = 0.014). Sports taping may be helpful for elite golfers in terms of reducing varus moment of the lead knee during the downswing and be useful for the development of preventive strategies for golf-related knee injuries.

  5. Demand and distributional effects of water pricing policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, A.J.W.; Zimmermann, A.; Berg, van den M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide, water scarcity threatens delivery of water to urban centers. Water pricing is often recommended to reduce demand. In this paper, demand and distributional effects of water pricing policies are examined in a block pricing model that is applied to the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo. Water

  6. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as ... of the latter by the animals. In most areas strict rules exist to check this practice. .... grazing reserve also encourages the uniform deployment of the cattle. It is in view of ...

  7. Evaluating the effects of parking policy measures in nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Jaarsma, C.F.; Regnerus, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Parking policy measures are widely used to manage cars in nature areas. Only with data from long-term monitoring projects is it possible to separate ¿normal¿ fluctuation in the number of cars from fluctuation caused by trends or caused by the effects of these measures. An evaluation of measures

  8. Effectiveness of Urban Wastewater Treatment Policies in Selected Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Smith, Carey; Kristensen, Peter

    , and two have only recently acceded to the EU and are therefore allowed more time to accomplish the environmental acquis. The report seeks to clarify the role of local authorities, policy instruments and financial mechanisms in securing effective implementation, and it also addresses the issue of cost...

  9. The effects of credit policy on bank performance: Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects of credit policy on bank performance using data on selected Commercial Banks. Using a triangulation of methods such as quantitative data collection, questionnaire, and review of the existing literature, the paper evaluates the banking sector performance: its deepening over ...

  10. Effects of Dutch mineral policies on land prices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, M.G.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Land prices were analyzed by shadow prices of individual
    farms and an exogenous supply of land,
    taking account of mineral surplus taxes and farm
    characteristics. Mineral policies have a substantial
    effect on land prices in the Netherlands and result
    in more extensive dairy

  11. Employment Effects of Dispersal Policies. Part I: Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Rosholm, Michael

    2003-01-01

    and the transition rate into employment outside the local labour market, but decreases the transition rate into local employment. Thus, a decrease in current place utility decreases the overall job-finding rate if the local reservation wage effect dominates. We argue that dispersal policies on refugee immigrants...

  12. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia. The current financial crisis has made it difficult for firms to access financial resources during the early stages of business development, and this has aggravated economic conditions. The question of how to support innovations and innovative businesses in the midst ...

  13. Environmental effects of manure policy options in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.; Liere, van L.; Plette, S.; Prins, T.; Zeijts, van H.; Schoumans, O.F.

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the effects of manure policy options for agricultural land in The Netherlands on nitrate leaching to groundwater, ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions to the atmosphere and on eutrophication of surface waters. The implementation of the farm gate balance MINAS at farm level, with

  14. Observing the effect of a policy: a maintenance case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijsdijk, Chris; Tinga, Tiedo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show that maintenance performance is potentially better predictable from recording routines. Design/methodology/approach – An attempt is made to observe an effect of a policy. Maintenance cases seem exceptional because of the efficiently obtainable evidence

  15. Immediate effects of tongue trills associated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabron, Eliana Maria Gradim; Petrini, Andressa Schweitzer; Cardoso, Vanessa de Moraes; Batista, João Carlos Torgal; Motonaga, Suely Mayumi; Marino, Viviane Cristina de Castro

    2017-06-08

    To investigate vocal quality variability after applying tongue trills associated with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on the larynx of women with normal laryngeal function. Additionally, to verify the effect of this technique over time on voice quality. Participants were 40 women (average 23.4 years) without vocal complaints. The procedure involved tongue trills with or without TENS for 3 minutes, rest and repeating the technique for another 2 minutes. The participants' voices were recorded before (Pre), after three minutes (Post 3min) and after two additional minutes (Post 5min) applying the technique. TENS with two electrodes was used on the thyroid cartilage. Self-assessment, acoustic and perceptual analysis were performed. When comparing tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS, a greater sense of stability in phonation (self-assessment) and improvement in voice quality (perceptual evaluation) was observed in the combination technique. There was no statistical difference in acoustics findings between tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS. When comparing the time effect of tongue trills with TENS in self-assessment there was a perception of less muscle tension (3min) and greater comfort during phonation (5 min); in the acoustic analysis, there was an increase of F0 (3 and 5 min) and intensity (5 min) when compared to Pre-moment; in the perceptual evaluation, better voice quality (3min). Comparing tongue trills in isolation and associated with TENS, there were changes in the comfort and muscle tension perception, as well as in vocal quality. On the other hand, tongue trills associated with TENS performed in 3 or 5 minutes resulted in beneficial effects on the voice identified in the assessments.

  16. Pulmonary effects of immediate versus deferred antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunisaki, Ken M; Niewoehner, Dennis E; Collins, Gary

    2016-01-01

    , with CD4 T-cell counts of more than 500 per μL, not receiving treatment for asthma, and without recent respiratory infections (baseline COPD was not an exclusion criterion). Participants were randomly assigned to receive ART (an approved drug combination derived from US Department of Health and Human...... years. We analysed data on an intention-to-treat basis, and planned separate analyses in smokers and non-smokers because of the known effects of smoking on FEV1 decline. The substudy was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01797367. FINDINGS: Between March 11, 2010, and Aug 23, 2013, we enrolled...

  17. Immediate effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on knee joint moments in women with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Taniguchi, Masashi; Takagi, Yui; Goto, Yusuke; Otsuka, Naoki; Koyama, Yumiko; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2014-01-01

    Footwear modification can beneficially alter knee loading in patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study evaluated the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology shoes on reductions in external knee moments in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used to examine the effect of Masai Barefoot Technology versus control shoes on the knee adduction and flexion moments in 17 women (mean age, 63.6 years) with radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis. The lateral and anterior trunk lean values, knee flexion and adduction angles, and ground reaction force were also evaluated. The influence of the original walking pattern on the changes in knee moments with Masai Barefoot Technology shoes was evaluated. The knee flexion moment in early stance was significantly reduced while walking with the Masai Barefoot Technology shoes (0.25±0.14Nm/kgm) as compared with walking with control shoes (0.30±0.19 Nm/kgm); whereas the knee adduction moment showed no changes. Masai Barefoot Technology shoes did not increase compensatory lateral and anterior trunk lean. The degree of knee flexion moment in the original walking pattern with control shoes was correlated directly with its reduction when wearing Masai Barefoot Technology shoes by multiple linear regression analysis (adjusted R2=0.44, PTechnology shoes reduced the knee flexion moment during walking without increasing the compensatory trunk lean and may therefore reduce external knee loading in women with knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The immediate and short-term effects of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes on verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, Christoph; Gielen, Gerrit H; Witt, Juri-Alexander

    2018-02-07

    In contrast to previous studies, Ljung et al. provide evidence of permanent cognitive consequences of bilateral intrahippocampal depth electrodes for verbal memory in patients who were not operated or operated in the right temporal lobe. Stimulated by this, we provide historical confirmatory and supplementary evidence of the detrimental effect of bilateral depth electrodes implanted along the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus on verbal learning and especially on delayed verbal memory and recognition performance. This is demonstrated in 31 patients with memory assessments before implantation, after explantation, and 3 months later after left/right temporal lobe surgery. After surgery, significant recovery from postimplantation impairment is found in right temporal patients. Left temporal resection patients stay on the level seen after implantation and do not recover. Surgery, however, has its own effects in addition to the implantation. Intracranial electrodes for electroencephalographic monitoring or electrical stimulation are commonly and increasingly used for diagnosis or treatment in pharmacoresistant epilepsies. Thus, the monitoring of invasive stereotactic approaches is recommended to find safe procedures for the patients. In response to the findings, we restricted indications and used different implantation schemes, different trajectories, and targets to minimize the risk of additional damage. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 International League Against Epilepsy.

  19. The effect of congruence in policy priorities on electoral participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes that voters are more likely to turn out at elections if candidates and parties address their issue concerns in the election campaign. Voters with high levels of congruence in policy priorities should perceive the campaign as more interesting and the election as more relevant....... In addition, the costs associated with the vote choice should be lower if voters' policy priorities are salient. The effect should be weakened by party identification, which acts both as a mobilising force and as a heuristic to the vote choice, making information costs less detrimental to turnout...

  20. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of Kinesio Taping Tightness in Mechanical Low Back Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco-Roldán, Olga; Riquelme, Inmaculada; Ferragut-Garcías, Alejandro; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Ángel

    2018-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the best technique for applying Kinesio Taping (KT), and the theory supporting that skin convolutions may explain its efficacy has recently been challenged. To compare the immediate and short-term effectiveness of KT tightness on mechanosensitivity and spinal mobility in nonspecific low back pain (LBP), and to observe the influence of gender in the outcome measures. Double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. University-based clinical research center. A total of 75 individuals with a mean age of 33 years (±7.4 years), 60% female and 40% male, with nonspecific LBP were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of the following study groups: standard KT tension (n = 26), increased KT tension (n = 25), and no KT tension (n = 24). All participants received a two I-strip taping over the paravertebral muscles for 24 hours. Paper-off tension (15%-25% of the available stretch) was used in the standard KT group, which was increased to 40% in the increased KT tension group. The rest of participants received a taping procedure with no KT tension. Measurements were taken at baseline, immediately after the taping, 24 hours after the taping, and after KT removal. The primary outcome included pressure pain thresholds over the erector spinae and gluteus medius muscles. The secondary outcome was lumbar mobility (assessed with a digital inclinometer, and back-saver sit-and-reach, finger-to-floor, and sit-and-reach tests). In the between-groups analysis of the mean score changes after baseline assessment, no significant differences were found for any of the outcome measures (P > .05) except the left back-saver sit-and-reach test (P = .03). A statistically significant interaction group × gender × time was observed only for mechanosensitivity values (P = .02 for the gluteus and P = .01 for the erector spinae). KT tightness does not seem to influence pain sensitivity and lumbar mobility in chronic LBP in either the immediate or short term. II. Copyright

  1. Differential immediate and sustained memory enhancing effects of alpha7 nicotinic receptor agonists and allosteric modulators in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten S Thomsen

    Full Text Available The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR is a potential target for the treatment of cognitive deficits in patients with schizophrenia, ADHD and Alzheimer's disease. Here we test the hypothesis that upregulation of α7 nAChR levels underlies the enhanced and sustained procognitive effect of repeated administration of α7 nAChR agonists. We further compare the effect of agonists to that of α7 nAChR positive allosteric modulators (PAMs, which do not induce upregulation of the α7 nAChR. Using the social discrimination test as a measure of short-term memory, we show that the α7 nAChR agonist A-582941 improves short-term memory immediately after repeated (7× daily, but not a single administration. The α7 nAChR PAMs PNU-120596 and AVL-3288 do not affect short-term memory immediately after a single or repeated administration. This demonstrates a fundamental difference in the behavioral effects of agonists and PAMs that may be relevant for clinical development. Importantly, A-582941 and AVL-3288 increase short-term memory 24 hrs after repeated, but not a single, administration, suggesting that repeated administration of both agonists and PAMs may produce sustained effects on cognitive performance. Subsequent [(125I]-bungarotoxin autoradiography revealed no direct correlation between α7 nAChR levels in frontal cortical or hippocampal brain regions and short-term memory with either compound. Additionally, repeated treatment with A-582941 did not affect mRNA expression of RIC-3 or the lynx-like gene products lynx1, lynx2, PSCA, or Ly6H, which are known to affect nAChR function. In conclusion, both α7 nAChR agonists and PAMs exhibit sustained pro-cognitive effects after repeated administration, and altered levels of the α7 nAChR per se, or that of endogenous regulators of nAChR function, are likely not the major cause of this effect.

  2. The immediate effects of lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current on pressure sense threshold and tactile sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefinejad, Amin Kordi; Motealleh, Alireza; Abbasnia, Keramatollah

    2016-01-01

    Iontophoresis is the noninvasive delivery of ions using direct current. The direct current has some disadvantages such as skin burning. Interferential current is a kind of alternating current without limitations of direct current; so the purpose of this study is to investigate and compare the effects of lidocaine, interferential current and lidocaine iontophoresis using interferential current. 30 healthy women aged 20-24 years participated in this randomized clinical trial study. Pressure, tactile and pain thresholds were evaluated before and after the application of treatment methods. Pressure, tactile and pain sensitivity increased significantly after the application of lidocaine alone (p interferential current (p interferential current can increase perception threshold of pain, tactile stimulus and pressure sense more significantly than lidocaine and interferential current alone.

  3. Immediate effects of breath holding maneuvers onto composition of exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukul, Pritam; Trefz, Phillip; Schubert, Jochen K; Miekisch, Wolfram

    2014-09-01

    Rapid concentration changes due to physiological or pathophysiological effects rather than appearance of unique disease biomarkers are important for clinical application of breath research. Simple maneuvers such as breath holding may significantly affect breath biomarker concentrations. In this study, exhaled volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations were assessed in real time before and after different breath holding maneuvers. Continuous breath-resolved measurements (PTR-ToF-MS-8000) were performed in 31 healthy human subjects in a side-stream sampling mode. After 1 min of tidal breathing participants held their breath for 10, 20, 40, 60 s and as long as possible. Afterwards they continued to breathe normally for another minute. VOC profiles could be monitored in real time by assigning online PTR-ToF-MS data to alveolar or inspired phases of breath. Sudden and profound changes of exhaled VOC concentrations were recorded after different breath holding maneuvers. VOC concentrations returned to base line levels 10-20 s after breath holding. Breath holding induced concentration changes depended on physico-chemical properties of the substances. When substance concentrations were normalized onto end-tidal CO2 content, variation of acetone concentrations decreased, whereas variations of isoprene concentrations were not affected. As the effects of breathing patterns on exhaled substance concentrations depend on individual substance properties, sampling procedures have to be validated for each compound by means of appropriate real-time analysis. Normalization of exhaled concentrations onto exhaled CO2 is only valid for substances having similar physico-chemical properties as CO2.

  4. European Energy Policy and Its Effects on Gas Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Victorita Stefana Anda

    The goal of this study is to examine the effects of the energy policies of the European Union (EU) on its gas security in the period 2006 to 2016. While energy security is often given a broad meaning, this paper focuses on its external dimension: the EU?s relations with external gas suppliers. It is grounded on four pillars drawing from the compounded institutionalist and liberal theoretical frameworks: regulatory state, rational-choice, external governance, and regime effectiveness. The research question was investigated through a qualitative methodology with two main components: a legislative analysis and four case studies representing the main gas supply options--Russia, North African exporting countries, Norway, and liquefied natural gas (LNG). They highlighted that the EU framed the need for gas security mainly in the context of political risks associated with Russian gas supply, but it almost never took into account other equally important risks. Moreover, the research revealed two main issues. First, that the deeper and the more numerous EU?s energy policies were, the bigger was the magnitude of the effect. Specifically, competitiveness and infrastructure policies had the largest magnitude, while the sustainability and security of supply policies had the smallest effect. Second, EU energy policies only partially diminished the economic and political risks in relation to foreign gas suppliers. To conclude, to a certain extent the EU?s efforts made a positive contribution to the external dimension of the EU?s gas security, but the distinguishing trait remains that there is no consistency in terms of the magnitude of the effect and its nature.

  5. Cost effectiveness of GHG mitigation options and policy implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, K. S. [Korea Institute for Industrial Economics and Trade, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-04-01

    This paper represents the summary findings and conclusions of several studies implemented about microeconomics and macroeconomics marginal costs of GHG abatement policies. Financial, economic, and, where possible, environmental microeconomics costs of reducing GHGs are estimated by a World Bank team. Six energy-related CO{sub 2} mitigation policy options are applied to estimate the macroeconomics costs of GHG emission reduction, the macroeconomics impacts on the Chinese economy. In terms of policy, conservation is a better option to cope with a restrictive mitigation constraint, assuming a developing country can achieve planned energy-saving targets. Without a CO{sub 2} emission constraint or with less restrictive CO{sub 2} emission constraints, however, the simulation results indicate that a conservation strategy may be less attractive than fuel substitution in a developing country, mainly due to the economic dampening effect of reduced production in the energy sectors. This finding suggests that an often-cited costless or negative-cost energy conservation policy may not be a better option when a less restrictive mitigation target is in force. This does not mean that the potential for energy efficiency improvements in a developing country is not worthwhile, but that the overall macroeconomics impacts should be considered before implementing the policy option. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Effects of immediate post-operative pain medication on length of hospital stay: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamadicy, Aladine A; Adogwa, Owoicho; Fialkoff, Jared; Vuong, Victoria D; Mehta, Ankit I; Vasquez, Raul A; Cheng, Joseph; Bagley, Carlos A; Karikari, Isaac O

    2017-06-01

    Patient reported outcomes and length of hospital stay (LOS) are being used as a proxy for hospital care. An extra day of hospitalization costs thousands of health care dollars. The choice of intraoperative pain medications has been associated with decreased pain scores in other surgical subspecialties. However, the effects of immediate post-operative patient-controlled analgesics (PCA)/intravenous (IV) pain medication on patient care are not well understood in spine surgery. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of different immediate post-operative pain medications on post-operative complications profile, LOS, and patient reported outcomes (PROs) after elective spine surgery. The medical records of 230 patients (morphine: n=98, fentanyl: n=61, hydromorphone: n=71) undergoing elective spine surgery at a major academic medical center were reviewed. Patients were categorized by the immediate post-operative pain medication they were on, with the most common medications being PCA/IV morphine, fentanyl, and hydromorphone. Patient demographics, comorbidities, and post-operative complication rates were collected. All patients had retrospectively collected outcomes measures and a minimum of 6-month follow up. Patient reported outcomes instruments [Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), SF-36 and Neck/Back/Leg-Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS-NP/BP/LP)] were completed before surgery, then at 3- and 6-month after surgery. Baseline characteristics were similar in all cohorts. Operative variables were also similar in all cohorts, with no difference in operative time, estimated blood loss (EBL), or fusion levels. Complication rates were similar between cohorts, with the fentanyl-cohort having an increased percentage of urinary tract infection (UTI) than the morphine and hydromorphone cohorts (16.39% vs. 5.15% vs. 5.63%, P=0.0277). The morphine-cohort had a decreased LOS than the fentanyl and hydromorphone cohorts (4.18 vs. 5.56 vs. 5.69 days, P=0.0376). There was a

  7. Short- and long-term memory contributions to immediate serial recognition: evidence from serial position effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Harry; Jarrold, Christopher

    2010-04-01

    A long-standing body of research supports the existence of separable short- and long-term memory systems, relying on phonological and semantic codes, respectively. The aim of the current study was to measure the contribution of long-term knowledge to short-term memory performance by looking for evidence of phonologically and semantically coded storage within a short-term recognition task, among developmental samples. Each experimental trial presented 4-item lists. In Experiment 1 typically developing children aged 5 to 6 years old showed evidence of phonologically coded storage across all 4 serial positions, but evidence of semantically coded storage at Serial Positions 1 and 2. In a further experiment, a group of individuals with Down syndrome was investigated as a test case that might be expected to use semantic coding to support short-term storage, but these participants showed no evidence of semantically coded storage and evidenced phonologically coded storage only at Serial Position 4, suggesting that individuals with Down syndrome have a verbal short-term memory capacity of 1 item. Our results suggest that previous evidence of semantic effects on "short-term memory performance" does not reflect semantic coding in short-term memory itself, and provide an experimental method for researchers wishing to take a relatively pure measure of verbal short-term memory capacity, in cases where rehearsal is unlikely.

  8. The effect of immediate surgical bipolar plasmakinetic transurethral resection of the prostate on prostatic hyperplasia with acute urinary retention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Ye He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of immediate surgical bipolar plasmakinetic transurethral resection of the prostate (PK-TURP for patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH with acute urinary retention (AUR. We conducted a retrospective analysis of clinical data of BPH patients who received PK-TURP. A total of 1126 BPH patients were divided into AUR (n = 348 and non-AUR groups (n = 778. After the urethral catheters were removed, the urine white blood cell (WBC count in the AUR group significantly increased compared with the non-AUR group (P < 0.01. However, there was no significant difference in international prostate symptom score, painful urination, and maximal urinary flow rate. The duration of hospitalization of the AUR group was longer than that of the non-AUR group (P < 0.001. A total of 87.1% (303/348 patients in the AUR group and 84.1% (654/778 patients in the non-AUR group completed all of the postoperative follow-up visits. The incidence of urinary tract infection in the AUR group within 3 months after surgery was significantly higher than that in the non-AUR group (P < 0.01. The incidence of temporary urinary incontinence in the AUR group did not exhibit significant difference. During 3-12 months after surgery, there were no significant differences in major complications between the two groups. Multivariate regression analyses showed that age, postvoid residual, maximal urinary flow rate, diabetes, and hypertension, but not the presence of AUR, were independent predictors of IPSS post-PK-TURP. In conclusion, immediate PK-TURP surgery on patients accompanied by AUR was safe and effective.

  9. What are the most effective early response strategies and interventions to assess and address the immediate needs of children outside of family care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil; Wessells, Mike; Williamson, John; Huebner, Gillian; Canter, Kelly; Rolland, Eduardo Garcia; Kutlesic, Vesna; Bader, Farah; Diaw, Lena; Levine, Maya; Malley, Anita; Michels, Kathleen; Patel, Sonali; Rasa, Tanya; Ssewamala, Fred; Walker, Vicki

    2012-10-01

    Children outside of family care face increased risk of threats to their well-being, have lower educational achievement, and experience adverse developmental outcomes. While it is generally accepted that early response and intervention is critical to reducing the risk of harm for children who have been separated from their families, it is not always clear what the most effective early response strategies are for assessing and addressing their immediate needs. The purpose of this review was to identify evidence-based early response strategies and interventions for improving the outcomes of children outside of family care, including children of and on the street, institutionalized children, trafficked children, children affected by conflict and disaster, and who are exploited for their labor. A multi-phased, systematic evidence review was conducted on peer-reviewed and gray literature, which yielded a total of 101 documents that met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. Overall there is a weak evidence base regarding assessment and early response interventions for children living outside of family care. Few studies included careful outcome measures or comparison groups. Although few proven interventions emerged, the review identified several promising early interventions and approaches. In emergency settings, family tracing and reunification is a highly effective response in regard to separated children, whereas placing children in institutional care is problematic, with the possible exception of time-limited placements of formerly recruited children in interim care centers. Livelihood supports are promising in regard to preventing and responding to children living outside family care. Other promising interventions include psychosocial support, including the use of traditional cleansing rituals as appropriate, educational supports such as Child Friendly Spaces, the maintenance of family connectedness for children of or on the streets, the use of community

  10. Effect of the Online Game Shutdown Policy on Internet Use, Internet Addiction, and Sleeping Hours in Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyun; Cho, Hyunseok; Lee, Seungmin; Kim, Juyeong; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2018-02-09

    Internet addiction has emerged as a major public health problem worldwide. In November 2011, the South Korean government implemented an online game shutdown policy, lasting from 12:00 to 6:00 am, as a means of preventing Internet addiction in adolescents aged 15 or below. This study analyzed the effect of this shutdown policy on adolescent Internet use, addiction, and sleeping hours. We analyzed data collected from the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey from 2011 to 2015. Respondents were divided into two groups by age: aged 15 or below (male = 76,048, female = 66,281) and aged 16 or above (male = 52,568, female = 49,060). A difference-in-difference analysis was used to evaluate the effect of this shutdown policy. In 2012, which is immediately following policy enforcement, daily amount of Internet use (in minutes) decreased more in adolescents affected by the policy (i.e., the aged 15 or below group). However, it steadily increased in 2013, 2014, 2015, and showed no meaningful long-term improvements 4 years after policy implementation (-3.648 minutes in 2012 [p = .001], -3.204 minutes in 2013 [p = .011], -1.140 minutes in 2014 [p = .384], and 2.190 minutes in 2015 [p = .107]). The shutdown policy did not alter Internet addiction or sleeping hours. Interestingly, female adolescents, adolescents with low academic performance, and adolescents with low exercise levels exhibited comparatively stronger and longer lasting initial declines in Internet usage. The shutdown policy had practically insignificant effects in reducing Internet use for target adolescents. Thus, policymakers aiming to reduce or prevent Internet addiction should use different strategies. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immediate recall influences the effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional episodic long-term memory consolidation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Oliver T

    2012-05-01

    The stress-associated activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis influences memory. Several studies have supported the notion that post-learning stress enhances memory consolidation, while pre-retrieval stress impairs retrieval. Findings regarding the effects of pre-encoding stress, in contrast, have been rather inconsistent. In the current two studies, the impact of an immediate retrieval task on these effects was explored. In the first study, 24 healthy young male participants were exposed to a psychosocial laboratory stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control condition before viewing positive, negative, and neutral photographs, which were accompanied by a brief narrative. Immediate as well as delayed (24 h later) free recall was assessed. Stress was expected to enhance emotional long-term memory without affecting immediate recall performance. Stress caused a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations but had no significant effects on immediate or delayed retrieval performance, even though a trend toward poorer memory of the stress group was apparent. Based on these findings, the second experiment tested the hypothesis that the beneficial effects of stress on emotional long-term memory performance might be abolished by an immediate recall test. In the second study (n = 32), the same design was used, except for the omission of the immediate retrieval test. This time stressed participants recalled significantly more negative photographs compared to the control group. The present study indicates that an immediate retrieval attempt of material studied after stress exposure can prevent or even reverse the beneficial effects of pre-encoding stress on emotional long-term memory consolidation.

  12. Immediate effects of Alpha/theta and Sensory-Motor Rhythm feedback on music performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruzelier, J H; Hirst, L; Holmes, P; Leach, J

    2014-07-01

    This is one of a series of investigations comparing two EEG-neurofeedback protocols - Alpha/theta (A/T) and Sensory-Motor Rhythm (SMR) - for performance enhancement in the Arts, here with the focus on music. The original report (Egner and Gruzelier, 2003) established a beneficial outcome for elite conservatoire musicians following A/T training in two investigations. Subsequently this A/T advantage was replicated for both advanced instrumental and novice singing abilities, including improvisation, while SMR training benefited novice performance only (Gruzelier, Holmes et al., 2014). Here we report a replication of the latter study in university instrumentalists who as before were novice singers with one design change - post-training performances were conducted within the tenth final session instead of on a subsequent occasion. As before expert judges rated the domains of Creativity/Musicality, Communication/Presentation and Technique. The proximity to training of the music performances within the last session likely compromised gains from A/T learning, but perhaps reinforced the impact of SMR training efficacy. In support of validation there was evidence of strong within- and across-session A/T learning and positive linear trends for across-session SMR/theta and SMR/beta-2 ratio learning. In support of mediation learning correlated with music performance. The A/T outcome was markedly discrepant from previous studies and should dispel any impression that the hypnogogic state itself is transferred to the performance context. The effects of SMR ratio training are consistent with an impact on lower-order abilities required in novice performance such as sustained attention and memory, and benefiting all three domains of music assessment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of immediate and delayed loading on peri-implant trabecular structures: a cone beam CT evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Van Dessel, Jeroen; Liang, Xin; Depypere, Maarten; Zhong, Weijian; Ma, Guowu; Lambrichts, Ivo; Maes, Frederik; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2014-12-01

    To develop a method for characterizing trabecular bone microarchitecture using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and to evaluate trabecular bone changes after rehabilitation using immediate versus delayed implant protocols. Six mongrel dogs randomly received 27 titanium implants in the maxillary incisor or mandibular premolar areas, following one of four protocols: (1) normal extraction socket healing; (2) immediate implant placement and immediate loading; (3) delayed implant placement and delayed loading; (4) delayed implant placement and immediate loading. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks, and block biopsies were scanned using high resolution CBCT. Standard bone structural variables were assessed in coronal, middle, and apical levels. Coronal and middle regions had more compact, more platelike, and thicker trabeculae. Protocols (2), (3), and (4) had significantly higher values (p implant protocols have an improved bone structural integration. Results do not suggest a different bone remodeling pattern when a delayed versus an immediate implant protocol is used. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Government patent policy: An analysis of the effects of three alternative patent policies on technology of goverment inventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matousek, M.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of present and proposed Government patent policies on the process of technology transfer and the commercialization of inventions resulting from Government sponsored research are addressed. The function of the patent system in Government research and the value of patents resulting from government sponsored research are examined. Three alternative patent policies, title in the contractor, title in the Government, and the waiver policy, are examined in terms of their effect on the commercialization of inventions, industrial competitions, disclosure of inventions, participation of research contractors and administrative costs. Efforts to reform the present Government patent policy are also described.

  15. IMMEDIATE EFFECTS OF INVERSE RATIO BREATHING VERSUS DIAPHRAGMATIC BREATHING ON INSPIRATORY VITAL CAPACITY AND THORACIC EXPANSION IN ADULT HEALTHY FEMALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshipra Baban Pedamkar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The normal inspiratory to expiratory ratio is 1:2.However, the duration of inspiration can be increased voluntarily till the ratio becomes 2:1.This is called as inverse ratio breathing. The effects of inverse ratio ventilation have been studied on patients with respiratory failure and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. No studies have been carried out to study the effects of inverse ratio breathing in voluntarily breathing individuals. Hence this study was carried out to find the immediate effects of inverse ratio breathing versus diaphragmatic breathing on inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion. Methods: 30 healthy adult females in the age group 20-25 years were included in the study. Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostal space was measured using a digital spirometer and an inelastic inch tape respectively. Diaphragmatic breathing was administered for one minute and the same parameters were measured again. A washout period of one day was given and same outcome measures were measured before and after individuals performed inverse ratio breathing with the help of a visual feedback video for one minute. Results: Data was analysed using Wilcoxon test. There was extremely significant difference between the mean increase in the inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion at the 2nd, 4th and 6th intercostals space after inverse ratio breathing as compared to diaphragmatic breathing (p < 0.0001. Conclusion: Inspiratory vital capacity and thoracic expansion increase significantly after inverse ratio breathing.

  16. The immediate effect of a brief energy psychology intervention (Emotional Freedom Techniques) on specific phobias: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Martha M; Brooks, Audrey J; Rowe, Jack E

    2011-01-01

    Specific phobia is one of the most prevalent anxiety disorders. Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) has been shown to improve anxiety symptoms; however, their application to specific phobias has received limited attention. This pilot study examined whether EFT, a brief exposure therapy that combines cognitive and somatic elements, had an immediate effect on the reduction of anxiety and behavior associated with specific phobias. The study utilized a crossover design with participants randomly assigned to either diaphragmatic breathing or EFT as the first treatment. The study was conducted at a regional university in the Southwestern United States. Twenty-two students meeting criteria for a phobic response to a specific stimulus (≥8 on an 11-point subjective units of distress scale). Participants completed a total of five two-minute rounds in each treatment intervention. Study measures included a behavioral approach test (BAT), Subjective Units of Distress Scale (SUDS), and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Emotional Freedom Techniques significantly reduced phobia-related anxiety (BAI P = .042; SUDS P = .002) and ability to approach the feared stimulus (BAT P = .046) whether presented as an initial treatment or following diaphragmatic breathing. When presented as the initial treatment, the effects of EFT remained through the presentation of the comparison intervention. The efficacy of EFT in treating specific phobias demonstrated in several earlier studies is corroborated by the current investigation. Comparison studies between EFT and the most effective established therapies for treating specific phobias are recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of policy incentives on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langbroek, Joram H.M.; Franklin, Joel P.; Susilo, Yusak O.

    2016-01-01

    In order to increase the attractiveness of electric vehicles (EVs), packages of policy incentives are provided in many countries. However, it is still unclear how effective different policy incentives are. Also, it is questionable that they have the same impact on different groups of people. In this study, based on a stated-choice experiment, the effect of several potential policy incentives on EV-adoption, as well as the influence of socio-psychological determinants are investigated, using constructs of the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM) and the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT). The probability of stated EV-adoption increases if policy incentives are offered in the choice experiment, which is expected because of the decrease of the generalized cost of EV-use. The high stated valuation of free parking or access to bus lanes makes those incentives an efficient alternative to expensive subsidies. EV-adoption probability increases for people that are further in the process of behavioural change. However, the responsiveness to subsidies decreases for people in more advanced stages-of-change. People that believe EVs to be effective in decreasing the negative externalities of the current transport system and people whose travel patterns can cope with the use of EVs also have a higher probability to choose the EV. - Highlights: •Policy incentives have a positive influence on electric vehicle adoption. •Being in advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption increases likelihood to adopt EVs. •People in more advanced stages-of-change to EV-adoption are less price-sensitive. •People with a high self-efficacy and response efficacy are more likely to adopt EVs.

  18. Noncontrast chest computed tomography immediately after transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: clinical benefits and effect of radiation reduction on image quality in low-dose scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joon-Il; Kim, Hyun Beom; Kim, Min Ju; Lee, Jong Seok; Koh, Young Whan; An, Sang Bu; Ko, Heung-kyu; Park, Joong-Won

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the clinical benefits of noncontrast chest computed tomography (CT) immediately after transarterial chemoembolization in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and to assess the effect of radiation reduction on image quality in low-dose scanning. From June to October 2010, we performed standard-dose, noncontrast chest CTs immediately after transarterial chemoembolization in 160 patients and low-dose CTs in 88 patients. We reviewed the entire noncontrast chest CTs and follow-up CTs to reveal the clinical benefits of CT evaluation immediately after transarterial chemoembolization. Using two independent readers, we also retrospectively evaluated the radiation dose and image quality in terms of the image noise, contrast between the liver parenchyma and iodized oil and diagnostic acceptability for the evaluation of treatment response after transarterial chemoembolization. In 5.2% of the patients, additional treatment was performed immediately after the interpretation of the noncontrast chest CT, and additional pulmonary lesions were found in 8.5% of the patients. The measured mean dose-length product for the low-dose scanning was 18.4% of that of the standard-dose scanning. The image noise was significantly higher with the low-dose scanning (pbenefits for immediate decision making and detecting pulmonary lesions. Low-dose, noncontrast chest CTs immediately after transarterial chemoembolization consistently provide diagnostically acceptable images and information on treatment response in patients who have undergone transarterial chemoembolization. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A literature review of the disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several low- and middle-income countries have exempted patients from user fees in certain categories of population or of services. These exemptions are very effective in lifting part of the financial barrier to access to services, but they have been organized within unstable health systems where there are sometimes numerous dysfunctions. The objective of this article is to bring to light the disruptions triggered by exemption policies in health systems of low- and middle-income countries. Methods Scoping review of 23 scientific articles. The data were synthesized according to the six essential functions of health systems. Results The disruptions included specifically: 1 immediate and significant increases in service utilization; 2 perceived heavier workloads for health workers, feelings of being exploited and overworked, and decline in morale; 3 lack of information about free services provided and their reimbursement; 4 unavailability of drugs and delays in the distribution of consumables; 5 unpredictable and insufficient funding, revenue losses for health centres, reimbursement delays; 6 the multiplicity of actors and the difficulty of identifying who is responsible (‘no blame’ game, and deficiencies in planning and communication. Conclusions These disruptive elements give us an idea of what is to be expected if exemption policies do not put in place all the required conditions in terms of preparation, planning and complementary measures. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of exemptions on all the functions of health systems because so few studies have been carried out from this perspective.

  20. A literature review of the disruptive effects of user fee exemption policies on health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Robert, Emilie; Meessen, Bruno

    2012-06-08

    Several low- and middle-income countries have exempted patients from user fees in certain categories of population or of services. These exemptions are very effective in lifting part of the financial barrier to access to services, but they have been organized within unstable health systems where there are sometimes numerous dysfunctions. The objective of this article is to bring to light the disruptions triggered by exemption policies in health systems of low- and middle-income countries. Scoping review of 23 scientific articles. The data were synthesized according to the six essential functions of health systems. The disruptions included specifically: 1) immediate and significant increases in service utilization; 2) perceived heavier workloads for health workers, feelings of being exploited and overworked, and decline in morale; 3) lack of information about free services provided and their reimbursement; 4) unavailability of drugs and delays in the distribution of consumables; 5) unpredictable and insufficient funding, revenue losses for health centres, reimbursement delays; 6) the multiplicity of actors and the difficulty of identifying who is responsible ('no blame' game), and deficiencies in planning and communication. These disruptive elements give us an idea of what is to be expected if exemption policies do not put in place all the required conditions in terms of preparation, planning and complementary measures. There is a lack of knowledge on the effects of exemptions on all the functions of health systems because so few studies have been carried out from this perspective.

  1. Pharmaceutical policies: effects of reference pricing, other pricing, and purchasing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Angela; Ciapponi, Agustín; Aaserud, Morten; Vietto, Valeria; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Kösters, Jan Peter; Vacca, Claudia; Machado, Manuel; Diaz Ayala, Diana Hazbeydy; Oxman, Andrew D

    2014-10-16

    Pharmaceuticals are important interventions that could improve people's health. Pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies are used as cost-containment measures to determine or affect the prices that are paid for drugs. Internal reference pricing establishes a benchmark or reference price within a country which is the maximum level of reimbursement for a group of drugs. Other policies include price controls, maximum prices, index pricing, price negotiations and volume-based pricing. To determine the effects of pharmaceutical pricing and purchasing policies on health outcomes, healthcare utilisation, drug expenditures and drug use. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), part of The Cochrane Library (including the Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group Register) (searched 22/10/2012); MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and MEDLINE, Ovid (searched 22/10/2012); EconLit, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); PAIS International, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); World Wide Political Science Abstracts, ProQuest (searched 22/10/2012); INRUD Bibliography (searched 22/10/2012); Embase, Ovid (searched 14/12/2010); NHSEED, part of The Cochrane Library (searched 08/12/2010); LILACS, VHL (searched 14/12/2010); International Political Science Abstracts (IPSA), Ebsco (searched (17/12/2010); OpenSIGLE (searched 21/12/10); WHOLIS, WHO (searched 17/12/2010); World Bank (Documents and Reports) (searched 21/12/2010); Jolis (searched 09/10/2011); Global Jolis (searched 09/10/2011) ; OECD (searched 30/08/2005); OECD iLibrary (searched 30/08/2005); World Bank eLibrary (searched 21/12/2010); WHO - The Essential Drugs and Medicines web site (browsed 21/12/2010). Policies in this review were defined as laws; rules; financial and administrative orders made by governments, non-government organisations or private insurers. To be included a study had to include an objective measure of at least one of the following outcomes: drug use

  2. The Evolution and Effect Evaluation of Photovoltaic Industry Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruyin Long

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The large scale of China’s photovoltaic (PV industry and the great policy support by the Chinese government make it necessary to scientifically evaluate PV industry policy. This study designed an evaluation framework for China’s PV industry policy from four dimensions (policy measure, policy type, policy strength, and policy issuing department to categorize and quantify China’s 307 PV industry policies from 1994 to 2016. Furthermore, the historical evolution and realistic effect of the policies on the PV industry in China were examined. The results show that, currently, grid support, operation specification, and operation supervision are the main policy measures, while a low-level notice is the main type of policy. The policy issued strength is generally low. The enforcement strength of regional policy presents descending trend from the northern to the southern provinces, and a similar trend from coastal provinces to inland provinces. The policy for grid support, operation specification, and technical specification has had the best effect. The most effective policy types are the sector-specific notices and announcements, and the best policy-issuing department is the National Energy Administration. In terms of policy strength, the policy for grid support, operation specification, and operation supervision has had a positive correlation with the development of the industry, although it did not achieve its desired effect.

  3. Immediate effects of reiki on heart rate variability, cortisol levels, and body temperature in health care professionals with burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar; García-Lafuente, Francisca; García-Royo, Carmen; Tomás-Rojas, Inmaculada

    2011-10-01

    Burnout is a work-related mental health impairment comprising three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Reiki aims to help replenish and rebalance the body's energetic system, thus stimulating the healing process. The objective of this placebo-controlled, repeated measures, crossover, single-blind, randomized trial was to analyze the immediate effects of Reiki on heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature, and salivary flow rate and cortisol level in health care professionals with burnout syndrome (BS). Participants included 21 health care professionals with BS, who were asked to complete two visits to the laboratory with a 1-week interval between sessions. They were randomly assigned the order in which they would receive a Reiki session applied by an experienced therapist and a placebo treatment applied by a therapist with no knowledge of Reiki, who mimicked the Reiki treatment. Temperature, Holter ECG recordings (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal interval [SDNN], square root of mean squared differences of successive NN intervals [RMSSD], HRV index, low frequency component [LF], and high frequency component [HF]), salivary flow rate and cortisol levels were measured at baseline and postintervention by an assessor blinded to allocation group. SDNN and body temperature were significantly higher after the Reiki treatment than after the placebo. LF was significantly lower after the Reiki treatment. The decrease in the LF domain was associated with the increase in body temperature. These results suggest that Reiki has an effect on the parasympathetic nervous system when applied to health care professionals with BS.

  4. Effects of Immediate Orthodontic and Orthopedic Forces on Peri-Miniscrew Bones: Histomorphologic and Histomorphometric Assessment in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Rismanchian, Mansour; Raji, Sayed Hamid; Teimori Rik, Danesh; Mohammad Razavi, Sayed; Khalighinejad, Navid; Goroohi, Hossein; Badrian, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was histomorphologic and histomorphometric evaluation of peri-screw bone after immediate orthodontic and orthopedic forces and comparing them with a control group. Materials and Methods. 18 dual-top miniscrews were inserted in the premolar region of three Iranian dogs. Screws were divided into three groups: (1) the first group undergoing immediate orthodontic force of 300?cN, (2) the second group undergoing immediate orthopedic force of 600?cN and (3) a control grou...

  5. [Cost-effectiveness of breast cancer screening policies in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia-Mendoza, Atanacio; Sánchez-González, Gilberto; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; Bertozzi, Stefano M

    2009-01-01

    Generate cost-effectiveness information to allow policy makers optimize breast cancer (BC) policy in Mexico. We constructed a Markov model that incorporates four interrelated processes of the disease: the natural history; detection using mammography; treatment; and other competing-causes mortality, according to which 13 different strategies were modeled. Strategies (starting age, % of coverage, frequency in years)= (48, 25, 2), (40, 50, 2) and (40, 50, 1) constituted the optimal method for expanding the BC program, yielding 75.3, 116.4 and 171.1 thousand pesos per life-year saved, respectively. The strategies included in the optimal method for expanding the program produce a cost per life-year saved of less than two times the GNP per capita and hence are cost-effective according to WHO Commission on Macroeconomics and Health criteria.

  6. Immediate effect of selective neuromuscular electrical stimulation on the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamilson Simões Brasileiro

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is described as an anterior or retropatellar knee pain in the absence of other associated diseases, and has often been associated with dysfunction of the vastus medialis oblique muscle (VMO. However, several studies have demonstrated the impossibility of selectively activating this muscle with exercises. The aim of the present study was to analyze the immediate effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation of VMO muscle by means of monitoring the electromyographic activity of the vastus medialis oblique (VMO and vastus lateralis (VL muscles. Eighteen healthy women with a mean age of 23.2 years and mean BMI of 20 Kg/m2 were evaluated. The study protocol included electromyographic analysis of VMO and VL muscles, before and immediately after neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the VMO muscle. During the electromyographic analysis, the volunteers performed maximal voluntary isometric contraction in a 60° knee extension on an isokinetic dynamometer. “Russian current” apparatus was used for electrical stimulation. Results: The data analysis demonstrated a signifi cant increase in VMO activation intensity immediately after it had been electrically stimulated (p=0.0125, whereas VL activation intensity exhibited no signifi cant increase (p=0.924. Moreover, a significant increase in the VMO/VL ratio was also detected (p=0.048. In this study it was observed that electrical stimulation modifiedthe VMO/VL ratio, which suggests electrical stimulation has a benefi cial effect on VMO muscle strength. Resumo A Síndrome da dor patelofemoral (SDPF é descrita como dor anterior ou retro-patelar do joelho na ausência de outras patologias associadas, sendo freqüentemente associada à disfunção do Vasto Medial Oblíquo (VMO. Entretanto, diversos estudos têm demonstrado a impossibilidade de ativar seletivamente este músculo através de exercícios. O objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar o efeito imediato da

  7. The effectiveness of anti-corruption policy: the Singapore experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinu MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Corruption is a problem that needs to be dealt with in both the public and private sectors. Singapore has adopted a comprehensive approach in tackling corruption in both sectors for a long time. The anti‐ corruption successes of Singapore have encouraged the establishment of strong, centralized anti‐corruption agencies across the globe. In this article, it is accentuated the importance of the effectiveness of anti-corruption policy in the general context of public administration in Singapore.

  8. Causal effects of alternative participation patterns: a labour policy application

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Alcina

    2009-01-01

    The Portuguese public labour market policy offers, to the registered unemployed individuals, not only the possibility of successive participation in different labour programmes but also the possibility to postpone that participation. Dynamic matching techniques allow to understand the causal effects of the above alternative participation patterns, as this paper shows. The compute results of a consecutive participation decision compared with the alternative postponed participation suggest a...

  9. Immediate effect of simulated sand mining on the variation of bacterial parameters in coastal waters of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fernandes, C.E.G.; Das, A.; Naik, S.S.; Sharma, R.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    The variation in bacterial parameters of coastal waters and sediments of Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, Maharashtra, India was examined for immediate response after simulated mining. Sampling was carried out at suction and disturbance points in the water...

  10. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environmental policy in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Yacoub Shamaileh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the impact of the environmental policy in Jordan. The article reviews laws, measures, instruments and the implementation process and evaluates their effectiveness in banning, removing and/or reducing negative externalities in Jordan. Data was collected by administration of questionnaires distributed to all key enforcement officials working in the Ministries of Environment, Agriculture, and Health. Additional sources were laws, regulations, official documents and reports issued by the government, international organizations, NGOs and media. The study shows that Jordan’s environmental policy relies solely on the command and control approach to mitigate negative externalities, while completely overlooking price-based and rights -based instruments. Such instruments are widely and increasingly employed in developed countries and have proved their efficiency and effectiveness in protecting the environment. The results of the study reveal that command and control measures are insufficient to achieve effective environmental policy and consequently are incapable of internalizing negative externalities in Jordan. The results may motivate government regulators to endorse price-based and rights-based measures, in addition to command and control measures.

  11. Effects of Immediate and Delayed Loading on the Outcomes of All-on-4 Treatment: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Najafi, Hossein; Siadat, Hakimeh; Akbari, Solmaz; Rokn, Amirreza

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of immediate and delayed rehabilitation of edentulous jaws by means of two straight and two tilted implants after one year of function.Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients (16 males, 14 females) were enrolled in this study. Two anterior straight and two posterior tilted implants were placed in each patient. According to the implant insertion torque and the need for bone grafting, implants were loaded immediately (...

  12. The Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care Immediately after Delivery on Mother-infant Attachment 3 Months after Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Zahra Karimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background  The aim of this study was determine the effect of kangaroo mother care (KMC immediately after delivery on mother-infant attachment 3-month after delivery. Materials and Methods: In this RCT study, 72 mother-infant pairs were randomly divided in to kangaroo mother care and routine care groups.The intervention group received kangaroo mother care (KMC in the first two hours post birth. The control group just received routine hospital care. Mothers in the intervention group were encouraged to keep the baby in KMC as much as possible during the day and night throughout the neonatal period. Participants were followed up for three months after birth. The Main outcome measure was mother-infant attachment at 3 months postpartum and maternal anxiety about the baby at the same time. The data was collected by questionnaire (demographic information of parents and neonates and maternal attachment scale. Analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 14. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding their baseline data. Mean maternal attachment score in the KMC group and in the routine care group at three months after delivery was 52.40±3.30 and 49.86±4.18 respectively, which was significantly higher in the KMC group (P

  13. Longitudinal and immediate effect of Kundalini Yoga on salivary levels of cortisol and activity of alpha-amylase and its effect on perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn N García-Sesnich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. Aims: To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. Settings and Design: To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. Subjects and Methods: The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro–Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T-test or Mann–Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P< 0.05. Results: KY practice had an immediate effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. Conclusions: KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  14. The policy responses to the Fukushima nuclear accident and their effect on Japanese energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Masatsugu; Hughes, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station received worldwide attention in March 2011; since then, much of the reporting has been limited to stories such as the state of the reactor, the trans-Pacific movement of flotsam caused by the tsunami, and the effect of the tsunami and accident on Japanese communities. Other than the closure of Japan's last operating reactor in May 2012, little has been discussed outside of Japan regarding the policies introduced in response by the Japanese government in its effort to maintain Japanese energy security and the effects on Japan's electricity suppliers and the Japanese people. This paper presents a detailed examination of the crisis-driven changes to policy and regulations instituted by the Japanese government and electricity suppliers in the immediate aftermath of the accident up to May 2012. The disruption to Japan's long-term energy policies is discussed in terms of the country's need to maintain its energy security. The paper also considers a number of different energy futures for Japan in light of the accident and how they could improve energy security in terms of availability, affordability, and acceptability. - Highlights: ► Since Fukushima, Japan's reactor capacity has dropped from almost 50 GW to zero. ► Emergency demand-reduction reduced TEPCO's 2011 summer peak by 18% compared to 2010. ► Restricting generation to non-nuclear sources affected Asian LNG and oil supplies. ► Nuclear technology will continue to play a role for Japanese electricity and exports

  15. A pilot study to investigate the effect of a hydration regime upon immediate and 24 h delayed MRI contrast agent reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, William; Marshall, Gill; Coals, Jacqui

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Adverse reaction rates to gadolinium based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents which occur immediately post-injection are well documented. However little research has investigated delayed reaction rates (i.e. 30 min-24 h). This study evaluated the rate of immediate and delayed adverse reaction rates to a gadolinium based MRI contrast agent (Dotarem) and investigated the effect of a hydration regime on the rate of adverse events. Method: Fifty-eight patients received no preparation, prior to administration of the contrast agent, whilst another 58 underwent a hydration protocol. The patients had their answers to a questionnaire recorded immediately after the scanning procedure and also via a follow-up telephone call 24 h later. Results: In the unprepared group 9 patients (15.5%) experienced immediate adverse events, i.e. within 0-30 min, whereas 24 (41.4%) experienced delayed reactions (30 min-24 h) after administration of the contrast agent. In the hydrated patient group 6 (10.3%) experienced an immediate adverse event, whilst 8 (13.7%) experienced delayed events post-injection. The difference in the total reaction rates for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant for immediate and delayed reactions. The difference in the rates of delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems with the injection site, for the unprepared and hydrated groups was statistically significant. Conclusion: An oral hydration regime administered to patients, both before and after MRI contrast agent administration significantly reduced the total number of immediate and delayed reactions. It also significantly reduced delayed headache, nausea, dizziness and problems at the injection site. Whilst this pilot study had methodological shortcomings, the strength of the relationship demonstrated are worthy of further investigation

  16. Information security policy: contributions from internal marketing for its effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ellwanger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Protecting sources of information has become a great challenge to the organizations, due to the advance of the information technologies, the integration between them and the constant stream of information that flows through the communication networks. The establishment of an Information Security Policy – PSI may resolve a part of the problems related to security, but it cannot totally solve them, since the human resources present in the internal environment of the organizations may spoil the effectiveness of the PSI. Given the importance of the human aspects in the context of the information security, the present work discusses the use of internal marketing as a management strategy in order to obtain or reestablish the commitment of the users to the principles defined in the PSI, and demonstrates, through an experimental research, the impact of using internal marketing techniques to the effectiveness of that policy. The results of this experiment make quantitatively evident how relevant the use of these techniques may be in order to have the procedures described in the PSI actually carried out by the users, and demonstrates a 402,4% increase in the support to the information security policy, considering the procedures indicated in the PSI that were totally executed.

  17. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smed Sinne

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10–30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  18. Cost-effective design of economic instruments in nutrition policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen D; Smed, Sinne

    2007-04-04

    This paper addresses the potential for using economic regulation, e.g. taxes or subsidies, as instruments to combat the increasing problems of inappropriate diets, leading to health problems such as obesity, diabetes 2, cardiovascular diseases etc. in most countries. Such policy measures may be considered as alternatives or supplements to other regulation instruments, including information campaigns, bans or enhancement of technological solutions to the problems of obesity or related diseases. 7 different food tax and subsidy instruments or combinations of instruments are analysed quantitatively. The analyses demonstrate that the average cost-effectiveness with regard to changing the intake of selected nutritional variables can be improved by 10-30 per cent if taxes/subsidies are targeted against these nutrients, compared with targeting selected food categories. Finally, the paper raises a range of issues, which need to be investigated further, before firm conclusions about the suitability of economic instruments in nutrition policy can be drawn.

  19. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest......, and in particular recognition of customary forest tenure through communal titles, which is more advantageous than the transfer of individual titles to households....

  20. Policy options for effective REDD+ implementation in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saito, Moeko; Sikor, T.; Kurniawan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia, which contains the third-largest area of tropical forest in the world, is currently exploring policy options for the effective implementation of REDD+, the global initiative to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. This article analyses the major questions regarding...... the effective distribution of benefits on the basis of three village case studies in Kutai Barat district in the province of East Kalimantan. The case studies demonstrate that companies are unlikely to take up compensation payments for stopping large-scale activities that cause deforestation and forest...

  1. Evolutionary and immediate effects of crude-oil pollution: depression of exploratory behaviour across populations of Trinidadian guppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquin, L; Dybwad, C; Rolshausen, G; Hendry, A P; Reader, S M

    2017-01-01

    Human-induced perturbations such as crude-oil pollution can pose serious threats to aquatic ecosystems. To understand these threats fully it is important to establish both the immediate and evolutionary effects of pollutants on behaviour and cognition. Addressing such questions requires comparative and experimental study of populations that have evolved under different levels of pollution. Here, we compared the exploratory, activity and social behaviour of four populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata) raised in common garden conditions for up to three generations. Two of these populations originated from tributaries with a long history of human-induced chronic crude-oil pollution with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons due to oil exploitation in Trinidad, the two others originating from non-polluted control sites. Laboratory-raised guppies from the oil-polluted sites were less exploratory in an experimental maze than guppies from the non-polluted sites and in a similar manner for the two independent rivers. We then compared the plastic behavioural responses of the different populations after an acute short-term experimental exposure to crude oil and found a decrease in exploration (but not in activity or shoaling) in the oil-exposed fish compared to the control subjects over all four populations. Taken together, these results suggest that both an evolutionary history with oil and an acute exposure to oil depressed guppy exploratory behaviour. We discuss whether the behavioural divergence observed represents adaptation to human-induced pollutants, the implications for conservation and the possible knock-on effects for information discovery and population persistence in fish groups.

  2. An investigation of the immediate and storage effects of chemical treatments on Campylobacter and sensory characteristics of poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, H; Walsh, D; McDowell, D A; Bolton, D J

    2013-09-02

    Campylobacteriosis is the most common foodborne bacterial infection in developed countries and many cases are associated with poultry. This study investigated the immediate and storage effect of dipping inoculated poultry skin samples in trisodium phosphate (TSP, 10 & 14%, w/v), lactic acid (LA, 1 & 5%, v/v), citric acid (CA, 1 & 5%, w/v), peroxyacids (POA, 100 & 200 ppm) and acidified sodium chlorite (ASC, 500 & 1200 ppm). Spray application was also tested using the higher concentrations in the laboratory. In a broiler processing plant the efficacy of using TSP (14%) and CA (5%) applied by immersion and spray was investigated using naturally contaminated carcasses and the effect of these treatments on the sensory attributes of a skin-on (drumstick) and skin-off (fillet) raw and cooked product was assessed using descriptive sensory analysis. In the laboratory, immersion in TSP (14%), LA (5%), CA (5%) and ASC (1200 ppm) significantly (Ppoultry meat. Spraying was ineffective even after storage. In the broiler processing plant, immersion in TSP (14%) or CA (5%) achieved Campylobacter reductions of 2.49 and 1.44 log10 cfu/cm(2), respectively. There were no significant differences between the treatments for any of the attributes measured in either raw or cooked drumsticks. The 'colour' of raw chicken fillets treated with both TSP (14%, w/v) and CA (5%, w/v) was significantly (P≤0.05) lighter than that of control samples. The 'intensity of chicken odour' and the perception of 'salt' in cooked chicken fillets treated with CA (5%, w/v) were also significantly (P≤0.05) higher than that of either control or TSP (14%, w/v) treated samples. It was concluded that TSP (14%) or CA (5%) could be applied to significantly reduce Campylobacter contamination of broilers without adversely affecting the sensory quality of the product. © 2013.

  3. The productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in health policy processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, K; Seear, K; Treloar, C; Ritter, A

    2017-03-01

    For over twenty years there have been calls for greater 'consumer' participation in health decision-making. While it is recognised by governments and other stakeholders that 'consumer' participation is desirable, barriers to meaningful involvement nonetheless remain. It has been suggested that the reifying of 'evidence-based policy' may be limiting opportunities for participation, through the way this discourse legitimates particular voices to the exclusion of others. Others have suggested that assumptions underpinning the very notion of the 'affected community' or 'consumers' as fixed and bounded 'policy publics' need to be problematised. In this paper, drawing on interviews (n = 41) with individuals closely involved in Australian drug policy discussions, we critically interrogate the productive techniques and constitutive effects of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' discourses in the context of drug policy processes. To inform our analysis, we draw on and combine a number of critical perspectives including Foucault's concept of subjugated knowledges, the work of feminist theorists, as well as recent work regarding conceptualisations of emergent policy publics. First, we explore how the subject position of 'consumer' might be seen as enacted in the material-discursive practices of 'evidence-based policy' and 'consumer participation' in drug policy processes. Secondly, we consider the centralising power-effects of the dominant 'evidence-based policy' paradigm, and how resistance may be thought about in this context. We suggest that such interrogation has potential to recast the call for 'consumer' participation in health policy decision-making and drug policy processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Health Care Reform for Children with Public Coverage: How Can Policymakers Maximize Gains and Prevent Harm? Timely Analysis of Immediate Health Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Genevieve M.; Dorn, Stan

    2009-01-01

    Moving toward universal coverage has the potential to increase access to care and improve the health and well-being of uninsured children and adults. The effects of health care reform on the more than 25 million children who currently have coverage under Medicaid or the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) are less clear. Increased parental…

  5. The Effect of Sterile Acellular Dermal Matrix Use on Complication Rates in Implant-Based Immediate Breast Reconstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ho Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction has been increasing. The current ADMs available for breast reconstruction are offered as aseptic or sterile. No published studies have compared aseptic and sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction. The authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate the outcomes of aseptic versus sterile ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction.MethodsImplant-based immediate breast reconstructions with ADM conducted between April 2013 and January 2016 were included. The patients were divided into 2 groups: the aseptic ADM (AlloDerm group and the sterile ADM (MegaDerm group. Archived records were reviewed for demographic data and postoperative complication types and frequencies. The complications included were infection, flap necrosis, capsular contracture, seroma, hematoma, and explantation for any cause.ResultsTwenty patients were reconstructed with aseptic ADM, and 68 patients with sterile ADM. Rates of infection (15.0% vs. 10.3%, flap necrosis (5.0% vs. 7.4%, capsular contracture (20.0% vs. 14.7%, seroma (10.0% vs. 14.7%, hematoma (0% vs. 1.5%, and explantation (10.0% vs. 8.8% were not significantly different in the 2 groups.ConclusionsSterile ADM did not provide better results regarding infectious complications than aseptic ADM in implant-based immediate breast reconstruction.

  6. Comparative effectiveness of immediate antiretroviral therapy versus CD4-based initiation in HIV-positive individuals in high-income countries: observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodi, Sara; Phillips, Andrew; Logan, Roger; Olson, Ashley; Costagliola, Dominique; Abgrall, Sophie; van Sighem, Ard; Reiss, Peter; Miró, José M.; Ferrer, Elena; Justice, Amy; Gandhi, Neel; Bucher, Heiner C.; Furrer, Hansjakob; Moreno, Santiago; Monge, Susana; Touloumi, Giota; Pantazis, Nikos; Sterne, Jonathan; Young, Jessica G.; Meyer, Laurence; Seng, Rémonie; Dabis, Francois; Vandehende, Marie-Anne; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Jarrín, Inma; Jose, Sophie; Sabin, Caroline; Hernán, Miguel A.; Ainsworth, J.; Anderson, J.; Babiker, A.; Delpech, V.; Dunn, D.; Easterbrook, P.; Fisher, M.; Gazzard, B.; Gilson, R.; Gompels, M.; Hill, T.; Johnson, M.; Leen, C.; Orkin, C.; Phillips, A.; Pillay, D.; Porter, K.; Sabin, C.; Walsh, J.; Glabay, A.; Thomas, R.; Jones, K.; Perry, N.; Pullin, A.; Churchill, D.; Bulbeck, S.; Mandalia, S.; Clarke, J.; Munshi, S.; Post, F.; Khan, Y.; Patel, P.; Karim, F.; Duffell, S.; Williams, I.; Dooley, D.; Schwenk, A.; Youle, M.; Lampe, F.; Chaloner, C.; Puradiredja, D. Ismajani; Bansi, L.; Weber, J.; Kemble, C.; Mackie, N.; Winston, A.; Wilson, A.; Bezemer, D. O.; Kesselring, A. M.; van Sighem, A. I.; Smit, C.; Zaheri, S.; Kortmann, W.; Prins, J. M.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Godfried, M. H.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Grijsen, M. L.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Vrouwe, Lieve; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Ziekenhuis, Andreas; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Lauw, F. N.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Bomers, M.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; Schippers, E. F.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Bravenboer, B.; Kootstra, G. J.; Sprenger, H. G.; Doedens, R.; van Assen, S.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Soetekouw, R.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; Jolink, H.; Bauer, M. P.; Weijer, S.; Lowe, S.; Lashof, A. Oude; Posthouwer, D.; Koopmans, P. P.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Nouwen, J. L.; Nispen, M. H.; Verbon, A.; Hassing, R. J.; Hartwig, N. G.; Ziekenhuis, Maasstad; Pogany, K.; Ziekenhuis, Sint Elisabeth; Juttmann, J. R.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Mudrikova, T.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Barth, R. E.; Kinderziekenhuis, Wilhelmina; Bont, L. J.; de Ruyter Ziekenhuis, Admiraal; Stegeman, A.; Alleman, M. A.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Abgrall, S.; Barin, F.; Bentata, M.; Billaud, E.; Boué, F.; Burty, C.; Cabié, A.; de Truchis, P.; Duval, X.; Duvivier, C.; Enel, P.; Fredouille-Heripret, L.; Gasnault, J.; Gaud, C.; Katlama, C.; Khuong, M. A.; Lang, J. M.; Lascaux, A. S.; Launay, O.; Mahamat, A.; Mary-Krause, M.; Meynard, J. L.; Pavie, J.; Pialoux, G.; Pilorgé, F.; Poizot-Martin, I.; Pradier, C.; Reynes, J.; Rouveix, E.; Simon, A.; Tissot-Dupont, H.; Viard, J. P.; Viget, N.; Jacquemet, N.; Costagliola, D.; Grabar, S.; Guiguet, M.; Lanoy, E.; Lièvre, L.; Lacombe, J. M.; Potard, V.; Pitié, G. H.; Bricaire, F.; Herson, S.; Desplanque, N.; Meyohas, M. C.; Picard, O.; Cadranel, J.; Mayaud, C.; Clauvel, J. P.; Decazes, J. M.; Gerard, L.; Molina, J. M.; Lariboisière-Fernand, G. H.; Honoré, P.; Jeantils, V.; Tassi, S.; Mechali, D.; Taverne, B.; Bouvet, E.; Ecobichon, J. L.; Matheron, S.; Picard-Dahan, C.; Yeni, P.; Dupont, C.; Chandemerle, C.; Mortier, E.; Tisne-Dessus, D.; Weiss, L.; Tarnier-Cochin, G. H.; Auperin, I.; Gilquin, J.; Roudière, L.; Fior, R.; Delfraissy, J. F.; Goujard, C.; Jung, C.; Vittecoq, D.; Fraisse, P.; Beck-Wirth, G.; Stahl, J. P.; Lecercq, P.; Gourdon, F.; Laurichesse, H.; Fresard, A.; Basse-Normandie, Corevih; Bazin, C.; Verdon, R.; Bourgogne, Corevih; Bretagne, Corevih; Arvieux, C.; Michelet, C.; Goudeau, A.; Maître, M. F.; Hoen, B.; Faller, J. P.; Haute-Normandie, Corevih; Borsa-Lebas, F.; Caron, F.; Daures, J. P.; Lorraine, Corevih; May, T.; Rabaud, C.; Berger, J. L.; Rémy, G.; Arlet-Suau, E.; Cuzin, L.; Massip, P.; Legrand, M. F. Thiercelin; Pontonnier, G.; de Calais, Corevih Nord-Pas; Yasdanpanah, Y.; Dellamonica, P.; Pugliese, P.; Quinsat, D.; Ravaux, I.; Tissot, H.; Delmont, J. P.; Moreau, J.; Gastaut, J. A.; Retornaz, F.; Soubeyrand, J.; Galinier, A.; Ruiz, J. M.; Allegre, T.; Blanc, P. A.; Bonnet, D.; Lepeu, G.; Granet-Brunello, P.; Esterni, J. P.; Cohen-Valensi, R.; Nezri, M.; Chadapaud, S.; Laffeuillade, A.; Raffi, F.; Boibieux, A.; Peyramond, D.; Livrozet, J. M.; Touraine, J. L.; Strobel, M.; Saint-Martin, C. H.; Bissuel, F.; Pradinaud, R.; Sobesky, M.; Martinique, Corevih; Guyon, Félix; Contant, M.; HC, Bucher; CA, Fux; HH, Hirsch; de Tejada B, Martinez; Casabona, J.; Miró, Jose M.; de Barcelona-Idibaps, Clínic; Gallois, A.; Esteve, A.; Podzamczer, D.; Murillas, J.; Gatell, J. M.; Manzardo, C.; Tural, C.; Clotet, B.; Ferrer, E.; Riera, M.; Segura, F.; Navarro, G.; Vilaró, J.; Masabeu, A.; García, I.; Guadarrama, M.; Cifuentes, C.; Dalmau, D.; Agustí, C.; Montoliu, A.; Pérez, I.; Gargoulas, Freyra; Blanco, J. L.; Garcia-Alcaide, F.; Martínez, E.; García-Goez, J. F.; Sirera, G.; Negredo, E.; Miranda, C.; Capitan, M. C.; Saumoy, M.; Imaz, A.; Tiraboschi, J. M.; Murillo, O.; Bolao, F.; Peña, C.; Cabellos, C.; Vila, A.; Sala, M.; Cervantes, M.; Amengual, Jose; Navarro, M.; Barrufet, P.; Molina, J.; Alvaro, M.; Mercadal, J.; Fernández, Juanse; Ospina, Jesús E.; Berenguer, J.; García, F.; Gutiérrez, F.; Labarga, P.; Moreno, S.; Caro-Murillo, A. M.; Sobrino, P.; Jarrín, I.; Sirvent, J. L. Gómez; Rodríguez, P.; Alemán, M. R.; Alonso, M. M.; López, A. M.; Hernández, M. I.; Soriano, V.; Barreiro, P.; Medrano, J.; Rivas, P.; Herrero, D.; Blanco, F.; Vispo, M. E.; Martín, L.; Ramírez, G.; Rubio, R.; Pulido, F.; Moreno, V.; Cepeda, C.; Iribarren, J. A.; Camino, X.; Rodríguez-Arrondo, F.; von Wichmann, M. A.; Pascual, L.; Goenaga, M. A.; Masiá, M.; Ramos, J. M.; Padilla, S.; Sánchez-Hellín, V.; Bernal, E.; Montolio, F.; Peral, Y.; Marañón, Gregorio; López, J. C.; Miralles, P.; Cosín, J.; Sánchez, M.; Gutiérrez, I.; Ramírez, M.; Padilla, B.; Vidal, F.; Veloso, S.; Viladés, C.; López-Dupla, M.; Olona, M.; Vargas, M.; Lacruz, J.; Salavert, M.; Montero, M.; Cuéllar, S.; Sanz, J.; Oteo, J. A.; Blanco, J. R.; Ibarra, V.; Metola, L.; Sanz, M.; Pérez-Martínez, L.; Sola, J.; Uriz, J.; Castiello, J.; Reparaz, J.; Arriaza, M. J.; Irigoyen, C.; Antela, A.; Casado, J. L.; Dronda, F.; Moreno, A.; Pérez, M. J.; López, D.; Gutiérrez, C.; Martí, P.; García, L.; Page, C.; Hernández, J.; Peña, A.; Muñoz, L.; Parra, J.; Viciana, P.; Leal, M.; López-Cortés, L. F.; Mata, R.; Justice, A. C.; Rimland, D.; Jones-Taylor, C.; Oursler, K. A.; Brown, S.; Garrison, S.; Rodriguez-Barradas, M.; Masozera, N.; Goetz, M.; Leaf, D.; Simberkoff, M.; Blumenthal, D.; Leung, J.; Peck, R.; Mattocks, K.; Braithwaite, S.; Cook, R.; Conigliaro, J.; Crothers, K.; Chang, J.; Crystal, S.; Day, N.; Erdos, J.; Freiberg, M.; Kozal, M.; Gerschenson, M.; Good, B.; Gordon, A.; Goulet, J. L.; Hernán, M. A.; Kraemer, K.; Lim, J.; Maisto, S.; O'Connor, P.; Papas, R.; Robins, J. M.; Rinaldo, C.; Roberts, M.; Samet, J.; Tierney, B.; Whittle, J.; Brettle, R.; Fidler, S.; Goldberg, D.; Hawkins, D.; Jaffe, H.; Johnson, A.; McLean, K.; Porter, Kholoud; Ewings, Fiona; Fairbrother, Keith; Gnatiuc, Louisa; Murphy, Brendan; Douglas, G.; Kennedy, N.; Pritchard, J.; Andrady, U.; Gwynedd, Ysbyty; Rajda, N.; Maw, R.; McKernan, S.; Drake, S.; Gilleran, G.; White, D.; Ross, J.; Toomer, S.; Hewart, R.; Wilding, H.; Woodward, R.; Dean, G.; Heald, L.; Horner, P.; Glover, S.; Bansaal, D.; Carne, C.; Browing, M.; Stanley, B.; O'Mahony, C.; Fraser, P.; Hayman, B.; Joshi, U.; Ralph, S.; Wade, A.; Mette, R.; Lalik, J.; Summerfield, H.; El-Dalil, A.; France, A. J.; White, C.; Robertson, R.; Gordon, S.; Lean, C.; Morris, S.; Vithayathil, K.; McLean, L.; Winter, A.; Gale, D.; Jacobs, S.; Tayal, S.; Short, L.; Williams, G.; Minton, J.; Dhar, J.; Nye, F.; DeSouza, C. B.; Isaksen, A.; McDonald, L.; Franca, A.; William, L.; Peters, B.; El, S.; Easterbrook, P. J.; Mazhude, C.; Johnstone, R.; Fakoya, A.; Mchale, J.; Waters, A.; Kegg, S.; Mitchell, S.; Byrne, P.; Rice, P.; Mullaney, S. A.; McCormack, S.; David, D.; Melville, R.; Phillip, K.; Balachandran, T.; Mabey, S.; Sukthankar, A.; Murphy, C.; Wilkins, E.; Ahmad, S.; Cook, James; Haynes, J.; Keynes, Milton; Evans, E.; Ong, E.; Das, R.; Grey, R.; Meaden, J.; Bignell, C.; Loay, D.; Peacock, K.; Eliot, George; Girgis, M. R.; Morgan, B.; Palfreeman, A.; Wilcox, J.; Tobin, J.; Tucker, L.; Saeed, A. M.; Williams, O.; Clwyd, Glan; Lacey, H.; Herman, S.; Kinghorn, D.; Devendra, S. V.; Wither, J.; Dawson, S.; Rowen, D.; Harvey, J.; Chauhan, M.; Kellock, D.; Young, S.; Dannino, S.; Kathir, Y.; Rooney, G.; Currie, J.; Fitzgerald, M.; Devendra, S.; Keane, F.; Booth, G.; Arumainayyagam, J.; Chandramani, S.; Robinson, T.; Curless, E.; Gokhale, R.; Tariq, A.; Luzzi, G.; Fairley, I.; Wallis, F.; Smit, E.; Ward, F.; Loze, B.; Morlat, P.; Bonarek, M.; Bonnet, F.; Nouts, C.; Louis, I.; Reliquet, V.; Sauser, F.; Biron, C.; Mounoury, O.; Hue, H.; Brosseau, D.; Ghosn, J.; Rannou, M. T.; Bergmann, J. F.; Badsi, E.; Rami, A.; Girard, P. M.; Samanon-Bollens, D.; Campa, P.; Tourneur, M.; Desplanques, N.; Jeanblanc, F.; Chiarello, P.; Makhloufi, D.; Herriot, E.; Blanc, A. P.; Allègre, T.; Baillat, V.; Lemoing, V.; de Boever, C. Merle; Tramoni, C.; Sobesky, G.; Abel, S.; Beaujolais, V.; Slama, L.; Fournier, I.; Gerbe, J.; Trepo, C.; Koffi, K.; Miailhes, P.; Thoirain, V.; Brochier, C.; Souala, F.; Ratajczak, M.; Beytoux, J.; Jacomet, C.; Montpied, G.; Olivier, C.; Paré, A.; Lortholary, O.; Dupont, B.; Maignan, A.; Raymond, I.; Leport, C.; Jadand, C.; Jestin, C.; Longuet, P.; Boucherit, S.; Sereni, D.; Lascoux, C.; Prevoteau, F.; Sobel, A.; Levy, Y.; Lelièvre, J. D.; Mondor, H.; Aumaître, H.; Delmas, B.; Saada, M.; Medus, M.; Salmon, D.; Tahi, T.; Yazdanpanah, Y.; Pavel, S.; Marien, M. C.; Dron, C. H.; Beck, C.; Benomar, M.; Muller, E.; Tubiana, R.; Mohand, H. Ait; Touam, F.; Folzer, A.; Obadia, M.; Prudhomme, L.; Bonnet, E.; Balzarin, F.; Pichard, E.; Chennebault, J. M.; Fialaire, P.; Loison, J.; Galanaud, P.; Bornarel, D.; Six, M.; Ferret, P.; Batisse, D.; Devidas, A.; Chevojon, P.; Turpault, I.; Philip, G.; Morel, P.; Timsit, J.; Amirat, N.; Cabane, J.; Tredup, J.; Chavanet, C.; Buisson, M.; Treuvetot, S.; Choutet, P.; Bastides, F.; Boyer, L.; Wassoumbou, S.; Oksenhendeler, E.; Gérard, L.; Bernard, L.; Berthé, H.; Poincaré, R.; Domart, Y.; Merrien, D.; Belan, A. Greder; Mignot, A.; Gayraud, M.; Bodard, L.; Meudec, A.; Pape, E.; Vinceneux, P.; Simonpoli, A. M.; Zeng, A.; Mourier, L.; Fournier, L.; Jacquet, M.; Fuzibet, J. G.; Sohn, C.; Rosenthal, E.; Quaranta, M.; Sabah, M.; Audhuy, B.; Schieber, A.; Pasteur, L.; Moreau, P.; Vaillant, O.; Huchon, G.; Compagnucci, A.; de Lacroix Szmania, I.; Lamaury, I.; Saint-Dizier, F.; Garipuy, D.; Drogoul, M. P.; Martin, I. Poizot; Fabre, G.; Lambert, G.; Lagarde, P.; David, F.; Roche-Sicot, J.; Saraux, J. L.; Leprêtre, A.; Veil, S.; Fampin, B.; Uludag, A.; Morin, A. S.; Bletry, O.; Zucman, D.; Regnier, A.; Girard, J. J.; Quinsat, D. T.; Heripret, L.; Grihon, F.; Houlbert, D.; Ruel, M.; Chemlal, K.; Debab, Y.; Nicolle, C.; Perronne, V.; Quesnay, F.; Slama, B.; Duffaut, H.; Perré, P.; Miodovski, C.; Guermonprez, G.; Dulioust, A.; Ballanger, R.; Patey, O.; Semaille, C.; Deville, J.; Beclere, Antoine; Boue, F.; Chambrin, V.; Pignon, C.; Estocq, G. A.; Levy, A.; Bicetre, Le Kremlin; Duracinsky, M.; Bras, P. Le; Ngussan, M. S.; Lambert, T.; Segeral, O.; Lezeau, P.; Laurian, Y.; Piketty, C.; Karmochkine, M.; Eliaszewitch, M.; Jayle, D.; Tisne, D.; Colasante, U.; Vilde, J. L.; Bollens, D.; Binet, D.; Diallo, B.; Lagneau, J. L.; Pietrie, M. P.; Sicard, D.; Stieltjes, N.; Michot, J.; Bourdillon, F.; Obenga, G.; Escaut, L.; Bolliot, C.; Schneider, L.; Iguertsira, M.; Stein, A.; Tomei, C.; Dhiver, C.; Gallais, J.; Gallais, H.; Durant, J.; Mondain, V.; Perbost, I.; Cassuto, J. P.; Karsenti, J. M.; Ceppi, C.; Krivitsky, J. A.; Honore, P.; Delgado, J.; Rouzioux, C.; Burgard, M.; Boufassa, L.; Peynet, J.; Pérez-Hoyos, S.; Schiaffino, A.; Monge, D. Alvarez S.; Pujol, I.; Muga, R.; Sanvisens, A.; Tor, J.; Rivas, I.; Vallecillo, G.; del Romero, J.; Raposo, P.; Rodríguez, C.; Vera, M.; Alastrue, E. Fernandez I.; Tasa, C. Santos T.; Juan, A.; Trullen, J.; de Olalla, P. Garcia; Cayla, J.; Sambeat, M. A.; Guerrero, R.; Rivera, E.; Marco, A.; Quintana, M.; Gonzalez, C.; Castilla, J.; Guevara, M.; de Mendoza, C.; Zahonero, N.; Ortíz, M.; G, Daikos; T, Kordossis; G, Panos; H, Sambatakou; M, Chini; Nelson, M.; Asboe, D.; Man, S.-L.; Smith, C.; Grabowska, H.; Gras, L. A. J.; Branger, J.; Scherpbier, H. J.; van der Meer, J. T. M.; Wit, F. W. M. N.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Peters, E. J. G.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Ziekenhuis, Catharina; Pronk, M. J. H.; Delsing, C. E.; Scholvinck, E. H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; ten Kate, R. W.; de Boer, M. G. J.; ter Vollaard, H. J. M.; Zuiderzee, M. C.; Schreij, G.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; Smeulders, A. W. M.; den Hollander, J. G.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Jaspers, C. A. J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, M. W. M.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Cotte, L.; Tattevin, P.; Selinger-Leneman, H.; Diemer, M.; Sellier, P.; Crickx, B.; Lesprit, Ph; Rey, D.; Lucht, F.; Chavanet, P.; Eglinger, P.; Aleksandrowicz, K.; Pelissier, L.; Aubert, V.; Barth, J.; Battegay, M.; Bernasconi, E.; Böni, J.; Burton-Jeangros, C.; Calmy, A.; Cavassini, M.; Egger, M.; Elzi, L.; Fehr, J.; Fellay, J.; Furrer, H.; Gorgievski, M.; Günthard, H.; Hasse, B.; Hösli, I.; Kahlert, C.; Kaiser, L.; Keiser, O.; Klimkait, T.; Kovari, H.; Ledergerber, B.; Martinetti, G.; Metzner, K.; Müller, N.; Nadal, D.; Pantaleo, G.; Rauch, A.; Regenass, S.; Rickenbach, M.; Rudin, C.; Schmid, P.; Schultze, D.; Schöni-Affolter, F.; Schüpbach, J.; Speck, R.; Taffé, P.; Tarr, P.; Telenti, A.; Trkola, A.; Vernazza, P.; Weber, R.; Yerly, S.; Force, L.; Mallolas, J.; López-Dieguez, M.; Romeu, J.; Jou, A.; Masó, M.; Bejarano, G.; del Amo, J.; Muñoz, M. A.; Arrizabalaga, A. J.; Aramburu, M. J.; Escolano, C.; Sanjuan, M.; Peraire, J.; Aldeguer, J. L.; Blanes, M.; de los Santos, I.; Hernández, B.; Pumares, M.; Trastoy, M.; Fiellin, D. A.; Titanji, R.; Butt, A.; Brandt, C.; Bryant, K.; Gandhi, N.; Gaziano, M.; Miller, P.; Mole, L.; Darbyshire, J.; Cursley, Adam; Eduards, S.; Estreich, S.; Magdy, A.; Jebakumar, S. P. R.; McMillan, S.; Green, S.; Sivakumar, K.; Monteiro, E.; Jendrulek, I.; Deheragada, A.; Rajamanoharan, S.; Parrinello, M.; Chakvetadze, C.; Berrebi, V.; Augustin-Normand, C.; Morelon, S.; Ragnaud, J. M.; Dominguez, S.; Dumont, C.; Drenou, B.; Drobacheff, C.; Gonzales-Canali, A.; Cheret, A.; Brancion, C.; Ravault, I.; Nau, P.; Beuscart, C.; Daniel, C.; Chaillou, S.; Niault, M.; Richier, L.; Abraham, B.; Perino, C.; Tremollieres, F.; Boudon, P.; Malbec, D.; Remy, G.; Béguinot, I.; Peretti, D.; Medintzeff, N.; Kazatchkine, M.; Fonquernie, L.; Lelievre, J. D.; Tissot Dupont, H.; Vallon, A.; Venti, H.; Bouchaud, O.; Hurtado, I.; Belda, J.; Gargalianos-Kakolyris, P.; Katsarou, O.; Lazanas, M.; Paparizos, V.; Paraskevis, D.; Skoutelis, A.; Touloumi, G.; Pantazis, N.; Bakoyannis, G.; Gioukari, V.; Antoniadou, A.; Papadopoulos, A.; Petrikkos, G.; Daikos, G.; Psichogiou, M.; Xylomenos, G.; Kouramba, A.; Ioannidou, P.; Kordossis, T.; Kontos, A.; Tsogas, N.; Leuow, K.; Kourkounti, S.; Sambatakou, H.; Mariolis, I.; Papastamopoulos, V.; Baraboutis, I.

    2015-01-01

    Recommendations have differed nationally and internationally with respect to the best time to start antiretroviral therapy (ART). We compared effectiveness of three strategies for initiation of ART in high-income countries for HIV-positive individuals who do not have AIDS: immediate initiation,

  7. Immediate effect of passive static stretching versus resistance exercises on postprandial blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurudut, Peeyoosha; Rajan, Abey P

    2017-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. In India, more than 61.3 million people have been presently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is possible to control the circulating blood glucose levels by reducing life style risk factors through physical activities comprising of muscle stretches, aerobic training, resistance exercises (REs), yoga, etc. The aim of this study is to identify and compare the immediate effect of passive static stretching (PSS) versus RE on blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study included 51 participants between the age of 40-65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to study the immediate effect of 60-min PSS (n=25) and 60-min RE (n=26). The outcome measure was blood glucose level which was checked by glucometer (free-style neo). Blood sugar was assessed at 3 points of time that included fasting blood sugar level, 2 hr after the meal and immediately after the exercise regimen. Results of this study showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in subjects according to glucometer with PSS ( P =0.000) and RE ( P =0.00). However, both groups demonstrated equal effect in terms of lowering blood sugar level immediately after the exercise. The conclusion is both PSS and RE are effective in reducing postprandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and must be prescribed for the patients who demonstrate difficulty in controlling post prandial spike.

  8. Effectiveness of Conventional and Syariah Monetary Policy Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoghi Citra Pratama

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective - The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of monetary policy transmission through conventional and Islamic instruments through the interest rate channel and profit loss sharing / margins channel, to control the price level (inflation and economic growth (outputMethod – Methodology used in this study is the Vector Auto Regressive (VAR / Vector Error correction model (VECM to see the effect of shock and long-term effects on inflation and output. Variables used are sbi interest rates, PUAB interest rate, deposit rates and lending rates, as well as from the Islamic side is SBIS yield, yield PUAS, profit lost sharing for the deposits and margin financing. This study use Unit Root Test, Cointegration degree of integration test, test causality, VECM and IRF estimates. Using monthly time series data from 2009 s / d 2012.Result – Results of the study showed that the test based on Granger causality, overall, the transmission channel of monetary policy according to the conventional theory, while the monetary policy transmission channel Sharia can not be clearly identified and disconnected in yield / profit and loss sharing deposits. And based on the estimated VECM is known that in the long term Islamic instruments is the right instrument to control inflation.Conclusion – This finding concluded that syariah instruments is the effective instrument in reducing inflation rate and also encourage the growth of Islamic banking, and should also consider the right margin level to increase the output on real sector. Keywords : Monetary Transmission, Central Bank, Industrial Production Index, Consumer Price Index

  9. Regional Welfare Effects of the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger ELSHOLZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop a theoretical framework to analyseregional welfare effects of EU’s Common Agricultural Policy. Given the mix ofagricultural policy measures on the one hand and the differences in the agriculturalproduction structure on the other hand the question how regions are affected iscrucial for analysing the overall welfare effects arising from the CAP. For thisreason the composition of transfers, the program design and the financing of themeasures are on the focus of this paper for regions in the federal state of Hesse,Germany. The analysis wants to contribute to the relevant literature in a twofoldway. Firstly, the federal structure of Germany is taken into account explicitly. Thishas important aspects in regard to the different co-financing rules as well as to thefinancing of the measures or funds. Secondly, much smaller regions – the Hessiancommunities – are considered in this study to obtain exact welfare effects at theregional level. The theoretical framework of this study shows that for rural regionsthe overall CAP generates positive welfare effects while it generates negativeeffects for urban regions.

  10. Effectiveness of tax and price policies in tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Straif, Kurt; Leon, Maria E

    2011-05-01

    Over 20 experts on economics, epidemiology, public policy and tobacco control were asked by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) to evaluate the strength of the available evidence on the effects of tax and price policies to prevent and reduce tobacco use. Draft papers presenting and assessing the evidence on the following topics were developed by the experts in an 8-month period prior to the meeting: tobacco industry pricing strategies and tax related lobbying; tax, price and aggregate demand for tobacco; tax, price and adult tobacco use, use among young people and use among the poor; tax avoidance and tax evasion; and the economic and health impact of tobacco taxation. Subsequently, papers were peer reviewed, revised and resubmitted for final discussion at a 6-day meeting at IARC in Lyon, France, where a consensus evaluation of 18 concluding statements using the pre-established criteria of the IARC Cancer Prevention Handbooks took place. Studies published (or accepted for publication) in the openly available scientific literature were the main source of evidence for the review and evaluation; other types of publications were included when appropriate. In support of 12 of the 18 conclusions, the experts agreed that there was sufficient evidence of effectiveness of increased tobacco excise taxes and prices in reducing overall tobacco consumption and prevalence of tobacco use and improvement of public health, including by preventing initiation and uptake among young people, promoting cessation among current users and lowering consumption among those who continue to use. For the remaining six concluding statements the evidence was strong (four statements) or limited (two statements). The evidence presented and assessed in IARC Handbook volume 14 documents the effectiveness of tax and price policies in the control of tobacco use and improvement of public health.

  11. Evaluation of immediate and 12-week effects of a smartphone sun-safety mobile application: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, David B; Berwick, Marianne; Lantz, Kathy; Buller, Mary Klein; Shane, James; Kane, Ilima; Liu, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Mobile applications on smartphones can communicate a large amount of personalized, real-time health information, including advice on skin cancer prevention, but their effectiveness may be affected by whether recipients can be convinced to use them. To evaluate a smartphone mobile application (Solar Cell) delivering real-time advice about sun protection for a second time in a randomized clinical trial. A previous trial conducted in 2012 used a randomized pretest-posttest design. For the present trial, we collected data from a volunteer sample of 202 adults 18 years or older who owned a smartphone. Participants were recruited nationwide through online promotions. Screening procedures and a 3-week run-in period were added to increase the use of the mobile application. We conducted follow-ups at 3 and 8 weeks after randomization to examine the immediate and the longer-term effects of the intervention. Use of the mobile application. The application gave feedback on sun protection (ie, sun-safety practices and the risk for sunburn) and alerted users to apply or to reapply sunscreen and to get out of the sun. The application also displayed the hourly UV Index and vitamin D production based on the forecast UV Index, time, and location. Percentage of days with the use of sun protection, time spent outdoors in the midday sun (days and hours), and the number of sunburns in the last 3 months. Participants in the intervention group used wide-brimmed hats more at 7 weeks than control participants (23.8% vs 17.4%; F = 4.07; P = .045). Women who used the mobile application reported using all sun protection combined more than men (46.4% vs 43.3%; F = 1.49; P = .04), whereas men and older individuals reported less use of sunscreen (32.7% vs 35.5%; F = 5.36; P = .02) and hats (15.6% vs 17.9%; F = 4.72; P = .03). The mobile application initially appeared to confer weak improvement of sun protection. Use of the mobile application was greater than in a previous trial and was

  12. Assessing effectiveness of WEEE management policy in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Ashleigh; Metternicht, Graciela

    2016-10-01

    Australia is one of the top ten consumers of electrical and electronic (EE) products in the world; yet legislation for the management of WEEE (Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment) is in its infancy and has received minimal review. This paper sets to assess the effectiveness of Australian legislation, policies and associated instruments, with a focus on the sub-national level of implementation. A mixed methodology was adopted to this end, including: literature review, case study, semi-structured interviews and a comparative analysis of WEEE management practices in Australia versus Japan and Switzerland; the latter to identify causative factors of international leading practice that could advance current policy in Australia. The findings indicate that Australia's management of WEEE is not effective. The rate and types of WEEE generated in Australia far exceed the measures prescribed in legislation to address or even curb the problem. The five key issues were identified around stakeholder roles and responsibilities; scope of WEEE categories legislated for recovery and recycling; public engagement and accessibility to services; recycling and material recovery targets; and the auditing and compliance of material flows within the system. Our findings suggest that Australia has the capacity to address the five key priority areas within the current legal framework and achieve effective WEEE management in line with leading practice examples from Japan and Switzerland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Designing for Immediate Play

    OpenAIRE

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play situations. After a detailed explanation of immediate play, we analyze the context of the immediate play situation, which is mostly characterized by an overlap between different realities of the exper...

  14. Comparison of the immediate effect of different types of trunk exercise on the star excursion balance test in male adolescent soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Atsushi; Kaneoka, Koji; Okubo, Yu; Shiraki, Hitoshi

    2014-08-01

    Trunk exercises, such as trunk stabilization exercises (SE) and conventional trunk exercises (CE), are performed to improve static or dynamic balance. Recently, trunk exercises have also been often used as part of warm-up programs. A few studies have demonstrated the immediate effects of SE and CE on static balance. However, immediate effects on dynamic balance are not yet known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effect of SE with that of CE on the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Eleven adolescent male soccer players (17.9 ± 0.3 years, 168.5 ± 5.4 cm, and 60.1 ± 5.1 kg) participated in this study. A crossover design was used, and each participant completed three kinds of testing sessions: SE, CE, and non-exercise (NE). Experiments took place for three weeks with three testing sessions, and a 1-week interval was provided between different conditions. Each testing session consisted of three steps: pretest, intervention, and posttest. To assess dynamic balance, the SEBT score in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions was measured before and 5 minutes after each intervention program. The data of reach distance were normalized with the leg length to exclude the influence of the leg length on the analysis. The SEBT composite score was significantly improved after the SE (p 0.05). Furthermore, in the SE condition, SEBT scores of the posterolateral and posteromedial directions were significantly improved at the posttest, compared with those at the pretest (p < 0.05). This study demonstrated the immediate improvements in the posteromedial and posterolateral directions of the SEBT only after the SE. This result suggests that the SE used in this study is effective in immediately improving dynamic balance. 3b.

  15. Modern problems of evaluation of the family policy effectiveness in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kuchmaeva

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the multifaceted and complex problems, associated with comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the state family policy. A significant stage in the development of state family policy is the adoption of the concept of state family policy in 2014. Evaluation of measures’ effectiveness in the field of family policy is the subject of many publications. However, most authors pay their attention to the individual events. It appears that the effectiveness of impleme...

  16. Female rat pancreatic blood flow measured by 133Xe clearance technique: pregnancy influence and oestradiol immediate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Annette; Vuillemin, J.-P.; Ducassou, Dominique; Bouchard, Alain; Valeyre, Jacques; Sutter-Dub, M.-T.

    1981-01-01

    Female Rat pancreatic blood flow is measured by 133 Xe clearance technique without interruption blood circulation. Its value is enhanced during late pregnancy, but not immediately influenced by exogenous glucose and/or oestradiol. Relation with glucose-induced insulin hypersecretion is discussed [fr

  17. Immediate Effects of Project EX in Spain: A Classroom-Based Smoking Prevention and Cessation Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espada, José P.; Gonzálvez, María T.; Guillén-Riquelme, Alejandro; Sun, Ping; Sussman, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco use is of high prevalence among Spanish adolescents. Programming to counteract tobacco use has been needed. There is a lack of knowledge on the efficacy of teen tobacco use cessation programming. The current study provides an immediate outcome evaluation of the Project EX tobacco use prevention and cessation program among Spanish…

  18. 76 FR 53012 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... exceptions, a no-knowledge exception, a riskless principal exception, an intermarket sweep order (``ISO... Arca Equities Rule 5320 also provides the same guidance as FINRA Rule 5320 on minimum price improvement... price that would satisfy the customer order, unless it immediately thereafter executes the customer...

  19. Effect of immediate and delayed dentin sealing on the fracture strength, failure type and Weilbull characteristics of lithiumdisilicate laminate veneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M.M.; Cune, Marco S.; de Roos, Joanne G.; Özcan, Mutlu

    OBJECTIVES: Adhesion on dentin is less reliable than on enamel, which could affect the durability of laminate veneers (LV). Immediate dentin sealing (IDS) is suggested instead of delayed dentin sealing (DDS) to overcome hypersensitivity and prevent debonding from dentin. This study evaluated the

  20. Effects of Immediate and Delayed Loading on the Outcomes of All-on-4 Treatment: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Najafi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of immediate and delayed rehabilitation of edentulous jaws by means of two straight and two tilted implants after one year of function.Materials and Methods: Thirty consecutive patients (16 males, 14 females were enrolled in this study. Two anterior straight and two posterior tilted implants were placed in each patient. According to the implant insertion torque and the need for bone grafting, implants were loaded immediately (at 72 hours or delayed (after four months using a fixed metal resin prosthesis. Results: One axial implant failed in the delayed group after one year of loading, resulting in cumulative implant survival rate of 99.3%. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.84mm. No significant difference was found between axial and tilted implants in the two groups (P>0.05Conclusions: Based on the results, immediate or delayed fabrication of final prosthesis on two tilted and two axial implants did not result in significant differences in survival rates or marginal bone loss.Keywords: Dental Implants; Immediate Dental Implant Loading; Prospective Studies

  1. Immediate effects on adult drinkers of exposure to alcohol harm reduction advertisements with and without drinking guideline messages: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie A; Brennan, Emily; Dunstone, Kimberley; Durkin, Sarah J; Dixon, Helen G; Pettigrew, Simone; Slater, Michael D

    2018-02-27

    To compare the immediate effects on drinkers of television advertisements focusing upon short- versus long-term harms with and without low-risk drinking guidelines. Between-participants on-line experiment, with random assignment to view: (a) alcohol product advertisements (ALC control); (b) advertisements unrelated to alcohol (NON-ALC control); (c) advertisements featuring short-term harms (STH) of alcohol; (d) advertisements featuring STH plus a STH guideline (STH+G); (e) advertisements featuring long-term harms (LTH); or (f) advertisements featuring LTH plus a LTH guideline (LTH+G). Australia, 2016. A total of 3718 drinkers aged 18-64 years (48.5% male). Post-exposure likelihood that participants provided a correct estimate of drinking levels associated with short- and long-term harms; post-exposure intentions to avoid alcohol or reduce consumption. After exposure to STH+G or LTH+G advertisements, participants were more likely to estimate correctly rather than overestimate drinking levels associated with harm, compared with those exposed to STH (P STH+G, P STH+G, P STH conditions were more likely to intend to reduce next-week alcohol consumption than those exposed to ALC control (both P STH, P = 0.001; STH+G, P < 0.001); a similar pattern was observed for intentions to avoid alcohol. Drinkers exposed to LTH conditions were also more likely than drinkers exposed to ALC or NON-ALC controls to intend to avoid and reduce alcohol in the next week. Additionally, drinkers exposed to LTH+G were more likely to intend to reduce drinking than those exposed to LTH advertisements without guidelines (P = 0.022). Response patterns for low- and high-risk drinkers by condition were similar. Alcohol harm television advertisements increase intentions to reduce alcohol consumption among both low- and high-risk drinkers. The addition of low-risk drinking guidelines can enhance these effects for advertisements featuring long-term harms and improve estimates of both short

  2. Effectiveness of State-Level Policies on Solar Market Development in Different State Contexts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Doris, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krasko, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hillman, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    In response to public interest in customer-sited distributed solar photovoltaics (PV), state and local policymakers have implemented policy initiatives with the goal of encouraging private investment and building a robust PV market. Policymakers face challenges, including limited budgets and incomplete information about the effectiveness of the various policy options in their specific situation, in crafting and executing policy that supports market development goals. Recent work investigated the effect of the order in which policies are implemented (referred to as 'policy stacking') and the presence of low-cost enabling policies, such as interconnection standards and net metering, can have on the success of states in promoting PV markets. Findings indicate that implementation of interconnection standards and policy related to the valuation of excess electricity (e.g., net metering), along with indicators of long term government support for a solar PV market (e.g., RPS) and a non-policy determinant (population), explain about 70% of the variation among states in new PV capacity. This paper builds on that research to determine the most effective policy strategies for different types of states, as determined by their physical, demographic and macroeconomic context. A number of researchers have investigated the effectiveness of state-level policy using various statistical methods to determine relationships between installed solar PV projects and policy initiatives. In this study, the grouping of states by non-policy factors adds dimension to these analyses by identifying how policies function in different non-policy environments.

  3. Effectiveness of climate policy in the built environment. Application of policy theory in the evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joosen, S.; Harmelink, M.; Blok, K.

    2004-01-01

    Due to climate policy in the sectors households and services in the Netherlands the annual emission of CO2 has been reduced by 2-6 million tons in 7 years. Without the climate policy the CO2 emission in these sectors would have been 7% higher [nl

  4. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  5. Committee Opinion No. 670: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision.

  6. Committee Opinion No. 670 Summary: Immediate Postpartum Long-Acting Reversible Contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Immediate postpartum long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) has the potential to reduce unintended and short-interval pregnancy. Women should be counseled about all forms of postpartum contraception in a context that allows informed decision making. Immediate postpartum LARC should be offered as an effective option for postpartum contraception; there are few contraindications to postpartum intrauterine devices and implants. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should discuss LARC during the antepartum period and counsel all pregnant women about options for immediate postpartum initiation. Education and institutional protocols are needed to raise clinician awareness and to improve access to immediate postpartum LARC insertion. Obstetrician-gynecologists and other obstetric care providers should incorporate immediate postpartum LARC into their practices, counsel women appropriately about advantages and risks, and advocate for institutional and payment policy changes to support provision.

  7. Increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of renewable energy support policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klessmann, C.B.

    2012-01-01

    The thesis discusses the effective and cost-efficient design of renewable energy sources (RES) support policies in the European Union along some major discussion lines of the European RES policy debate: the effectiveness of the different national support policies in the member states the cost

  8. 14 CFR 399.4 - Nature and effect of policy statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nature and effect of policy statements. 399.4 Section 399.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Statements § 399.4 Nature and effect of policy statements. Policy statements published in this part will be...

  9. 40 CFR 761.135 - Effect of compliance with this policy and enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... forth in this policy have been met, civil or criminal action for penalties where EPA believes the spill... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Effect of compliance with this policy..., DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS PCB Spill Cleanup Policy § 761.135 Effect of compliance with...

  10. Longitudinal and Immediate Effect of Kundalini Yoga on Salivary Levels of Cortisol and Activity of Alpha-Amylase and Its Effect on Perceived Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sesnich, Jocelyn N; Flores, Mauricio Garrido; Ríos, Marcela Hernández; Aravena, Jorge Gamonal

    2017-01-01

    Stress is defined as an alteration of an organism's balance in response to a demand perceived from the environment. Diverse methods exist to evaluate physiological response. A noninvasive method is salivary measurement of cortisol and alpha-amylase. A growing body of evidence suggests that the regular practice of Yoga would be an effective treatment for stress. To determine the Kundalini Yoga (KY) effect, immediate and after 3 months of regular practice, on the perception of psychological stress and the salivary levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity. To determine the psychological perceived stress, levels of cortisol and alpha-amylase activity in saliva, and compare between the participants to KY classes performed for 3 months and a group that does not practice any type of yoga. The total sample consisted of 26 people between 18 and 45-year-old; 13 taking part in KY classes given at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Chile and 13 controls. Salivary samples were collected, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to quantify cortisol and kinetic reaction test was made to determine alpha-amylase activity. Perceived Stress Scale was applied at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. Statistical analysis was applied using Stata v11.1 software. Shapiro-Wilk test was used to determine data distribution. The paired analysis was fulfilled by t -test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test. T -test or Mann-Whitney's test was applied to compare longitudinal data. A statistical significance was considered when P effect on salivary cortisol. The activity of alpha-amylase did not show significant changes. A significant decrease of perceived stress in the study group was found. KY practice shows an immediate effect on salivary cortisol levels and on perceived stress after 3 months of practice.

  11. Effects of acute dopamine precusor depletion on immediate reward selection bias and working memory depend on catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelm, Mary Katherine; Boettiger, Charlotte A

    2013-12-01

    Little agreement exists as to acute dopamine (DA) manipulation effects on intertemporal choice in humans. We previously found that catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype predicts individual differences in immediate reward selection bias among adults. Moreover, we and others have shown that the relationship between COMT genotype and immediate reward bias is inverted in adolescents. No previous pharmacology studies testing DA manipulation effects on intertemporal choice have accounted for COMT genotype, and many have included participants in the adolescent age range (18-21 years) as adults. Moreover, many studies have included female participants without strict cycle phase control, although recent evidence demonstrates that cyclic estradiol elevations interact with COMT genotype to affect DA-dependent cognition. These factors may have interacted with DA manipulations in past studies, potentially occluding detection of effects. Therefore, we predicted that, among healthy male adults (ages 22-40 years), frontal DA tone, as indexed by COMT genotype, would interact with acute changes in DA signaling to affect intertemporal choice. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, we decreased central DA via administration of an amino acid beverage deficient in the DA precursors, phenylalanine and tyrosine, and tested effects on immediate reward bias in a delay-discounting (DD) task and working memory (WM) in an n-back task. We found no main effect of beverage on DD or WM performance but did find significant beverage*genotype effects. These results suggest that the effect of DA manipulations on DD depends on individual differences in frontal DA tone, which may have impeded some past efforts to characterize DA's role in immediate reward bias in humans.

  12. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  13. Effectiveness of a segmental approach to climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trancik, Jessika E; Chang, Michael T; Karapataki, Christina; Stokes, Leah C

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to adopting a cap on greenhouse gas emissions internationally, and across various national contexts, has encouraged alternative climate change mitigation proposals. These proposals include separately targeting clean energy uptake and demand-side efficiency in individual end-use sectors, an approach to climate change mitigation which we characterize as segmental and technology-centered. A debate has ensued on the detailed implementation of these policies in particular national contexts, but less attention has been paid to the general factors determining the effectiveness of a segmental approach to emissions reduction. We address this topic by probing the interdependencies of segmental policies and their collective ability to control emissions. First, we show for the case of U.S. electricity how the set of suitable energy technologies depends on demand-side efficiency, and changes with the stringency of climate targets. Under a high-efficiency scenario, carbon-free technologies must supply 60-80% of U.S. electricity demand to meet an emissions reduction target of 80% below 1990 levels by midcentury. Second, we quantify the enhanced propensity to exceed any intended emissions target with this approach, even if goals are set on both the supply and demand side, due to the multiplicative accumulation of emissions error. For example, a 10% error in complying with separate policies on the demand and supply side would combine to result in a 20% error in emissions. Third, we discuss why despite these risks, the enhanced planning capability of a segmental approach may help counteract growing infrastructural inertia. The emissions reduction impediment due to infrastructural inertia is significant in the electricity sectors of each of the greatest emitters: China, the U.S., and Europe. Commonly cited climate targets are still within reach but, as we show, would require more than a 50% reduction in the carbon intensity of new power plants built in these regions over

  14. 75 FR 47875 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Oil Corp. ATPG ATP Oil & Gas Corp/ AGO Assured Guaranty United States Ltd. YUM Yum! Brands Inc. GIS..., as it constitutes a stated policy, practice, or interpretation with respect to the meaning...

  15. 75 FR 48405 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Amex LLC; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-10

    ... Corp/ 322 HSY Hershey Co/The. United States. 226 YUM Yum! Brands Inc......... 323 TXT Textron Inc. 232... constitutes a stated policy, practice, or interpretation with respect to the meaning, administration, or...

  16. Toward a better union: improving the effectiveness of foreign policies

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited A fundamental characteristic of state-state interaction in a globalized system is the explicitness with which states communicate their foreign policies to each other. In order to understand the role and the importance of foreign policy explicitness in the global foreign policy system, I first created a simple mesh model of the actors and institutions that form the U.S. foreign policy system. By optimizing this model with various system...

  17. Legislated Policy as the Basis for Effective Extension Delivery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper compares the extension policies and programmes of Britain and Nigeria. Extension policy in Nigeria is characterized as stemming from ad hoc arrangements which are compounded by political instability and external locus of control. The United Kingdom in contrast has had focused extension policies supported ...

  18. The effect of the lecture discussion teaching method with and without audio-visual augmentation on immediate and retention learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusyszyn, M A

    1990-06-01

    This study determined whether students taught using the lecture-discussion method augmented with audio-visuals would achieve a higher mean score on an immediate post-test and delayed retention test than students presented with a lecture-discussion without audio-visuals. A convenience sample of 52 students divided into two groups voluntarily participated in the quasi-experiment. Two teaching sessions averaging 90 minutes in length were taught by the researcher. Learning and retention were measured by a 10-item multiple choice test with content validity. Immediate learning was measured with a post-test administered immediately following each of the teaching sessions. Delayed learning was measured with a retention test administered 25.5 days following the teaching sessions. Group data was analysed using an independent one tailed t-test for mean scores. Students attending the lecture-discussion with audio-visual augmentation did not achieve significantly higher mean scores on the two tests than the non-augmented group (p less than or equal to 0.05). Analysis using a paired t-test revealed that the difference in scores between the post-test and retention test for the group without audio-visual augmentation was significant (t = 2.31; p less than 0.05). Delayed retention appears to have been influenced by the use of audio-visuals. Nurse educators need to consider ways in which the lecture-discussion may be enhanced to maximise student learning and retention.

  19. Effects of Immediate Orthodontic and Orthopedic Forces on Peri-Miniscrew Bones: Histomorphologic and Histomorphometric Assessment in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Rismanchian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was histomorphologic and histomorphometric evaluation of peri-screw bone after immediate orthodontic and orthopedic forces and comparing them with a control group. Materials and Methods. 18 dual-top miniscrews were inserted in the premolar region of three Iranian dogs. Screws were divided into three groups: (1 the first group undergoing immediate orthodontic force of 300 cN, (2 the second group undergoing immediate orthopedic force of 600 cN and (3 a control group. Screws were explanted with adequate amount of surrounding bone after three months. Bone-screw contact (BSC, percentage of lamellar bone, and percentage of woven bone were evaluated. Wilcoxon and Man Whitney tests were used to analyze the data using SPSS software ver. 15 (. Results. There was no significant difference among the groups in terms of bone-screw contact (, percentage of lamellar bone (, and percentage of woven bone (. Conclusion. By applying orthodontic and orthopedic forces to mini-screws the quality of surrounding bone and osseointegration will not be affected. Clinical Significance. Application of force to mini-screws is helpful in orthodontic-screw therapies.

  20. Effects of Immediate and Delayed Loading on the Outcomes of All-on-4 Treatment: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Hossein; Siadat, Hakimeh; Akbari, Solmaz; Rokn, Amirreza

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of immediate and delayed rehabilitation of edentulous jaws by means of two straight and two tilted implants after one year of function. Thirty consecutive patients (16 males, 14 females) were enrolled in this study. Two anterior straight and two posterior tilted implants were placed in each patient. According to the implant insertion torque and the need for bone grafting, implants were loaded immediately (at 72 hours) or delayed (after four months) using a fixed metal resin prosthesis. One axial implant failed in the delayed group after one year of loading, resulting in cumulative implant survival rate of 99.3%. The mean marginal bone loss was 0.84mm. No significant difference was found between axial and tilted implants in the two groups (P>0.05). Based on the results, immediate or delayed fabrication of final prosthesis on two tilted and two axial implants did not result in significant differences in survival rates or marginal bone loss.

  1. A model for policy analysis of the greenhouse effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hope, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the PAGE model (for Policy Analysis of the Greenhouse Effect), developed by Cambridge Decision Analysts for the Directorate general for Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection of the Commission of the European Communities. The rest of this section describes the motivation for developing PAGE; it is followed by sections outlining the features of PAGE, explaining its structure in more detail, and reporting some of the uses to which it is being put. The current consensus is that unchecked emissions of greenhouse gases will lead to a rise in global mean temperature. The causal chain from emissions to temperature is complex, and current estimates give a range of 2 - 5 deg C for the temperature rise by the year 2100 if no specific actions are taken to control emissions. The damage that a global temperature rise of a few degrees over a century would cause is also not well known. Some influential groups are sufficiently alarmed to have called for global agreements to stabilize or reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. Others claim that the costs of doing so would not be justified, and that adapting to a changed climate would be the best policy. Negotiations are further complicated by the global nature of the problem; if a country, or even a major trading block such as the European Community, decided to control emissions of a greenhouse gas, some of the benefit would be gained in other parts of the world that have not shared in the cost of control. 12 refs., 6 figs

  2. Disparities of poverty and wealth in the Philippines. An analysis of policy effect(iveness)

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Anne

    2006-01-01

    In contemporary times of globalisation the manifestations of disparities of poverty and wealth and the design and implementation of policy responses become ever more complex and challenging. It is the conventional task of the (national) government to promote socio-economic security and equality by reaching out to the peripheral regions, marginalised people, and most problematic issues of disparities of poverty and wealth. This Ph.D. thesis argues that governmental policy outreach and effect(i...

  3. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stautz, Kaidy; Brown, Kyle G; King, Sarah E; Shemilt, Ian; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-06-09

    Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome), explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes). Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students) found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34). A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students) did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = -0.05, 0.37). Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals) may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1.69 units for females. The generalizability of this finding

  4. Immediate effects of alcohol marketing communications and media portrayals on consumption and cognition: a systematic review and meta-analysis of experimental studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaidy Stautz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restricting marketing of alcoholic products is purported to be a cost-effective intervention to reduce alcohol consumption. The strength of evidence supporting this claim is contested. This systematic review aimed to assess immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing on alcoholic beverage consumption and related cognitions. Methods Electronic searches of nine databases, supplemented with reference list searches and forward citation tracking, were used to identify randomised, experimental studies assessing immediate effects of exposure to alcohol marketing communications on objective alcohol consumption (primary outcome, explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions, or selection without purchasing (secondary outcomes. Study limitations were assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Random and fixed effects meta-analyses were conducted to estimate effect sizes. Results Twenty four studies met the eligibility criteria. A meta-analysis integrating seven studies (758 participants, all students found that viewing alcohol advertisements increased immediate alcohol consumption relative to viewing non-alcohol advertisements (SMD = 0.20, 95 % CI = 0.05, 0.34. A meta-analysis integrating six studies (631 participants, all students did not find that viewing alcohol portrayals in television programmes or films increased consumption (SMD = 0.16, 95 % CI = −0.05, 0.37. Meta-analyses of secondary outcome data found that exposure to alcohol portrayals increased explicit alcohol-related cognitions, but did not find that exposure to alcohol advertisements influenced explicit or implicit alcohol-related cognitions. Confidence in results is diminished by underpowered analyses and unclear risk of bias. Conclusions Viewing alcohol advertisements (but not alcohol portrayals may increase immediate alcohol consumption by small amounts, equivalent to between 0.39 and 2.67 alcohol units for males and between 0.25 and 1

  5. International and Domestic Sustainable Forest Management Policies: Distributive Effects on Power among State Agencies in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Giessen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The last two decades of forest policy discussions have been dominated by calls for sustainable management of forest resources. Consequently, multiple international and domestic policies, supporting sustainable forest management (SFM, have evolved in numerous jurisdictions. Policies in developing countries often rely on foreign donors’ projects, which supplement domestic SFM policy. These policies assign various policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies, who then compete for these very tasks, as well as the related staff and budgets. Therefore, project and policy task assignment greatly influences bureaucratic power. This article analyzes the distributive effects of SFM policy on power (in terms of coercion, incentives and dominant information among relevant domestic and foreign donor bureaucracies in Bangladesh. Concepts from power theory, bureaucratic politics theory, and concepts of policy and policy process were combined to analyze 121 Bangladeshi SFM policies from 1992–2013, which assign a total of 1012 policy tasks to specific public bureaucracies. Using qualitative content analysis, inferences about power were assigned to specific competing bureaucracies by the totality of SFM policies made. Results identify domestic and foreign bureaucracies whose power distribution benefit most from the SFM policies viz. their competitors. It is concluded that bureaucracies gaining the most power set the limits and directions in designing, implementing and evaluating various elements of any national SFM policies.

  6. [BCG vaccine against tuberculosis: its protective effect and vaccination policies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susan M; Dantas, Odimariles Maria Souza; Ximenes, Ricardo; Barreto, Mauricio L

    2007-09-01

    The BCG vaccine has been in use since 1921, but still arouses controversy and uncertainties. The objective was to analyze the protective effect of the BCG vaccine in its first and second doses and the accompanying vaccination policies. A systematic review of the literature in both English and Spanish was carried out, covering the period 1948 to 2006, using the PubMed database. The main search terms used included BCG vaccine, BCG efficacy, BCG and tuberculosis. The studies were grouped by design, with the main results from the clinic tests, case-control studies and meta-analyses presented separately. The protective effect of the first dose of the BCG vaccine against tuberculosis in its miliary and meningeal forms is high. However, the results vary in relation to the pulmonary form of the disease, with some indicating zero effect and others levels of nearly 80%. Research is being carried out to develop new vaccines that could substitute the BCG or be used as a booster. There are evidences that the protective effect of the BCG vaccine does not increase with a second dose. In spite of its limitations and the expectation that a new tuberculosis vaccine will be developed in the future, the BCG vaccine remains an important tool in controlling the harmful effects of tuberculosis, particularly in countries with medium or high incidence levels of the disease.

  7. A randomized controlled trial on the immediate and long-term effects of arm slings on shoulder subluxation in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bladel, Anke; Lambrecht, Gert; Oostra, Kristine M; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Cambier, Dirk

    2017-06-01

    Arm slings are often used in clinical practice to support the hemiplegic arm aiming to prevent or treat glenohumeral subluxation. Evidence supporting the corrective effect of slings on subluxation is scarce and long-term studies are lacking. The aim of this study was to determine both the immediate and long-term effect on acromiohumeral distance using the Actimove® sling and Shoulderlift and to determine the effect of slings on pain and passive range of motion of the shoulder in stroke patients with glenohumeral subluxation. Randomized control trial. Hospital inpatients. Stroke patients. Twenty-eight stroke patients, with severe upper limb impairments, were randomly allocated to 3 groups (Actimove, Shoulderlift, No sling). Patients wore their supportive device for 6 weeks and no sling in the control group. Immediate and postinterventional effect on acromiohumeral distance was measured using sonography. Pain (VAS), ROM (goniometry), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), Fugl-Meyer Assessment and trunk stability (TIS) were also assessed before and after the intervention. The level of immediate correction of both slings was different at baseline and after 6 weeks (0 weeks: Shoulderlift 63%, Actimove 36%; 6 weeks: Shoulderlift 28%, Actimove 24%). Comparing the level of subluxation over time shows a distinct decrease in subluxation but only for the control group (-37.59% or 3.30 mm). Subluxation remained the same in the Actimove group (-2.77% or 0.27 mm) but increased in the Shoulderlift group (+12.44% or 1.03 mm). After 6 weeks, the Actimove group reported more pain at rest (P=0.036). ROM for abduction and external rotation decreased in 2 groups and remained un-altered in the Shoulderlift group. Results of immediate correction varied. Subluxation seemed to reduce in patients that did not wear a sling. The (assumed) presence of subluxation may not benefit from wearing an arm sling which may itself inhibit active correction. If a sling is indicated the Shoulderlift may

  8. School Effectiveness and Inequality: Contributions to Educational Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Blanco Bosco

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the main findings of a recent study about learning–related factors in Mexican primary education, with the objective of questioning some of the assumptions underlying the recently proposed educational reform. The results show that Mexican primary schools have a reduced influence on learning, compared with the impact of socioeconomic factors; nevertheless, schools' human resources and teachers' stability in school, as well as classroom climate, show positive effects on learning; other school factors (i.e. school management, school climate, and learning opportunities showed almost no relationship with learning. The last section of the article analyzes, from a critical perspective, the current educational policy recommendations (particularly, the triad autonomy–accountability–assessment based on the results mentioned above.

  9. Designing for Immediate Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichlmair, Martin; Mech, Lena; Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with designing for immediate play, the experience that a player has when joining a game designed for being played without particular preparation. Museum games, urban games, casual sports, and ad-hoc multiplayer video games are kinds of games that facilitate immediate play...... offer using examples and expert opinions. While most practices and game examples mentioned in this paper are from non-digital games, a special focus is put on the role of technology in immediately playable experiences. Still, the examined design dimensions are independent of the technological foundation...... of the game. This paper provides a starting point for designing better immediate play situations....

  10. Effect of Fees Policies on the Quality of University Education in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on the findings of a study that was undertaken to analyse the effect of fees policy on the quality of university education in Uganda. It reports that every university in Uganda has a fees policy and that these fees policies differ in content and implementation. The paper confirms a significant relationship ...

  11. The Effects of Foreign Government Policies on the Location of U.S. Direct Investment Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee Min

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Many argue about which policy and non-policy variables play an important role in influencing foreign direct investment decisions. This article contributes to this debate by considering the effects of foreign government policies on the location of U.S. direct investment abroad. The analysis used pooled cross-section and time series data for 44 countries over three time periods to examine the effects of different types of non-policy and policy variables, including market size, per capita income, country risks, tax rates, investment incentives, and investment regulations. This study found that a policy variable, investment regulation and two non-policy variables, market size and per capita income impact investment decision. A moderately strong effect is found in investment incentive policy, whereas country risks and tax rates turned out not to be strong factors in influencing U.S. investment locations. However, in the case of FDI in developing countries, country risk and tax rates appeared to be more important factors for the location of U.S. FDI than host countries' market size. Strong interaction effects between policy variable and market size are found, while less strong interaction is found between policy variable and per capita income. This study concludes that policy variables are also important factors along with non-policy factors and the determinants of FDI are not independently exerting an influence but jointly affecting U.S. investment locations.

  12. Shaping the Educational Policy Field: "Cross-Field Effects" in the Chinese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui

    2018-01-01

    This paper theorises how politics, economy and migrant population policies influence educational policy, utilising Bourdieusian theoretical resources to analyse the Chinese context. It develops the work of Lingard and Rawolle on cross-field effects and produces an updated three-step analytical framework. Taking the policy issue of the schooling of…

  13. Critical loads as a policy tool for protecting ecosystems from the effects of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas A. Burns; Tamara Blett; Richard Haeuber; Linda H. Pardo

    2008-01-01

    Framing the effects of air pollutants on ecosystems in terms of a "critical load" provides a meaningful approach for research scientists to communicate policy-relevant science to air-quality policy makers and natural resource managers. A critical-loads approach has been widely used to shape air-pollutant control policy in Europe since the 1980s, yet has only...

  14. The role of Urbis' noise and noise effects maps in local policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borst, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    An important aspect of the EU noise policy is mapping of noise and noise effects and the formulation of noise action plans. In the Netherlands, due to the new policy on noise (MIG), the municipalities will be responsible for the formulation of a local noise policy. An instrument for the assessment

  15. Effect of Oral Dexamethasone Without Immediate Antibiotics vs Placebo on Acute Sore Throat in Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Gail Nicola; Hay, Alastair D; Moore, Michael V; Jawad, Sena; Williams, Nicola; Voysey, Merryn; Cook, Johanna; Allen, Julie; Thompson, Matthew; Little, Paul; Perera, Rafael; Wolstenholme, Jane; Harman, Kim; Heneghan, Carl

    2017-04-18

    Acute sore throat poses a significant burden on primary care and is a source of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing. Corticosteroids could be an alternative symptomatic treatment. To assess the clinical effectiveness of oral corticosteroids for acute sore throat in the absence of antibiotics. Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial (April 2013-February 2015; 28-day follow-up completed April 2015) conducted in 42 family practices in South and West England, enrolled 576 adults recruited on the day of presentation to primary care with acute sore throat not requiring immediate antibiotic therapy. Single oral dose of 10 mg of dexamethasone (n = 293) or identical placebo (n = 283). Primary: proportion of participants experiencing complete resolution of symptoms at 24 hours. Secondary: complete resolution at 48 hours, duration of moderately bad symptoms (based on a Likert scale, 0, normal; 6, as bad as it could be), visual analog symptom scales (0-100 mm; 0, no symptom to 100, worst imaginable), health care attendance, days missed from work or education, consumption of delayed antibiotics or other medications, adverse events. Among 565 eligible participants who were randomized (median age, 34 years [interquartile range, 26.0-45.5 year]; 75.2% women; 100% completed the intervention), 288 received dexamethasone; 277, placebo. At 24 hours, 65 participants (22.6%) in the dexamethasone group and 49 (17.7%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 4.7% (95% CI, -1.8% to 11.2%) and a relative risk of 1.28 (95% CI; 0.92 to 1.78; P = .14). At 24 hours, participants receiving dexamethasone were not more likely than those receiving placebo to have complete symptom resolution. At 48 hours, 102 participants (35.4%) in the dexamethasone group vs 75 (27.1%) in the placebo group achieved complete resolution of symptoms, for a risk difference of 8.7% (95% CI, 1.2% to 16.2%) and a relative risk of 1.31 (95% CI, 1.02 to 1

  16. Effect of immediate functional loading on osseointegration of implants used for single tooth replacement. A human histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Mauro; Botticelli, Daniele; La Scala, Vincenzo; Tomasi, Cristiano; Berglundh, Tord

    2013-07-01

    To analyze hard tissue reactions to immediate functionally loaded single implants that were installed either with a conventional drill preparation procedure or with an osteotome preparation technique. Thirteen subjects with two sites requiring single tooth rehabilitation by means of implants volunteered for the study. Each subject received one test (immediate functionally loaded) and one control (non-loaded) implant. In six subjects (group 1) the implants were placed using a conventional drilling procedure, whereas in the remaining seven subjects (group 2) an osteotome preparation procedure was performed. Block biopsies containing test and control implants and peri-implant bone tissues were collected at 1 month in four of the subjects in group 1 and in five subjects of group 2. The remaining implant sites were sampled at 3 months after implant placement. The biopsies were prepared for histological examination. Two implants of the test-2 group (osteotome preparation) representing 1 month of healing and another test-2 implant representing 3 months of healing failed to integrate. A multilevel multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that no differences in bone-to-implant contact (BIC)% were found in between test and control implants, the density of newly formed peri-implant bone was significantly higher around test than control implants at 1 and 3 months of healing. Sections representing osteotome technique sites showed fractured trabeculae and large amounts of bone particles. It is suggested that immediate loading of implants does not influence the osseointegration process, whereas the density of newly formed peri-implant bone at such sites appears to be increased in relation to unloaded control implants. The use of an osteotome preparation technique during installation results in damage of peri-implant bone and enhances the risk for failure in osseointegration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. The effect of placing a bone replacement graft in the gap at immediately placed implants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Mariano; Lindhe, Jan; Alcaraz, Jaime; Sanz-Sanchez, Ignacio; Cecchinato, Denis

    2017-08-01

    To assess the added value of using a bone replacement graft in combination with immediate implants in reducing the bone dimensional changes occurring in the residual ridge. Randomized parallel controlled clinical trial to study the efficacy of grafting with demineralized bovine bone mineral with 10% collagen (DBBM-C) in the gap between the implant surface and the inner bone walls when the implants were immediately placed in the anterior maxilla. The changes between implant placement and 16 weeks later in the horizontal and vertical crestal bone changes in relation to the implant were evaluated through direct bone measurements using a periodontal probe. Mean changes were compared between the experimental and control sites using parametric statistics. A total of 86 implant sites in 86 subjects were included in the analysis (43 in the test group and 43 in the control group). The horizontal crest dimension underwent marked changes during healing mainly at the buccal aspect of the alveolar crest where this reduction amounted to 1.1 (29%) in the test group and 1.6 mm (38%) in the control group, being these statistically significant (P = 0.02). This outcome was even more pronounced at sites in the anterior maxilla and with thinner buccal bone plates. In conclusion, the results from this clinical trial demonstrated that placing a DBBM-C bone replacement graft significantly reduced the horizontal bone resorptive changes occurring in the buccal bone after the immediate implantation in fresh extraction sockets. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Immediate effect of a functional wrist orthosis for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Michelle; Novak, Iona; Lannin, Natasha; Galea, Claire

    2017-10-28

    Two-group randomized controlled trial. Upper limb orthoses worn during functional tasks are commonly used in pediatric neurologic rehabilitation, despite a paucity of high-level evidence. The purpose of this study was to investigate if a customized functional wrist orthosis, when placed on the limb, leads to an immediate improvement in hand function for children with cerebral palsy or brain injury. A 2-group randomized controlled trial involving 30 children was conducted. Participants were randomized to either receive a customized functional wrist orthosis (experimental, n = 15) or not receive an orthosis (control, n = 15). The box and blocks test was administered at baseline and repeated 1 hour after experimental intervention, with the orthosis on if randomized to the orthotic group. After intervention, there were no significant differences on the box and blocks test between the orthotic group (mean, 10.13; standard deviation, 11.476) and the no orthotic group (mean, 14.07; standard deviation, 11.106; t[28], -0.954; P = .348; and 95% confidence interval, -12.380 to 4.513). In contrast to the findings of previous studies, our results suggest that a functional wrist orthosis, when supporting the joint in a 'typical' position, may not lead to an immediate improvement in hand function. Wearing a functional wrist orthosis did not lead to an immediate improvement in the ability of children with cerebral palsy or brain injury to grasp and release. Further research is needed combining upper limb orthoses with task-specific training and measuring outcomes over the medium to long term. Copyright © 2017 Hanley & Belfus. All rights reserved.

  19. The direct and indirect effects of education policy on school and post school outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, Steve; Migali, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Successive British governments since the early 1980s have introduced a host of educational policy reforms in an attempt to raise pupil performance at school. One of the most important educational policies in the secondary education sector was the specialist schools policy, which was introduced in 1994. Using data from the YCS for pupils who left school in either 2002 or 2004, a period of rapid expansion of the specialist schools programme, we seek to evaluate the effects of the policy. Unlike...

  20. The Interdependence of Competition Policy, Consumer Policy and Regulation in Introducing and Safeguarding Effective Competition in the EU Telecommunications Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Bartels

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the European Union finds itself in troubled waters. It has to prove that its benefits outweigh the costs of its endeavour. In this respect, an EU competition policy that focuses on consumer welfare is one way to gain support by the citizens of its member states. The Roaming Regulation that has reduced the mobile communications costs while travelling abroad serves as a good example for this approach. The EU Commission views consumer policy as another important factor to protect and benefit customers. In markets with natural monopolies, the two policies require the support of an effective regulatory policy. The research demonstrates that these three policies – if harmonised – are able to lead to an increase in consumer welfare (primarily by reducing prices and that they protect the rights and interests of consumers. In the case of telecommunications, several initiatives of the European Commission and of national regulatory authorities to falls in prices and forced operators to implement customer friendly rules and to protect customer data and privacy. The authors consider that the European Commission has tried to establish and harmonise rules across all member states in order to protect the interests and rights of consumers on the telecommunication market. The enforcement of competition and consumer policy within institutions from the telecom field certainly could promote the focus on consumers and the possibility to use a large “toolbox”. Harmonising and adjusting the policies across different countries and institutions and minimising any possible side effects is nevertheless a challenging task for the EU Commission in the future.

  1. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose V. León-Hernández

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Dry needling (DN and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. Objective To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. Method This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group. The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS and neck pain intensity (NPI. Pressure pain threshold (PPT and cervical range of motion (CROM were the secondary outcomes. Results We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. Conclusion PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain.

  2. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Hernández, Jose V; Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Frutos, Laura G; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-07-11

    Dry needling (DN) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group) and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group). The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS) and neck pain intensity (NPI). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were the secondary outcomes. We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain.

  3. Immediate and short-term effects of the combination of dry needling and percutaneous TENS on post-needling soreness in patients with chronic myofascial neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    León-Hernández, Jose V.; Martín-Pintado-Zugasti, Aitor; Frutos, Laura G.; Alguacil-Diego, Isabel M.; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana I.; Fernandez-Carnero, Josue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Dry needling (DN) and percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (PENS) are widely used techniques in the treatment of myofascial pain. Objective To investigate the immediate and short-term effects of the combination of DN and PENS compared to DN alone on the upper trapezius muscle. Method This is a 72-hour follow-up single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Sixty-two volunteer patients with chronic myofascial neck pain with active Myofascial Trigger Points (MTrPs) in the upper trapezius muscle were recruited. Randomization was performed, and 31 patients received DN treatment (DN group) and 31 received DN and PENS (DN+PENS group). The primary outcomes were neck disability index (NDI) and visual analog scale for pain for both post-needling soreness (PNS) and neck pain intensity (NPI). Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and cervical range of motion (CROM) were the secondary outcomes. Results We detected between-group differences in NPI and PNS in favor of the DN+PENS group immediately after treatment. No between-group differences in NDI were observed. Conclusion PENS application after dry needling treatment is more effective than dry needling alone for decreasing soreness in the short term and improving neck pain intensity immediately in patients with myofascial chronic neck pain. PMID:27410163

  4. 78 FR 48920 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... corporate governance and notice requirements. This current policy is appropriate in light of NYSE Arca... summarizing important Exchange corporate governance and notice requirements disseminated to all listed issuers... which have been altered by merger, acquisition, consolidation or other corporate action, unless...

  5. 77 FR 34117 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... also attempt to mitigate the Funds' credit risk by transacting only with large, well-capitalized... various steps to limit counterparty credit risk, which will be described in the Registration Statement... quality standards and monitoring policies. The Funds may use various techniques to minimize credit risk...

  6. Are Tobacco Control Policies Effective in Reducing Young Adult Smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C.; Loomis, Brett R.; Kuiper, Nicole; Han, Beth; Gfroerer, Joseph; Caraballo, Ralph S.; Pechacek, Terry F.; Couzens, G. Lance

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We examined the influence of tobacco control program funding, smoke-free air laws, and cigarette prices on young adult smoking outcomes. Methods We use a natural experimental design approach that uses the variation in tobacco control policies across states and over time to understand their influence on tobacco outcomes. We combine individual outcome data with annual state-level policy data to conduct multivariable logistic regression models, controlling for an extensive set of sociodemographic factors. The participants are 18- to 25-year-olds from the 2002–2009 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. The three main outcomes are past-year smoking initiation, and current and established smoking. A current smoker was one who had smoked on at least 1 day in the past 30 days. An established smoker was one who had smoked 1 or more cigarettes in the past 30 days and smoked at least 100 cigarettes in his or her lifetime. Results Higher levels of tobacco control program funding and greater smoke-free-air law coverage were both associated with declines in current and established smoking (p smoke-free air laws was associated with lower past year initiation with marginal significance (p = .058). Higher cigarette prices were not associated with smoking outcomes. Had smoke-free-air law coverage and cumulative tobacco control funding remained at 2002 levels, current and established smoking would have been 5%–7% higher in 2009. Conclusions Smoke-free air laws and state tobacco control programs are effective strategies for curbing young adult smoking. PMID:24268360

  7. Immediate effects of cigar smoking on respiratory mechanics and exhaled biomarkers; differences between young smokers with mild asthma and otherwise healthy young smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappas, Andreas S; Konstantinidi, Efstathia M; Tzortzi, Anna S; Tzavara, Chara K; Behrakis, Panagiotis K

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the immediate respiratory effects of cigar smoking(CS), among young smokers with and without mild asthma. Forty-seven young smokers (18-31years old, 29 males, average pack-years = 3.6 ± 2.8) were enrolled. Twenty-two were mild asthmatics(MA-subgroup) and the remaining 25 were otherwise healthy smokers(HS-subgroup). Exhaled carbon monoxide(eCO), multi-frequency respiratory system impedance(Z), resistance(R), reactance(X), frequency-dependence of resistance(fdr = R5Hz - R20Hz), resonant frequency(fres), reactance area(AX) and exhaled nitric oxide(FENO) were measured at the aforementioned sequence, before and immediately after 30 min of CS, or equal session in the smoking area while using a sham cigar(control group). Chi-square, student's t-tests, mixed linear models and Pearson correlation tests were used for the statistical analysis; level of significance was defined as p < 0.05. Immediately after CS, Z5Hz, R5Hz, R10Hz, R20Hz and eCO increased significantly in both subgroups(MA and HS). A greater increase was found for R20 in HS-subgroup. Fdr, fres and AX increased in MA, while decreased in HS. On the contrary, X10 decreased in MA and increased in HS, while X20 showed a greater decrease in MA. Changes in fdr, fres and AX were significantly correlated in both subgroups. No significant FENO alterations were detected in both subgroups. CS has immediate effects on pulmonary function. Mild asthma predisposes to higher increase of peripheral resistance(increased fdr). In otherwise healthy smokers, central resistance(R20Hz) is more affected. FENO levels are not significantly affected by CS.

  8. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 150 mg/head), Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. However, the nateglinide controlled release formulation is more useful than the nateglinide immediate release tablets from the view point of avoidance of side effect, or of easy control of both PBG and FBG. On the basis of these results, the design of a controlled release formulation that contains nateglinide was suggested to enable control of both PBG and FBG for moderate and severe diabetes patients.

  9. Supporting Evidence-Based Policy on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Recommendations for Effective Policy Briefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balian, Estelle V.; Drius, Liza; Eggermont, Hilde; Livoreil, Barbara; Vandewalle, Marie; Vandewoestjine, Sofie; Wittmer, Heidi; Young, Juliette

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge brokerage on biodiversity and ecosystem services can apply communication tools such as policy briefs to facilitate the dialogue between scientists and policymakers. There is currently considerable debate on how to go beyond the linear communication model, outdated in theoretical debate but still often implicitly leading interaction with…

  10. Multiple carbon accounting to support just and effective climate policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steininger, Karl W.; Lininger, Christian; Meyer, Lukas H.; Muñoz, Pablo; Schinko, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Negotiating reductions in greenhouse gas emission involves the allocation of emissions and of emission reductions to specific agents, and notably, within the current UN framework, to associated countries. As production takes place in supply chains, increasingly extending over several countries, there are various options available in which emissions originating from one and the same activity may be attributed to different agents along the supply chain and thus to different countries. In this way, several distinct types of national carbon accounts can be constructed. We argue that these accounts will typically differ in the information they provide to individual countries on the effects their actions have on global emissions; and they may also, to varying degrees, prove useful in supporting the pursuit of an effective and just climate policy. None of the accounting systems, however, prove 'best' in achieving these aims under real-world circumstances; we thus suggest compiling reliable data to aid in the consistent calculation of multiple carbon accounts on a global level.

  11. Effectiveness of state climate and energy policies in reducing power-sector CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Geoff; Saikawa, Eri

    2017-12-01

    States have historically been the primary drivers of climate change policy in the US, particularly with regard to emissions from power plants. States have implemented policies designed either to directly curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from power plants, or to encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy growth. With the federal government withdrawing from the global climate agreement, understanding which state-level policies have successfully mitigated power-plant emissions is urgent. Past research has assessed policy effectiveness using data for periods before the adoption of many policies. We assess 17 policies using the latest data on state-level power-sector CO2 emissions. We find that policies with mandatory compliance are reducing power-plant emissions, while voluntary policies are not. Electric decoupling, mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are associated with the largest reduction in emissions. Mandatory GHG registry/reporting and public benefit funds are also associated with a large reduction in emissions intensity.

  12. Aspiration Abortion With Immediate Intrauterine Device Insertion: Comparing Outcomes of Advanced Practice Clinicians and Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Eva; Darney, Blair; Orme-Evans, Kaebah; Beckley, Ethan H; Bergander, Linn; Nichols, Mark; Bednarek, Paula H

    2016-05-01

    Immediate postabortion intrauterine device (IUD) insertion is a safe, effective strategy to prevent subsequent unplanned pregnancy. Oregon is one of 5 US states where advanced practice clinicians perform aspiration abortions. This study compares outcomes of first-trimester aspiration abortion with immediate IUD insertion between advanced practice clinicians and physicians. We conducted a historical cohort study of first-trimester aspiration abortions with immediate IUD insertion performed at our center from 2009 to 2011. We extracted demographic and clinical data from patient charts. Immediate complications including excessive blood loss, perforation, and reaspirations were recorded at the time of procedure. We used descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression to test for differences in outcomes by clinician type. Data were available on 669 of the 1134 combined procedures. Advanced practice clinicians performed 224 of these. There were no significant differences in immediate outcomes. The only immediate complications were reaspirations; 1.8% (4/224) in the advanced practice clinician group, and 2.0% (9/445) in the physician group (P = .83). We found no differences in outcomes between provider type for immediate IUD insertion after first-trimester aspiration abortion. This study helps reinforce that advanced practice clinicians can provide immediate postaspiration abortion IUD insertions with similar outcomes to those of physicians. Many countries do not allow advanced practice clinicians to perform this service, but a change in policy could help address family planning provider shortages. © 2016 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  13. Toward Effective Policies for Innovation Financing in Asia | Page 2 ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... publishing policy briefs and organizing public forums in collaboration with Thailand's National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Office (NSTIPO) and Malaysia's Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI). NSTIPO is currently revising Thailand's 10-year National Science and Technology Strategic ...

  14. Existence and Policy Effectiveness in Feedback Nash LQ-Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Acocella

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates how the classical theory of economic policy can profitably be used to verify some properties of the Linear Nash Feedback Equilibrium in difference LQ-games. In particular, we find that both a necessary condition for the equilibrium existence and a sufficient condition for policy ineffectiveness can be defined in the terms of the simple Tinbergen counting rule.

  15. Effect of policy change on the prescription pattern of antimalarial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However three years into the change in policy, Artemether/Lumefantrine (AL) was the most prescribed, recording 25.2% as against 0.8% a year prior to the change in policy (2004).This was followed by Artesunate/Amodiaquine (AA) and Artesunate/Mefloquine (AM), 24.3% and 23.6% respectively. Artemisinin monotherapies ...

  16. Engaging Effectively in the Policy-Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Virginia L.; West, Jane E.; Anderson, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Current political polarization and competing priorities complicate development of sound education policy. Particularly troubling is the disconnect between research and policy, as decision makers rely more on the work of think tanks and advocacy groups than the knowledge base of the profession. The mismatch between higher education and policy…

  17. Effect of Flapless Immediate Implantation and Filling the Buccal Gap with Xenograft Material on the Buccal Bone Level: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Paknejad

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Following tooth extraction, soft and hard tissue alterations occur; Different factors can affect this process. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of gap filling on buccal alveolar crestal bone level after immediate implant placement after 4- to 6-month observation period.Materials and Methods: This   randomized clinical trial was performed on 20 patients (mean age of 38.8 years requiring tooth extraction in a total of 27 areas in the anterior maxilla. The treatment strategy was as follows: atraumatic flapless tooth extraction, implant placement, insertion of a graft (test group or no material (control group between the implant and the socket wall, connection healing abutment placement and suturing the area. Clinical and cone beam computed tomographic examinations were performed before implant placement (baseline, 24 hours after surgery and 4-6 months (T2 after implant placement, to assess the buccal plate height (BH and implant complications.Results: After 4 months of healing, a reduction in different bone measurements was noticed in the two groups. No statistically significant differences were assessed in bone height measurements between the test and control groups at different time points. The study demonstrated that immediate implantation resulted in 1.30 and 1.66 mm reduction in buccal bone plate in the test and control groups, respectively.Conclusions: The study demonstrated that immediate implantation in the extraction socket together with xenograft failed to prevent bone resorption.

  18. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K. [Orthopaedic University Hospital of Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Zanetti, Marco [Hirslanden Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); Hodler, Juerg [University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2011-12-15

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  19. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of Upper Thoracic Manipulation on Myoelectric Activity of Sternocleidomastoid Muscles in Young Women With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Packer, Amanda Carine; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immediate and short-term effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on pain intensity and myoelectric activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in young women with chronic neck pain. A randomized clinical trial was carried out involving 32 women with chronic neck pain (mean age, 24.8 ± 5.4 years) allocated to an experimental group and a placebo group. Three evaluations were carried out: baseline, immediate postintervention, and short-term postintervention (48-72 hours after intervention). Myoelectric activity of the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles was assessed at rest and during isometric contractions for cervical flexion and elevation of the shoulder girdle. Neck pain intensity was assessed at rest using a visual analog scale. Comparisons of the data were performed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction. The level of significance was set at P 0.40). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the variables analyzed in the intergroup comparisons at the different evaluation times (P > .05). No statistically significant differences were found in the intragroup or intergroup analyses of the experimental and placebo groups regarding myoelectric activity of the cervical muscles or the intensity of neck pain at rest in the immediate or short-term postintervention evaluations. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  1. The immediate effects of a single bout of aerobic exercise on oral glucose tolerance across the glucose tolerance continuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Pedersen, Bente K

    2014-01-01

    We investigated glucose tolerance and postprandial glucose fluxes immediately after a single bout of aerobic exercise in subjects representing the entire glucose tolerance continuum. Twenty-four men with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), or type 2 diabetes (T2D; age......: 56 ± 1 years; body mass index: 27.8 ± 0.7 kg/m(2), P > 0.05) underwent a 180-min oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) combined with constant intravenous infusion of [6,6-(2)H2]glucose and ingestion of [U-(13)C]glucose, following 1 h of exercise (50% of peak aerobic power) or rest. In both trials......, plasma glucose concentrations and kinetics, insulin, C-peptide, and glucagon were measured. Rates (mg kg(-1) min(-1)) of glucose appearance from endogenous (RaEndo) and exogenous (oral glucose; Ra OGTT) sources, and glucose disappearance (Rd) were determined. We found that exercise increased RaEndo, Ra...

  2. Life Satisfaction Effects of Unemployment in Europe: The Moderating Influence of Labour Market Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike

    2014-01-01

    policy on life satisfaction of the unemployed. While unemployment has strong negative life satisfaction effects in all 21 European countries under study, the generosity of passive labour market policy moderates this effect to a surprisingly large extent: the adverse effect of unemployment is almost...

  3. Therapeutic Effect of Caffeine Treatment Immediately Following Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury on Spatial Memory in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holly Fitch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypoxia Ischemia (HI refers to the disruption of blood and/or oxygen delivery to the brain. Term infants suffering perinatal complications that result in decreased blood flow and/or oxygen delivery to the brain are at risk for HI. Among a variety of developmental delays in this population, HI injured infants demonstrate subsequent memory deficits. The Rice-Vannucci rodent HI model can be used to explore behavioral deficits following early HI events, as well as possible therapeutic agents to help reduce deleterious outcomes. Caffeine is an adenosine receptor antagonist that has recently shown promising results as a therapeutic agent following HI injury. The current study sought to investigate the therapeutic benefit of caffeine following early HI injury in male rats. On post-natal day (P 7, HI injury was induced (cauterization of the right common carotid artery, followed by two hours of 8% oxygen. Male sham animals received only a midline incision with no manipulation of the artery followed by room air exposure for two hours. Subsets of HI and sham animals then received either an intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of caffeine (10 mg/kg, or vehicle (sterile saline immediately following hypoxia. All animals later underwent testing on the Morris Water Maze (MWM from P90 to P95. Results show that HI injured animals (with no caffeine treatment displayed significant deficits on the MWM task relative to shams. These deficits were attenuated by caffeine treatment when given immediately following the induction of HI. We also found a reduction in right cortical volume (ipsilateral to injury in HI saline animals as compared to shams, while right cortical volume in the HI caffeine treated animals was intermediate. These findings suggest that caffeine is a potential therapeutic agent that could be used in HI injured infants to reduce brain injury and preserve subsequent cognitive function.

  4. Absence of adverse hepatic or renal effects with the etonogestrel-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena B Brito

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Milena B Brito1,2, Rui A Ferriani1,2, Silvana M Quintana1, Marcos F Silva de Sá1,2, Carolina S Vieira1,21Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil; 2National Institute of Hormones and Women’s Health, Ribeirão Preto, BrazilObjective: To evaluate the safety, in terms of renal and hepatic function, of the etonogestrel (ENG-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum.Methods: A total of 40 healthy women were randomized; 20 received the ENG-releasing implant inserted 24 to 48 hours after delivery (ENG group, and 20 received depot medroxyprogesterone acetate in the sixth week postpartum (control group. Alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutaryl transferase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin and its fractions, albumin, urea, and creatinine were analyzed.Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in serum hepatic markers or urea levels during the study. Creatinine levels increased in both groups during the first six weeks, more significantly in the ENG group than in the control group (ENG +40% versus control +20%, P = 0.04. This increase was followed by a greater decrease in the ENG group than in the control group 6–12 weeks postpartum (ENG -14.3% versus control -3.8%, P = 0.02. However, these changes were still within the normal ranges for the assays performed.Conclusion: The ENG-releasing contraceptive implant inserted immediately postpartum was not associated with clinically significant changes in serum markers of liver or kidney function.Keywords: etonogestrel, renal, hepatic, postpartum period, contraception, implant

  5. Smoking policy change at a homeless shelter: attitudes and effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Poonawalla, Insiya B; Kendzor, Darla E; Rios, Debra M; Cuate, Erica L; Savoy, Elaine J; Ma, Ping; Baggett, Travis P; Reingle, Jennifer; Reitzel, Lorraine R

    2015-01-01

    Homeless adults are exposed to more smokers and smoke in response to environmental tobacco cues more than other socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. Addressing the culture of smoking in homeless shelters through policy initiatives may support cessation and improve health in this vulnerable and understudied population. This study examined support for and expected/actual effects of a smoking ban at a homeless shelter. A 2-wave cross-sectional study with an embedded cohort was conducted in the summer of 2013 two weeks before (wave 1) and two months after (wave 2) a partial outdoor smoking ban was implemented. A total of 394 homeless adults were surveyed (i.e., wave 1 [n=155]; wave 2 [n=150]; and 89 additional participants completed both waves). On average, participants were 43 years old, primarily African American (63%), male (72%), and had been homeless for the previous 12 months (median). Most participants were smokers (76%) smoking 12 cigarettes per day on average. Most participants supported the creation of a large smoke-free zone on the shelter campus, but there was less support for a shelter-wide smoking ban. Average cigarettes smoked per day did not differ between study waves. However, participants who completed both study waves experienced a reduction in expired carbon monoxide at wave 2 (W1=18.2 vs. W2=15.8 parts per million, p=.02). Expected effects of the partial ban were similar to actual effects. Partial outdoor smoking bans may be well supported by homeless shelter residents and may have a positive impact on shelter resident health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of Calcium Borogluconate Injection pre and Immediately Postpartum on Production Performance, Incidence of Metabolic Disorders and Situation of the Uterus After Calving in Cows Fed Anionic Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Amanlou

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of calcium borogluconate injection 48 and 24 hours prepartum and immediately after parturition on dry matter intake at day of calving, milk yield, incidence of metabolic disorders and uterine conditions during the first 21 days postpartum in cows fed anionic diets. Thirty six lactating dairy cows were balanced by parity (1, 2, 3+ and allocated to 4 subcutaneous injection treatments of 15.2 gr calcium as borogluconate at different times pre and postpartum than expected calving date . Group 1 consisted of 9 cows receiving no treatment before or after parturition. Group 2 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 48 h prepartum.Group 3 consisted of 9 cows receiving calcium borogluconate 24 h prepartum. Group 4 consisted of 9 cows receiving 15.2 gr of ca as borogluconate immediately postpartum. Dry matter intake was in treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 was 10.87, 12.32, 12.63 and 15.03 kg in the first 24 h after calving, respectively And indicated significantly difference among treatments. milk yield in 2, 3 and 4 treatments was significantly greater than group 1 in the first 21 days of lactation (38.7, 38.9, 40.3 vs 36.07 kg/d. Treatment had a significant effect on the subclinical hypocalcemia incidence so incidence risk of subclinical hypocalcemia in 1 treatment was 10 times more likely than 4 treatment. Data regression analysis indicated that 4 treatment had a significant effect on the ketosis incidence. So that the cows no calcium injection 2.43 times more likely to experience ketosis than 4 treatment. But experimental treatments were not significantly effect on the incidence of milk fever, displacement abomasum, retained placenta, metritis and endometritis. In general, calcium injection, especially immediately after parturation increased the dry matter intake in day of calving and reduced metabolic disorders such as hypocalcaemia and ketosis.

  7. The Effectiveness of Private Forest Institutional and Policy in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fauziyah

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze the effectiveness of institusional and policy on private forest. The research was conducted in Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency in August 2012 - May 2013. The methods used in this study are structured interview, open interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD. Assessment of institutional effectiveness was done to government institutional, marketing institututional, and farmer institutional using recommended indicator namely: 1 user and resource boundaries, 2 appropriation and provision, 3 collective-choice arrangements, 4 monitoring, 5 graduated sanctions, 6 conflict-resolution mechanisms, and 7 recognition of appropriators’ rights to organize. The collected data were processed using likert scale and analyzed descriptively. The results showed that effectiveness of institutional in Kabupaten Banjarnegara and Banyumas Regency was moderate condition (quite effective. The effectiveness of private forest policy is seen from four policy viewpoints: policy accuracy, policy implementation, target accuracy, and environmental accuracy. Private forest policy in Kabupaten Banjarnegara is effective based on policy accuracy and environmental accuracy, while private forest policy in Banyumas Regency is effective based on target accuracy and environmental accuracy. This difference in assessment is due to the different of policy or program at the location according to the condition and the desire of community.

  8. MONETARY POLICY FORCE EFFECT BY MEANS OF BANKS MONEY CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria COCIUG

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the context of modern economy, banks play an essential role for sustainable growth, by ensuring economy with financial resources and driving impulses of monetary policy to economy. Monetary authorities influence significantly the bank's ability to fulfill this role. Thus, to achieve macroeconomic objectives, there is promoted particular monetary policy and are implemented various practical regulations for banks. In this article, we want to identify the existing relationship between monetary policy followed by the authorities and the ability of banks to create money with its impact on various practical regulations.

  9. THE REGIONAL EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY: THE CASE OF THE AMERICAN SOUTH

    OpenAIRE

    David Beckworth

    2016-01-01

    A number of studies over the past decade find that US monetary policy generates asymmetric effects on regional economies. These studies further find that the variation in industry composition across US regions is a key reason for these regional effects of monetary policy. One implication from these findings is that should a US region undergo a major restructuring of its economy that region would likely find its response to monetary policy shocks to change as well. This possibility is explored...

  10. Principles, effects and problems of differential power pricing policy for energy intensive industries in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese government canceled the preferential power pricing policies for energy intensive industries and imposed a reverse differential pricing policy in order to promote energy efficiency and the adjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure. This article analyzes the principles of China's differential power pricing policy, the externalities of energy and the modified Ramsey pricing rule, and also points out the policy implications of China's differential power pricing policy. In our samples, we investigate eight power intensive products in the Henan province with respect to their power consumption per unit (power intensity), electricity cost, total cost, the electricity tariff and profit, in order to test the effects of the differential power pricing policy. The results show that the primary effect of the differential power pricing policy is that enterprises decrease their total costs and improve their productive efficiencies in advance, in anticipating a higher electricity tariff. -- Research highlights: → The article suggests a modified Ramsey pricing model where demand elasticity is replaced by elasticity of energy consumption and polluting elasticity to internalize the negative externality of high energy intensive industry. → The article assesses the effects of differential pricing policy through on-site survey of high energy intensive industries in Henan province and analyzes the reasons behind those effects. → The article presents the lessons and policy implications of implementing differential pricing policy aimed at energy conservation and emission reduction.

  11. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Sumit; Narang, Anu; Jain, Kapil; Bhatia, Vineet

    2014-09-01

    The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS) implants into the fresh extraction sockets and one KOS implant in edentulous area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 6 months.

  12. Multiple immediate implants placement with immediate loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Narang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of missing teeth with implant-borne restorations has become a treatment modality accepted by the scientific community for fully and partially edentulous patients. Recent reports have demonstrated the successful placement of dental implants into the fresh extraction socket in the anterior as well as in molar regions, which is made possible due to modification in implant surface. The present case report highlights the placement of three bicortical screw (BCS implants into the fresh extraction sockets and one  KOS implant in edentulous area with flapless technique. All the implants were immediately loaded and followed up for a period of 6 months.

  13. Transcranial alternating current stimulation at beta frequency: lack of immediate effects on excitation and interhemispheric inhibition of the human motor cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Rjosk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation and is capable of influencing brain oscillations and cortical networks. In humans, the endogenous oscillation frequency in sensorimotor areas peaks at 20 Hz. This beta-band typically occurs during maintenance of tonic motor output and seems to play a role in interhemispheric coordination of movements. Previous studies showed that tACS applied in specific frequency bands over primary motor cortex (M1 or the visual cortex modulates cortical excitability within the stimulated hemisphere. However, the particular impact remains controversial because effects of tACS were shown to be frequency, duration and location specific. Furthermore, the potential of tACS to modulate cortical interhemispheric processing, like interhemispheric inhibition (IHI, remains elusive. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is a noninvasive and well-tolerated method of directly activating neurons in superficial areas of the human brain and thereby a useful tool for evaluating the functional state of motor pathways. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the immediate effect of 10 min tACS in the β-frequency band (20 Hz over left M1 on IHI between M1s in 19 young, healthy, right-handed participants. A series of TMS measurements (MEP size, RMT, IHI from left to right M1 and vice versa was performed before and immediately after tACS or sham using a double-blinded, cross-over design. We did not find any significant tACS-induced modulations of intracortical excitation (as assessed by MEP size and RMT and/or interhemispheric inhibition (IHI. These results indicate that 10 min of 20 Hz tACS over left M1 seems incapable of modulating immediate brain activity or inhibition. Further studies are needed to elucidate potential aftereffects of 20 Hz tACS as well as frequency-specific effects of tACS on intracortical excitation and interhemispheric inhibition.

  14. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO FIND OUT IMMEDIATE EFFECTIVENESS OF MOVEMENT WITH MOBILIZATION VERSUS ELBOW ORTHOSIS ON PAIN AND GRIP STRENGTH IN LATERAL EPICONDYLITIS IN HOUSEWIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trishna Kakati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are various studies using Mulligan’s MWM with or without combining with electrotherapy modalities and proved the efficacy of the technique in immediately decreasing pain and improving grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Orthotic as a treatment is also proved to be beneficial in decreasing pain and improving grip strength. There is evidence that housewives are prone to develop lateral epicondylitis due to their routine household work. But there is lack of evidence which compare initial effects of MWM and orthosis in housewives bringing up better outcome measures. The purpose of this study is to compare the initial effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis on pain and grip strength in housewives with lateral epicondylitis. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mulligan’s MWM technique versus counterforce elbow orthosis in immediately reducing pain and improving grip strength in lateral epicondylitis in housewives. Methodos: All subjects underwent a pre-treatment examination to assess pain and pain free hand grip strength with the help of outcome measures. Subjects were randomly assigned into two groups, A and B respectively; having 25 subjects in each group. Group A was treated with one session of Mulligan’s MWM technique. Group B was treated with Counterforce elbow strap orthosis. Data was assessed pre-treatment and immediately after treatment. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS and hand grip on Hand Grip Dynamometer (HGD were used as outcome measures. Results: Independent t-test was performed to see the effectiveness between Mulligan’s MWM and elbow orthosis. For VAS, t = - 2.243 which is significant at 5% level of significance. It has been inferred that VAS decreases more when Mulligan’s MWM was applied. For HGD, t = 0.878 which is not significant implying that increase in HGD do not differ remarkably for the two treatments. Conclusion: It has been recorded from the study that

  15. EFFECT OF CORPORATE GOVERNANCE INDEX ON DIVIDEND POLICY: AN INVESTIGATION OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY OF PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safdar Husain Tahir

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study observed empirically the impact of corporate governance index on dividend payout policy by using the data of seventeen textile firms listed in Karachi Stock Exchange. The data covered the five years period from 2009 to 2013. The data were gathered from financial statements of all the sample firms. Multiple regression models were used to check the impact of corporate governance on dividend policy. No effect of corporate governance index on firm dividend policy was found, and the largest shareholders also had no impact on dividend pay-out policy. The association between payout policy and stock value was found to be significant positive. Gross profit margin and operating profit margin had significant positive impact on firm’s dividend payout policy. There is a significant correlation between firm performance and payout policy.

  16. Multilevel Analysis of the Effects of Antidiscrimination Policies on Earnings by Sexual Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klawitter, Marieka

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the 2000 U.S. Census data to assess the impact of antidiscrimination policies for sexual orientation on earnings for gays and lesbians. Using a multilevel model allows estimation of the effects of state and local policies on earnings and of variation in the effects of sexual orientation across local labor markets. The results…

  17. The Effectiveness of Policy Interventions for School Bullying: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, William

    2017-01-01

    Objective Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. Although anti-bullying policies are prevalent, little is known about their effectiveness. This systematic review evaluates the methodological characteristics and summarizes substantive findings of studies examining the effectiveness of school bullying policies. Method Searches of 11 bibliographic databases yielded 489 studies completed since January 1, 1995. Following duplicate removal and double-independent screening based on a priori inclusion criteria, 21 studies were included for review. Results Substantially more educators perceive anti-bullying policies to be effective rather than ineffective. Whereas several studies show that the presence or quality of policies is associated with lower rates of bullying among students, other studies found no such associations between policy presence or quality and reductions in bullying. Consistent across studies, this review found that schools with anti-bullying policies that enumerated protections based on sexual orientation and gender identity were associated with better protection of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students. Specifically, LGBTQ students in schools with such policies reported less harassment and more frequent and effective intervention by school personnel. Findings are mixed regarding the relationship between having an anti-bullying policy and educators’ responsiveness to general bullying. Conclusions Anti-bullying policies might be effective at reducing bullying if their content is based on evidence and sound theory and if they are implemented with a high level of fidelity. More research is needed to improve on limitations among extant studies. PMID:28344750

  18. Effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter; Chisholm, Dan; Fuhr, Daniela C

    2009-06-27

    This paper reviews the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of policies and programmes to reduce the harm caused by alcohol, in the areas of education and information, the health sector, community action, driving while under the influence of alcohol (drink-driving), availability, marketing, pricing, harm reduction, and illegally and informally produced alcohol. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that policies regulating the environment in which alcohol is marketed (particularly its price and availability) are effective in reducing alcohol-related harm. Enforced legislative measures to reduce drink-driving and individually directed interventions to already at-risk drinkers are also effective. However, school-based education does not reduce alcohol-related harm, although public information and education-type programmes have a role in providing information and in increasing attention and acceptance of alcohol on political and public agendas. Making alcohol more expensive and less available, and banning alcohol advertising, are highly cost-effective strategies to reduce harm. In settings with high amounts of unrecorded production and consumption, increasing the proportion of alcohol that is taxed could be a more effective pricing policy than a simple increase in tax.

  19. The immediate effect of triceps surae myofascial trigger point therapy on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion in recreational runners: a crossover randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Cranston, Amy; Henderson, Andrew; John, Rachel; Malone, George; Mayall, Christopher

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the immediate effect on restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM), after a single intervention of myofascial trigger point (MTrP) therapy on latent triceps surae MTrPs in recreational runners. A crossover randomised controlled trial. Twenty-two recreational runners (11 men and 11 women; mean age 24.57; ±8.7 years) with a restricted active ankle joint dorsiflexion and presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were screened for a restriction in active ankle dorsiflexion in either knee flexion (soleus) or knee extension (gastrocnemius) and the presence of latent MTrPs. Participants were randomly allocated a week apart to both the intervention (combined pressure release and 10 s passive stretch) and the control condition. A clinically meaningful (large effect size) and statistically significant increase in ankle ROM in the intervention compared to the control group was achieved, for the soleus (p = 0.004) and the gastrocnemius (p = 0.026). Apart from the statistical significance (p < 0.05), these results are clinically relevant due to the immediate increase in ankle dorsiflexion. These results must be viewed in caution due to the carry-over effect in the RCT crossover design and the combined MTrP therapy approach. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The immediate effect of bilateral self myofascial release on the plantar surface of the feet on hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility: A pilot randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieve, Rob; Goodwin, Faye; Alfaki, Mostapha; Bourton, Amey-Jay; Jeffries, Caitlin; Scott, Harriet

    2015-07-01

    Self myofascial release (SMR) via a tennis ball to the plantar aspect of the foot is widely used and advocated to increase flexibility and range of movement further along the posterior muscles of a proposed "anatomy train". To date there is no evidence to support the effect of bilateral SMR on the plantar aspect of the feet to increase hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility. The primary aim was to investigate the immediate effect of a single application of SMR on the plantar aspect of the foot, on hamstring and lumbar spine flexibility. The secondary aim was to evaluate the method and propose improvements in future research. A pilot single blind randomised control trial. Twenty four healthy volunteers (8 men, 16 women; mean age 28 years ± 11.13). Participants underwent screening to exclude hypermobility and were randomly allocated to an intervention (SMR) or control group (no therapy). Baseline and post intervention flexibility was assessed by a sit-and-reach test (SRT). A one way between groups analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to compare between group outcome SRT measurements. Baseline pre-intervention and control SRT measurements were used as the covariate in the analysis. There was a significant increase (p = 0.03) in the intervention SRT outcome measurements compared to the control group, with a large effect size. An immediate clinical benefit of SMR on the flexibility of the hamstrings and lumbar spine was indicated and suggestions for methodological improvements may inform future research. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Immediate effects of the suboccipital muscle inhibition technique in craniocervical posture and greater occipital nerve mechanosensitivity in subjects with a history of orthodontia use: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia Rizo, Alberto M; Pascual-Vaca, Ángel Oliva; Cabello, Manuel Albornoz; Blanco, Cleofás Rodríguez; Pozo, Fernando Piña; Carrasco, Antonio Luque

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the immediate differences in craniocervical posture and pressure pain threshold of the greater occipital (GO) nerve in asymptomatic subjects with a history of having used orthodontics, after intervention by a suboccipital muscle inhibition (SMI) technique. This was a randomized, single-blind, clinical study with a sample of 24 subjects (21±1.78 years) that were divided into an experimental group (n=12) who underwent the SMI technique and a sham group (n=12) who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The sitting and standing craniovertebral angle and the pressure pain threshold of the GO nerve in both hemispheres were measured. The between-group comparison of the sample indicated that individuals subjected to the SMI technique showed a statistically significant increase in the craniovertebral angle in both the sitting (P<.001, F1,22=102.09, R2=0.82) and the standing (P<.001, F1,22=21.42, R2=0.56) positions and in the GO nerve pressure pain threshold in the nondominant hemisphere (P=.014, F1,22=7.06, R2=0.24). There were no statistically significant differences observed for the GO nerve mechanosensitivity in the dominant side (P=.202). Suboccipital muscle inhibition technique immediately improved the position of the head with the subject seated and standing, the clinical effect size being large in the former case. It also immediately decreased the mechanosensitivity of the GO nerve in the nondominant hemisphere, although the effect size was small. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Immediate therapeutic effect of interferential current therapy on spasticity, balance, and gait function in chronic stroke patients: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Hye Rim; Han, Hee Chul; Cho, Hwi-Young

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether a single trial of interferential current therapy (ICT) can immediately alleviate spasticity and improve balance and gait performance in patients with chronic stroke. Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Inpatient rehabilitation in a local center. A total of 42 adult patients with chronic stroke with plantar flexor spasticity of the lower limb. The ICT group received a single 60-minute ICT stimulation of the gastrocnemius in conjunction with air-pump massage. In the placebo-ICT group, electrodes were placed and air-pump massage performed without electrical stimulation. After a single ICT application, spasticity was measured immediately using the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), and balance and functional gait performance were assessed using the following clinical tools: Functional Reach Test (FRT), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Timed Up and Go Test (TUG), and 10-m Walk Test (10MWT). Gastrocnemius spasticity significantly decreased in the ICT group than in the placebo-ICT group (MAS: ICT vs placebo-ICT: 1.55±0.76 vs 0.40±0.50). The ICT group showed significantly greater improvement in balance and gait abilities than the placebo-ICT group (FRT: 2.62±1.21 vs 0.61±1.34, BBS: 1.75±1.52 vs 0.40±0.88, TUG: 6.07±6.11 vs 1.68±2.39, 10MWT: 7.02±7.02 vs 1.96±3.13). Spasticity correlated significantly with balance and gait abilities (P < 0.05). A single trial of ICT is a useful intervention for immediately improving spasticity, balance, and gait abilities in chronic stroke patients, but not for long-term effects. Further study on the effects of repeated ICT is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Final Technical Report Power through Policy: "Best Practices" for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhoads-Weaver, Heather; Gagne, Matthew; Sahl, Kurt; Orrell, Alice; Banks, Jennifer

    2012-02-28

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The project's final products include the Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool, found at www.windpolicytool.org, and its accompanying documentation: Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool Guidebook: User Instructions, Assumptions, and Case Studies. With only two initial user inputs required, the Policy Tool allows users to adjust and test a wide range of policy-related variables through a user-friendly dashboard interface with slider bars. The Policy Tool is populated with a variety of financial variables, including turbine costs, electricity rates, policies, and financial incentives; economic variables including discount and escalation rates; as well as technical variables that impact electricity production, such as turbine power curves and wind speed. The Policy Tool allows users to change many of the variables, including the policies, to gauge the expected impacts that various policy combinations could have on the cost of energy (COE), net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR), and the simple payback of distributed wind projects ranging in size from 2.4 kilowatts (kW) to 100 kW. The project conducted case studies to demonstrate how the Policy Tool can provide insights into 'what if' scenarios and also allow the current status of incentives to be examined or defended when

  4. Effects of child care policy and environment on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G; Ward, Dianne S; Senso, Meghan

    2010-03-01

    Child care centers differ systematically with respect to the quality and quantity of physical activity they provide, suggesting that center-level policies and practices, as well as the center's physical environment, are important influences on children's physical activity behavior. To summarize and critically evaluate the extant peer-reviewed literature on the influence of child care policy and environment on physical activity in preschool-aged children. A computer database search identified seven relevant studies that were categorized into three broad areas: cross-sectional studies investigating the impact of selected center-level policies and practices on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), studies correlating specific attributes of the outdoor play environment with the level and intensity of MVPA, and studies in which a specific center-level policy or environmental attribute was experimentally manipulated and evaluated for changes in MVPA. Staff education and training, as well as staff behavior on the playground, seem to be salient influences on MVPA in preschoolers. Lower playground density (less children per square meter) and the presence of vegetation and open play areas also seem to be positive influences on MVPA. However, not all studies found these attributes to be significant. The availability and quality of portable play equipment, not the amount or type of fixed play equipment, significantly influenced MVPA levels. Emerging evidence suggests that several policy and environmental factors contribute to the marked between-center variability in physical activity and sedentary behavior. Intervention studies targeting these factors are thus warranted.

  5. Assessing views about gun violence reduction policy: a look at type of violence and expected effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Susan B

    2015-10-01

    Public opinion polling about gun policy is routinely conducted and often disregarded. The purpose of this research is to explore ways in which surveys can be made more useful to policy makers, researchers, and the general public. A stratified random sample of 1000 undergraduates at a private, urban university was recruited for an online survey about proposed gun policies. A total of 51.7% answered the questions analyzed herein. Including but going beyond typical assessments of agreement, the survey elicited respondent evaluations of the effectiveness of seven gun policies under two randomly assigned conditions: the type of gun violence (e.g., homicide, suicide, violent crime) and its magnitude. Participants were asked to estimate the effectiveness of each policy, including the possibility of making things worse. Participants indicated strong support for all policies and expected each to be effective with one exception - a policy designed to increase the number of guns on the scene, that is, putting armed police in schools. Persons who did not support other policies, on average, did not expect them to make things worse. Telling participants about the scope of the violence did not but the type of gun violence did affect effectiveness ratings. Asking about expected effectiveness of (vs. general support for) a policy might identify some optimism: Even people who don't support a policy sometimes think it will be effective. Findings suggest that surveys about the effectiveness of gun violence policies likely assess views that exclude suicide, the most common form of gun-related mortality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of immediate dentin sealing on the marginal adaptation and bond strengths of total-etch and self-etch adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Sillas; de Freitas, Claudia Regina Buanain; Saad, José Roberto Cury; Sadan, Avishai

    2009-07-01

    Sealing ability and bond strengths of total-etch and self-etch dentin adhesives used for immediate dentin sealing have not been assessed and established. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of immediate dentin sealing (IDS) using total-etch or self-etch dentin adhesives on microleakage and microtensile bond strength. Twenty recently extracted molars were selected, and standard MOD inlay preparations were made with the gingival margins located below the cemento-enamel junction. The teeth were assigned to 4 experimental groups (n=5) according to the indirect composite restoration cementation technique used: (1) immediate dentin sealing with Adper Single Bond (TEBI); (2) conventional adhesive cementation technique using Adper Single Bond (TEAI); (3) immediate dentin sealing using Adper Prompt L-Pop (SEBI); or (4) conventional adhesive cementation technique using Adper Prompt L-Pop (SEAI). The restored teeth were thermal cycled 1,000 times between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C and then immersed in 50% ammoniacal silver nitrate. Three specimens per restoration were evaluated for microleakage, according to predefined scores, and submitted to Friedman's test (alpha=.05). The specimens were then sectioned to obtain 0.8 +/-0.2-mm-thick sticks (with n ranging from 32 to 57 specimens) and submitted to microtensile bond strength (muTBS) testing. The obtained data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA test (alpha=.05). None of the experimental groups demonstrated complete elimination of marginal microleakage. There were significant differences in microleakage of the tested adhesives (P>.001). IDS microleakage scores were similar to those obtained using the conventional cementation technique (CCT) for both adhesives. The highest mean bond strengths were obtained with TEBI (51.1 MPa), whereas SEAI showed the lowest mean bond strengths (1.7 MPa). IDS resulted in significantly higher bond strengths than CCT (P<.001). Total-etch and self-etch adhesives have a

  7. Strategies for an effective tobacco harm reduction policy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariz Nurwidya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is a major causative agent for various deadly diseases such as coronary artery disease and cancer. It is the largest avoidable health risk in the world, causing more problems than alcohol, drug use, high blood pressure, excess body weight or high cholesterol. As countries like Indonesia prepare to develop national policy guidelines for tobacco harm reduction, the scientific community can help by providing continuous ideas and a forum for sharing and distributing information, drafting guidelines, reviewing best practices, raising funds, and establishing partnerships. We propose several strategies for reducing tobacco consumption, including advertisement interference, cigarette pricing policy, adolescent smoking prevention policy, support for smoking cessation therapy, special informed consent for smokers, smoking prohibition in public spaces, career incentives, economic incentives, and advertisement incentives. We hope that these strategies would assist people to avoid starting smoking or in smoking cessation.

  8. Neonatal resuscitation and immediate newborn assessment and stimulation for the prevention of neonatal deaths: a systematic review, meta-analysis and Delphi estimation of mortality effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Of 136 million babies born annually, around 10 million require assistance to breathe. Each year 814,000 neonatal deaths result from intrapartum-related events in term babies (previously “birth asphyxia”) and 1.03 million from complications of prematurity. No systematic assessment of mortality reduction from tactile stimulation or resuscitation has been published. Objective To estimate the mortality effect of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation, and basic resuscitation on neonatal deaths due to term intrapartum-related events or preterm birth, for facility and home births. Methods We conducted systematic reviews for studies reporting relevant mortality or morbidity outcomes. Evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria adapted to provide a systematic approach to mortality effect estimates for the Lives Saved Tool (LiST). Meta-analysis was performed if appropriate. For interventions with low quality evidence but strong recommendation for implementation, a Delphi panel was convened to estimate effect size. Results We identified 24 studies of neonatal resuscitation reporting mortality outcomes (20 observational, 2 quasi-experimental, 2 cluster randomized controlled trials), but none of immediate newborn assessment and stimulation alone. A meta-analysis of three facility-based studies examined the effect of resuscitation training on intrapartum-related neonatal deaths (RR= 0.70, 95%CI 0.59-0.84); this estimate was used for the effect of facility-based basic neonatal resuscitation (additional to stimulation). The evidence for preterm mortality effect was low quality and thus expert opinion was sought. In community-based studies, resuscitation training was part of packages with multiple concurrent interventions, and/or studies did not distinguish term intrapartum-related from preterm deaths, hence no meta-analysis was conducted. Our Delphi panel of 18 experts estimated that immediate newborn assessment and stimulation would reduce both intrapartum

  9. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  10. The Synergistic Effect of Leukocyte Platelet-Rich Fibrin and Micrometer/Nanometer Surface Texturing on Bone Healing around Immediately Placed Implants: An Experimental Study in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiva, Rodrigo F.; Gil, Luiz Fernando; Tovar, Nick; Janal, Malvin N.; Marao, Heloisa Fonseca; Pinto, Nelson; Coelho, Paulo G.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. This study evaluated the effects of L-PRF presence and implant surface texture on bone healing around immediately placed implants. Methods. The first mandibular molars of 8 beagle dogs were bilaterally extracted, and implants (Blossom™, Intra-Lock International, Boca Raton, FL) were placed in the mesial or distal extraction sockets in an interpolated fashion per animal. Two implant surfaces were distributed per sockets: (1) dual acid-etched (DAE, micrometer scale textured) and (2) micrometer/nanometer scale textured (Ossean™ surface). L-PRF (Intraspin system, Intra-Lock International) was placed in a split-mouth design to fill the macrogap between implant and socket walls on one side of the mandible. The contralateral side received implants without L-PRF. A mixed-model ANOVA (at α = 0.05) evaluated the effect of implant surface, presence of L-PRF, and socket position (mesial or distal), individually or in combination on bone area fraction occupancy (BAFO). Results. BAFO values were significantly higher for the Ossean relative to the DAE surface on the larger mesial socket. The presence of L-PRF resulted in higher BAFO. The Ossean surface and L-PRF presence resulted in significantly higher BAFO. Conclusion. L-PRF and the micro-/nanometer scale textured surface resulted in increased bone formation around immediately placed implants. PMID:28042577

  11. Altering gait by way of stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot: the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles in older fallers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatton Anna L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that textured insoles can alter gait and standing balance by way of enhanced plantar tactile stimulation. However, to date, this has not been explored in older people at risk of falling. This study investigated the immediate effect of wearing textured insoles on gait and double-limb standing balance in older fallers. Methods Thirty older adults >65 years (21 women, mean [SD] age 79.0 [7.1], with self-reported history of ≥2 falls in the previous year, conducted tests of level-ground walking over 10 m (GAITRite system, and double-limb standing with eyes open and eyes closed over 30 seconds (Kistler force platform under two conditions: wearing textured insoles (intervention and smooth (control insoles in their usual footwear. Results Wearing textured insoles caused significantly lower gait velocity (P = 0.02, step length (P = 0.04 and stride length (P = 0.03 compared with wearing smooth insoles. No significant differences were found in any of the balance parameters (P > 0.05. Conclusions A textured insole worn by older adults with a history of falls significantly lowers gait velocity, step length and stride length, suggesting that this population may not have an immediate benefit from this type of intervention. The effects of prolonged wear remain to be investigated.

  12. Effect of trade and regulatory policies on level users satisfaction of mobile phone service in Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. Prada-Ávila; Silvia I. Díaz-Rueda; Néstor A. Nova-Arévalo

    2014-01-01

    This research characterized and quantified the effect of the legislative policy, regulations, and trade policies in the level users satisfaction of the mobile phone service in Colombia. For this, we conducted a market and commerce analysis of mobile telephone, as well as legislative, regulatory, quality and satisfaction policies of service users in Colombia, for the period 2000-2012. As a result seven mathematical models were formulated of the level users satisfaction in Colombia and prepaid ...

  13. Effects of Economic Policies Aimed at Encouraging a Healthier Grain Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Nordstrom, Jonas; Thunstrom, Linda

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the effects of policy reforms aimed at achieving two policy objectives for grain consumption; (a) to double the intake of bread and breakfast cereals and (b) to ensure that half of the bread and breakfast cereals consumed are whole grain products. The overall aim of these policy objectives are to increase the dietary fibre intake from grain consumption so as to significantly contribute to the general recommended (minimum) increase of the fibre intake. Based on param...

  14. The effectiveness of sexual harassment policies and procedures at higher education institutions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Joubert; Christo van Wyk; Sebastiaan Rothmann

    2011-01-01

    Orientation: Sexual harassment policies are generally in place in higher education institutions without any indication of its effectiveness as determined by the awareness of the policy. Research purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the awareness levels of academic staff members at higher education institutions in South Africa of sexual harassment policies and procedures in their institutions. Motivation for the study: A number of high profile court cases emphasised the need for e...

  15. Effects of Specific Alcohol Control Policy Measures on Alcohol-Related Mortality in Russia from 1998 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaltourina, Daria; Korotayev, Andrey

    2015-09-01

    To elucidate the possible effects of alcohol control policy measures on alcohol-related mortality in Russia between 1998 and 2013. Trends in mortality, alcohol production and sales were analyzed in conjunction with alcohol control legislative measures. Correlation analysis of health and alcohol market indicators was performed. Ethyl alcohol production was the strongest correlate of alcohol-related mortality, which is probably due to the fact that ethyl alcohol is used for both recorded and unrecorded alcohol production. Measures producing greatest mortality reduction effect included provisions which reduced ethyl alcohol production (introduction of minimum authorized capital for ethyl alcohol and liquor producers in 2006 and the requirement for distillery dreg processing), as well as measures to tax and denaturize ethanol-containing liquids in 2006. Liquor tax decrease in real terms was associated with rising mortality in 1998-1999, while excise tax increase was associated with mortality reduction in 2004 and since 2012. Conventional alcohol control measures may also have played a moderately positive role. Countries with high alcohol-related mortality should aim for a reduction in spirits consumption as a major health policy. Alcohol market centralization and reduction of the number of producers can have immediate strong effects on mortality. These measures should be combined with an increase in alcohol taxes and prices, as well as other established alcohol policy measures. In 2015 in Russia, this is not being implemented. In Russia, legislation enforcement including excise tax collection remains the major challenge. Another challenge will be the integration into the Eurasian Economic Union. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  16. The structural effects of cap and trade climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettle, Richard J.; Fawcett, Allen A.

    2009-01-01

    The Inter-temporal General Equilibrium Model (IGEM) explores the cost to the U.S. economy of increasingly more stringent cap and trade regimes. The economy-wide losses are small with energy, agriculture, chemicals, high tech manufacturing and trade being most affected. The availability of lower cost offsets substantially reduces these economic losses. The economy becomes less capital but more labor intensive. Household welfare losses are smaller for full consumption (goods, services and leisure). A more inelastic trade-off between consumption and leisure dramatically reduces policy costs as do more favorable revenue recycling options. Induced technical change yields a small, measurable reduction in policy costs. (author)

  17. Effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal Singh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This in vitro study evaluated the effect of dentin biomodifiers on the immediate and long-term bond strengths of a simplified etch and rinse adhesive to dentin. Materials and Methods Flat coronal dentin surfaces were prepared in 120 extracted human molars. Teeth were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24 according to 5 different surface pre-treatments: No pre-treatment (control; 1M carbodiimide (EDC; 0.1% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG; 2% minocycline (MI; 10% sodium ascorbate (SA. After surface pre-treatment, adhesive (Adper Single Bond 2 [SB], 3M ESPE was applied. Composite was applied into transparent plastic tubes (2.5 mm in diameter, which was placed over the bonded dentin surface. From each group, 10 samples were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS evaluation at 24 hours (immediate and remaining 10 samples were tested after 6 months (delayed. Additionally, 4 samples per group were subjected to scanning electron microscopic analysis for observation of resin-dentin interface. The data were statistically analysed with Shaperio‑Wilk W test, 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA, and post hoc Tukey's test. Results At 24 hours, SBS of all surface pre-treatment groups were comparable with the control group, with significant differences found between EDC and SA groups only (p = 0.009. After 6 months storage, EDC, EGCG, and MI pre-treatments preserved the resin-dentin bond strength with no significant fall. Conclusions Dentin pre-treatment with all the dentin biomodifiers except SA resulted in significant preservation of resin-dentin bond over 6 months storage period, without negatively affecting the immediate bond strength of the etch and rinse adhesive tested.

  18. Early Bone Formation around Immediately Loaded Transitional Implants Inserted in the Human Posterior Maxilla: The Effects of Fixture Design and Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Mangano

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate the effects of fixture design and surface on the early bone formation around immediately loaded implants inserted in the human posterior maxilla. Materials and Methods. Ten totally edentulous subjects received two transitional implants: one tapered implant with knife-edge threads/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface (test: Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea and one cylindrical implant with self-tapping threads/sandblasted surface (control: EZPlus®, Megagen. The implants were placed according to a split-mouth design and immediately loaded to support an interim complete denture; after 8 weeks, they were removed for histologic/histomorphometric analysis. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC% and the bone density (BD% were calculated. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the differences. Results. With test implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 35.9 (±9.1 and 31.8 (±7.5 were found. With control implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 29.9 (±7.6 and 32.5 (±3.9 were found. The mean BIC% was higher with test implants, but this difference was not significant (p=0.16. Similar BD% were found in the two groups (p=0.9. Conclusions. In the posterior maxilla, under immediate loading conditions, implants with a knife-edge thread design/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface seem to increase the peri-implant endosseous healing properties, when compared to implants with self-tapping thread design/sandblasted surface.

  19. Early Bone Formation around Immediately Loaded Transitional Implants Inserted in the Human Posterior Maxilla: The Effects of Fixture Design and Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Jefferson Trabach; Luongo, Giuseppe; Piattelli, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the effects of fixture design and surface on the early bone formation around immediately loaded implants inserted in the human posterior maxilla. Materials and Methods. Ten totally edentulous subjects received two transitional implants: one tapered implant with knife-edge threads/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface (test: Anyridge®, Megagen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) and one cylindrical implant with self-tapping threads/sandblasted surface (control: EZPlus®, Megagen). The implants were placed according to a split-mouth design and immediately loaded to support an interim complete denture; after 8 weeks, they were removed for histologic/histomorphometric analysis. The bone-to-implant contact (BIC%) and the bone density (BD%) were calculated. The Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the differences. Results. With test implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 35.9 (±9.1) and 31.8 (±7.5) were found. With control implants, a mean BIC% and BD% of 29.9 (±7.6) and 32.5 (±3.9) were found. The mean BIC% was higher with test implants, but this difference was not significant (p = 0.16). Similar BD% were found in the two groups (p = 0.9). Conclusions. In the posterior maxilla, under immediate loading conditions, implants with a knife-edge thread design/nanostructured calcium-incorporated surface seem to increase the peri-implant endosseous healing properties, when compared to implants with self-tapping thread design/sandblasted surface. PMID:28280731

  20. The effect of ultrasound-guided compression immediately after transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy on postbiopsy bleeding: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bong Hee; Kim, Jung Im; Bae, Sang Rak; Lee, Yong Seok; Kang, Sung Hak; Han, Chang Hee

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate whether ultrasound-guided compression performed immediately after transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy decreases bleeding complications. We prospectively evaluated a total of 148 consecutive patients who underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy between March 2015 and July 2016. Systematic 12-core prostate biopsy was performed in all patients. Of these, 100 patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts immediately after prostate biopsy, while the non-compression group (n = 50) underwent TRUS-guided prostate biopsy alone. The incidence rate and duration of hematuria, hematospermia, and rectal bleeding were compared between the two groups. The incidence rates of hematuria and hematospermia were not significantly different between the two groups (60 vs. 64%, p = 0.68; 22 vs. 30%, p = 0.362, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). The rectal bleeding incidence was significantly lower in the compression group as compared to the non-compression group (20 vs. 44%, p = 0.01). However, there were no significant differences in the median duration of hematuria, hematospermia, or rectal bleeding between the two groups (2, 8, and 2 days vs. 2, 10, and 1 days, p > 0.05, respectively, for compression vs. non-compression group). TRUS-guided compression [p = 0.004, odds ratio (OR) 0.25] and patient age (p = 0.013, OR 0.93) were significantly protective against the occurrence of rectal bleeding after prostate biopsy in multivariable analysis. Although it has no impact on other complications, ultrasound-guided compression on bleeding biopsy tracts performed immediately after TRUS-guided prostate biopsy is an effective and practical method to treat or decrease rectal bleeding.