WorldWideScience

Sample records for policy development teenage

  1. Expanding policy options for educating teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David

    2009-01-01

    David Stern argues that some basic features of the American high school must be modified if it is to serve all students successfully. He notes, for example, that only three-quarters of U.S. high school students graduate four years after beginning ninth grade and that the National Assessment of Educational Progress found no improvement in reading or mathematics for seventeen-year-olds between 1971 and 2004. The nation's system for educating teenagers, says Stern, seems to be stuck, despite the constant efforts of teachers and repeated waves of reform. Citing two widely accepted public purposes of educating teenagers-preparation for civic participation and for economic self-sufficiency-Stern proposes four new strategies to achieve those goals. He draws on empirical evidence suggesting that these are promising directions for research and policy, but acknowledges that existing studies provide only limited guidance. First, he says, schools should continue the current trend toward integrating educational options to provide young people with skills and experiences that pave the way to both college and careers. Second, states and districts should tie education funding not simply to the number of students attending school, but also to what young people learn, whether they graduate, and whether they find jobs or enroll in postsecondary education. Such a move, he argues, would encourage teaching and learning formats that use students' time more effectively. Third, more adults in addition to classroom teachers should be involved in educating teenagers. Other adults acting as academic advisers, learning coaches, student advocates, internship supervisors, mentors, and college counselors could help guide the education of teenagers inside and outside of school and provide some relief for the chronic shortage of teachers. Fourth, schools should expand the options for educating teenagers outside of geographically fixed schools. Combining improved Internet-based curriculum with

  2. Developing a Curriculum for Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Kolkin, Donna; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Outlines the development of a secondary school curriculum for teaching the following critical television viewing abilities: to evaluate and manage one's own television viewing behavior, to question the reality of television programing, to recognize the persuasive arguments on television, and to recognize the effects of television on daily life.…

  3. Developing Persuasive Technology for ASD Challenged Teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Morten; Øhrstrøm, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The HANDS project suggests the use of Mobile Persuasion in order to support teenagers with an autism diagnosis and normal or high IQ. The paper offers a description of the HANDS toolset and its potential. The HANDS toolset has been evaluated at four schools for teenagers with autism over a period...

  4. Targetting Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This theme issue of the Bernard van Leer Foundation newsletter focuses on the problem of teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood in developing and developed nations, and examines the problems that teenage mothers face in different societies. It explores societal norms and values related to teenage parenting; the effects of teenage parents on…

  5. Role of the Internet in the development of modern teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Kondrashkin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the role of the Internet in the social situation of development of modern teenagers. We provide statistical data to identify websites and Internet activities most popular among teenagers. We describe in details the opportunities that the Internet provides for the implementation of the needs and problems of age-related new formations in adolescence. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of teenagers’ needs in a situation of social and psychological maladjustment associated with excessive use of the Internet and gadgets. We made a number of recommendations on the organization of social and psychological support to teenagers on the Internet.

  6. Sexual development and behaviour issues in Polish teenage magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, Marek S

    2006-12-01

    Adolescents often look to mass media for information regarding issues of sexuality. As one form of media, teenage magazines have long constituted a pervasive and effective element of adolescent media exposure. Teenage magazines discuss a number of aspects concerning adolescent sexuality. Considering their potential impact on health related behaviors, the information they provide and the message(s) they send warrant attention. The aim of this study is to perform a content analysis of sexual development and behavior information presented in Polish teenage magazines. Social Cognitive Theory was used as a theoretical basis for this analysis. The media chosen for this study were general-themed publications targeting an adolescent female audience: Bravo Girl!, Filipinka and Dziewczyna. Each entry was analyzed using a structured key. The specific categories of behavior and development used for this study are: biological information, pedagogic instruction, topics of moral-ethical concern, results of sexual activity, and interpersonal relationships. Each category was then subdivided into separate units. The findings indicate that Polish teenage magazines predominantly focus on relationships, contraception and sex education. Relationships were most often of a romantic nature and discussed sexual activity or the potential of sexual activity. Non-prescription contraceptive methods were most often discussed, with attention given to pregnancy prevention. Sex education offered detailed information on sexual practices and behaviors with much discussion on losing one's virginity. The general approach of the analyzed magazines is that adolescents currently are, or soon will be, sexually active. As a result, certain sexual behavior and development issues are discussed in great detail, while other topics are somewhat neglected. Accepting information-seeking during adolescence as commonplace, these findings suggest that teenage magazines hold the potential for influencing adolescent

  7. Life Assets in Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatsanee Soontrapirom

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is an evolving global public health problem. Level of life assets could predict behaviors and take effect to less sexual risk behaviors in teenagers. Objective: To compare life assets between pregnant and non-pregnant teenagers and to evaluate the relationship between basic factors and teenage pregnancy. Methods: A total of 172 female teenagers aged 12-19 years were included. The control group was matched with the case group by age with mean age of 17.07 years old. The case group consisted of 86 pregnant teenagers who attended the Teenage Antenatal Care Unit at Siriraj Hospital. The control group consisted of 86 teenagers who were not pregnant and who had never been pregnant. The research instruments were general information and life assets inventory questionnaires developed by Suriyadeo Tripathi with Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient at 0.890. Results: Mean life assets scores were significantly higher in the control group than in the case group (T-test analysis: Mean = 94.70/87.65, SD = 17.45/22.68, p-value =.024, respectively. The control group scored more favorably than the case group on 16 items. In addition, the case group could not meet the minimum assessment criteria on 21 items, which indicated their status as an at risk group. A total of 12 factors were found to be statistically significantly associated with teenage pregnancy. Conclusion: Overall life assets were significantly higher among teenagers who had not experienced pregnancy. The risk factors included level of education, GPA, family income, mothers or family members of teenagers having experience of teenage pregnancy, main guardians, father education, mother occupation, parental relationship, family warmth and smoking were found to be significantly associated with risk of teenage pregnancy in this study. These results will help to facilitate preventive interventions and the development of policies and guidelines to control and perhaps reverse current

  8. Awareness Through Agility: Teenagers as a Model for Terrorist Development of Situational Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheffer, Matthew J

    2006-01-01

    .... Alternatively, the teenage communications model provides an evolutionary concept of operations for Allied forces to develop a highly flexible tactical situational awareness in urban environments...

  9. Accountability in Teenage Dating Violence: A Comparative Examination of Adult Domestic Violence and Juvenile Justice Systems Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zosky, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…

  10. Faith Development of the Teenager during the Sunday Evening ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From church conversations with teenagers (born between 1974 and 1994), publications in recent times appeared worldwide and the qualitative investigation in the article is utilized. It seems there are problems in the practice of the faith formation of teenagers in the evening service. The aim of an evening service must ...

  11. Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Mary C.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews the problems of teenage pregnancy, including the costs to society, the challenge to educators, and the types of preventive programs developing across the country. Programs dealing strictly with reproduction and contraception are the least effective deterrents to teenage pregnancy. (MD)

  12. Teenagers' licensing decisions and their views of licensing policies: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Allan F

    2011-08-01

    One objective was to determine teenage licensing rates on a national basis, interest in early licensure, and reasons for delay. A second objective was to learn teenagers' opinions about licensing policies, important in states considering ways to upgrade their current licensing systems. One thousand three hundred eighty-three 15- to 18-year-olds completed an online survey in November 2010. They were drawn from a nationally representative panel of US households recruited using probability-based sampling. The panel included cell phone-only households, and Internet access was provided to those without it. Weighting procedures were applied so that the study population represented the national US population of 15- to 18-year-olds. Most teens said that they were interested in getting a license as soon as legally possible, but many had not started the process. At 16, teens were about equally divided among those who had not started, those in the learner stage, and those with a restricted or full license. At 18, 62 percent had full licenses; 22 percent had not started. For those old enough to start, lack of a car, costs, parent availability, ability to get around without a car, and being busy with other activities were leading reasons for delay. The majority of teens were not in favor of higher licensing ages. Forty-six percent thought the minimum learner age should be 16; 30 percent thought the full license age should be 18 or older. The majority approved of night (78%) and passenger (57%) restrictions, and 85 and 93 percent endorsed cell phone and texting bans, respectively. When these policies were packaged together in a single law that included an age 16 start, night, passenger, cell phone and texting bans, and a full license at age 18, 74 percent of teens were in favor. Teenagers are not as supportive of strong licensing policies as parents of teens, but there is evidence that they will support comprehensive policies likely to lead to further reductions in teen crash

  13. Are teenage pregnancies at high risk? A comparison study in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagili, Haritha; Pramya, N; Prabhu, Karthiga; Mascarenhas, Mariano; Reddi Rani, P

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage and non-teenage pregnancies. We analyzed retrospective data of 15,498 pregnant patients who delivered from March 2008 to April 2009 in Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research, a referral tertiary care and teaching hospital in Pondicherry, South India. Girls aged ≤ 19 years were compared with pregnancy outcomes in women aged > 19 years who delivered in the same hospital during the study period. A total of 620 teenage pregnancies were compared with 14,878 non-teenage women. The obstetric and perinatal outcome was compared in the study and control groups using t test with Yates correction. We calculated Odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals(CI) and p values; p teenage pregnancy in the study was 4%. A signicant proportion of teenage mothers were in their first pregnancies and their mean age was 18.04 years. Our study showed a significantly higher incidence of anaemia, past dates, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), normal vaginal delivery, episiotomy, low birth weight, and a significantly lower incidence of caesarean sections/perineal tears in teenage mothers compared to other mothers. In contrast, the incidence of hypertension, intrauterine growth restriction of fetus, pre-term labour and postpartum haemorrhage were similar in both the groups. The data in our study should throw more light on the current thinking of the obstetrical problems facing teenage mothers, in which some of our results support and others refute several long held beliefs about the risks in teenage pregnancy. Early booking, adequate antenatal care and delivery by trained people should improve the obstetric and perinatal outcome in teenage pregnancies, which is still an unresolved problem inspite of various government programmes in developing countries.

  14. Developing policies and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Susan A

    2006-11-01

    The development of policies and procedures is an integral part of the occupational health nurse's role. Policies and procedures serve as the foundation for the occupational health service and are based on its vision, mission, culture, and values. The design and layout selected for the policies and procedures should be simple, consistent, and easy to use. The same format should be used for all existing and new policies and procedures. Policies and procedures should be reviewed periodically based on a specified time frame (i.e., annually). However, some policies may require a more frequent review if they involve rapidly changing external standards, ethical issues, or emerging exposures.

  15. faith development of the teenager during the sunday evening

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with the broad sweep of Christian tradition” (Rice 1991:37). Teenagers are always in the mood to experience. The faith community must warn .... chocolate slabs, discussions with each other and discussions with the liturgist. The liturgy is far less word-orientated. Other art forms should be accentuated more. The demand is ...

  16. Homebound Teenage Parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Justin F.

    Teenage parenting and pregnancy is discussed in terms of incidence, health consequences, effect on teenage growth and development, social and economic costs, and existing programs sponsored by DHEW (Department of Health, Education, and Welfare). (SBH)

  17. Helping Autism-Diagnosed Teenagers Navigate and Develop Socially Using E-Learning Based on Mobile Persuasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrstrom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The HANDS (Helping Autism-diagnosed teenagers Navigate and Develop Socially) research project involves the creation of an e-learning toolset that can be used to develop individualized tools to support the social development of teenagers with an autism diagnosis. The e-learning toolset is based on ideas from persuasive technology. This paper…

  18. Population policies and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamper, B M

    1984-01-01

    This article critically examines 4 conceptual frameworks for Third World population policies: the family planning approach, beyond family planning measures, the development hypothesis and transition theory, and the distributive hypothesis and fertility. Although family planning is a basic human right and can lead to lower levels of population and improved maternal-child health, this approach alone does not always have a meaningful demographic impact. If high fertility is economically rational from the family viewpoint, the demand for family planning services will remain marginal. Other policies seek to go beyond the family planning approach and to directly influence the demand for reproductive control through provision of old age support, monetary incentives for reduced fertility or stringent and coercive measures. However, such policies can have adverse distributional effects and directly penalize the children of large families. The demographic transition theory lacks a measurable and specifiable causation mechanism, giving it little predictive value. It may be that economic growth increases fertility in the short run and reduces fertility only over the long run through indirect effects. The key issue is how the rate of growth is distributed across the population. The development and demographic transition hypothesis focuses mainly on aggregate economic and social measures rather than on their underlying distributions. The distributive hypothesis implies policies that promote a greater level of investment in human capital, with a wide distributional emphasis. Diffused investment in human capital is believed to indirectly influence the desire to control fertility. It is concluded that all 4 conceptual frameworks for analyzing fertility-related policies for the Third World are inadequate or seriously flawed. They are not pragmatic, do not identify or assign weights to the crucial causal variables, fail to specify thresholds or critical minimum levels, discount

  19. Modern condition and possibilities of development of a moral component in a target orientation of the teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shylova Nina Ihorivna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the basic criteria of a moral component in a target orientation of the teenager, whose level of development being defined through the testing of pupils in Mykolaiv city. The article present the results given by the usage of two techniques, defines the ways and prospects of the further development of a moral component in a target orientation of teenagers.

  20. Policy Development Fosters Collaborative Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Daniel M; Kaste, Linda M; Lituri, Kathy M

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an example of interprofessional collaboration for policy development regarding environmental global health vis-à-vis the Minamata Convention on Mercury. It presents an overview of mercury and mercury-related environmental health issues; public policy processes and stakeholde...... requiring dental engagement for interprofessional policy development include education, disaster response, HPV vaccination, pain management, research priorities, and antibiotic resistance....

  1. Teenage mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Jennifer L; Lewis, Lucy N; Bateson, Deborah; Hickey, Martha; Skinner, S Rachel

    2016-10-01

    Australia's teenage birth rate has fallen to historic lows, but teenage motherhood still occurs and can be challenging for mother and baby. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on the epidemiology and clinical care of teenage pregnancy and parenting, and provide recommendations around management of these young people in Australia. Teenage mothers may have experienced family, sexual, and partner violence, family disruption, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Outcomes on a range of peripartum measures are worse for teenage mothers and their babies. Longer term risks for the mother include depression and rapid repeat pregnancy; for the child, intergenerational teenage parenthood; and for both, socioeconomic disadvantage. Teenage motherhood occurs more often within communities where poverty, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander status and rural/remote location intersect. General practitioners play a critical role in identification of at-risk teens, preventing unintended teenage pregnancy, clinical care of pregnant teens, and promoting the health and wellbeing of teenage mothers and their children.

  2. Digital Citizenship Policy Development Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Education leaders are re-examining acceptable use policies in light of the increasing use of highly mobile information technologies. While acceptable use policies were developed to manage and control behaviour, a digital citizenship policy takes a more comprehensive approach by recognizing the important role of education in preparing digital…

  3. Aid, social policy, and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture. From the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Development Goals and will continue under the Sustainable Dev...

  4. IMPACT OF THE GOVERNMENT’S SOCIAL POLICY ON SPORTS DEVELOPMENT IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail S. Nosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on interrelation between the government’s social policy and the level of sports development. This paper presents the comparative analysis of the average salary data in the countries worldwide and in Russia (by regions and reports the level of teenage incidence.The article draws attention to the main reasons of low level of sports business in Russia and proposes important directions of social policy in the field of physical culture and sport.

  5. Developing a policy manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Tracey A

    2013-01-01

    Do you really need to have a policy and procedure in the office? Frequently they are seen sitting on the shelf, collecting dust. The answer is yes for a number of very important reasons. A policy and procedure manual is a tool to set guidelines and expectations on the basis of the mission and vision of the office. A well-written manual is a powerful training tool for new staff so they can get a feel for the office culture. Furthermore, it is a provincial or state legislative requirement that can reduce management's concern about potential legal issues or problems. If an office does not have a manual to set guidelines, the employees may be forced to make their own decisions to solve problems, which can often result in confusion, inconsistencies, and mistakes.

  6. Differences in teenage pregnancy rates among five developed countries: the roles of sexual activity and contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, J E; Singh, S; Frost, J J

    2001-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy, birth, abortion and sexually transmitted disease (STD) rates are much higher in the United States than in most other developed countries. Government statistics or nationally representative survey data were supplemented with data collected by private organizations or for regional or local populations to conduct studies of adolescent births, abortions, sexual activity and contraceptive use in Canada, the United States, Sweden, France and Great Britain. Adolescent childbearing is more common in the United States (22% of women reported having had a child before age 20) than in Great Britain (15%), Canada (11%), France (6%) and Sweden (4%); differences are even greater for births to younger teenagers. A lower proportion of teenage pregnancies are resolved through abortion in the United States than in the other countries; however, because of their high pregnancy rate, U.S. teenagers have the highest abortion rate. The age of sexual debut varies little across countries, yet American teenagers are the most likely to have multiple partners. A greater proportion of U.S. women reported no contraceptive use at either first or recent intercourse (25% and 20%, respectively) than reported nonuse in France (11% and 12%, respectively), Great Britain (21% and 4%, respectively) and Sweden (22% and 7%, respectively). Data on contraceptive use are more important than data on sexual activity in explaining variation in levels of adolescent pregnancy and childbearing among the five developed countries; however, the higher level of multiple sexual partnership among American teenagers may help explain their higher STD rates.

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A GAME FOR THE EVALUATION OF OPERATIVE STRUCTURE IN TEENAGERS WITH DOWN SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Cezar Amate

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available When an individual presents some type of mental deficiency, there is a tendency to expose him to innumerous evaluations, repeating them several times in a short period so as to verify his development. In some cases, the evaluation is tiring and could lead to the desistance of the person evaluated and to the   exhaustion of the appraiser. In this article a computational game was developed in Flash for teenagers with the Down Syndrome that demonstrate light or moderate mental deficiency to evaluate cognitive seriation functions and classes inclusion based on the Jean Piaget theory. The game is set up in a kitchen where the individual  to be evaluated  helps the principal character in achieving tasks. After the termination of the activities a report is made with the  analysis  of the operative structures  demonstrated. To evaluate the efficiency of the game, the subjects went through the evaluation of the operative tests and then played the game. Two pilot tests were made and applied to 13 teenagers with the Down Syndrome. The analysis showed that the method minimizes subjectivity and manipulation of the material needing less time making the report as the  game is produced immediately. There was a bigger interest because the game contextualizes the tests even when the individual had verbal difficulty  the evaluation access was possible through the game which didn´t occur when applied in the real tests

  8. Aid, Social Policy, and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Addison, Tony; Niño-Zarazúa, Miguel; Tarp, Finn

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses past and current social policy strategies in the international aid architecture as an introduction to the UNU-WIDER Special Issue. Beginning in the 1990s, aid strategy and policy shifted to put a stronger emphasis on human development. This accelerated with the Millennium Dev...

  9. Improving Teenage Attitudes toward Children, Child Handicaps, and Hospital Settings: A Child Development Curriculum for Potential Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiow, Nicholas J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article describes FEED (Facilitative Environments Encouraging Development), a junior high child development curriculum for potential mothers, intended to result in improved childrearing practices that will in turn offset all or most of the negative effects of the low birthweight and prematurity that are associated with teenage pregnancies.…

  10. Understanding the Significance of the Teenage Mother in Contemporary Parenting Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Macvarish

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to understand the prominence given to teenage pregnancy in policy discussions since the late-1990s by contextualising it within a broader analysis of the contemporary 'culture of parenting'. The emerging field of parenting culture studies has begun to develop an analysis of the key features of policy, practice and informal culture. Three key concepts are discussed to shed an alternative light on the issue of teenage pregnancy and parenthood with the hope of further develop...

  11. Engaging Parents in Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme as Part of England's Teenage Pregnancy Strategy: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Mairi Ann; Davis, Liz; Lindsay, Geoff; Davis, Hilton

    2012-01-01

    Based on 65 interviews with professionals and parents conducted during 2007-2008, this 16-month, mainly qualitative evaluation of Parentline Plus' Time to Talk Community Programme (a preventative initiative within England's teenage pregnancy strategy) found that a community development approach and an ethos of partnership with parents and…

  12. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  13. What the United States can learn about prevention of teenage pregnancy from other developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryfoos, J

    1985-11-01

    In the US the proportion of teenagers who are sexually active has plateaued, or even decreased a little; marital births to teens have dropped significantly so that an increasing proportion of births to teenagers takes place out of wedlock, and the number of and rate of abortions have remained the same for several years. About 6% (62/1000) of US girls aged 15-17 had either a birth or an abortion in 1981 as did 14% (144/1000) of 18-19-year-olds. This review of the comparative study of teenage pregnancies in developed countries summarizes the principal findings of a 2-stage study carried out by the Alan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) with the collaboration of members of the staff of the Office of Population Research at Princeton University. The weight of the evidence, with all its limitations, rests heavily on Sweden and the Netherlands, which fall into the category of "welfare states." Young people grow up in an atmosphere of trust and acceptance by their families and their society and, in return, most of them achieve adulthood by acting responsibly. The reward for this behavior is the assurance of social supports throughout one's lifetime, even when employment opportunities are limited. England and France follow this pattern of national commitment, social benefits, and openness about sex to a lesser degree. Compared to the US, in all of these countries the message is more consistent; children do not grow up with such a dissonance between public and private morality. The study makes it clear that unintended childbearing is a problem somewhat unique to the US in comparison to western European countries. The major findings challenge the US to respond to 2 levels of directives. A climate has to be created that accepts the fact of premarital sex and gives young people the equipment to experience it responsibly. For the US, this directive is complicated by the social conditions in which many young people live today. The compounding effects of poverty and minority status are

  14. Africa Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marnia Lazreg, City University of New York, USA. Takyiwaa Manuh, IAS, University of Ghana. Jomo Kwame Sunderan, Assistant Secretary General, UNO, NY. Nouria Ramaoun, CRASC, Oran, Algérie. Lloyd Sachikonye, Institute of Development Studies, Zimbabwe. Fatou Sow, Université Cheikh Anta Diop, Dakar, Senegal.

  15. Patterns of online abortion among teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.; Jacky, M.; Mudzakkir, M.; Deprita, R.

    2018-01-01

    An on-going debate of whether or not to legalize abortion has not stopped the number of abortion cases decreases. New practices of abortion such as online abortion has been a growing trend among teenagers. This study aims to determine how teenagers use social media such as Facebook, YouTube and Wikipedia for the practice of abortion. This study adopted online research methods (ORMs), a qualitative approach 2.0 by hacking analytical perspective developed. This study establishes online teen abortion as a research subject. This study finds patterns of online abortions among teenagers covering characteristics of teenagers as perpetrators, styles of communication, and their implication toward policy, particularly Electronic Transaction Information (ETI) regulation. Implications for online abortion behavior among teenagers through social media. The potential abortion client especially girls find practical, fast, effective, and efficient solutions that keep their secret. One of prevention patterns that has been done by some people who care about humanity and anti-abortion in the online world is posting a anti-abortion text, video or picture, anti-sex-free (anti -free intercourse before marriage) in an interesting, educative, and friendly ways.

  16. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-01-01

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts

  17. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  18. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2001-07-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  19. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2003-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts.

  20. [Development and pilot study of a questionnaire to assess child and teenager satisfaction with their stay in hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez de Terreros Guardiola, Montserrat; Lozano Oyola, José Francisco; Avilés Carvajal, Isabel; Martínez Cervantes, Rafael Jesús

    To develop an instrument to assess the satisfaction of children and teenagers with their stay in hospital. A qualitative analysis of hospitalisation satisfaction dimensions based on the feedback of hospitalised children and teenagers; a content validation study by a group of experts of the items generated for the different satisfaction dimensions; and a pilot study to assess the usefulness of the questionnaire with a sample of 84 children and teenagers hospitalised in Andalusia. After successive refinements, a short questionnaire was obtained which took between 5 and 15minutes to complete. All items presented positive item-total correlations (r>0.18). The questionnaire showed an internal consistency index of 0.779 (Cronbach's alpha) and significant rank differences (Mann-Whitney U test; p0.151) in three satisfaction dimensions compared between hospitals. A short, easy-to-answer questionnaire was developed that is reliable regarding its internal consistency and sensitive to differences in hospital satisfaction dimensions. Once validated, it will be used to assess the satisfaction of children and teenagers with their hospital stay, in addition to being a potential indicator of quality of care. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. THE MOTRIC LOISIR ACTIVITIES AND THEIR ROLE IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TEENAGERS COMPLEX PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macri Aurelia Cristina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The politics concerning the health of the European Community population focuses on theproblematic of the physical activity as a health factor and promoter. The member countries appeal to the sportiveorganizations by means of which they are encouraged to establish and develop tight relationships, commonobjectives, not to mention the idea of making the educational community sensitive to promoting sport during theschool period. The European Parliament encourages its membership states to improve their Physical Educationpolicies and to ensure themselves that there is a certain balance in between the physical school activities and thespare time ones; the member states are invited to support this requirement of increasing the time period that isnecessarily spent during the Physical Education hours in schools, especially at a primary school and gymnasiumlevel. Sport is an important formative exercise in structuring life, determining the youngsters to be spare timeconsumers; inside such a context, the problem of forming the spare time consumers, or better said, the loisirconsumers, a loisir cultivated through the outdoor practiced sport represents a problematic of the future.The young generation needs more outdoors movement, while this presupposes an innate capacity ofindependent physical exercises practice during the free time. In the case of teenagers, the purpose of the physicalexercises practice must differ from that of grown-up and old-aged persons, who usually practice sport in order toprevent or treat affections. Teenagers need to find a solid preoccupation in sport, thus creating the premisesfavourable to this life- long practice.In the process of forming your area specialists, special attention must be paid to cultivating theinclination for movement, for the precise awareness regarding the mass access to all and any motric activity. Thefree time education must be based on the human positive psychology, whose elements will have to be learned

  2. Law, Democracy & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evolution and implementation of democracy, good governance practices, human rights and socio-economic development are critical issues facing South ... practitioners and all those concerned with policy-making across the continent, thus contributing to the development of shared knowledge and cooperative effort.

  3. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-07-28

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  4. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2005-04-30

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  5. DEVELOPING STATE POLICIES SUPPORTIVE OF BIOENERGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kathryn Baskin

    2004-10-31

    Working within the context of the Southern States Biobased Alliance (SSBA) and with officials in each state, the Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is identifying bioenergy-related policies and programs within each state to determine their impact on the development, deployment or use of bioenergy. In addition, SSEB will determine which policies have impacted industry's efforts to develop, deploy or use biobased technologies or products. As a result, SSEB will work with the Southern States Biobased Alliance to determine how policy changes might address any negative impacts or enhance positive impacts. In addition to analysis of domestic policies and programs, this project will include the development of a U.S.-Brazil Biodiesel Pilot Project. The purpose of this effort is to promote and facilitate the commercialization of biodiesel and bioenergy production and demand in Brazil.

  6. "Population policy in developed countries.".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, G B

    1973-12-01

    Bernard Berelson's book, "Population Policy in Developed Countries," provides a report on population policy in the developed world as of the early 1970s, covering countries with 20 million population or over, and 11 countries of special interest. There are chapters by national experts from 25 countries. A developed country is defined as industrialized, healthier, better educated, better off, more modernized, and distinguished by low fertility. This does not mean that population growth in these countries has yet fallen to zero or lower, but in 7 or 8 countries, population is expected to stabilize in a decade or so unless recent fertility trends reverse themselves or are offset by immigration. The conclusions drawn from the 25 country reports are summarized, and highlights of the demographic situation and policies in 12 of the countries are presented, Berelson is cautious in predicting the future shape of population policy in the developed world. There have been too many policy changes in the past to be confident of the future. He feels, however, that more and more people are likely to accept the goal of replacement, up to replacement in some countries and down to replacement in others.

  7. Tracking the trends. Year-end review of state actions on reproductive health policy. Teenage pregnancy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollom, T

    1995-12-01

    Adolescent pregnancy prevention programs in the US pertain to sex education about reproduction, condom availability in schools, and outreach. This review of state actions on reproductive health policy in 1995 shows that, of the more than 100 bills introduced in 41 states, 16 bills were enacted. Some states eliminated condom and sex education programs in schools. 64 bills related to sexuality education in 30 states. 75% of these bills aimed to eliminate or restrict the scope of comprehensive sexuality education. The five laws enacted were identified as receiving a comprehensive analysis in the "State Reproductive Health Monitor," Vol.6, No.2, June 1995. The conservative states of North Carolina, Oklahoma, and Texas enacted new laws, which eliminated the teacher requirement for providing pregnancy prevention and disease education. These states retained education about sexually transmitted diseases and sexuality education. North Carolina and Texas granted parents the right to remove students from these classes, and schools must inform parents of their rights. Oklahoma required parental consent for attendance in these classes. Most proposed legislation about condom distribution in schools attempts to prohibit condom access. In 1995, there were 11 measures on prohibiting condom access proposed in 9 states, but none were enacted. Massachusetts is the only state where the State Board of Education policy recommends that schools consider condom availability as part of their HIV/AIDS prevention education efforts. This action was upheld in the Massachusetts Supreme Court. Four bills, out of 50 bills introduced in 1995, were enacted on unintended teenage pregnancy prevention issues. Opponents to sexuality education tend to promote abstinence-only education and an emphasis on the immorality and negative consequences of sexual intercourse. Opponents also tend to remove information from the curricula on pregnancy prevention and disease prevention on the grounds that it promotes

  8. State policies for geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacarto, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    The most prominent geothermal resources in the USA occur in fifteen Gulf and Western states including Alaska and Hawaii. In each state, authority and guidelines have been established for administration of geothermal leasing and for regulation of development. Important matters addressed by these policies include resource definition, leasing provisions, development regulations, water appropriation, and environmental standards. Some other policies that need attention include taxation, securities regulations, and utility regulations. It is concluded that conditions needed for the geothermal industry to pursue large-scale development are consumer (utility) confidence in the resource; equitable tax treatment; prompt exploration of extensive land areas; long and secure tenure for productive properties; prompt facility siting and development; and competitive access to various consumers. With these conditions, the industry should be competitive with other energy sectors and win its share of investment capital. This publication reviews for the states various technical, economic, and institutional aspects of geothermal development. The report summarizes research results from numerous specialists and outlines present state and Federal policies. The report concludes generally that if public policies are made favorable to their development, geothermal resources offer an important energy resource that could supply all new electric capacity for the fifteen states for the next two decades. This energy--100,000 MW--could be generated at prices competitive with electricity from fossil and nuclear power plants. An extensive bibliography is included. (MCW)

  9. Developing Iraq's mental health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Hamada I; Everett, Anita

    2007-10-01

    As Iraq faces the challenge of securing a sustainable resolution to the current violence, the burden of mental illness is likely to increase dramatically. The impact of Saddam Hussein's dictatorship, the Iran-Iraq war, U.S.-led economic sanctions, the Persian Gulf wars, and the U.S. invasion and subsequent violent insurgency have devastated Iraq's governmental and social infrastructure. Health care delivery across sectors has suffered greatly. During the reconstruction phase, the United States and coalition forces allocated resources to restructure Iraq's health care system. Many multinational organizations, governments, and policy makers had the political will as well as the financial and human resources to greatly influence Iraq's mental health program. However, the lack of an existing mental health plan stifled these efforts. Applying Kingdon's model for policy development, which includes political analysis, problem defining, and proposal drafting, the authors describe the development of Iraq's current mental health policy.

  10. Perception Of In-school Teenagers On Teenage Pregnancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a major medical and socioeconomic burden in both the developed and developing countries. One third of the abortions performed yearly and 80% of abortion-related complications in Nigeria occur in adolescents. This study was conducted to assess the perception of teenagers in ...

  11. Teenage Sexuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gradeschool Teen Dating & Sex Fitness Nutrition Driving Safety School Substance Use Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen > Dating & Sex > Teenage Sexuality Ages & Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print ...

  12. Rethinking macroeconomic policies for development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Nayyar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global economic crisis has created an opportunity to rethink macroeconomics for development. Such rethinking is both necessary and desirable. It is essential to redefine macroeconomic objectives so that the emphasis is on fostering employment creation and supporting economic growth instead of the focus on price stability alone. It is just as important to rethink macroeconomic policies which cannot simply be used for the management of inflation and the elimination of macroeconomic imbalances, since fiscal and monetary policies are powerful and versatile instruments in the pursuit of development objectives. In doing so, it is essential to the overcome the constraints embedded in orthodox economic thinking and recognize the constraints implicit in the politics of ideology and interests.

  13. Cultural policy for national development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsekela, A.J.

    1977-02-01

    Cultural policy decisions to alleviate poverty in the Third World are viewed as a moral obligation on the part of industrialized nations to promote an equitable income and service distribution. A review of colonialism on the part of the First toward the Third World concludes that the export of primary products has failed to bring an equal return of industrialization because of the inflated prices of manufactured goods and processes. Policies aimed at eliminating the lack of opportunity in the Third World must attack the three areas of poverty, unemployment, and inequality (racial and sexual). Economic integration of these nations requires a better linkage between natural resources, technology, knowledge, and human resources. More attention is needed to the use of national resources for the manufacture of products that will be used domestically and also exported to international markets. Basic to economic development is the raising of the educational, health, and income levels of the people. A philosophical program is outlined for developing policies that will promote human development. (DCK)

  14. PERSONAL EMPIRICAL RESEARCH REGARDING DEVELOPMENT OF MORAL ATTITUDE OF ROMANIAN AND FLEMISH TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Cosmin Blândul

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The adolescence represents one of the most complex and unpredictable period of human life. A teenager could be considered mature from physical, intellectual or moral point of view, but not from emotional one, because he is like a “sponge” able to absorb a lot of information, care and love. On the other hand, moral behaviour could be associated with social competence to establish a good relationship with others, to help them, to cooperate in a team and to have a positive attitude regarding general society. In the following paper, we will try to analyse the moral attitude of 182 Romanian teenagers and 210 Flemish ones regarding to different life’s situations. Our conclusions are that in spite of all intercultural differences, the majority of interviewed teenagers have an honest conduct and a respect form law and moral values.

  15. Collection Development Policies in Community College Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesling, Chris Fowler

    2003-01-01

    Emphasizes the need for collection development policy in community college academic libraries. Highlights areas of resource sharing, community analysis, and collection assessment. Also provides an overview of how to create a collection for development policy, and recommends books on writing such policy. Includes model policy statements. (NB)

  16. Development and Implementation of a Study Guide for a Program of Prenatal, Child Development and Parenting Information Designed for the Practitioner's Use with the Pregnant Teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Risa

    The goal of this practicum project was to develop a curriculum resource guide for social workers or counselors that addressed the particular needs of pregnant teenagers wishing to continue attendance at their regular schools. The guide, titled "A Facilitator's Guide for Pregnant Students," provides practitioner information concerning…

  17. Perceived Family Influences in Talent Development among Artistically Talented Teenagers in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces-Bacsal, Rhoda Myra

    2013-01-01

    Though there have been quite a number of research studies focusing on how Singaporean families promote literacy and instill values of academic excellence inside the home, little has been written about how families nurture the gifts of teenagers talented in the arts in the Singaporean context. This article highlights how the family influences the…

  18. Personal Empirical Research Regarding Development of Moral Attitude of Romanian and Flemish Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blândul, Valentin Cosmin

    2011-01-01

    The adolescence represents one of the most complex and unpredictable periods of human life. A teenager could be considered mature from physical, intellectual or moral point of view, but not from emotional one, because he is like a "sponge" able to absorb a lot of information, care and love. On the other hand, moral behaviour could be…

  19. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  20. Environmental Education Policy Development in Zimbabwe: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National environmental education policy is essential for guiding and coordinating environmental education activities within a country. The Zimbabwean Environmental Education Policy development process took place between 2000 and 2001.This paper looks at stages in the policy development process, the factors that ...

  1. Developing radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gichana, Z.

    2012-04-01

    A policy for radioactive waste management with defined goals and requirements is needed as a basis for the preparation of legislation, review or revision of related legislation and to define roles and responsibilities for ensuring the safe management of radioactive waste. A well defined policy and associated strategies are useful in promoting consistency of emphasis and direction within all of the sectors involved in radioactive waste management. The absence of policy and strategy can lead to confusion or lack of coordination and direction. A policy and/or strategy may sometimes be needed to prevent inaction on a particular waste management issue or to resolve an impasse. (author)

  2. Black Teenage Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta I. Winters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the relative importance of race and socioeconomic status (SES in determining whether Black and White teenagers report having ever been pregnant. Data gathered from 1999 to 2006 by the National Center for Health Statistics of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention included 1,580 Black and White females aged 15 to 19 years. Results supported the effects of race and SES, with SES having the stronger effect. However, the effects of race and SES differ when controlling for the state of the economy. No difference between Blacks and Whites was found during better economic times. During 2003-2004, the period of greatest economic stress, race was determined to be the only predictor of teenage pregnancy. In particular, during 2005-2006, the reduction in pregnancy rates for Black minors (15-17 fell below those for White minors within their respective SES categories. Policy implications are discussed in light of these findings.

  3. Public Policy and Manpower Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, John W.; Skolnik, Michael L.

    This monograph was written in response to the perceived need for an examination of the role of manpower programs as components of public policy. Both manpower programs and related policies are examined in the context of the overall activities and purposes of government in Ontario and in the Canadian federal system. The importance of societal…

  4. Developing an Alternative Sabbatical Leave Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holleman, John J.

    A study was conducted at Vista College to compare the sabbatical leave policy of the Peralta Community College District with those of other districts and to develop alternative policies that would permit a greater number of faculty to obtain sabbatical leaves. Policy statements were received from nine of the twelve districts surveyed, and…

  5. Analyst, Policy and Strategy | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... development policy of other countries, the shifting development discourse of non-government actors, and the changing international landscape for IDRC's work, Prepares analysis and advice in relation to specific developments in IDRC's policy and strategy environment, including the Canadian political and Parliamentary ...

  6. Effect of social exclusion on the risk of teenage pregnancy: development of hypotheses using baseline data from a randomised trial of sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, C P; Strange, V J; Stephenson, J M; Oakley, A R; Copas, A J; Forrest, S P; Johnson, A M; Black, S

    2003-11-01

    The UK government argues that "social exclusion" increases risk of teenage pregnancy and that educational factors may be dimensions of such exclusion. The evidence cited by the government is limited to reporting that socioeconomic disadvantage and educational attainment influence risk. Evidence regarding young people's attitude to school is not cited, and there is a lack of research concerning the UK. This paper develops hypotheses on the relation between socioeconomic and educational dimensions of social exclusion, and risk of teenage pregnancy, by examining whether dislike of school and socioeconomic disadvantage are associated with cognitive/behavioural risk measures among 13/14 year olds in English schools. Analysis of data from the baseline survey of a study of sex education. 13/14 year old school students from south east England. The results indicate that socioeconomic disadvantage and dislike of school are associated with various risk factors, each with a different pattern. Those disliking school, despite having comparable knowledge to those liking school, were more likely to have sexual intercourse, expect sexual intercourse by age 16, and expect to be parents by the age of 20. For most associations, the crude odds ratios (ORs) and the ORs adjusted for the other exposure were similar, suggesting that inter-confounding between exposures was limited. It is hypothesised that in determining risk of teenage pregnancy, the two exposures are independent. Those disliking school might be at greater risk of teenage pregnancy because they are more likely to see teenage pregnancy as inevitable or positive.

  7. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Information For… Media Policy Makers Teenagers (15-17 years of age) Language: English (US) ... as a parent, can do to help your teen during this time: Talk with your teen about ...

  8. An investigation of food choice behaviour and dietary intake of children, teenagers and adults with food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Isolde

    2013-01-01

    Food allergies in children, teenagers and adults are managed by eliminating the allergenic food from the diet. Healthcare professionals and policy makers have developed guidelines for the dietary management of food allergies, but as yet there has been no assessment of how individuals with food allergies are able to adapt their behaviour to them. In order to be able to improve the diet and nutrition of children, teenagers and adults with food allergies, and thereby to increase their quality of...

  9. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2009-01-01

    With the point of departure in the otherwise extensive knowledge on reform and routine within the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU), this paper argues that: (1) in order to fully appreciate the insights provided we need to look into the complementary nature of ideational...

  10. The Logic of Policy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynggaard, Kennet; Nedergaard, Peter

    Since the 1980s, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) of the European Union (EU) has been subject to a series of reform attempts, namely in 1984, 1988, 1992, 1999 and 2003. Numerous studies have sought to explain the causes and consequences of these reforms. The studies can broadly categorised de...

  11. Public management, policy capacity, innovation and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Karo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss the question of what factors in development policy create specific forms of policy capacity and under what circumstances developmentoriented complementarities or mismatches between the public and private sectors emerge. We argue that specific forms of policy capacity emerge from three interlinked policy choices, each fundamentally evolutionary in nature: policy choices on understanding the nature and sources of technical change and innovation; on the ways of financing economic growth, in particular technical change; and on the nature of public management to deliver and implement both previous sets of policy choices. Thus, policy capacity is not so much a continuum of abilities (from less to more, but rather a variety of modes of making policy that originate from co-evolutionary processes in capitalist development. To illustrate, we briefly reflect upon how the East Asian developmental states of the 1960s-1980s and Eastern European transition policies since the 1990s led to almost opposite institutional systems for financing, designing and managing development strategies, and how this led, through co-evolutionary processes, to different forms of policy capacity.

  12. Applying Intervention Mapping to Develop a Community-Based Intervention Aimed at Improved Psychological and Social Well-Being of Unmarried Teenage Mothers in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerlooijer, Joanne N.; Kok, Gerjo; Weyusya, Joseph; Bos, Arjan E. R.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Rijsdijk, Liesbeth E.; Nshakira, Nathan; Bartholomew, Leona K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve psychological and social well-being of unmarried…

  13. Applying Intervention Mapping to develop a community-based intervention aimed at improved psychological and social well-being of unmarried teenage mothers in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leerlooijer, J.N.; Kok, G.; Weyusya, J.; Bos, A.E.R.; Ruiter, R.A.C.; Rijsdijk, E.; Nshakira, N.; Bartholomew, L.K.

    2014-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is a major concern, because of its association with health, social, psychological, economic and demographic factors. This article describes the development of the Teenage Mothers Project, a community-based intervention to improve

  14. Information security policy development for compliance

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Barry L

    2013-01-01

    Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he

  15. MONETARY POLICY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: LESSONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requirement, liquidity ratio, minimum rediscount rate, parity charges and selective credit policies. A Review of .... workers salaries and companies' profits were to be compulsorily deducted and paid to government. However, the ... Empirical Analysis of the Impact of Deregulated Monetary Policy on Economic. Development in ...

  16. Human Capital Development Policies: Enhancing Employees Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hooi Lan

    2007-01-01

    Purpose--The aim of this article is to gain insight into some of the human capital development (HCD) policies that enhance employee satisfaction. A salient focus of the study is to assess whether employees in globalised foreign-owned MNCs are likely to be more satisfied with the HCD policies than with the practices employed by locally owned MNCs.…

  17. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development Options in the Eastern Himalayas. Shifting ... pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through regional exchange. ... Les chaînes de valeur comme leviers stratégiques.

  18. Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting at School in Contemporary South African Contexts: Deconstructing School Narratives and Understanding Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefer, Tamara; Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert

    2013-01-01

    South African national education policy is committed to promoting gender equality at school and to facilitating the successful completion of all young people's schooling, including those who may become pregnant and parent while at school. However, the experience of being pregnant and parenting while being a learner is shaped by broader social and…

  19. Teenage children of teenage mothers: psychological, behavioural and health outcomes from an Australian prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mary; Lawlor, Debbie A; Najman, Jake M

    2006-05-01

    In many industrialised countries teenage pregnancy and teenage parenthood have in recent years been identified as social and public health problems that need to be tackled. A number of studies have looked at various outcomes for teenage mothers and their offspring, and many report a strong association with poverty for the mother both before and after having a child. Few studies, however, adequately control for socioeconomic circumstances when examining health and related outcomes. Most studies have focused on perinatal outcomes in the offspring with few looking at later health and development. In Australia, where the rate of teenage pregnancy is relatively high compared to other comparable countries, teenage pregnancy is a not prominent policy concern. As such, Australia offers the opportunity to study the outcomes of teenage parenthood in a country where there may be less stigma than in countries that portray teenage parenthood as a major health and/or social problem. This paper reports findings from the Mater-University Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and its outcomes, a prospective study of women, and their offspring, who received antenatal care at a major public hospital (Mater Misericordiae Hospital) in South Brisbane, Australia, between 1981 and 1984. We have examined the associations of maternal age (18 years (n=4800)) at first antenatal visit with offspring psychological, behavioural and health characteristics when the offspring--the teenage children of teenage mothers--were aged 14 years. Multiple logistic regression was used to determine the effect of maternal and family characteristics on associations between maternal age and childhood outcomes at age 14. Results show that the 14 year old offspring of mothers who were aged 18 years and younger compared to those who were offspring of older mothers were more likely to have disturbed psychological behaviour, poorer school performance, poorer reading ability, were more likely to have been in contact with the

  20. Teenage consumption of information and communication technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten [Danish Building Research Inst., Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    A Danish database with data from 50,000 households, their energy consumption combined with building characteristics and the socio-economic data on their inhabitants documents that one teenager in a household entails a 20% higher electricity consumption than that of an average adult. These data will be presented as an introduction to the paper. There are however also other reasons for being interested in the consumer behaviour of teenagers. On the one hand teenagers are the adult consumers of tomorrow and some of their energy consuming behaviour may follow them throughout their life. On the other hand teenagers as consumers are known from other studies to be a special consumer group in that they are very much aware of and sensitive to the opinions and behaviour of their peer-groups. Departing from these reflections, a qualitative interview investigation with a focus on families with teenagers was carried out. In-depth interviews with nine parents and their teenagers focused on how teenagers use and purchase information and communication technology (ICT) such as televisions, mobile phones, computers etc. The paper reports on the qualitative findings on the dynamics of consumption among teenagers' ICT use. The analyses draw on recent consumer theory and discuss in the conclusion how such findings can give new directions for energy policies.

  1. Mexican agencies reach teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Lemus, R; Beamish, J

    1992-08-01

    The Gente Joven project of the Mexican Foundation for Family Planning (MEXFAM) trains young volunteers in 19 cities to spread messages about sexually transmitted diseases and population growth to their peers. They also distribute condoms and spermicides. It also uses films and materials to spread its messages. The project would like to influence young men's behavior, but the Latin image of machismo poses a big challenge. It would like to become more responsible toward pregnancy prevention. About 50% of adolescents have sexual intercourse, but few use contraceptives resulting in a high adolescent pregnancy rate. Many of these pregnant teenagers choose not to marry. Adolescent pregnancy leads to girls leaving school, few marketable skills, and rearing children alone. Besides women who began childbearing as a teenager have 1.5 times more children than other women. Male involvement in pregnancy prevention should improve these statistics. As late as 1973, the Health Code banned promotion and sales of contraceptives, but by 1992 about 50% of women of reproductive age use contraceptives. The Center for the Orientation of Adolescents has organized 8 Young Men's Clubs in Mexico City to involve male teenagers more in family planning and to develop self-confidence. It uses a holistic approach to their development through discussions with their peers. A MEXFAM study shows that young men are not close with their fathers who tend to exude a machismo attitude, thus the young men do not have a role model for responsible sexual behavior. MEXFAM's work is cut out for them, however, since the same study indicates that 50% of the young men believe it is fine to have 1 girlfriend and 33% think women should earn more than men. A teenager volunteer reports, however, that more boys have been coming to him for contraception and information than girls in 1992 while in other years girls outnumbered the boys.

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  3. To 'raise dream and ambition'--the rhetorical analysis of a teenage pregnancy strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2006-09-01

    Critical discourse analysis (CDA) has been evident in disciplines such as sociology and cultural studies for many years, and is of increasing interest to nurse scholars internationally. This paper outlines what CDA is and how it might be used as an approach to analysing any health text, using an example from the UK--the teenage pregnancy strategy. Discourses and linguistic techniques used within this document are discussed, together with the potential impact they may have, both on health professionals as readers, and on pregnant teenagers as targets of the strategy. Teenage pregnancy itself is an international concern, prompting different responses from the various governing bodies. When approaches to a health matter are so diverse across the developing world, it is useful to consider how policy analysis using CDA can advance our understanding of the positions taken up by the authors of the policies that might not otherwise be made explicit.

  4. Renewable Energy Policies and Market Developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dijk, A.L.; Beurskens, L.W.M.; Boots, M.G.; Kaal, M.B.T.; De Lange, T.J.; Van Sambeek, E.J.W.; Uyterlinde, M.A.

    2003-03-01

    Reviews and an analysis of the policy support for the stimulation of renewable electricity in the current energy market are presented, and an overview is given of the main new developments influencing the renewable energy market. The report is part of the analysis phase of the project REMAC 2000, which has led to the publication of a roadmap for the acceleration of the RE market. REMAC 2000 aims to promote a sustainable growth of the renewable energy market. For such a sustainable growth, important success factors are not only effectiveness of policy, but also security for investors, which is essential for building up a sector and developing the renewable energy market. Consistency of regulations and policies at different levels and between policy fields form a condition for security, as does the active involvement of market stakeholders. Further, the increasing role of trade within the energy and renewable energy sector leads to a priority for international coherence of policies and markets. To guarantee a sustainable growth of the renewable energy sector, a broad perspective of policy makers and planners is required- to include a long time frame, a comprehensive view of related policy fields and authorities involved, and an orientation that looks beyond national borders

  5. Development of the Sri Lankan early teenagers' violence inventory: an instrument to measure peer violence in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijeratne, Monika; Seneviratne, Rohini; Gunawardena, Nalika; Østbye, Truls; Lynch, Catherine; Sandøy, Ingvild Fossgard

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to develop an inventory to measure peer violence among early teens (13-15 years of age) in schools in Sri Lanka. Development of SLETVI was carried out in two phases. In phase I, development of an operational definition for peer violence, identification, and finalizing violent acts for inventory was done by a combination of qualitative methods: a comprehensive literature review, focus group discussions among 13-15-year-old adolescents, their teachers and parents, and consultative meetings with experts in the field. Inventory was then pretested. In phase II, elaboration of SLETVI was carried out by administering it to a sample of 1700 adolescents (13-15 years old). Exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis was performed separately for experiences of victimization and perpetration. Test-retest reliability of SLETVI was assessed. SLETVI included 37 items in three factors: "less severe violence," "severe physical," and "severe relational" violence. Combined use of qualitative and quantitative methods enabled development of a culturally valid and reliable operational inventory to assess early teenagers' peer violence in Sri Lankan and other South Asian schools.

  6. The employment effects of sustainable development policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, Judith M.; Williams, Jeremy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is time for ecological economists to bring the employment impacts of sustainable development policies to the forefront of the research agenda. Important conservation efforts continue to founder because of their perceived employment effects. The paper examines the evidence on the employment impacts of sustainable development policies and argues that maintaining or even increasing employment depends critically on appropriate policy design and attention to the political economy of implementation of policies. The paper concludes that a better understanding of these issues, fair labour market and structural adjustment programs, and especially forward planning to anticipate problem areas, must replace the piecemeal, 'knee-jerk' reactions to environmental issues, such as were evident in Australia during the last federal election. (author)

  7. Environmental policy implementation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamman, J.K.

    1990-01-01

    This study examines why national and international policies intended to protect limited natural resources in developing countries are not effectively implemented. It employs a comparative-policy implementation in three developing countries, Barbados, St. Lucia and St. Kitts, and three foreign assistance agencies, the US Agency for International Development, the Inter-American Development Bank and the Organization of American States. The decision-making process within the countries and donor agencies is closed, preventing key stakeholders from participating. In two instances, the mutually reinforcing behavior of top officials in the countries and the donor agencies led to decisions that prevented natural resources from being protected. In all three cases, strategies to implement environmental policies failed to account for four major elements: national politics, behavior in the donor agency, the culture of decision making, and economic necessity. The existing-decision making process in both developing countries and donor agencies is dysfunctional

  8. Design and development of a film-based intervention about teenage men and unintended pregnancy: applying the Medical Research Council framework in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aventin, Áine; Lohan, Maria; O'Halloran, Peter; Henderson, Marion

    2015-04-01

    Following the UK Medical Research Council's (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys' and girls' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and development of a film-based intervention about teenage men and unintended pregnancy: Applying the Medical Research Council framework in practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aventin, Aine

    2014-11-15

    Following the UK Medical Research Council\\'s (MRC) guidelines for the development and evaluation of complex interventions, this study aimed to design, develop and optimise an educational intervention about young men and unintended teenage pregnancy based around an interactive film. The process involved identification of the relevant evidence base, development of a theoretical understanding of the phenomenon of unintended teenage pregnancy in relation to young men, and exploratory mixed methods research. The result was an evidence-based, theory-informed, user-endorsed intervention designed to meet the much neglected pregnancy education needs of teenage men and intended to increase both boys\\' and girls\\' intentions to avoid an unplanned pregnancy during adolescence. In prioritising the development phase, this paper addresses a gap in the literature on the processes of research-informed intervention design. It illustrates the application of the MRC guidelines in practice while offering a critique and additional guidance to programme developers on the MRC prescribed processes of developing interventions. Key lessons learned were: (1) know and engage the target population and engage gatekeepers in addressing contextual complexities; (2) know the targeted behaviours and model a process of change; and (3) look beyond development to evaluation and implementation.

  10. Essays in Human Development and Public Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Arindam

    2010-01-01

    Despite strong recent economic growth, gender inequality remains a major concern for India. This dissertation examines the effectiveness of public policy in improving some important human development outcomes, with a focus on gender issues. The national Pre-Conception and Pre-Natal Diagnostics Techniques (PNDT) Act of 1994, implemented in 1996, banned sex-selective abortions in the Indian states which hitherto had not legislated such a policy. Using village-level and town-level longitudinal d...

  11. Trends of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Raquel Ferreira; Monteiro, Denise Leite Maia; Rodrigues, Nádia Cristina Pinheiro

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the frequency of teenage pregnancy in Brazil, from 2000 to 2011, in all five Brazilian macroregions and age groups (10-14 and 15-19 years), correlating it with the human development index (HDI). Descriptive epidemiological study, with cross-sectional design, performed by searching the database of the National Health System (Datasus), using information from the Information System (Sinasc). There was a decrease in the percentage of live births (LB) from teenage mothers (10-19 years) in Brazil (23.5 % in 2000 to 19.2 % in 2011). This reduction was observed in all Brazilian macroregions in the group of mothers aged 15 to 19 years. The number of LB increased by 5.0% among mothers aged 10-14 years (increase in the North and Northeast and decline in the other macroregions). The proportion of LB shows an inversely proportional trend to HDI score, with the Southeast having the highest HDI and the lowest proportion of LB to teenage mothers in the country. Brazil shows a decline in the percentage of LB to adolescent mothers, tending to be inversely related to HDI score. It is important to empower strategies to address the problem, so that teenage pregnancy is seen as a personal decision rather than the result of a lack of policies targeting adolescent health.

  12. Your Teenager at School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Your Teenager At School Page Content Article Body With the ... on the many ways that parents can help teenagers to succeed both scholastically and emotionally. Studies show ...

  13. Using Erikson To Work More Effectively with Teenage Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Lorraine

    2003-01-01

    Provides suggestions to help early childhood teachers work more effectively with teenage parents and become significant adults in teenage parents' lives. Suggestions include fostering positive identification and addressing individual teenager needs. Presents Erikson's stages of psychosocial development as a basis for recommendations to develop…

  14. Thai Teenage Prostitution Online

    OpenAIRE

    Somdech Rungsrisawat

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...

  15. Lesotho's Rural Development Policy: Objectives and Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lesotho's rural development policy evolved at the beginning of the second decade of the last century. Initially it was an attempt to shore up the Basotho subsistence economy through efforts directed at protecting the fertility of the soil and to protect animals from diseases. After independence rural development, hitherto an ...

  16. EU Development Policy in a Changing World

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mold, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    On many fronts, EU development policy is at a critical juncture. In the face of major new challenges, such as the current impasse in the Doha Round of multilateral trade negotiations, and increasing concerns over security threats, the European Union is having to rethink much of its development

  17. Developments in Icelandic Security Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson J.K. Bailes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Iceland has been slow in developing a national security concept, for reasons that include a long period of reliance on US protection post-World War Two, and divided internal views over this defence solution. Since the withdrawal of all US stationed forces in 2006, Iceland’s security partnerships have diversified and attempts have been made to frame security in more multi-functional terms. The Risk Assessment Report of 2009 made important progress in itemizing non-military threats and risks. On this basis, a cross-party parliamentary committee was invited to start work in 2012 on guidelines for a security strategy. Its report, published in March 2014, establishes a large area of consensus on ‘softer’ security issues and on remaining in NATO, with a few dissenting voices on the latter. Its main omission is a proper treatment of economic and financial security, still tied to the divisive issue of EU membership. Meanwhile, Iceland’s recent security experience in 2014 has helped to highlight the reality of both harder and softer security challenges. The government can now proceed to draft a full official security strategy, to be laid before parliament possibly in 2015.

  18. TEENAGERS (10 - 20 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    classical music. Teenagers have issues of self-esteem and image that have to be taken into consideration when managing their skin problems. TEENAGERS (10 - 20 YEARS). The principal challenge during the teenage years is acne, but some other impor- tant dermatoses occur for the first time during this turbulent stage.

  19. Rural development policy and food industry development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Derek; Abildtrup, Jens; Hedetoft, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Food industry firms in remote areas face a set of constraints, which have motivated the form and function of assistance instruments under various regional and rural development programmes. Recent food industry developments present new challenges to these firms, for which available assistance may...... be less appropriate. This paper employs telephone interviews and workshop discussions with firms in isolated locations to investigate their satisfaction with assistance programmes, their ability to innovate (through product introductions) and respond to challenges in the food industry (the emergence...

  20. Effect of social exclusion on the risk of teenage pregnancy : development of hypotheses using baseline data from a randomised trial of sex education.

    OpenAIRE

    Bonell, C. P.; Strange, V. J.; Stephenson, J. M.; Oakley, A. R.; Copas, A.; Forrest, S. P.; Johnson, A. M.; Black, S.

    2003-01-01

    Study objective: The UK government argues that social exclusion increases risk of teenage pregnancy and that educational factors may be dimensions of such exclusion. The evidence cited by the government is limited to reporting that socioeconomic disadvantage and educational attainment influence risk. Evidence regarding young people’s attitude to school is not cited, and there is a lack of research concerning the UK. This paper develops hypotheses on the relation between socioeconomic and educ...

  1. Malignant melanoma in teenagers and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolandijan, Nathalie A; Wei, Caimiao; Burke, Anahit; Bedikian, Agop Y

    2014-10-01

    This study compares the natural history and treatment outcomes of cutaneous melanoma in teenagers and young adults to determine if exclusion of teenagers from investigative trials is justified. This is a chart review of patients between the ages of 13 and 40 years treated at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center for melanoma. Data related to the natural history and treatment outcomes were collected. Statistical tools were used to compare characteristics between teenagers and young adults. Cox proportional hazard models were utilized to examine the association between age group and overall survival. Of the 476 patients, 109 were teenagers and 367 were young adults. Both groups had comparable disease stage, pathology, and rates of metastasis. Initial disease stage and pathology significantly influenced survival. Sixty-six of 452 patients with skin melanoma developed metastasis. Teenagers survived better than young adults from diagnosis of the skin primary and after development of systemic metastasis. Teenagers tolerated and benefited from interleukin-2-based systemic therapy and targeted therapies as well as the young adults. Because of the similarities in natural history and treatment outcomes between teenage and young adult patients, it is recommended that teenage patients be officially enrolled on adult melanoma therapeutic trials.

  2. [The development of population policies in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala-diakanda, D M

    1991-12-01

    Influencing demographic dynamics in order to improve the welfare of the population is the fundamental objective of a population policy. The efficacy of a population policy cannot be satisfactorily evaluated without referring to the objectives of the overall development strategy, of which the population policy is only one component. At the time of the 1974 World Population Conference in Bucharest, the positions of the developed and developing countries were polarized. The developing countries were accused of impeding their own socioeconomic development by their high fertility rates and rapid population growth, while the industrialized world was blamed for environmental degradation and exhaustion of nonrenewable resources due to overconsumption by households and industry. Despite the near total disagreement about what constituted the problem, a "World Population Plan of Action" was adopted almost unanimously, indicating agreement at least on the existence of a problem even if ther was no consensus on its content. The Plan affirmed that each nation has a sovereign right to formulate and implement its own population policies, that international cooperation is needed in population matters, and that population policies are components of social and economic development policies and not substitutes for them. Interest in African population dates back to the beginning of the colonial era, when the imperial powers wished to control population movements, estimate the taxable population, and control depopulation due to pathological infertility. Colonial population legislation was somewhat more liberal in English-speaking countries than in those under the sway of France because of the influence of Malthusianism in Great Britain and the movement for birth control that developed there. By the 1984 World Population Conference in Mexico, the governments of African countries had adopted the "Program of Action of Kilimanjaro Concerning the African Population and Autonomous Development

  3. Endogenous development. Theories and policies of territorial development

    OpenAIRE

    Vázquez Barquero , Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Endogenous development is an interpretation that includes different points of view which share the same theoretical and policy patterns. It is a territorial approach to development that refers to growth and capital accumulation processes of territories that have their own culture and institutions, upon which investment decisions are made. From this perspective, endogenous development policy is the local actors answer to the challenge of globalization. The paper argues that endogenous developm...

  4. TAX AND DEVELOPMENT POLICY IN CAR INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanka Đurić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from the concept of business policies, its goals, objectives and content, we conclude that the elements of business logistics viewed from the perspective of the market, as well as the financial, commercial and technological aspects. The general theory of the enterprise, a unified division of functions in the three basic functions of the vertical (the vertical functions management functions - such a basic function of management objectives, strategy and business development, means the Company and its business policy; functions of management - as the basic function of organizing the implementation of management decisions and the functioning of the company as a business system; executive function - as a group of tasks to achieve the goals and objectives set forth in management decisions, a coordinated and organized the functions of management. Respecting market orientation in policy formation, transport companies, the content of these functions can be systematized according to the criteria of phase formation and implementation of business policy, as a phase of the work process, and to the following main groups of activities specific to transport companies: 1 Transport market research, forecasting and determining business policy; 2 Planning and policy development; 3 Organization of traffic technology functions; and 4 Organization commercial business sales services. This in essence is the basic structure of the business policy as the basis of the business logistics transportation companies, which is the topic of this paper, and bearing in mind the functions of business logistics, which are reflected in the monitoring, studying, analyzing, and testing of all phenomena in the market, as well as the production process, and the application of appropriate methods and measures.

  5. Development Status of 4-24 Months Children Born to Teenage Mothers Referred to Health Care Centers in Yasuj, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afraz SF

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: A developmental delay in children is considered as one of the world's health problems in developing and developed countries. This has a massive impact on children’s health and eventually has broader scale effect on society. The purpose of this study was to assess the developmental status of children age 4-24 months to teenage mothers referred to health care centers related to Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran, in 2013. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 mothers less than 19 years of age with children of 4-24 months referred to health centers of Yasuj University of Medical Sciences which were selected by multistage sampling. Data collection was conducted using demographic, midwifery ages and stages questionnaire in children aged 24-4 months. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test and chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the mean age of mothers during pregnancy were16.64±1.22 years with age range 12 to 18 years. Prevalence of delayed development in 4-24 month children was reported to be 7%. Most developmental delay was observed in gross motor area and the lowest was in the private personal and social domains. In this study, a significant difference was seen in birth weight between two groups of children, so that birth weight of children with developmental delay significantly lowers than children with normal development (P=0.027. Conclusion: the Pregnancy under the age of 19 years is considered as risk factors for children’s developmental disorder that by the implementation of appropriate education to reduce high-risk pregnancies in this age range can be prevented the developmental disorders and their adverse outcome.

  6. Ethiopian Journal of Health Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More specifically, the Journal focus on important topics in health development that include: health policy and health politics; health planning, monitoring and evaluation; health administration and organization of health services; hospital administration; health manpower, including training; health economics, financing, and ...

  7. Sustainable Development Policy Institute Immersion Program on ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Moreover, university students in the public sector education system are not exposed to academic culture, research standards and methodologies that are ... Development Policy Institute (SDPI) to train a core pool of graduates and young professionals to undertake social science research in Pakistan and South Asia.

  8. Government Research and Development Policy for Telecommunications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Linda

    This paper investigates how recent changes in the telecommunications industry are likely to affect government research and development policies by analyzing how changes in the market structure--in particular, increased competition in the industry due to domestic deregulation and international competition--change the political economy of government…

  9. Economic development, climate and values: making policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. PMID:26203007

  10. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  11. Tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Metodijeski, Dejan; Temelkov, Zoran

    2017-01-01

    The subject of this paper is tourism policy, climate change and sustainable development. We consider climate change to be one of the biggest problems of modern living, and the tourism is one of the many sectors affected mainly through the changing faces of tourist destinations. After the climate change we observe reduced numbers of tourists in those tourist destinations. Tourism is the antithesis of bad weather and can be developed only in areas that are not affected by such conditions. For t...

  12. Policy Analyst | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Job Summary. The Policy Analyst works as a member of the Policy and Planning Group providing information, research analysis and advice on matters of policy and planning. The Policy Analyst works closely with the Director of Policy and Planning and the Senior Policy Analyst to initiate and undertake research and ...

  13. A Participatory Action Research Approach to Developing Youth-Friendly Strategies for the Prevention of Teenage Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lesley; Hendricks, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy among school-going youth is a concern worldwide, but in socially-economically challenged environments it is a result of, and contributory factor to, a complex web of social injustice. In South Africa, most of the school-based prevention interventions to date have been adult-designed and imparted, with the voice of the target…

  14. Policy factors affecting broadband development in Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Windekilde, Iwona Maria

    2014-01-01

    ’s telecommunications market with the European market. The market reflects all the global trends, a gradually growing significance of mobile telecommunications services, broadband Internet access, construction of offers directed towards clients’ needs, and a strong trend towards market consolidation, which...... and discuss broadband access development in Poland and the policy factors influencing this development as well as to examine national strategies used to stimulate service and infrastructure competition in Poland. There are, indeed, many other factors affecting broadband development such as the income level...

  15. Global wind power development: Economics and policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Cornelis van Kooten, G.; Narbel, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Existing literature indicates that theoretically, the earth's wind energy supply potential significantly exceeds global energy demand. Yet, only 2–3% of global electricity demand is currently derived from wind power despite 27% annual growth in wind generating capacity over the last 17 years. More than 95% of total current wind power capacity is installed in the developed countries plus China and India. Our analysis shows that the economic competitiveness of wind power varies at wider range across countries or locations. A climate change damage cost of US$20/tCO 2 imposed to fossil fuels would make onshore wind competitive to all fossil fuels for power generation; however, the same would not happen to offshore wind, with few exceptions, even if the damage cost is increased to US$100/tCO 2 . To overcome a large number of technical, financial, institutional, market and other barriers to wind power, many countries have employed various policy instruments, including capital subsidies, tax incentives, tradable energy certificates, feed-in tariffs, grid access guarantees and mandatory standards. Besides, climate change mitigation policies, such as the Clean Development Mechanism, have played a pivotal role in promoting wind power. Despite these policies, intermittency, the main technical constraint, could remain as the major challenge to the future growth of wind power. - Highlights: • Global wind energy potential is enormous, yet the wind energy contribution is very small. • Existing policies are boosting development of wind power. • Costs of wind energy are higher than cost of fossil-based energies. • Reasonable premiums for climate change mitigation substantially promote wind power. • Intermittency is the key challenge to future development of wind power

  16. Reducing teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Debbie

    2011-03-01

    The Teenage Pregnancy Independent Advisory Group (TPIAG) was established in 2000 to advise the government about reducing teenage pregnancy rates and supporting teenage parents to continue with their education. The group reached the end of its tenure in December 2010. This short article highlights some of the key issues from the final report and provides some insights into past achievements and future directions from an interview with Gill Frances, TPIAG's chair.

  17. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatun, Mohsina; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Scott, James; William, Gail M.; Clavarino, Alexandra; Najman, Jake M.

    2017-01-01

    Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ) among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1). Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9). In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk for disadvantageous outcomes of the next generation. PMID:28278227

  18. Naturalistic Assessment of Novice Teenage Crash Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Suzanne E.; Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila E.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Crash risk is highest during the first months after licensure. Current knowledge about teenagers’ driving exposure and the factors increasing their crash risk is based on self-reported data and crash database analyses. While these research tools are useful, new developments in naturalistic technologies have allowed researchers to examine newly-licensed teenagers’ exposure and crash risk factors in greater detail. The Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study (NTDS) described in this paper is the first study to follow a group of newly-licensed teenagers continuously for 18 months after licensure. The goals of this paper are to compare the crash and near-crash experience of drivers in the NTDS to national trends, to describe the methods and lessons learned in the NTDS, and to provide initial data on driving exposure for these drivers. Methods A data acquisition system was installed in the vehicles of 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers 16 years of age during their first 18 months of independent driving. It consisted of cameras, sensors (accelerometers, GPS, yaw, front radar, lane position, and various sensors obtained via the vehicle network), and a computer with removable hard drive. Data on the driving of participating parents was also collected when they drove the instrumented vehicle. Findings The primary findings after 18 months included the following: (1) crash and near-crash rates among teenage participants were significantly higher during the first six months of the study than the final 12 months, mirroring the national trends; (2) crash and near-crash rates were significantly higher for teenage than adult (parent) participants, also reflecting national trends; (3) teenaged driving exposure averaged between 507-710 kilometers (315-441 miles) per month over the study period, but varied substantially between participants with standard errors representing 8-14 percent of the mean; and (4) crash and near-crash types were very similar for male and female

  19. Developing cognitive processes in teenagers through the reading of short stories

    OpenAIRE

    Norato Peña, Adriana; Cañón, Jeny Mirella

    2009-01-01

    This research-innovation project aims at developing cognitive processes explicitly through the reading of short stories. It is based on reading strategies and Bloom’s cognitive domain (1981) which was applied in the English classes we had with sixth graders at IPARM (Instituto Pedagógico Arturo Ramírez Montufar) School at Universidad Nacional de Colombia, in Bogotá. The six categories (knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation) of Bloom’s cognitive domain were ...

  20. China's Developing Arctic Policies: Myths and Misconceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lanteigne

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic and Far North regions of the world have grown in importance for China's international interests in recent years, and in 2013 China became an observer state in the Arctic Council. Beijing has sought to develop an Arctic policy based on scientific research and partnerships, including in the areas of environmental studies and climate change issues, as well as development and economic issues. As the Arctic gains more international attention due to the effects of ice melting and the possibility of the region becoming a new source of resources, concerns have been raised about a scramble for riches and economic advantages. China, as a rising political and economic power, has been subject to much scrutiny, especially from the West, about its emerging agenda in the Arctic region. Although China is not an Arctic state, the concerns are based on predictions that Beijing is seeking to play a stronger and perhaps even dominant role in the Arctic, and this has led to many misconceptions about China's Arctic policy. The result has been a "clash of identities" between Chinese and Western perceptions, and in order to understand why these diverging views have appeared, it is necessary to first examine the origins of "myths" about China's regional Arctic policies, and then examine their roles, using constructivist theory, before suggesting ways for both China and the international community to address this divergence.

  1. Technical considerations in materials management policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avci, H.; Goldberg, M.

    1996-01-01

    Under the Materials-in-Inventory (MIN) initiative, US DOE intends to develop policies to ensure that materials are managed and use efficiently, cost-effectively, and safely throughout DOE. The MIN initiative covers depleted uranium, scrap metals, chemicals, explosives, spent nuclear fuel, lead, alkali metals, etc.; by far the largest component is depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). A technically defensible approach has been developed and is being used to select a long-term management strategy for DOE's DUF6 inventory. The same approach can be adapted to management of other materials in inventory that have the potential to be reutilized

  2. The Korean nuclear ODA policy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Min, Kim Yoo; Park, Young Il

    2012-01-01

    Korean nuclear Official Development Assistance (ODA) is established with support from institutes such as the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) and the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). KOICA's grant aid mainly made through the activities including IAEA's training program, and KAERI currently runs the inter-regional education and training cooperation called Asian Network for Education in Nuclear Technology(ANENT) which aimed to achieve the goal of encouraging web based education training network via cooperation with IAEA. Yet now these programs are focusing more on assisting nuclear infrastructure rather than highlighting nuclear education and training. This paper aims to, first, do a self-evaluation about the Korean ODA policy; second, to study the transition of the international nuclear atmosphere; and third, by apprehending the trend of the subjects of Korean nuclear ODA policy, to discuss the overall appropriate trajectory of Korean nuclear ODA

  3. A comparative study of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahavarkar, S H; Madhu, C K; Mule, V D

    2008-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a global problem and is considered a high-risk group, in spite of conflicting evidence. Our objective was to compare obstetric outcomes of pregnancy in teenagers and older women. This was a retrospective study of case records of pregnancies from August 2000 to July 2001. Girls aged pregnancy outcomes in older women (19-35 years) in the same hospital. The study took place in the Government General Hospital, Sangli, India, a teaching hospital in rural India, with an annual delivery rate of over 3,500. A total of 386 teenage pregnancies were compared with pregnancies in 3,326 older women. Socioeconomic data, age, number of pregnancies, antenatal care and complications, mode of delivery, and neonatal outcomes were considered. The incidence of teenage pregnancy in the study was 10%. A significant proportion of teenage pregnant mothers were in their first pregnancies. The teenage mothers were nearly three times more at risk of developing anaemia (OR = 2.83, 95% CI = 2.2-3.7, p Teenage mothers were twice as likely to develop hypertensive problems in pregnancy (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.5-3.2, p teenage pregnancies are still a common occurrence in rural India in spite of various legislations and government programmes and teenage pregnancy is a risk factor for poor obstetric outcome in rural India. Cultural practices, poor socioeconomic conditions, low literacy rate and lack of awareness of the risks are some of the main contributory factors. Early booking, good care during pregnancy and delivery and proper utilisation of contraceptive services can prevent the incidence and complications in this high-risk group.

  4. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Sustainable Development Policy Institute. This funding will strengthen the Sustainable Development Policy Institute's (SDPI) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by enhancing its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research. About the Sustainable ...

  5. [Sexual development of children and teenagers in the families deported from Abkhazia (dynamic observation)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiklauri, M I; Katsitadze, G Z; Abesadze, M Iu

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of physical and pubertal development of children from the families deported from Abkhazia who were exposed to significant psycho-somatic stress and prolonged socio-economical infringement. Dynamic observation started in 1998. Children, 9-15 years of age, have been studied. 200 children have been selected by the individualised methods (115 were girls and 85 were boys). In parallel children of appropriate age and gender groups from the local families have been studied. The investigations were conducted according to the generally accepted schemes and tables suggested by Tenner (17), for girls and by V.M. Vedenski (8) for boys, respectively. The analysis of obtained results showed that the total percent of delayed puberty in studying group was 21.4% versus 30.0% in the groups of 1998. Consequently, index of delay in control group was equal to 3.9% (2005) and 5.0% (1998). The group, exceeding the norms of puberty (accelerates) was 4.8% versus 11.2% in control group in comparison with the data of 1998--5.4% versus 15.0%, respectively. It should be concluded that due to the obtained results, comparing with the analogic groups of 1998, the number of delayed puberty has been reduced by approximately 9.0%. The number of cases exceeding the norms of puberty has been decreased slightly.

  6. 2101, Sciences & Fiction: a way of developing teenagers' interest for science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauglin, I.; Chiuzzi, P.

    2017-12-01

    Since nearly 30 years, many european studies have demonstrated a worrying decline of young people's interest in science and technical studies. Despite the number of efforts and programs made to reverse the trend, there are still few signs of improvement. We must step up our efforts otherwise this will impact the long-term innovation capacities of our country. We have tried to participate to these efforts with the creation of a digital and interactive comics "2101, Science & Fiction", created by Chromatiques, that explores the connections between reality of science and science fiction. It takes advantage of the new opportunities opened by digital technology and is another way of developing interest in learning sciences. Free access on: http://2101.fr The goal is to create an new opportunity to popularize science and attract the young generation in different fields of technology and science. L'e-poster présentant cette BD numérique interactive en français est disponible à cette adresse: ttp://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2017/posterpdfs/294_224_66.pdf

  7. "Smart boys" and "sweet girls"--sex education needs in Thai teenagers: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuttanont, Uraiwan; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Griffin, Mark; Boynton, Petra

    2006-12-09

    In Thailand, rapid increases in economic prosperity have been accompanied by erosion of traditional cultural and religious values and by negative effects on sexual health of young people. We investigated knowledge, attitudes, norms, and values of teenagers, parents, teachers, and policymakers in relation to sex and sex education in Chiang Mai, Thailand, with a view to informing sex education policy. We selected six secondary schools for maximum variation in socioeconomic background, religious background, and location. Methods were: narrative interviews with key stakeholders, and analysis of key policy documents; questionnaire survey of 2301 teenagers; 20 focus groups of teenagers; questionnaire survey of 351 parents; and two focus groups of parents. Qualitative and quantitative data were assessed separately with thematic and statistical analysis, respectively, then combined. We noted five important influences on Thai teenagers' sexual attitudes and behaviour: ambiguous social roles leading to confused identity; heightened sexual awareness and curiosity; key gaps in knowledge and life skills; limited parental input; and impulsivity and risk-taking. Male teenagers aspire to be "smart boys", whose status depends on stories of sexual performance and conquests. Female teenagers, traditionally constrained and protected as "sweet girls", are managing a new concept of dating without their parents' support, and with few life skills to enable them to manage their desires or negotiate in potentially coercive situations. School-based sex education is biologically focused and inconsistently delivered. Results of this large exploratory study suggest five approaches that could be developed to improve sex education: targeted training and support for teachers; peer-led sex education by teenagers; story-based scenarios to promote applied learning; local development of educational materials; and use of trained sexual health professionals to address learning needs of pupils, teachers

  8. How to develop a company AIDS policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bompey, S H

    1986-07-01

    It is for most businesses only a matter of time before they will have experience with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and the experience could be very costly for companies which fail to implement an effective AIDS policy. Potential AIDS problems include: antidiscrimination suits based on firing or failing to hire an individual who had AIDS or carries the AIDS virus antibodies; defamation suits from employees who are wrongly identified; disability claims that do not fit the pattern for other diseases; civil rights penalties in some situations when AIDS victims are prevented from working; and run-ins with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration or the National Labor Relations Board if healthy workers refuse to work alongside AIDS victims. A company needs to think through its AIDS policy, but that does not mean establishing a "special" AIDS policy which may create paranoia among employees. The best approach is to develop a health policy that includes all catastrophic illnesses, not just AIDS. There have been few court decisions involving AIDS because AIDS is a recent illness, victims often do not live long enough to pursue the matter, and it often pays to settle AIDS cases out of court. Employers need to know that judges, administrative agencies, and arbitrators take the position that AIDS is a disability. As such, AIDS is treated under the anti-handicap discrimination laws on the books of most states. Additionally, the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973 prohibits discrimination against the disabled by companies that contract with the federal government or receive federal financial assistance. It usually is illegal to discriminate against the disabled workers, and in some states against workers who are perceived to have a disability. The best defense against the fear of working alongside and AIDs sufferer is education.

  9. The Size of the Family – A Factor Influencing Alimentation and, Implicitly, the Growth and Development Processes in Teen-Agers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Simalcsik

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Viewed as a phenomenon with multi-factorial determination, the growth and development of the human organism depend equally on the hereditary patrimony and on the environmental conditions, the socio-economic ones, especially. As a critical transition period from childhood to adult age, adolescence is characterized by increased nutritional needs. The main factor responsible for the variations manifested in human physical development is alimentation – a factor correlated with the socio-economic variations. Similarly with the case of other countries affected by transitions, the difficult economic transformations occurring in the Republic of Moldova have been accompanied by the installation of poverty – a phenomenon affecting especially the families formed of more than 5 members. The teen-agers of the Republic of Moldova register a deficit in the consumption of proteins, especially of animal origin, known as playing a critical role in the period of accelerated growing of the organism. Alimentation and family size are closely correlated with the socio-economic status of the family from which the child comes, while the attention and care given to the child by the family plays an essential part in the growth and development of the teen-ager. Child’s development as a function of such an element is directly related to environmental factors, as follows: alimentation is poorer in more numerous families, as the monthly income per member of family is more reduced, which is immediately reflected in a scarce alimentary consumption; hygiene is insufficient; mother’s care for the child is also reduced, etc. The study was performed on 1,525 subjects (boys and girls with ages between 10 and 16 years, all from the city of Kishinev. The main parameters considered were: stature, weight and average puberal age. The results obtained show that family size influences both the average stature of the teenagers and their weight, over the 10-16 years interval, the

  10. Teenage Mothers Today: What We Know and How It Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2017-03-01

    Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families.

  11. Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study: Findings and Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G.; Klauer, Sheila G.; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S.; Lee, Suzanne E.; Ehsani, Johnathon P.; Pradhan, Anuj K.; Dingus, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Problem This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Method Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (Global Positioning System, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly-licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Result Overall teenage crash and near crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. Conclusion The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Practical Applications Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. PMID:26403899

  12. Naturalistic teenage driving study: Findings and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons-Morton, Bruce G; Klauer, Sheila G; Ouimet, Marie Claude; Guo, Feng; Albert, Paul S; Lee, Suzanne E; Ehsani, Johnathon P; Pradhan, Anuj K; Dingus, Thomas A

    2015-09-01

    This paper summarizes the findings on novice teenage driving outcomes (e.g., crashes and risky driving behaviors) from the Naturalistic Teenage Driving Study. Survey and driving data from a data acquisition system (global positioning system, accelerometers, cameras) were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers and their parents during the first 18 months of teenage licensure; stress responsivity was also measured in teenagers. Overall teenage crash and near-crash (CNC) rates declined over time, but were >4 times higher among teenagers than adults. Contributing factors to teenage CNC rates included secondary task engagement (e.g., distraction), kinematic risky driving, low stress responsivity, and risky social norms. The data support the contention that the high novice teenage CNC risk is due both to inexperience and risky driving behavior, particularly kinematic risky driving and secondary task engagement. Graduated driver licensing policy and other prevention efforts should focus on kinematic risky driving, secondary task engagement, and risky social norms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  13. Teenage Mothers Today: What We Know and How It Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, births to U.S. teenagers have fallen and no longer follow overall fertility patterns. Yet the unique challenges faced by teenage mothers and their families justify continued research. Across disciplines, newer work has furthered our understanding of teenage motherhood today. In this article, I highlight four areas of progress: processes of selection into teenage motherhood, the broader consequences of teenage childbearing beyond the socioeconomic realm, heterogeneity of effects, and the application of life course principles. Emerging societal trends such as complex family structures, a stalled recovery from the recession for families of low socioeconomic status, and a rapidly evolving political environment for reproductive health care continue to challenge the lives of teenage mothers. Given that the consequences for teenagers of becoming mothers may change, continued research is needed. Shifts in policy to favor supporting teenage mothers and addressing the causes of both teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage may help improve the lives of these mothers and their families. PMID:28533814

  14. Teenage Pregnancy and Schooling: Legal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsches-Simmons, Grace

    School policy on teenage pregnancy must take into account a variety legal considerations. Up until recently, the favored way of dealing with pregnant pupils or pupils who are mothers was to exclude them from school. Several law cases involving instances of exclusion and segregation of pregnant pupils are cited. The 14th Amendment's guarantee of…

  15. Wind power development and policies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Cuiping; Farid, Nida R.; Jochem, Eberhard; Zhang, Yi

    2010-01-01

    The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale. (author)

  16. Teenage Books for Teenagers: Reflections on Literature in Language Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronnqvist, Lilian; Sell, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Teenage foreign language learners can better benefit from reading target-language literature if the works include real teenage books instead of abridged canonical classics. Teenage pupils like and want to understand these works because they provide access to the colloquial language used by native-speaking teenagers and because they have themes and…

  17. Perceptions of rural teenagers on teenage pregnancy | Richter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is important to seek an understanding of teenagers' perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the perceptions of teenagers in Bushbuckridge district in the Limpopo Province, South Africa, towards teenage pregnancy. An explorative qualitative research design was ...

  18. Teenage pregnancy: the impact of maternal adolescent childbearing and older sister's teenage pregnancy on a younger sister.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall-Wieler, Elizabeth; Roos, Leslie L; Nickel, Nathan C

    2016-05-25

    Risk factors for teenage pregnancy are linked to many factors, including a family history of teenage pregnancy. This research examines whether a mother's teenage childbearing or an older sister's teenage pregnancy more strongly predicts teenage pregnancy. This study used linkable administrative databases housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy (MCHP). The original cohort consisted of 17,115 women born in Manitoba between April 1, 1979 and March 31, 1994, who stayed in the province until at least their 20(th) birthday, had at least one older sister, and had no missing values on key variables. Propensity score matching (1:2) was used to create balanced cohorts for two conditional logistic regression models; one examining the impact of an older sister's teenage pregnancy and the other analyzing the effect of the mother's teenage childbearing. The adjusted odds of becoming pregnant between ages 14 and 19 for teens with at least one older sister having a teenage pregnancy were 3.38 (99 % CI 2.77-4.13) times higher than for women whose older sister(s) did not have a teenage pregnancy. Teenage daughters of mothers who had their first child before age 20 had 1.57 (99 % CI 1.30-1.89) times higher odds of pregnancy than those whose mothers had their first child after age 19. Educational achievement was adjusted for in a sub-population examining the odds of pregnancy between ages 16 and 19. After this adjustment, the odds of teenage pregnancy for teens with at least one older sister who had a teenage pregnancy were reduced to 2.48 (99 % CI 2.01-3.06) and the odds of pregnancy for teen daughters of teenage mothers were reduced to 1.39 (99 % CI 1.15-1.68). Although both were significant, the relationship between an older sister's teenage pregnancy and a younger sister's teenage pregnancy is much stronger than that between a mother's teenage childbearing and a younger daughter's teenage pregnancy. This study contributes to understanding of the broader topic "who is

  19. Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 10 of 10 ... Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Journal Home > Archives: Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The). Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  20. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Journal Home > Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The): About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Journal Home > Archives: International Journal of Development and Policy Studies. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  2. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Journal Sponsorship. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Journal Home > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: About this journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  4. International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Journal Home > About the Journal > International Journal of Development and Policy Studies: Site Map. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Policy Diversity as an Engine of Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Daianu

    2004-06-01

    policy diversity to operate as a means to foster economic development; that there might be a paradigmatic cycle in the dynamic of economic policies

  6. Role of State Policy in Renewable Energy Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.; McLaren, J.

    2009-07-01

    State policies can support renewable energy development by driving markets, providing certainty in the investment market, and incorporating the external benefits of the technologies into cost/benefit calculations. Using statistical analyses and policy design best practices, this paper quantifies the impact of state-level policies on renewable energy development in order to better understand the role of policy on development and inform policy makers on the policy mechanisms that provide maximum benefit. The results include the identification of connections between state policies and renewable energy development, as well as a discussion placing state policy efforts in context with other factors that influence the development of renewable energy (e.g. federal policy, resource availability, technology cost, public acceptance).

  7. Developing and piloting a peer mentoring intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy in looked-after children and care leavers: an exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Gillian; Meyer, Deborah; Robinson, Fiona; Bonell, Chris; Campbell, Rona; Gillard, Steve; Jordan, Peter; Mantovani, Nadia; Wellings, Kaye; White, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Looked-after children (LAC) are at greater risk of teenage pregnancy than non-LAC, which is associated with adverse health and social consequences. Existing interventions have failed to reduce rates of teenage pregnancy in LAC. Peer mentoring is proposed as a means of addressing many of the factors associated with the increased risk of teenage pregnancy in this group. To develop a peer mentoring intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy in LAC. Phase I and II randomised controlled trial of a peer mentoring intervention for LAC; scoping exercise and literature search; national surveys of social care professionals and LAC; and focus groups and interviews with social care professionals, mentors and mentees. Three local authorities (LAs) in England. LAC aged 14-18 years (mentees/care as usual) and 19-25 years (mentors). Recruitment and training of mentors; randomisation and matching of mentors to mentees; and 1-year individual peer mentoring. pregnancy in LAC aged 14-18 years. sexual attitudes, behaviour and knowledge; psychological health; help-seeking behaviour; locus of control; and attachment style. A health economic evaluation was also carried out. In total, 54% of target recruitment was reached for the exploratory trial and 13 out of 20 mentors (65%) and 19 out of 30 LAC aged 14-18 years (63%) (recruited during Phases I and II) were retained in the research. The training programme was acceptable and could be manualised and replicated. Recruitment and retention difficulties were attributed to systemic problems and LA lack of research infrastructure and lack of additional funding to support and sustain such an intervention. Mentees appeared to value the intervention but had difficulty in meeting weekly as required. Only one in four of the relationships continued for the full year. A future Phase III trial would require the intervention to be modified to include provision of group and individual peer mentoring; internal management of the project, with support from an

  8. Global trends in teenage suicide: 2003-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoughlin, A B; Gould, M S; Malone, K M

    2015-10-01

    The object of this article is to review the past decade of research on teenage suicide, with a particular emphasis on epidemiologic trends by age, gender and indigenous ethnicity. As such, a review of research literature from 2003 to 2014 was conducted via a comprehensive search of relevant psychological and medical databases. Wide gaps in our knowledge base exist concerning the true extent of teenage suicide due to lack of data, particularly in developing countries, resulting in a Western bias. The gender paradox of elevated suicidality in females with higher completed suicide rates in males is observed in teenage populations worldwide, with the notable exceptions of China and India. Native and indigenous ethnic minority teens are at significantly increased risk of suicide in comparison to general population peers. Often those with the highest need for mental health care (such as the suicidal adolescent) have least access to therapeutic support.Globally, suicide in teenagers remains a major public health concern. Further focused research concerning completed suicides of youth below the age of 18 is required across countries and cultures to understand more about risk as children progress through adolescence. Gender and ethnic variations in suicidality are embedded within cultural, historical, psychological, relational and socio-economic domains. Worldwide, the absence of child/adolescent-specific mental health policies may delay the development of care and suicide prevention. Overall, it is vital that clinicians adopt a holistic approach that incorporates an awareness of age and gender influences, and that cultural competency informs tailored and evaluated intervention programmes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Child development in developing countries: child rights and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Pia Rebello; Ulkuer, Nurper

    2012-01-01

    The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was used to provide information on feeding practices, caregiving, discipline and violence, and the home environment for young children across 28 countries. The findings from the series of studies in this Special Section are the first of their kind because they provide information on the most proximal context for development of the youngest children in the majority world using one of the only data sets to study these contexts across countries. Using the framework of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, in particular the Rights to Survival, Development and Protection, findings are explained with implications for international and national-level social policies. Implications are also discussed, with respect to policy makers and the larger international community, who have the obligation to uphold these rights. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  10. [Teenage pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Cancino, María; Hernández-Valencia, Varcelino

    2015-05-01

    In Mexico, 20% of the annual births are presented in women younger than 20 years old. Pregnancy in adolescents puts at risk mother and child health. This risk is major while the woman is younger, especially when the social and economic conditions are not favorable, which is decisive in later psychosocial development. It has been pointed out that the youths with low education, with minor academic and laboral expectations, with low self-esteem and assertiveness, tend to begin early their active sexual life, to use less frequently contraceptives, and in the case of younger women, to be pregnant, with the risk of abortion because they cannot to make the best decision. It is important to take into account the social context and the special characteristics of the family to understand situation of adolescent at risk of pregnancy.

  11. Defining Moments in Policy Development, Direction, and Implementation in Irish Initial Teacher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of significant OECD documents on the development of Irish education policy, specifically teacher education policy, over the last half century. While other commentators have argued that Irish education has been predominantly influenced by policy developments in the UK, US or Europe, this paper identifies the OECD as a…

  12. Integration of population, environment and development policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechin, S R; Ness, G; Drake, W

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the conceptual and practical issues involved in bringing the fields of population and environment closer together, and how these issues impact upon development planning. Although the international community's interest in environment and demography -- 2 areas closely intertwined -- continues to grow, they remain separated, viewed as distinct and specialized disciplines. The paper first discusses the separation between the 2 fields, explaining that it is the result of 3 types of imbalances: conceptual, organizational, and power. The essay then proposes 5 factors that can be used to develop population-environmental linkages. These include: developing conceptual models that reveal the interrelationships; taking an integrated approach for collecting environmental, population, and development data; encouraging local officials to monitor and act upon their findings of population and environmental situations; and garnering the political support needed to establish a decentralized, multi-sectoral development approach. The paper goes on to consider a conceptual framework for understanding the interrelated transitions between population and environment. These include demographic, epidemiologic, agricultural, forestry, toxicity, urbanization, and fossil fuel transitions. The paper points out the similarities of these transition -- among them, the fact during these periods society is especially vulnerable. Having considered the policy implications of a transition theory, the paper concludes by proposing a multi-method, decentralized, and comprehensive approach to development planning.

  13. Russia: Development Aid Policies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Beletskaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available After more than twenty years of independence, Russia has recovered from economic and political shocks and demonstrates its commitment to gain new political and economic role in the global development aid architecture. International development assistance provided by Russia to other countries has increased from USD 100 million in 2004 to USD 610 million in 2013. The Concept of Russia's participation in the international development assistance, approved in 2007 and updated in 2014, outlines Russia’s priorities in the international aid sphere. Based on review of this concept, available official statistics and expert estimates, this paper provides qualitative and quantitative analysis of the dynamics and perspectives of Russia’s transformation from the international aid recipient into one of the donor countries. The results indicate that there is a large gap between Russia’s political ambitions and actual development aid policies; moreover, there is a shift towards a “soft power” concept in political decision making. At the same time, the potential of Russia’s embedding into the international development aid system remains high.

  14. Perceptions of rural teenagers on teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M S Richter

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available It is important to seek an understanding of teenagers’ perceptions regarding teenage pregnancy. Opsomming Die doel van hierdie studie was om die persepsies van tieners in die Bosbokrand-distrik in die Limpopo Provinsie, Suid-Afrika, te ondersoek en te beskryf. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  15. [VOCs tax policy on China's economy development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang-Xin; Wang, Yu-Fei; Wang, Hai-Lin; Hao, Zheng-Ping; Wang, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, environmental tax was designed to control volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used to explore the impacts of environmental tax (in forms of indirect tax) on the macro-economy development at both national and sector levels. Different levels of tax were simulated to find out the proper tax rate. It is found out that imposing environmental tax on high emission sectors can cause the emission decreased immediately and can lead to negative impacts on macro-economy indicators, such as GDP (gross domestic products), total investment, total product and the whole consumption etc. However, only the government income increased. In addition, the higher the tax rate is, the more pollutants can be reduced and the worse economic effects can be caused. Consequently, it is suggested that, the main controlling policies of VOCs abatement should be mandatory orders, and low environmental tax can be implemented as a supplementary.

  16. Behavioral Impact of Graduated Driver Licensing on Teenage Driving Risk and Exposure1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Ridgeway, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) is a critical policy tool for potentially improving teenage driving while reducing teen accident exposure. While previous studies demonstrated that GDL reduces teenage involvement in fatal crashes, much remains unanswered. We explore the mechanisms through which GDL influences accident rates as well as its long term effectiveness on teen driving. In particular, we investigate; 1) whether GDL policies improve teenage driving behavior, or simply reduce teenage prevalence on the roads; 2) whether GDL exposed teens become better drivers in later years. We employ a unique data source, the State Data System, which contains all police reported accidents (fatal and non-fatal) during 1990–2005 for twelve states. We estimate a structural model that separately identifies GDL s effect on relative teenage prevalence and relative teenage riskiness. Identification of the model is driven by the relative numbers of crashes between two teenagers, two adults, or a teenager and an adult. We find that the GDL policies reduce the number of 15–17 year-old accidents by limiting the amount of teenage driving rather than by improving teenage driving. This prevalence reduction primarily occurs at night and stricter GDL policies, especially those with nighttime driving restrictions, are the most effective. Finally, we find that teen driving quality does not improve ex-post GDL exposure. PMID:19942310

  17. Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing and implementing global gender policy to reduce HIV and AIDS in low- and middle -income countries: Policy makers' perspectives. ... Gender inequalities have been recognised as central to the HIV epidemic for many years. In response, a range of gender policies have been developed in attempts to mitigate ...

  18. Do Co-operative Development Policies Really Lead to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article assesses how Kenyan co-operative policies contribute to the development of co-operatives as viable business enterprises and autonomous democratic organisations. The article identifies three policy phases that have guided co-operative development over four decades. Policy engagement with cooperatives ...

  19. Methodological approaches to estimation of teenagers' health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shudro S.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of International classification of functioning, limitations of vital activity and health, model of estimation of teenagers' health considering these changes from positions of functioning of the organism and context factors was developed. According to this model five groups of health of school-children of secondary schools were distinguished. Teenagers with sufficient level of structure and function of organism, structure of personality and mental functions, activity and participation in general educational processes compose group I A. Teenagers with sufficient level of structure and function of organism, mental functions and disorders of structure of personality, activity and participation in social life compose group I B. Teena¬gers with sufficient level of structure of the organism and personality, activity and participation in social life, disorders of organism functions and psychic functions compose group II. III A group - teenagers with disorders of structure of the organism and personality, functions of the organism and sufficient mental functions, participation in the social life. III B group - teenagers with disorders of structure and functions of the organism, structure of personality and psychic functions, low level of activity and participation in social life. The model, advanced methods and the software made it possible to create information technology of estimation of teenagers' health; this raises quality of diagnostics by 20,3%.

  20. The Exercise of Power: Developing Reasonable School Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprang, Kenneth A.

    1987-01-01

    Offers a lesson in which students examine the issue of mandatory drug and alcohol testing in public schools. Students develop a policy for their own school after considering a hypothetical policy statement and attendant legal issues. (JDH)

  1. Entrepreneurship policies and the development of regional innovation systems: theory, policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lawton-Smith, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The paper provides an appraisal and synthesis of the regional innovation systems approach in relation to entrepreneurship policies. It addresses a number of areas where theoretical, empirical and policy-based issues are currently under-developed in relation to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship policy.

  2. Teenage pregnancy: cause for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, L J; Horwood, L J; Fergusson, D M

    2001-07-13

    To describe the lifetime prevalence of teenage pregnancy and parenthood, in addition to the psychosocial backgrounds and current circumstances of young parents in a sample of 533 young women studied from bith to 21 years. The data were gathered as part of the Christchurch Health and Development Study. This study consists of a cohort of 1265 young people born in the Christchurch urban area during mid 1977 and who have been regularly assessed up to the age of 21 years. Information was collected on all pregnancies and births from ages 14-21 years. By age 21 years, 26% of the sample had been pregnant and 14% had become parents. Most pregnancies occurred between ages 17-21 years. Young women who became pregnant were characterised by higher rates of educational under-achievement, conduct problems, sexual risk taking, family adversity, and were more likely to identify themselves as Maori. Amongst those who became pregnant, there was a tendency for young women with a personal history of family adversity to proceed with their pregnancy and become young mothers. By age 21 years, at least a quarter of all young women studied had been pregnant at least once. The wide range of personal and social factors associated with teenage pregnancy and parenthood suggests that teenage pregnancy does not solely reflect the effects of problematic adolescent sexual practices. Implications for teen pregnancy prevention and the health and development of children born to younger mothers are discussed.

  3. Teenage parents and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J

    1996-06-18

    Teenage parents are cast into adult roles before the role experimentation and identity development tasks of middle adolescence can be completed. Understanding the etiology of this social problem requires an ecological perspective encompassing individual characteristics, person-context variables, and societal factors such as race and social class. Risk factors identified in the literature on adolescent pregnancy in the US include: absence of a future orientation or aspirations, lack of assertiveness and interpersonal skills to control physical intimacy, low socioeconomic status and minority group membership, growing up in a single-parent family, a history of sexual abuse, five or more siblings, a sister or friend who became a teenage mother, lax parental supervision of dating and free time, low self-esteem, and dropping out or failing in school. The limited data on adolescent fathers suggest they have histories of substance use, delinquency, failure to graduate from high school, financial difficulty, and exposure to family violence. The offspring of adolescent parents show a higher incidence of developmental delays and mild mental retardation than children of adults and are at increased risk of child abuse and neglect. Teen parents raised in dysfunctional families tend to perpetuate destructive methods of child rearing and have unrealistic, age-inappropriate expectations for infants and toddlers. Teenage parents' lack of competence can be mitigated, however, by positive living arrangements, a supportive family of origin, peer support groups, quality child care, school-based services, and accurate information about parenting and child development.

  4. Teenagers and sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000872.htm Teenagers and sleep To use the sharing features on this page, ... need. What Makes it Hard for Teens to Sleep? Several factors make it hard for teens to ...

  5. No sustainable development without an energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhras, G.

    2000-01-01

    The energy crisis of 1973, and again during the 1980s, prompted industrialized countries to adopt measures to reduce energy usage and to encourage conservation practices. Energy consumption in the transportation field was particularly high. However, after a while, some of the measures were either dropped or not enforced and our energy utilization continued to intensify. It soon became apparent that a different approach was required. At the Rio Conference in 1992, the idea of sustainable development was introduced with the objective to reduce global warming. The utilization of fossil fuels amplifies the emissions of greenhouse gases resulting in global warming which threatens the entire environment and also the health of citizens, particularly those living in cities. In 1997, 160 countries signed the Kyoto Protocol. Canada committed to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases by 6 per cent compared to 1990 levels, and this between 2008 and 2012. It is obvious that drastic steps are needed in order for Canada to meet this commitment. After an extensive analysis of the situation by various committees, it was concluded that activities related to the transportation of people in particular contribute greatly to the emission of greenhouse gases. The results also indicate that solutions need to be found to reduce energy consumption. The author recommended the adoption of intelligent structures and materials which imitate biological systems in a predictable manner to optimize certain functions. He also recommended a better integration of energy policy with the basic principles of sustainable development. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  6. Teenage pregnancy: who suffers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjothy, S; Broughton, H; Adappa, R; Fone, D

    2009-03-01

    In this review, we examine the epidemiology of teenage pregnancy (girls aged 15-17 years) in the UK and consider the evidence for its impact on the health and well-being of the mother, the baby, the father and society. There has been some decrease in the teenage pregnancy rate over the last decade in the UK but rates are still considerably higher than those in other European countries. Pregnancy and childbirth during the teenage years are associated with increased risk of poorer health and well-being for both the mother and the baby, possibly reflecting the socio-economic factors that precede early pregnancy and childbirth. There is little evidence concerning the impact of teenage fatherhood on health and future studies should investigate this. The effect on society is a perpetuation of the widening gap in health and social inequalities. Public health interventions should aim to identify teenagers who are vulnerable and support those who are pregnant with evidence based interventions such as teenage antenatal clinics and access to initiatives that provide support for early parenthood.

  7. Social Policy and Economic Development in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kangas, Olli; Palme, Joakim

    This volume examines the relationship between Nordic social policy and economic development from a comparative perspective. It identifies the driving forces behind the development of the Nordic welfare model and the problems and dilemmas the model is facing at present. The book also traces the link...... between democratization and social policy, drawing attention to the role of the state and non-governmental organizations. Social Policy and Economic Development in Nordic Countries examines Nordic social policies on unemployment, social care, family, education and health care policies, and reviews future...

  8. Impact of Teenage Motherhood on the Academic Performance in Public Primary Schools in Bungoma County, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmao-Kiptanui, Catherine; Kindiki, Jonah Nyaga; Lelan, Joseph K.

    2015-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a concern in both developed and developing countries and is a complex reality of contemporary society however the re-entry of teenage mothers into the school system continues to demand attention as society's negative attitude towards pregnant girls and teenage mothers persists. Those who do return to school…

  9. TTI Phase 2 Institutional Support: Social Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This funding will enhance the Social Policy and Development Centre's (SPDC) role as a credible public policy institution in Pakistan by strengthening its ability to provide high-quality, influential, and policy-relevant research ... -strengthen its presence and visibility at the national level, particularly in the capital city, Islamabad

  10. Analysis of the agricultural policies in the development of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review work identifies the two main agricultural policies in Nigeria between 1988 and 2000, and 2001 to date, the broad policy objectives and the main features of the agricultural policies. The paper examines the primary role of the agricultural sector in the growth and development of the Nigerian economy. The main ...

  11. Stakeholder engagement for improved school policy: development and implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The health and education departments of government share a responsibility for promoting the health of children through policies in the school setting. These policies can be enhanced through the involvement of such stakeholders as school personnel, students, parents or caregivers, health professionals, the non-profit sector and industry. Although there is little evidence-based literature on the roles of stakeholders in school policy development and implementation, stakeholder involvement appears to be critical throughout the policy process. This article discusses stakeholder involvement in the development and implementation of school policies that promote and support healthy eating and physical activity. Canadian examples illustrate stakeholder engagement in this context.

  12. Economic development and population policy in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M R

    1984-09-01

    This paper deals with Bangladesh's growth rate and the policy implications for its economy. Despite its obvious influence on the economy, population has never been integrated as an endogenous variable in any planning model. Development planning is mostly supported by donor agencies, involving little micro-level planning and practically no trickle-down effect. This paper examines the interaction of population and other development variables in the country's planning process. Much of the rural population consists of landless farmers share croppers, so that the land ownership pattern contributes to low productivity. Population increase is making the rural masses even poorer. This process is further compounded by increasing foreign aid dependence, adverse terms of trade in the international market, low savings and investments, and the rural sector's worsening terms of trade. During 1950-1970 real per capita gross domestic product (GDP) increased only at a rate of 1% per annum and during 1950-1970 real growth of GDP fell behind the population growth rate. A cost benefit analysis of fertility reduction is needed. The cost benefit ratio of most countries varies between 1:10 to 1:30; for Bangladesh it is 1:16. Macro-model studies indicate that the higher the fertility reduction and shorter the period of required decline, the higher will be the benefits in terms of gains in per capita income. There is, however, a contradiction between national and household interests. The latter's decision to have more children has a negative spillover effect, which nullifies the gains of the community. The national family planning program suffered a serious setback during and after the liberation of Bangladesh, mainly due to lack of administrative leadership and support. In order for the population growth rate to be checked and to increase the quality of life for the entire population, the family planning program must be revitalized by mobilizing the entire government machinery and

  13. Governing the GM crop revolution: policy choices for developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Paarlberg, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...

  14. Graduate course development : transportation policy and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Transportation, public policy, and politics are inextricably linked and have been, in the United States, from : at least 1956, with the birth of the federal highway system and the Interstate Highway Act, if not earlier. : Much of the transportation s...

  15. Higher Education Solar Development: Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a workshop session at the Smart and Sustainable Campuses Conference explores the policy issues and opportunities that influence a higher education institution’s approach to solar deployment.

  16. Coordinating Policies for Human Resources Development

    OpenAIRE

    G.A. Meagher

    1996-01-01

    In its recent White Paper on Employment and Growth, the Australian Government announced a comprehensive new agenda to supplement its existing employment policies. It includes the following major elements * reforms to labour market assistance; * training and education reforms; * a reconstructed social security system; * a regional strategy; * workplace agreements; and * microeconomic reforms. An important consideration in the implementation of such a multi-faceted policy program is that its va...

  17. Effect of teenage parenthood on mental health trajectories: does sex matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biello, Katie Brooks; Sipsma, Heather L; Kershaw, Trace

    2010-08-01

    Rates of teenage pregnancy and parenthood in the United States remain high. Although many consequences of teenage parenthood have been well studied, little prospective research has examined its effect on mental health. This study aims to better understand the impact of teenage parenthood on mental health and to determine whether sex modifies this relation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, 1997 (1997-2006), and a matched cohort design, the authors compared changes in the mental health of parenting teenagers and nonparenting teenagers over 6 years of follow-up with mixed-effects regression. The results indicate that mental health improved for all teenagers over 6 years of follow-up. Furthermore, overall, teenage parenthood was not associated with changes in mental health; however, sex modified this relation. Although the mental health of teenage fathers improved at a faster rate compared with nonparenting teenage males, teenage mothers improved at a slower rate compared with nonparenting teenage females. Psychological health has important implications for both the teenage parent and the child. Future studies should aim to better understand the mechanisms through which teenage parenthood impacts mental health among both males and females, and interventions should be developed to ensure mental health among young parents.

  18. Worldwide Report, Telecommunications Policy, Research and Development, No. 236

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1982-01-01

    This report contains information concerning the telecommunications policy, research and development of the following countries: (1) Australia, (2) Argentina, (3) Madagascar, (4) South Africa, (5) Zaire, (6...

  19. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavriilidis, Georgios; Östergren, Per-Olof

    2012-01-01

    Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA) drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM) into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO) long-standing directives. The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. A 12-point 'Policy Empowerment Index' (PEI) is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally 'supportive' of constituent empowerment, although several 'directive' features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation. Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  20. Population policies for 21st century. Population and sustainable development high on agenda at Bali conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    At the August 1992 Population Conference for Asia and the Pacific held in Bali, a state minister from Indonesia remarked that changes in population growth must occur along with changes in quality of life and that more effective family planning (FP), family health, and welfare programs were needed. FP programs must be internally financed by each country. Conference goals were to assist governments in understanding the value of having multidisciplinary policies and programs, the need for research and evaluation in program implementation, and the role of population data for planning and policy. Senior officials from 36 countries and representatives from international bodies attended the week-long meetings. There was representation from outside the regional (Syria, Sweden, the Holy See, and the World Bank). A series of goals for the 21st century were agreed upon by participants in the Bali Declaration on Population and Sustainable Development. The message that there were no "quick fixes" was communicated and that women need to be involved in development beyond their role as wives as mothers. Dr. Sadik spoke about the importance of reducing maternal mortality and improving reproductive health. In Southeast Asia alone maternal deaths number about 250,000/year. The solution is family planning particularly for women older than 35 years and teenagers and social welfare programs for improving health care, fertility regulation, nutrition, and income. Dr. Sadik also focused on placing the elimination of poverty, improving women's conditions, and enabling reproductive choice as top priorities on country agendas. The issue of a large aging population in Southeast Asia necessitates future planning. The Japanese delegation pledged continued bilateral and multilateral cooperation in population control, with the hope that Japan may be useful as an example to other countries. There was participant commitment to the creation of policies on population and sustainable development.

  1. Population Policy and National Development in the 21st Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the concern by multi-lateral organizations such as the World Bank and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) about the problems of high population growth and food supply especially in the developing countries, population policy has become an integral part of their overall development policies as ...

  2. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  3. Teenage pregnancy and social disadvantage: systematic review integrating controlled trials and qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Angela; Brunton, Ginny; Fletcher, Adam; Oakley, Ann

    2009-11-12

    reliable evidence base supports the effectiveness and appropriateness of early childhood interventions and youth development programmes for reducing unintended teenage pregnancy. Combining the findings from both controlled trials and qualitative studies provides a strong evidence base for informing effective public policy.

  4. Turning Policy into Practice: Examining the Relationship between Policy, Research, and Program Development in Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolucci, Catherine; Jennings, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between policy, research, and program development in mathematics teacher education. In particular, it considers the influences of policy and research along with social, economic, and cultural factors in the conceptualization and development of an undergraduate mathematics teacher education program in…

  5. National policy on physical activity: the development of a policy audit tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Fiona C; Milton, Karen; Kahlmeier, Sonja

    2014-02-01

    Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for noncommunicable disease worldwide. Increasing physical activity requires large scale actions and relevant, supportive national policy across multiple sectors. The policy audit tool (PAT) was developed to provide a standardized instrument to assess national policy approaches to physical activity. A draft tool, based on earlier work, was developed and pilot-tested in 7 countries. After several rounds of revisions, the final PAT comprises 27 items and collects information on 1) government structure, 2) development and content of identified key policies across multiple sectors, 3) the experience of policy implementation at both the national and local level, and 4) a summary of the PAT completion process. PAT provides a standardized instrument for assessing progress of national policy on physical activity. Engaging a diverse international group of countries in the development helped ensure PAT has applicability across a wide range of countries and contexts. Experiences from the development of the PAT suggests that undertaking an audit of health enhancing physical activity (HEPA) policy can stimulate greater awareness of current policy opportunities and gaps, promote critical debate across sectors, and provide a catalyst for collaboration on policy level actions. The final tool is available online.

  6. Reducing Hispanic Teenage Pregnancy and Family Poverty: A Replication Guide. Final Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Sonia M.; Duany, Luis A.

    This guide was designed to help Hispanic American community-based organizations develop and establish a teenage pregnancy prevention or teenage parenting program for Hispanic American adolescents. The guide does not assume prior knowledge of the scope of the teenage pregnancy problem in the United States, but it does underscore the critical role…

  7. A Phenomenological Study of Family Needs Following the Suicide of a Teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miers, David; Abbott, Douglas; Springer, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this phenomenological study was to develop an understanding of family needs following the suicide of a teenager. Six parent units living in the Midwest who lost a teenager to suicide were interviewed. Participants indicated several key themes that describe a parent's needs following the suicide of a teenager. These needs were…

  8. Jayapura Teenagers Smoking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herawati, Lucky; Budiman, Johan Arief; Haryono, W; Mulyani, Wiwiek

    2017-02-01

    Smoking behavior is a threat for Indonesian teenagers, including in the city of Jayapura, Papua province. The purpose of this study was to access Jayapura teenagers smoking behavior and knowledge including parents and other family members. The study was conducted on 78 respondents (grade 7, aged 11-14 years old), using cluster random sampling for selecting the public and private junior high school in Jayapura. The data collected was smoking behavior of respondents, parents and other family members (using self-reported questionnaire), and respondents' knowledge about the dangers of smoking (using tests with Cronbach's alpha 0.701). Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically using Chi-square, 95 % level of significant. The results showed 29.3 % of teenagers, 69.23 % of parents and 25.6 % of other family members were smokers, their knowledge was low (an average score of 60.81 out of 100), there was no significant statistical relationship between knowledge and smoking behavior among respondents (p = 0.079), and there is no significant relationship between teenagers behavior with the behavior of the parents (p = 0.609) and other family members (p = 0.578), 87 % of teenagers became smokers because there were individuals who smoke at home.

  9. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Shona; Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-11-16

    Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14-17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as 'fun' and having 'great flavourings'. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube 'vaping tricks', prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Building sustainable policy framework for transport development: A review of national transport policy initiatives in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila A.F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with building a sustainable policy framework for transport development in Nigeria. Its objective is to review the country’s transport policy initiatives in order to understand the extent to which it addresses Nigeria’s mobility and transportation problems. From published materials and official government documents and files, the study identifies four national policy initiatives which are reviewed and analysed with regard to their context, contents, and consequences. The study reveals that while the policy initiatives could be said to be adequate and comprehensive in terms of their context and contents, the major challenge is implementation of recommended solutions. The study therefore provides a general checklist to guide policy direction, while advocating for policy-based researches and empirical studies in order to provide the data base for formulation of a sustainable national transport policy for Nigeria.

  11. Teenage pregnancy in the United Kingdom: A behavioral ecological perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Dickins, Thomas E.; Johns, Sarah E.; Chipman, Abby

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe teenage pregnancy and motherhood in the United Kingdom. This has been regarded as a key social policy issue for some time and is the focus of policy intervention under the current administration. We argue that policy has been based on simple models of teenage pregnancy that have failed to take into account the complex biological nature of reproductive behavior. Our claim is that the U.K. government would be well advised to take a life-history approach to this issue, ...

  12. Teenage pregnancy and sex education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Cathy

    2002-01-01

    The head of the Government's Teenage Pregnancy Unit at the Department of Health discusses the incidence and causes of the UK's high teenage pregnancy rates and the risk factors. She outlines current Government strategy and progress towards reducing the rate of teenage conceptions. These include initiatives to improve sex and relationship education in schools.

  13. Canadian energy policy and the struggle for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doern, G.B.

    2005-01-01

    This book examined selected energy policy issues and challenges confronting Canadians over the last two decades. The aim of the book was to provide an analysis of how energy policy has evolved. The book presents an overview of energy policy and its relationship to sustainable development. Politico-economic contexts were reviewed, including the changing nature of national and continental energy markets, energy policy and sustainable development. The difficulties in evaluating the environment in energy policy were discussed. Issues concerning electricity restructuring in Canada were reviewed, with reference to Canada-US electricity trade and the climate change agenda. Alberta's oil and gas industry and the Kyoto Protocol were also examined, with reference to voluntary measures to address climate change. Issues concerning stewardship, indigenous peoples and petroleum-based economic development in the north were reviewed, as well as northern gas pipeline policy and sustainable development. Conclusions and recommendations were made concerning the following 6 analytical and practical energy policy and governance challenges facing the current government: Kyoto Protocol implementation challenges; energy security; northern pipelines and concerns with Aboriginal peoples and sustainable northern development; electricity restructuring and the limits of regulatory-market design; energy science and technology and innovation policy links; and prospects for turning the struggle for sustainable development in the energy policy field into something closer to an actual achievement. 37 refs

  14. The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Phuong loan

    2017-01-01

    Green economy is emerging as a new development trend in the World because the global economy is facing environmental and ecosystem risks. For developing economies, green economy is seen as an opportunity and an optimal choice to change the conventional economic growth model towards sustainable development. Therefore, the research topic "The policy of green economy in developing countries and policy implications for Vietnam" is chosen for this study. This study aims to clarify the concept of g...

  15. FAMILY SOCIAL SUPPORT REDUCES POST JUDEGEMENTAL STRESS IN TEENAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nursalam Nursalam

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Justicial proceeding is able to make any stress or anxiety for everyone that through on it, especially if the process happens on teenagers. The stressor which can make stress in justicial proceeding are the justicial proceeding that doesn’t go along with UU RI No. 3 tahun 1997, i. e. children justicial process, fearness of parents and friend lost, worried about his future, and new neighborhood that is not appropriate with the child’s psychology development. The presence of family is very important to give a social support to the arrested teenagers.The objective of this study was to know the correlation between family social support and post judegement stress in teenagers and  the factors of stress in teenagers. Method: This study use Cross Sectional design. Population had taken from teenagers from 13 until 17 years old. Sample was comprised in to 12 individuals who fit with the inclusion criteria. The independent variable in this study was family social support and factors of stress in teenagers, and the dependent variable was post judgement stress in teenagers. Data was collected by  measurement using Mood and Feeling Questionnaire (MFQ for stress, questionnaire of family social support, and interviewed. They were analyzed by Spearman’s test with significance level  α<0.05 and content analysis for interview result. Result: The result showed that there is a correlation between family social support and post judgement stress in teenagers with significance level p=0.013. Analysis: It means, Content analysis’ results showed that the factors which related with stress in teenagers are environment, caring type, interfamily member’s relationship, bad event, and characteristic of children. Discussion: Higher family social support makes  teenagers have higher self esteem and more optimistic view, so the teenagers will able to face their problem.

  16. The slow development of international climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kram, T.; Van Rooijen, S.

    1998-01-01

    In spite of the vague results of the fourth Conference of Parties (CoP-4) in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the authors consider the climate summit as a step forward. Some of the issues of the CoP-4 results, as formulated in the Plan of Action are discussed. Also the consequences for the climate policy in the Netherlands are outlined. 5 refs

  17. Innovation system approach to agricultural development: Policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Several other relevant macro economic and meso level factors such as policy and legislative framework and nature of human capital, physical infrastructure, finance and investment climate and system for facilitating information and knowledge flows were not considered as important. The emerging reforms and changes in

  18. Developing a policy for paediatric biobanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hens, Kristien; Van El, Carla E; Borry, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    practice for policy makers of biobanks, researchers and anyone involved in dealing with stored tissue samples from children. Actual implementation of the principles will vary according to different jurisdictions.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 20 June 2012; doi:10.1038/ejhg...

  19. Avian Influenza Policy Analysis | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Governments in Southeast Asia have adopted a range of policies aimed at controlling the disease in animals, preventing its spread to humans and strengthening national preparedness for an avian influenza pandemic. The Asia Partnership for Avian Influenza Research (APAIR) brings together national research agencies ...

  20. Shifting Cultivation : Promoting Innovative Policy and Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Researchers will take a pragmatic approach to dealing with the livelihood issues of the cultivators and the health of the ecosystem, and assess the effects of increasing population pressure and market forces. The idea is to share good policies and practices related to shifting cultivation and alternative options through ...

  1. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Palestinian Authority aims to turn the economy away from its dependence on the public sector toward a diversified free market economy. Small businesses, which make up more that 90% of the total enterprises in Palestine, are crucial to this endeavor. This grant will allow the Palestine Economic Policy Research ...

  2. Transnational Education: Current Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Jianxin

    2009-01-01

    Ever since the transnational education trend took off since the 1980s, transnational education has come to bearing political, economic and cultural implications. Different approaches have been formulated to achieve specific policy objectives by both importing and exporting countries. Such approaches demonstrate a four dimensional composition,…

  3. Poverty Reduction through Private Sector Development : Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By promoting comparative assessment of policy options, MAS hopes to demonstrate the benefits of evidence-based policymaking, which is needed for the economy to prosper. ... stratégiques. Les entreprises peuvent comprendre les tendances commerciales et les défis futurs dans la communauté économique de l'ASEAN.

  4. T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aligning the National S&T Policy with the National Sustainable Development Strategy in Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka does not have an official science and technology (S&T) policy. Investments in S&T have so far occurred on an ad-hoc basis. Nevertheless, government and research and development (R&D) institutions have ...

  5. Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa: An X ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of education ...

  6. 247 Educational Policy and Technological Development in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Abstract. Technological development is a basic artery through which nations strive to attain true independence. However, the level of technological development is dependent on the system, policy and philosophy of education that is dominant or prevalent in such a country. Any nation that lacks a sound system or policy of ...

  7. Vanuatu Education Policy Post-2015: "Alternative", Decolonising Processes for "Development"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on ongoing research in Vanuatu and the wider Pacific. It maps multilevel roles that education and development policy actors, and civil societies in particular, have increasingly been playing in official education and development policy activities. Most recently this has been in relation to the "post-2015" agendas…

  8. Imperatives and Guidelines for Bamboo Development Policy in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's industrial policy has always hinged on the development and utilization of its locally available raw materials. The current industrial policy which came into operation in 1988 aimed at increasing private sector participation in the manufacturing sector and accelerated development and utilization of local raw materials ...

  9. The unplanned teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Ross

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available Surveys conducted in the Durban area of Natal showed that 18 per cent of all pregnancies occurred amongst teenagers with the incidence amongst the various population groups varying bëtween Whites 14 per cent, Indians 17 per cent, Coloureds and Blacks 20 per cent. This compares with a world-wide teenage pregnancy rate of 10-15 per cent. Amongst primigravid pregnancies 33 per cent Indians and 53 per cent of Africans were found to be 18 years of age or less.

  10. The teenager with palpitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedaghat-Yazdi, Farshad; Koenig, Peter R

    2014-02-01

    Palpitations can result from cardiac awareness (increased conscious perception of the heart beating) or from a fast or irregular cardiac rhythm. Most causes for palpitations in the teenager can be diagnosed with minimal testing. Patients with an abnormal ECG, non-sinus tachycardia, abnormal cardiac examination, concerning family history, or palpitations associated with activity or syncope should be referred to a pediatric cardiologist. This article discusses the evaluation, testing, and management of teenagers with palpitations. It also provides a general guideline for referral for subspecialty evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Peyronie's disease in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Raanan; Hall, Matthew S; Alex, Byron; Choi, Judy; Mulhall, John P

    2012-01-01

    Peyronie's disease (PD) is commonly seen in middle-aged men, and little is known about this condition in teenagers. To investigate the characteristics of PD in teenagers. The findings were compared between patients with the disease who were teenagers with those over 40 years of age. Statistical analyses were conducted to define differentiating features between these two groups. The demographics, clinical features, and associated comorbidities of patients with PD were reviewed. Thirty-two teenaged males were evaluated for PD in a single institution over a 10-year period. The median age for our cohort was 18 (15-19) years. Forty-five percent of patients had already been seen by another urologist, and 28% had been told they did not have PD. The mean duration of PD before seeking medical care in our cohort was 3 ± 1 months. Sixteen percent of patients reported antecedent penile trauma, half of which happened during coitus or masturbation, and 18% of patients had hemoglobin (Hb) A1c levels > 5%. Dupuytren's contracture was not seen in this population. Twenty-two percent of patients presented with penile pain. Subsequent ED was seen in 37% of patients. Multiple noncontiguous plaques were seen in 37% of patients. Twelve percent were previously treated with vitamin E, while another 12% had previous intralesional verapamil. High distress was reported by 94% of patients. Thirty-four percent sought medical attention for anxiety/mood disorder, and 28% had a negative encounter with a sexual partner related to PD. All of the 32 patients had penile curvature with a mean of 32 ± 12 degrees. Seventy-two percent of the patients had dorsal curvature while 22% had an associated deformity. Using duplex Doppler ultrasound, 12% had a calcified plaque, while none of the patients had abnormal hemodynamics. When compared with PD in adults, teenagers had greater than seven times the prevalence of multiple noncontiguous plaques (37% vs. 5%). Also, the prevalence of HbA1c level > 5% was

  12. Life Brought at a Tender Age: The Lived Experiences of Filipino Teenage Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTOPHER R. PARUNGAO

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Unintended teenage pregnancy is an ever-present issue in developing countries such as the Philippines. The impact of teenage pregnancy affects the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual well being of the adolescents. Teen pregnancies carry extra health risks to both the mother and the baby. Nurses play a crucial role in supporting young people as trusted practitioners in a range of settings. This study aimed to explore the lived experiences of the teenage pregnant women. Six adolescent female aged 12-19 years old who were pregnant with their first child agreed to participate. A qualitative inquiry, specifically Husserlian descriptive phenomenology was employed. Semi-structured in depth face-to-face interviews were undertaken, audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method. The richness of the experiences shared by the selections provided the necessary information to understand and describe the essence of the phenomenon understudy. Cool and warm analyses captured the following emergent themes of Trends toward issues, Fortified faith, and Optimistic outlook. For the selections in this study, being pregnant at a young age did not mean that their life and future were all over. The women were optimistic about their futures. The findings of the study have vital implications in offering specific programs and services and in developing educational materials that focus on preventing teen pregnancy. While health nurse practitioners primarily provide services and education to teens and parents in various health care facilities, they also can be significant participants in prevention activities and coalitions that are based in a community. The outcomes of the study have possible contributions to the nursing practice, to policies that facilitate the promotion of the health of the teenage mothers and the prevention of teenage pregnancies, and in building future researches especially in the education of the teens about the consequences of

  13. Alcohol policy in South Africa: a review of policy development processes between 1994 and 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D H

    2010-08-01

    Implementation of effective policies to reduce harmful alcohol consumption requires both a good understanding of the policy development process and which strategies are likely to work. To contribute to this understanding by reviewing four specific policy development initiatives that have taken place in South Africa between 1994 and 2009: restrictions on alcohol advertising and counter-advertising, regulation of retail sales of alcohol, alcohol taxation and controls on alcohol packaging. Material was drawn from a record of meetings and conferences held between 1994 and 2009 and a database of reports, newspaper clippings and policy documentation. When the policy process resulted in a concrete outcome there was always a clear recognition of the problem and policy alternatives, but success was more likely if there was an alignment of 'political' forces and/or when there was a determined bureaucracy. The impact of the other factors such as the media, community mobilization, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the liquor industry and research are also discussed. Future avenues for policy research are identified, including the need for more systematic studies that give greater consideration to economic factors. Alcohol policy development in South Africa takes place in a piecemeal fashion and is the product of various competing influences. Having a comprehensive national alcohol strategy cutting across different sectors may be a better way for other developing countries to proceed.

  14. Innovation policy & labour productivity growth: Education, research & development, government effectiveness and business policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Raee, Mueid; Ritzen, Jo; Crombrugghe, Denis de

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between labour productivity growth in non-traditional sectors and "innovation policy" for a cross-section of countries. Innovation policy is characterised by investments in tertiary education and research and development as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product

  15. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herlert, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  16. NUSTAR – The teenage years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlert, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.herlert@fair-center.eu [FAIR GmbH (Germany)

    2017-11-15

    The “NUclear STructure, Astrophysics and Reactions” (NUSTAR) Collaboration was formed at the end of 2003. More than ten years later, a good fraction of the envisaged experimental equipment has been successfully developed and constructed. While the NUSTAR community is looking forward to the start of the civil construction for the new FAIR facility, existing NUSTAR equipment is tested and operated at radioactive ion beam facilities worldwide. The status of the project is briefly described at the stage when it enters the teenage years.

  17. Remote Sensing and Mass Migration Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    immigrants or asylum - seekers , perceived as ignoring legal entry policies, undermining national identify, or taking jobs from local workers. remain poor...being comprised of asylum seekers , returned refugees, internally displaced persons (IDP), returned IDPs, stateless persons, and various other...safe zones”10 and the “right to remain”11 could serve as means of preventing refugees from entering asylum states.12 A shift of industrial production to

  18. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos.

  19. A Path Analysis of Latino Parental, Teenager and Cultural Variables in Teenagers' Sexual Attitudes, Norms, Self-Efficacy, and Sexual Intentions1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaioso, Vanessa Pirani; Villarruel, Antonia Maria; Wilson, Lynda Anne; Azuero, Andres; Childs, Gwendolyn Denice; Davies, Susan Lane

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to test a theoretical model based on the Parent-Based Expansion of the Theory of Planned Behavior examining relation between selected parental, teenager and cultural variables and Latino teenagers' intentions to engage in sexual behavior. METHOD: a cross-sectional correlational design based on a secondary data analysis of 130 Latino parent and teenager dyads. RESULTS: regression and path analysis procedures were used to test seven hypotheses and the results demonstrated partial support for the model. Parent familism and knowledge about sex were significantly associated with parents' attitudes toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Parent Latino acculturation was negatively associated with parents' self-efficacy toward sexual communication with their teenagers and positevely associated with parents' subjective norms toward sexual communication with their teenagers. Teenager knowledge about sex was significantly associated with higher levels of teenagers' attitudes and subjective norms about sexual communication with parents. Only the predictor of teenagers' attitudes toward having sex in the next 3 months was significantly associated with teenagers' intentions to have sex in the next 3 months. CONCLUSION: the results of this study provide important information to guide future research that can inform development of interventions to prevent risky teenager sexual behavior among Latinos. PMID:26312635

  20. Energy Efficiency Policy Developments: September 2011-September 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to highlight energy efficiency policy action and planning in IEA member and key non-member countries over the period from September 2011 to September 2012. The report provides an overview of energy efficiency policy developments across the seven sectors covered by the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations (25 EEPR) – Cross-sectoral activities, Buildings, Appliances and Equipment, Lighting, Transport, Industry and Energy Providers.

  1. Teenage Cohabitation, Marriage, and Childbearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Cohen, Jessica A

    2015-04-01

    Cohabitation is an integral part of family research; however, little work examines cohabitation among teenagers or links between cohabitation and teenage childbearing. Drawing on the National Survey of Family Growth (2006-10), we examine family formation activities (i.e., cohabitation, marriage, and childbearing) of 3,945 15-19 year old women from the mid 1990s through 2010. One-third (34%) of teenagers cohabit, marry, or have a child. Teenage cohabitation and marriage are both positively associated with higher odds of having a child. The vast majority of single pregnant teenagers do not form a union before the birth of their child; only 22% cohabit and 5% marry. Yet most single pregnant teenagers eventually cohabit, 59% did so by the child's third birthday and about 9% marry. Cohabitation is an important part of the landscape of the adolescent years, and many teenage mothers described as "single mothers" are actually in cohabiting relationships.

  2. Factors contributing to, and effects of, teenage pregnancy in Juba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwido Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the factors contributing to, and effecting, pregnancy among teenagers in Juba. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Juba Teaching Hospital among 50 randomly sampled pregnant teenagers in 2015. Results: The factors contributing to teenage pregnancy included: lack of school fees, lack of parental care, communication and supervision, poverty, peer pressure, non-use of contraceptives, desire for a child, forced marriage, low educational level and need for dowries. The effects of pregnancy on the teenagers included: school drop-out, health risk during and after childbirth, divorce, rejection by parents, stigmatism, and, sometimes if the baby is unwanted, abortion. Conclusions and recommendations: The factors driving teenage pregnancy are complex and varied and therefore require multifaceted interventions. We recommend improvements related to education, family planning, school-based health centres, youth-friendly clinics and youth development programmes.

  3. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  4. Impact of EU agricultural policy on developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Ole; Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Matthews, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Despite substantial reforms, the EU’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is still criticised for its detrimental effects on developing countries. This paper provides updated evidence on the impact of the CAP on one developing country, Uganda. It goes beyond estimating macro-level economic effects...... by analysing the impacts on poverty. The policy simulation results show that eliminating EU agricultural support would have marginal but nonetheless positive impacts on the Ugandan economy and its poverty indicators. From the perspective of the EU’s commitment to policy coherence for development, this supports...... the view that further reducing EU Agricultural support would be positive for development....

  5. TEENAGERS (10 - 20 YEARS)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chantel

    along, and enormous emotional distress can result from inadequate treatment. A tendency to anxiety or depressive disorder can be unmasked by a severe skin condition, and conversely skin lesions can be self-inflicted as a cry for help, or as a result of a severe psychosis. Teenagers are generally modest and self-con-.

  6. Global health: governance and policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Patrick W

    2011-06-01

    Global health policy is now being influenced by an ever-increasing number of nonstate and non-intergovernmental actors to include influential foundations, multinational corporations, multi-sectoral partnerships, and civil society organizations. This article reviews how globalization is a key driver for the ongoing evolution of global health governance. It describes the massive increases in bilateral and multilateral investments in global health and it highlights the current global and US architecture for performing global health programs. The article closes describing some of the challenges and prospects that characterize global health governance today. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluating a traditional medicine policy in South Africa: phase 1 development of a policy assessment tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Gavriilidis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Policies that empower individuals and communities may be appropriate for public health, and more broadly. Simple, transparent and acceptable tools are therefore required to evaluate policies from an empowerment perspective. In 2008, the South African Department of Health (DOHSA drafted a policy to endorse the integration of African Traditional Medicine (ATM into the public health sector, following the World Health Organization's (WHO long-standing directives. Objective: The purpose of this study is to critically analyze this policy using a novel evaluation tool. Design: A 12-point ‘Policy Empowerment Index’ (PEI is introduced, and used to classify and score the policy according to five theoretical policy types. The evaluation was based on a stepwise review and associated publications: policy drafts, policy statements and news announcements. Results: According to the assessment tool, the ATM policy was marginally ‘supportive’ of constituent empowerment, although several ‘directive’ features were also observed. The importance of ATM to SA's communities and the promotion of education, employment, entrepreneurship and peripheral resource mobilization were the main empowering elements. Centralised conception, planning and implementation, the absence of provisions for local adaptations and the authoritative legislation context were sub-optimal features. Conclusions: South Africa's ATM legislation may need to further involve communities in policy design and implementation to capitalise upon the broader benefits of community empowerment. However, the iterative nature of method and evaluation is important. Indeed, they are proposed as points to initiate participatory development, and improve policy evaluation . Such instruments can empower constituents in the political process.

  8. Tobacco control, global health policy and development: towards policy coherence in global governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) demonstrates the international political will invested in combating the tobacco pandemic and a newfound prominence for tobacco control within the global health agenda. However, major difficulties exist in managing conflicts with foreign and trade policy priorities, and significant obstacles confront efforts to create synergies with development policy and avoid tensions with other health priorities. This paper uses the concept of policy coherence to explore congruence and inconsistencies in objectives, policy, and practice between tobacco control and trade, development and global health priorities. Following the inability of the FCTC negotiations to satisfactorily address the relationship between trade and health, several disputes highlight the challenges posed to tobacco control policies by multilateral and bilateral agreements. While the work of the World Bank has demonstrated the potential contribution of tobacco control to development, the absence of non-communicable diseases from the Millennium Development Goals has limited scope to offer developing countries support for FCTC implementation. Even within international health, tobacco control priorities may be hard to reconcile with other agendas. The paper concludes by discussing the extent to which tobacco control has been pursued via a model of governance very deliberately different from those used in other health issues, in what can be termed ‘tobacco exceptionalism’. The analysis developed here suggests that non-communicable disease (NCD) policies, global health, development and tobacco control would have much to gain from re-examining this presumption of difference. PMID:22345267

  9. Putting science to work in developing a climate policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerone, Ralph J

    2009-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences is an honorific society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. This Viewpoint explores the interconnection between scientific research and policy making in developing a climate policy.

  10. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... This policy employs central bank's control of the supply of money as instrument for achieving desired economic goals. Ridhwan, DeGroot, Henri, Nijkamp and Rietveld (2010) studied the impact of monetary policy on economic development in some economies using vector autoregressive (VAR) models and ...

  11. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia. Researchers are examining the tax policies (exemptions, value-added, property) constraining small and off-farm enterprises, especially those operated by women, in South Asia. Most off-farm employment in South Asia is marked by low productivity and low wages.

  12. From mental health policy development in Ghana to implementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suggested steps to overcoming the barriers include: revision of mental health policy and legislation; training and capacity development and wider consultation. Conclusion: These results call for well-articulated plans to address the barriers to the implementation of mental health policy in Ghana to reduce the burden ...

  13. NASBE Study Group Surveys State Leadership Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Bobbi; Hull, Robert

    2015-01-01

    State board members, working in partnership with the Consortium for Policy Research in Education (CPRE) at the University of Pennsylvania, conducted an in-depth study of states' school leadership development policies and practices. Data from this study are being analyzed to determine ways that states can create systems and structures for…

  14. Foreign language policy and the development of Mandarin Chinese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses the development offoreign language policy in higher educationin the United States (US) and indicates gaps in the study of foreign languages in highereducation in that country. A discussion of current policy, provision, programmes andfunding of foreign languages in higher education are presented, ...

  15. Do Economic Policy Decisions affect Stock Market Development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in response to changes in macroeconomic policies among others, the study recommends good macroeconomic management. Keywords: Stock Market Development, Macroeconomic policy, Government spending, ADRL,. Ghana, West Africa. JEL Classification: G2 ...

  16. "Planned" Teenage Pregnancy: Perspectives of Young Women from Disadvantaged Backgrounds in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2006-01-01

    The reduction of teenage pregnancy has attracted much interest in research, practice and social policy. Little is known about teenagers who report their pregnancies as "planned." Forty-one in-depth interviews were undertaken, in six different parts of England, among young women who reported their pregnancy as "planned". The…

  17. Seduction and aversion: Susceptibility and disincentive factors among 13 to 15 years old Bolivian teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina La Hera-Fuentes

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze tobacco consumption susceptibility and disincentive factors among non-smoker teenagers in Bolivia. Materials and methods. A secondary data analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey was conducted. A multivariate logistic regression was developed to estimate the relation between the susceptibility to smoke and social factors, smoking behaviour, and tobacco control policies. Results. Susceptibility increases by: close smoker friends (OR=1.74; comfort perception when smoking on social events (OR=1.86; observing smokers in public places (OR=1.54; teenager’s cigarettes promotion (OR=4.05; exposure to tobacco advertising (OR=2.08; and male teenagers (OR=2.00. Tobacco disincentives are parental information about smoking (OR=0.38 and health warning labels (OR=0.63. Conclusion. Bolivia requires, at minimum, to implement the other basic measures of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  18. Renewable energy policy and wind energy development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitzer, Suzanne E. [UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum Leipzig-Halle GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Department Urban Ecology, Environmental Planing and Transport

    2009-07-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the renewable energy policy and wind energy development in the Federal Republic of Germany. First of all, the author describes the historical development of the renewable energy policy since the 1970ies. Then, the environmental policies of the Red-Green Coalition (till to 2005) and of the Grand Coalition (since 2005) as well as the Renewable Energy Sources Act are described. The next section of this contribution is concern to the development of wind energy in the Federal Republic of Germany under consideration of onshore wind energy and offshore wind energy.

  19. Empiric Study about the Mix Fiscal Policy – Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru Sergiu Ocnean

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Economic development is one of the primary objectives of any government. Fiscal policy represents one of the most effective tools that government authorities could use in order to influence the economy. Having this in mind, this paper focuses on the connection between economic development and fiscal policy and proposes an empirical study based on a sample of 21 European countries. Using a simple pool data model, we tried to distinguish the relations between the evolution of GDP per capita, as a proxy for economic development, and the evolution of three fiscal policy variables, namely the tax burden, the public expenditure to GDP ratio and the budget deficit to GDP ratio.

  20. Policy Development for Biodiversity Offsets: A Review of Offset Frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenney, Bruce A.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Biodiversity offsets seek to compensate for residual environmental impacts of planned developments after appropriate steps have been taken to avoid, minimize or restore impacts on site. Offsets are emerging as an increasingly employed mechanism for achieving net environmental benefits, with offset policies being advanced in a wide range of countries (i.e., United States, Australia, Brazil, Colombia, and South Africa). To support policy development for biodiversity offsets, we review a set of major offset policy frameworks—US wetlands mitigation, US conservation banking, EU Natura 2000, Australian offset policies in New South Wales, Victoria, and Western Australia, and Brazilian industrial and forest offsets. We compare how the frameworks define offset policy goals, approach the mitigation process, and address six key issues for implementing offsets: (1) equivalence of project impacts with offset gains; (2) location of the offset relative to the impact site; (3) “additionality” (a new contribution to conservation) and acceptable types of offsets; (4) timing of project impacts versus offset benefits; (5) offset duration and compliance; and (6) “currency” and mitigation replacement ratios. We find substantial policy commonalities that may serve as a sound basis for future development of biodiversity offsets policy. We also identify issues requiring further policy guidance, including how best to: (1) ensure conformance with the mitigation hierarchy; (2) identify the most environmentally preferable offsets within a landscape context; and (3) determine appropriate mitigation replacement ratios.

  1. Geothermal development and policy in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datuin, R.; Roxas, F.

    1990-01-01

    The Philippines is the second largest geothermal energy producer in the world although its geothermal energy potential has barely been utilized. Out of an estimated total reserves of 8,000 MW, only about 11 percent or 894 MW are currently on stream for power generation. The electricity production from geothermal steam registered a growth of 8.9 percent from 1988 to 1989, one of the highest among local energy sources. During that same period, geothermal energy rated the highest capacity utilization of 67 percent compared to the average system capacity utilization of 43 percent. This paper describes both the use of geothermal energy and government policies concerning geothermal energy in the Philippines

  2. Do children born to teenage parents have lower adult intelligence? A prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsina Khatun

    Full Text Available Teenage motherhood has been associated with a wide variety of negative offspring outcomes including poorer cognitive development. In the context of limitations of previous research, this paper assesses the contemporary relevance of this finding. In this study we investigate the long-term cognitive status (IQ among 21 year adult offspring born to teenage parents using the Mater University Study of Pregnancy- a prospective birth cohort study, which recruited all pregnant mothers attending a large obstetrical hospital in Brisbane, Australia, from 1981 to 1983. The analyses were restricted to a sub-sample of 2643 mother-offspring pair. Offspring IQ was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test at 21 year. Parental age was reported at first clinic visit. Offspring born to teenage mothers (<20 years have -3.0 (95% Confidence Interval (CI: -4.3, -1.8 points lower IQ compared to children born to mothers ≥20 years and were more likely to have a low IQ (Odds Ratio (OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3, 2.3. Adjustment for a range of confounding and mediating factors including parental socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, maternal smoking and binge drinking in pregnancy, birthweight, breastfeeding and parenting style attenuates the association, though the effect remains statistically significant (-1.4 IQ points; 95% CI: -2.8,-0.1. Similarly the risk of offspring having low IQ remained marginally significantly higher in those born to teenage mothers (OR 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.9. In contrast, teenage fatherhood is not associated with adult offspring IQ, when adjusted for maternal age. Although the reduction in IQ is quantitatively small, it is indicative of neurodevelopmental disadvantage experienced by the young adult offspring of teenage mothers. Our results suggest that public policy initiatives should be targeted not only at delaying childbearing in the population but also at supporting early life condition of children born to teenage mothers to minimize the risk

  3. The Development and Persistence of Agricultural Policy in the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthou, Silas

    Abstract The analysis of which factors affect the development of European agricultural policy, the CAP, combines economic, political and historic methods to examine the interaction between politicians, farmers and voters/taxpayers. The objective of this PhD thesis is to examine the development...... and persistence of agricultural policy in the EU, based on the hypothesis that the political process and the agricultural structure are linked together. This is achieved through an examination of the foundation, the Danish farm household income and the future of agricultural support. The result of this study...... is that the foundation of agricultural policy in Europe depends on domestic policy, thus how the policy measures will affect voters. The farm households in Denmark have a living standard which is equal to rest of the society....

  4. Spanning boundaries: science-policy interaction in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamelarczyk, Kewin Bach Friis; Gamborg, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates science–policy interaction in forestry in developing countries. It uses the case of REDD+ in Zambia, and links theoretical considerations with practical strategies. Science–policy interaction in the case of REDD+ is analyzed through two theoretical frameworks: the Knowledge...... Transfer Model and the Transaction Model. Based on interviews and document analysis, the paper advances on how it is possible to improve evidence-based policy-making for the benefit of the environment in developing countries. It is found that re-thinking of science–policy interaction gives rise to new...... opportunities to strengthen the links between science and policy, and consideration is given to the question of what key strategies would best secure this linkage....

  5. Teenage pregnancy--causes and concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Neeru; Jain, Sharda

    2008-08-01

    Adolescent pregnancy is alarmingly common in India. These young girls face considerable health risks due to higher maternal and perinatal mortality. Early child bearing is not only a health problem for mother and child but is also associated with serious socio-economic and demographic implications as well. In developing countries 20% to 60% of young women's pregnancies and births are unintended, most coming sooner than planned. In India some demographers have estimated that if marriages were postponed from the age of 16 to 20 years, the number of births would decrease by 20 to 30 per-cent. That is the reason one of the socio-demographic goals set by national population policy, 2000 is to promote delayed marriages for girls, not earlier than age of 18 years and preferably after 20 years of age. It is important to maximise utilisation of prenatal, intranatal and postnatal care services among adolescent mothers. Lastly, it is important to improve the heamoglobin status and nutrition and empower our girls by educating them and making them aware of disadvantages of anaemia, early marriage and also of legal laws against teenage marriages.

  6. Tourism and rural community development in Namibia: policy issues review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erling Kavita

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, the tourism sector has become an increasing important issue for governments and regional agencies searching for socio-economic development. Especially in the Global South the increasing tourism demand has been seen highly beneficial as evolving tourism can create direct and indirect income and employment effects to the host regions and previously marginalised communities, with potential to aid with the poverty reduction targets. This research note reviews the existing policy and planning frameworks in relation to tourism and rural development in Namibia. Especially the policy aims towards rural community development are overviewed with focus on Community-Based Tourism (CBT initiatives. The research note involves a retrospective review of tourism policies and rural local development initiatives in Namibia where the Ministry of Environment and Tourism (MET initiated a community-based tourism policy. The policy emphasises structures and processes helping local communities to benefit from the tourism sector, and the active and coordinating involvement of communities, especially, is expected to ensure that the benefits of tourism trickle down to the local level where tourist activities take place. However, it is noted that in addition to public policy-makers also other tourism developers and private business environment in Namibia need to recognize the full potential of rural tourism development in order to meet the created politically driven promises at the policy level. In this respect, a national tourism policy could provide an enabling framework, integrating the tourism sector’s development aims to rural and community development needs in future. In addition, there is a need to coordinate a comprehensive vision of what type of rural tourism development or tourism in rural environments holds the most potential to benefit both local communities and the mainstream sector.

  7. Fertilizer Reduction Policies in Developed Countries: Suitability and Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Fang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviewed and analyzed the specific practices, implementation effects and applicable conditions of fertilizer reduction policies in the EU, US and Japan, explored the common laws and general conditions in the formulation of environmental orientation, and pro vided feasible policy recommendations for the formulation of fertilizer reduction policies in China. This study showed that fertilizer reduction policies in each country had their own advantages and disadvantages, and the applicable conditions were different. The EU's command and control policy was applicable to the situation of less farm households and the same agricultural planting type or farm type. The economic in centive policy in the US was applicable to the situation of more farm households, relatively perfect agricultural market system and sensitive price formation mechanism, while the public participation policy in Japan was applicable to regions with more relevant agricultural groups and strong economy. China should learn from each of these policies and make a comprehensive choice in the formulation of fertilizer reduc tion policies. Therefore, China should proceed from improving the agricultural price mechanism and the pollution-free agricultural products certification system as well as encouraging and supporting the development of large scale production units, and then promote the adoption of environmentally friendly technology through the guidance of market mechanism, ensure the effective implementation of environmental stan dards through farmers' integration and improve farmers' environmental awareness through propaganda guidance, so as to ensure the effective implementation of different types(command and control policy, economic incentive policy and public participation policyof fertilizer reduc tion policies.

  8. Urbanization in Developing Nations: Trends, Prospects, and Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todaro, Michael P.

    1980-01-01

    Identifies the rapid growth of cities in developing nations as one of the most significant demographic phenomena of modern times. Comparative data and policy considerations are presented for the world generally, and for Africa, Latin America, and Asia, specifically. (DB)

  9. Does development finance pose an additional risk to monetary policy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruna Issahaku

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether remittances entail extra risk for macroeconomic policy management and examines the role (if any that the financial system can play in the interaction between remittances and monetary policy. Employing panel data for 106 developing countries from 1970 to 2013, the results from our panel vector autoregressive (PVAR model reveal that remittance volatility reduces macroeconomic risk in developing countries while simultaneously stimulating a reduction in domestic interest rates. This finding remains robust to alternative specifications of remittance volatility and monetary policy risk and to variations in the degree of financial development. The key lesson from this study is that developing countries can leverage the positive impact of remittances in reducing macroeconomic instability by implementing policies that induce remittances.

  10. Development of GPS survey data management protocols/policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    This project developed a statewide policy and criteria for collecting, analyzing, and managing global position system (GPS) survey data. The research project determined the needs of the Department in adopting the GPS real time kinetic (GPS RTK) stake...

  11. Impacts of public policy on rail development in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Identifying the State policies that most directly affect or advance railroad development begins with an : understanding of how railroads make investment decisions. Railroads are a capital-intensive business, : owning all physical assets, locomotives,...

  12. Development of nuclear energy and nuclear policy in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Deliang

    1993-11-01

    Status of nuclear power development in China, nuclear policy and nuclear power programme are described. Issues regarding nuclear fuel cycle system, radioactive waste management and international cooperation in the field of peaceful use of nuclear energy are discussed

  13. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-01-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation. (letter)

  14. Climate change mitigation policies and poverty in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Zekarias; Hertel, Thomas; Golub, Alla

    2013-09-01

    Mitigation of the potential impacts of climate change is one of the leading policy concerns of the 21st century. However, there continues to be heated debate about the nature, the content and, most importantly, the impact of the policy actions needed to limit greenhouse gas emissions. One contributing factor is the lack of systematic evidence on the impact of mitigation policy on the welfare of the poor in developing countries. In this letter we consider two alternative policy scenarios, one in which only the Annex I countries take action, and the second in which the first policy is accompanied by a forest carbon sequestration policy in the non-Annex regions. Using an economic climate policy analysis framework, we assess the poverty impacts of the above policy scenarios on seven socio-economic groups in 14 developing countries. We find that the Annex-I-only policy is poverty friendly, since it enhances the competitiveness of non-Annex countries—particularly in agricultural production. However, once forest carbon sequestration incentives in the non-Annex regions are added to the policy package, the overall effect is to raise poverty in the majority of our sample countries. The reason for this outcome is that the dominant impacts of this policy are to raise returns to land, reduce agricultural output and raise food prices. Since poor households rely primarily on their own labor for income, and generally own little land, and since they also spend a large share of their income on food, they are generally hurt on both the earning and the spending fronts. This result is troubling, since forest carbon sequestration—particularly through avoided deforestation—is a promising, low cost option for climate change mitigation.

  15. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  16. Monetary policy and bond market development: A case of Mongolia

    OpenAIRE

    Doojav, Gan-Ochir; Damdinsuren, Batnyam; Baasansuren, Lkhagvajav

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we have three principal objectives. First, we measure the bond market development in Mongolia. Second, we analyse in some detail the stock markets response to monetary policy actions using VAR (vector autoregression) analysis. Third, we study determinants (include monetary policy variables and other macro economic variables) of Mongolian bond market development using VAR analysis. We find that bond market in Mongolia remain underdeveloped compared to markets in Latin America, Ea...

  17. Policy issues inherent in advanced technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, P.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the development of advanced technologies, there are several forces which are involved in the success of the development of those technologies. In the overall development of new technologies, a sufficient number of these forces must be present and working in order to have a successful opportunity at developing, introducing and integrating into the marketplace a new technology. This paper discusses some of these forces and how they enter into the equation for success in advanced technology research, development, demonstration, commercialization and deployment. This paper limits itself to programs which are generally governmental funded, which in essence represent most of the technology development efforts that provide defense, energy and environmental technological products. Along with the identification of these forces are some suggestions as to how changes may be brought about to better ensure success in a long term to attempt to minimize time and financial losses

  18. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character - and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area.

  19. The Troubled Teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Renshaw, Domeena

    1983-01-01

    Problems that may bring teenagers to the family physician's office include bizarre behavior such as drug or alcohol intoxication, psychosis, panic or anxiety attacks and stealing; being dangerous to themselves or to others; sexual emergencies including pregnancy, rape and incest; a crisis involving key people such as parents' divorce or illness; school phobia, and anxiety or other reactions to sickness, surgery or death. When evaluating troubled teens and their families, the physician should ...

  20. Randomized controlled trial of 'teens and toddlers': a teenage pregnancy prevention intervention combining youth development and voluntary service in a nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonell, Chris; Maisey, Ruth; Speight, Svetlana; Purdon, Susan; Keogh, Peter; Wollny, Ivonne; Sorhaindo, Annik; Wellings, Kaye

    2013-10-01

    We conducted an independent evaluation of the "Teens and Toddlers" intervention. Our randomized trial examined effects on self-reported last sex without contraception, >1 episode of sex without contraception in previous 3 months, expectation of teenage parenthood and youth development score, plus secondary outcomes among 449 at-risk girls age 13/14 in England. The intervention involves 18-20 weekly sessions in pre-school nurseries. Response rates were 95% post-intervention and 91% one year later. At follow-up two, there was no evidence of intervention benefits for primary outcomes and a positive impact for our secondary outcome, low self-esteem. At follow-up one, there was no evidence of benefits for our primary outcomes but evidence of benefits for our secondary outcomes: low self-esteem; low sexual health knowledge; and difficulty discussing the contraceptive pill. The intervention should be refined, with a clearer logic model and more emphasis on sex education, and re-evaluated. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ghana Journal of Development Studies: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The GJDS is a journal of the Faculty of Integrated Development Studies of University for Development Studies, Ghana. The GJDS is peer-reviewed by Ghanaian scholars of varied disciplinary orientations. Mission To provide on a regular and sustainable basis, an excellent scholarly journal for reporting empirical research ...

  2. Adverse effects of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonewardene, I M R; Deeyagaha Waduge, R P K

    2005-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that teenage pregnancies are not as hazardous as thought to be earlier. To compare the sociodemographic data, obstetric complications and attitudes towards family planning in teenagers and older women. A prospective cohort study at the University Obstetrics Unit, Teaching Hospital, Galle. Sociodemographic data, details of antenatal care and family support, antenatal complications, gestation at delivery, mode of delivery, the proportion of unplanned pregnancies, and the possible effects of contraceptive counselling, in two groups of pregnant teenagers (13-16 years, n = 95 and 17-19 years, n = 250) were compared with a control group of pregnant women (20-24 years, n = 275). The teenagers were from lower socioeconomic strata and the younger teenagers were significantly less educated than the controls. Teenagers had a significantly higher risk of anaemia (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95%CI = 1.7-3.3, p teenagers had a significantly higher risk of gestational hypertension (OR = 4.8, 95%CI = 1.8-13.0, p teenagers had a significantly higher risk of delivery before 34 weeks of gestation (OR = 13.6, 95%CI = 1.8-287, p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in the mode of delivery. The younger teenagers had a much higher proportion (54%) of unplanned pregnancies compared to the controls (16 %). A significantly higher proportion of younger teenagers (48%) and older teenagers (25 %), if counselled, would have delayed their pregnancies compared to the controls (10 %). Teenage pregnancies, especially those below 17 years of age have a significantly higher risk of adverse outcomes. A large proportion of these pregnancies is unplanned and could be prevented by counselling.

  3. Wee Care: Reaching Teenage Mothers and Changing Their Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, Priscilla R.; Porter, Gwen

    1989-01-01

    Describes an intervention program for pregnant teenagers and teen mothers. Topics include program development and implementation, staffing, and content. Also discussed are adjustments that a mother must make in order to break the chain of poverty and welfare. (RJC)

  4. Developing low carbon policies for road transport in Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, R.; Rahman, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of work done for the World Bank to develop low carbon policies for road transport in Poland. Here, we outline the development of Green House Gas (GHG) emissions, develop a Business As Usual (BAU) scenario based on social-economic-, infrastructure-, car market, vehicle

  5. Measuring long-term trends in policy coherence for development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, D.J.

    2018-01-01

    Policy coherence for development (PCD) has become an increasingly important topic in development circles over the last couple of decades. It can be seen in the founding documents of the European Union (EU) (the Treaty of Maastricht) and one of the millennium development goals was dedicated to it. It

  6. Migration, rural development and policy formation in the South Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, J

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the reasons for migration in the South Pacific region and the impact of migration on rural development. Consideration is also given to the policies that have been or should be developed in order to encourage rural development and thereby reduce migration flows from rural areas.

  7. New directions in US development policies: A view from Washington ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Apr 15, 2011 ... Development expert Todd Moss analyzes these trends in US development policy and forecasts what changes to expect. He also relates these trends to Canada – facing some similar issues – including how the challenges will affect the way the two countries cooperate on development. Listen to the audio ...

  8. The effects of teenage fatherhood on young adult outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Jason M; Wolfe, Barbara L

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses national longitudinal data and several new empirical strategies to examine the consequences of teenage fatherhood. The key contribution is to compare economic outcomes of young fathers to young men whose partners experienced a miscarriage rather than a live birth. The results suggest that teenage fatherhood decreases years of schooling and the likelihood of receiving a high school diploma and increases general educational development receipt. Teenage fatherhood also appears to increase early marriage and cohabitation, and has mixed short-term effects on several labor market outcomes.

  9. The growth and development of gerontological nurse leaders in policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, G Adriana; Mason, Diana J; Harden, J Taylor; Cortes, Tara A

    2017-11-03

    The National Hartford Center of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE) Scholars/Fellows Award Program was designed to promote the growth and development of nurse scientists, educators, and leaders in aging. McBride's conceptual framework of the growth and development of nurse leaders was used to examine the NHCGNE impact on health and aging policy work among scholars/fellows, including barriers, facilitators, and resources. A multimethod two-phased approach included an online survey (phase I) focused on research and policy impact at local, state, or national level. Telephone interviews (phase II) were conducted to further understand the nature, depth, and focus of respondents' policy work. Based on our findings, we propose multilevel recommendations for advancing nurse scientists' capacity to be leaders in shaping policy. Keen research skills are influential in policy advancement but not sufficient to advance policy. Preparing nurse scientists with competencies in translating research into policy can ultimately transform health and health care for older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Greenhouse gas emission reduction policies in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsnaes, K.

    2001-01-01

    The chapter begins with an introduction of the main arguments for why global cost-effectiveness in GHG emission reduction policies will suggest that an international collaboration about the policies is established such as initiated by the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. A general conceptual overview is given on the cost concepts that are relevant to apply to the evaluation of GHG emission reduction policies, and the methodological framework of GHG emission reduction cost studies for developing countries are introduced. The studies have in particular focussed on GHG emission reduction options in the energy sector, and a number of costing results are reported for this sector. Finally, the chapter considers potential local side-impacts on development, the local environment, and social policy objectives of GHG emission reduction projects seen from the perspective of developing countries. It is concluded that there is a potential for combining global cost-effectiveness principles for GHG emission reduction policies, and local policy objectives of developing countries. (LN)

  11. Policies for Migration and Development: A European Perspective. Policy Brief No. 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katseli, Louka T.; Lucas, Robert E. B.; Xenogiani, Theodora

    2006-01-01

    Managing migration has become a priority for policy makers both in developed and developing countries. Large immigration or emigration flows relative to domestic population's impact on almost all aspects of an economy and society: family structures, community life, educational and health systems, labour markets, security systems, governance and…

  12. Disorders of psychic adaptation of teenagers from radionuclides contaminated areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpyuk, V.A.; Obukhov, S.G.

    1995-01-01

    Results of complex psychological and psychopathological survey of 729 teenagers living in various regions of Belarus are considered. The all teenagers were divided into two groups: the first group had 557 teenagers living in region with a level of pollution by 137 Cs less than 1 Ci/sq.km, the second groups - 172 teenagers, constantly living on controllable territories with the 137 Cs contents more than 15 Ci/sq.km. The change of psychological adaptation in the form of strengthening of the situation and individual disturb, emotional lability and psychoasthenia was detected for the teenagers from contaminated regions. It may be a basic for development of various neurotic disorders. The received results show that the radioactive contaminated of constant living regions teenagers leads to disorders of the psychological adaptation at teenagers. These were characterized by lability of mood, increased sensitivity to external irritants, indecision, disturbing hypochondria and uncertainty in own forces. At late effect of small dozes of radiation the initial stimulation transforms to exhaustion of protective mechanisms of a head brain and leads to disorganization of the regulator mechanisms

  13. Housing policies in developing countries: Microfinance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smets, P.G.S.M.; Smith, S.J.; Elsinga, M.; O’Mahony, L.H.; Ong, S.E.; Wachter, S.; Wood, G.

    2012-01-01

    Shelter is a basic human need for which financial means are required. Poorer sections of society face difficulties in accessing and coping with conventional mortgage finance and are better assisted with housing microfinance. This enables the poor, especially in 'developing' countries to build their

  14. Cameroon - Fiscal policy for growth and development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Cameroon's growth achievement is disappointing and the country is not likely to meet most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) on its current trajectory. Underemployment is extremely high, with risks of social unrest and instability. The fallout of the current global economic crisis is making more challenging the attainment of growth targets foreseen in the new Growth and Employment ...

  15. A health app developer's guide to law and policy: a multi-sector policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa; Karliychuk, Tanya; Gillies, Donna; Mintzes, Barbara; Raven, Melissa; Grundy, Quinn

    2017-10-02

    Apps targeted at health and wellbeing sit in a rapidly growing industry associated with widespread optimism about their potential to deliver accessible and cost-effective healthcare. App developers might not be aware of all the regulatory requirements and best practice principles are emergent. Health apps are regulated in order to minimise their potential for harm due to, for example, loss of personal health privacy, financial costs, and health harms from delayed or unnecessary diagnosis, monitoring and treatment. We aimed to produce a comprehensive guide to assist app developers in producing health apps that are legally compliant and in keeping with high professional standards of user protection. We conducted a case study analysis of the Australian and related international policy environment for mental health apps to identify relevant sectors, policy actors, and policy solutions. We identified 29 policies produced by governments and non-government organisations that provide oversight of health apps. In consultation with stakeholders, we developed an interactive tool targeted at app developers, summarising key features of the policy environment and highlighting legislative, industry and professional standards around seven relevant domains: privacy, security, content, promotion and advertising, consumer finances, medical device efficacy and safety, and professional ethics. We annotated this developer guidance tool with information about: the relevance of each domain; existing legislative and non-legislative guidance; critiques of existing policy; recommendations for developers; and suggestions for other key stakeholders. We anticipate that mental health apps developed in accordance with this tool will be more likely to conform to regulatory requirements, protect consumer privacy, protect consumer finances, and deliver health benefit; and less likely to attract regulatory penalties, offend consumers and communities, mislead consumers, or deliver health harms. We

  16. Developing the oil sands demands level tax, royalty policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, D.

    1995-01-01

    The oil sands development industry has assembled a task force to lobby for fairer taxes and royalties on oil sands products. Up to now, taxing and royalties had been negotiated on a project-by-project basis. Fairer policies were believed to be a key element for increasing foreign investment. Taxing policies were only established for up to the year 2003, creating uncertainties for longer term projects

  17. Communication difficulties in teenagers with health impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samokhvalova, Anna G.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary psychological and pedagogical studies pay special attention to the socialization of physically impaired children, inclusive education and methods of providing such children with a safe environment to assist in their development. However, difficulties in interpersonal communication experienced by children with health impairments have remained beyond the research scope. The authors conducted a comparative analysis of communication difficulties in typically developed teenagers aged 12-13 years (n = 100 and the problems faced by their peers with visual (n = 30, auditory (n = 30, speech (n = 25 and motor (n = 15 impairments. Actual communication difficulties in teenagers were studied in two ways: the subjective component of impaired communication was registered through a content analysis of a sentence completion test and the objective manifestations of impaired communication were identified through expert evaluation of children’s communicative behavior (educators and psychologists who had been in close contact with the teenagers acted as experts. First, the authors identified typical standard communication problems that were characteristic of teenagers aged 12-13 years, that is, problems with aggression, tolerance, the ability to admit wrongdoing and make concessions, empathy, self-control, self-analysis and self-expression in communication. Second, typical communication difficulties characteristic of physically impaired children were revealed: failure to understand meaning; feelings of awkwardness and shame of oneself; expectations of a negative attitude toward oneself; gelotophobia; and manifestations of despotism, petulance and egotism as defensive reactions in situations of impaired communication. Third, the authors described specific communication difficulties in teenagers with auditory, visual, speech and motor impairments.

  18. The sleepy teenager - diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Marie eLandtblom

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sleepy teenager is a diagnostic challenge because the problems may be physiological or pathological, with behavioural, social and pychological expressions. It is of great importance that health staff that encounter young people with sleep disturbance have good knowledge about the diseases that must be excluded. Narcolepsy, periodic hypersomnia like Kleine Levin syndrome, delayed sleep phase syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome, depression and substance use as well as fatigue from chronic disease like multiple sclerosis should be investigated. Clinical assessment, neurophysiological and laboratory investigations constitute important support in these investigations. Functional methods, for example fMRI, are being developed. The role of computer gaming and use of social media in the night is discussed in relation to these diseases. Cognitive dysfunction may develop with several of the conditions. There is need for increased awareness of how to investigate sleep disturbance in children and young people.

  19. Entrepreneurship and economic development: Theory, evidence and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Naudé, Wim

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the state of the art of the intersection of development economics and entrepreneurship. Given the relative neglect of entrepreneurship by development scholars it deals with (i) recent theoretical insights from the intersection of entrepreneurship and development studies; (ii) the empirical evidence on the relationship between entrepreneurship and development; and (iii) fresh insights for entrepreneurship policy for development that emerges from recent advanc...

  20. DUE TO TELEVISION COMMERCIAL, CHANGE IN EATING HABITS AND ITS DIRECT IMPACT ON OBESITY OF TEENAGER OF JAMMU

    OpenAIRE

    Sarabjot SINGH; Hari GOVIND MISHRA

    2012-01-01

    Background: Advertisement creates colossal impact on teenagers and TV create gigantic impacting on eating habits of teenagers and cause obesity in them. So, our study focus on finding the impact of advertisement on psychology, buying behavior, obesity and eating habits of teenagers in Jammu.Methods: The data is collected in the age group of 7 to 18 years. The schedule is developed to examine eating habits of teenagers and its effect on obesity level. The statistical tool and the sampling tech...

  1. Developing policy analytics for public health strategy and decisions-the Sheffield alcohol policy model framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Alan; Meier, Petra; Purshouse, Robin; Rafia, Rachid; Meng, Yang; Hill-Macmanus, Daniel

    This paper sets out the development of a methodological framework for detailed evaluation of public health strategies for alcohol harm reduction to meet UK policy-makers needs. Alcohol is known to cause substantial harms, and controlling its affordability and availability are effective policy options. Analysis and synthesis of a variety of public and commercial data sources is needed to evaluate impact on consumers, health services, crime, employers and industry, so a sound evaluation of impact is important. We discuss the iterative process to engage with stakeholders, identify evidence/data and develop analytic approaches and produce a final model structure. We set out a series of steps in modelling impact including: classification and definition of population subgroups of interest, identification and definition of harms and outcomes for inclusion, classification of modifiable components of risk and their baseline values, specification of the baseline position on policy variables especially prices, estimating effects of changing policy variables on risk factors including price elasticities, quantifying risk functions relating risk factors to harms including 47 health conditions, crimes, absenteeism and unemployment, and monetary valuation. The most difficult model structuring decisions are described, as well as the final results framework used to provide decision support to national level policymakers in the UK. In the discussion we explore issues around the relationship between modelling and policy debates, valuation and scope, limitations of evidence/data, how the framework can be adapted to other countries and decisions. We reflect on the approach taken and outline ongoing plans for further development.

  2. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings of the d......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings......”). Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop alternative strategies and policy means in order to promote sustainable development. THE FULL TEXT IS IN RUSSIAN IN THE JOURNAL....

  3. Challenges in orphan drug development and regulatory policy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Alice; Xie, Zhi

    2017-01-18

    While regulatory policy is well defined for orphan drug development in the United States and Europe, rare disease policy in China is still evolving. Many Chinese patients currently pay out of pocket for international treatments that are not yet approved in China. The lack of a clear definition and therefore regulatory approval process for rare diseases has, until now, de-incentivized pharmaceutical companies to pursue rare disease drug development in China. In turn, many grassroots movements have begun to support rare disease patients and facilitate drug discovery through research. Recently, the Chinese FDA set new regulatory guidelines for drugs being developed in China, including an expedited review process for life-saving treatments. In this review, we discuss the effects of these new policy changes on and suggest potential solutions to innovate orphan drug development in China.

  4. China's below-replacement fertility: government policy or socioeconomic development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The article challenges the notion that below-replacement fertility and its local variation in China are primarily attributable to the government's birth planning policy. Data from the 2000 census and provincial statistical yearbooks are used to compare fertility in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, two of the most developed provinces in China, to examine the relationship between socioeconomic development and low fertility. The article demonstrates that although low fertility in China was achieved under the government's restrictive one-child policy, structural changes brought about by socioeconomic development and ideational shifts accompanying the new wave of globalization played a key role in China's fertility reduction.

  5. Policy instruments for development of wind power in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aastrand, Kerstin; Neij, Lena

    2003-01-01

    It is often believed that energy policy and policy instruments can play a significant role in the transition towards sustainable energy by stimulating and accelerating the development and deployment of new energy technologies. However, despite the known need for, and benefits of, new energy technologies their market introduction and expansion is often slow. Wind power has been on the political agenda since the 1970s in several European countries as well as in other countries throughout the world. However, the technology and market development of wind power has been very different in these countries. Despite three decades of policy intervention the installed capacity in Sweden was only 265 MW in 2000, compared with 6,107 MW in Germany, 2,836 MW in Spain and 2,341 MW in Denmark. This report analyses the effects of policy instruments on wind power development in Sweden and identifies possible reasons why wind power has not been installed to a greater extent. The analysis is based on an empirical example of a socio technological system-based approach to evaluation of technology and market development for new energy technologies; i.e. an approach focused on the technological system including the actors, institutions and organizations that build, drive and utilise it and the economic and legal framework that regulates it. The aim is to assess the impact on technology and market development and to discuss the relatively late and slow wind power development in Sweden. The report also examines the achievement of governmental energy policy goals. Using the socio-technological systems approach we analyse Swedish policy programmes and wind power development between 1975 and 2000. The political and economic framework is identified. The discussion of the political and economic frameworks is limited to public policy goals and policy instruments. The policy focus is set to policy instruments aimed for technology and market development of wind power, such as research and

  6. Teenagers and the Minimum Wage in Retail Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Philip G.; Wadycki, Walter J.

    1976-01-01

    The impact of minimum wage policy on the hiring of teenagers in relation to adult laborers in retail trade has been assessed through analysis of a study sample of 353 male and 391 female retail trade employees who were part of the 1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. (LH)

  7. Conceptualization, development and validation of T-QoL© (Teenagers' Quality of Life): a patient-focused measure to assess quality of life of adolescents with skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basra, M K A; Salek, M S; Fenech, D; Finlay, A Y

    2018-01-01

    Skin disease can affect the quality of life (QoL) of teenagers in a variety of different ways, some being unique to this age group. To develop and validate a dermatology-specific QoL instrument for adolescents with skin diseases. Qualitative semistructured interviews were conducted with adolescents with skin disease to gain in-depth understanding of how skin diseases affect their QoL. A prototype instrument based on the themes identified from content analysis of interviews was tested in several stages, using classical test theory and item response theory models to develop this new tool and conduct its psychometric evaluation. Thirty-three QoL issues were identified from semistructured interviews with 50 adolescents. A questionnaire based on items derived from content analysis of interviews was subjected to Rasch analysis: factor analysis identified three domains, therefore not supporting the validity of T-QoL as a unidimensional measure. Psychometric evaluation of the final 18-item questionnaire was carried out in a cohort of 203 adolescents. Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlation with Skindex-Teen and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) or Children's DLQI. The T-QoL showed excellent internal consistency reliability: Cronbach's α = 0·89 for total scale score and 0·85, 0·60 and 0·74, respectively, for domains 1, 2 and 3. Test-retest reliability was high in stable volunteers. T-QoL showed sensitivity to change in two subgroups of patients who indicated change in their self-assessed disease severity. Built on rich qualitative data from patients, the T-QoL is a simple and valid tool to quantify the impact of skin disease on adolescents' QoL; it could be used as an outcome measure in both clinical practice and clinical research. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Becoming a mother: teenage mothers’ experiences of first pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Maputle

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was firstly to explore and describe the experiences of teenage mothers of first pregnancy. Secondly, to develop guidelines of a support programme that is contextual and relevant to the needs of teenage mothers. The guidelines are aimed at assisting midwives in meeting the needs of teenage mothers. An exploratory, descriptive, contextual and qualitative design was used. The phenomenological approach was implemented to collect and analyze data from a purposively selected sample of fourteen (14 teenage mothers who were pregnant for the first time. The model of Guba and Lincoln (1985: 301-318 was implemented to ensure trustworthiness in this qualitative study. Five themes emerged from the analysis of the data. Guidelines and recommendations for support programme were developed.

  9. Factors Affecting Teenager Cyber Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Young Ju; Lim, Kyu Yon; Cho, Sun Yoo; Jung, Bo Kyung; Choi, Se Bin

    2013-01-01

    The study aims to investigate structural relationships among teenagers' peer attachment, self-control, academic stress, internet usage time, and cyber delinquency. The data source was the Korea Youth Panel Survey, and the responses from 920 teenagers in the 12th grade provided the study data. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis.…

  10. Teenage Pregnancy: Consider the Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Tween and teen health Teenage pregnancy can have a profound impact on a teen's life. Help your child understand the options, health risks and challenges ahead. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pregnancy can be one of the most difficult experiences a teenager faces. Understand how to ...

  11. Product assurance policies and procedures for flight dynamics software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sandra; Jordan, Leon; Decker, William; Page, Gerald; Mcgarry, Frank E.; Valett, Jon

    1987-01-01

    The product assurance policies and procedures necessary to support flight dynamics software development projects for Goddard Space Flight Center are presented. The quality assurance and configuration management methods and tools for each phase of the software development life cycles are described, from requirements analysis through acceptance testing; maintenance and operation are not addressed.

  12. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (JSDLP) is Nigeria's first interdisciplinary sustainable development journal, published by the OGEES Institute, Afe Babalola University, Nigeria. The journal fosters the dissemination of research results and scholarly papers by teaching and research scholars in Africa ...

  13. Human potential development as a prerequisite of public policy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polishchuk Iryna Viktorivna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role of the public officers’ human potential for the efficiency of making public policy. It introduces features and criteria of human potential in the context of its development of civil service. The article designates some key directions for the development of human potential of public officers.

  14. Do economic policy decisions affect stock market development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper finds government revenue and exchange rate reduce stock market development. A policy mix identified was that, the outcomes of government expenditure and government borrowing interest rate exert no influence on stock market development. For equity investors not to easily transfer their investments in ...

  15. Transnational Social Policies: The New Development Challenges of ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Relationships between social policy and human development are the subject of much research and theorizing. The literature in this area, however, examines these issues strictly within national contexts. What of the influence of international agendas, such as NAFTA, the World Summit for Social Development, and Habitat II.

  16. Extent of implementation of Collection Development Policies (CDP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was on the extent of implementation of collection development policies by public University libraries in the Niger Delta Area, Nigeria. Descriptive survey design was employed. Population for the study consisted of all the 16 Colle ction Development Librarians in the Area studied. No sample was used because the ...

  17. Cyber-Surveillance: A Case Study in Policy and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Richard S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    The dissertation examines the historical development of surveillance, electronic surveillance, and cyber-surveillance from colonial times in the United States to the present. It presents the surveillance laws, technologies and policies as a balance between national security and privacy. To examine more recent developments, the dissertation…

  18. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in Burma's Democratic Transition. For decades, it was very difficult to complete, share or access development research in Burma. However, in the past two years, the Burmese political landscape has seen far-reaching changes. The military junta has ...

  19. Integrating development and climate policies: National and international benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, M.; Metz, B.; Verhagen, J.

    2008-01-01

    What lessons for policy makers at national and international level can be drawn from the growing experiences of reconciling development and climate change? The key to achieving this is to approach the problem from the development perspective, since that is where in most countries the priority lies.

  20. Initiating A Collection Development Policy For Kumasi Polytechnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Collection development involves the activities of collection evaluation, selection of new materials, replacement of lost or damaged stock, deselection of older stock for either transfer to storage or disposal, and the handling of gifts. The aim of this article is to put together a collection development policy which will guide the ...

  1. Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We welcome submissions that focus on any aspect of sustainable development law and policy ranging from the economic, social and environmental dimensions. Consequently, papers that explore broad themes of sustainable development such as agriculture, banking, e-commerce, environment, natural resources, public ...

  2. Developing effective policy strategies to retain health workers in rural Bangladesh: a policy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Lal B; Joarder, Taufique; Islam, Sheikh Md Shariful; Uddin, Aftab; Ahmed, Syed Masud

    2015-05-20

    Retention of human resources for health (HRH), particularly physicians and nurses in rural and remote areas, is a major problem in Bangladesh. We reviewed relevant policies and provisions in relation to HRH aiming to develop appropriate rural retention strategies in Bangladesh. We conducted a document review, thorough search and review of relevant literature published from 1971 through May 2013, key informant interviews with policy elites (health policy makers, managers, researchers, etc.), and a roundtable discussion with key stakeholders and policy makers. We used the World Health Organization's (WHO's) guidelines as an analytical matrix to examine the rural retention policies under 4 domains, i) educational, ii) regulatory, iii) financial, and iv) professional and personal development, and 16 sub-domains. Over the past four decades, Bangladesh has developed and implemented a number of health-related policies and provisions concerning retention of HRH. The district quota system in admissions is in practice to improve geographical representation of the students. Students of special background including children of freedom fighters and tribal population have allocated quotas. In private medical and nursing schools, at least 5% of seats are allocated for scholarships. Medical education has a provision for clinical rotation in rural health facilities. Further, in the public sector, every newly recruited medical doctor must serve at least 2 years at the upazila level. To encourage serving in hard-to-reach areas, particularly in three Hill Tract districts of Chittagong division, the government provides an additional 33% of the basic salary, but not exceeding US$ 38 per month. This amount is not attractive enough, and such provision is absent for those working in other rural areas. Although the government has career development and promotion plans for doctors and nurses, these plans are often not clearly specified and not implemented effectively. The government is

  3. Endogenous growth theory and regional development policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetanović Slobodan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The numerous versions of endogenous explanations of economic growth emphasize the importance of technological change driving forces, as well as the existence of appropriate institutional arrangements. Endogenous growth theory contributes to a better understanding of various experiences with long-term growth of countries and regions. It changes the key assumptions of the Neoclassical growth theory and participates in the modern regional development physiology explanation. Based on these conclusions, the paper: a explicates the most important theoretical postulates of the theory, b explains the most important factors of economic growth in the regions in light of the Endogenous growth theory messages and c emphasizes the key determinants of regional competitiveness which in our view is conceptually between the phenomena of micro- and macro-competitiveness and represents their necessary and unique connection. First of all, micro-competitiveness is transformed into a regional competitiveness; then regional competitiveness is transformed into a macro-competitiveness. In turn, macro - influences the microeconomic competitiveness, and the circle is closed. After that, the process starts over again.

  4. Development and Appropriation of an Integration Policy for Sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    2011-01-01

    To answer why sports clubs have been ascribed a central role in resolving integration issues in Denmark, this article refers to the anthropology of policy. First, policy is defined as what Mauss has called ‘a total social fact’. In other words, policy is a social phenomenon that reflects...... explores Danish immigration history and the development of an integration policy that currently focuses on adaptation of the cultural values and norms of immigrants. The second part of this article looks at current state funds that aim to promote this kind of adaptation through sports. It becomes clear...... that sports clubs are seen as organizations that distribute social capital, promote equality in society and facilitate informal learning. The third part of this article refers to a number of studies that highlight the ways in which club leaders, coaches and members (with ethnic Danish as well as non...

  5. Does the UK government's teenage pregnancy strategy deal with the correct risk factors? Findings from a secondary analysis of data from a randomised trial of sex education and their implications for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, E; Bonell, C; Strange, V; Copas, A; Stephenson, J; Johnson, A M; Oakley, A

    2007-01-01

    Much of the UK government's 1999 report on teenage pregnancy was by necessity based on rather old or non-longitudinal research. To examine the associations between risk factors identified in the report and pregnancy at or before age 16 years among young women and partners of young men using the more recent data. Socioeconomic disadvantage, being born to a teenage mother, expectation of being a teenage parent, low educational expectations and various other behaviours are potential risk factors for teenage pregnancy, as suggested by unadjusted analyses. Those who cited school as providing information on sex had a reduced risk of pregnancy at or before age 16 years, as did girls reporting easy communication with parent or guardian at baseline. Various measures of low sexual health knowledge were not associated, in either adjusted or unadjusted analyses, with increased risk of pregnancy at or before age 16 years among boys or girls. A focus on many of the risk factors identified in the 1999 report is supported herein. It is suggested that knowledge may not be an important determinant, but that relationships with parents and school, as well as expectations for the future, may have important influences on teenage pregnancy. The analysis also provides new insights into risk factors for pregnancies among the partners of young men.

  6. Chinas carbon-intensity target: climate actors and policy developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensdal, Iselin

    2012-11-01

    China has become the largest GHG emitting country, and announced in 2009 its first policy objective measured in carbon emissions. The carbon-intensity target is to reduce the carbon intensity by 40-45 % by 2020 compared to 200 levels. Since then there has been further policy developments in order to attain the reduction carbon intensity and steer China towards a low-carbon development. The 12th 5-year plan (2011-2015) is strong on incentives for reducing China's carbon intensity such as energy conservation measures and the establishment of new market-based mechanisms. While the central government forms the policies, the implementation is dependent on a range of actors. In addition to the climate change bureaucracy, the positive forces and actors on GHG mitigation is presented. All in all, there are promising developments in China for the years to come.(auth)

  7. Becoming (ethnic minority) teenagers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørslev, Mette Kirstine; Norredam, Marie; Vitus, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    This article explores how everyday school life interacts with students’ practices of ‘becoming teenagers’ at a Danish school, analysing how age and ethnicity intersect with emotional well-being. The article builds on an ethnographic study at a public sports school following ethnic minority...... and majority students in two school classes from the fifth to seventh grades. Taking a practice approach, the article first analyses school as a social site before turning phenomenological attention to experiences and expectations of becoming teenagers, focusing on the experiences of ethnic minority students...

  8. Government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, Dinesh; Sharma, Jitendra S; Banerjee, Subhadip; Biswas, Rajarshi; Das, Bhaskar; Goswami, Debayan; Harwansh, Ranjit K; Katiyar, C K; Mukherjee, Pulok K

    2017-02-02

    Ayurveda (Sanskrit: Ayus - life +Veda - knowledge) means the "True knowledge of life". Ayurveda deals with a complete self-sustainable system of medicine. The Government of India through its Ministry of AYUSH is responsible for policy formulation, development and implementation of programs for the growth, development and propagation of Ayurveda. This review aimed to highlight the various aspects of government policies and initiatives for development of Ayurveda. We critically reviewed various books, annual reports, policy documents and various ancient Ayurvedic literatures. Besides the websites of Ministry of AYUSH, National Medicinal Plant Board, Central Council for Research on Ayurvedic Sciences (CCRAS) and AYUSH research portal have been searched and data was recorded. The vision of the ministry is to position AYUSH systems as the preferred systems of living and practice for attaining healthy nation. The ministry has identified its mission in terms of seven broad thematic functional areas of AYUSH activities. These are information, education and communication; drug administration, human resource development, medicinal plants, research and development, international collaborations, AYUSH services. Different programs have been taken up towards increasing visibility, acceptability and usage of Ayurveda vis-a vis its integration in the health system. Strategies to globalize and promote Ayurveda are being taken up through AYUSH clusters focusing its safety-efficacy-quality aspects and rational use of Ayurveda CONCLUSION: The government policies are taking firm steps towards promotion and development of Ayurveda. Research and development towards validation of Ayurveda is being projected as the thrust area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Policy, Personalities and Pedagogy: The Use of Simulation Games to Teach and Learn about Development Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsen, Gerard; Overton, John

    2011-01-01

    Simulation games have a long history in education and are well suited to learning about negotiation, power, relationships and uncertain outcomes. This paper reflects on the experience of using a semester-long simulation game to introduce postgraduate students to development policy. It focuses on three issues identified in the literature--realism,…

  10. Lessons from photovoltaic policies in China for future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, Mo-lin; Zhang, Dan-wei

    2012-01-01

    The paper first provides an overview of the current status of PV industry development in China, including the penetration speed, the market segments and the value chain. Further, it reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market incentives and manufacturing policies for lessons learning. After the Renewable Energy Law took effect in 2006, PV penetration was accelerated. Capital subsidies and feed-in tariffs, which were still in a trial stage, public bidding and the cooperation among relevant Ministries played important roles. A series of public R and D projects provided elemental technologies and meanwhile the preferential tax policies encouraged PV R and D nationwide. Then the paper looks into the future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national indicative targets in 2020, and the energy planning considering the governmental targets of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. Consequently we analyze problems impeding the future development based on evidences. For instance, there was no predetermined degression of the capital subsidy to push cost reduction; the budget and the organization of public PV R and D were insufficient. Finally, we propose some recommendations on improving policy interventions. - Highlights: ► Surveys the current status of PV industry in China, including the market trend, the installation distribution and the value chain. ► Reviews the experience of governmental interventions composed of the legal framework, market policies and manufacturing policies. ► Looks into future prospects, based on the technical potential, the national targets of 2020, policies of energy transition and CO 2 mitigation. ► Analyzes barriers of future development, and proposes some recommendations on improving policy interventions.

  11. Using social media to engage nurses in health policy development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Siobhan

    2017-11-01

    To explore nurses' views on future priorities for the profession and to examine social media as an engagement tool to aid policy discussion and development. Nurses are often not directly involved in policy creation and some feel it is a process they cannot easily influence. A descriptive mixed methods study of a Twitter chat hosted by the Chief Nursing Officer for Scotland was undertaken. Data were gathered using an analytics platform and NCapture software. The framework approach aided thematic analysis to draw out themes. Sixty-four people took part in the Twitter chat (#CNOScot) and posted 444 tweets. Nurses called for investment in technology, nursing research, education and mental health. Primary care and advanced practice roles to support older adults with complex health and social care needs were also seen as vital to develop further. Social media can help reach and engage nurses in policy discussion and ensure there is better continuity between policy and practice but some groups risk being excluded using this digital medium. Nursing leaders should consider social media as one of many engagement strategies to ensure nurses and other stakeholders participate in policy debate that informs health strategy development. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. South African teachers' responses to teenage pregnancy and teenage mothers in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhana, Deevia; Morrell, Robert; Shefer, Tamara; Ngabaza, Sisa

    2010-11-01

    South African law forbids excluding pregnant teenagers from school and permits young parents to continue with their schooling. However, the existence of progressive policy and law does not by itself ensure that pregnant teenagers and young parents remain in school or experience as little disruption to their studies as possible. Two of the factors influencing the experiences that pregnant girls and young parents have are the attitudes and practices of teachers. We explore how teachers in diverse South African secondary schools respond to young women's pregnancy and parenting. Teachers' responses are situated within a complex set of meanings invoking sexuality (and sexual censure), gender, class and race. We argue that many teachers view teenage pregnancy and parenting as social problems - a domain of sexual shame with negative effects and disruptive to the academic life of the school (including teachers and other learners). Teachers do not monolithically subscribe to such negativity and, in the context of changing policy and gender equality, there are glimmers of hope. Without much support, training or any formal school-based support, many teachers show care and concern for pregnant women and young parents, providing some hope for better experiences of schooling.

  13. Pregnancy outcome in unmarried teenage nulligravidae in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, A; Viegas, O; Singh, K; Ratnam, S S

    1989-12-01

    Singapore, like other newly industralized countries, has seen a dramatic transformation in the social standards of its population in a particularly short space of time. Unfortunately, this period of development has been accompanied by an escalation in the number of pregnancies to unmarried teenage girls. This paper examines the obstetric and social implications of 150 such pregnancies in younger and older teenagers. Poor intrauterine growth in the younger teenager appears to be the most important adverse obstetric outcome in that mean birthweight was significantly reduced (2738 g compared to 3054 g; P less than 0.02). We believe this to be an important explanation for the five-fold increase in perinatal mortality seen in this group of mothers. Unlike some other reports, we found no significant increase in the incidence of cephalopelvic disproportion, anemia or pregnancy induced hypertension in these mothers. The social implications of teenage pregnancy in Singapore are also examined and recommendations made for methods to curb the problem.

  14. Photoprotection in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, Fouad; Ammoury, Alfred; Nakhle, Fouad; Dhaybi, Rola; Marguery, Marie-Claude

    2006-02-01

    It is very common to apply a 'template photoprotection' without taking into consideration the background of a specific population. In Lebanon, so far, no preliminary survey has been conducted before launching an educational photoprotection campaign, revealing the need of the people according to their background. In April 2004, a specific questionnaire was administered to 940 adolescents, aged from 14 to 18 years. The questionnaire comprised 18 multiple-choice questions that established the approximate phototype of teenagers, awareness of ultraviolet (UV) hazard, presence of sufficient information regarding the risk of sun exposure (school, doctor, media) and the use of measures of photoprotection (clothes, sunscreens). The incidence of sunburn in teenagers was high (85.42%) despite their awareness of the risks of unprotected sun exposure. The information regarding sun damage seems to be insufficiently delivered at school and by doctors. The main source of information was television. It was obvious that our adolescents underestimated the value of clothing to protect themselves. The use of clothing comes at the second place after sunscreens. However, the application of sunscreen seems to be inadequate. While solar protection has become part of routine beach behavior for adolescents, there is room for improvement with better application of sunscreen and more use of clothing, especially wearing hats, and seeking shade. However, it is difficult to appreciate the impact of publicity campaigns on the risks of sun exposure in reducing the incidence of melanoma.

  15. Entrepreneurship Policy and Supportive Environment for Entrepreneurship Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Crnogaj

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The decision of individuals to either establish their own business or to expand an existing one, as well as the interdependence between entrepreneurship and economic development are significantly influenced by the environment in which those individuals live and work. Such an environment is possible to shape with appropriate industrial policy. Based partly on the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM database, obtained by surveying national experts in 2012, authors analyze business environment in Slovenia. We linked the results of analysis with potential channels of policy intervention proposed by entrepreneurial policy framework. The analysis shows that in Slovenia adequate social consensus on the importance of entrepreneurship and understanding of its role for economic growth and social development is still missing. Results also indicate that it is particularly important to strength the intervention on the supply side of entrepreneurship, because potential entrepreneur will take advantage of good business opportunity only if he/she will have the required capacities, skills and necessary resources.

  16. Climate policy in developing countries and conditional transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebbelke, Dirk T.G.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the role international transfers may play in international climate policy in consideration of the policy's ancillary benefits, such as air quality improvements. Ancillary benefits are especially important in many developing countries, while climate protection benefits or primary benefits play a minor role on the political agenda of these countries. In contrast, industrialized countries have a strong interest in combating climate change. These often neglected asymmetries between the developing and industrialized world affect the impacts of transfers. Interestingly, as we will show, the cost differentials between different environmental technologies among countries are the crucial prerequisite for the functioning of a transfer scheme and not the cost differentials in the execution of climate policy. This result has been overlooked by standard pure public good approaches

  17. Putting Climate Change Adaptation in the Development Mainstream. Policy Brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawala, S.; Paris, R.

    2005-03-01

    Climate change poses a serious challenge to social and economic development. Developing countries are particularly vulnerable because their economies are generally more dependent on climate-sensitive natural resources, and because they are less able to cope with the impacts of climate change. How development occurs has implications, in turn, for climate change and for the vulnerability of societies to its impacts. Climate change adaptation needs to be brought into the mainstream of economic policies, development projects, and international aid efforts. Considerable analytical work has been done on how development can be made climate-friendly in terms of helping reduce greenhouse gas emissions which cause climate change, although implementation remains a challenge. Much less attention has been paid to how development can be made more resilient to the impacts of climate change. In a narrow engineering sense, this could involve taking climate changes into account in the siting and design of bridges and other infrastructure. At a policy level, it could involve considering the implications of climate change on a variety of development activities including poverty reduction, sectoral development, and natural resource management. Bridging the gap between the climate change adaptation and development communities, however, is not easy. The two communities have different priorities, often operate on different time and space scales, and do not necessarily 'speak the same language'. Specific information is therefore needed on the significance of climate change for development activities along with operational guidance on how best to adapt to its impacts, within the context of other pressing social priorities. This Policy Brief looks at how far current development policies and programmes are taking climate change risks into account, as well as at ways to improve the 'mainstreaming' of adaptation to climate change in development planning and assistance

  18. Cultural commodification: where ethnic minorities and development policies meet

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Lara Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Broad development policies targeting impoverished ethnic minorities seek to merge cultural preservation and economic development goals using cultural commodification as a means to improve livelihoods and way of life. Since culture found its way into development policy—transforming it from a commodity centred concept to a human centred one—the diversity of culture itself has risen to the forefront as something in need of protection and as a valuable commodity. While the global tourism industry...

  19. Local economic development policy in Poland: Determinants and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Wiktor Sienkiewicz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to define nature, basis, and the effects of the economic development policy conducted by local governments in Poland. The analyses carried out are designed to define the role of local authorities in the management of economic development in the area. Furthermore, the purpose of this article is to analyse instruments for supporting economic development, which can be potentially used by local governments in Poland. The realization of this objective is possible by using descriptive methods based on a review of literature and the various types of documents and analysis on the policy of both the economic development and activities of local government, which implement this policy. The method of system analysis is also partially used in the article, and some results of surveys conducted among Polish and foreign investors and entrepreneurs in 2011 are presented. The article assumes that in spite of having a number of instruments, both formal and material, for encouraging economic development and business development, most local governments narrowly assess the current state of entrepreneurship and development trends, and perform an insufficient analysis of the potential of their area. Secondly, the formulated goals of economic development are not very innovative, ambitious or concrete. Furthermore, they do not arise directly from the analysis of the micro and macro-environment that affects the position and development of local government. Key words:

  20. Development of oral health policy in Nigeria: an analysis of the role of context, actors and policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etiaba, Enyi; Uguru, Nkoli; Ebenso, Bassey; Russo, Giuliano; Ezumah, Nkoli; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna

    2015-05-06

    In Nigeria, there is a high burden of oral health diseases, poor coordination of health services and human resources for delivery of oral health services. Previous attempts to develop an Oral Health Policy (OHP) to decrease the oral disease burden failed. However, a policy was eventually developed in November 2012. This paper explores the role of contextual factors, actors and the policy process in the development of the OHP and possible reasons why the current approved OHP succeeded. The study was undertaken across Nigeria; information gathered through document reviews and in-depth interviews with five groups of purposively selected respondents. Analysis of the policy development process was guided by the policy triangle framework, examining context, policy process and actors involved in the policy development. The foremost enabling factor was the yearning among policy actors for a policy, having had four failed attempts. Other factors were the presence of a democratically elected government, a framework for health sector reform instituted by the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH). The approved OHP went through all stages required for policy development unlike the previous attempts. Three groups of actors played crucial roles in the process, namely academics/researchers, development partners and policy makers. They either had decision making powers or influenced policy through funding or technical ability to generate credible research evidence, all sharing a common interest in developing the OHP. Although evidence was used to inform the development of the policy, the complex interactions between the context and actors facilitated its approval. The OHP development succeeded through a complex inter-relationship of context, process and actors, clearly illustrating that none of these factors could have, in isolation, catalyzed the policy development. Availability of evidence is necessary but not sufficient for developing policies in this area. Wider socio

  1. Predicting the risk of chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ilchenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of the study was to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic respiratory pathology in teenage smokers comfortable to use in practical medicine. Materials and methods. 73 teenage smokers aged 14–18 years (average age is 16.4 ± 0.2 years have been exa­mined. They were divided into two groups: group 1 consisted of 36 teenage smo­kers with chronic bronchitis (average age is 16.8 ± 0.2 years and comparison group comprised 37 apparently healthy teenage smokers (average age is 15.9 ± 0.2 years. We have studied clinical-anamnestic, functiona­­linstrumental data (spirometry, radiography of chest organs, level of nitric oxide in expired breath condensate, respiratory muscles strength and molecular-genetic factors of the risk of developing chronic pathology of respiratory organs in teenage smokers — 103 characteristics overall. The method of consequent (sequential analysis of Wald and Bayes strategy were used to create a prognostic model of the risk of chronic bronchitis. Results. The principle of working with a mathematical model for predicting the risk of chronic respiratory pathology development in teenage smokers is to sum up diagnostic factors that are consistent with the signs found in the patient. When the sum of diagnostic components is +13, the deve­lopment of chronic bronchitis is diagnosed in teenage smo­kers with error probability ≤ 5 % (р < 0.05; when the sum is +20 — the probability of diagnosis is 99 % (р < 0.01. Conclusions. Our algorithm for predicting the risk of develo­ping chronic bronchitis in teenage smokers will help early detection of high-risk patients in the formation of this pathology for personalized preventive measures that will allow practitioners to prevent chronic pathological processes and to improve the quality of life.

  2. NEWSPAPERS: TEENAGERS AND THEIR NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansor T. TENKU MAZUWANA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Newspaper is by far the most comprehensive printed medium among teenagers. The way newspaper represent the information will be able to generate more inputs to teenagers after they read various issues discussed. The objectives of this study are to identify the types of news which are chosen by teenagers; and to investigate the factors which are associated with the teenagers’ acceptance to the newspaper. A total of 387 teenagers, aged between 16 and 17 years old, who were students from 10 national secondary schools in the Federal Territory, Kuala Lumpur were selected to be the respondents of this study. Results shows that entertainment news seem to be the teenagers’ preferred choice. At the same times, the findings indicates that the contents of the newspapers have fulfilled the needs of the teenagers. However, the correlation test shows that the relationship between cognitive are moderate, weak for the affective, personal and escapism and there is no relationship between social needs and acceptance. As a conclusion, entertainment news has become the main choice of news among the teenagers. Meanwhile, the factor which is strongly associated with the teenagers’ acceptance is cognitive. It is hoped that the results of this study will be able to assist the newspaper institutions to publish contents relating to education and knowledge, which are connected to entertainment so that the newspapers could be one of the leading learning references, besides the school textbooks and printed references in order to fulfill various needs of the teenagers.

  3. Extent of implementation of collection development policies in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study is a survey research on the extent of implementation of collection development policies in academic libraries in Imo state. The population of the study comprises five (5) academic libraries in the area of study. The academic libraries understudy are: Imo State University Owerri (IMSU), Federal University of ...

  4. Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.

  5. Strengthening Science-based Environmental Policy Development in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Given this new and rapidly evolving situation, IDRC is providing funding to Simon Fraser University to support a network of young Burmese environmentalists to complete research that contributes to development policy and environmental practice in the ... IDRC and DHSC partner to fight antimicrobial resistance in animals.

  6. 7 CFR 371.9 - Policy and Program Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Policy and Program Development. 371.9 Section 371.9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... effects of APHIS programs to ensure their compliance with environmental laws and regulations and providing...

  7. Policies to Encourage the Development of Water Sanitation Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euverink, G.J.W.; Temmink, B.G.; Rozendal, R.A.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter examines innovations in water technology, policies to develop technologies that will contribute to a sustainalbe economy, and the introduction of the new concepts to society. We discuss our views on how wastewater treatment may be performed in the future in such a way that the WFD

  8. Correlates of Success in World Bank Development Policy Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Moll, Peter; Geli, Patricia; Saavedra, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the correlates of success of development policy lending operations of the World Bank between 2004 and 2012. The paper uses a data set constructed of individual loan characteristics and ex-post loan ratings produced by the World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group. Departing from the related literature, the paper focuses mostly on examining the impact of loan characteris...

  9. Impacts of the EU sugar policy reforms on developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkum, van S.; Roza, P.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2005-01-01

    This report analyses the impacts of the Commission's July 2004 proposal for sugar policy reforms on developing countries. The study uses three approaches that complement each other: model simulations, literature review and country case studies. Model simulations indicate that the consequences of the

  10. Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Social and Productive Development Policies for Inclusive Growth: A Program of Research and Capacity Building. Peru is one of the fastest growing economies in Latin America, but Peruvians continue to face large disparities in incomes, opportunities, and access to public services. While poverty has declined ...

  11. Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Linking Macro Development Policies to Child Poverty in Ethiopia's Second Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2006-2010). Globalization and trade liberalization are likely to have a major impact on the lives of poor children and their families. To date, however, few attempts have been made to differentiate the impact of ...

  12. Tax Policy and Enterprise Development in South Asia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research examines the impacts of property and value-added taxes, and tax exemptions and concessions on small enterprise development in South Asia. ... The goal is to provide decision-makers with data and insights to support more informed policy formulation and implementation for inclusive growth, productive ...

  13. Fiscal Policy and Economic Development in Nigeria (1960 - 2011 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the impact of fiscal policy measures on economic development in Nigeria. The Augmented Dickey-Fuller and Phillips-perron unit root test were first conducted. The cointe gration test was then performedusing Johansen Maximum Likelihood procedure. The granger causality test, the impulse response ...

  14. 153 Monetary Policy and Nigeria's Economic Development (Pp. 153 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2010-10-17

    Oct 17, 2010 ... Senior Lecturer, Department of Financial. Management Technology, School of Management Technology, Federal. University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria. Email: leakujuobi@yahoo.com. Abstract. This study investigated the impact of monetary policy instruments on the economic development of Nigeria, ...

  15. Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Planning local economic development: Policy challenges from the South African experience. CM Rogerson. Abstract. (Africa Insight: 2002 32(2): 39-45). Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ai.v32i2.22286 · AJOL African Journals ...

  16. Minority Language Researchers and Their Role in Policy Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorter, Durk

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the role of researchers in the development of language policies for European minority languages. This question is placed in the context of a long-standing debate in sociology to which several authors have contributed; among them are Max Weber, Howard Becker and Alvin Gouldner. This article also briefly refers to the European…

  17. Policy development: a more formal systems approach process

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greeff, AP

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available is suggested. The similarity between the classical systems approach and typical current policy development life-cycles are striking. The rigorous systems approach, as often used in Systems Engineering projects, could be adapted, and thus provide the rigour...

  18. Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Evidence-based ICT Policy for Development and Innovation. The cost of access to information and communication technologies (ITCs) in Africa remains the major impediment to the participation of Africans in the networked society. While Africa is the region with the fastest growing number of mobile phone subscribers in the ...

  19. Fracture mechanism of coronal teenage dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panfilov, P. E.; Kabanova, A. V.; Borodin, I. N.; Guo, J.; Zang, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The structure of coronal teenage dentin and the development of cracks in it are studied on microand nanolevels. The material is found to fail according to a ductile mechanism on a microlelvel and according to a ductile-brittle mechanism on a nanoscale. This behavior is similar to the failure of a polyethylene film and rubber, when significant elastic and irreversible deformation precedes crack growth. The viscoelastic behavior can be considered as the reaction of dentin to an applied mechanical load.

  20. Review on Policy Developments of FDI in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arben Sahiti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available India has been witnessing an extensive amount of foreign capital flowing to the market over the past twenty years after drastic changes made on its FDI policy. The aim of this research is to evaluate the policy developments of FDI during different stages since its independence and its impact on capital inflows. This research attempts also to uncover lessons that can be learnt from the case of India. A qualitative approach has been adopted for this research. The narrative analysis used in this study is based on secondary data that have been drawn from a pool of diverse sources including various databases, journal publications and books.

  1. Strategic information for industrial policy-making in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonod, P.F.

    1990-05-01

    The practice shows that many crucial decisions for industrialization in developing countries have been taken based on incomplete information. For strategic decisions an incomplete information may have catastrophic consequences. The function of policy-making is defined as the process by which the information generated/or used in a particular context is reevaluated in a different context in order to formulate/or execute a policy of alternative decisions. It follows that the industrial information must be presented in such a manner to allow a reevaluation and alternative decisions. 30 notes

  2. The long-run labour market consequences of teenage motherhood in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Arnaud Chevalier; Tarja K. Viitanen

    2002-01-01

    Common wisdom states that teenage childbearing reduces schooling, labour market experience and adult wages. However, the decisions to be a teenage mother, to quit school, and be less attached to the labour market might all stem from some personal or family characteristics. Using the National Child Development Study (NCDS), we find that in Britain teenage childbearing decreases the probability of post-16 schooling by 12% to 24%. Employment experience is reduced by up to three years, and the ad...

  3. Cultural beliefs and teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, B

    1983-09-01

    The influence of cultural variables on teenage pregnancy is not clearly understood. In-depth interviews with 20 Native American Indian, 17 black and 18 white teenage women indicated intercultural differences in beliefs about: (1) prevention of pregnancy, (2) significance of becoming a mother at an early age and (3) kinds of support systems available to them within their social network. The implications of these differences for nursing care include recognition and acceptance of intercultural differences and support of a decision-making model of pregnancy prevention for teenagers that incorporates diverse belief systems.

  4. Environmental economics and policy making in developing countries. Current issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motta, R.S. da

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, where growth expectations are high, least-cost environmental policies are crucial since they can reduce the conflict between economic growth and the environment. In view of this, policymakers in these economies must be very aware of the relationship between economic and environmental issues to offer policy initiatives which can increase efficiency and improve equity. The authors provide a comprehensive analysis of topics varying from the general problems of growth and conservation to specific applications such as; pollution costs, environmental taxation, deforestation and climate change. This volume also offers policymakers a comprehensive view of the challenges they face, and the legacies they leave, in order to convert environmental policy making into an actual programme of welfare improvement. (author)

  5. Policies for sustainable development: The case of governmental agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulhøi, John Parm

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, most national policies, including enterprise policies addressing environmental issues, have focused on the possible negative effects of environmental policy on firm competitiveness. Thus the belief among the business community has been fuelled that environmental aspects of business...... behaviour can only be seen as a negative burden detrimental to competitiveness. In opposition to this, a new, green national enterprise strategy has been developed in Denmark. This strategy seems to challenge the traditional approach by focusing instead on the positive side of the environmental agenda......, which assumingly rests on the belief that environmental issues need to be addressed as strategic assets for the firms. Put differently, instead of seeing the business community as obstructive enemies that have to be 'forced' to become greener, firms are seen as cooperative partners who can and have...

  6. Prevalence of Poor Sleep Quality and its Relationship with Body Mass Index among Teenagers: Evidence from Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duan-Rung; Truong, Khoa D.; Tsai, Meng-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Background: The linkage between sleep quality and weight status among teenagers has gained more attention in the recent literature and health policy but no consensus has been reached. Methods: Using both a propensity score method and multivariate linear regression for a cross-sectional sample of 2,113 teenagers, we analyzed their body mass index…

  7. Monetary Policies for Developing Countries; The Role of Corruption

    OpenAIRE

    Haizhou Huang; Shang-Jin Wei

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the role of corruption in the design of monetary policies for developing countries in a framework of fiscal and monetary interaction and obtains several interesting results. First, pegged exchange rates, currency boards, or dollarization, while often prescribed as a solution to the problem of a lack of credibility for developing countries, is typically not credible in countries with serious corruption. Second, the optimal degree of conservatism for a Rogoff (1985)-type cen...

  8. Economic Liberalization as Development Policy: the Contemporary Debate

    OpenAIRE

    Dejene Mamo Bekana

    2011-01-01

    The essay argues that the influential neoliberal economic philosophers assume that market and price mechanisms should be promoted to achieve economic development and calls for economic liberalization undermining the role of policy instruments. The essay challenges the presuppositions of these arguments. It maintains that Selective liberalization should be pursued by governments after development of regulatory and institutional frameworks that enable governments to monitor market operation and...

  9. Learning and Development Policy available on HR web

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The full text of CERN’s “Learning and Development Policy” is now available in English and French on the HR training website: cern.ch/hr-training/. This new policy was presented to all personnel in the HR Public meeting held on Monday 25 June, and the slides and the video recording remain available on Indico. Pascale Goy, Head of the Learning and Development Group in HR, is available for more information: pascale.goy@cern.ch , tel. 62232.

  10. Designing affective video games to support the social-emotional development of teenagers with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Mitu

    2009-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of developmental neuropsychiatric disorders, comprised of three diagnostic entities - autistic disorder (AD), Asperger's disorder (AS), and Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (including atypical autism) (PDD-NOS). A number of intervention techniques are currently used to reduce some of the associated challenges, with techniques ranging from behavioral therapy to dietary interventions and traditional counseling. This positional paper proposes the use of video games which leverage affective computing technologies as intervention in autism spectrum disorders in the context of the use of traditional play therapy with adolescents, who may feel uncomfortable engaging in traditional play with toys they may be too old for. It aims to explore the potential for greater 'social physics' made possible by affective computing technologies. This involves computationally 'recognizing' emotions in a user, often through the use of multimodal affective sensors, including facial expressions, postural shifts, and physiological signals such as heart rate, skin conductivity, and EEG signals. However, it is suggested that this should be augmented by researching the effect of social game design mechanisms on social-emotional development, particularly for those who experience difficulty with social interaction.

  11. Plastic surgery and the teenage patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, M H; Mukerji, S

    2000-08-01

    Over the past year, the media have reported an increase in the number of teenagers undergoing plastic surgery, and with a tone of faint alarm have suggested that this merits some cultural self-scrutiny. This paper presents the statistics on the number and types of plastic surgery operations done in teenagers over the last eight years and discusses these in the context of cultural influences and societal concepts of beauty. The reason to have plastic surgery is psychological and involves body image, which is defined as the subjective perception of the body as it is seen through the mind's eye. To explain why changing the external appearance affects personality and behavior, the complex psychological reactions that occur after an operation that alters the size or shape of a body part are reviewed. Body image development occurs in stages, and puberty stands out as a particularly sensitive time as the teenager undergoes major changes in his or her physical appearance and does this at a time of heightened vulnerability to the opinion of others. Plastic surgery to correct a truly unattractive feature is enormously successful and remarkably free of conflict in this population. Teenagers undergo a rapid reorganization of their self-image after plastic surgery with subsequent positive changes in behavior and interpersonal interactions. The key to achieving success with plastic surgery is patient selection. The core value of the surgery lies not in the objective beauty of the visible result, but in the patient's opinion of and response to the change. Good patient management includes selecting candidates with clear and realistic expectations who are free of psychopathology. There must be true informed consent and attention to psychological issues must continue into the postoperative period. It is the responsibility of the patient's physician and plastic surgeon to recognize a need for psychiatric evaluation and to help the patient get this as needed. The eight operations most

  12. Opportunities for scientists to influence policy: When does radiation metrology matter in development of national policy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coursey, Bert M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate measurements of radiation and radioactivity rarely rise to the level of national policy. The things that matter most to ordinary citizens do not normally include questions of science and technology. Citizens are more often concerned with issues close to home relating to commerce, health, safety, security and the environment. When questions of confidence in measurements arise, they are first directed to the ministry that has responsibilities in that area. When the required uncertainty in field measurements challenges the capability of the regulatory authorities, the National Metrology Institute may be asked to develop transfer standards to enhance the capabilities of the ministry with the mission lead. In this paper, we will consider eight instances over the past nine decades in which questions in radiation and radionuclide metrology in the US did rise to the level that they influenced decisions on national policy. These eight examples share some common threads. Radioactivity and ionizing radiation are useful tools in many disciplines, but can often represent potential or perceived threats to health and public safety. When unforeseen applications of radiation arise, or when environmental radioactivity from natural and man-made sources presents a possible health hazard, the radiation metrologists may be called upon to provide the technical underpinning for policy development. - Highlights: • We review instances in which accurate measurements of radiation influence policy. • Heads of state rely on senior science advisors to frame policy decisions. • Metrologists support federal agencies that have mission leads in different fields. • Metrologists are called on when other agencies lack requisite expertise. • Radionuclide metrologists must recognize and accept challenges

  13. Keeping teenagers in school may be the most effective contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    Keeping teenagers in school may be the best way to avoid repeat pregnancies, according to Dorothy R. Hollingsworth, professor of medicine and adolescent medicine at the University of California, San Diego. At a recent conference she suggested that family planning practitioners pursue 5 goals: develop more peer counseling programs for teenagers; make biological information available to teens at earlier ages, including information on the total reproductive process; offer contraceptive counseling in as many settings as possible; make early 1st trimester abortions more accessible for teenagers; and encourage teens to stay in school. Hollingsworth indicates that teenaged women are usually sexually active for 1-2 years before they seek professional counseling for birth control. She cited 6 factors as leading to early sexual activity: shortened childhood; sexual maturity; early involvement with 1 individual versus group activities; peer pressure; and excitement of risk taken. Hollingsworth warned that low dose oral contraceptives (OCs) may cause complications in teenagers, including menstrual changes, migraine headaches, depression, nausea, and fluid retention. In addition, Hollingsworth believes that IUDs are a poor form of contraception for the nulliparous patient and that the diaphragm is a better option than the contraceptive sponge for teenagers.

  14. Contraceptive medicalisation, fear of infertility and teenage pregnancy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Helen; Souza, Ana D; Tavares, Patrícia A; Cruz, Suélen H; Béhague, Dominique P

    2011-02-01

    In Brazil, as in many other countries, teenage pregnancy is widely recognised as a public health problem. Buttressed by a public health science of the economics of teenage pregnancy that emphasises the postponement of parenthood as key to poverty reduction, young people's lack of appreciation for medical knowledge of contraceptives is most often credited for failed attempts to reduce teenage pregnancy. Based on a longitudinal ethnographic study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil, with young people over the course of 10 years, our study found that young women who became teenage parents did not lack medical knowledge but were, rather, highly medicalised. Not only were they intensely concerned with the ill-effects of oral contraceptives on possible future fertility, they also engaged in intricate routines of contraceptive-use as a way of testing and safeguarding their fecundity. Our analysis attends to the way these practices are shaped by the problematisation of the economics of teenage pregnancy, as well as by the gendering of cultural norms relating to the transition to adulthood. We theorise the results by considering how contraceptive medicalisation enabled some women to engage with the authority of normative society, while developing a potent off-stage critique of this authority and of what they considered to be discriminatory messages imbedded in scientific discourses on teenage pregnancy.

  15. Government policy and the development of electric vehicles in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahman, Max

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the role that the Japanese Government has played in the development of alternatives to conventional vehicles, the effect of government programmes, and the importance of technical flexibility in government support schemes. The focus is on battery-powered electric vehicles (BPEVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), and fuel cell electric vehicles. The effects of government policy and the process of innovation are analysed from a systems approach drawing on the literature regarding technical change and innovation. The whole chain of government support, including the context in which these different policies have been implemented since the early 1970s, is studied. The Japanese Government has adopted a comprehensive strategy including R and D, demonstration programmes and market support guided by long-term strategic plans. The role of the Government has been that of a conductor in the development process supplying both R and D support and artificially created niche markets, and easing the way for targeted technologies by means of legislation and standards. Despite this, the targeted technology (the BPEV) has not been established on the market. However, the recent market success of the HEV can partly be attributed to the government support of the BPEV technology. The enabling component, the electric drivetrain, was developed for automotive use within the BPEV programmes offered by the MITI. This technology was later utilised in the HEV. The history of BPEVs in Japan demonstrates that 'picking winners' in government policy is not easy. Despite a sustained and ambitious policy by the MITI, the development of alternative vehicles never unfolded according to plan. The success factors for policy seem more related to technology specific features than the particular policy style. Our conclusion is that flexibility, adaptability and cooperation in terms of technical choice is necessary in policy. This increases the chances of a technology

  16. Sources of change in foreign policy. A review of foreign policy models for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba E. Gámez

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The study of what could be called the reorientation of State foreign policy is not a new phenomenon. Changes in alliances, economic partners and attitudes in the face of international issues have been reflected in myriad texts. Nevertheless, few theoretical frameworksdeal with this issue as an area of study in and of itself. Overcoming this situation would contribute to identifying and comparing the changes in attitude and discourse in the relations between countries, especially in the case of developing countries, and, by extension, thesources of these changes. This article reviews the different models for the analysis of foreign policy, using the conceptual framework of Hermann (1990 as its starting point. This framework suggests the existence of four graded levels of change which allow for studying forms of change which are subtle but important in foreign policy; it also offers a reasoned analysis for testing the relative importance of their sources. This conceptual framework can be situated in the traditional division of levels of analysis: the characteristics of the leader, bureaucratic proposer, internal adjustment, and external impact; and, while it does not provide a conclusive answer, it may be a useful tool in clarifying the ways of using empirical evidence and establishing the relative importance of the sources of change in foreign policy orientation.

  17. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alandes, M.; Abad, A.; Dini, L.; Guerrero, P.

    2012-12-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  18. Why are common quality and development policies needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alandes, M; Abad, A; Dini, L; Guerrero, P

    2012-01-01

    The EMI project is based on the collaboration of four major middleware projects in Europe, all already developing middleware products and having their pre-existing strategies for developing, releasing and controlling their software artefacts. In total, the EMI project is made up of about thirty development individual teams, called “Product Teams” in EMI. A Product Team is responsible for the entire lifecycle of specific products or small groups of tightly coupled products, including the development of test-suites to be peer reviewed within the overall certification process. The Quality Assurance in EMI (European Middleware Initiative), as requested by the grid infrastructures and the EU funding agency, must support the teams in providing uniform releases and interoperable middleware distributions, with a common degree of verification and validation of the software and with metrics and objective criteria to compare product quality and evolution over time. In order to achieve these goals, the QA team in EMI has defined and now it monitors the development work and release with a set of comprehensive policies covering all aspects of a software project such as packaging, configuration, documentation, certification, release management and testing. This contribution will present with practical and useful examples the achievements, problems encountered and lessons learned in the definition, implementation and review of Quality Assurance and Development policies. It also describes how these policies have been implemented in the EMI project including the benefits and difficulties encountered by the developers in the project. The main value of this contribution is that all the policies explained are not depending on EMI or grid environments and can be used by any software project.

  19. Emerging Understanding of Emotional Intelligence of Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhri, Punya; Sandhu, Meera; Sachdev, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) is the ability to use emotions effectively and productively. It is becoming increasingly clear that these skills are one of the primary foundations for better performance of students in classrooms and in the society as well and EI provides the basis for competencies important "in almost every job." So we accessed the EI of teenagers as a guide of their academic score. We analyzed the correlation of academic score to the EI of teenagers in regular schools and part-time unconventional coaching institute using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient questionnaire. The results of our study showed that empathy and self-actualization were highly developed in students of regular conventional school than those attending part-time unconventional coaching institute. The academic score had a significantly positive correlation with empathy, whereas a significantly negative correlation with interpersonal relations. Empathy, interpersonal relation, and impulsive control were significantly higher in females than males. Therefore by inculcating and working toward development of EI in the young generation, we can hope to achieve a more positive environment. Sekhri P, Sandhu M, Sachdev V. Emerging Understanding of Emotional Intelligence of Teenagers. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(3):289-292.

  20. Crime, Teenage Abortion, and Unwantedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoesmith, Gary L.

    2015-01-01

    This article disaggregates Donohue and Levitt’s (DL’s) national panel-data models to the state level and shows that high concentrations of teenage abortions in a handful of states drive all of DL’s results in their 2001, 2004, and 2008 articles on crime and abortion. These findings agree with previous research showing teenage motherhood is a major maternal crime factor, whereas unwanted pregnancy is an insignificant factor. Teenage abortions accounted for more than 30% of U.S. abortions in the 1970s, but only 16% to 18% since 2001, which suggests DL’s panel-data models of crime/arrests and abortion were outdated when published. The results point to a broad range of future research involving teenage behavior. A specific means is proposed to reconcile DL with previous articles finding no relationship between crime and abortion. PMID:28943645

  1. Teenagers: How to Stay Healthy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... should I especially be concerned about? The top killers of teenagers and young adults are car accidents, unintentional injury, homicide, and suicide. Cancer and heart disease are uncommon, but can ...

  2. Adapting public policy theory for public health research: A framework to understand the development of national policies on global health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine M; Clavier, Carole; Potvin, Louise

    2017-03-01

    National policies on global health appear as one way that actors from health, development and foreign affairs sectors in a country coordinate state action on global health. Next to a burgeoning literature in which international relations and global governance theories are employed to understand global health policy and global health diplomacy at the international level, little is known about policy processes for global health at the national scale. We propose a framework of the policy process to understand how such policies are developed, and we identify challenges for public health researchers integrating conceptual tools from political science. We developed the framework using a two-step process: 1) reviewing literature to establish criteria for selecting a theoretical framework fit for this purpose, and 2) adapting Real-Dato's synthesis framework to integrate a cognitive approach to public policy within a constructivist perspective. Our framework identifies multiple contexts as part of the policy process, focuses on situations where actors work together to make national policy on global health, considers these interactive situations as spaces for observing external influences on policy change and proposes policy design as the output of the process. We suggest that this framework makes three contributions to the conceptualisation of national policy on global health as a research object. First, it emphasizes collective action over decisions of individual policy actors. Second, it conceptualises the policy process as organised interactive spaces for collaboration rather than as stages of a policy cycle. Third, national decision-making spaces are opportunities for transferring ideas and knowledge from different sectors and settings, and represent opportunities to identify international influences on a country's global health policy. We discuss two sets of challenges for public health researchers using interdisciplinary approaches in policy research. Copyright

  3. How to Fight Teenage Suicide: A Parents' Guide to the Danger Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedo, David A.

    Physicians have developed and tested a profile to be used by parents and professionals to help identify potential teenage suicide victims. The profile was developed using a study of 27 male and 37 female teenagers hospitalized in the Children's Psychiatric Hospital at the University of Michigan Medical Center. Adolescents were shown to be reliable…

  4. The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Parker, John R.

    2005-01-01

    of ?The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas?. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance......As a result of a resolution at the Seventh United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCCA) held in January 2001 in New York, a Special Forum was hosted by the Government of Mexico through INEGI at their headquarters in Aguascalientes on 26 and 27 October 2004 with a theme...... of developing land policies that effectively and efficiently incorporate appropriate spatial data infrastructures, including an understanding of the value of integrating the land administration/cadastre/land registration function with the topographic mapping function. This paper presents an overview...

  5. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nury Abu Taher MS

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. Methods A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Results Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434, whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190 of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684 and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919 for teenage marital pregnancy. Conclusions Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should

  6. Factors associated with teenage marital pregnancy among Bangladeshi women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Nury, Abu Taher Ms

    2011-05-20

    Teenage pregnancy is a public health concern both in developed and developing world. In Bangladesh, most of the first pregnancies occur immediately after marriage, especially among teenagers. Although women aged 15-29 years are the most fertility contributing women in Bangladesh, studies are not yet conducted on teenage pregnancy within this group of women. In the current study, an attempt had been made to identify the factors affecting teenage marital pregnancy in women aged 15-29 years. A cross sectional survey was carried out in 389 women, selected with a convenience sampling technique. Participants were selected on the basis of two criteria, such as married women and age within 15-29 years. We excluded women aged more than 29 years as we attempted to conduct study within high fertility contributing women and with the assumption that they may provide data subjected to relatively high level of recall bias as marital pregnancy may be a longer past event to them. In the analysis, we applied bi-variate and multi-variate logistic regression technique to find out odds ratio of teenage marital pregnancy. Result revealed that 72.5% of the participants experienced first marital pregnancy during their teenage, with a mean age of 17.88 years (SD = 2.813). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that participants aged 20-24 years had higher likelihood (OR 1.971, 95% CI 1.132 to 3.434), whereas participants aged 25-29 years had lower likelihood (OR 0.054, 95% CI 0.016 to 0.190) of experiencing teenage marital pregnancy compared to participants aged 15-19 years. In addition, participants desired for >2 children had significant higher odds (OR 3.573, 95% CI 1.910 to 6.684) and participants born in urban area had significant lower odds (OR 0.458, 95% CI 0.228 to 0.919) for teenage marital pregnancy. Based on the findings, we conclude that in order to reduce teenage marital pregnancy, consideration should be given on women's desired number of children and birth place

  7. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daley Andrea

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH, and public health goals, in light of the lack of recognition of gender and sexually diverse individuals and communities. By first acknowledging the unique health and social care needs of LGBT people, then employing anti-oppressive, critical and intersectional analyses we offer recommendations for how to make population health perspectives, public health goals, and the design of public health promotion policy more inclusive of gender and sexual diversity. In health promotion research and practice, representation matters. It matters which populations are being targeted for health promotion interventions and for what purposes, and it matters which populations are being overlooked. In Canada, current health promotion policy is informed by population health and social determinants of health (SDOH perspectives, as demonstrated by Public Health Goals for Canada. With Canada's multicultural makeup comes the challenge of ensuring that diverse populations are equitably and effectively recognized in public health and health promotion policy.

  8. Tackling teenage pregnancy in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scally, G

    1999-06-26

    The deleterious social and health outcomes of unplanned pregnancy have been recognized internationally for some time. In UK, birth rates among teenagers have not decreased; every year about 90,000 teenagers in England become pregnant. Of these, 7000 are under 16 years old. A report from UK government's Social Exclusion Unit sets out a comprehensive analysis of the problem and offers far-reaching recommendations on how the extent and consequences of the problem can be reduced. The recommendations cited take a determined multisectoral approach. As part of a national campaign, parents will be encouraged to talk with their children about sex, young men are motivated to be more responsible in their sexual behavior, and those who father children of teenage mothers are pursued vigorously to ensure the provision of continuing financial support. At the local level, local authorities and health authorities will have to develop a local strategy involving the wide range of groups that have an interest on the issue. Efforts must also be made to refute the idea that sex education lowers the age at first intercourse. In addition, it is suggested that the sexual health in UK adopt the integrated approach to produce an effective sexual health service.

  9. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy Institute sur les questions de paix, de violence et de développement. Alors que la paix, la violence et le développement représentent des défis de taille au Pakistan, ils constituent rarement le point de mire pour l'élaboration de politiques. De surcroît, les étudiants ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF BOND MARKET IN BANGLADESH: ISSUES, STATUS AND POLICIES

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Saleh JAHUR; S.M. Nasrul QUADIR

    2010-01-01

    Bond market acts as buffer of equity market. This market in Bangladesh has been found very inefficient with respect to number of issues, volume of trade, number of participant, long-term yield curve, interest rate policy etc. In view of this, the present study has been undertaken aiming at identifying the problems that impedes the growth and development of Bond Market in Bangladesh. Researchers have collected both primary and secondary data and analysed the same by employing descriptive measu...

  11. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liou, Hwa Meei

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: → Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.→ There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.→ In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.→ In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.→ Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  12. Should Iceland engage in policy dialogue with developing countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilmar Þór Hilmarsson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a brief overview of the current status of Icelandic development cooperation, bilaterally and multilaterally, and argues that it is time for Iceland to become more engaged in policy dialogue with developing countries on issues related to public sector reform and economic policy. Iceland should also in the authors view take more advantages of the extensive knowledge that Icelandic experts possess, and the experience they have gained, both in Iceland and internationally. Iceland should be more active in offering exerts in the public service, in the academia, as well as in the private sector to provide policy advise and technical assistance to developing countries that are implementing complex economic and public sector reforms. A number of those exerts have also gained considerable international experience in implementing policy reform programs. The article then discusses two cases: (i the case of Latvia where Iceland rushed to recognize its independence, but did little to assist the country in the post independence period, and (ii, the case of Vietnam where a country like Iceland could provide valuable assistance to a country that is achieving remarkable progress in poverty reduction, implementing important public sector reforms and creating a better business environment for foreign investors. This article is based on the authors experience as chairman of the Board of the Icelandic International Development Agency (ICEIDA and as Special Advisor to the Minister for Foreign Affairs in Iceland from 1995 to 1999, and as World Bank specialist at the Bank’s Head Quarters in Washington DC from 1990 to 1995, in Latvia from 1999 to 2003 and in Vietnam from 2003 to 2006.

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF FRANCHISING IN CROATIA OBSTACLES AND POLICY RECOMMENDATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Alpeza, Mirela; Erceg, Aleksandar; Oberman Peterka, Sunčica

    2015-01-01

    Franchising is very popular growth model but despite the wide application of franchising in the developed countries of the world, its impact on the Croatian economy is still marginal. The purpose of this research is to identify the obstacles and challenges to a wider application of franchising in Croatia and generate policy recommendations for removing the identified obstacles. Obstacles and recommendations are identified on the basis of a conducted longitudinal qualitative research, the firs...

  14. Promoting LGBT health and wellbeing through inclusive policy development

    OpenAIRE

    Mul?, Nick J; Ross, Lori E; Deeprose, Barry; Jackson, Beth E; Daley, Andrea; Travers, Anna; Moore, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In this paper we argue the importance of including gender and sexually diverse populations in policy development towards a more inclusive form of health promotion. We emphasize the need to address the broad health and wellbeing issues and needs of LGBT people, rather than exclusively using an illness-based focus such as HIV/AIDS. We critically examine the limitations of population health, the social determinants of health (SDOH), and public health goals, in light of the lack of recog...

  15. Programme d'immersion du Sustainable Development Policy ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Grâce à cette subvention, le Sustainable Development Policy Institute (SPDI) sera en mesure de former un groupe de diplômés et de jeunes professionnels afin qu'ils puissent réaliser des recherches en sciences sociales au Pakistan et en Asie du Sud. Le programme comportera un volet théorique et des travaux pratiques ...

  16. Wind power in Taiwan: Policy and development challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Hwa Meei, E-mail: liouhm@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Technology Management, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43, Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-06-15

    The main aim of this paper is in discussing the outcome of the government's policies aimed at promoting the wind power industry. By analyzing the policies on renewable energy and the direct and indirect support mechanisms, the author reviews the achievements, limitations and strategies faced during their various stages. This research discovered that the series of measures adopted between 2000 and 2005 including installation plans, financial incentives, feed-in tariffs, export credit subsidies and R and D, helped to initiate the early steps of private investment, and allow domestic wind capacity to see stable growth. After 2005 with more clear goals set for wind energy installed capacity policies, R and D and industrial cooperation mechanisms, there was even greater breakthrough in limited market, enabling Taiwan's fledgling wind power industry to take its first steps onto the international production chain. In particular, the passing of the Renewable Energy Development Act in 2009 incited rapid growth in the domestic market as well as driving further development in the domestic wind energy industry. Overall, in current stage there is a need to get a handle on the gap still existing between international technology and market and that in Taiwan, in order to strategically develop a competitive advantage globally. - Highlights: > Taiwan wind power industries are still in the early forming stages.> There are direct and indirect policy incentives for promoting the wind power.> In the short term, R and D will focus on forecasting technology and on key components.> In the mid-term, small to mid-scale wind power generators are appreciated.> Currently, developing offshore WP, the MW WP turbine equipment is the key strategies.

  17. Using Standardized Health Consumer Indicators as a Policy Development Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Ovidiu BABA

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the relations between the European Union standardized health indicators and the community-based health policy. One of the goals of the European Commission is to provide standardized information on health in order to make it comparable at a trans-national level. Hence, numerous projects aimed at developing health indicators, and improving databases relating to these were supported by the Program of Community Action in the Field of Public Health. In this paper the authors argue that standardized health indicators can provide more than a prototype for a future health monitoring system. Bearing in mind that the production of comparable information on health is based upon four different tasks (the analysis of data needs in a specific area, definition of indicators and quality assurance, reporting and analysis, and promotion of the results the authors assert that all of these tasks are important steps towards the development of community-based health policy. Thus, the main objective of this study is to analyze their utility as premises for policy development.

  18. Canada's energy perspectives and policies for sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, Karen; Li, Xianguo

    2009-01-01

    A regression analysis is performed to make projections for the Canadian energy production and consumption. These have been increasing and are projected to increase even further in the near future. The primary energy production and consumption are projected to increase by 52% and 34%, respectively, by 2025 over 2004 if business as usual. The amount of fossil energy resources is finite and the extraction, transportation and combustion of fossil fuels cause environmental pollution and climate change. On the other hand, energy plays an important role in the economic and social development of Canada. Canada can develop further from an energy balance point of view, but this alone cannot be sustainable, because of the negative consequences of the major energy use on the environment. Application of energy localization and diversification is a promising solution, but in order to reach that, better energy efficiency and more use of renewable energy are necessary. Instead of non-compulsory policies Canada's policy approach should have more compulsory policies. Only then Canada can be made to develop further in a sustainable manner. (author)

  19. Urban development in developing countries: analysing current policies for Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Byrd, Hugh; Mandal, Anindita

    2011-01-01

    Urban areas in developing countries have been growing exponentially. In a list of cities with 5 million people or more, Mumbai did not feature in 1950, but in 1975 it occupied the 15th position which changed to 5th in 2000 and is expected to be 3rd by 2015. The rapid and continued growth of Mumbai and its sprawling metropolitan regions has put considerable strain on the city’s infrastructure and caused environmental degradation. Not only is Mumbai one of the most crowded cities in the wor...

  20. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Olena; Dræbel, Tania; Tellier, Siri

    2015-08-12

    Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH) policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine). It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policy-makers. Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group's involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include representatives of vulnerable communities which could

  1. Effects of agricultural development policies on migration in peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydar, N; White, M J; Simkins, C; Babakol, O

    1990-02-01

    State planning plays a central role in Malaysia's social and economic development. The government's rural development policies are designed to promote agricultural incomes and help counterbalance ethnic inequalities. The Federal Land Development Authority (FELDA) implements one of the internationally most successful land development and resettlement programs. In this article, we quantify the impact of FELDA settlements on local out-migration rates, linking macro and micro approaches and using data from the Malaysian Family Life Survey, national censuses, and other sources. A model of instantaneous migration rates specifies an individual's migration rate as a function of individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, the level of urbanization of the origin and destination, and the extent of rural development at the district of current residence. Our results show that in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the existence of rural development centers in a district reduced the levels of out-migration to pre-1965 levels.

  2. A climate for development. Climate change policy options for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okoth-Ogendo, H.W.O.; Ojwang, J.B.

    1995-01-01

    The seriousness of the potential impacts of climate change on development in Africa is now well recognized within, and increasingly outside, scientific circles. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a landmark in international environmental governance, providing a mechanism for exchange, negotiation and institution-building to re-direct development towards more efficient use of resources, especially energy. The message of 'A climate for Development' is that unless policy-makers fully understand both the international commitments made under the Convention and the essential national development priorities of their own countries, effective action on climate change is unlikely to be realized. The action needed, however, can at the same time stimulate capacity-building, planning and policy change which would strengthen the economic and ecological base of African countries. The climate change issue has hence brought us face to face with the urgency of the basic issues of sustainable development in Africa. The book discusses key issues that cut across all African countries, such as emissions and their impacts, financial resources and technology transfer for emissions abatement strategies. It then provides a sectoral analysis of greenhouse gas emissions and abatement options focusing on energy, industry, agriculture, forestry and transportation. The book concludes with guidelines for options which may be considered by African countries to ensure that climate change concerns are effectively dealt with in the context of their development priorities. 113 refs

  3. Waste incineration industry and development policies in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Zhao, Xingang; Li, Yanbin; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-12-01

    The growing pollution from municipal solid waste due to economic growth and urbanization has brought great challenge to China. The main method of waste disposal has gradually changed from landfill to incineration, because of the enormous land occupation by landfills. The paper presents the results of a study of the development status of the upstream and downstream of the waste incineration industry chain in China, reviews the government policies for the waste incineration power industry, and provides a forecast of the development trend of the waste incineration industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Environmental policy and technological development in the Dutch economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollebergh, H.; Van Groenendaal, W.; Hofkes, M.; Kemp, R.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis is given of recent insights into technological development and the environment. In particular, attention is paid to the question whether it is possible or not to combine continuous economic development with a release of the environmental burden. In several chapters the authors provide insight and discuss theories with regard to innovation and adoption of new technologies, the concept of transition management and the importance of uncertainty with respect to the decision to invest in environment-friendly techniques or not. Also, much attention is paid to characteristics of the Dutch economy and their consequences for technology and environmental policy and related interactions [nl

  5. Regulating biorisks: developing a coherent policy logic (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentzos, Filippa

    2007-03-01

    This is the second of two articles that empirically details the working practices of regulators charged with overseeing biological research. The first article considered how regulators from the Biological Agents Unit of the UK Health and Safety Executive went about implementing the British legislation controlling work with biological agents and genetically modified organisms prior to the terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 and the ensuing anthrax letters in the U.S. This second article continues the investigation of the Biological Agents Unit's working practices by considering how its activities have changed and adapted to the new, post-9/11 policy and regulatory environment. The main argument put forward in the articles is that an understanding of the implementation processes--that is, the strategies adopted by regulatory agencies and the styles employed by agency regulators in their interactions with those regulated--is critical to developing a coherent policy logic for the emerging regulatory regime around biorisks.

  6. Cross-impacts analysis development and energy policy analysis applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roop, J.M.; Scheer, R.M.; Stacey, G.S.

    1986-12-01

    Purpose of this report is to describe the cross-impact analysis process and microcomputer software developed for the Office of Policy, Planning, and Analysis (PPA) of DOE. First introduced in 1968, cross-impact analysis is a technique that produces scenarios of future conditions and possibilities. Cross-impact analysis has several unique attributes that make it a tool worth examining, especially in the current climate when the outlook for the economy and several of the key energy markets is uncertain. Cross-impact analysis complements the econometric, engineering, systems dynamics, or trend approaches already in use at DOE. Cross-impact analysis produces self-consistent scenarios in the broadest sense and can include interaction between the economy, technology, society and the environment. Energy policy analyses that couple broad scenarios of the future with detailed forecasting can produce more powerful results than scenario analysis or forecasts can produce alone.

  7. Public Policy Environment: legalization and judicial activism for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Pereira da Cunha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the phenomenon of judicialization of environmental public policies, from the "lens" judicial activism, making sure that we can include the existence of this phenomenon in the treatment of these policies. In our post-modern era we have seen increasingly the role of the judiciary. Thus, it sought to address this issue of judicial activism against such contemporary issues as the environment, seeking to understand how the judiciary behaves in relation to environmental issues, which no longer has time to waive or give up the protection of natural resources and compliance with the principle of sustainable development. The methodology used was a literature review and secondary data collection. It was noticed a different activism in the face of environmental issues.

  8. A Case for Rethinking Inclusive Education Policy Creation in Developing Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Jennifer; Pillay, Hitendra; Tones, Megan; Nickerson, Julie; Carrington, Suzanne; Ioelu, Ailini

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a critical analysis of the development and implementation of the 2014 inclusive educational policy in Samoa. While Samoan culture is traditionally founded on inclusive social practices, rather than reflecting these practices in their policy, Samoan policy developers have been under pressure to adopt or borrow policy from…

  9. Effect of maternal age and growth on placental nutrient transport: potential mechanisms for teenagers' predisposition to small-for-gestational-age birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Christina E; Greenwood, Susan L; Sibley, Colin P; Baker, Philip N; Challis, John R G; Jones, Rebecca L

    2012-01-15

    Teenagers have an increased risk of delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Young maternal age and continued skeletal growth have been implicated as causal factors. In growing adolescent sheep, impaired placental development and nutrient transfer cause reduced birth weight. In human pregnancies, SGA is associated with reduced placental amino acid transport. Maternal growth has no effect on placental morphology or cell turnover, but growing teenagers have higher birth weight:placental weight ratios than nongrowing teenagers. We hypothesized that placental nutrient transporter activity would be affected by maternal age and/or growth status. Placentas from teenagers and adults were collected. Teenagers were defined as growing or nongrowing based on knee height measurements. System A amino acid transporter activity was quantified as sodium-dependent uptake of [(14)C]methylaminoisobutyric acid into placental fragments. Teenagers had lower placental system A activity than adults (P teenagers, AGA and SGA infants had lower placental system A activity than AGA infants born to adults (P teenagers than in nongrowing teenagers (P teenagers than in adults (P teenagers. There was no difference in transporter protein expression/localization between cohorts. Teenagers have inherently reduced placental transport, which may underlie their susceptibility to delivering SGA infants. Growing teenagers appear to overcome this susceptibility by stimulating the activity, but not expression, of system A transporters.

  10. Outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao A

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred consecutive cases up to 19 years of age admitted for confinement at The Nowrosjee Wadia Maternity Hospital, Bombay, were studied. Out of these 200 girls, 6 were unmarried, 51 were anaemic, 20 had toxaemia of pregnancy. Six girls (43% in the age group 15-17 years delivered prematurely as compared to only 26 girls (14% in the age group of 17-19 years. This difference is statistically significant. Also, only, 4 girls (29% in the age group of 15-17 years had full term normal delivery as compared to 113 girls (61% in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the outcome of pregnancy becomes worst in girls below the age of 17 years. Ten babies (71% of mothers in the age group of 15-17 years were LBW as compared to 75 babies (44% of mothers in the age group of 17-19 years signifying that the incidence of LBW babies is inversely proportional to maternal age. Teenage pregnant girls needed more attention for prevention and treatment of preeclampsia eclampsia, anaemia, prematurity and LBW.

  11. Advancing sustainable development in Canada : policy issues and research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliadis, P.; Slayen, S.

    2003-11-01

    This paper defined 7 policy-relevant issues that advance sustainable development in Canada. These were; (1) urban redesign, (2) freshwater management, (3) eco-region sustainability, (4) impacts of globalization on sustainable development in Canada, (5) designing signals and incentives that promote sustainable behaviour among citizens, (6) reducing the ecological burden of unsustainable lifestyles, and (7) international engagement in sustainable development. The authors questioned why these issues have not made greater progress, given that they have been on national and international agendas since 1972. They also questioned why it is so difficult to integrate environmental and economic signals. Finally, they examined whether enough ecological and political space can be provided to developing countries to achieve sustainable development while enhancing the standard of living in Canada and not threatening critical global systems. 173 refs

  12. Are Sexual and Reproductive Health Policies Designed for All? Vulnerable Groups in Policy Documents of Four European Countries and Their Involvement in Policy Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Ivanova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Health policies are important instruments for improving population health. However, experience suggests that policies designed for the whole population do not always benefit the most vulnerable. Participation of vulnerable groups in the policy-making process provides an opportunity for them to influence decisions related to their health, and also to exercise their rights. This paper presents the findings from a study that explored how vulnerable groups and principles of human rights are incorporated into national sexual and reproductive health (SRH policies of 4 selected countries (Spain, Scotland, Republic of Moldova, and Ukraine. It also aimed at discussing the involvement of vulnerable groups in SRH policy development from the perspective of policymakers. Methods Literature review, health policy analysis and 5 semi-structured interviews with policy-makers were carried out in this study. Content analysis of SRH policies was performed using the EquiFrame analytical framework. Results The study revealed that vulnerable groups and core principles of human rights are differently addressed in SRH policies within 4 studied countries. The opinions of policy-makers on the importance of mentioning vulnerable groups in policy documents and the way they ought to be mentioned varied, but they agreed that a clear definition of vulnerability, practical examples, and evidences on health status of these groups have to be included. In addition, different approaches to vulnerable group’s involvement in policy development were identified during the interviews and the range of obstacles to this process was discussed by respondents. Conclusion Incorporation of vulnerable groups in the SRH policies and their involvement in policy development were found to be important in addressing SRH of these groups and providing an opportunity for them to advocate for equal access to healthcare and exercise their rights. Future research on this topic should include

  13. Health in all policies in the partnership for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M. Buss

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article analyzes the dynamic interaction between the Health in All Policies (HiAP agenda and the ongoing implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. At the World Conference on Social Determinants of Health, held in Rio de Janeiro in October 2011, the Rio Political Declaration pledged to use HiAP as a mechanism to address health inequities. In 2014, the Ministers of Health of the Region of the Americas approved a regional Plan of Action of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO that sought to call attention to the health consequences and benefits of policies and actions developed by other sectors. The HiAP approach seeks to integrate activities across the pillars of the sustainable development governance framework (economic, social, and environmental development. Advocates of the process are challenged to consider, using guiding questions outlined at the close of this article, how to pursue action at the country level and in what ways the HiAP approach can contribute to timely and effective implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs. The authors propose that coordination between the 2030 Agenda and the regional Plan of Action on HiAP can make an important contribution to the implementation of both processes in the Region.

  14. Condition of nuclear energy policy development in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudyma, A.; Piriashvili, B.; Khakimov, Y.; Khrushtchov, D.

    2000-01-01

    The preservation and strengthening of economic and political stability of the state depends first of all on the situation in the main branches of economy. One of such branches is the energy sector, whose level of development defines the place and the role of the state in the world community. On the other hand, the status of the energy sector, one of the major elements ensuring political and economic stability, determines energy security as well. Besides, the concept of energy sector development in general and nuclear energy in particular should be based on the real geopolitical situation, which Ukraine has faced after USSR disintegration. Therefore, the energy policy development is the most important link in the development of the state itself, for importance of this policy goes far beyond the frameworks of the energy sector. Besides, it is necessary to note, that the new geopolitical conditions have abruptly changed the course of economic and social development of the country. Frist of all, it was reflected in the significant drop of its energy security that resulted in: first sharp fall own fuel resources production and electric power generation; second significant reduction in inflow of energy resources to Ukraine. Such situation is stipulated by the general drop in the demand for power resources due to general fall in industrial and agricultural production, as well as by the sharp decrease in own energy resources production and absence of sufficient financial means for the acquisition of the deficient power resources import

  15. Comparing Czech and Slovak Council Newspapers’ Policy and Regulation Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Waschkova Cisarova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Council newspapers form an integral part of European media systems and, as such, have been analysed for their important contribution to the development of local politics. However, despite a recognition of the media’s important democratic function in the transition countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE after the fall of socialism, the consideration of council newspapers’ political role in the Czech Republic and Slovakia have been largely absent in debates surrounding the development of regulatory frameworks until recently. Interestingly, debates regarding local government transparency emerged recently (2011 in the United Kingdom, resulting in the Code of recommended practice on local authority publicity, underscoring the importance of this issue. However, developments in the aforementioned situations demonstrate divergent outcomes in such considerations: the British addressed the causes, the Czechs addressed the symptoms, and the Slovaks have yet to make any headway. This article utilizes qualitative analysis of policy and regulation documents to compare the trajectories of media policy and regulation of council publicity in the Czech Republic and Slovakia, ultimately contrasting it with developments in the UK, suggesting possible future trajectories for the development of this type of regulation in the CEE countries.

  16. Teenage partners' communication about sexual risk and condom use: the importance of parent-teenager discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, D J; Miller, K S; May, D C; Levin, M L

    1999-01-01

    Teenagers' communication with their partners about sex and their use of condoms may be influenced by the discussions teenagers have with their parents about sex. However, little is known about the process of parent-teenager communication on this topic. Understanding both what parents discuss with their children and how they discuss it may lead to a greater understanding of teenagers' sexual behavior. Interviews were conducted with 372 sexually active black and Hispanic youth aged 14-17 from Alabama, New York and Puerto Rico. Regression analyses were used to examine parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and about sexual risk, and parental communication skills as predictors of teenagers' discussions about sexual risk with a partner and teenagers' condom use. Parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk were associated with an increased likelihood of teenager-partner discussions about sexual risk and of teenagers' condom use, but only if parents were open, skilled and comfortable in having those discussions. Teenagers' communication with their partner about sexual risk also was associated with greater condom use, but the relationship between parent-teenager communication and teenagers' condom use was independent of this association. The influence on teenagers of parent-teenager discussions about sexuality and sexual risk depends on both what parents say and how they say it. Programs that foster parent-teenager communication about sexuality and sexual risk must emphasize both of these aspects.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions trading and complementary policies. Developing a smart mix for ambitious climate policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthes, Felix C.

    2010-06-15

    . Closer examination of the practical implementation of the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) shows very clearly that substantial differences to an ideal type of emissions trading scheme have to be taken into account, which can or should only be eliminated in the longer term or, for practical reasons, not at all. Further, analysis of the market development of the EU ETS up to now demonstrates that a strategic, robustly developed climate policy which meets the ambitiousness described also has to factor in the possibility that an emissions trading scheme cannot produce any long-term scarcity signals for different reasons (e.g. continual opportunities for revision in democratic systems, operational realities) and can thus always only serve the - essential - purpose of clearing emission reduction options close to the market which are available in the short to medium term.

  18. Specific Features of Value Orientations and Social Mindsets of Deviant Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovsyanik, Olga A.; Belinskaya, Darya B.; Kochetkov, Igor G.; Deberdeeva, Nelia A.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the studied problem is determined by a continuous growth of suicidal activity in a majority of economically developed countries of the world. The statistical data on teenage suicides is especially frightening: according to the recent data (2014) among teenagers at the age of 15-19 there are 5,9 suicidal cases for 100 thousand…

  19. Effect of Recreational Noise Exposure on Hearing Impairment among Teenage Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Chen-Yin; Chao, Keh-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the potential impact of children's hearing loss on learning and development. Recently, numerous teenage students have been found to be fond of listening to music on personal devices and participating in recreational music activities. The objective of this study was to investigate teenage students' hearing…

  20. Parental Support for Teenage Pregnancy Prevention Programmes in South Carolina Public Middle Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India; Prince, Mary; Flynn, Shannon; Kershner, Sarah; Taylor, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Teenage pregnancy is a major public health issue in the USA; this is especially true in the state of South Carolina (SC). Research shows that well developed, good-quality teenage pregnancy prevention (TPP) programmes can be effective in modifying young people's sexual behaviour. While several quantitative studies have examined parents' perceptions…

  1. When To Let Your Teenager Start Dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share When To Let Your Teenager Start Dating Page Content Article Body Dating customs ... coasts to a halt. First Heartbreak: Helping Your Teenager Cope The breakup of a romance can be ...

  2. Reducing the Risks of Teenage Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M. Faith

    1984-01-01

    Reviews the medical and social risks of teenage pregnancy and describes two successful programs dealing with pregnancy and parenting: the St. Paul Maternal and Infant Care Project in Minnesota and the Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting Project in San Francisco. (SK)

  3. Teenage Pregnancy: A Family Life Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theriot, Rosemary; Bruce, Becky

    1988-01-01

    Looks at issues surrounding teenage pregnancy and describes different school-based approaches to sex education. Stresses that parental involvement is critical to the success of any effective program for reducing teenage pregnancy. (RWB)

  4. Childcare challenges faced by teenage mothers attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    care center, Eastern Cape. ... The purpose of the study was to examine the experiences of teenage mothers attending Nontyatyambo Health Care Centre regarding child care. A quantitative approach using a convenient sample of forty teenage ...

  5. Exploring relationships in teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Elizabeth

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to report a study exploring aspects of teenage pregnant women relationships with the fathers of their unborn children within the context of two contrasting demographic areas of the UK. The perceptions of teenage pregnant women on how they view their relationship with the fathers of their unborn babies has not been fully investigated. Three major categories emerged from the perspectives of 47 teenage pregnant women: (i) age of baby's father; (ii) education and employment status of baby's father; and (iii) ability of baby's father to provide financial support. Teenage pregnant women living in the south-east were more likely to maintain the relationship with fathers of their babies than those living in the north-west. This was found to be statistically significant. The age, employment status and education of the baby's father can influence the continuance of the partnership between the participant and of the father of her baby. The statistical difference in the maintenance of the relationship between the prospective parents may be associated with the continuing demographic and cultural characteristics of the north-west, where teenage pregnancy remains high and the south-east where the rates are low.

  6. Social Analysis in Development Interventions: Policy Artefact or Constructive Transformation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUSANNA PRICE

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently attention has focused on the role of social researchers in the processes of construction and transmission of knowledge about global poverty and its reduction. This paper examines some of the formative efforts by pioneering social researchers in development institutions to step into the realm of policy making to construct processes for project preparation and management through social analysis. Before 1970 development planners invoked ‘social' or ‘human' factors only as an excuse to explain away project failures - they designed and implemented development projects in the absence of any strategies or regulatory frameworks for managing their social impacts. Recognizing that project investments represent induced change and constitute a social process in themselves, pioneering social researchers constructed policies and procedures to introduce sociological content and method into the project cycle and so re-order social outcomes. Were such constructs merely policy artefacts? Even as the constructs helped to shift the statements of the development discourse towards ‘people oriented' poverty reduction, new modalities appeared which tested the limits of the agreed methods. Institutions may forget, neglect, contest or re-write the documents if in perceived conflict with the institutional ‘core business'. Yet those pioneering efforts created institutional space for, and understanding of, social analysis, with a measure of flow-on international recognition. Tracking social analysis in several international institutions and in a significant emerging economy, China, this paper highlights not only a history full of lessons to be learned where social analysis is not practiced systematically but also outlines some future challenges.

  7. Teenage pregnancy, taxes, and overpopulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R C

    1997-01-01

    Financial incentives could be used in the United States to control population growth, particularly, with regard to teenage pregnancy. If a fund is established for each American woman at age 18 which pays her $5000 (with interest) if she, or her husband, is sterilized before she bears a third child ($10,000, if the sterilization occurs before a second child), the woman would be less likely to succumb to peer pressure to become pregnant. Women who object to sterilization on religious grounds could receive a bonus if they reach the age of 50 with fewer than 3 children. Unlike the Chinese or Indian birth control programs, no coercion would be used. It would be a "humane alternative" to welfare cuts, which hurt innocent children, and the number of abortions would decrease. American society would lose "future" taxpayers; however, in this age of declining job opportunities for persons without special skills, population growth should be slowed. This would also ease resentment in developing countries, where people are asked to reduce their birth rates while the United States shows no inclination to do so.

  8. European Policy for Corporate Social Responsibility: Governance Context, Linkage with Sustainable development and Crisis as a Policy Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taliouris, Evangelos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Political prerequisites for sustainable development (SD in European Union (EU and its member states are environmental innovation as well as transparency, social welfare, good governance and responsible entrepreneurship. The Europe 2020 Strategy and its indicators were a significant step in order EU, its member states and the social stakeholders to deal with crisis negative socioeconomic and environmental outcomes, but also to improve social trust. An important stakeholder towards these is European business sector. Therefore, responsible entrepreneurship via corporate social responsibility (CSR is a policy topic in EU in parallel with other policy topics such as transparency (e.g. non-financial reporting and good governance (e.g. political framework for CSR. The European business community was always a crucial stakeholder for development, but since 2001 CSR is explicitly part of European policy agenda through topics such as public procurement, responsible supply chains, anti-corruption policies, employment generation, reporting and disclosure etc. In EU the applied policy for CSR indicates different approaches and policy tools within the common policy framework and definitions. Moreover, the crisis evolution became an accelerator for CSR policy evolution and convergence between perspectives and member states. The renewed strategy in 2011, the report for CSR public policies in 2014 and the EU steps towards SD Agenda for 2030 in 2015 indicated issues such as corporate citizenship and responsible entrepreneurship as an ongoing policy process that focuses both on EU political convergence at member states level and the European business sector excellence.

  9. Impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Accident on Nuclear Development Policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, Robert; Henderson, David; ); Moore, Laurie

    2017-01-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident has had an impact on the development of nuclear power around the world. While the accident was followed by thorough technical assessments of the safety of all operating nuclear power plants, and a general increase in safety requirements has been observed worldwide, national policy responses have been more varied. These responses have ranged from countries phasing out or accelerating decisions to phase out nuclear energy to countries reducing their reliance on nuclear power or on the contrary continuing to pursue or expand their nuclear power programs. This study examines changes to policies, and plans and attempts to distinguish the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi accident from other factors that have affected policy-making in relation to nuclear energy, in particular electricity market economics, financing challenges and competition from other sources (gas, coal and renewables). It also examines changes over time to long-term, quantitative country projections, which reveal interesting trends on the possible role of nuclear energy in future energy systems. (authors)

  10. Agrofuels policy in Colombia: expectations and rural development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejia Alfonso Sandra Liliana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    The debate over the current biofuels policy has two positions: first, those considering it as an alternative aimed at reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to global warming; secondly, those who argue about the distributional conflicts that can bring socio-environmental adoption of these policies at local level. This article presents the national policy settings and scenarios of biofuel production based on agro-energy projects, which are used raw materials such as palm oil to produce biodiesel, sugar cane, sugar loaf cane and cassava for the distillation of ethanol. Thus regional dynamics observed that intersect with the new rural environment in the Colombian countryside connection between the local and global that generate expectations to achieve rural development goals.

  11. Crime and the transition to teenage parenthood

    OpenAIRE

    Carine Øien-Ødegaard; Torbjørn Skardhamar

    2015-01-01

    Age-graded social control theory suggests that parenthood can have a preventive effect on crime among adults, but it is unclear whether and how this applies to teenagers, as teenage parenthood and affiliation with crime can have mutual confounding causes. Using individual-level Norwegian administrative register data on the total population of fifteen to nineteen year olds, we assess the relationship between teenage parenthood and criminal activity. We find that teenage parents have an elevate...

  12. Motivation in Teenage Users of Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Fyodorov V.V.; Mileev I.D.

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes outcomes of a research on motivation in teenage users of virtual communicative spaces, that is, social networking sites. The hypothesis was that there is a correlation between teenagers' online activity in social media and features of their motivation. As it was revealed, types of teenagers' activities in social networking sites and types of motivation follow a certain hierarchy. Also, there are significant differences in motivations and time perspective in teenagers with ...

  13. Information Literacy Policy Development in Canada: Is It Time?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Bradley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This article examines policy issues related to information literacy in Canada. It provides some background on the information literacy concept, reflecting on popular definitions offered by American, British, and Australian library associations, before advocating for a broader definition that views information literacy as a human right. Information literacy is also considered in relationship to the proliferation of other “literacies,” such as digital, web, media, and information technology, that are the subject of increased advocacy and attention from interest groups and educators. The ongoing need for improved information literacy levels is analyzed not only in the context of inputs (the increasing complexity of the information environment but also in terms of potential personal, social, and economic outcomes that can be realized through widespread information literacy education efforts. The paper argues that information literacy must become a priority not only among academic librarians but also school, public, and special librarians, as well as others outside of the library sector, if significant improvements in information literacy levels are to be realized. Such a coordinated approach can only be achieved in the context of policies that require, and adequately support, widespread efforts at improving information literacy levels. After a review of the ad-hoc state of information literacy education in Canada today, this paper analyzes information literacy-related policy development efforts in Canada to date in the four arenas where one would expect to see such activity: the Government of Canada, provincial governments, library associations, and other stakeholder groups. This article aims to start a wide-reaching discussion about information literacy and associated policy issues in Canada.

  14. Assessing the role of energy in development and climate policies in large developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, A.; Halsnaes, K. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The paper discusses a number of key conceptual issues related to the role of energy in development and its potential synergies and tradeoffs with climate change. The relationship between economic development and energy over time is discussed and illustrated by data from Brazil, China, India and South Africa. It is concluded that energy plays an important role as a productivity enhancing factor in economic development and in human well being and several policy goals related to sustainable development (SD), energy and climate can be integrated. However, meeting all these policy goals requires a special effort and can imply costs. An analytical approach that can be used to assess development, energy and climate policies is introduced and empirical indicators of Sustainable development trends for the period 2000-2030 are presented. In a pragmatic way, it is proposed to use indicators of economic, social, and environmental SD dimensions such as costs, employment generation, energy access, local and global emissions, income distribution, and local participation in the evaluation of specific policies. The approach is developed and tested as part of the Development, Energy, and Climate project which is international project cooperation between the UNEP Risoe Centre and teams in Brazil, China, India and South Africa. The results demonstrate that there is a huge potential for energy efficiency improvements in the energy systems in these countries and thereby cost savings and reduced emissions intensity. However, the implied greenhouse gas emissions depend on fuel and technology compositions and reduction will imply that specific policies are put in place. (au)

  15. Correlates of institutional deliveries among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Acharya

    Full Text Available Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011.The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15-49 years who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7.07% were teenage mothers. The association between the background characteristics and institutional delivery was assessed separately for the teenage and non-teenage mothers using chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis.After adjusting for background characteristics, teenage mothers were found more likely to deliver at a health facility [AOR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.10 4.59] in comparison to the non-teenage mothers. Place of residence, occupation, socioeconomic status, and frequency of ANC visits were associated with institutional delivery in both the teenage and non-teenage mothers. However, educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy had statistically significant association with institutional delivery among the non-teenage mothers only. None of the background characteristics were significantly associated with institutional delivery in teenage mothers only.This study identified a significant difference in institutional delivery service utilization among the teenage and non-teenage mothers. While the association of most of the background characteristics with institutional delivery was uniform for both teenage and non-teenage mothers, the association with educational status, parity, birth preparedness and women autonomy was significant only for non-teenage mothers. Considering this difference in the interaction of women's background characteristics with institutional delivery between teenage and non-teenage mothers might help in identifying the pain points and

  16. Life Interpretation and Religion among Icelandic Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsson, Gunnar J.

    2009-01-01

    Does religion play any specific part in Icelandic teenagers' life interpretation? This paper examines Icelandic teenagers' talk about religion and presents some of the findings in interviews with teenagers in a qualitative research project. The focus is especially on how three individuals express themselves about the influence of religion on their…

  17. Exploring Intersections between Teenage Pregnancy and Gender ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of teenage pregnancy was conducted over a period of three months in 1996 in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Interviews with teenage mothers and fathers gave reason to explore the various intersections between teenage pregnancy and gender violence. Gender violence is defined as acts of force or coercion ...

  18. Teenage Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes: Experience from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Teenage pregnancy is known as a risk factor for preterm birth, low birth weight and perinatal deaths, thus considered public health problem. In South Africa, most teenage pregnancy is found within the context of unstable relationship and unplanned or unwanted pregnancies. A high rate of teenage pregnancy is ...

  19. Teenagers Talking about Reading and Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowball, Clare

    2008-01-01

    Past research has shown teenagers to be reluctant to read and less likely to visit libraries than younger children. These conclusions are debated and further investigation is needed. Difficulties abound in researching teenagers' opinions. Teenagers can be reluctant to participate in activities and peer support is often very important in…

  20. Methods and tools for integrated assessment of land use policies on sustainable development in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidsma, P.; König, H.; Feng, S.; Bezlepkina, I.; Nesheim, I.; Bonin, M.; Sghaier, M.; Purushothaman, S.; Sieber, S.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2011-01-01

    For stimulating sustainable development in developing countries, land use patterns and land use changes are considered critical, and therefore effective and efficient land use policies are needed. In this paper we present a methodological framework that has been developed in a joint European and

  1. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13......-16-year-olds (n = 93) as well as 26 semistructured interviews with small self-selected friendship groups of 15-16-year-olds (n = 32). FINDINGS: The teenagers participating in the present study were more concerned about social than health risks. The informants monitored their own level of intoxication....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  2. Impacts on the Common Agricultural Policy and on rural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, G.; Palz, W.

    1992-01-01

    In the 1980s the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) resulted in large surpluses of main agricultural products; dealing with these surpluses consumed large parts of the Commission's and Member States' budgets. To alleviate this problem, a proposal for alternative land use is presented here: large-scale exploitation of biomass for industrial and energy uses, at the level of 600 to 800 million tonnes of oil equivalent a year. The important benefits to arise from this activity will include: job creation in rural districts, solutions to environmental problems, and technologies applicable in developing countries. (author)

  3. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Moo, Philip; Koh, B. J.; Son, M. K.; Han, G. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors in near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  4. Development of regulatory policy for SMART-P

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. H.; Moon, S. H.; Lee, Y. H.; Son, M. K.; Han, K. H.; Kim, D. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    KAERI promoted the construction of a research reactor, SMART-P, the reduced scale of SMART, with intent to demonstrate the safety and performance of SMART. According to this progress, the development of regulatory process for SMART-P became necessary. The establishment of regulatory policy, based on the current regulatory guidelines as well as technical aspect, became essential matters. Considering the on-going small and medium size reactors m near future, the selection of the appropriate measure in the existing regulatory process to SMART-P is very important. Thus the schematic study for the applicable licensing procedure and regulatory requirements suitable for SMART-P is required.

  5. New Systems Thinking and Policy Means for Sustainable Energy Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    2010-01-01

    of the dominating neoclassical economy and the short time horizon of the present market system. On the supply side fossil fuels are becoming a central problem being the dominating global energy source while at the same time presenting serious problems in relation to global warming and limited resources (“peak oil......Sustainable energy development requires attention to both the demand and supply side. On the demand side there is an urgent need for efficient policy means promoting energy conservation. This includes changes in the institutional and economic framework to compensate for the short comings...

  6. Teenage pregnancy: a psychopathological risk for mothers and babies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Gwendoline; Kadji, Caroline; Delvenne, Veronique

    2015-09-01

    Teen pregnancy remains a public health problem of varying importance in developing and developed countries. There are risks and consequences for teen parents and the child on the medical and socioeconomic level. We conducted a literature search on multiple databases, focusing on the risk and the consequences of teen pregnancy and childbearing. We used different combined keywords as teen pregnancy, teen mother, teenage parents, teenage childbearing, teenage mother depression. Our search included different type of journals to have access on different views (medical, psychological, epidemiologic). The teen mothers are more at risk for postnatal depression, school dropout and bad socioeconomic status. The babies and children are more at risk for prematurity and low birthweight and later for developmental delays and behavior disorders. Pregnancy in adolescence should be supported in an interdisciplinary way (gynecologist, psychologist, child psychiatrist, midwives, pediatrician). We need further studies that allow targeting patients most at risk and personalizing maximum support.

  7. Intergenerational equity and governance in sustainable development policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faucheux, S.; Meral, P. [Universite de Versailles-Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Guyancourt (France). Centre d`Economie et d`Ethique pour l`Environnement et le Developpement

    1999-07-01

    With ecological globalization, environmental degradation has become a phenomenon capable of accentuating not only the sources of spatial and temporal conflicts, but also inter-and intragenerational inequities. In this context, it seems important, first of all, to explain the ways in which the taking into account of inter-generational equity in our societies` decisions constitutes a new challenge posing unresolved questions for decision makers. Secondly, we see that the implementation of effective policies for sustainable development (that is, taking real account of the long-term and of equity concerns), requires the development of new perspectives and practices in science and of new ``governance`` institutions capable of responding to these new challenges. Thirdly, we show that these changes imply, for economic analysis and the advice that can be offered by economists, a shift from a substantive rationality perspective towards a procedural rationality. This latter encourages the development of new analysis and decision support tools based on a wider sharing of information and efforts at reconciling different perspectives in the assessment of risks and equity concerns. This new rationality will be expressed as a process of debate and dialogue taking place continuously in all phases of the policy process. (orig.) 53 refs.

  8. Abstinence and teenagers: prevention counseling practices of health care providers serving high-risk patients in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Cynthia C; Henderson, Jillian T; Schalet, Amy; Becker, Davida; Stratton, Laura; Raine, Tina R

    2010-06-01

    Abstinence-only education has had little demonstrable impact on teenagers' sexual behaviors, despite significant policy and funding efforts. Given the struggle over resources to improve teenagers' reproductive health outcomes, the views of clinicians serving teenagers at high risk for unintended pregnancy and STDs merit particular attention. In 2005, a qualitative study with 31 clinicians serving low-income, at-risk patients was conducted. A semistructured interview guide was used to ask clinicians about adolescent pregnancy, HIV and STD prevention counseling, and when they include abstinence. Thematic content analysis was used to examine the content of the counseling and the techniques used in different situations. Providers reported offering comprehensive counseling, presenting abstinence as a choice for teenagers, along with information about contraceptives and condoms. Several providers mentioned that with young, sexually inexperienced teenagers, they discuss delaying sexual activity and suggest other ways to be affectionate, while giving information on condoms. Providers explained how they assess whether teenagers feel ready to be sexually active and try to impart skills for healthy relationships. Some described abstinence as giving teenagers a way to opt out of unwanted sexual activity. Many support abstinence if that is the patient's desire, but routinely dispense condoms and contraceptives. Overall, providers did not give abstinence counseling as a rigid categorical concept in their preventive practices, but as a health tool to give agency to teenagers within a harm reduction framework. Their approach may be informative for adolescent policies and programs in the future.

  9. Tanning and beauty: Mother and teenage daughters in discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Jennifer L; Geller, Alan C; Schoenhammer, Maria; Gordon, Mallorie; Bishop, Marilyn; Shuk, Elyse; Oliveria, Susan; Halpern, Allan C

    2016-07-01

    Tanning increases dramatically through the teenage years, but the family context of this health risk behavior is relatively unstudied. We conducted videotaped conversations between teenage girls (10th and 11th grade) and their mothers. We developed a coding system for discussion content and highlight findings including inadequate knowledge concerning the harms of tanning and positive views of outdoor tanning over indoor tanning, yet agreement that all tans are attractive. Many teens believed that indoor tanning is sometimes necessary to achieve the tanned look. These findings can usefully guide intervention development regarding the harms of all tanning, rather than indoor or outdoor tanning specifically. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. National Policies and strategies on science and technology for development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayob, A

    1979-01-01

    Malaysia's economy continues to be dependent upon the primary producing sectors, based on the exploitation or use of her natural resources. At this Malaysia is the world's largest exporter of natural rubber, tin, tropical hardwoods and palm oil. There is still wide scope for developing new application of science and technology in the rubber industry, and the scope remains even wider in other agricultural sectors. In order to accelerate development in the traditional agricultural sector, that is, those related to food production, the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) was established in 1970 to undertake research in the development of crops other than rubber. Progress has been relatively slow in the development of agriculture. In forestry much work needs to be done in the application of science and technology to forest management, logging, timber utilization, silviculture and the related field of forest regeneration, tree breeding, forest protection and soil conservation. Further development of the mining sector calls for the application of new technology both in prospecting for new sources of minerals and in exploitation. Development of off-shore technology will become increasingly important. Although a major sector in resources development is energy, there is, as yet, no energy policy. Structural diversification is recognized as a basic need for the economic development of Malaysia. Malaysia will have a great demand for trained scientific and technological personnel.

  11. 'Hu Hong' (bad thing): parental perceptions of teenagers' sexuality in urban Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Lan Anh Thi; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Paek, Seung Chun; Guadamuz, Thomas E

    2017-02-28

    Teenagers under 18 years old in Vietnam are considered as minors who usually lack the autonomy to make decisions. They are also sometimes viewed as contributors to social evils including crime, violence and substance use. Moreover, most Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage. The objective of this study is to explore the parental perceptions relating to their teenagers' sexuality, particularly the social and cultural forces, that may hinder access to sexuality information. Guided by a Community Advisory Board (CAB), this qualitative study uses four focus group discussions (FGDs) consisting of 12 mothers and 12 fathers, as well as twelve individual in-depth interviews (IDIs) with a diverse sample of parents of teens in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Vietnam. Content and discourse analysis were conducted, based on Foucauldian concepts. Four themes emerged: 1) Meanings of sexuality and sexuality education, 2) Early sexual intercourse destroys teenagers' future, 3) Teenagers are not hu hong (spoil/bad thing), are innocent and virgin, and 4) Policing and controlling of sexual intercourse among teens. Parents did not view their teenage children as sexual beings; those who are sexual are considered hu hong. Parents believed that teens need to be policed and controlled to prevent them from becoming hu hong, particularly girls. Controlling of sexuality information by parents was therefore common in HCMC, but differed by gender and educational levels of parents. For example, fathers more than mothers were not comfortable teaching their teenage children about sex and sexuality. Parents with higher education police their teenage children's usage of the Internet and social media, while parents with lower education control who can be friends with their teenage children. Vietnamese parents in general have negative views of sex and sexuality education for their teenage children. Recognizing that many Vietnamese teenagers have unsafe sex before marriage, parents need to

  12. Health information-seeking behaviours among pregnant teenagers in Ejisu-Juaben Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Addo, Sally B; Owusu-Addo, Ebenezer; Morhe, Emmanuel S K

    2016-10-01

    to examine health information-seeking behaviours among pregnant teenagers. qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and focus groups. The study followed the Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies (COREQ). SETTINGS/PARTICIPANTS: antenatal clinic at Ejisu Government hospital, Ghana. Twenty eight pregnant teenagers aged 15-19 and one midwife participated in the study. the participants were interviewed in person at the antenatal clinic. The individual interviews and focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed, and then analysed using thematic framework analysis. three themes emerged from the analysis of the transcripts: information needs, sources of information and barriers to information seeking. Findings indicate unmet information needs among pregnant teenagers including proper understanding of pregnancy stages, infant feeding practices, nutrition, labour and birth and postnatal care. Pregnant teenagers largely relied on traditional sources for information on pregnancy as compared to official sources such as midwives, nurses or doctors. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: given that traditional sources, such as family and neighbours were the predominant sources of information, to effectively and comprehensively address the information needs of pregnant teenagers, interventions should target both the expecting teenagers and the family and/or the community at large. The findings further point to a need for a shift in maternal health care policy through the establishment of adolescent only antenatal care day to effectively meet the heath information needs of pregnant teenagers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Suicide Risk Response: Enhancing Patient Safety Through Development of Effective Institutional Policies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonner, Laura; Felker, Bradford; Chaney, Edmund; Vollen, Karen; Berry, Karen; Revay, Barbara; Simon, Barbara; Kofoed, Lial; Ober, Scott; Worley, Linda

    2004-01-01

    A suicidal patient requires a prompt, coordinated intervention. In this paper, we describe a process for developing a suicidality policy, which may help clinics develop effective, locally adapted policies...

  14. 76 FR 53934 - Delegation of Authority for the Office of Policy Development and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ...In this notice, the Secretary of HUD delegates authority to the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research and supersedes any prior delegation of authority from the Secretary to the Assistant Secretary for Policy Development and Research.

  15. Teenage fertility and life chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellings, K; Wadsworth, J; Johnson, A; Field, J; Macdowall, W

    1999-09-01

    Teenage mothers and their children face poorer prospects in life than do women who delay motherhood until later in life. Moreover, patterns of early childbearing tend to be repeated in subsequent generations. Therefore, an understanding of the factors associated with early fertility is important for the prevention of adverse consequences. This paper uses data from the National Survey of Sexual Attitudes and Lifestyles to explore these associations. Early sexual intercourse is an important predictor of early fertility, as is poor educational attainment, although it is not clear to what extent pregnancy acts to thwart academic ambitions, or to what extent poor educational performance leads to a need to seek personal fulfilment in other than academic goals. Thus, interventions designed to influence age at first intercourse and to improve educational performance both have potential in terms of impacting on teenage pregnancy rates. Family background also exerts a powerful influence on teenage fertility. Young people for whom one or both parents are absent are more likely to become parents early in life. However, the most important factor of family life determining the chances of teenage motherhood appear to be the quality of communication about sexual matters with the home. In terms of outcomes, teenage mothers are more likely to live in social housing, are less likely to be in paid employment and have larger than average sized families. Certain areas of the country, notably the older, run-down industrial areas, have higher rates of teenage motherhood than the newer, more prosperous areas. Because most of these effects are independent of one another, there is potential merit in intervening to prevent unintended conception at several points in a young woman's life. Primary preventive efforts are needed to reduce the rates at which teenage pregnancy occurs in this country. Yet, if the cycle of deprivation that means the children of young mothers themselves enter

  16. [Teenagers' drawings in transcultural consultations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Amalini; Titia Rizzi, Alice

    The place of teenagers' drawings has been studied as part of a transcultural consultation, based on the creativity of the children of migrants. When speaking is difficult, drawings enable teenagers to show another dimension of their internal world. Aravin, a young Tamil boy, who lacked the necessary words, was able to express all the complexity of his thoughts through his drawings, finally being able to formulate in the group the difficult situations which he was drawing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Teenagers' perceptions of blindness related to smoking: a novel message to a vulnerable group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Phillip; Thornton, Judith; Edwards, Richard; Harrison, Roger A; Washington, Stephen J; Kelly, Simon P

    2007-05-01

    Cigarette smoking often starts in teenage years. It is not known whether teenagers are aware of the association of smoking with eye disease and blindness. To explore the knowledge of the link between smoking, and eye diseases and blindness, and the likely impact of this knowledge among teenagers in UK. A cross-sectional survey, using a structured interview of teenagers attending four organised social events, was conducted. Awareness and fear of blindness, and of three smoking-related diseases (lung cancer, heart disease and stroke) and a distractor condition (deafness) was investigated. The likelihood of smokers quitting on developing early signs of each condition was determined. A 92% "opt in" response rate was achieved. Out of 260 teenagers (16-18 years), 15%, 27% and 81% believed that smoking caused stroke, heart disease and lung cancer, respectively. Only 5% believed smoking caused blindness. Subjects ranked their fear of each of the five conditions, scoring five for the most feared and one for the least feared. Subjects were significantly (pteenagers (psmoking on developing early signs of blindness compared with early signs of lung or heart disease. Awareness of the risk of blindness from smoking is low among teenagers, but fear of blindness may be more likely to motivate teenagers to stop smoking than fear of lung or heart disease. Teenagers should be made more aware of the ocular risks of cigarette smoking as a novel public health measure.

  18. Policy entrepreneurship in the development of public sector strategy: the case of London health reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Exworthy, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The development of health policy is recognized as complex; however, there has been little development of the role of agency in this process. Kingdon developed the concept of policy entrepreneur (PE) within his ‘windows’ model. He argued inter-related ‘policy streams' must coincide for important issues to become addressed. The conjoining of these streams may be aided by a policy entrepreneur. We contribute by clarifying the role of the policy entrepreneur and highlighting the translational processes of key actors in creating and aligning policy windows. We analyse the work in London of Professor Sir Ara Darzi as a policy entrepreneur. An important aspect of Darzi's approach was to align a number of important institutional networks to conjoin related problems. Our findings highlight how a policy entrepreneur not only opens policy windows but also yokes together a network to make policy agendas happen. Our contribution reveals the role of clinical leadership in health reform.

  19. The development of health policy in Malawi: The influence of context ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the health policy field, a growing literature is attempting to understand the diverse responses of policy makers to research, and to explain why certain research findings make their way into policy while others are effectively ignored. In this paper we apply a policy analysis framework to the development of cotrimoxazole ...

  20. Waste management policy development from the AEC to the DOE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieckhoner, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The goal of the federal government's policy for the management of radioactive waste from its nuclear materials and weapon programs was, and is, to protect the health and safety of those working in these programs, the public and the environment. What has changed since the days of the Manhattan Project are the specific technical solutions pursued, the implementation schedules, and the projected cost to the American taxpayer. Although some of these changes are due to nontechnical and political issues, many have been the result of knowledge gained from research and development programs, scientific over-optimism, and an unrealistic appreciation of the cost and schedule impacts of required stakeholder involvement. The goal of this article is to review the development of waste management policy from the early days of the Atomic Energy Commission to the present. The current generation of policymakers, and their critics, will be greatly aided in their tasks if they have a general understanding of what events have occurred over the past half century that have led us to the current situation

  1. Research of Talent Development Policy of Online Game Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Che Yang

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the progress of information technology and the development of Internet, the digital content industry has become one of the most promising industries in the 21st century. The rapid growth of the online gaming industry at the turn of the century does not only catch the eyes of the whole world, but also reshape the entire information-related industry. The purpose of this study is to explore issue of the talent development policy of the domestic online game industry. The method of in-depth interview is used in this study, and the research target is chosen to be qualified of speaking for the government, the education institutes, and the private sectors in the industry. The findings of this research suggest that Taiwan's government should take up a more vigorous responsibility. Following the government's leadership, both education institutes and industry private sectors must actively participate in the collaboration and feed back the up-dated information, such as the market trend and most wanted human resources, to the policy makers.[Article content in Chinese

  2. Insights to develop privacy policy for organization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmaini, E.; Kusumasari, T. F.; Lubis, M.; Lubis, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, the increased utilization of shared application in the network needs not only dictate to have enhanced security but also emphasize the need to balance its privacy protection and ease of use. Meanwhile, its accessibility and availability as the demand from organization service put privacy obligations become more complex process to be handled and controlled. Nonetheless, the underlying principles for privacy policy exist in Indonesian current laws, even though they spread across various article regulations. Religions, constitutions, statutes, regulations, custom and culture requirements still become the reference model to control the activity process for data collection and information sharing accordingly. Moreover, as the customer and organization often misinterpret their responsibilities and rights in the business function, process and level, the essential thing to be considered for professionals on how to articulate clearly the rules that manage their information gathering and distribution in a manner that translates into information system specification and requirements for developers and managers. This study focus on providing suggestion and recommendation to develop privacy policy based on descriptive analysis of 791 respondents on personal data protection in accordance with political and economic factor in Indonesia.

  3. Technology policy and sustainable development: the case of renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    2000-01-01

    Policies to address long-term energy concerns include a wide range of initiatives. Taxes can internalise costs; financial mechanisms, including subsidies, can target particularly favourable but otherwise non-competitive investments; regulation can apply standards to raise performance of appliances; information programmes can improve decision making; and R and D can make available new options. The 1987 report of the World Commission on Environment and development, found that 'energy efficiency can only buy for the world to develop 'low-energy-paths' based on renewable sources...'. Although many renewable energy systems are in a relatively early stage of development, they offer the world 'a potentially huge primary energy source, sustainable in perpetuity and available in various forms to every nation on Earth.' It suggested that an R and D programme of renewable energy is required to attain the same level of primary energy that is now obtained from a mix of fossil, nuclear, and renewable energy resources. Since renewable energy contributes to all dimensions of sustainable development, one policy challenge is to ensure that renewable energy has a fair opportunity to complete with other resources required for the provision of energy services, especially on 'liberalised' energy markets. This paper gives an overview of rationales for government intervention in energy-related R and D, and international energy R and D trends. it concludes that the liberalisation of energy markets has an overall negative impact on private sector investments in energy R and D and that without a sustained and diverse programme of energy R and D and implementation, we are crippling our ability to make the necessary improvements in the global energy system, especially in light of sustainable development requirements. (author)

  4. A quantitative exploration of the sociocultural context of teenage pregnancy in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajapaksa-Hewageegana, Neelamani; Salway, Sarah Maria; Piercy, Hilary; Samarage, Sarath

    2014-12-05

    In common with other countries, teenage pregnancy is attracting policy attention in Sri Lanka because of the risks it poses to maternal and infant health and social and economic well-being. This study aimed to increase understanding of the context of teenage pregnancy, by (1) describing the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of pregnant teenagers and their partners; (2) exploring whether teenage pregnancies are planned and how they are received; and (3) exploring factors associated with unplanned teenage pregnancy. A population health-register based sample survey was conducted in Badulla District, Sri Lanka. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were administered to two samples: 450 pregnant women aged less than 20 years; and 150 male partners of pregnant women aged less than 20 years. Bivariate statistics described the characteristics and context of teenage pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression explored correlates of unplanned pregnancy. Over 60% of pregnant teenagers and male partners indicated that the current pregnancy was planned; while 79% of pregnant teenagers and 85% of male partners welcomed the pregnancy. Most pregnant teenagers were living within stable and supportive family environments, with 94% reporting that they felt 'very well supported'. Nevertheless, a sub-group of pregnant teenagers appeared to be vulnerable, reporting unplanned and unhappy pregnancy; factors that were also associated with first intercourse being reported as not wanted. Levels of reproductive and contraceptive knowledge were poor among both pregnant teenagers and male partners. Just 46% of teenagers and 64% of male partners knew that pregnancy was possible at first intercourse. Mothers appear to be an important source of information and support for young women, with peers being reported far less often. Intervention to reduce teenage pregnancy must recognise the normative nature of early childbearing for the majority of girls who currently conceive and their

  5. Transboundary air pollution in Asia: Model development and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Tracey

    2001-12-01

    This work investigates transboundary air pollution in Asia through atmospheric modeling and public policy analysis. As an example of models actively shaping environmental policy, the Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution in Europe (LRTAP) is selected as a case study. The LRTAP Convention is the only mulit- lateral air pollution agreement to date, and results from the RAINS integrated assessment model were heavily used to calculate nationally differentiated emission ceilings. Atmospheric chemistry and transport are included in RAINS through the use of transfer coefficients (or ``source-receptor relationships'') relating pollutant transfer among European nations. Following past work with ATMOS to simulate sulfur species in Asia, here ATMOS is developed to include odd-nitrogen. Fitting with the linear structure of ATMOS and the emphasis on computational efficiency, a simplified chemical scheme developed for use in the NOAA Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Global Chemical Transport Model (GFDL GCTM) is adopted. The method solves for the interconversions between NOx, HNO3, and PAN based on five reaction rates stored in look-up tables. ATMOS is used to calculate source-receptor relationships for Asia. Significant exchange of NOy occurs among China, North and South Korea, and Japan. On an annual average basis, China contributes 18% to Japan's total nitrate deposition, 46% to North Korea, and 26% to South Korea. Nitrate deposition is an important component of acidification (along with sulfate deposition), contributing 30-50% to the acid burden over most of Japan, and more than 50% to acid deposition in southeast Asia, where biomass burning emits high levels of NOx. In evaluating the policy-relevance of results from the ATMOS model, four factors are taken into account: the uncertainty and limitations of ATMOS, the environmental concerns facing Asia, the current status of the scientific community in relation to regional air pollution in the region, and

  6. Social Policy Issues in Planning Major Development Projects: Rural Community Impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Ruth M.

    1987-01-01

    Identifies social policy issues for rural communities affected by major development projects. Advocates increased attention in legislation by community workers and fuller recognition of social policy as a planning and development priority. Concludes that economics is still the major concern for development projects, rather than social policy. (BR)

  7. Compensation and Resettlement Policies after Compulsory Land Acquisition for Hydropower Development in Vietnam: Policy and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pham Huu Ty

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Under Vietnam’s State land ownership regime, the Government holds supreme authority over compulsory land acquisition. The results show that many improvements in land acquisition policies have been made, but poor implementation measures largely cannot prevent or even mitigate the adverse impacts on displaced persons. In particular, ineffective compensation measures and a lack of production land and livelihood alternatives accelerate the resistance of communities displaced as a result of hydropower development. The close alliance between the local government and the investor, which is considered as an “interest group”, is the main factor that leads to the ignorance of benefits of displaced people within the compulsory land acquisition process.

  8. Development of Taiwanese government’s climate policy after the Kyoto protocol: Applying policy network theory as an analytical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyu, Chian-Woei

    2014-01-01

    Given its limited involvement in and recognition by international organizations, Taiwan is not presently a signatory to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) or the Kyoto Protocol. The objective of this study is to analyze how and the extent to which changes in an exogenous factor, namely the Kyoto Protocol and Post-Kyoto climate negotiations, affect and ultimately lead to the formulation of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. This study applies policy network theory to examine the development of and changes in the Taiwanese government's climate policy. The results demonstrate that international climate agreements and negotiations play a key role in the development of, changes to, and transformation of Taiwan's climate policy. Scarce evidence was found in this study to demonstrate that domestic or internal factors affect climate change policy. Despite its lack of participation in the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol, Taiwan has adopted national climate change strategies, action plans, and programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, these climate policies and measures are fairly passive and aim to only conform to the minimal requirements for developing countries under international climate agreements and negotiations. This process results in inconsistent and variable climate policies, targets, and regulations. - Highlights: • Taiwan is not a signatory to the UNFCCC or its Kyoto Protocol. • International climate agreements strongly affected Taiwan's climate policy. • Little evidence was found that domestic factors affect Taiwan's climate policy. • New climate policies, regulations, and laws are formulated and implemented. • Climate policies, targets, and regulations change frequently and are inconsistent

  9. FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, INSTITUTIONS AND ECONOMIC POLICY – PANEL DATA EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippidis Ioannis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years significant researches have been done to identify what are the determinants of financial development. With regard to this outline, the main objective is to investigate the effect of economic, political and social dimension of institutional quality, as well as the effect of political and macroeconomic factors on financial development. More specifically, the present work aims to contribute to the relevant literature in the following ways: i in the econometric front, we employ dynamic panel techniques, that allow for heterogeneity among variables, avoiding the known problems of traditional techniques. More specifically, we employ the “system GMM” estimator developed by Arellano and Bover (1995, and Blundell and Bond (1998, controlling for endogeneity among variables; ii we disentangle into economic, political and social institutional quality in order to quantify the effect of institutions on financial development and check the robustness of our results; iii in the same logic, we decompose our measure of financial openness into equity- and loan-related foreign assets and liabilities in order to assess whether the hoarding of risky vs. riskless assets or the accumulation of equity vs. debt liabilities affect the development of domestic financial institutions; and iv to control for a potential bias among variables, we include a large set of information, which covers all the spectrum of possible effects on finance, giving emphasis on political factors and government policies. Our main finding from the regression analyses is a robust empirical relationship from institutions to financial development, a result consistent with most empirical studies. Also, we find a stronger effect from economic institutions to banking sector development and from political institutions to stock market development. Regarding the trade and finance link, we find that openness has a much stronger association with bank-based finance than with stock market

  10. Rural Health Care Access and Policy in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Roger; Kam, Sophia M; Regalado, Sophie M

    2016-01-01

    Compared to their urban counterparts, rural and remote inhabitants experience lower life expectancy and poorer health status. Nowhere is the worldwide shortage of health professionals more pronounced than in rural areas of developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) includes a disproportionately large number of developing countries; therefore, this article explores SSA in depth as an example. Using the conceptual framework of access to primary health care, sustainable rural health service models, rural health workforce supply, and policy implications, this article presents a review of the academic and gray literature as the basis for recommendations designed to achieve greater health equity. An alternative international standard for health professional education is recommended. Decision makers should draw upon the expertise of communities to identify community-specific health priorities and should build capacity to enable the recruitment and training of local students from underserviced areas to deliver quality health care in rural community settings.

  11. The Dutch sustainable building policy: A model for developing countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melchert, Luciana [Faculty of Architecture and Urbanism, University of Sao Paulo, Rua do Lago, 876, CEP 05508.900, Sao Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2007-02-15

    This article explores the institutionalization of environmental policies in the Dutch building sector and the applicability of the current model to developing countries. First, it analyzes the transition of sustainable building practices in the Netherlands from the 1970s until today, exploring how these were originally embedded in a discourse on 'de-modernization', which attempted to improve the environmental performance of building stocks by means of self-sufficient technologies, whereas nowadays they adopt a framework of 'ecological modernization', with integrative approaches seeking to improve the environmental performance of building stocks through more efficient-rather than self-sufficient-technologies. The study subsequently shows how the current Dutch sustainable building framework has thereby managed to achieve a pragmatic and widely accepted rationale, which can serve to orient the ecological restructuring of building stocks in developing countries. (author)

  12. The United Nations and Climate Change: Legal and Policy Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunn, Isabella D.

    2009-07-01

    The Secretary-General of the United Nations, Ban Ki-moon, has declared that climate change is "the defining challenge of our times." Climate change trends indicate increasingly severe negative impacts on the majority of countries, with disproportionate effects on poor and vulnerable populations. The scientific reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), as well as the negotiations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), have placed the issue on the forefront of the international agenda. This article examines how climate change is shaping legal and policy developments in five key areas of UN responsibility: international law, humanitarian affairs, human rights, development, and peace and security. It concludes with some observations about high-level efforts to coordinate the response of multilateral institutions, the changing stance of the US government, and the role of environmental protection in addressing the current global economic crisis.

  13. Cluster policy and regional development: scale, scope and renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Njøs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Consistent with Marshallian/Porterian theories, the Norwegian cluster policy has been linked to the development of specialized regional industry environments. Cluster projects are relatively sector-specific entities often supporting (already strong regional industries and sectors. Following a review of the current literature on clusters and innovation, and informed by evolutionary thought, we argue that such constellations of specialized clusters may hamper the long-term innovation ability of regions. In a conceptual discussion of cluster evolution and its links to innovation and regional path renewal, we argue that special emphasis – both theoretical and political – has been placed on the geographical scale of clusters, but there has been less emphasis on scope. Accordingly, we present three theory-based strategies for cluster evolution and link these to regional development and innovation by assessing their impact on regional path renewal. We illustrate our argument empirically using examples from the Norwegian Centre of Expertise (NCE cluster programme.

  14. Developing Public Policy in Romania: Focusing Responsability, Authority and Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. RINGSMUTH

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available The model of foreign friends visiting fellow democracies to observe and participate in the civic culture, has a long and distinguished tradition. Tocqueville’s visit to and observations of the United States nearly 200 years ago provide a lofty exemplar to which few could pretend to or attempt to duplicate or approach. Nothing in the following observations is meant to make such a pretense1 My journey in Romania has been and will be substantially less noted and notable, but my observations are offered with similar intentions. Rather they are meant in the spirit and offered with the hope that they might, in some small way, begin to make a contribution to the dialogue about the development of democracy and democratic institutions in Romania. In particular, here, I am concerned with Romania’s ability, will and means to develop public policy.

  15. Croatian Energy Policy as Function of Regional Development and Employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2006-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia has modest proven fossil fuels (oil and gas) reserves and relatively abundant renewable energy potential (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal, hydro), distributed mainly in less developed regions of Croatia. The Croatian energy system is excessively dependent on expensive oil and natural gas (80% of primary energy), compared to the European Union (61%), and the world average (58%). Approximately 60% of total energy is imported, which considerably contributes to the country's very high foreign trade deficit and foreign debt. Putting into focus of the Croatian energy policy the improvement of energy efficiency and implementation of renewable energies would significantly increase opportunities for mitigating rather wide regional development disparities and high unemployment rates, at the same time reducing energy import, foreign trade deficit and foreign debt, and contributing to energy security as a part of the national security.(author)

  16. Challenges to Science and Technology Development Policy in the European Integration Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Novytsky

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on presentday aspects of Ukraine’s science and technology development policy in light of international phenomena and integration reali ties observed across the European continent. The author examines unique traits and practical challenges charac terizing an expansion of Ukraine — EU scientific and technological cooperation with the aim of improving the efficiency of Ukraine’s national economy and optimizing its international dimension. Special attention is paid to problems of adapting Ukraine’s technological policy to European standards, and relevant specific proposals are formulated. The article maintains that today’s advances in informa tion technology and the openness of national economies as a systemdeterminant factor of models of international cooperation broaden the scope of information technolo gies. Since telecommunications and other hitech sectors are vibrantly evolving not only in highly industrialized states but also in East European and other emerging mar ket economies, a key challenge for Ukraine appears to be lending better efficiency and productivity to its na tional policy of introducing information technologies into its socioeconomic sphere. The article provides insight into the international ex perience of the creation of technoparks and demonstrates the necessity of applying such innovation techniques of economic development to Ukraine.

  17. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  18. The Development of Consumer Protection Policies in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Fazli Sabri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malaysian government envisions Malaysia as an inclusive and sustainable high-income nation by 2020. The definition of “high income” is per capita income of USD15, 000 or MYR48, 000, based on the World Bank’s current definition of “high income”. The objective is not merely a quantitative target; it is also about Malaysia being an advanced and developed nation with an economy having the characteristics of developed nations. Advancements in information and communication technology (ICT and globalization have resulted in the evolution of a more complex and challenging marketplace. As today’s consumers are constantly faced with a bewildering array of goods and services in the market, consumers must be equipped with an elevated level of consumerism knowledge and skills. Malaysian consumers thus need to be kept in touch with developments in the market, enabling them to act and decide effectively, to ensure that they develop as more empowered, savvy and resilient consumers now and after Malaysia transforms into a developed nation. However, without the government’s intervention to protect consumers through adequate legislations and enforcement, the aim of creating “empowered consumers” will not be realized. This paper aims to discuss the development of consumer protection policies in Malaysia.

  19. Accessibility of sexual health services in teenage sexual health service users: local area geospatial analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jonathan R; Cook, Penny A; Forster, Sue; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A

    2012-08-01

    Teenage pregnancy rates in the UK are the highest in Western Europe. Causes of teenage pregnancies are multifaceted with complex interplay of social, lifestyle and wider determinants influencing risk. Improving access to sexual health services through community services is an important factor in attempting to tackle this issue, but few studies have examined factors that influence this. Geospatial analysis was conducted on community sexual health service users and teenage conceptions from local sexual health services were recorded. Univariate and multinomial regression was performed to test associations between service type and socio-economic status. No significant differences in accessibility of services between teenage girls who have conceived and those seeking sexual health services were found. Females aged 17 and under were more likely to use a young people's sexual health service than mainstream services (P health services. The study supports policy for locating young person services within the most deprived areas of a community.

  20. Development Potentials and Policy Options of Biomass in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to106 tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts’ energy distribution also varies from province to province in China. Based on

  1. Development potentials and policy options of biomass in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Litao; Yao, Zhijun; Liu, Gang; Lucas, Mario

    2010-10-01

    Biomass, one of the most important renewable energies, is playing and will continue to play an important role in the future energy structure of the world. This article aims to analyze the position and role, assess the resource availability, discuss the geographic distribution, market scale and industry development, and present the policy options of biomass in China. The resource availability and geographical distribution of biomass byproducts are assessed in terms of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater. The position of biomass use for power generation is just next to hydropower among types of renewable energy in China. The potential quantity of all biomass byproducts energy in 2004 is 3511 Mtce (Mtce is the abbreviation of million tons of coal equivalents and 1 Mtce is equal to10(6) tce.), while the acquirable quantity is 460 Mtce. Biomass energy plays a critical role in rural regions of China. The geographical distribution and quantity of biomass byproducts resources depends mainly on the relationship between ecological zones and climate conditions. Our estimation shows that the total quantity of crop residues, manure, forest and wood biomass byproducts, municipal waste and wastewater resources are 728, 3926, 2175, 155 and 48240 Mt (million tons), respectively. Crop residues come mainly from the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Jilin and Sichuan. All manure is mainly located in the provinces of Henan, Shandong, Sichuan, Hebei and Hunan. Forest and wood biomass byproducts are mainly produced in the provinces or autonomous regions of Tibet, Sichuan, Yunnan, Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia, while most of municipal waste mainly comes from Guangdong, Shandong, Heilongjiang, Hubei and Jiangsu. Most of wastewater is largely discharged from advanced provinces like Guangdong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong and Henan. Biomass byproducts' energy distribution also varies from province to province in China

  2. Iran: Current Developments and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Katzman, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    While continuing previous U.S. Administrations' policies of containing Iran while pursuing limited engagement with it, the Bush Administration is evaluating whether or not to move toward a regime change policy, and how to...

  3. Teenage smoking, attempts to quit, and school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, T W; Lin, Z; Keeler, T E

    1998-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between school performance, smoking, and quitting attempts among teenagers. A logistic regression model was used to predict the probability of being a current smoker or a former smoker. Data were derived from the 1990 California Youth Tobacco Survey. Students' school performance was a key factor in predicting smoking and quitting attempts when other sociodemographic and family income factors were controlled. Developing academic or remedial classes designed to improve students' school performance may lead to a reduction in smoking rates among teenagers while simultaneously providing a human capital investment in their futures.

  4. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  5. Reaching Teenagers with Sex Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Margaret

    The problem of teenage pregnancy can be viewed as endemic, a part of American culture not easy to change. Although the number of girls under 15 who are becoming pregnant is not very large (13,000 in 1978), the cost of pregnancy to the girls themselves, their families, and society is very great. Results of data analyses from action research,…

  6. Teenage Pregnancy and Mental Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Corcoran

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the intersection between adolescent pregnancy and mental health. The research involving mental health risks for adolescent pregnancy and for parents who are teenagers are discussed. Depression and conduct disorder have emerged with the most attention. Research-based treatment of these disorders in adolescents is presented.

  7. What Teenagers Want to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinsohn, Florence; Kelly, G. Lombard

    One of a series of illustrated books written by physicians for their patients, this publication, aimed at te teenager, points out some biological and psychological changes which occur in adolescence. The first few chapters deal with sex drives, male anatomy, female anatomy, conception and pregnancy. Sociological and controversial aspects of…

  8. Teenagers and their digital world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieter Swager; Dr. Jos Fransen; dr. Guus Wijngaards

    2006-01-01

    The Internet and computers increasingly determine our daily lives. This goes for almost everyone in the Netherlands. Still, it is mostly teenagers who are well informed on how to use all the possibilities of new technologies. They are building a digital world of their own that parents usually know

  9. Teenage Suicide: A Critical Issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Suicide and attempted suicide among teenagers has risen dramatically since 1960, especially among girls. Three theories of the causes of suicide (emotional crises, brain chemistry and nonexpression of grief) are discussed. Depression and other first stage warning signals, and the nature of second stage "cries for help," are considered. (CM)

  10. [Prevalence of teenage sleeping disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdereau-Noël, M; Saliou, P; Vic, P

    2017-04-01

    Teenage sleeping disorders can have short- and long-term consequences such as learning disorders, accidents, depression, and type 2 diabetes. To assess the prevalence of sleeping disorders in high school students in the southwest of Brittany (Finistère), France. To search for family and social factors causing these disorders and drug use. Observational multicenter study that took place in May, 2015, asking high school students to anonymously complete a questionnaire during school time. A variable was created: sleep disorders (TrS+) when teenagers responded "often" or "very often" to at least one of the six questions concerning sleeping disorders. The prevalence of TrS+ was 73 % (4170/5556). These teenagers had difficulty falling asleep (36 %), woke up during the night (33 %), or had nightmares (10 %). Their sleep routine was disrupted (35 %), they did not feel rested the following day (49 %): 9 % were late for class related to their sleeping disorders. TrS+ were more recurrent among females (OR: 2.64; P10 cigarettes per a day) (OR: 2.39; P8h per a day; OR: 2.7; Psleep quality. Ten percent of TrS+ individuals consume medications and 9 % cannabis to help them fall asleep. Technology, drugs, and well-being at school have an impact on sleep quality. Screening of teenagers with sleeping disorders and information programs for teenagers must be provided by the teaching and medical staff. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Health policy and systems research agendas in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Block Miguel A

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health policy and systems research (HPSR is an international public good with potential to orient investments and performance at national level. Identifying research trends and priorities at international level is therefore important. This paper offers a conceptual framework and defines the HPSR portfolio as a set of research projects under implementation. The research portfolio is influenced by factors external to the research system as well as internal to it. These last include the capacity of research institutions, the momentum of research programs, funding opportunities and the influence of stakeholder priorities and public opinion. These dimensions can vary in their degree of coordination, leading to a complementary or a fragmented research portfolio. Objective The main objective is to identify the themes currently being pursued in the research portfolio and agendas within developing countries and to quantify their frequency in an effort to identify current research topics and their underlying influences. Methods HPSR topics being pursued by developing country producer institutions and their perceived priorities were identified through a survey between 2000 and 2002. The response to a call for letters of intent issued by the Alliance in 2000 for a broad range of topics was also analyzed. The institutions that were the universe of this study consisted of the 176 institutional partners of the Alliance for Health Policy and Systems Research producing research in low and middle income countries outside Europe. HPSR topics as well as the beneficiaries or issues and the health problems addressed were content analyzed. Topics were classified into 19 categories and their frequency analyzed across groups of countries with similar per capita income. Agendas were identified by analyzing the source of funding and of project initiation for projects under implementation. Results The highest ranking topic at the aggregate level is

  12. Epidemiological Study of Smoking Prevalence among Teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Fialkovskaia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to clarify the prevalence and status of smoking among today’s teenagers according to the survey. Materials and methods. There was carried out the study of the prevalence of smoking among adolescents in the Dnipro (n = 2299 individuals. Results. According to the results of the survey, there were 20.8 % active smokers among adolescents, among them 89.1 % adolescents smoked every day, including 24.9 % boys and 14.6 % girls. On average, adolescents begin smoking regularly at the age of 14.4 ± 0.1 year. The average length of smoking in adolescents was to 3.4 ± 0.1. The average number of cigarettes adolescents smoked per day made up of 9.1 ± 0.3 units. Studying the type of tobacco products 48.6 % of adolescents were found to smoke light cigarettes. The average index of smoker was 109.1 ± 3.3 and was significantly higher in boys (125.5 ± 4.9 than in girls (91.9 ± 4.0 (p < 0.001. Study of the motivation to quit smoking found that only 20.3 % of teenagers are highly motivated to quit, whereas about 31.7 % of adolescents have no motivation to quit smoking. Conclusions. The study showed that the problem of tobacco use remains highly relevant: in the city every fifth teenager smokes. The findings necessitate widespread introduction of antismoking programs among adolescents, which should be directed first to reduce the intensity of smoking and increase motivation to quit smoking, promote healthy lifestyles, as well as thorough clinical examination of adolescent smokers with the aim of identifying risk groups for the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  13. Energy policies and politics for sustainable world-system development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    by Euratom (Woodman 2003). A political approach to preconditions for sustainable energy policies is finally developed from (a) Barry Commoner's critique of 1979 of president Carter's energy plan followed by the impasse of the Reagan era with the US government's retreat from federal energy and environmental...... politics, put into perspective by (b) R.C.-Dupont 1993 as the movement of the US in a field of tension between eco- and geopolitics; and (c) a 2006 declaration of ten former environmental ministers to end the nuclear age and to reform the UN mandate of the International Atomic Energy Agency.......  Analytically, (a) Barry Commoner's theses of 1976 on the connections between energy, environmental and economic crises are discussed from thermo-dynamical inefficiencies through sector analyses to barriers of energy reform, actualized by (b) the contribution of Sterling 2002 reminding upon...

  14. Rural development policies in the Province of Alicante (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Silva Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the characteristics of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP in the European Union and its consequences for agriculture in the Mediterranean area, mainly in the Province of Alicante (Valencian Community – Spain. We also characterize the Relations Program between the Rural Economy Development Activities (LEADER in the mountain area in the Province of Alicante, its specificities and possible improvements in the diversification of economic activities in the municipalities that have benefited from the program’s funding. In addition, due to the diversity of agriculture, we approached the performance of agricultural cooperatives by sector of production activity, which reflect the production structures and the presence of different kinds of farmers in the Province of Alicante. Mediterranean agriculture, based on the climatic and farming characteristics, is crucial to the economy of the municipalities and their integration into the European market.

  15. Developing Policy for Urban Autonomous Vehicles: Impact on Congestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Metz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An important problem for surface transport is road traffic congestion, which is ubiquitous and difficult to mitigate. Accordingly, a question for policymakers is the possible impact on congestion of autonomous vehicles. It seems likely that the main impact of vehicle automation will not be seen until driverless vehicles are sufficiently safe for use amid general traffic on urban streets. Shared use driverless vehicles could reduce the cost of taxis and a wider range of public transport vehicles could be economic. Individually owned autonomous vehicles would have the ability to travel unoccupied and may need to be regulated where this might add to congestion. It is possible that autonomous vehicles could provide mobility services at lower cost and wider scope, such that private car use in urban areas could decline and congestion reduce. City authorities should be alert to these possibilities in developing transport policy.

  16. The effect of rural development policy on domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ćejvanović Ferhat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rural development policy deals with achieving goals for rural areas and a wide range of socio-economic activities are included within it. This work intends to connect rural development policies with the occurrence of domestic violence in rural areas. The area of research is the territory of Tuzla Canton, which is, by definition of OECD (less than 150 habitants/km2, a predominantly rural area. Domestic violence is a wide spread form of violence and a discrimination against women. Domestic violence includes all forms of violence occurring in the family, expanding the possibilities that perpetrators of violence and victims of violence may even be persons who do not live in the family but are related to family members, e.g. former partners, relatives, etc. Research results show that victims of domestic violence are in 90% of the cases women (wives, mothers, daughters, sisters, etc. and that domestic violence is constantly increasing each following year. All forms of violence over women come stem from a principal discrimination towards women which results in coerce or use of force. For that reason, violence over women is a manifestation of a fundamentally unequal position of women and men, and it represents a form of discrimination against women. This paper uses data acquired from Federal Office of Statistics of Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and statistical data from the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Tuzla Canton. On the basis of the gathered data, we employed the descriptive method, the method of analysis and synthesis, as well as the comparative method of analysis. The hypothesis of this paper was the assumption that 'women in rural areas are more frequently victims of domestic violence than women living in urban areas'.

  17. Understanding the healthcare experiences of teenaged cancer patients and survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjou, G; Sinha, R; Dix, D; Shahbaz, A; Klaassen, R J; Klassen, A F

    2014-09-01

    Despite literature supporting a client and family-centred approach to healthcare delivery in paediatric facilities, there is little information about healthcare delivery from the perspective of teenagers in the oncology setting. The objective of this study is to describe the healthcare experiences of teenagers with cancer. As part of a larger study on teen-centred care delivery in paediatric oncology, a survey included several open-ended questions to learn about the following: (1) what teenagers liked about the cancer care they received; (2) what they disliked about the cancer care received; and (3) what they would include if they could design the perfect cancer centre for teenagers. The survey was completed by 200 teenagers (aged 12-20 years) from three paediatric hospitals in Canada. Answers to these questions were coded and developed into themes and subthemes using a thematic analysis approach. The number of patients providing answers was 89% for question 1, 63% for question 2 and 68.5% for question 3. Likes and dislikes were conceptualized in terms of four key themes as follows: (1) staff at the treatment centre; (2) the cancer care they received; (3) the treatment centre itself; and (4) social activities. The most common suggestions for the perfect cancer centre included having access to better entertainment, more social opportunities to interact with peers, and a more comfortable environment for themselves and their families. Understanding teenagers' experiences in the paediatric oncology setting provides information that could be used to shape the delivery of healthcare in a way that is tailored to their needs. Further research in this area is required in order to improve existing oncology care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Students' Views and Qualification Policy Development: Perspectives on Failed Vocationally Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Despite the fact that students are often articulate about qualifications policy matters, their perspectives are rarely listened to. This is because governments shape qualifications policy according to pre-set beliefs and are unwilling to countenance dissonant or outsider views. Using the Diploma qualification and inclusion of vocational…

  19. Correction of School Disadaptation of Teenagers by Art Therapy Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigmatullina, Irina A.; Gerasimenko, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Relevance of research is caused by growth of number of pupils with school disadaptation that is expressed in problems of development of the school program, socialization problems, and the general trouble. In this regard, this article is directed to identification or disclosure of opportunities of assistance to teenagers with this problem, to take…

  20. Risk and Teenage Parenthood: An Early Sexual Health Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Robinson, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the development of a resource designed to support practitioners, who are not sexual health specialists, but who work with young people who may be at risk of teenage pregnancy or parenthood. Its aim was to enable practitioners to carry out an assessment using a screening tool, and to use educational…

  1. A Model for Increasing Access: Teenage Pregnancy Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Henry W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The United States leads all other developed nations in inappropriate teenage pregnancies and the educational and societal consequences. Describes activities of the community-based I Have a Future Program (IHAF), built on the premise that changes in sex behavior must be pursued in a framework of enhancing self-esteem and presenting positive…

  2. The impact of media literacy education on teenagers' news literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleemans, M.; Eggink, G.

    2016-01-01

    Media literacy education is presented as an answer to the increasing demand for active citizenship in democratic societies. Consequently, educational programmes that empower teenagers to deal with the opportunities and risks that media pose are developing fast. Against this background, a number of

  3. Obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwal, A

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents are at higher risk during childbirth than women between 20 to 25 years. Adolescent childbearing initiates a syndrome of failure: failure to complete one's education; failure in limiting family size; failure to establish a vocation and become independent. This study was done to find out the obstetric and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancy along with factors contributing to teenage pregnancy. A prospective, cross sectional study was carried out in College of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital (CMSTH), Bharatpur during the period for two years from September 2008 to August 2010. Pregnant girls ≤19 years admitted to labour ward were taken for the study. Cases planned for abortion and MTP were also taken. One hundred cases of pregnant teenagers were admitted in CMSTH during a period of two years. Incidence was 6.85%. In our study, most of the teenagers were unbooked, from low socioeconomic status and with no or inadequate education. They had little knowledge about contraception and less number of teenagers used temporary means of contraception. Because of our social custom of early marriage, most of the teenage mothers were married. All these factors were correlated with teenage pregnancy in present study. This study failed to show any statistically significant difference in the incidence of anaemia, LBW babies, preterm delivery, hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, mode of delivery in different ages of teenage mothers. However, there was significant difference in the incidence of perinatal death in different ages of teenage mothers indicating that perinatal deaths were more in younger teenagers.

  4. Land-Development Offset Policies in the Quest for Sustainability: What Can China Learn from Germany?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Tan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Land-development offset policies consist of measures that require compensation to be made for the negative impact of land development on agricultural production, ecological and environmental conservation, and the sustainability of economic and social development. However, when such policies are inappropriately designed, unexpected problems can result. This paper describes certain land-development offset policies that have recently been implemented in China, with a particular emphasis on three such policies: the Balancing Policy, the Linkage Policy, and the Integrated Policy. These well-intentioned environmental policies have led to unexpected ecological, social, and cultural problems. This paper also describes the core of German land-development policy, which features a distinctive compensation system that has been employed since the 1970s, and compares Chinese and German land-development policies to highlight differences in three main areas: policy purposes, governance structures, and fundamental institutions. The comparisons might help explain the unexpected outcomes in China, and they also lead to land-development offset policy recommendations for China in the near future.

  5. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  6. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  7. [Methodology for the development of policy brief in public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felt, Emily; Carrasco, José Miguel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2018-01-10

    A policy brief is a document that summarizes research to inform policy. In a brief and succinct way, it defines a policy problem, presents a synthesis of relevant evidence, identifies possible courses of action and makes recommendations or key points. The objective of this note is to describe the methodology used to produce a policy brief for communicating public health research. This note is based on the model presented by Eugene Bardach in addition to the authors' own experiences. We describe six steps: 1) identifying the audience; 2) defining the problem; 3) gathering information and evidence; 4) consideration of policy alternatives; 5) projecting results and designing recommendations; and 6) telling the story. We make a case for the use of policy briefs as a part of an overall communications strategy for research that aims to bring together research teams and stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Teenage motherhood: its relationship to undetected learning problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch-Elnekave, H

    1994-01-01

    This study describes characteristics of a group of 64 adolescent mothers and their infants who participated in a program for teenage mothers run by a local health department. A majority of the girls for whom California Achievement Test (CAT) scores were available scored one or more years below grade level in reading and in language skills. Relative delays in infant development (language and social domains) were also documented. High levels of self-esteem as well as general social acceptance (by adults and peers) of early out-of-wedlock parenting suggest that early motherhood may represent an alternative avenue to experiencing success for girls who are having academic difficulties. These findings, which suggest the likelihood of a high incidence of undetected learning problems in this population, indicate that these difficulties may have a significant relationship to the high rate of school dropout associated with adolescent motherhood. The findings bring into question the notion of "unintended pregnancies" and the wisdom of current federal policies for preventing adolescent parenthood that rely on the promotion of abstinence.

  9. North Korea's nuclear weapons development. Implications for future policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollack, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    This essay assesses North Korea's long-standing quest for nuclear weapons; alternative strategies for inhibiting Pyongyang's weapons development; and the potential implications for regional security and nonproliferation should the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) retain and enhance its weapons programs. North Korea's pursuit of a nuclear weapons capability has long provoked heated debate among policy makers and research analysts about the purposes of engagement with the North, reflecting the repeated frustrations in efforts to negotiate Korean denuclearization. These debates reflect widely divergent views of the North Korean regime; its sustainability as an autonomous political, economic, and military system; and the potential consequences of continued nuclear development in this isolated, highly idiosyncratic state. These questions assume additional salience as North Korea approaches a leadership succession for only the second time in its six-decade history. The effort to inhibit North Korea's pursuit of nuclear weapons is among the longest running and least successful sagas in international security and non-proliferation policy of the past quarter century. In early 2010, Pyongyang claims a rudimentary nuclear capability by possession of weaponized plutonium, the conduct of two nuclear tests, and advances in the production of enriched uranium as an alternative means of fissile material production, though the latter step is nominally justified as a source for reactor fuel. North Korea defends its pursuit of a nuclear deterrent to counter what Pyongyang deems existential threats posed by the United States.Despite the resumption of high-level diplomatic contact between Washington and Pyongyang in late 2009, realization of a non-nuclear Korean Peninsula remains a very remote prospect. The DPRK insists that a peace agreement between the U.S. and North Korea and hence the cessation of 'hostile DPRK-U.S. relations' are necessary before any consideration of

  10. The development of alcohol policy in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Over recent years, an increase in alcohol-related problems has been noted in China. Taking effective measures against the problem requires clear reviewing and understanding of the evolution of the Chinese alcohol policy. This study is aimed to evaluate the alcohol policy with special focus on reviewing the alcohol production and consumption situation in China and assessing the changes in Chinese alcohol policy along with other related fields. This article finishes with a set of recommended policy changes that could help solve the recent alcohol-related problems and analyze the major impediments.

  11. What effect does a cancer diagnosis have on the educational engagement and school life of teenagers? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, Simon; Hugh-Jones, Siobhan; Gardner, Peter H

    2012-07-01

    A diagnosis of cancer during the teenage years arrives at an important stage of development, where issues of normality, identity and independence are crucial. Education provides opportunity for peer contact, achievement and development for teenagers. This systematic review examined the impact of a diagnosis of cancer on the educational engagement and school life of teenagers. Five electronic databases were searched, returning a total of 3209 articles. Inclusion criteria were broad to allow for the range of literature within this area. Following screening, 22 articles (inclusive of both quantitative and qualitative methodologies) were retained and subjected to independent review and quality assessment. Key areas involved in the impact of a cancer diagnosis on teenagers' educational engagement include school attendance, reintegration, peer relationships and long-term effects on education and employment. School absences are a concern for teenagers, but do not necessarily lead to a reduction in educational and vocational attainment. It is important to involve health care and education professionals, as well as parents and teenagers themselves, in school reintegration if it is to be successful. Peer groups and body image are two areas that could mediate education engagement for teenagers. Further research needs to be undertaken to determine the overall impact of successfully maintaining education engagement specifically for teenagers, the role that peer groups play in this process and how education engagement contributes to the overall coping and well-being of teenage cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Choking prevention: shortcomings of traditional public education campaigns, prompting the development of web-based interactive teaching tools for preteens, teenagers, and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamboo, Andrew; Nguyen, Tram; Ludemann, Jeffrey P

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the BC Children's Hospital (BCCH) Safe Start Choking Prevention campaign, which began in 2002 and used newspaper, magazine, radio, and television interviews of parents, injury prevention experts, and physicians to educate the public about choking risks, prevention, and treatment (CRPT); to compare our campaign with other campaigns; and to determine if a new strategy is needed to educate the public about CRPT. A retrospective analysis of the number of cases of laryngeal, bronchial, and esophageal foreign bodies (LBEFBs) that required rigid endoscopy under general anesthesia at BCCH and/or admission to BCCH was conducted. Data from January 1997 to December 2002 to January 2003 to December 2006 were compared. The world literature on choking prevention and analysis of barriers to CRPT public education was reviewed. The data demonstrate the ineffectiveness of our traditional media campaign. The number of total operating room visits at BCCH for LBEFBs increased marginally after our choking prevention campaign began. Published reports from Israel and Crete indicate that educational campaigns that included direct teaching of CRPT by otolaryngologists and other health educators to parents and their children are effective; however, such campaigns would be difficult to replicate within larger populations. A new strategy for CPRT public education is required. We are creating an animated video and a comprehensive, interactive website to teach CRPT to preteens, teenagers, and adults (with prospective validation of knowledge transfer and long-term outcome measurement).

  13. Fiscal and Monetary Policy for The Development of Indonesian Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharyadi Suharyadi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The global monetary crisis in 2007-2008 and the focus of development on climate changesmake it important to promote a healthy economic growth based on the local resources, Theeconomic crisis, which has slowed down the economic growth and has caused job losseswhich result in increasing unemployment and poverty, should alter the focus of Indonesianeconomic development in the future to be based on renewable and sustainable local resources.Indonesia is an agricultural and maritime country so these two aspects should be thecore of the growth. In agricultural culture, plantation sector is the source of sustainable economicgrowth because of its geographical, demographic, and cultural potentials. The problemsin plantation sector are the low growth of areas and productivity as well as its limitedend-products. The research findings indicated that in order to increase areas, there should bea guarantee on investment, interest rate, and little retribution or good governance. To increaseproductivity, we need a guarantee on fertilizer price, interest rate, and wages, as wellas pricing factors to avoid market distortion. This is very important relating to the economicstimulus policy which is essential to revitalize from the economic doom in the future.Keywords: plantation sector, area, productivity, investment, interest rate, and wages

  14. Learning Model to Improve Teenagers' Self-Esteem and Motivation of Having Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Arifin, Bambang Samsul

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the process of developing an effective learning model to improve teenagers' self-esteem and motivation of having achievement. The research used mixed method research. In developing the learning model, the researcher carried out pre-study, development and model validation, and a model testing. The research generated a theoretically and empirically proper learning model to improve teenagers' self-esteem and motivation of having achievement at pesantren (Islamic boarding s...

  15. [Healthcare for teenagers: are we working together?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derksen-Lubsen, G; Jambroes, M; Essink-Bot, M L

    2016-01-01

    There are about 1.8 million children between 10 and 18 years of age in the Netherlands in 2016. These teenagers account for approximately 10% of the total population. Teenagers are relatively healthy and do not make much use of curative care. However, they are an important group in terms of public health, because a basis for good health in later life is created in the teenage years. Good health in teenagers is also important for education, relationships and employment, and their health has an influence on the health of the next generation. Child and adolescent healthcare plays an important part in preventive care for teenagers. Better cooperation and exchange of information between paediatricians, specialists in child and adolescent healthcare and general practitioners are important in order to optimise care for teenagers.

  16. The Sleepy Teenager – Diagnostic Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landtblom, Anne-Marie; Engström, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The sleepy teenager puts the doctor in a, often tricky, situation where it must be decided if we deal with normal physiology or if we should suspect pathological conditions. What medical investigations are proper to consider? What differential diagnoses should be considered in the first place? And what tools do we actually have? The symptoms and problems that usually are presented at the clinical visit can be both of medical and psychosocial character – and actually they are often a mixture of both. Subsequently, the challenge to investigate the sleepy teenager often includes the examination of a complex behavioral pattern. It is important to train and develop diagnostic skills and to realize that the physiological or pathological conditions that can cause the symptoms may have different explanations. Research in sleep disorders has shown different pathological mechanisms congruent with the variations in the clinical picture. There are probably also different patterns of involved neuronal circuits although common pathways may exist. The whole picture remains to be drawn in this interesting and challenging area. PMID:25136329

  17. Abortion and the pregnant teenager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipper, Irene; Cvejic, Helen; Benjamin, Peter; Kinch, Robert A.

    1973-01-01

    A study was carried out at the Adolescent Unit of The Montreal Children's Hospital from September 1970 to December 1972, the focus of which evolved from the pregnant teenager in general to the short- and long-term effects of her abortion. Answers to a questionnaire administered to 65 pregnant girls to determine the psychosocial characteristics of the pregnant teenager indicated that these girls are not socially or emotionally abnormal. A follow-up study of 50 girls who had an abortion determined that the girls do not change their life styles or become emotionally unstable up to one year post-abortion, although most have a mild, normal reaction to the crisis. During the study period the clinic services evolved from mainly prenatal care to mainly abortion counselling, and then to providing the abortion with less counselling, placing emphasis on those cases which require other than medical services. PMID:4750298

  18. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life. This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical ...

  19. Taiwan-U.S. Relations: Developments and Policy Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-02

    relations with the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and an important component of U.S. policy in Asia. Official U.S. relations with the Republic of China ...8 Corruption Investigations: Former Chen Administration...................................................... 10 Special Expense Accounts...16 Maintain and Reaffirm the Current AOne- China @ Policy....................................................... 16 Change

  20. Innovation Policy Development and the Emergence of New Innovation Paradigms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, Stoyan; Knudsen, Mette Præst; Bisgaard, Tanja

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the present article is to discuss innovation policy issues related to three emerging innovation paradigms: user-driven innovation, open innovation, and value cocreation. It provides a summary of insights based on innovation policy practices and challenges in Denmark. The choice o...